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1

Effect of Soviet cancellation of petrochemical plant projects on east and west Europe and Malaysia  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union has scaled down plans to build four petrochemical projects, each worth more than US $1 billion, over the next five years because it is giving priority to the re-equipment of plants. The project to build a polyvinyl plant on the shores of Lake Baikal in Siberia has been cancelled. Another scheme to build a nylon plant at Kursk has been delayed, but might still be resurrected during the present five-year plan (1986-1990). The two projects still going ahead, or which British companies are bidding, are a polyolefin plant in the north Caucasus and a polyester plant in the Urals. Despite the investment priority given by the Soviet leadership to high technology and re-equipment, diplomats in Moscow do not expect a surge of orders for Western companies. They say there are two reasons for this; Moscow wants to rely as much as possible on imports of machinery from Eastern Europe, notably East Germany and Czechoslovakia, in return for its exports of oil and gas. Senior officials say that where they cannot obtain high technology from West because of restrictive legislation they will not be prepared to accept less efficient equipment. The level of Soviet imports from hard currency supplies will be limited by the fall in Soviet exports revenues. These have been hit by a decline of some four per cent in oil exports last year and the drop in the world oil price. The Soviet Union needs to keep its customers for gas which has given increased leverage to consumers such as West Germany, Italy and France in the award of contracts. This was exemplified by the visit of Mme. Edith Cresson, the French Foreign Trade Minister, to Moscow to discuss increasing trade. Paris wants the Soviet Union to redress the adverse trade balance with France with amounted to 4.5 billion francs (L 410 million) in the first 11 months of last year.

Cockburn, P.

1985-02-01

2

Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe, the PHEWE project: background, objectives, design  

PubMed Central

Background The project "Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe" (PHEWE) had the aim of assessing the association between weather conditions and acute health effects, during both warm and cold seasons in 16 European cities with widely differing climatic conditions and to provide information for public health policies. Methods The PHEWE project was a three-year pan-European collaboration between epidemiologists, meteorologists and experts in public health. Meteorological, air pollution and mortality data from 16 cities and hospital admission data from 12 cities were available from 1990 to 2000. The short-term effect on mortality/morbidity was evaluated through city-specific and pooled time series analysis. The interaction between weather and air pollutants was evaluated and health impact assessments were performed to quantify the effect on the different populations. A heat/health watch warning system to predict oppressive weather conditions and alert the population was developed in a subgroup of cities and information on existing prevention policies and of adaptive strategies was gathered. Results Main results were presented in a symposium at the conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology in Paris on September 6th 2006 and will be published as scientific articles. The present article introduces the project and includes a description of the database and the framework of the applied methodology. Conclusion The PHEWE project offers the opportunity to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in 16 European cities, representing a wide range of climatic, socio-demographic and cultural characteristics; the use of a standardized methodology allows for direct comparison between cities.

Michelozzi, Paola; Kirchmayer, Ursula; Katsouyanni, Klea; Biggeri, Annibale; McGregor, Glenn; Menne, Bettina; Kassomenos, Pavlos; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Baccini, Michela; Accetta, Gabriele; Analytis, Antonis; Kosatsky, Tom

2007-01-01

3

Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project  

PubMed Central

Background European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. Methods/Design This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating coherent messages to consumers in Europe. Discussion The FoodRisC project offers a unique approach to the investigation of food risk/benefit communication. The effective spread of food risk/benefit information will assist initiatives aimed at reducing the burden of food-related illness and disease, reducing the economic impact of food crises and ensuring that confidence in safe and nutritious food is fostered and maintained in Europe.

2011-01-01

4

Funding for Army Facility Maintenance and Repair Projects in Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The audit objective was to determine whether funds for the Amelia Earhart facility construction project and other U.S. Army Europe maintenance and repair projects had been made available through improper fund substitutions. The audit also assessed the ade...

1996-01-01

5

Final Year Engineering Projects in Australia and Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper starts by emphasising that final year engineering projects are regarded important in the training and education of professional engineers in Australia and Europe. The sources of projects available to students were also mentioned. Some Australian universities insist on individual projects but some not, each with their own reasons.…

Ku, H.; Goh, S.

2010-01-01

6

Winter In Northern Europe (WINE) project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific aims, work plan, and organization of the Middle Atmosphere Program winter in northern Europe (MAP/WINE) are described. Proposed contributions to the MAP/WINE program from various countries are enumerated. Specific atmospheric parameters to be examined are listed along with the corresponding measurement technique.

Vonzahn, U.

1982-01-01

7

The ELISE II Project: A Digital Image Library for Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the progress made under the ELISE II electronic image library project from a technical standpoint. The ELISE II project is a European-wide initiative that aims to provide a comprehensive electronic image library service for Europe. It is funded under the European Commission, DG XIII-E, Telematics for Libraries Initiative. The…

Strunz, Bob; Waters, Mairead

8

Western Europe: Deferred oil project list grows  

SciTech Connect

Western Europe is the subject of this review on petroleum outlooks. Observations include: Most UK North Sea operators cut budgets by +.30%; Shell is the exception; Last year's 31 UK discoveries won't be repeated, plus 28 offshore rigs are stacked; Spain's Gaviota gas field is now onstream; Germany's Mittelplate oil field is closed; Norwegian government continues to talk with Opec countries on production accord; Last year's record 50 E and A wells drilled offshore Norway will fall to 35-40; French saw record drilling levels in 1985; 1986 budgets now cut by 25%, except Elf's; License commitments stabilize Holland's activity, although gas prices tied to oil; Italy's ENI promises to maintain domestic expenditures despite price decline.

Not Available

1986-08-01

9

Does Europe need immigrants? Population and work force projections.  

PubMed

European countries defined as all Northern and Western Europe including the former East Germany had a population of 498.4 million in 1990. In 1990 Western Europe had 374.4 million people. The European Community (EC) makes u 92% of the total population. Projections forecast a peak of the EC population (excluding the former East Germany) in 2005 at 334.2 million compared with 327 million in 1989, then declining to 332.5 million in 2010, 329.0 million min 2015 and 324.5 million in 2020. In Europe outside the East, the 20-24 year old work force entrance age group will drop from 29,860,000 in 1990 to 26,400,000 in 1005 and 23,480,000 in 2000: decreasing by 6,380,000 or 21.3%. Fertility rose by 22% in Sweden between 1985 and 1990, the rise of negligible in France and Belgium, but 2% in the UK and Switzerland, 4% in the Netherlands, 13% in Norway, 16% in Denmark, and even 6% in Germany and Luxembourg. The Ec labor force was 145 million in 1990 (excluding East Germany); it is projected to peak at 146.9 million in 2000, decline slowly until 2010 and decline faster up to 2025 with the steepest decline occurring in Germany and Italy. Unemployment rates would change from the 1990 estimate of 15.7 million to 15.5 million in 1995. Net migration into the 12 EC countries was on average -4,800 from 1965 to 1969; 357,000 from 1970 to 1974; 164,400 from 1980 to 1984; and 533,000/year from 1985 to 1989 as a result of the rise of asylum applicants and migration of ethnic Germans into Germany. Increased immigration is not needed to satisfy work force shortages for the next 10-20 years in Western Europe or in the EC. Other issues addressed are the economic activity forecast, the hidden labor supply, skill shortages, Eastern Europe, and teenage shortage. High-level manpower movements, immigration of asylum seekers, and illegal immigration will continue, but in the long run the conditions of employment and welfare support have to be improved for the women of Europe. PMID:12285858

Coleman, D A

1992-01-01

10

Human mercury exposure and effects in Europe.  

PubMed

The effects of human exposure to mercury (Hg) and its compounds in Europe have been the focus of numerous studies that differed in their design, including recruiting different population groups at different levels of exposure and using different protocols and recruitment strategies. The objective of the present study was to review current studies of Hg exposure in Europe, taking into account the potential routes of Hg exposure, actual Hg exposure levels assessed by different biomarkers, and the effects of Hg to Europeans. All published studies from 2000 onward were reviewed, and exposure and effects studies were compared with known Hg levels in environmental compartments by mapping the various population groups studied and taking into account known sources of Hg. A study of the spatial distribution trends confirmed that the highest exposure levels to Hg, mostly as methylmercury (MeHg), are found in coastal populations, which consume more fish than inland populations. Fewer studies addressed exposure to elemental Hg through inhalation of Hg in air and inorganic Hg in food, particularly in highly contaminated areas. Overall, at the currently low exposure levels of Hg prevalently found in Europe, further studies are needed to confirm the risk to European populations, taking into consideration exposure to various Hg compounds and mixtures of stressors with similar end-points, nutritional status, and a detailed understanding of Hg in fish present in European markets. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:1259-1270. © 2013 SETAC. PMID:24375779

Višnjevec, Ana Miklav?i?; Kocman, David; Horvat, Milena

2014-06-01

11

Atmospheric dynamics InfraStructure in Europe: The ARISE project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARISE proposes to design a new infrastructure that integrates different station networks in order to provide a new "3D" image of the atmospheric dynamics from the ground up to the mesosphere with unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. The implied networks are: - the International infrasound network developed for the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This system is unique by its quality for infrasound and atmospheric wave observations, - the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes (NDACC) which uses Lidar to measure stratospheric dynamics, - the Network for the Detection of Mesopause Changes (NDMC), dedicated to airglow layer measurements in the mesosphere, and additional complementary stations and satellite data. The infrastructure extends across Europe and outlying regions, including polar and equatorial regions. The measurements will be used to improve the parameterization of gravity waves in the stratosphere to better resolve climate models. Such description is crucial to estimate the impact of stratospheric climate forcing on the troposphere. In the long term, data will be used for monitoring changes in the occurrence of extreme events and trends in the middle atmosphere climate. The project impact also concerns civil applications related to monitoring of natural hazards as volcanoes. The presentation will focus on the first results obtained using three technologies during specific events as stratospheric warming, volcanic eruptions and severe weather. The benefits of using the three technologies will be discussed.

Blanc, Elisabeth

2013-04-01

12

Eiatne and Flyklim, Two Projects Concerning Environmental Impacts From Air Transportation Over North Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structure and methodology of two projects concerned with regional impact of air traf- fic on the atmosphere is presented. The EIATNE project aims to develop methods and decision support for environmental adaptation of air traffic and air traffic control in en- vironmentally sensitive regions. The FLYKLIM project is closely related to EIATNE, its objective is to study the effect of air traffic on the regional climate in Northern Europe and in particular its effect on high-altitude clouds. The environmental impacts from air traffic within a geographical area are evaluated through interdisciplinary co- operation. Aircraft emissions have been extracted from a four-dimensional analysis based on model calculations of the collected air traffic over Sweden during a limited duration. The project aims to combine model simulations of aircraft performance with model simulations of the dispersion of exhausts and their reactions in the atmosphere, both at cruise altitudes and around airports, in order to evaluate the environmental im- pacts. The project involves use of results from previous research projects, which will be integrated for a qualified analysis of the large-scale environmental effects.

Pålsson, A.; Moldanová, J.; Bergström, R.; Langner, J.; Wyser, K.; Lindskog, A.

13

Europe  

SciTech Connect

In Europe during 1980, the need to find more oil caused an intensification of exploration activity into producing basins and even into producing zones for existing plays. The high-risk nature of many of the prospects tested is expressed in the low success ratios for several countries. The success rate continued to rise, however, in the North Sea, where many more appraisal wells were drilled and many wells tested fault blocks adjacent to existing oil fields. There were increases in development drilling almost everywhere and further application of fracturing techniques to existing fields. Development drilling began to decline in the North Sea, a trend likely to continue as government-enforced depletion policies are introduced. In the onshore producing areas, many new exploration licenses were awarded. The new exploration areas are likely to increase in importance. There were some encouraging results in these areas during 1980. The offshore zones of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean proved equally exciting. However, the quickest returns will be gained from onshore discoveries; the reexamination of hydrocarbon-bearing areas not so far developed proved highly successful. The Swiss Entlebuch 1 gas discovery opens up a new exploration tract of the deep autochthon of central Europe. It is just this area where oil production has been declining. Gas production continues to decline in nearly all areas except the North Sea. 20 figures, 24 tables.

Kat, C.

1981-10-01

14

Status of the SAFER Project (Seismic eArly warning For EuRope)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since July 2006, the SAFER (Seismic eArly warning For EuRope) Project, a European Commission funded Specific Targeted Research or Innovation Project, has coordinated efforts to develop methodologies for the mitigation of the effects of earthquakes in and around Europe. SAFER aims to develop new methodologies, and expand upon existing ones for a range of actions that will respond to the consequences of damaging earthquakes. The time span over which such actions will take place extends from the earliest detection of the first seismic waves to tens of minutes after the main earthquake has finished, and to days and weeks afterwards so as to consider the subsequent aftershocks. The sort of actions envisaged to be developed by SAFER include the detection and analysis of the first P-wave arrivals, decision- making processes (i.e. is the earthquake potentially dangerous or not), the issuing (or not) of alarms, instigating safety measures for buildings, industrial processes and lifelines, and predictions of possible secondary effects such as landslides and subsequent aftershocks. It is the intention of this poster to present an overview of SAFER, some of the preliminary results and the expected products. This will include detection and analysis algorithms, new ways of optimising seismic networks, utilization of the USGS ShakeMap program, and predictive tools of aftershock hazard.

Zschau, J.; Gasparini, P.; Papadopoulos, G.

2007-12-01

15

Aerosol effect on climate extremes in Europe under different future scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates changes in extreme temperature and precipitation events under different future scenarios of anthropogenic aerosol emissions (i.e., SO2 and black and organic carbon) simulated with an aerosol-climate model (ECHAM5-HAM) with focus on Europe. The simulations include a maximum feasible aerosol reduction (MFR) scenario and a current legislation emission (CLEmod) scenario where Europe implements the MFR scenario, but the rest of the world follows the current legislation scenario and a greenhouse gas scenario. The strongest changes relative to the year 2000 are projected for the MFR scenario, in which the global aerosol reduction greatly enforces the general warming effect due to greenhouse gases and results in significant increases of temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe. Regional warming effects can also be identified from aerosol reductions under the CLEmodscenario. This becomes most obvious in the increase of the hottest summer daytime temperatures in Northern Europe.

Sillmann, J.; Pozzoli, L.; Vignati, E.; Kloster, S.; Feichter, J.

2013-05-01

16

A performance assessment framework for hospitals: the WHO regional office for Europe PATH project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe launched in 2003 a project aiming to develop and disseminate a flexible and comprehensive tool for the assessment of hospital performance and referred to as the perform- ance assessment tool for quality improvement in hospitals (PATH). This project aims at supporting hospitals in assessing their performance, questioning their own results,

J. Veillard; F. Champagne; N. S. Klazinga; V. Kazandjian; O. A. Arah; A.-L. GUISSET

2005-01-01

17

Winter in Northern Europe (WINE). The project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE): Introduction and outlook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) comprised a multinational study of the structure, dynamics and composition of the middle atmosphere in winter at high latitudes. Coordinated field measurements were performed during the winter 1983 to 1984 by a large number of ground-based, air-borne, rocket-borne and satellite-borne instruments. Many of the individual experiments were performed in the European sector of the high latitude and polar atmosphere. Studies of the stratosphere, were, in addition, expanded to hemispheric scales by the use of data obtained from remotely sensing satellites. Beyond its direct scientific results, which are reviewed, MAP/WINE has stimulated quite a number of follow-on experiments and projects which address the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere at high and polar latitudes.

Vonzahn, U.

1989-01-01

18

Summary of the CARBOSOL project: Present and retrospective state of organic versus inorganic aerosol over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol is an important source of uncertainty concerning the role of the atmosphere in climate forcing. In particular, major gaps exist with respect to its carbonaceous fraction in terms of composition, source apportionment (natural versus anthropogenic), change over the past, and radiative impact. The CARBOSOL project contributes to reduce these uncertainties. CARBOSOL combines a 2-year study of present-day carbonaceous aerosol in air and precipitation in western/central Europe with the trends of climatically relevant species in Alpine ice cores. Comparisons between observed atmospheric distributions (present and proxy of past) and transport/chemistry model simulations allow to test the accuracy of present and past anthropogenic emission inventories and enable for the first time a comparison of the model results for individual components (primary, secondary, fossil fuel, and biogenic) against data derived from measurements. The net radiative effect of the aerosol load and composition (inorganic/organic) in Europe is evaluated using radiative/chemistry/transport models. This summary paper gives an overview of the CARBOSOL goals, and reports on the key findings as a guide to the results detailed in the papers that follow.

Legrand, M.; Puxbaum, H.

2007-12-01

19

The Eurolight project: the impact of primary headache disorders in Europe. Description of methods.  

PubMed

The Eurolight project is the first at European Union level to assess the impact of headache disorders, and also the first of its scale performed by collaboration between professional and lay organizations and individuals. Here are reported the methods developed for it. The project took the form of surveys, by structured questionnaire, conducted in ten countries of Europe which together represented 60% of the adult population of the European Union. In Lithuania, the survey was population-based. Elsewhere, truly population-based studies were impractical for reasons of cost, and various compromises were developed. Closest to being population-based were the surveys in Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain. In Austria, France and UK, samples were taken from health-care settings. In addition in the Netherlands, Spain and Ireland, samples were drawn from members of national headache patient organizations and their relatives. Independent double data-entry was performed prior to analysis. Returned questionnaires from 9,269 respondents showed a moderate female bias (58%); of respondents from patients' organizations (n = 992), 61% were female. Mean age of all respondents was 44 years; samples from patients' organizations were slightly older (mean 47 years). The different sampling methods worked with differing degrees of effectiveness, as evidenced by the responder-rates, which varied from 10.8 to 90.7%. In the more population-based surveys, responder-rates varied from 11.3 to 58.8%. We conclude that the methodology, although with differences born of necessity in the ten countries, was sound overall, and will provide robust data on the public ill-health that results from headache in Europe. PMID:21660430

Andrée, C; Stovner, L J; Steiner, T J; Barré, J; Katsarava, Z; Lainez, J M; Lanteri-Minet, M; Mick, G; Rastenyte, D; Ruiz de la Torre, E; Tassorelli, C; Vriezen, P; Lampl, C

2011-10-01

20

Projections of heat waves with high impact on human health in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change will result in more intense, more frequent and longer lasting heat waves. The most hazardous conditions emerge when extreme daytime temperatures combine with warm night-time temperatures, high humidities and light winds for several consecutive days. Here, we assess present and future heat wave impacts on human health in Europe. Present daily physiologically equivalent temperatures (PET) are derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. PET allows to specifically focus on heat-related risks on humans. Regarding projections, a suite of high-resolution regional climate models - run under SRES A1B scenario - has been used. A quantile-quantile adjustment is applied to the daily simulated PET to correct biases in individual model climatologies and a multimodel ensemble strategy is adopted to encompass model errors. Two types of heat waves differently impacting human health - strong and extreme stress - are defined according to specified thresholds of thermal stress and duration. Heat wave number, frequency, duration and amplitude are derived for each type. Results reveal relatively strong correlations between the spatial distribution of strong and extreme heat wave amplitudes and mortality excess for the 2003 European summer. Projections suggest a steady increase and a northward extent of heat wave attributes in Europe. Strong stress heat wave frequencies could increase more than 40 days, lasting over 20 days more by 2075-2094. Amplitudes might augment up to 7 °C per heat wave day. Important increases in extreme stress heat wave attributes are also expected: up to 40 days in frequency, 30 days in duration and 4 °C in amplitude. We believe that with this information at hand policy makers and stakeholders on vulnerable populations to heat stress can respond more effectively to the future challenges imposed by climate warming.

Amengual, A.; Homar, V.; Romero, R.; Brooks, H. E.; Ramis, C.; Gordaliza, M.; Alonso, S.

2014-08-01

21

Projected Changes in Extreme Weather and Climate Events in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extreme weather and climate events have wide ranging impacts on society as well as on biophysical systems. That society, on occasions, is unable to cope with extreme weather and climate events is concerning, especially as increases in the frequency and intensity of certain events are predicted by some global climate change projections. Extreme events come in many different shapes and

Glenn McGregor; Christopher Ferro; David Stephenson

22

Distribution of atmospheric mercury species in Northern Europe: final results from the MOE project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mercury species over Europe (MOE) project was aimed at identifying sources, occurrence and atmospheric behaviour of atmospheric Hg species. Within MOE, emission measurements, ambient air measurements, process and regional-scale modelling and laboratory measurements were conducted. In this work, a summary of some of the main results is given. From the emission measurements, information on stack gas concentrations and emission

John Munthe; Ingvar Wängberg; Åke Iverfeldt; Oliver Lindqvist; Dan Strömberg; Jonas Sommar; Katarina Gårdfeldt; Gerhard Petersen; Ralf Ebinghaus; Eric Prestbo; Kari Larjava; Volker Siemens

2003-01-01

23

Future scenarios for viticultural zoning in Europe: ensemble projections and uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimum climate conditions for grapevine growth are limited geographically and may be further challenged by a changing climate. Due to the importance of the winemaking sector in Europe, the assessment of future scenarios for European viticulture is of foremost relevance. A 16-member ensemble of model transient experiments (generated by the ENSEMBLES project) under a greenhouse gas emission scenario and for two future periods (2011-2040 and 2041-2070) is used in assessing climate change projections for six viticultural zoning indices. After model data calibration/validation using an observational gridded daily dataset, changes in their ensemble means and inter-annual variability are discussed, also taking into account the model uncertainties. Over southern Europe, the projected warming combined with severe dryness in the growing season is expected to have detrimental impacts on the grapevine development and wine quality, requiring measures to cope with heat and water stress. Furthermore, the expected warming and the maintenance of moderately wet growing seasons over most of the central European winemaking regions may require a selection of new grapevine varieties, as well as an enhancement of pest/disease control. New winemaking regions may arise over northern Europe and high altitude areas, when considering climatic factors only. An enhanced inter-annual variability is also projected over most of Europe. All these future changes pose new challenges for the European winemaking sector.

Fraga, H.; Malheiro, A. C.; Moutinho-Pereira, J.; Santos, J. A.

2013-11-01

24

From imperial to regional trade preferences: Its effect on europe’s intra- and extra-regional trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

From Imperial to Regional Trade Preferences: Effect on Europe's Intra- and Extra-Regional Trade. - Europe's switch from imperial\\u000a to regional trade preferences has certainly raised the share of its trade that is intra-regional, but this does not necessarily\\u000a mean Europe is becoming less economically integrated with the rest of the world. This paper shows that the propensity for\\u000a European GDP

Kym Anderson; Hege Norheim

1993-01-01

25

Probabilistic climate and agroclimatic scenarios for Europe (PRASCE project results)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future climate projections are loaded by multiple uncertainties. PRASCE project (2008-2011), aimed at a development of the probabilistic projection of climate accounting for the uncertainties coming from various sources. The methodology was based on linking the stochastic weather generator (which may itself represent uncertainty due to natural climate variability) with the GCM-based climate change scenarios. These scenarios were determined by the pattern scaling technique, in which the changes in climatic characteristics for a specific future period, site and month of the year are determined as a product of the GCM-based standardized scenario (= scenario related to 1 K rise in global mean temperarure) and global mean temperature. Simple climate model MAGICC was used to determine the global temperature for various combinations of emission scenario and climate sensitivity to account for the uncertainties in these two parameters. The modelling (inter-GCM) uncertainty is represented either by using all available GCMs or a representative subset of 3-7 GCMs. The first part of the contribution will present a methodology with a stress on some of its crucial steps: (i) Deriving the climate change scenario from GCM outputs. These outputs consist of monthly and daily series of surface weather characteristics, which are used to derive changes in WG parameters (including those, which drive the variability and extremes). The problem of incompleteness of the database (e.g. surface humidity and wind speed are missing in some GCM simulations) will be also mentioned. (ii) Modification of the WG (= modification of WG parameters set) according to the climate change scenario (this procedure is more complicated than the pattern-scaling's formula "the changes in climatic characteristics are proportional to changes in global mean temperature" may suggest). (iii) Choosing the representative GCM subsets. Implementation of this step follows from the fact, that some climate change impact experiments do not allow (e.g. due to limited computer resources) to involve all available GCM simulations. The second part of the contribution will present results obtained by applying the above methodology to a set of European stations and using GCM outputs from the IPCC-AR4 database. The changes in selected climatic (focusing on the extremal precipitation and temperature characteristics) and agroclimatic (including number of days during vegetation season with heat and drought stresss) characteristics will be shown in maps representing the multi GCM mean and variability. Acknowledgements: The study is supported by project CLIMSAVE (EU FP 7. Contract no. 244031), KONTAKT ME 10128 and the GAAV Grant Agency (project IAA300420806).

Dubrovsky, M.; Trnka, M.

2012-04-01

26

Modelling the effects of past and future climate on the risk of bluetongue emergence in Europe  

PubMed Central

Vector-borne diseases are among those most sensitive to climate because the ecology of vectors and the development rate of pathogens within them are highly dependent on environmental conditions. Bluetongue (BT), a recently emerged arboviral disease of ruminants in Europe, is often cited as an illustration of climate's impact on disease emergence, although no study has yet tested this association. Here, we develop a framework to quantitatively evaluate the effects of climate on BT's emergence in Europe by integrating high-resolution climate observations and model simulations within a mechanistic model of BT transmission risk. We demonstrate that a climate-driven model explains, in both space and time, many aspects of BT's recent emergence and spread, including the 2006 BT outbreak in northwest Europe which occurred in the year of highest projected risk since at least 1960. Furthermore, the model provides mechanistic insight into BT's emergence, suggesting that the drivers of emergence across Europe differ between the South and the North. Driven by simulated future climate from an ensemble of 11 regional climate models, the model projects increase in the future risk of BT emergence across most of Europe with uncertainty in rate but not in trend. The framework described here is adaptable and applicable to other diseases, where the link between climate and disease transmission risk can be quantified, permitting the evaluation of scale and uncertainty in climate change's impact on the future of such diseases.

Guis, Helene; Caminade, Cyril; Calvete, Carlos; Morse, Andrew P.; Tran, Annelise; Baylis, Matthew

2012-01-01

27

An developing ICDP drilling project on intraplate seismicity: Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe (DAFNE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combined effects of reduced ice load and glacially affected rock stresses are believed to have generated dramatic postglacial fault (PGF) structures in northern Europe, reflecting a special type of intraplate seismicity. A total of 14 PGFs have been identified up to date, with fault scarps up to 160 km in length and 30 m in height. They are usually SE dipping, SW-NE oriented thrusts that represent reactivated, pre-existing crustal discontinuities. Local and national seismic networks reveal that, at least some of the faults are still very active, with several hundreds of microseismic events each year. It is evident that if they were formed in single events, they would imply massive intraplate earthquakes (up to M 7-8). Hence, PGFs may generate larger intraplate earthquakes than generally assumed. Similar structures in North America have not been reported yet. Currently, an International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) project on Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe (DAFNE) is under development. The aim of the project is to investigate tectonic and structural characteristics of PGFs in northern Fennoscandia, including their hydrogeology and associated deep biosphere. The research is anticipated to advance science in neotectonics, hydrogeology and deep biosphere studies, and provide important information for nuclear waste and CO2 disposal, petroleum exploration on the Norwegian continental shelf and studies of mineral resources in PG fault areas. We expect that multidisciplinary research applying shallow and deep drilling of PGFs would provide significant scientific results through generating new data and models, namely: 1. Understanding PGF genesis and controls of their locations; 2. Deep structure and depth extent of PGFs; 3. Textural, mineralogical and physical alteration of rocks in the PGFs; 4. State of stress and estimates of paleostress of PGFs; 5. Hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and hydraulic properties of PGFs; 6. Dating of tectonic reactivation(s) and temporal evolution of tectonic systems hosting PGFs; 7. Existence/non-existence of deep biosphere in PGFs; 8. Data useful for planning radioactive waste disposal in crystalline bedrock; 9. Data on rock stress changes in the periphery of the inland ice; 10. Stress pattern along the Norwegian continental margin in relation to the bending spreading ridge and Plio-Pleistocene erosion, uplift and sedimentation with implications for fluid migration and sealing properties of petroleum reservoirs; and 11. Data useful in predicting future seismic activity in areas of current deglaciation due to ongoing climatic warming.

Ask, M. V.; Kukkonen, I. T.; Olesen, O.; Steffen, H.; Schmitt, D.

2011-12-01

28

Projection of climatic suitability for Aedes albopictus Skuse (Culicidae) in Europe under climate change conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus ( Ae. albopictus) has rapidly spread around the globe. The spread of this species raises serious public health concerns. Here, we model the present distribution and the future climatic suitability of Europe for this vector in the face of climate change. In order to achieve the most realistic current prediction and future projection, we compare the performance of four different modelling approaches, differentiated by the selection of climate variables (based on expert knowledge vs. statistical criteria) and by the geographical range of presence records (native range vs. global range). First, models of the native and global range were built with MaxEnt and were either based on (1) statistically selected climatic input variables or (2) input variables selected with expert knowledge from the literature. Native models show high model performance (AUC: 0.91-0.94) for the native range, but do not predict the European distribution well (AUC: 0.70-0.72). Models based on the global distribution of the species, however, were able to identify all regions where Ae. albopictus is currently established, including Europe (AUC: 0.89-0.91). In a second step, the modelled bioclimatic envelope of the global range was projected to future climatic conditions in Europe using two emission scenarios implemented in the regional climate model COSMO-CLM for three time periods 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100. For both global-driven models, the results indicate that climatically suitable areas for the establishment of Ae. albopictus will increase in western and central Europe already in 2011-2040 and with a temporal delay in eastern Europe. On the other hand, a decline in climatically suitable areas in southern Europe is pronounced in the Expert knowledge based model. Our projections appear unaffected by non-analogue climate, as this is not detected by Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis. The generated risk maps can aid in identifying suitable habitats for Ae. albopictus and hence support monitoring and control activities to avoid disease vector establishment.

Fischer, Dominik; Thomas, Stephanie Margarete; Niemitz, Franziska; Reineking, Björn; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

2011-07-01

29

Employment and Occupations in Europe in the 1980s. Effects of Technical and Economic Changes on the Employment Situation. Project No. 1 of the CCC: "Preparation for Life." Preparation for Working Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is an attempt to forecast for 1990 the following: (1) employment structures in the member countries of the Council of Europe for all three major sectors of the economy; and (2) employment structures in the Council of Europe for the nine major sectors of the manufacturing industry (food, textiles, leather and clothing, wood and…

Cacace, Nicole

30

The Joint CEDEFOP/ETF Project on 'Scenarios and Strategies for Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Europe': A Contribution to the Debate on the Future of Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project in Europe is working to improve the quality of work, promote equal opportunities, combat exclusion and poverty; promote lasting economic growth and a European Union economic policy; and promote sustainable development and quality of life. In order to achieve these goals, three main objectives for vocational education and training (VET)…

Sellin, Burkart

31

A Europe-wide system for assessing the quality of rivers using macroinvertebrates: the AQEM Project*) and its importance for southern Europe (with special emphasis on Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AQEM Project aims to develop a Europe-wide system for monitoring the ecological quality of rivers using macroinverte- brates, to satisfy the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive. Three main types of anthropogenic perturbation are being investigated: morphological degradation, water (organic) pollution and acidification (the last is not under investigation in Italy). The selection of reference and impaired study

Andrea BUFFAGNI; Joanna L. KEMP; Stefania ERBA; Carlo BELFIORE; Daniel HERING; Otto MOOG

32

Assessing the burden of paediatric influenza in Europe: the European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project  

PubMed Central

The European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project is a multi-country project that was created to collect, analyse and present data regarding the paediatric influenza burden in European countries, with the purpose of providing the necessary information to make evidence-based decisions regarding influenza immunisation recommendations for children. The initial approach taken is based on existing weekly virological and age-specific influenza-like illness (ILI) data from surveillance networks across Europe. We use a multiple regression model guided by longitudinal weekly patterns of influenza virus to attribute the weekly ILI consultation incidence pattern to each influenza (sub)type, while controlling for the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemics. Modelling the ILI consultation incidence during 2002/2003–2008 revealed that influenza infections that presented for medical attention as ILI affected between 0.3% and 9.8% of children aged 0–4 and 5–14 years in England, Italy, The Netherlands and Spain in an average season. With the exception of Spain, these rates were always higher in children aged 0–4 years. Across the six seasons analysed (five seasons were analysed from the Italian data), the model attributed 47–83% of the ILI burden in primary care to influenza virus infection in the various countries, with the A(H3N2) virus playing the most important role, followed by influenza viruses B and A(H1N1). National season averages from the four countries studied indicated that between 0.4% and 18% of children consulted a physician for ILI, with the percentage depending on the country and health care system. Influenza virus infections explained the majority of paediatric ILI consultations in all countries. The next step will be to apply the EPIA modelling approach to severe outcomes indicators (i.e. hospitalisations and mortality data) to generate a complete range of mild and severe influenza burden estimates needed for decision making concerning paediatric influenza vaccination.

Paget, W. John; Casas, Inmaculada; Donker, Ge; Edelman, Laurel; Fleming, Douglas; Larrauri, Amparo; Meijer, Adam; Puzelli, Simona; Rizzo, Caterina; Simonsen, Lone

2010-01-01

33

Assessing the burden of paediatric influenza in Europe: the European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project.  

PubMed

The European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project is a multi-country project that was created to collect, analyse and present data regarding the paediatric influenza burden in European countries, with the purpose of providing the necessary information to make evidence-based decisions regarding influenza immunisation recommendations for children. The initial approach taken is based on existing weekly virological and age-specific influenza-like illness (ILI) data from surveillance networks across Europe. We use a multiple regression model guided by longitudinal weekly patterns of influenza virus to attribute the weekly ILI consultation incidence pattern to each influenza (sub)type, while controlling for the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemics. Modelling the ILI consultation incidence during 2002/2003-2008 revealed that influenza infections that presented for medical attention as ILI affected between 0.3% and 9.8% of children aged 0-4 and 5-14 years in England, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain in an average season. With the exception of Spain, these rates were always higher in children aged 0-4 years. Across the six seasons analysed (five seasons were analysed from the Italian data), the model attributed 47-83% of the ILI burden in primary care to influenza virus infection in the various countries, with the A(H3N2) virus playing the most important role, followed by influenza viruses B and A(H1N1). National season averages from the four countries studied indicated that between 0.4% and 18% of children consulted a physician for ILI, with the percentage depending on the country and health care system. Influenza virus infections explained the majority of paediatric ILI consultations in all countries. The next step will be to apply the EPIA modelling approach to severe outcomes indicators (i.e. hospitalisations and mortality data) to generate a complete range of mild and severe influenza burden estimates needed for decision making concerning paediatric influenza vaccination. PMID:20229049

Paget, W John; Balderston, Catherine; Casas, Inmaculada; Donker, Gé; Edelman, Laurel; Fleming, Douglas; Larrauri, Amparo; Meijer, Adam; Puzelli, Simona; Rizzo, Caterina; Simonsen, Lone

2010-08-01

34

Comparing Emission Inventories and Model-Ready Emission Datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII Project  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper highlights the similarities and differences in how emission inventories and datasets were developed and processed across North America and Europe for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project and then characterizes the emissions for the...

35

Health effects of livestock farming in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  This review presents the most recent evidence on the occurrence of adverse health effects related to common agricultural practices\\u000a applied in livestock farming.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A thorough literature review was conducted among published studies on the health risks associated with animal farming from\\u000a 1995 to 2006.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  An increased risk of injuries, musculoskeletal and respiratory disorders for animal breeders is suggested. Numerous studies

Dimitris Kouimintzis; Christos Chatzis; Athena Linos

2007-01-01

36

Identifying Critical Nutrient Intake in Groups at Risk of Poverty in Europe: The CHANCE Project Approach  

PubMed Central

The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project’s objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe.

Nikolic, Marina; Glibetic, Maria; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Milesevic, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

2014-01-01

37

Identifying critical nutrient intake in groups at risk of poverty in Europe: the CHANCE project approach.  

PubMed

The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project's objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe. PMID:24699195

Nikoli?, Marina; Glibeti?, Maria; Gurinovi?, Mirjana; Mileševi?, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

2014-04-01

38

Regional Climate Change Modeling in High Resolution for Central and Eastern Europe in Project CECILIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project EC FP6 CECILIA - Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment is studying the impact of climate change in complex topography of the Central and Eastern Europe in high resolution. The impacts on agriculture, forestry, hydrology and air-quality are studied. Resolution of regional climate simulation is an important factor affecting the accuracy of dynamical downscaling of the global changes. Especially the extremes are strongly dependent on the terrain patterns as shape of orography or land use, which can contribute to extreme temperatures or precipitation appearance. Here the reliability of the RCMs in reproducing climate conditions and extremes for targeted regions is studied in the experiment with the perfect boundary condition driving in simulations for EC FP6 project CECILIA. The results of simulation performed with the RegCM in resolution of 10 km using reanalysis ERA 40 as driving fields are presented and compared with the emphasis on extreme temperature and precipitation characteristics, validation based on the climate databases as well as station observations from the Czech Republic. The preliminary results of simulations for climate change conditions driven by ECHAM5 GCM for time slices 2021- 2050 and 2071-2100 are presented as well with respect to control period 1961-1990.

Halenka, T.; Belda, M.; Miksovsky, J.

2008-12-01

39

Benefits of High Resolution Regional Climate Change Modeling in Central and Eastern Europe - Project CECILIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project EC FP6 CECILIA - Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment is studying the impact of climate change in complex topography of the Central and Eastern Europe in high resolution for applications in agriculture, forestry, hydrology and air-quality. Resolution of regional climate simulation is an important factor affecting the accuracy of dynamical downscaling of the global changes. Especially the extremes are strongly dependent on the terrain patterns as shape of orography or land use, which can contribute to extreme temperatures or precipitation appearance. The reliability of the RCMs in reproducing climate conditions and extremes for targeted regions is studied in the experiments with the perfect boundary condition driving in simulations for EC FP6 project CECILIA. The results of simulation performed with the RegCM in resolution of 10 km using reanalysis ERA 40 as driving fields are presented and compared with the emphasis on extreme temperature and precipitation characteristics, validation based on the climate databases as well as station observations from the Czech Republic. Statistical analysis of the results and localization of the outputs to the station points is used for validation as well as applied on climate change simulations with driving boundary conditions from ECHAM5 GCM under A1B GHG scenario for time slices 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. Bias correction technique provides necessary tool for final climate change scenario construction.

Halenka, T.; Belda, M.; Miksovsky, J.

2009-12-01

40

What Secondary Education for a Changing Europe? Trends, Challenges and Prospects. Report of the Final Conference of the project "A Secondary Education for Europe," (Strasbourg, France, December 2-5, 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final conference of the Council for Cultural Co-operation's project, "A Secondary Education for Europe," was held in Strasbourg, France, in December 1996. The conference was entitled "What Secondary Education for a Changing Europe?" and was attended by approximately 140 participants from European countries. The project sought to: (1) develop a…

Luisoni, Pierre

41

Audit Stewardship and Oversight of Large and Innovatively Funded Projects in Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As transportation agencies undertake nontraditional, innovatively financed infrastructure projects, a concern among State and Federal managers is the effectiveness of the audit stewardship and oversight for these projects. The Federal Highway Administrati...

J. P. Jeffers, C. L. McDavid, J. V. Broadhurst, K. R. Grosskopf, J. A. Kamnikar

2007-01-01

42

Probabilistic Projection of Climatic and Agroclimatic Characteristics for Sites in Europe and U.S.A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the possible approaches (employed also in this contribution) to downscale the low-resolution output from Global Climate Model (GCM) into spatial and temporal scales required by impact models consists in using the stochastic weather generator (WG), whose parameters are modified according to the GCM-based climate change scenario. In the first part, we present a methodology for probabilistic climate change impact assessment based on daily and monthly outputs from multiple GCMs and two step stochastic weather generator M&Rfi. In the second part, we apply this methodology for assessing the impacts on selected climatic and agroclimatic characteristics in Europe and U.S.A. Methodology: to account for the changes in variability on various time scales, the daily WG (dWG) is coupled to the monthly WG (mWG). Parameters of dWG and mWG are derived from the observed series and then modified according to the GCM based climate change scenarios. To obtain more comprehensive scenarios, we merge information from GCM outputs at two temporal resolutions: monthly (benefiting from the length of the available output series) and daily (benefiting from the finer temporal resolution allowing to determine changes in climatic characteristics not derivable from the monthly series). The monthly GCM data (1961-2100) are used to derive changes in means, and standard deviations and intermonthly variability of monthly averages of temperature, precipitation and solar radiation. The daily GCM series (1961-1990 and 2081-2100) are used to derive changes in interdiurnal weather variability, daily temperature range and probability of precipitation occurrence. The climate change scenarios for a given future period, emission scenario and climate sensitivity are then defined by the pattern scaling method, in which the standardised changes (related to 1K rise in global mean temperature) derived from the GCM outputs are multiplied by the change in global mean temperature projected by simple climate model MAGICC. The experiment will (i) show impact of the climate change on selected climatic and agroclimatic characteristics in multiple European and US stations, and (ii) demonstrate effect of merging information extracted from monthly and daily GCM series (effect of changes in characteristics derived from the daily data will be assessed). The probabilistic impact assessment will be based on comparison of probability distribution functions of the climatic and agroclimatic characteristics derived from present vs. future climate synthetic weather series and assuming scenarios derived from multiple GCMs (IPCC-AR4 database). The climatic characteristics will include extreme precipitation and temperature characteristics and characteristics of wet/dry/hot/cold spells. The agroclimatic characteristics will include characteristics related to vegetation period (temperature sums over 5 and 10°C, sum of effective global solar radiation, number of effective growing days, number of days with low evapotranspiration) and the date of last frost day. Acknowledgements: The study is supported by the GAAV Grant Agency (project IAA300420806), Minstry of Education (KONTAKT project ME10128) and National Agency for Agric. Research (QI91C054).

Dubrovsky, M.; Trnka, M.; Balek, J.; Zalud, Z.

2010-12-01

43

The Cosmetics Europe strategy for animal-free genotoxicity testing: project status up-date.  

PubMed

The Cosmetics Europe (formerly COLIPA) Genotoxicity Task Force has driven and funded three projects to help address the high rate of misleading positives in in vitro genotoxicity tests: The completed "False Positives" project optimized current mammalian cell assays and showed that the predictive capacity of the in vitro micronucleus assay was improved dramatically by selecting more relevant cells and more sensitive toxicity measures. The on-going "3D skin model" project has been developed and is now validating the use of human reconstructed skin (RS) models in combination with the micronucleus (MN) and Comet assays. These models better reflect the in use conditions of dermally applied products, such as cosmetics. Both assays have demonstrated good inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility and are entering validation stages. The completed "Metabolism" project investigated enzyme capacities of human skin and RS models. The RS models were shown to have comparable metabolic capacity to native human skin, confirming their usefulness for testing of compounds with dermal exposure. The program has already helped to improve the initial test battery predictivity and the RS projects have provided sound support for their use as a follow-up test in the assessment of the genotoxic hazard of cosmetic ingredients in the absence of in vivo data. PMID:23811264

Pfuhler, S; Fautz, R; Ouedraogo, G; Latil, A; Kenny, J; Moore, C; Diembeck, W; Hewitt, N J; Reisinger, K; Barroso, J

2014-02-01

44

Inventory of veterinary syndromic surveillance initiatives in Europe (Triple-S project): current situation and perspectives.  

PubMed

Within the current context that favours the emergence of new diseases, syndromic surveillance (SyS) appears increasingly more relevant tool for the early detection of unexpected health events. The Triple-S project (Syndromic Surveillance Systems in Europe), co-financed by the European Commission, was launched in September 2010 for a three year period to promote both human and animal health SyS in European countries. Objectives of the project included performing an inventory of current and planned European animal health SyS systems and promoting knowledge transfer between SyS experts. This study presents and discusses the results of the Triple-S inventory of European veterinary SyS initiatives. European SyS systems were identified through an active process based on a questionnaire sent to animal health experts involved in SyS in Europe. Results were analyzed through a descriptive analysis and a multiple factor analysis (MFA) in order to establish a typology of the European SyS initiatives. Twenty seven European SyS systems were identified from twelve countries, at different levels of development, from project phase to active systems. Results of this inventory showed a real interest of European countries for SyS but also highlighted the novelty of this field. This survey highlighted the diversity of SyS systems in Europe in terms of objectives, population targeted, data providers, indicators monitored. For most SyS initiatives, statistical analysis of surveillance results was identified as a limitation in using the data. MFA results distinguished two types of systems. The first one belonged to the private sector, focused on companion animals and had reached a higher degree of achievement. The second one was based on mandatory collected data, targeted livestock species and is still in an early project phase. The exchange of knowledge between human and animal health sectors was considered useful to enhance SyS. In the same way that SyS is complementary to traditional surveillance, synergies between human and animal health SyS could be an added value, most notably to enhance timeliness, sensitivity and help interpreting non-specific signals. PMID:23835313

Dupuy, Céline; Bronner, Anne; Watson, Eamon; Wuyckhuise-Sjouke, Linda; Reist, Martin; Fouillet, Anne; Calavas, Didier; Hendrikx, Pascal; Perrin, Jean-Baptiste

2013-09-01

45

Solar effects on circulation types over Europe: an analysis based on a large number of classifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, effects of the 11-year solar cycle on various aspects of tropospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere in winter have been recognized. One of our previous studies showed a significant solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types from the Hess-Brezowsky catalogue. Here, we use a large collection of varied classifications of circulation patterns, defined over central Europe, assembled within the COST733 Action "Harmonization and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions" to detect the solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types. The advantage of this multi-classification approach is that peculiarities or biases present in any single classification (catalogue) that might influence the detected solar signal are eliminated once a large ensemble of classifications is used. We divide winter months (December to March) into three groups according to the mean monthly solar activity, quantified by the solar 10.7 cm flux. The three groups correspond to the minima of the 11-year solar cycle, a moderate solar activity, and solar maxima. Within each group, frequencies of occurrence of individual circulation types are calculated. Differences in the occurrence of individual classes between solar activity groups indicate the presence of a solar activity effect on atmospheric circulation over Europe. Statistical significance of these differences is estimated by a block resampling method. An enhanced frequency under solar minima and a reduced frequency under solar maxima are observed almost exclusively for the types with easterly flow over central Europe. On the other hand, a reduced frequency under solar minima and an enhanced frequency under solar maxima are found for the types with westerly flow over central Europe. The research is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805, and by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic, contract OC115.

Huth, R.; Cahynová, M.; Kyselý, J.

2010-09-01

46

Projected changes in frequencies of circulation types conducive to heat waves over Europe in GCM and RCM simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat waves are atmospheric phenomena with the most disastrous effects on human society in mid-latitudes. Their frequency and severity are expected to increase in a future climate, although there is substantial uncertainty about magnitude of the increase and the extent to which society will be able to adapt to such changes. The present study examines how projected changes in heat waves over Europe are related to atmospheric dynamics characterized by daily circulation patterns. We evaluate changes in circulation types conducive to heat waves over several European regions as projected by current Global Climate Model (GCM) and Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations. We make use of objective classification of circulation types based on the Jenkinson scheme. In the first step, it is applied to recent climate simulations in order to identify circulation types significantly conducive to heat waves (using efficiency coefficient and a block resampling test), and the ability of the climate models to reproduce the types conducive to heat waves is evaluated by comparison with observations. In the second step, projected changes in those circulation types significantly conducive to heat waves are evaluated for the late 21st century time slice. We also present attempt to quantify the contribution of changes in the frequency of the circulation types conducive to heat waves and their characteristics (such as persistence) to projected changes in the frequency and severity of heat waves, and discuss robustness of these changes among the GCM and RCM simulations.

Plavcova, E.; Kysely, J.

2012-12-01

47

Cross-border care and healthcare quality improvement in Europe: the MARQuIS research project  

PubMed Central

Citizens are increasingly crossing borders within the European Union (EU). Europeans have always been free to travel to receive care abroad, but if they wished to benefit from their statutory social protection scheme, they were subject to their local or national legislation on social protection. This changed in 1991 with the European Court of Justice defining healthcare as a service, starting a debate on the right balance between different principles in European treaties: movement of persons, goods and services, versus the responsibility of member states to organise their healthcare systems. Simultaneously, cross-border cooperation has developed between member states. In this context, patient mobility has become a relevant issue on the EU’s agenda. The EU funded a number of Scientific Support to Policies (SSP) activities within the Sixth Framework Programme, to provide the evidence needed by EU policy makers to deal with issues that European citizens face due to enhanced mobility in Europe. One SSP project “Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies” (MARQuIS), focused on cross-border care. It aimed to assess the value of different quality strategies, and to provide information needed when: (1) countries contract care for patients moving across borders; and (2) individual hospitals review the design of their quality strategies. This article describes the European context related to healthcare, and its implications for cross-border healthcare in Europe. The background information demonstrates a need for further research and development in this area.

Sunol, R; Garel, P; Jacquerye, A

2009-01-01

48

Cost-effective strategies for reducing nitrogen deposition in Europe  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the potential cost savings which would result from a combined control of emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia for the cost-effective achievement of nitrogen deposition targets in Europe. Based on the Regional Acidification Information and Simulation (RAINS) model, a framework has been constructed for a simultaneous optimization of nitrogen oxides and ammonia emission reductions using nitrogen depositions from both pollutants as side constraints. The paper first demonstrates that the same nitrogen deposition resulting from the currently committed reductions of emissions of nitrogen oxides (without measures for ammonia emissions) can be achieved at only 55% of the costs if measures for ammonia reduction would also be applied. The analysis shows that no large scale substitutions of reductions of nitrogen oxides by ammonia measures occur. The cost savings mainly result from replacing the most expensive (and ineffective) nitrogen oxide abatement at a few places in Europe with inexpensive ammonia control measures. Consequently, the total level level of emissions of nitrogen oxides is hardly higher than in the reference case, but substantial ammonia reductions are implemented lowering total cost. The second case explores the potential contribution ammonia control can make to attaining the same nitrogen deposition levels resulting from the maximum application of nitrogen oxide abatement technologies solely. In this case, reductions of ammonia emission can lower total abatement costs by 23%, basically by modified manure handling, stable adaptations for poultry, and the control of industrial ammonia emission. 14 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

Amann, M.; Klaassen, G. [International Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

1995-04-01

49

Geokinematics of Central Europe: New insights from the CERGOP-2/Environment Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central European Geodynamics Project CERGOP-2, funded by the European Union from 2003 to 2006 under the 5th Framework Programme, benefited from repeated measurements of the coordinates of epoch and permanent GPS stations of the Central European GPS Reference Network (CEGRN), starting in 1994. Here we report on the results of the systematic processing of available data up to 2005. The analysis has yielded velocities for some 60 sites, covering a variety of Central European tectonic provinces, from the Adria Indenter to the Tauern Window, the Dinarides, the Pannonian Basin, the Vrancea Seismic Zone and the Carpathian Mountains. The estimated velocities define kinematical patterns which outline, with varying spatial resolution depending on the station density and history, the present-day surface kinematics in Central Europe. Horizontal velocities are analyzed after removal from the ITRF2000 estimated velocities of a rigid rotation accounting for the mean motion of Europe: a ˜2.3 mm/year north-south oriented convergence rate between Adria and the Southern Alps that can be considered to be the present-day velocity of the Adria Indenter relative to the European Foreland. An eastward extrusion zone initiates at the Tauern Window. The lateral eastward flow towards the Pannonian Basin exhibits a gentle gradient from 1 to 1.5 mm/year immediately east of the Tauern Window to zero in the Pannonian Basin. This kinematic continuity implies that the Pannonian plate fragment recently suggested by seismic data does not require a specific Eulerian pole. On the southeastern boundary of the Adria microplate, we report a velocity drop from 4 to 4.5 mm/year motion near Matera to ˜1 mm/year north of the Dinarides, in the southwestern part of the Pannonian Basin. A positive velocity gradient as one moves south from West Ukraine across Rumania and Bulgaria is estimated to be 2 mm/year on a scale of 600-800 km, as if the crust were dragged by the counterclockwise rotation along the North Anatolian Fault Zone. This regime apparently does not interfere with the Vrancea Seismic Zone: earthquakes there are sufficiently deep (>100 km) that the brittle deformation at depth can be considered as decoupled from the creep at the surface. We conclude that models of the Quaternary tectonics of Central and Eastern Europe should not neglect the long wavelength, nearly aseismic deformation affecting the upper crust in the Romanian and Bulgarian regions.

Caporali, A.; Aichhorn, C.; Becker, M.; Fejes, I.; Gerhatova, L.; Ghitau, D.; Grenerczy, G.; Hefty, J.; Krauss, S.; Medak, D.; Milev, G.; Mojzes, M.; Mulic, M.; Nardo, A.; Pesec, P.; Rus, T.; Simek, J.; Sledzinski, J.; Solaric, M.; Stangl, G.; Vespe, F.; Virag, G.; Vodopivec, F.; Zablotskyi, F.

2008-05-01

50

Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe: The ARISE Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARISE proposes to design a new infrastructure that integrates different station networks in order to provide a new "3D" image of the atmospheric dynamics from the ground up to the mesosphere with unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. These networks are: - the International infrasound network developed for the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This system is unique by its quality for infrasound and atmospheric wave observations, - the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes (NDACC) which uses Lidar to measure stratospheric dynamics, - the Network for the Detection of Mesopause Changes (NDMC), dedicated to airglow layer measurements in the mesosphere, and additional complementary stations and satellite data. The infrastructure extends across Europe and outlying regions, including polar and equatorial regions. The measurements will be used to improve the parameterization of gravity waves in the stratosphere to better resolve climate models. The project also concerns civil applications related to monitoring of natural hazards as volcanoes. The presentation will highlight the first results obtained in the frame of the project.

Blanc, E.; Bittner, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Ceranna, L.; Charlton-Perez, A. J.; Ripepe, M.; Evers, L.; Kvaerna, T.; Lastovicka, J.; Eliasson, L.; Crosby, N. B.; Blanc-Benon, P.; Le Pichon, A.; Marchetti, E.; Pilger, C.; Keckhut, P.; Schmidt, C.; Lee, C.; Smets, P.

2013-12-01

51

Biogeophysical effects of afforestation on temperature and precipitation extremes - case studies for Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Europe is the only continent with a significant increase of forest cover in recent times. In the last two decades the annual area of natural forestation and forest planting amounted to an average of 0.78 million hectares/year[1]. As large-scale forest cover changes influence regional atmospheric circulation, regional-scale sensitivity studies have been carried out to investigate the climatic effects of forest cover change for Europe. Applying REMO (regional climate model at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg), the projected temperature and precipitation tendencies have been analyzed for summer, based on the results of the A2 IPCC-SRES emission scenario simulation. For the end of the 21st century it has been investigated, whether the potential forest cover change would reduce or enhance the effects of emission change. The magnitude of the biogeophysical feedbacks of afforestation on temperature and precipitation means has been determined relative to the magnitude of the climate change signal. Based on the simulation results a significant climate change mitigating effects of forest cover increase can be expected in northern Germany, Poland and Ukraine, which is 15-20 % of the climate change signal for temperature and more than 50 % for precipitation. The analysis of the impacts on temperature and precipitation extremes is focusing on regional differences within Europe, based on the following research questions: · Does the increased forest cover induce any changes in temperature and precipitation extremes and in the climate variability? · How big are the land cover change feedbacks compared to the projected climate change signal? · What are the differences by bioclimatic regions, which regions show the largest effect on the simulated climate through forest cover increase? Results may help to identify regions, where forest cover increase has the most favourable effect and should be supported to reduce the projected climate change. Data provide an important basis of the future adaptation strategies and land use policy. Keywords: forest cover, afforestation, climatic extremes, biogeophysical feedbacks, regional climate modelling [1]Data of FAO, 2010. (China reports also a significant statistical increase of forest cover but its real extent is questionable)

Galos, B.; Sieck, K.; Rechid, D.; Haensler, A.; Teichmann, C.; Kindermann, G.; Matyas, Cs.; Jacob, D.

2012-04-01

52

Projected Changes in Northern Europe Storm and Precipitation Characteristics: Uncertainty and the Implications for Climate Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future changes in storm characteristics and storm tracks over the eastern North Atlantic may have profound implications for energy providers, coastal communities and water resources availability across the European sector. Shifts in the storm tracks and the amount and intensity of precipitation are of particular concern to local/ municipal governments as they contemplate climate change adaptation/ mitigation strategies. Communicating the latest science to these end users is a two-pronged problem. On one prong the scientific community still has some way to go before fully understanding the physical mechanisms driving projected changes at local to regional scales and their associated uncertainties (which can be quite large). On the other prong planners require up-to-date, reliable information at just these scales as they seek to make decisions, which will resonate for decades. The present study investigates projected changes to storms and precipitation over Northern Europe and decomposes the sources of uncertainty surrounding these changes. Strategies for communicating these changes and uncertainties with planners are also discussed. The city of Bergen, which is a participant in the ECLISE project, is employed as a case study for how complex and often counterintuitive climate information can be made useful for end users. Some large-scale, robust changes in storm track statistics have been identified in the ensemble mean climate change response. However, there are often widely varying responses between models and little analysis on the role intra-model variability. A focus on the multi model ensemble mean response is useful in that it isolates externally forced (i.e. climate change) aspects of future variability. However, this approach underestimates the influence of internal variability (weather-related "noise") and its contribution to total uncertainty. Recent research suggests that internal variability can make a large contribution to overall uncertainty with clear implications for future prediction efforts. The present study investigates projected regional changes to seasonal storm characteristics and precipitation over the eastern North Atlantic and Northern Europe using a high-resolution, stretched grid, AGCM (ARPEGE). An extra-tropical cyclone-tracking algorithm is applied to simulations for present (1980-1999) and future (2020-2060) periods and NCEP reanalysis data (1980-1999). Two present day simulations are carried out: one with spectral nudging toward the large-scale circulation (Nudged) and one without (Free). Four future realizations are run that differ only in their SST specifications, which are taken from four A1B AOGCM simulations from different modeling groups. Storm track statistics are computed for all months with winter (DJF) and summer (JJA) shown. Future changes are evaluated by subtracting the 20th century seasonal mean of the Free run from the ensemble mean of the (2041-2060) 21st century runs. The multiple future realizations allow for the decomposition of total future variability into parts due to forced and internal variability. Despite the dominance of internal variability in the seasonal storm response, robust precipitation signals are identified. These results suggest that, in these simulations at least, the changes in the precipitation come mainly from the thermodynamic rather than the dynamic response of the atmosphere to global warming.

Sobolowski, S.; Mesquita, M.; Keay, K.

2012-04-01

53

Inter-comparison of statistical downscaling methods for projection of extreme precipitation in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on extreme precipitation for future climate is needed to assess the changes in the frequency and intensity of flooding. The primary source of information in climate change impact studies is climate model projections. However, due to the coarse resolution and biases of these models, they cannot be directly used in hydrological models. Hence, statistical downscaling is necessary to address climate change impacts at the catchment scale. This study compares eight statistical downscaling methods often used in climate change impact studies. Four methods are based on change factors, three are bias correction methods, and one is a perfect prognosis method. The eight methods are used to downscale precipitation output from fifteen regional climate models (RCMs) from the ENSEMBLES project for eleven catchments in Europe. The overall results point to an increase in extreme precipitation in most catchments in both winter and summer. For individual catchments, the downscaled time series tend to agree on the direction of the change but differ in the magnitude. Differences between the statistical downscaling methods vary between the catchments and depend on the season analysed. Similarly, general conclusions cannot be drawn regarding the differences between change factor and bias correction methods. The performance of the bias correction methods during the control period also depends on the catchment, but in most cases they represent an improvement compared to RCM outputs. Analysis of the variance in the ensemble of RCMs and statistical downscaling methods indicates that up to half of the total variance is derived from the statistical downscaling methods. This study illustrates the large variability in the expected changes in extreme precipitation and highlights the need of considering an ensemble of both statistical downscaling methods and climate models.

Sunyer, M. A.; Hundecha, Y.; Lawrence, D.; Madsen, H.; Willems, P.; Martinkova, M.; Vormoor, K.; Bürger, G.; Hanel, M.; Kriau?i?nien?, J.; Loukas, A.; Osuch, M.; Yücel, I.

2014-06-01

54

Dietary exposure assessments for children in europe (the EXPOCHI project): rationale, methods and design  

PubMed Central

Background/purpose The number of dietary exposure assessment studies focussing on children is very limited. Children are however a vulnerable group due to their higher food consumption level per kg body weight. Therefore, the EXPOCHI project aims [1] to create a relational network of individual food consumption databases in children, covering different geographical areas within Europe, and [2] to use these data to assess the usual intake of lead, chromium, selenium and food colours. Methods EXPOCHI includes 14 food consumption databases focussed on children (1-14 y old). The data are considered representative at national/regional level: 14 regions covering 13 countries. Since the aim of the study is to perform long-term exposure assessments, only data derived from 24 hr dietary recalls and dietary records recorded on at least two non-consecutive days per individual were included in the dietary exposure assessments. To link consumption data and concentration data of lead, chromium and selenium in a standardised way, categorisation of the food consumption data was based on the food categorisation system described within the SCOOP Task report 3.2.11. For food colours, the food categorisation system specified in the Council Directive 94/36/EC was used. Conclusion The EXPOCHI project includes a pan-European long-term exposure assessment of lead, chromium, selenium and food colours among children living in 13 different EU countries. However, the different study methods and designs used to collect the data in the different countries necessitate an in-depth description of these different methods and a discussion about the resulting limitations.

2011-01-01

55

Radiation Effects: Core Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The risks to personnel in space from the naturally occurring radiations are generally considered to be one of the most serious limitations to human space missions, as noted in two recent reports of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. The Core Project of the Radiation Effects Team for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute is the consequences of radiations in space in order to develop countermeasure, both physical and pharmaceutical, to reduce the risks of cancer and other diseases associated with such exposures. During interplanetary missions, personnel in space will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays, including high-energy protons and energetic ions with atomic masses of iron or higher. In addition, solar events will produce radiation fields of high intensity for short but irregular durations. The level of intensity of these radiations is considerably higher than that on Earth's surface, and the biological risks to astronauts is consequently increased, including increased risks of carcinogenesis and other diseases. This group is examining the risk of cancers resulting from low-dose, low-dose rate exposures of model systems to photons, protons, and iron by using ground-based accelerators which are capable of producing beams of protons, iron, and other heavy ions at energies comparable to those encountered in space. They have begun the first series of experiments using a 1-GeV iron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and 250-MeV protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center's proton synchrotron facility. As part of these studies, this group will be investigating the potential for the pharmaceutical, Tamoxifen, to reduce the risk of breast cancer in astronauts exposed to the level of doses and particle types expected in space. Theoretical studies are being carried out in a collaboration between scientists at NASA's Johnson Space Center and Johns Hopkins University in parallel with the experimental program have provided methods and predictions which are being used to assess the levels of risks to be encountered and to evaluate appropriate strategies for countermeasures. Although the work in this project is primarily directed toward problems associated with space travel, the problem of protracted exposures to low-levels of radiation is one of national interest in our energy and defense programs, and the results may suggest new paradigms for addressing such risks.

Dicello, John F.

1999-01-01

56

Regional climate change scenarios - benefits of modeling in high resolution for Central and Eastern Europe in Project CECILIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project EC FP6 CECILIA - Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment is studying the impact of climate change in complex topography of the Central and Eastern Europe in high resolution. The impacts on agriculture, forestry, hydrology and air-quality are studied. Resolution of regional climate simulation is an important factor affecting the accuracy of dynamical downscaling of the global changes. Especially the extremes are strongly dependent on the terrain patterns as shape of orography or land use, which can contribute to extreme temperatures or precipitation appearance. In addition to basic verification based on ERA40 driven simulations the comparison of the RegCM results to the driving fields in scenarios runs by ECHAM5 GCM for time slices 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 are provided with respect to control period 1961-1990 analyzing the benefits of high resolution performance at 10km grid.

Halenka, T.; Belda, M.; Miksovsky, J.

2009-04-01

57

Institute of electronic systems in CARE and EuCARD projects accelerator and FEL research, development and applications in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are described coordinating actions of the accelerator science in Europe in 2003-2009. The actions embrace basic science, as well as development and applications. The accelerator research was not coordinated in Europe at a global scale but was rather concentrated in a few centers owning large infrastructure. These centers include: CERN, DESY, GSI, INFN, LAL, PSI etc. Such coordinating actions enable a lot of positive processes including new possibilities for research centers in this country. It is much easier for them to extend, deepen or even start from the beginning their activities in the field of the accelerator technology. This field includes also free electron lasers. There are described two European framework projects CARE and EuCARD on accelerator technology, their extent and the participation of ISE WUT in them.

Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

2009-06-01

58

Europe and US to Collaborate on the Design and Development of a Giant Radio Telescope Project in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Goals for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Representatives from the U.S. and Europe signed an agreement today in Washington to continue collaboration on the first phase of a giant new telescope project. The telescope will image the Universe with unprecedented sensitivity and sharpness at millimeter wavelengths (between the radio and infrared spectral regions). It will be a major step for astronomy, making it possible to study the origins of galaxies, stars and planets. This project is a prime example of a truly global project, an essential development in view of the ever-increasing complexity and cost of front-line astronomical facilities. The U.S. side of the project is run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) , operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The European side of the project is a collaboration between the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) , the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) , the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy (NFRA) and Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie (NOVA) , and the United Kingdom Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC). The Europe-U.S. agreement signed today may be formally extended in the very near future to include Japan, following an already existing tripartite declaration of intent. Dr. Robert Eisenstein, NSF's Assistant Director Mathematical and Physical Sciences, called the project "a path-breaking international partnership that will open far-reaching opportunities for astronomical observations. This array would enable astronomers to explore the detailed processes through which the stars and planets form and give us a vastly improved understanding of the formation of the first galaxies in the very early universe." Eisenstein welcomed the collaboration with Europe and Japan's interest in becoming a major partner. Speaking on behalf of the European Signatories, Prof. Riccardo Giacconi, Director General of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , one of the signatories to the new astronomy project, described the new project as "absolutely fantastic and farsighted - a major ground-based astronomical observatory for the 21st century. It will open up a key region of the electromagnetic spectrum to study the very early universe and the interstellar clouds where the stars and planets are born". The new telescope will be located in the Atacama desert of northern Chile, and has been given the name ALMA, for "Atacama Large Millimeter Array". This land has been given in concession to CONICYT (The Chilean National Commission for Science and Technology) last year by the "Ministerio de Bienes Nacionales" (Ministry of National Assets). It has also been declared a national reserve for science by President Frei because of its unique capabilities for astronomical research. ALMA will be a revolutionary telescope, operating at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths and comprised of an array of individual antennas each 12 meters in diameter that work together to make precision images of astronomical objects. The goal of the ALMA Project is an array of 64 antennas that can be positioned as needed over an area 10 km in diameter so as to give the array a zoom-lens capability. Dr. Paul Vanden Bout, Director of the U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory , emphasized the technical capabilities needed for the array: "The ALMA Project involves development of a variety of fundamental technologies including amplification of faint cosmic signals using superconducting receivers and ultrafast digital data processing, technologies that will enhance many related areas of scientific research". This MOU commits the Signatories to collaborate in a three-year Design and Development Phase 1 for a joint project. In the U.S., an amount of US $26 million has been approved for this phase, and in Europe, DM 28 million (15 million EURO). Two prototype 12-meter antennas will be cons

1999-06-01

59

Post insertion catheter care in peritoneal dialysis centers across Europe: results of the Post Insertion Project of the Research Board.  

PubMed

The EDTNA/ERCA survey of Post Insertion Catheter Care in Peritoneal Dialysis (PICC) was a project organised through the Collaborative Research Programme (CRP) of the EDTNA/ERCA. In this survey, data were collected from 54 participating centres in 20 countries. From this survey it became clear that there is no standardised approach to immediate post-catheter insertion treatment protocols. If we want to reduce technique failure of PD related to catheter failure, a first step will be to investigate the different policies used in Europe in order to evaluate the outcome results derived from different policies in post insertion catheter care. PMID:15163035

Castro, M J; Vijt, D; Endall, G; Elseviers, M; Lindley, E

2004-01-01

60

Regional Climate Change Scenarios in High Resolution for Impact Assessment in Central and Eastern Europe - Project CECILIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolution of regional climate simulation is an important factor affecting the accuracy of dynamical downscaling of the global changes. Especially the extremes are strongly dependent on the terrain patterns as shape of orography or land use, which can contribute to extreme temperatures or precipitation appearance and distribution. Project EC FP6 CECILIA (Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment) is studying the impact of climate change in complex topography of the Central and Eastern Europe in very high resolution of 10 km. The impacts on agriculture, forestry, hydrology and air-quality are studied within the project, and precise information from regional climate simulations is necessary. Basic validation and verification of ERA40 driven simulations by RegCM and ALADIN-Climate used for simulations in targeted regions as well as discussion of the climate change signal in these regions for time slices 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 is provided with respect to control period 1961-1990. Some impact applications in the sectors mentioned above will be shown as well.

Halenka, T.

2009-09-01

61

Development of patient-centred standards of care for rheumatoid arthritis in Europe: the eumusc.net project  

PubMed Central

Objective The eumusc.net project is a European Union (EU) commission and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)funded project that aims to facilitate equal standards for musculoskeletal health in all EU countries. One work-package was to develop evidence-based and patient-centred standards of care (SOC), for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) understandable for patients and professionals across Europe. Method A review of documents covering clinical practice ‘guidelines’ and SOC for RA was conducted. The obtained documents were evaluated using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) criteria, and all recommended methods to treat RA were extracted. Based on this information, a three-round Delphi exercise was performed including a consensus group meeting of 21 researchers and patient representatives. Results 16 patient-centred SOC were formulated including a lay version in the format of a checklist. An example is SOC 3: ‘People with RA should receive a treatment plan developed individually between them and their clinician at each visit.’ The corresponding checklist question reads: ‘Have I received a treatment plan which includes an explanation of my management, expected goals and outcomes and important contact details?’ Conclusions The SOC for RA will be available in all 23 official European languages and contribute to more unified treatment approaches in Europe.

Stoffer, Michaela A; Smolen, Josef S; Woolf, Anthony; Ambrozic, Ales; Bosworth, Ailsa; Carmona, Loreto; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Loza, Estibaliz; Olejnik, Pawel; Petersson, Ingemar F; Uhlig, Till; Stamm, Tanja A

2014-01-01

62

Climatic suitability of Aedes albopictus in Europe referring to climate change projections: comparison of mechanistic and correlative niche modelling approaches.  

PubMed

The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is capable of transmitting a broad range of viruses to humans. Since its introduction at the end of the 20th century, it has become well established in large parts of southern Europe. As future expansion as a result of climate change can be expected, determining the current and projected future climatic suitability of this invasive mosquito in Europe is of interest. Several studies have tried to detect the potential habitats for this species, but differing data sources and modelling approaches must be considered when interpreting the findings. Here, various modelling methodologies are compared with special emphasis on model set-up and study design. Basic approaches and model algorithms for the projection of spatio-temporal trends within the 21st century differ substantially. Applied methods range from mechanistic models (e.g. overlay of climatic constraints based on geographic information systems or rather process-based approaches) to correlative niche models. We conclude that spatial characteristics such as introduction gateways and dispersal pathways need to be considered. Laboratory experiments addressing the climatic constraints of the mosquito are required for improved modelling results. However, the main source of uncertainty remains the insufficient knowledge about the species' ability to adapt to novel environments. PMID:24556349

Fischer, D; Thomas, S M; Neteler, M; Tjaden, N B; Beierkuhnlein, C

2014-01-01

63

Quantifying nitrogen fluxes and their influence on the greenhouse gas balance - recent findings of the NitroEurope Integrated Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human-driven production of reactive nitrogen to stimulate agricultural productivity and its unintended formation in combustion processes both have major impacts on the global environment. Effects of excess reactive nitrogen include reductions in air quality, water quality, soil quality and biodiversity. One of the most controversial impacts of nitrogen, however, is on the greenhouse gas balance. While recent papers have highlighted a possible benefit of nitrogen in enhancing rates of carbon sequestration, there remain many trade-offs between nitrogen and greenhouse gas exchange. The result is that the net effect of reactive nitrogen on the global radiative balance is currently far from clear. To better quantity these relationships requires measurement data and modelling that make the link between different nitrogen forms and their fate in the environment. It is essential to measure fluxes for a wide range of ecosystems considering the biosphere-atmosphere exchange each of the reactive nitrogen components and greenhouse gases, as well as the fixation and denitrification of di-nitrogen. Long term observations are needed for representative ecosystems, together with results from experiments addressing the responses of the key nitrogen and greenhouse gas fluxes to different global change drivers. The NitroEurope Integrated Project of the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission European has developed a strategy to quantifying these different terms on multiple scales. This presentation reports some of the emerging results. It highlights the first estimates of net greenhouse gas exchange for a series of 13 flux ‘supersites’, complemented by the emerging results of reactive nitrogen concentrations a large network of 58 ‘inferential sites’, which are being used to estimate nitrogen inputs. In addition to these, new low cost methods to measure nitrogen fluxes will be reported, which are being tested at the ‘supersites’ and a network of regional sites, which extend the European representativity of the results. Results from this 3-tier flux network will be complemented by emerging findings from an extensive Manipulation Network, and by modelling at plot, landscape and European scales. Finally the paper will illustrate how nitrogen mitigation techniques are being considered at the European scale, including an estimation of the scale of costs involved in simultaneously mitigating nitrous oxide, ammonia and nitrate losses.

Sutton, M. A.; Nemitz, E.; Reis, S.; Beier, C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Cellier, P.; Cotrufo, M.; Erisman, J.; Skiba, U.; de Vries, W.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Bleeker, A.; Calanca, P. S.; Dalgaard, T.; Dragosits, U.; Duyzer, J.; Gundersen, P.; Hensen, A.; Kros, H.; Leip, A.; Olesen, J.; Phillips, G. J.; Rees, R. M.; Smith, P.; Soussana, J.; Tang, S.; Theobald, M. R.; Winiwarter, W.; van Oijen, M.; Vesala, T.

2009-12-01

64

Extended regional climate model projections for Europe until the mid-twentyfirst century: combining ENSEMBLES and CMIP3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims at sharpening the existing knowledge of expected seasonal mean climate change and its uncertainty over Europe for the two key climate variables air temperature and precipitation amount until the mid-twentyfirst century. For this purpose, we assess and compensate the global climate model (GCM) sampling bias of the ENSEMBLES regional climate model (RCM) projections by combining them with the full set of the CMIP3 GCM ensemble. We first apply a cross-validation in order to assess the skill of different statistical data reconstruction methods in reproducing ensemble mean and standard deviation. We then select the most appropriate reconstruction method in order to fill the missing values of the ENSEMBLES simulation matrix and further extend the matrix by all available CMIP3 GCM simulations forced by the A1B emission scenario. Cross-validation identifies a randomized scaling approach as superior in reconstructing the ensemble spread. Errors in ensemble mean and standard deviation are mostly less than 0.1 K and 1.0 % for air temperature and precipitation amount, respectively. Reconstruction of the missing values reveals that expected seasonal mean climate change of the ENSEMBLES RCM projections is not significantly biased and that the associated uncertainty is not underestimated due to sampling of only a few driving GCMs. In contrast, the spread of the extended simulation matrix is partly significantly lower, sharpening our knowledge about future climate change over Europe by reducing uncertainty in some regions. Furthermore, this study gives substantial weight to recent climate change impact studies based on the ENSEMBLES projections, since it confirms the robustness of the climate forcing of these studies concerning GCM sampling.

Heinrich, Georg; Gobiet, Andreas; Mendlik, Thomas

2014-01-01

65

Z39.50 and the OPAC Network in Europe (ONE) Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of the Z39.50 standard for information retrieval in the British Library's efforts toward networked information retrieval and online public access catalogs in cooperation with the European Union and other countries. OSI (open systems interconnection) and project ONE (a collaborative project in the European Union) are explained.…

Smith, Neil

1996-01-01

66

The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe  

PubMed Central

We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages.

Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.

2013-01-01

67

The Marshall Plan: Economic Effects and Implications for Eastern Europe and the Former USSR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a first attempt to evaluate the economic effects of the Marshall Plan. We find that US aid had a significant impact on Europe's recovery from World War II. The recipients of large amounts of Marshall aid recovered significantly faster than other industrial countries. Strikingly, however, we find that the obvious channels through which the Marshall Plan could

Barry Eichengreen; Marc Uzan

1992-01-01

68

Short-term Associations between Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and Hospitalizations in Southern Europe: Results from the MED-PARTICLES Project  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence on the short-term effects of fine and coarse particles on morbidity in Europe is scarce and inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to estimate the association between daily concentrations of fine and coarse particles with hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in eight Southern European cities, within the MED-PARTICLES project. Methods: City-specific Poisson models were fitted to estimate associations of daily concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), ? 10 ?m (PM10), and their difference (PM2.5–10) with daily counts of emergency hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. We derived pooled estimates from random-effects meta-analysis and evaluated the robustness of results to co-pollutant exposure adjustment and model specification. Pooled concentration–response curves were estimated using a meta-smoothing approach. Results: We found significant associations between all PM fractions and cardiovascular admissions. Increases of 10 ?g/m3 in PM2.5, 6.3 ?g/m3 in PM2.5–10, and 14.4 ?g/m3 in PM10 (lag 0–1 days) were associated with increases in cardiovascular admissions of 0.51% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.90%), 0.46% (95% CI: 0.10, 0.82%), and 0.53% (95% CI: 0.06, 1.00%), respectively. Stronger associations were estimated for respiratory hospitalizations, ranging from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.21, 2.11%) for PM10 to 1.36% (95% CI: 0.23, 2.49) for PM2.5 (lag 0–5 days). Conclusions: PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 were positively associated with cardiovascular and respiratory admissions in eight Mediterranean cities. Information on the short-term effects of different PM fractions on morbidity in Southern Europe will be useful to inform European policies on air quality standards. Citation: Stafoggia M, Samoli E, Alessandrini E, Cadum E, Ostro B, Berti G, Faustini A, Jacquemin B, Linares C, Pascal M, Randi G, Ranzi A, Stivanello E, Forastiere F, the MED-PARTICLES Study Group. 2013. Short-term associations between fine and coarse particulate matter and hospitalizations in Southern Europe: results from the MED-PARTICLES project. Environ Health Perspect 121:1026–1033; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206151

Samoli, Evangelia; Alessandrini, Ester; Cadum, Ennio; Ostro, Bart; Berti, Giovanna; Faustini, Annunziata; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Linares, Cristina; Pascal, Mathilde; Randi, Giorgia; Ranzi, Andrea; Stivanello, Elisa; Forastiere, Francesco

2013-01-01

69

Energy projections: oil, natural gas, and coal in the USSR and Eastern Europe. [Projections for 1985 to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large spread tabulated for Soviet oil, gas, and coal production is indicative of the problem of preparing reliable energy-balance forecasts. Predictions of growth rates for total energy production and consumption of a short-term nature are notoriously unreliable. It is clear that energy projections for 1985 and later years offer greater flexibility to cover envisioned shortages through conservation and the

Hoffman

1978-01-01

70

Transatlantic Student Exchange between Canada and Europe: Experiences from the CEIHPAL Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International student mobility amongst and between countries has become increasingly common and forms a central feature of the global higher education system. This paper examines the key learning experiences relating to the student mobility component of the Canadian-European Initiative for Health Promotion Advanced Learning (CEIHPAL) project.…

Sherriff, Nigel Stuart; Jeffery, Amanda; Davies, John Kenneth; Hills, Marcia; Carroll, Simon; Jackson, Suzanne; Krupa, Gene; Goepel, Eberhard; Hofmeister, Arnd; Tountas, Yannis; Attorp, Adrienne

2012-01-01

71

Comenius Project: Are e-Learning Collaborations of High School Students across Europe in Maths Possible?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overall aim of the project is to allow for the collaboration of high school students of different European countries on small, selected maths topics. This involves the use of technology, student mobility and English language competency. Benefits are also expected to accrue to teachers of mathematics by providing the opportunity to work with…

Simonovits, Reinhard; McElroy, Jim; O'Loughlin, James; Townsend, Colin

2013-01-01

72

The impact of headache in Europe: principal results of the Eurolight project  

PubMed Central

Background European data, at least from Western Europe, are relatively good on migraine prevalence but less sound for tension-type headache (TTH) and medication-overuse headache (MOH). Evidence on impact of headache disorders is very limited. Eurolight was a data-gathering exercise primarily to inform health policy in the European Union (EU). This manuscript reports personal impact. Methods The study was cross-sectional with modified cluster sampling. Surveys were conducted by structured questionnaire, including diagnostic questions based on ICHD-II and various measures of impact, and are reported from Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Spain and United Kingdom. Different methods of sampling were used in each. The full methodology is described elsewhere. Results Questionnaires were analysed from 8,271 participants (58% female, mean age 43.4 y). Participation-rates, where calculable, varied from 10.6% to 58.8%. Moderate interest-bias was detected. Unadjusted lifetime prevalence of any headache was 91.3%. Gender-adjusted 1-year prevalences were: any headache 78.6%; migraine 35.3%; TTH 38.2%, headache on ?15 d/mo 7.2%; probable MOH 3.1%. Personal impact was high, and included ictal symptom burden, interictal burden, cumulative burden and impact on others (partners and children). There was a general gradient of probable MOH?>?migraine?>?TTH, and most measures indicated higher impact among females. Lost useful time was substantial: 17.7% of males and 28.0% of females with migraine lost >10% of days; 44.7% of males and 53.7% of females with probable MOH lost >20%. Conclusions The common headache disorders have very high personal impact in the EU, with important implications for health policy.

2014-01-01

73

Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe: The ARISE project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARISE proposes to design a new infrastructure that integrates different station networks in order to provide a new "3D" image of the atmospheric dynamics from the ground up to the mesosphere with unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. The implied networks are: -the International infrasound network developed for the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This system is unique by its quality for infrasound and atmospheric wave observations, -the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes (NDACC) which uses Lidar to measure stratospheric dynamics, -the Network for the Detection of Mesopause Changes (NDMC), dedicated to airglow layer measurements in the mesosphere, and additional complementary stations and satellite data. The infrastructure extends across Europe and outlying regions, including polar and equatorial regions. Atmospheric waves play a key role in atmospheric mixing and global circulation in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Planetary waves can lead to sudden stratospheric warming while gravity waves generate predictable tropical oscillations of mean wind, which can lead to enhanced predictability of climate. Parameterization of gravity waves is needed for accurate simulation of mean climate and variability, but parameters are uncertain due to lack of long-term high-resolution observations. ARISE expected benefits would be a better description of the atmosphere, leading to an improved accuracy in short and medium range weather forecasts. The measurements will be used to improve the parameterization of gravity waves in the stratosphere to better resolve climate models. Such description is crucial to estimate the impact of stratospheric climate forcing on the troposphere. In the long term, data will be used for monitoring changes in the occurrence of extreme events and trends in the middle atmosphere climate. The benefits also include civil applications related to monitoring of natural hazards as volcanoes.

Blanc, E.; Bittner, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Ceranna, L.; Charlton-Perez, A.; Ripepe, M.; Evers, L.; Kvaerna, T.; Lastovicka, J.; Eliasson, L.; Crosby, N.; Blanc-Benon, P.; Bernonville, S.; Le Pichon, A.; Keckhut, P.; Marchetti, E.; Wust, S.; Brachet, N.; Heinrich, P.; Pilger, C.

2012-04-01

74

Mitigation of higher order ionospheric effects on GNSS users in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current dual-frequency GPS measurements can only eliminate the first-order ionospheric term and may cause a higher-order range\\u000a bias of several centimeters. This research investigates the second-order ionospheric effect for GNSS users in Europe. In comparison\\u000a to previous studies, the electron density profiles of the ionosphere\\/plasmasphere are modeled as the sum of three Chapman\\u000a layers describing electron densities of the ionospheric

M. Mainul Hoque; N. Jakowski

2008-01-01

75

The New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe (MATRIX) Project - An overview of its major findings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent major natural disasters, such as the 2011 T?hoku earthquake, tsunami and subsequent Fukushima nuclear accident, have raised awareness of the frequent and potentially far-reaching interconnections between natural hazards. Such interactions occur at the hazard level, where an initial hazard may trigger other events (e.g., an earthquake triggering a tsunami) or several events may occur concurrently (or nearly so), e.g., severe weather around the same time as an earthquake. Interactions also occur at the vulnerability level, where the initial event may make the affected community more susceptible to the negative consequences of another event (e.g., an earthquake weakens buildings, which are then damaged further by windstorms). There is also a temporal element involved, where changes in exposure may alter the total risk to a given area. In short, there is the likelihood that the total risk estimated when considering multiple hazard and risks and their interactions is greater than the sum of their individual parts. It is with these issues in mind that the European Commission, under their FP7 program, supported the New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe or MATRIX project (10.2010 to 12.2013). MATRIX set out to tackle multiple natural hazards (i.e., those of concern to Europe, namely earthquakes, landslides, volcanos, tsunamis, wild fires, storms and fluvial and coastal flooding) and risks within a common theoretical framework. The MATRIX work plan proceeded from an assessment of single-type risk methodologies (including how uncertainties should be treated), cascade effects within a multi-hazard environment, time-dependent vulnerability, decision making and support for multi-hazard mitigation and adaption, and an assessment of how the multi-hazard and risk viewpoint may be integrated into current decision making and risk mitigation programs, considering the existing single-hazard and risk focus. Three test sites were considered during the project: Naples, Cologne, and the French West Indies. In addition, a software platform, the MATRIX-Common IT sYstem (MATRIX-CITY), was developed to allow the evaluation of characteristic multi-hazard and risk scenarios in comparison to single-type analyses. This presentation therefore outlines the more significant outcomes of the project, in particular those dealing with the harmonization of single-type hazards, cascade event analysis, time-dependent vulnerability changes and the response of the disaster management community to the MATRIX point of view.

Fleming, Kevin; Zschau, Jochen; Gasparini, Paolo

2014-05-01

76

Assessing projected changes in heat waves over Northern Europe using two regional climate models at 8-km resolution.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As temperatures in Northern Europe increase due to climate change the occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves is likely to change. A higher occurrence rate of heat waves can have serious health consequences, in particular for the elderly, but also for very young children and the infirm. Not only the occurrence rate of heat waves, but also changes in the duration of individual heat waves, is of importance. It is therefore of relevance to investigate how the occurrence of heat waves is likely to increase in the future, to allow for adaptation. We have looked at the projected changes in the occurrence rate of heat waves in a part of northern Europe including southern Scandinavia, the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, according to two different greenhouse gas emission scenarios: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. In this study we have chosen to use the Danish Meteorological Institutes definition, in which a high temperature event is classified as a heat wave if the average of the maximum temperature of a period of at least 3 consecutive days exceeds 28°C. To estimate the change in the occurrence rate of heat waves we have used two different GCM-RCM combinations, NorESM-WRF (BCCR) and EC-EARTH-HIRHAM5 (DMI). Both regional models have down-scaled the global models to a resolution of about 8 km, and hourly values of several parameters including temperature, precipitation and wind have been stored. We compare the climate model data from three different time slices, 1981-2010 run with historical greenhouse gas concentrations, 2021-2050 (RPC4.5 and RCP 8.5) and 2071-2100 (RPC4.5 and RCP 8.5), to see the time evolution in the occurrence rate of heat waves for the two RCP scenarios. Our results indicate that the occurrence rate of heat waves in this region will increase as a consequence of global warming, and that individual heat waves will tend to last longer.

Fox Maule, Cathrine; Christensen, Ole B.; Mayer, Stephanie; Thejll, Peter

2013-04-01

77

Jet fuel property changes and their effect on producibility and cost in the U.S., Canada, and Europe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of changes in properties and blending stocks on the refinery output and cost of jet fuel in the U.S., Canada, and Europe were determined. Computerized refinery models that minimize production costs and incorporated a 1981 cost structure and supply/demand projections to the year 2010 were used. Except in the West U.S., no changes in jet fuel properties were required to meet all projected demands, even allowing for deteriorating crude qualities and changes in competing product demand. In the West U.S., property changes or the use of cracked blendstocks were projected to be required after 1990 to meet expected demand. Generally, relaxation of aromatics and freezing point, or the use of cracked stocks produced similar results, i.e., jet fuel output could be increased by up to a factor of three or its production cost lowered by up to $10/cu m. High quality hydrocracked stocks are now used on a limited basis to produce jet fuel. The conversion of U.S. and NATO military forces from wide-cut to kerosene-based jet fuel is addressed. This conversion resulted in increased costs of several hundred million dollars annually. These costs can be reduced by relaxing kerosene jet fuel properties, using cracked stocks and/or considering the greater volumetric energy content of kerosene jet fuel.

Varga, G. M., Jr.; Avella, A. J., Jr.; Cunningham, A. R.; Featherston, C. D.; Gorgol, J. F.; Graf, A. J.; Lieberman, M.; Oliver, G. A.

1985-01-01

78

The effect of climate and climate change on ammonia emissions in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here a dynamical method for modelling temporal and geographical variations in ammonia emissions in regional scale Chemistry Transport Models (CTMs) and Chemistry Climate Models (CCMs). The method is based on the meteorology in the models and gridded inventories. We use the dynamical method to investigating the spatio-temporal variability of the ammonia emissions across part of Europe and study how these emissions are related to geographical and year-to-year variations in atmospheric temperature alone. For simplicity we focus on the emission from a storage related to a Danish standard pig stable with 1000 animals and display how the emission from this source category vary geographically throughout central and northern Europe and from year to year. In view of future climate changes we also evaluate the potential future changes in the emission by including temperature projections from an ensemble of climate models. The results points towards four overall issues: (1) Emissions can easily vary with 20% by changing geographical location within a country due to overall variations in climate. Largest uncertainties are seen for large countries like UK, Germany and France. (2) Annual variations in overall climate can at specific locations cause uncertainties in the range of 20%. (3) Climate change will in general increase the emissions with 0-40%, in central to northern Europe. (4) Gradients in existing emission inventories that are seen along country borders (e.g. between UK and France), can be reduced by using a dynamical methodology for calculating emissions. Acting together these four issues can cause substantial uncertainties in emission. Emissions are generally considered among the largest uncertainties in the model calculations with CTM and CCM models. Efforts to reduce uncertainties are therefore highly relevant. It is therefore recommended that both CCMs and CTMs implement a dynamical methodology for simulating ammonia emissions in a similar way as for biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) - a method that has been used for more than a decade in CTMs.

Skjøth, C. A.; Geels, C.

2012-09-01

79

Effects of climate variability and extreme events on components of the carbon balance in Europe during 1961-2100  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional climate models project a change in the annual and seasonal mean of meteorological variables in Europe until the end of the century, e. g. mean air temperature is predicted to dramatically increase until 2100. At the same time, the shape of the probability distribution of meteorological variables will change, leading to an altered variability of meteorological variables and frequency of extreme events. Today, the isolated effects of changing variance versus changing mean of meteorological drivers on ecosystem processes, such as gross primary production, autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration, evapotranspiration, mortality and disturbances have not been quantified at a continental or global scale. We contribute to such quantification from a theoretical, mechanistic modelling point of view by artificial modelling experiments using state-of-the-art generic (LPJmL, ORCHIDEE, JSBACH, CLM) and sectorial (BASFOR, DailyDayCent, PASIM) ecosystem models that has been performed in the EU FP7 project CARBO-Extreme. Using a control climate data set (CNTL) based on the WATCH forcing data and bias-corrected ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data, factorial model experiments with transient/constant climate and atmospheric [CO2] concentration have been performed.Then, these factorial experiments were repeated using a climate dataset in which climate variables hold the same long-term seasonal and annual mean but show much reduced short-term variability ("reduced variability"). Analysis of the resulting carbon and water balance estimations for Europe during 1961-2100 enabled disentangling direct effects of temperature or radiation variability from effects of general climate variability and effects of a trend in mean climate conditions on ecosystem functions. Generally, reduced variability in short-wave radiation increased the annual gross primary production due to the concave shape of the light response curve of photosynthesis. Therefore, net primary production is also increasing with reduced variability. At the same time, reduced temperature variability reduces respiration components because the mean of two respiration rates at extreme high and low temperature is lower than the respiration rate at the mean temperature due to the convex shape of the respiration response to temperature. However, effects are varying over the continent along different climatic zones and ecosystem types. In addition, combined effects of variability of all meteorological variables, and in particular precipitation variability effects lead to more diverse net effects on the European carbon and water balance. These experiments help to understand the impact of climatic variability on ecosystem responses.

Beer, Christian; Carvalhais, Nuno; Ciais, Philippe; Balkovic, Juraj; Davin, Edouard; Kato, Tomomichi; Kuhnert, Matthias; Lardy, Romain; Laperche, Sylvain; Martin, Raphaël; van Oijen, Marcel; Rammig, Anja; Rolinski, Susanne; Seneviratne, Sonia; Smith, Pete; Thonicke, Kirsten; van der Velde, Marijn; Vieli, Barla; Viovy, Nicolas; Reichstein, Markus

2013-04-01

80

Projections of Climate Change over Non-boreal East Europe During First Half of Twenty-First Century According to Results of a Transient RCM Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change trends over the southern east-Europe are evaluated according to results of a climate simulation experiment\\u000a with the ICTP RegCM3 regional climate model driven from the lateral boundaries by results of ECHAM5\\/MPI-OM1 transient climate\\u000a simulation from 1960 to 2060 (SRES A1B emission scenario after 2001). The trends projected include — precipitation: winter\\u000a and spring — rise over the central

Shimon O. Krichak; Pinhas Alpert; Pavel Kunin

81

Advection from the North Atlantic as the Forcing of Winter Greenhouse Effect Over Europe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface skin temperature are observed over central Europe: we observe a difference of 9.8 K comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996 for the region 50-60 degrees N; 5-35 degrees E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index I(sub na), the average of the ocean-surface wind speed over the eastern North Atlantic when the direction is from the southwest (when the wind is from another direction, it counts as a zero speed to the average). Average Ina for February 1990 was 10.6 in s(exp -1), but for February 1996 I(sub na) was only 2.4 m s(exp -1). A large value of I(sub na) means a strong southwesterly flow which brings warm and moist air into Europe at low level, producing a steeper tropospheric lapse rate. Strong ascending motions result, which we observe in February 1990 at 700 mb. The near-surface moisture rises to higher (and cooler) levels, producing clouds and precipitation. Total preciptable water and cloud-cover fraction have larger values in February 1990 than in 1996. The difference in the greenhouse effect between these two scenarios can be translated into a virtual irradiating source of 2.6 W m(exp -2) above the February 1990 atmosphere, which, as an order of magnitude estimate, contributes to the warming of the surface by 2.6 K. If we accept this estimate as numerically pertinent, the direct effect stands as 7.2 K (9.8 K - 2.6 K), and therefore its greenhouse-effect reinforcement is by 36%. This constitutes a substantial positive feedback to the direct effect, which is the inflow of warm air to the low troposphere over Europe.

Otterman, Jay; Angell, J.; Atlas, Robert; Bungato, D.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Susskind, J.; Wu, M.-L. C.

2001-01-01

82

Linking climate and air quality over Europe: effects of meteorology on PM2.5 concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of various meteorological parameters such as temperature, wind speed, absolute humidity, precipitation and mixing height on PM2.5 concentrations over Europe were examined using a three-dimensional chemical transport model, PMCAMx-2008. Our simulations covered three periods, representative of different seasons (summer, winter, and fall). PM2.5 appears to be more sensitive to temperature changes compared to the other meteorological parameters in all seasons. PM2.5 generally decreases as temperature increases, although the predicted changes vary significantly in space and time, ranging from -700 ng m-3 K-1 (-8% K-1) to 300 ng m-3 K-1 (7% K-1). The predicted decreases of PM2.5 are mainly due to evaporation of ammonium nitrate, while the higher biogenic emissions and the accelerated gas-phase reaction rates increase the production of organic aerosol (OA) and sulfate, having the opposite effect on PM2.5. The predicted responses of PM2.5 to absolute humidity are also quite variable, ranging from -130 ng m-3%-1 (-1.6% %-1) to 160 ng m-3 %-1 (1.6% %-1) dominated mainly by changes in inorganic PM2.5 species. An increase in absolute humidity favors the partitioning of nitrate to the aerosol phase and increases the average PM2.5 during summer and fall. Decreases in sulfate and sea salt levels govern the average PM2.5 response to humidity during winter. A decrease of wind speed (keeping constant the emissions) increases all PM2.5 species (on average 40 ng m-3 %-1) due to changes in dispersion and dry deposition. The wind speed effects on sea salt emissions are significant for PM2.5 concentrations over water and in coastal areas. Increases in precipitation have a negative effect on PM2.5 (decreases up to 110 ng m-3 %-1) in all periods due to increases in wet deposition of PM2.5 species and their gas precursors. Changes in mixing height have the smallest effects (up to 35 ng m-3 %-1) on PM2.5. Regarding the relative importance of each of the meteorological parameters in a changed future climate, the projected changes in precipitation are expected to have the largest impact on PM2.5 levels during all periods (changes up to 2 ?g m-3 in the fall). The expected effects in future PM2.5 levels due to wind speed changes are similar in all seasons and quite close to those resulting from future precipitation changes (up to 1.4 ?g m-3). The expected increases in absolute humidity in the future can lead to large changes in PM2.5 levels (increases up to 2 ?g m-3) mainly in the fall due to changes in particulate nitrate levels. Despite the high sensitivity of PM2.5 levels to temperature, the small expected increases of temperature in the future will lead to modest PM2.5 changes and will not dominate the overall change.

Megaritis, A. G.; Fountoukis, C.; Charalampidis, P. E.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S. N.

2014-04-01

83

Economics of chronic diseases protocol: cost-effectiveness modelling and the future burden of non-communicable disease in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of chronic disease is caused by risk factors which are mostly preventable. Effective interventions to reduce these risks are known and proven to be applicable to a variety of settings. Chronic disease is generally developed long before the fatal outcome, meaning that a lot of people spend a number of years in poor health. Effective prevention measures can prolong lives of individuals and significantly improve their quality of life. However, the methods to measure cost-effectiveness are a subject to much debate. The Economics of Chronic Diseases project aims to establish the best possible methods of measuring cost-effectiveness as well as develop micro-simulation models apt at projecting future burden of chronic diseases, their costs and potential savings after implementation of cost-effective interventions. Method This research project will involve eight European countries: Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Lithuania, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom (UK). A literature review will be conducted to identify scientific articles which critically review the methods of cost-effectiveness. Contact will be made health economists to inform and enrich this review. This evidence will be used as a springboard for discussion at a meeting with key European stakeholders and experts with the aim of reaching a consensus on recommendations for cost-effectiveness methodology. Epidemiological data for coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be collected along with data on time trends in three major risk factors related to these diseases, specifically tobacco consumption, blood pressure and body mass index. Economic and epidemiological micro-simulation models will be developed to asses the future distributions of risks, disease outcomes, healthcare costs and the cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in Europe. Discussion This work will help to establish the best methods of measuring cost-effectiveness of health interventions as well as test a variety of scenarios to reduce the risk factors associated with selected chronic diseases. The modelling projections could be used to inform decisions and policies that will implement the best course of action to curb the rising incidence of chronic diseases.

2014-01-01

84

Modelling The Continental Effect Of Oxygen Isotopes Over Europe And Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

18O in atmospheric CO2 bears the potential to separate the biospheric gross fluxes, namely assimilation and respiration. It has thus the potential to tell if assimilation or respiration is the key parameter which determines the inter­annual variability of the carbon cycle in Europe. But the knowledge of CO18O fluxes is still in its infancy. An enormous work was done in the laboratory but in­situ measurements are rare. To study processes, close the gap between small scale measurements and existing global models and investigate on e. g. continental scales, we built an integrated global 3D model of 18O in atmospheric CO2 that calculates 18O in the water cycle pools, the CO2 and the inherent 18O­CO2 fluxes and transports these in the atmosphere, all with a time step of 40 minutes. Hence, the model is capable to investigate small scale, local and regional processes in a global context. Within the framework of the European Project EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX, we investigated the 18O processes in Europe and Siberia north of 40 N. We show that there is a well­known large impoverishment in the water isotopic composition of rain in the continental interior but it is significantly reduced during growing season. We validated the model directly by comparing it to net ecosystem exchange measurements from eddy­flux towers and indirectly by comparing it to atmospheric measurements of CO2 and 18O­CO2 in 3000 m a. s. l. We analyzed the longitudinal gradient in leaf discrimination which reflects primarily the gradient in leaf water isotopic composition. There are three prominent features: 1. The leaf water gradient is itself determined only 25% by the longitudinal gradient in source water but 75% by the change of relative humidity with longitude. 2. West and East of the Ural are two distinguished land areas with very different behavior in terms of CO2 and 18O­CO2 whereas Europe in contrary to Siberia is very homogeneous. 3. Leaf discrimination falls well below 0 East of 90 E which should be a detectable strong signal.

Cuntz, M.; Ciais, P.; Hoffmann, G.

85

The effect of climate and climate change on ammonia emissions in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here a dynamical method for modelling temporal and geographical variations in ammonia emissions in regional-scale chemistry transport models (CTMs) and chemistry climate models (CCMs). The method is based on the meteorology in the models and gridded inventories. We use the dynamical method to investigate the spatiotemporal variability of ammonia emissions across part of Europe and study how these emissions are related to geographical and year-to-year variations in atmospheric temperature alone. For simplicity we focus on the emission from a storage facility related to a standard Danish pig stable with 1000 animals and display how emissions from this source would vary geographically throughout central and northern Europe and from year to year. In view of future climate changes, we also evaluate the potential future changes in emission by including temperature projections from an ensemble of climate models. The results point towards four overall issues. (1) Emissions can easily vary by 20% for different geographical locations within a country due to overall variations in climate. The largest uncertainties are seen for large countries such as the UK, Germany and France. (2) Annual variations in overall climate can at specific locations cause uncertainties in the range of 20%. (3) Climate change may increase emissions by 0-40% in central to northern Europe. (4) Gradients in existing emission inventories that are seen between neighbour countries (e.g. between the UK and France) can be reduced by using a dynamical methodology for calculating emissions. Acting together these four factors can cause substantial uncertainties in emission. Emissions are generally considered among the largest uncertainties in the model calculations made with CTM and CCM models. Efforts to reduce uncertainties are therefore highly relevant. It is therefore recommended that both CCMs and CTMs implement a dynamical methodology for simulating ammonia emissions in a similar way as for biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) - a method that has been used for more than a decade in CTMs. Finally, the climate penalty on ammonia emissions should be taken into account at the policy level such as the NEC and IPPC directives.

Skjøth, C. A.; Geels, C.

2013-01-01

86

Iberia versus Europe - Effects of continental break-up and round-up on hydrocarbon habitat  

SciTech Connect

Based on the continuity of foldbelts and the positions of intermountain continental nuclei and transcontinental megashears, a close Pangea fit is proposed for the central and north Atlantic borderlands. The Variscan arch segment missing between Brittany and Galicia in the Gulf of Gascony (Biscaye) can tentatively be identified with the Flemish Cap block off Newfoundland. At the same time the northwest African-Gondwana border (central Morocco) was located some 800 km farther to the west-northwest, as compared to its present position in southwestern Europe (Iberia). During the opening of the central and northern segments of the Atlantic Ocean (Jurassic and Cretaceous) and during the closure of the western Mediterranean basin, i.e., the thrust of Africa toward southern Europe (Tertiary), the European continental mass underwent deformation in the transtensive and transpressive modes, which reactivated parts of its inherited structural network. The trailing south European continental margin was partially dismembered into loosely bound continental blocks, to be assembled again during the subsequent Alpine orogenic cycle. These events can be compared with processes known in the northernmost and western segments of the North American continent. Mechanisms are proposed for the formation and deformation of inter- and intraplate basins by way of moderate shifts (wrenching) and slight rotations, the direction of which changed during the Mesozoic-Tertiary according to the global stress field. The above evolution and mechanisms had multiple and decisive effects on hydrocarbon generation, habitat, and accumulation.

Bourrouilh, R.; Zolnai, G.

1988-08-01

87

Advection from the North Atlantic as the Forcing of Winter Greenhouse Effect Over Europe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface temperature are observed over central Europe. Comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996, a satellite-retrieved surface (skin) temperature difference of 9.8 K is observed for the region 50-60 degrees N; 5-35 degrees E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index I(sub na), the average of the ocean-surface wind speed over the eastern North Atlantic when the direction is from the southwest (when the wind is from another direction, it counts as a zero speed to the average). Average I(sub na) for February 1990 was 10.6 m/s, but for February 1996 I(sub na) was only 2.4 m/s. A large value of I(sub na) means a strong southwesterly flow which brings warm and moist air into central Europe at low level, producing a steeper tropospheric lapse rate. Strong ascending motions at 700 mb are observed in association with the occurrence of enhanced warm, moist advection from the ocean in February 1990 producing clouds and precipitation. Total precipitable water and cloud-cover fraction have larger values in February 1990 than in 1996. The difference in the greenhouse effect between these two scenarios, this reduction in heat loss to space, can be translated into a virtual radiative heating of 2.6 W/square m above the February 1990 surface/atmosphere system, which contributes to a warming of the surface on the order of 2.6 K. Accepting this estimate as quantitatively meaningful, we evaluate the direct effect, the rise in the surface temperature in Europe as a result of maritime-air inflow, as 7.2 K (9.8 K-2.6 K). Thus, fractional reinforcement by the greenhouse effect is 2.6/7.2, or 36%, a substantial positive feedback.

Otterman, J.; Angell, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Shubert, S.; Starr, David OC.; Susskind, J.; Wu, M.-L. C.

2002-01-01

88

Review of recent studies from central and eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to {open_quotes}traditional{close_quotes} air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review focuses on epidemiologic evidence regarding health effects of poor air quality in Central and Eastern Europe. It appears that short-term high levels of air pollutants (primarily particulates and SO{sub 2}) may increase mortality in sensitive parts of the population. Associations were also seen between air pollution levels and prevalence of respiratory diseases as well as lung function disturbances in adults and children. One study indicated that urban air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer. Several investigations pointed to strong interactions between risk factors. The poor scientific standard of the studies often makes it difficult to evaluate the findings. Several steps should be taken to develop environmental epidemiology in Central and Eastern Europe, including international collaboration in research projects and training. 30 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

Jedrychowski, W. [Univ. Medical School, Cracow (Poland)

1995-03-01

89

Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates effects of wildfire emissions on air quality in Europe during an intense fire season that occurred in summer 2003. A meso-scale chemistry transport model CHIMERE is used, together with ground based and satellite aerosol optical measurements, to assess the dispersion of fire emissions and to quantify the associated radiative effects. The model has been improved to

A. Hodzic; S. Madronich; B. Bohn; S. Massie; L. Menut; C. Wiedinmyer

2007-01-01

90

Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.  

PubMed

We studied the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) region. The cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 vaccination of 12 year-old girls was calculated for 28 countries, under the assumption that vaccination prevents 70% of all cervical cancer cases and that cervical cancer and all-cause mortality rates are stable without vaccination. At three-dose vaccination costs of I$ 100 per vaccinated girl (currency 2005 international dollars), HPV16/18 vaccination was very cost-effective in 25 out of 28 countries using the country's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as cost-effectiveness threshold (criterion by World Health Organization). A three-dose vaccination cost of I$ 100 is within the current range of vaccine costs in European immunization programs, and therefore our results indicate that HPV vaccination may be good value for money. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening combined with vaccination, we calibrated a published simulation model to HPV genotype data collected in Slovenia, Poland, and Georgia. The screening interval was varied at 3, 6, and 10 years starting at age 25 or 30 and ending at age 60. In Slovenia and Poland, combined vaccination and 10-yearly HPV (DNA) screening (vaccination coverage 70%, screening coverage per round 70%) was very cost-effective when the cost of three-dose vaccination was I$ 100 per vaccinated girl. More intensive screening was very cost-effective when the screening coverage per round was 30% or 50%. In Georgia, 10-yearly Pap screening was very cost-effective in unvaccinated women. Vaccination combined with 10-yearly HPV screening was likely to be cost-effective if the three-dose vaccination cost was I$ 50 per vaccinated girl. To conclude, cervical cancer prevention strategies utilizing both HPV16/18 vaccination and HPV screening are very cost-effective in countries with sufficient resources. In low-resource settings, low vaccine pricing is essential for strategies of combined vaccination and screening to be cost-effective. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24332299

Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

2013-12-31

91

Scheduling Projects with Multiskill Learning Effect  

PubMed Central

We investigate the project scheduling problem with multiskill learning effect. A new model is proposed to deal with the problem, where both autonomous and induced learning are considered. In order to obtain the optimal solution, a genetic algorithm with specific encoding and decoding schemes is introduced. A numerical example is used to illustrate the proposed model. The computational results show that the learning effect cannot be neglected in project scheduling. By means of determining the level of induced learning, the project manager can balance the project makespan with total cost.

2014-01-01

92

Climatic Effects on the Inter-Annual Variability of Carbon Fluxes for North America and Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The connection between climate variability and global carbon cycle has already been shown to be linked with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) (1). A positive phase of the NAO is associated with more and stronger winter storms crossing the North Atlantic on a more northerly route, causing major anomalies in sea surface temperature, currents and convective activity throughout the North Atlantic. A long-term trend towards very positive values has culminated in the early 1990s, and since then a decreasing trend is happening (1). Identification of the climatic drivers of the net ecosystem fluxes is becoming a rising issue. In particular the effects of year-to-year climate variability on regional budgets and the understanding of the underlying biogeochemical processes are of fundamental importance due to the intensification of extreme climatic events like precipitation (2) and drought events (3). We identified the relations between climatic variability (i.e. NAO) and the regional carbon budgets of North America and Europe over the period from 1989 to 2008. In doing this we kept special focus both on temporal and spatial scale. For this purpose we took advantage of the high-density of FLUXNET measurement sites in these areas. We applied a radiation use efficiency model for gross primary production (4) combined with a semi-empirical total ecosystem respiration model (5). As drivers for the model we used climatic and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) records. We utilized in-situ calibrated model parameters to estimate the regional ecosystem carbon fluxes. The model was spatially applied according to the similarity in the climatic-phenological space of each grid pixel with the measurement site to which it was calibrated (e.g., 6). We found that for Europe NAO could explain NEE variability in a reasonable way for northern and southern Europe, but for the mid-latitude region this was not the case. For North America the patterns were less clear. In both the regions we found a significant time dependency of the spatial patterns. Hence we showed how broad-scale climatic and circulations patterns transfer into carbon cycle patterns in a direct and lagged way. References 1. Thomas, H., et al., (2008). Changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation influence CO_2 uptake in the North Atlantic over the past 2 decades. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 22, GB4027. 2. Christensen, O. & Christensen, J. (2004) Intensification of extreme European summer precipitation in a warmer climate. Global and Planetary Change 44, 107-117. 3. Ciais, P. et al., (2005). Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature 437, 528-533. 4. Running, S. W., et al., (2000). Methods in Ecosystem Science. , 44-57. 5. Migliavacca, et al., (2010). Semi-empirical modeling of abiotic and biotic factors controlling ecosystem respiration across eddy covariance sites. Global Change Biology in Press. 6. Carvalhais, N., et al., (2010). Deciphering the components of regional net ecosystem fluxes following a bottom-up approach for the Iberian Peninsula. Biogeosciences Discussions 3, 4801-4855.

Tomelleri, E.; Carvalhais, N.; Migliavacca, M.; Reichstein, M.; Fluxnet Lathuille Synthesis Team (Cf. Www. Fluxdata. Org)

2010-12-01

93

Health effects of air pollution in southern Europe: Are there interacting factors?  

SciTech Connect

Recent results suggest that adverse health effects of air pollution exist at levels of pollutants around or even below air quality standards set by national and international institutions. Furthermore, there are indications that air pollution effects on health may be partly determined by specific mixtures of air pollutants and may be altered by other environmental, behavioral, and social patterns. Southern European countries share some common characteristics in terms of climate, geography, and life activity patterns. Results from studies undertaken in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain investigating short- and long-term air pollution health effects are presented and their consistency demonstrated. These results provide adequate evidence that health effects-particularly short-term-of the currently measured urban air pollution levels exist. However, information available so far does not allow an assessment of regional differences in the health effects of air pollution as far as the Mediterranean region of Europe is concerned, It is suggested that the interaction between the traditional pollution (mainly characterized by high levels of black smoke and SO{sub 2}) and photochemical pollution must be investigated in this area, as well as the possible interaction between air pollution and high temperature and other meteorologic factors. In addition, measurements of individual exposure to different pollutants, affected by the pollutant`s levels in specific microenvironments and the individual`s time-activity pattern, must be undertaken for a better understanding of the air pollution-health link. Finally, the importance the reported air pollution health effects in terms of public health must be addressed more closely. 33 refs., 1 tab.

Katsouyanni, K. [Univ. of Athens Medical School (Greece)

1995-03-01

94

Climate change effects on Chikungunya transmission in Europe: geospatial analysis of vector's climatic suitability and virus' temperature requirements  

PubMed Central

Background Chikungunya was, from the European perspective, considered to be a travel-related tropical mosquito-borne disease prior to the first European outbreak in Northern Italy in 2007. This was followed by cases of autochthonous transmission reported in South-eastern France in 2010. Both events occurred after the introduction, establishment and expansion of the Chikungunya-competent and highly invasive disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) in Europe. In order to assess whether these outbreaks are indicative of the beginning of a trend or one-off events, there is a need to further examine the factors driving the potential transmission of Chikungunya in Europe. The climatic suitability, both now and in the future, is an essential starting point for such an analysis. Methods The climatic suitability for Chikungunya outbreaks was determined by using bioclimatic factors that influence, both vector and, pathogen. Climatic suitability for the European distribution of the vector Aedes albopictus was based upon previous correlative environmental niche models. Climatic risk classes were derived by combining climatic suitability for the vector with known temperature requirements for pathogen transmission, obtained from outbreak regions. In addition, the longest potential intra-annual season for Chikungunya transmission was estimated for regions with expected vector occurrences. In order to analyse spatio-temporal trends for risk exposure and season of transmission in Europe, climate change impacts are projected for three time-frames (2011–2040, 2041–2070 and 2071–2100) and two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). These climatic projections are based on regional climate model COSMO-CLM, which builds on the global model ECHAM5. Results European areas with current and future climatic suitability of Chikungunya transmission are identified. An increase in risk is projected for Western Europe (e.g. France and Benelux-States) in the first half of the 21st century and from mid-century onwards for central parts of Europe (e.g. Germany). Interestingly, the southernmost parts of Europe do not generally provide suitable conditions in these projections. Nevertheless, many Mediterranean regions will persist to be climatically suitable for transmission. Overall, the highest risk of transmission by the end of the 21st century was projected for France, Northern Italy and the Pannonian Basin (East-Central Europe). This general tendency is depicted in both, the A1B and B1 climate change scenarios. Conclusion In order to guide preparedness for further outbreaks, it is crucial to anticipate risk as to identify areas where specific public health measures, such as surveillance and vector control, can be implemented. However, public health practitioners need to be aware that climate is only one factor driving the transmission of vector-borne disease.

2013-01-01

95

Quantifying Nitrogen Fluxes and Their Influence on the Greenhouse gas Balance- Research Strategy and new Findings From the NitroEurope Integrated Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human-driven production of reactive nitrogen to stimulate agricultural productivity and its unintended formation in combustion processes both have major impacts on the global environment. Effects of excess reactive nitrogen include reductions in air quality, water quality, soil quality and biodiversity. One of the most controversial impacts of nitrogen, however, is on the greenhouse gas balance. While recent papers have highlighted a possible benefit of nitrogen in enhancing rates of carbon sequestration, there remain many trade-offs between nitrogen and greenhouse gas exchange. The result is that the net effect of reactive nitrogen on the global radiative balance is currently far from clear. To better quantity these relationships requires measurement data and modelling that make the link between different nitrogen forms and their fate in the environment. It is essential to measure fluxes for a wide range of ecosystems considering the biosphere-atmosphere exchange each of the reactive nitrogen components and greenhouse gases, as well as the fixation and denitrification of di-nitrogen. Long term observations are needed for representative ecosystems, together with results from experiments addressing the responses of the key nitrogen and greenhouse gas fluxes to different global change drivers. The NitroEurope Integrated Project of the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission European has developed a strategy to quantifying these different terms on multiple scales. This paper presents the experimental approach including a) a 3-tier flux network, combining process level measurements and new method development with low-cost measurements at many sites, b) a network of manipulation experiments with different global change drivers, c) a network of contrasting European landscapes for analysis of land- use and land management interactions assessing the multiple nitrogen fluxes within and between air, land and water. The paper illustrates the new datasets emerging, and shows how these are being used to support the development of site, landscape and regional-scale models of nitrogen fluxes and net greenhouse gas exchange. Finally, the paper describes how independent verification activities are providing the basis to analyze the uncertainty in regional-scale nitrogen and greenhouse gas fluxes.

Sutton, M.; Nemitz, E.; Reis, S.; Beier, C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Cellier, P.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Erisman, J. W.; Skiba, U. M.; de Vries, W.; Zechmeister-Baltenstern, S.; Bleeker, A.; Calanca, P.; Dalgaard, T.; Dragosits, U.; Duyzer, J. H.; Gundersen, P.; Hensen, A.; Kros, H.; Leip, A.; Obersteiner, M.; Olesen, J. E.; Phillips, G.; Rees, R. M.; Smith, P. E.; Soussana, J.; Tang, Y.; Theobald, M. R.; van Amstel, A.; van Oijen, M.; Bakker, M.; Vesala, T.

2008-12-01

96

Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project: cross-national comparison of smoking prevalence in 18 European countries.  

PubMed

Limited data on smoking prevalence allowing valid between-country comparison are available in Europe. The aim of this study is to provide data on smoking prevalence and its determinants in 18 European countries. In 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project, we conducted a face-to-face survey on smoking in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden) on a total of 18 056 participants, representative for each country of the population aged 15 years or older. Overall, 27.2% of the participants were current smokers (30.6% of men and 24.1% of women). Smoking prevalence was highest in Bulgaria (40.9%) and Greece (38.9%) and lowest in Italy (22.0%) and Sweden (16.3%). Smoking prevalence ranged between 15.7% (Sweden) and 44.3% (Bulgaria) for men and between 11.6% (Albania) and 38.1% (Ireland) for women. Multivariate analysis showed a significant inverse trend between smoking prevalence and the level of education in both sexes. Male-to-female smoking prevalence ratios ranged from 0.85 in Spain to 3.47 in Albania and current-to-ex prevalence ratios ranged from 0.68 in Sweden to 4.28 in Albania. There are considerable differences across Europe in smoking prevalence, and male-to-female and current-to-ex smoking prevalence ratios. Eastern European countries, lower income countries and those with less advanced tobacco control policies have less favourable smoking patterns and are at an earlier stage of the tobacco epidemic. PMID:24441832

Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo; Chaloupka, Frank J; Colombo, Paolo; Currie, Laura; Fernandez, Esteve; Fischbacher, Colin; Gilmore, Anna; Godfrey, Fiona; Joossens, Luk; Leon, Maria E; Levy, David T; Nguyen, Lien; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Ross, Hana; Townsend, Joy; Clancy, Luke

2014-05-01

97

Update of survey, regulation and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most frequent toxigenic fungi in Europe are Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium species. They produce aflatoxin B1 transformed into aflatoxin M1 found in the milk, as well as Ochratoxins and Zearalenone, Fumonisin B1, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin), which are of increasing concern in human health. These mycotoxins are under continuous survey in Europe, but the regulatory aspects

Edmond E. Creppy

2002-01-01

98

The effect of spatial and temporal correlations in the evaluation of flood risk in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk models as developed for the insurance sector tend to have two distinct features that set them apart from many other model applications. Firstly, the insurance sector has an interest in large-scale models (viz., country scale and larger), so that flood risk across their entire portfolio, which is often geographically dispersed over a large area, can be consistently assessed. Secondly, it's also relevant to the insurance sector to model spatio-temporal correlations of the drivers of flood loss correctly across the entire domain, in order to not over- or underestimate the financial consequences of flood events. As flood risk can conceptually be regarded as the result of the combined effects of intense local precipitation (triggering local "pluvial" flood events), and high river discharge (driving large-scale "fluvial" floods), there is a need to model both these variables in such a way that the statistics at any one location as well as the correlations in space and time are aptly described. In this work, additionally to giving an overview of the European Flood Model that is currently being developed at RMS, we describe the development and the analysis of a coherent, continent-wide set of stochastic model forcings and their effect on large-scale flood modelling. Our results show that by applying the model we are able to simulate input forcings such that the statistics compare favourably with those of observations. Moreover, by providing these forcings to our hydrological model, we are able to adequately reflect the corresponding hydrological response in terms of discharge. Furthermore we discuss the application of this model for flood risk evaluation across Europe, specifically by interpretation of some key model results, such as spatial and temporal correlations of precipitation and discharge for various aggregation periods and evaluation windows (e.g., precipitation and discharge maxima over a month, and their correlations in both space and time), as well as effects of seasonality on precipitation and discharge regimes.

Tsaknias, Dimosthenis; Assteerawatt, Anongnart; Azemar, Frederic; Ghosh, Sourima; Hilberts, Arno; Nicótina, Ludovico; Tillmanns, Stephan

2013-04-01

99

New international long-term ecological research on air pollution effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests, Central Europe.  

PubMed

An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and other ecosystems caused by air pollution in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania and in the Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians on the Polish-Slovak border. Both of these important mountain ranges have the status of national parks and are Man & the Biosphere Reserves. In the Retezat Mountains, the primary research objective was to evaluate how air pollution may affect forest health and biodiversity. The main research objective in the Tatra Mountains was to evaluate responses of natural and managed Norway spruce forests to air pollution and other stresses. Ambient concentrations of ozone (O(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) as well as forest health and biodiversity changes were monitored on densely distributed research sites. Initial monitoring of pollutants indicated low levels of O(3), SO(2), and NO(x) in the Retezat Mountains, while elevated levels of O(3) and high deposition of atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have characterized the Tatra Mountains. In the Retezat Mountains, air pollution seems to have little effect on forest health; however, there was concern that over a long time, even low levels of pollution may affect biodiversity of this important ecosystem. In contrast, severe decline of Norway spruce has been observed in the Tatra Mountains. Although bark beetle seems to be the immediate cause of that decline, long-term elevated levels of atmospheric N and S depositions and elevated O(3) could predispose trees to insect attacks and other stresses. European and US scientists studied pollution deposition, soil and plant chemistry, O(3)-sensitive plant species, forest insects, and genetic changes in the Retezat and Tatra Mountains. Results of these investigations are presented in a GIS format to allow for a better understanding of the changes and the recommendations for effective management in these two areas. PMID:12676229

Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Badea, Ovidiu; Barbu, Ion; Fleischer, Peter; Fraczek, Witold; Gancz, Vladimir; Godzik, Barbara; Grodzi?ska, Krystyna; Grodzki, Wojciech; Karnosky, David; Koren, Milan; Krywult, Marek; Krzan, Zbigniew; Longauer, Roman; Mankovska, Blanka; Manning, William J; McManus, Michael; Musselman, Robert C; Novotny, Julius; Popescu, Flaviu; Postelnicu, Daniela; Prus-G?owacki, Wies?aw; Skawi?ski, Pawe?; Skiba, Stefan; Szaro, Robert; Tamas, Stefan; Vasile, Cristian

2003-06-01

100

Climatic effects in Central Europe on the frequency of medical treatments of dairy cows.  

PubMed

In the present study, the relationship between the temperature-humidity index (THI) and the incidence of medical treatments in lactating dairy cows in Lower Saxony, Germany, was investigated. Records of all veterinary-treated cases over 2 years (2003 and 2005) from eight Holstein-Friesian dairy herds raised in loose-housing systems (55 to 170 cows per herd) were evaluated. After exclusion of management-dependent and climate-independent cases, a total of 5547 treatments were analyzed. Treatments were clustered into the following groups: metabolism, fertility, udder and foot/leg. Meteorological data were compiled from the nearest weather station (average distance ± s.d. 39 ± 13 km). Hourly temperatures and relative humidity values were used to calculate the THI, which was divided into classes. Out of the total number of treatments, 37.4%, 32.9%, 21.6% and 8.1% belonged to metabolism, udder, fertility and foot/leg, respectively. Data were analyzed with a mixed model that included THI class, season and year as fixed effects and farm as random effect. In general, incidences were neither affected by the year (P > 0.05) and season (P > 0.05) nor by THI classes (P > 0.05). In tendency, incidences of metabolic treatments increased with increasing THI and incidences of udder treatments increased with decreasing THI. In conclusion, indications of moderate heat stress during summer months in Central Europe were found in the present study, although THI and season did not affect the different disease complexes significantly. PMID:23034127

Sanker, C; Lambertz, C; Gauly, M

2013-02-01

101

Space Activities of Western Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper illustrates the diversity of European space activity and shows how the various national space projects, as well as the joint programs administered by the European Space Agency, have evolved since Europe's entry into the space age. Detailed desc...

A. V. Harriott

1986-01-01

102

JPRS Report, Science Technology: Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on science and technology in Europe. Titles include: Integrata Project Assessed; Airbus Seeks Japanese Partner for Super Jumbo; Germany: Electric Vehicle Propulsion System Vari...

1992-01-01

103

Temporal and spatial variability of total ozone content over Central Europe: analysis in respect to the biological effect on plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal and spatial variability of the total ozone content (TOC) is examined in respect to the biologically effective ultraviolet radiation on plants. TOC data from 1996 to 2000 over the domain of Central Europe were used. Variability is analysed using correlation and auto-correlation coefficients.The temporal auto-correlation analyses has shown that the only periodicity which could be found was a

Alois W Schmalwieser; Günther Schauberger; Michal Janouch

2003-01-01

104

Differences in spatiotemporal variations of atmospheric PAH levels between North America and Europe: data from two air monitoring projects.  

PubMed

Atmospheric concentrations of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at five sites for almost two decades near the North American Great Lakes, as part of the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN), and at three remote sites around Europe, as part of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The primary objectives were to reveal the spatial distributions, long-term temporal trends, and seasonal variations of atmospheric PAH concentrations and to investigate potential differences between these two regions. Atmospheric PAH concentrations at the urban sites in Chicago and Cleveland near Great Lakes were about 20 times (depending on PAH congener and sampling site) greater than those at the rural sites except for Košetice in the Czech Republic. Atmospheric PAH concentrations at Košetice, also a rural site, were about one-third of those at Chicago and Cleveland, but 10 times higher than those at other rural sites (Sturgeon Point, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Eagle Harbor, Aspvreten, and Spitsbergen). Significant long-term decreasing trends of all these PAH atmospheric concentrations were observed at Chicago and Cleveland. For the other sites, either less significant or no long-term decreasing trends were observed. Clear seasonality was observed at Sturgeon Point, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Košetice, and Spitsbergen, with the highest PAH concentrations observed in mid-January. PMID:24365715

Liu, Liang-Ying; Kuku?ka, Petr; Venier, Marta; Salamova, Amina; Klánová, Jana; Hites, Ronald A

2014-03-01

105

The New Faces of Europe. Secondary Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph, published as part of the project "A Secondary Education for Europe," offers some basic data on the contemporary human geography of the European continent, with a focus on central and eastern Europe. The document first describes civic issues in the teaching of geography and cartography of the new Europe. The basic pedagogical intent…

Foucher, Michel

106

Effect-based assessment of passive air samples from four countries in Eastern Europe.  

PubMed

Although passive sampling has been previously used for the monitoring of volatile and semi-volatile contaminants in air, there are limited data on the use of this technique coupled with bioassays based on specific biological responses. Biological responses including those mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) receptor as well as (anti-)estrogenicity and (anti-)androgenicity of samples from four Eastern European countries (Lithuania, Slovakia, Romania, and Serbia) were determined. To address the potential differences of specific toxic potencies of pollutant mixtures in ambient air in Eastern Europe, each country was characterized by a single more remote location that served to determine regional background conditions and one location in more urbanized and industrialized locations, which were defined as "impacted" areas. Besides samples from Lithuania, a significant gradient in concentrations of AhR-mediated potency from background and impacted localities was observed. Greatest potencies were measured in samples from impacted locations in Romania and Slovakia. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that were quantified accounted for 3-33 % of the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents determined by use of the bioassay. No significant estrogenic potency was detected but anti-estrogenic effects were produced by air from two background locations (Lithuania, Slovakia) and three impacted locations (Lithuania, Romania, and Serbia). Anti-androgenic potency was observed in all samples. The greatest anti-estrogenic potency was observed at the background location in Slovakia. Anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic potencies of studied air samples were probably associated with compounds that are not routinely monitored. The study documents suitability of passive air sampling for the assessment of specific toxic potencies of ambient air pollutants. PMID:24532343

Érseková, Anita; Hilscherová, Klára; Klánová, Jana; Giesy, John P; Novák, Ji?í

2014-06-01

107

Detection of explosive as an indicator of landmines: BIOSENS project methodology and field tests in Southeast Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IST-2000-25348-BIOSENS project carried out a number of studies to assess the use of explosive detection technology for humanitarian demining. This paper presents sampling/collection technology developed, test methodology and results including comparisons with dogs and soil sampling. Findings are presented in terms of the detection of explosive from mines in the environment and demining.

Crabbe, Stephen; Eng, Lars; Gardhagen, Peter; Berg, Anders

2005-06-01

108

Masculinities in Organizational Cultures in Engineering Education in Europe: Results of the European Union Project WomEng  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes elements of engineering organizational cultures and structures in higher engineering education from the European project WomEng. Hypotheses, based on state of the art, refer to: women friendly presentation, attractiveness of interdisciplinary teaching methods, single sex education, perceptions of minority status, feelings of…

Sagebiel, F.; Dahmen, J.

2006-01-01

109

The Effects of Socio-Political Changes in Eastern Europe on Military Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reunification of Germany, democratic changes in Eastern European countries, and new government policies of the Soviet Union will lead to the reduction of U.S. troops in West Germany. As a Department of Defense contractor providing associate degrees to soldiers in Europe, Central Texas College (CTC) will be severely affected by the troop…

Ostertag, Vesna

110

Mini-ozoneholes over Central Europe and their influence to the biologically effective ultraviolet radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decades a decrease in the total ozone content of the atmosphere (TOC) over Central Europe in the order of 0.6% per year could be observed. For the winter season the decrease is obviously higher than for other times of the year. Mini ozone holes (MOH) occur mostly during winter times and they are responsible for up to

A. W. Schmalwieser; G. Schauberger; M. Janouch; P. Weihs

2003-01-01

111

The Citizen's Effect: 25 Features about the Europe for Citizens Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public forums and shared spaces in which citizens can debate and deliberate have always constituted essential elements of a democratic society. Today, the Europe for Citizens Programme serves to create a modern European agora. Launched in 2007, the programme supports initiatives that bring people together in international and intercultural…

Reding, Viviane

2012-01-01

112

Adult Education Research in the Countries in Transition. Adult Education Research Trends in the Former Socialist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic Region. Research Project Report. Studies and Researches 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents results of an investigation into the state of the art of research on the education of adults in Central and Eastern European and Baltic countries. The first section discusses the background and implementation of the research. Section 2 is "Adult Education Research Trends in Central and Eastern Europe: Research Project

Jelenc, Zoran

113

Workforce development and effective evaluation of projects.  

PubMed

The success of a project or programme is typically determined in relation to outputs. However, there is a commitment among UK public services to spending public funds efficiently and on activities that provide the greatest benefit to society. Skills for Health recognised the need for a tool to manage the complex process of evaluating project benefits. An integrated evaluation framework was developed to help practitioners identify, describe, measure and evaluate the benefits of workforce development projects. Practitioners tested the framework on projects within three NHS trusts and provided valuable feedback to support its development. The prospective approach taken to identify benefits and collect baseline data to support evaluation was positively received and the clarity and completeness of the framework, as well as the relevance of the questions, were commended. Users reported that the framework was difficult to complete; an online version could be developed, which might help to improve usability. Effective implementation of this approach will depend on the quality and usability of the framework, the willingness of organisations to implement it, and the presence or establishment of an effective change management culture. PMID:25039638

Dickerson, Claire; Green, Tess; Blass, Eddie

2014-06-26

114

EC-Project MEREDIAN: Improved Data Exchange Infrastructure and a Virtual Network for Europe and the Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean-European Rapid Earthquake Data Information and Archiving Network (MEREDIAN) project aims to improve the existing European infrastructure for seismological data exchange while simultaneously addressing relevant scientific and technical requirements. Coordinated by the Observatories and Research Facilities for EUropean Seismology (ORFEUS) in The Netherlands, the MEREDIAN consortium is composed of 18 national institutions. With an emphasis on providing uninhibited access to real-time and archived seismic waveform data, the project is supporting the development of general purpose tools and standards for both seismic data suppliers and consumers. A major component of this project is the ongoing development of the Virtual European Broadband Seismograph Network (VEBSN). The ORFEUS Data Center (ODC) performs the network operations for the VEBSN while data streams from broad-band seismic stations are contributed by consortium members and others. The VEBSN is a fully functional automatic seismic network which locates earthquakes, calculates magnitudes and generates seismic event alerts. The primary purpose of the VEBSN is to expedite and automate data collection at the ODC. This system allows the ODC to provide event-based data sets, from a well distributed group of broad-band stations in the region, within minutes or hours of significant European-Mediterranean seismic events. Our requirements for developing the VEBSN were 1) flexible data transmission software that can interface with diverse data sources at peer institutions, 2) reliable exchange protocols, resistant to data gaps during network congestion or problems and 3) a central system to collect and process all the incoming data streams. Our solution to the first two challenges was to adopt and support the open source Seismological Communication Processor (SeisComP). This package is lightweight, flexible and implements a reliable data transmission protocol, making it an invaluable component of the VEBSN. Besides the SeedLink protocol used by SeisComP we collect data streams using two other reliable protocols, Antelope ORB and CD-1, due to their pre-existence at peer sites. In the interest of time and cost efficiency we purchased the proprietary Antelope software system to function as the central collection and processing hub. EC-Project MEREDIAN: Contract No. EVR1-CT-2000-40007

Trabant, C.; van Eck, T.; Dost, B.; Ec-Project Meredian, .

2003-12-01

115

Vertical cultural transmission effects on demic front propagation: theory and application to the Neolithic transition in Europe.  

PubMed

It is shown that Lotka-Volterra interaction terms are not appropriate to describe vertical cultural transmission. Appropriate interaction terms are derived and used to compute the effect of vertical cultural transmission on demic front propagation. They are also applied to a specific example, the Neolithic transition in Europe. In this example, it is found that the effect of vertical cultural transmission can be important (about 30%). On the other hand, simple models based on differential equations can lead to large errors (above 50%). Further physical, biophysical, and cross-disciplinary applications are outlined. PMID:21728622

Fort, Joaquim

2011-05-01

116

Modelling The Continental Effect Of Oxygen Isotopes Over Europe And Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

18O in atmospheric CO2 bears the potential to separate the biospheric gross fluxes, namely assimilation and respiration. It has thus the potential to tell if assimilation or respiration is the key parameter which determines the inter­annual variability of the carbon cycle in Europe. But the knowledge of CO18O fluxes is still in its infancy. An enormous work was done in

M. Cuntz; P. Ciais; G. Hoffmann

2002-01-01

117

Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the transatlantic transport of anthropogenic ozone and its impact on surface ozone in Europe and North America by using a 5-year (1993-1997) simulation with the GEOS-CHEM global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry. Long-term time series of ozone and CO at Mace Head (Ireland) and Sable Island (Canada) are used to evaluate transatlantic transport in the model. North American

Qinbin Li; Daniel J. Jacob; Isabelle Bey; Paul I. Palmer; Bryan N. Duncan; Brendan D. Field; Randall V. Martin; Arlene M. Fiore; Robert M. Yantosca; David D. Parrish; Peter G. Simmonds; Samuel J. Oltmans

2002-01-01

118

The Effect of Family Control on Firm Value and Performance: Evidence from Continental Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractWe investigate the relation between ownership structure and firm performance in Continental Europe, using data from 675 publicly traded corporations in 11 countries. Although family-controlled corporations exhibit larger separation between control and cash-flow rights, our results do not support the hypothesis that family control hampers firm performance. Valuation and operating performance are significantly higher in founder-controlled corporations and in corporations

Roberto Barontini; Lorenzo Caprio

2006-01-01

119

Advection from the North Atlantic as the forcing of winter greenhouse effect over Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface temperature are observed over central Europe. Comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996, a satellite-retrieved surface (skin) temperature difference of 9.8 K is observed for the region 50-60°N 5-35°E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index Ina,

J. Otterman; J. Angell; R. Atlas; D. Bungato; S. Schubert; D. Starr; J. Susskind; M.-L. C. Wu

2002-01-01

120

Advection from the North Atlantic as the forcing of winter greenhouse effect over Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface temperature are observed over central Europe. Comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996, a satellite-retrieved surface (skin) temperature difference of 9.8 K is observed for the region 50–60°N; 5–35°E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index Ina,

J. Otterman; J. Angell; R. Atlas; D. Bungato; S. Schubert; D. Starr; J. Susskind; M.-L. C. Wu

2002-01-01

121

Europe's Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last several years a rift has opened beneath the Atlantic, pushing the United States and Europe farther apart. One cause has been increasingly different approaches to foreign policy. Another has been a sense that Europeans and Americans have distinct approaches to domestic affairs as well. Alongside the shelf of books chronicling transatlantic disputes over Iraq, terrorism, the United

Sheri Berman

2006-01-01

122

The effectiveness of behavioural and psychosocial HIV/STI prevention interventions for MSM in Europe: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Given the need of programme planners and policy makers for descriptions of specific interventions and quantitative estimates of intervention effects to make informed decisions concerning prevention funding and research, there is a need for a systematic review that updates the current knowledge base about HIV/STI preventive interventions targeted at men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe. The aim was to summarise and assess the effectiveness of HIV/STI prevention interventions for MSM living in Europe, and to identify intervention characteristics associated with effectiveness as well as potential gaps in the evidence base. A systematic search for relevant literature in eight international databases and in reference lists of relevant reviews and included studies was performed. Studies were selected according to pre-specified criteria and appraised for risk of bias. We summarised results using tables and calculated effect estimates for sexual behaviour outcomes. Results from six controlled studies, involving a total of 4,111 participants at entry from four different European countries were summarised. The results showed that there was 'high' or 'unclear' risk of bias in one or more of the assessed domains in all studies. The pooled effect estimate of the four interventions for which data were available suggested that MSM who participate in HIV/STI prevention initiatives may be somewhat less likely to report unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). The evidence base was insufficient to examine characteristics of interventions most closely associated with magnitude of effect and to draw solid conclusions about unique gaps in the evaluation literature. Despite the maturity of the HIV epidemic, rigorous outcome evaluations of any form of behavioural HIV/STI intervention for MSM in Europe are scarce. The results point to possible short term effects of interventions in terms of reductions in the proportion of MSM who engage in UAI, but the paucity of controlled studies demonstrates the need for research in this area. There is an overall deficit in outcome evaluations of interventions aimed at reducing HIV/STI risk behaviour among MSM in Europe. Designing behavioural HIV/STI preventive strategies to avert new infections, and the evaluation of such prevention programmes for MSM is an important component of a comprehensive HIV/STI containment strategy across the continuum of prevention and care. PMID:20003895

Berg, R

2009-01-01

123

Effectiveness of design projects in teaching Telecommunications Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effectiveness of design projects in teaching Telecommunications Engineering to undergraduate students. The projects consisted in designing and prototyping of relatively complex electronic or optoelectronic devices. The distinctive feature of these projects was their real-world interdisciplinary nature. We discuss the requirements for educationally effective projects and describe the technical and educational results that we achieved. The recommendations that

A. Beltran-Hernandez; V. Dolores-Calzadilla; V. Garcia-Garduno; M. Moctezuma-Flores; S. Perez-Garcia; S. Khotiaintsev

2012-01-01

124

Isolating the effects of climate change in the variation of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) in Europe for the 21st century (1991-2100)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of the influence of future climatic variations on air quality needs of methods that give a space-time display of large atmospheric data related to air pollution. Here a new approach in order to assess the impacts of climate change on the patterns of variation of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) over Europe is presented. The most widely used method of analysis (selected time-slices, future-minus-present method) is very sensitive to the chosen control and future periods because of the internal variability of the climate system. In order to overcome this limitation, full transient simulations for the period 1991-2100 under the SRES A2 scenario are analysed by the Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs) methodology in order minimise the uncertainty associated to the internal variability due to the longer time series obtained. The results indicate that the EOF1 accounts for around 30-45% of the total variance for the SIA levels and points out a general increase of its trend over the entire domain ( p < 0.005), except in the case of nitrate, whose change signal is not significant ( p > 0.1). The correlation between SIA and meteorological parameters indicates that the trends and patterns of variation of aerosols are related to the higher temperature projected for the future climate. It favours the formation of sulphates and ammonium (increasing the concentrations of atmospheric oxidants) and the decomposition of ammonium nitrate, remaining in the gas phase. Further, the decreases in precipitation have a strong effect on the frequency of the washout and therefore in the levels of aerosols. The concentrations of aerosols decrease with increasing precipitation as wet deposition provides the main aerosol sink. The trend from a decreasing mixing height found in several areas of Europe is frequently related to a decrease in precipitation, representing an adding effect for the enhanced future SIA concentrations.

Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Jose Gomez-Navarro, Juan; Jerez, Sonia; Lorente-Plazas, Raquel; Garcia-Valero, Juan Andres; Montavez, Juan Pedro

2011-02-01

125

Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded 'Project Star' report  

PubMed Central

Background Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report (‘Project Star’, PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Methods Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18?056). Findings Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. Conclusions PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and use of independent data.

Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

2014-01-01

126

Cancer care wing Europe's largest.  

PubMed

Derek Middleton, regional director, and Steve Gunning, director, at multi-disciplinary planning, design and engineering consultancy Faber Maunsell, look back on a complex, yet rewarding, project to deliver Europe's largest state-of-the-art cancer treatment facility, highlighting some of the challenges the project team faced in bringing the scheme in on time and budget. PMID:18988617

Middleton, Derek; Gunning, Steve; Maunsell, Fabor

2008-10-01

127

Neogene sedimentary history of the Outer Cilicia Basin, eastern Mediterranean: a contribution to the TopoEurope VAMP project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP) addresses the Neogene uplift of the Taurides and the Central Anatolian Plateau. While terrestrial studies are focussed on erosion in the sediment source area, and deposition within the Turkish landmass, our marine work is intended to provide a history of deposition in one of the ultimate sinks: the eastern Mediterranean. In particular, we are mapping the distribution in space and time of sediment deposited from the Göksu River into the Cilicia Basin. In 2008 we obtained km of high-resolution marine multi-channel seismic profiles radiating out from the river delta across the basin. Many of the profiles are processed and images of the data are presented. Interpretation of the available industry seismic reflection profiles show that during the the Miocene the northeastern Mediterranean, including the Cilicia Basin, experienced regional compression, which resulted in the formation of a broad and arcuate fold-thrust belt extending from the Taurides in the north, across the Troodos ophiolite complex into the Cyprus Arc in the south. Two prominent culminations were developed: one was located along the Misis-Kyrenia Fault Zone, another developed in the Amanos-Larnaka-Troodos Fault Zone. Stratigraphic and structural relationships demonstrated that the late Pliocene-Quaternary Cilicia-Adana Basin complex evolved as an asymmetric piggyback basin on the hanging-wall of the south-verging Misis-Kyrenia thrust culmination. Detailed mapping demonstrated that the S/SE-directed contraction culminated in the latest Miocene, and is followed in the early Pliocene by a progressive transition to partitioned contraction and extension related to the initiation of strike slip along the eastern Anatolian Transform Fault and its marine extensions. The shift in kinematics is expressed by the development of major NE-SW trending (Inner Cilicia Basin) and E-W trending (Outer Cilicia Basin) steep faults with extensional separations bounding the Pliocene-Quaternary basins. These basement-rooted faults are incompatible with the contractional regime that existed in this part of the basin complex during the Miocene, and signal the onset of a regime with partitioned stress in the region.The 2008 seismic reflection profiles showed that within the Cilicia Basin a linked extensional-contractional fault system developed, which is detached at the base of the Messinian evaporites. The extensional fault system in the Inner Cilicia Basin is characterized by imbricate fans of listric normal faults. A complementary contractional fault system is developed in Outer Cilicia Basin and is characterized by a thinner Pliocene-Quaternary cover overlying a relatively uniform salt substrate. Here a series of salt-cored growth folds are commonly associated with thrusts of variable vergence.

Piercey, Tiffany; Akhun, Selin; Hall, Jeremy; Aksu, Ali; ?ifçi, Günay

2010-05-01

128

Solar and geomagnetic effects on the frequency of atmospheric circulation types over Europe: an analysis based on a large number of classifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, effects of the 11-year solar cycle on various aspects of tropospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere in winter have been recognized. One of our previous studies showed a significant solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types from the Hess-Brezowsky catalogue. Here, we use a large collection of varied classifications of circulation patterns, assembled within the COST733 Action "Harmonization and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions" to detect the solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types. The collection contains both objective and subjective classifications. The advantage of this multi-classification approach is that peculiarities or biases of any single classification (catalogue) that might influence the detected solar signal vanish once a large ensemble of classifications is used. We divide winter months (December to March) into three groups according to the mean monthly solar activity, quantified by the F10.7 flux. The three groups correspond to the minima of the 11-year solar cycle, a moderate solar activity, and solar maxima. Within each group, frequencies of occurrence of individual circulation types are calculated. Differences in the occurrence of individual classes between solar activity groups indicate the presence of a solar activity effect on atmospheric circulation over Europe. Statistical significance of these differences is estimated by a block resampling method. The research is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805, and by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic, contract OC115.

Huth, Radan; Cahynová, Monika; Kyselý, Jan

2010-05-01

129

Neogene sedimentary history of the Inner Cilicia Basin, eastern Mediterranean: a contribution to the TopoEurope VAMP project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP) addresses the Neogene uplift of the Taurides and the Central Anatolian Plateau. While terrestrial studies are focused on erosion in the sediment source area and deposition within the Turkish landmass, our marine work is focused to provide a history of deposition in one of the ultimate sinks: the eastern Mediterranean. In particular, we are mapping the distribution in space and time of sediment deposited from the Göksu River into the Cilicia Basin. In 2008 we collected ~2000 km of high-resolution marine multi-channel seismic reflection profiles radiating out from the present-day mouth of the Göksu River across the basin. The Göksu River delta is located on a narrow shelf at the junction of the Inner and Outer Cilicia Basins. The Inner Cilicia Basin consists of a 40 km-wide shelf linking to the onshore Adana Basin and a slope down to the deeper water (~ 1 km) of the Outer Cilicia Basin. The shelf is built out of a >2.5 km-thick sequence of Pliocene-Quaternary sediment overlying Messinian evaporites or older Miocene sediments. The evaporites have been mobilised to move down slope during the Pliocene-Quaternary so that the shelf is located above an extensional fault fan, complemented by a salt-cored fold/thrust belt in deeper water (see poster by Piercey et al., this meeting). The 2008 seismic reflection profiles show that the western margin of the Inner Cilicia Basin seaward of the mouth of the Göksu River is constructed by numerous vertically stacked and east-prograded delta successions. Detailed mapping in this region revealed that the sediment input from the Göksu River can be readily distinguished from the larger influxes from the coalescing Tarsus, Seyhan and Ceyhan Rivers to the north. The bases of major delta packages supplied by the Göksu River are marked by strong reflections, defining shelf-crossing unconformities, which can be correlated across the Inner Cilicia Basin. Industry exploration wells in the Inner Cilicia and Adana basins allow us to tie our seismic interpretation to known stratigraphies. For example, we can confidently correlate our Units 1, 2 and 3 with Pliocene-Quaternary, Messinian and pre-Messinian Miocene successions. Linear extrapolations using constant rate of sedimentation in the deepest portion of the Inner Cilicia Basin allows a tentative chronology to be established for the major prograded delta successions. Subsidence of the Göksu River delta is recognised, and can be timed from, deeply-buried topset/foreset transitions. We correlate the Pliocene-Quaternary sequence across the basin to derive sediment volumes deposited through time. In the Inner Cilicia Basin, we have also to separate the contributions of the Göksu River from those of the Seyhan and Ceyhan Rivers. Initial estimates of the Göksu River contributions are given. Determining the Miocene depositional history is more challenging because of the impacts of superficial evaporite mobility, the complex basement-related compressional history and the consequent difficulty of imaging pre-Messinian sequences. Initial ideas on the Miocene story will be presented.

Walsh, Susan; Kurtbo?an, Bahar; Akhun, Selin; Aksu, Ali; Hall, Jeremy; ?ifçi, Günay

2010-05-01

130

Coulomb Interaction Effect in Cell Projection Lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cell projection lithography, critical dimension (CD) control is one of the important issues for device fabrication as well as resolution. Because plural patterns are exposed in one shot under the same dose, the proximity effect correction is more difficult than in the conventional variable-shaped beam (VSB) lithography. We have analyzed the CD deviation in order to obtain high CD accuracy of less than 0.02 µ m (range) which is sufficient for manufacturing 1 G dynamic randam access memory (DRAM). We have found that the Coulomb interaction effect plays an important role in CD deviation. We have proposed a new exposure intensity distribution (EID) function which contains a factor introduced for the first time to compensate the proximity effect and the Coulomb interaction effect simultaneously. The results indicate that the new EID function is very effective to compensate the Coulomb interaction effect and improve the CD deviation from 12% (0.03 µ m) to 6% (0.015 µ m) for 0.25 µ m lines-and-spaces (L/S) patterns.

Yamashita, Hiroshi; Tamura, Takao; Nomura, Eiichi; Nozue, Hiroshi

1995-12-01

131

Time trend and age-period-cohort effect on kidney cancer mortality in Europe, 1981-2000  

PubMed Central

Background The incorporation of diagnostic and therapeutic improvements, as well as the different smoking patterns, may have had an influence on the observed variability in renal cancer mortality across Europe. This study examined time trends in kidney cancer mortality in fourteen European countries during the last two decades of the 20th century. Methods Kidney cancer deaths and population estimates for each country during the period 1981–2000 were drawn from the World Health Organization Mortality Database. Age- and period-adjusted mortality rates, as well as annual percentage changes in age-adjusted mortality rates, were calculated for each country and geographical region. Log-linear Poisson models were also fitted to study the effect of age, death period, and birth cohort on kidney cancer mortality rates within each country. Results For men, the overall standardized kidney cancer mortality rates in the eastern, western, and northern European countries were 20, 25, and 53% higher than those for the southern European countries, respectively. However, age-adjusted mortality rates showed a significant annual decrease of -0.7% in the north of Europe, a moderate rise of 0.7% in the west, and substantial increases of 1.4% in the south and 2.0% in the east. This trend was similar among women, but with lower mortality rates. Age-period-cohort models showed three different birth-cohort patterns for both men and women: a decrease in mortality trend for those generations born after 1920 in the Nordic countries, a similar but lagged decline for cohorts born after 1930 in western and southern European countries, and a continuous increase throughout all birth cohorts in eastern Europe. Similar but more heterogeneous regional patterns were observed for period effects. Conclusion Kidney cancer mortality trends in Europe showed a clear north-south pattern, with high rates on a downward trend in the north, intermediate rates on a more marked rising trend in the east than in the west, and low rates on an upward trend in the south. The downward pattern observed for cohorts born after 1920–1930 in northern, western, and southern regions suggests more favourable trends in coming years, in contrast to the eastern countries where birth-cohort pattern remains upward.

Perez-Farinos, Napoleon; Lopez-Abente, Gonzalo; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

2006-01-01

132

CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS MODELLING WITH NEURAL NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with important aspects of construction management key factors identification and their relative significance for the construction projects management effectiveness. The approach of artificial neural network allows the construction projects management effectiveness model to be built and to determine the key determinants from a host of possible management factors that influence the project effectiveness in terms of budget

Rasa Apanavi?ien?; Arvydas Juodis

2003-01-01

133

Quality assessment of expert answers to lay questions about cystic fibrosis from various language zones in Europe: the ECORN-CF project  

PubMed Central

Background The European Centres of Reference Network for Cystic Fibrosis (ECORN-CF) established an Internet forum which provides the opportunity for CF patients and other interested people to ask experts questions about CF in their mother language. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a detailed quality assessment tool to analyze quality of expert answers, 2) evaluate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this tool, and 3) explore changes in the quality of expert answers over the time frame of the project. Methods The quality assessment tool was developed by an expert panel. Five experts within the ECORN-CF project used the quality assessment tool to analyze the quality of 108 expert answers published on ECORN-CF from six language zones. 25 expert answers were scored at two time points, one year apart. Quality of answers was also assessed at an early and later period of the project. Individual rater scores and group mean scores were analyzed for each expert answer. Results A scoring system and training manual were developed analyzing two quality categories of answers: content and formal quality. For content quality, the grades based on group mean scores for all raters showed substantial agreement between two time points, however this was not the case for the grades based on individual rater scores. For formal quality the grades based on group mean scores showed only slight agreement between two time points and there was also poor agreement between time points for the individual grades. The inter-rater agreement for content quality was fair (mean kappa value 0.232 ± 0.036, p < 0.001) while only slight agreement was observed for the grades of the formal quality (mean kappa value 0.105 ± 0.024, p < 0.001). The quality of expert answers was rated high (four language zones) or satisfactory (two language zones) and did not change over time. Conclusions The quality assessment tool described in this study was feasible and reliable when content quality was assessed by a group of raters. Within ECORN-CF, the tool will help ensure that CF patients all over Europe have equal possibility of access to high quality expert advice on their illness.

2012-01-01

134

Positive health effects of the natural outdoor environment in typical populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE): a study programme protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Growing evidence suggests that close contact with nature brings benefits to human health and well-being, but the proposed mechanisms are still not well understood and the associations with health remain uncertain. The Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor environment in Typical Populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE) project investigates the interconnections between natural outdoor environments and better human health and well-being. Aims and methods The PHENOTYPE project explores the proposed underlying mechanisms at work (stress reduction/restorative function, physical activity, social interaction, exposure to environmental hazards) and examines the associations with health outcomes for different population groups. It implements conventional and new innovative high-tech methods to characterise the natural environment in terms of quality and quantity. Preventive as well as therapeutic effects of contact with the natural environment are being covered. PHENOTYPE further addresses implications for land-use planning and green space management. The main innovative part of the study is the evaluation of possible short-term and long-term associations of green space and health and the possible underlying mechanisms in four different countries (each with quite a different type of green space and a different use), using the same methodology, in one research programme. This type of holistic approach has not been undertaken before. Furthermore there are technological innovations such as the use of remote sensing and smartphones in the assessment of green space. Conclusions The project will produce a more robust evidence base on links between exposure to natural outdoor environment and human health and well-being, in addition to a better integration of human health needs into land-use planning and green space management in rural as well as urban areas.

Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Anto, Josep Maria; Basagana, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Danileviciute, Asta; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Garcia, Judith; Jerrett, Michael; Jones, Marc; Julvez, Jordi; van Kempen, Elise; van Kamp, Irene; Maas, Jolanda; Seto, Edmund; Smith, Graham; Triguero, Margarita; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Wright, John; Zufferey, Joris; van den Hazel, Peter Jan; Lawrence, Roderick; Grazuleviciene, Regina

2014-01-01

135

System for Creating Motion Effects Employing Still Projection Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A system is described for creating projected visual motion effects for filming or videotaping, with the use of still projection equipment. It involves projecting a still image on a screen from a slide projector, projecting a second image on the screen, su...

1978-01-01

136

Thematic Network E4: An Effective Tool to Improve EE in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among all TN projects approved and running under SOCRATES II, E4 offers the widest perspective over all Engineering/Technology education fields covering relevant and transversal issues, which are definitely not branch specific. The paper first introduces the general aim of the project, underlining the meaning of the European Dimension of EE…

Borri, Claudio; Maffioli, Francesco

2003-01-01

137

Impact of national smoke-free legislation on home smoking bans - Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project Europe Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives To measure changes in prevalence and predictors of home smoking bans (HSB) among smokers in four European countries after the implementation of national smoke-free legislation. Design Two waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project Europe Surveys, which is a prospective panel study. Pre- and post-legislation data was used from Ireland, France, Germany, and the Netherlands. Two pre-legislation waves from UK were used as control. Participants 4,634 respondents from the intervention countries and 1,080 from the control country completed both baseline and follow-up, and were included in the present analyses. Methods Multiple logistic regression models to identify predictors of having or of adopting a total HSB, and Generalised Estimating Equation (GEE) models to compare patterns of change after implementation of smoke-free legislation to a control country without such legislation. Results Most smokers had at least partial smoking restrictions in their home, but the proportions varied significantly between countries. After implementation of national smoke-free legislation, the proportion of smokers with a total HSB increased significantly in all four countries. Among continuing smokers the number of cigarettes smoked per day either remained stable or decreased significantly. Multiple logistic regression models indicated that having a young child in the household and supporting smoking bans in bars were important correlates of having a pre-legislation HSB. Prospective predictors of imposing a HSB between survey waves were planning to quit smoking, supporting a total smoking ban in bars, and the birth of a child. GEE models indicated that the change in total HSB in the intervention countries was greater than in the control country. Conclusions The findings suggest that smoke-free legislation does not lead to more smoking in smokers’ homes. On the contrary, our findings demonstrate that smoke-free legislation may stimulate smokers to establish total smoking bans in their homes.

Mons, Ute; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Allwright, Shane; Guignard, Romain; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Brenner, Hermann; Potschke-Langer, Martina; Breitling, Lutz P.

2014-01-01

138

NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During August 1-14, 1999, NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) convened a workshop at the NASA Langley Research Center to try to determine why such a wide variation in aerosol emissions indices and chemical and physical properties has been reported by various independent AEAP-supported research teams trying to characterize the exhaust emissions of subsonic commercial aircraft. This workshop was divided into two phases, a laboratory phase and a field phase. The laboratory phase consisted of supplying known particle number densities (concentrations) and particle size distributions to a common manifold for the participating research teams to sample and analyze. The field phase was conducted on an aircraft run-up pad. Participating teams actually sampled aircraft exhaust generated by a Langley T-38 Talon aircraft at 1 and 9 m behind the engine at engine powers ranging from 48 to 100 percent. Results from the laboratory phase of this intercomparison workshop are reported in this paper.

Cofer, W. Randy, III; Anderson, Bruce E.; Connors, V. S.; Wey, C. C.; Sanders, T.; Winstead, E. L.; Pui, C.; Chen, Da-ren; Hagen, D. E.; Whitefield, P.

2001-01-01

139

Numerical quantization effects in KHILS projection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Honeywell resistor arrays produce radiance outputs, which are observed to have a strong non-linear dependence on the voltage out of the digital-to-analog-converters (DACs). In order for the projection system to run in a radiometrically calibrated mode, the radiances in the image generator must be transformed with exactly the inverse of the resistor array response function before they are sent to the DACs. Representing the image values out of the image generator and the values into the DACs with quantized, digital values introduces errors in the radiance out of the resistor array. Given the functional form of the emitter array response and the number of bits used to represent the image values, these errors in the radiometric output due to the quantization effects can be calculated. This paper describes the calculations and presents results for WISP, MSSP, and the new extended range and standard range BRITE II arrays.

Flynn, David S.; Thompson, Rhoe A.; Goldsmith, George C.

2002-07-01

140

Application of circulation classifications from the COST733 collection to the detection of solar and geomagnetic effects on tropospheric circulation over Europe in winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies of circulation classifications are biased by the fact that they are based on a single classification only; that is, their results are affected by the properties of a particular classification to an unknown extent. A large number of circulation classifications produced and collected in the COST733 database allows such a bias to be removed. As an example, we examine effects of solar activity variations on the frequency of circulation types, making use of more than sixty objective classifications for each of 12 domains, defined over Europe. To determine the solar effects, winter months (December to March) are divided into three classes according to the mean monthly solar activity, within which the frequencies of occurrence of circulation types are calculated. Circulation types coming from any classification with significant differences in frequency between high and low solar activity are identified. Current results generally confirm results of a previous study based on a single classification only (subjective Hess-Brezowsky) that (a) westerly types are more frequent under high than low solar activity; (b) northerly types are more frequent under low than high activity, and (iii) easterly and anticyclonic types are more frequent under low than moderate solar activity; the opposite holds for cyclonic types. The research is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic under contract OC115 and the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805.

Huth, Radan; Cahynová, Monika; Kyselý, Jan

2010-05-01

141

Institutional effects on project arrangement: high?speed rail projects in China and Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies recognize institutional impacts on the arrangement of large infrastructure projects but they have not analysed the process by which a host country’s institutions shape infrastructure projects. Institutional theory was applied as an analytical lens to identify different effects of regulatory, normative and cultural institutions on project arrangements. A cross?case comparative study of high?speed rail projects in China and

Cheryl S. F. Chi

2011-01-01

142

Effects of Climate Change on Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Europe  

PubMed Central

Zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in Europe and there is speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vector biology and disease transmission. Data on the vector tick Ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change may also be partly responsible for the change in distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus. Increased winter activity of I. ricinus is probably due to warmer winters and a retrospective study suggests that hotter summers will change the dynamics and pattern of seasonal activity, resulting in the bulk of the tick population becoming active in the latter part of the year. Climate suitability models predict that eight important tick species are likely to establish more northern permanent populations in a climate-warming scenario. However, the complex ecology and epidemiology of such tick-borne diseases as Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis make it difficult to implicate climate change as the main cause of their increasing prevalence. Climate change models are required that take account of the dynamic biological processes involved in vector abundance and pathogen transmission in order to predict future tick-borne disease scenarios.

Gray, J. S.; Dautel, H.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Kahl, O.; Lindgren, E.

2009-01-01

143

Health effects from Sahara dust episodes in Europe: literature review and research gaps.  

PubMed

The adverse consequences of particulate matter (PM) on human health have been well documented. Recently, special attention has been given to mineral dust particles, which may be a serious health threat. The main global source of atmospheric mineral dust is the Sahara desert, which produces about half of the annual mineral dust. Sahara dust transport can lead to PM levels that substantially exceed the established limit values. A review was undertaken using the ISI web of knowledge database with the objective to identify all studies presenting results on the potential health impact from Sahara dust particles. The review of the literature shows that the association of fine particles, PM?.?, with total or cause-specific daily mortality is not significant during Saharan dust intrusions. However, regarding coarser fractions PM?? and PM?.???? an explicit answer cannot be given. Some of the published studies state that they increase mortality during Sahara dust days while other studies find no association between mortality and PM?? or PM?.????. The main conclusion of this review is that health impact of Saharan dust outbreaks needs to be further explored. Considering the diverse outcomes for PM?? and PM?.????, future studies should focus on the chemical characterization and potential toxicity of coarse particles transported from Sahara desert mixed or not with anthropogenic pollutants. The results of this review may be considered to establish the objectives and strategies of a new European directive on ambient air quality. An implication for public policy in Europe is that to protect public health, anthropogenic sources of particulate pollution need to be more rigorously controlled in areas highly impacted by the Sahara dust. PMID:22796892

Karanasiou, A; Moreno, N; Moreno, T; Viana, M; de Leeuw, F; Querol, X

2012-10-15

144

Learning about Teaching: Initial Findings from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project. Policy Brief. MET Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to test new approaches to recognizing effective teaching. The project's goal is to help build fair and reliable systems for teacher observation and feedback to help teachers improve and administrators make better personnel decisions. With…

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

2010-01-01

145

Anthopic landuse cools down Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we have coupled the potential natural vegetation VERDE to the regional climate model RegCM and implemented them in Central Europe and the Mediterranean region. After a RegCM control simulation with observed landuse, we have used the coupled ReGCM-VERDE model for computing the potential natural vegetation distribution corresponding to the model climate. Iterations are performed till climate and vegetation are in equilibrium. The most important effect on climate has been found for summer in Central Europe, where the replacement of crops and farms with respect to the natural vegetation (broadleaved forest) produce 2K cooling. A smaller cooling effect has been found also over Spain and Central Europe. This effect is caused by the change of energy budget at the surface which is produced by the increased evapotraspiration and (over central Europe) cloud cover.

Zampieri, M.; Lionello, P.

2009-04-01

146

Atmospheric black carbon and warming effects influenced by the source and absorption enhancement in Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles containing black carbon (BC), a strong absorbing substance, exert a rather uncertain direct and indirect radiative forcing in the atmosphere. To investigate the mass concentration and absorption properties of BC particles over Central Europe, the model WRF-Chem was used at a resolution of 12 km in conjunction with a high resolution BC emission inventory (EUCAARI 42-Pan-European Carbonaceous Aerosol Inventory; 1/8° × 1/16°). The model simulation was evaluated using measurements of equivalent soot carbon, absorption coefficients and particle number concentrations at 7 sites within the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network, PM10 mass concentrations from the dense measurement network of the German Federal Environmental Agency at 392 monitoring stations, and aerosol optical depth from MODIS and AERONET. A distinct time period (25 March to 10 April 2009) was chosen, during which the clean marine air mass prevailed in the first week and afterwards the polluted continental air mass mainly from south-east dominated with elevated daily average BC concentration up to 4 ?g m-3. The simulated PM10 mass concentration, aerosol number concentration and optical depth were in a good agreement with the observations, while the modelled BC mass concentrations were found to be a factor of 2 lower than the observations. Together with backtrajectories, detailed model bias analyses suggested that the current BC emission in countries to the east and south of Germany might be underestimated by a factor of 5, at least for the simulation period. Running the model with upscaled BC emissions in these regions led to a smaller model bias and a better correlation between model and measurement. On the contrary, the particle absorption coefficient was positively biased by about 20% even when the BC mass concentration was underestimated by around 50%. This indicates that the internal mixture treatment of BC in the WRF-Chem optical calculation is unrealistic in our case, which over amplifies the light absorption by BC containing particles. By adjusting the modeled mass absorption cross-section towards the measured values, the simulation of particle light absorption of BC was improved as well. Finally, the positive direct radiative forcing of BC particles at top of the atmosphere was estimated to be in the range of 0 to +4 W m-2 over Germany for the model run with improved BC mass concentration and adjusted BC light absorption cross-section. This treatment lowered the positive forcing of BC by up to 70%, compared with the internal mixing treatment of BC in the model simulation.

Nordmann, S.; Cheng, Y. F.; Carmichael, G. R.; Yu, M.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Zhang, Q.; Saide, P. E.; Pöschl, U.; Su, H.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.

2014-06-01

147

BSEP/CSEP Reading Evaluation: A Study of the Effectiveness of the U.S. Army Europe's Basic Skills/Career Skills Job-Specific Reading Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To measure the effectiveness of the Basic Skills Education Program (BSEP) reading curriculum--eight reading skill modules employing military job-specific reading materials and used by the U.S. Army in Europe (USAREUR)--and to provide information for improving it, a study examined 183 soldiers from 38 European posts who were enrolled in the BSEP…

Philippi, Jorie W.

148

Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ?273 800 km2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia,

Alexander V Prishchepov; Volker C Radeloff; Matthias Baumann; Tobias Kuemmerle; Daniel Müller

2012-01-01

149

The STAIRRS project, work package 1: a cost-effectiveness analysis of railway noise reduction on a European scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise control is a major economic factor for the railways as national and European Union environmental legislation is being enacted. In an effort to determine optimal strategies on a European level, the EU fifth framework programme has co-financed the Strategies and Tools to Assess and Implement noise Reducing measures for Railway Systems (STAIRRS) project. Work package 1 developed the necessary software to undertake large-scale cost-effectiveness analyses. The acoustically relevant geographic, traffic and track data were collected for 11 000 km of lines in seven European countries. Standard cost-benefit methodologies were adapted to fit the requirements of the project. An extrapolation mechanism allowed studies on Europe as a whole and, in an approximate manner, also on individual countries. Major conclusions are that the highest cost-effectiveness can be achieved by combining measures; freight rolling stock has a high cost-effectiveness on its own as well as in combination with other measures, especially when combined with track measures; noise barriers, in particular high ones, have a low cost-effectiveness. The conclusions for Europe as a whole are also true for individual countries. The STAIRRS project co-ordinator is the European Rail Research Institute, the work package leader is the Swiss Federal Railways with the participation of AEAT Technology (NL), German Railways, French Railways, PSI-Akustik (A), the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and the Free University of Brussels.

Oertli, J.

2003-10-01

150

Project ABLE: Altering Bowel Learning Effectively.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project addressed the problem of fecal incontinence in children with myelomeningocele by developing an affordable instructional package for health care providers and a parent instruction program in order to help these children develop bowel control. T...

M. F. Cataldo A. W. Riley

1990-01-01

151

How effective are soil conservation techniques in reducing plot runoff and soil loss in Europe and the Mediterranean?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of soil and water conservation techniques (SWCTs) on annual runoff (Ra), runoff coefficients (RCa) and annual soil loss (SLa) at the plot scale have been extensively tested on field runoff plots in Europe and the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, a comprehensive overview of these effects and the factors controlling the effectiveness of SWCTs is lacking. Especially the effectiveness of SWCT in reducing Ra is poorly understood. Therefore, an extensive literature review is presented that compiles the results of 101 earlier studies. In each of these studies, Ra and SLa was measured on field runoff plots where various SWCTs were tested. In total, 353 runoff plots (corresponding to 2093 plot-years of data) for 103 plot-measuring stations throughout Europe and the Mediterranean were considered. SWCTs include (1) crop and vegetation management (i.e. cover crops, mulching, grass buffer strips, strip cropping and exclosure), (2) soil management (i.e. no-tillage, reduced tillage, contour tillage, deep tillage, drainage and soil amendment) and (3) mechanical methods (i.e. terraces, contour bunds and geotextiles). Comparison of the frequency distributions of SLa rates on cropland without and with the application of SWCTs shows that the exceedance probability of tolerable SLa rates is ca. 20% lower when SWCT are applied. However, no notable effect of SWCTs on the frequency distribution of RCa is observed. For 224 runoff plots (corresponding to 1567 plot-year data), SWCT effectiveness in reducing Ra and/or SLa could be directly calculated by comparing measured Ra and/or SLa with values measured on a reference plot with conventional management. Crop and vegetation management techniques (i.e. buffer strips, mulching and cover crops) and mechanical techniques (i.e. geotextiles, contour bunds and terraces) are generally more effective than soil management techniques (i.e. no-tillage, reduced tillage and contour tillage). Despite being generally less effective, no-tillage, reduced tillage and contour tillage have received substantially more attention in the literature than the other SWCTs. Soil and water conservation techniques are generally less effective in reducing Ra than in reducing SLa, which is an important consideration in areas where water is a key resource and in regions susceptible to flooding. Furthermore, all SWCTs show a more consistent and effective reduction of both Ra and SLa with increasing Ra and SLa magnitude, which is attributed to the reduced influence of measurement uncertainties. Although some significantly negative correlations between SWCT effectiveness and plot slope length, slope gradient or annual precipitation were found, the importance of these factors in explaining the observed variability in effectiveness seems limited. Time-series analyses of Ra during multiple years of SWCT application strongly indicate that no-tillage and conservation tillage become less effective in reducing Ra over time. Such an effect is not observed for SLa.

Maetens, W.; Poesen, J.; Vanmaercke, M.

2012-10-01

152

Impact of biogenic emissions on ozone and fine particles over Europe: Assessing the effect of temperature increase and the role of anthropogenic NOx emissions reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of biogenic emissions on ozone and PM2.5 levels over Europe is assessed for July 2006 using the CMAQ modeling system. Biogenic emissions are simulated to increase the daily maximum 8 hour ozone (Max8hrO3) mixing ratios and to decrease PM2.5 average concentrations over Europe. Since climate change will lead to higher temperatures increasing subsequently biogenic emissions, sensitivity analysis to temperature is performed. Higher temperatures suggest an average increase in Max8hrO3 mixing ratios over Europe by about 3% and an average decrease in PM2.5 concentrations by about 6%, related to a temperature increase by 3 K degrees. Temperature increases are simulated, also, to increase the organic part of PM2.5 and to decrease the inorganic one on average over Europe. In order to examine if abatement measures for anthropogenic emissions could offset ozone increases in a warmer environment and their effect on PM2.5 concentrations, simulation with a domain wide reduction of anthropogenic NOx emissions by 10% is performed. This is estimated to reduce Max8hrO3 mixing ratios on average over Europe, however, in VOCs limited areas there is an increase. The reduction in anthropogenic NOx emissions is simulated to reduce PM2.5 concentrations on average over Europe enhancing the reduction simulated in a warmer environment but further modifying PM2.5 component concentrations. This work was supported by the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) 2007-2013 grand No 09SYN-31-667.

Tagaris, Efthimios; Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni P.; Gounaris, Nikos; Andronopoulos, Spyros; Vlachogiannis, Diamando

2014-05-01

153

Functional Food Science in Europe.  

PubMed

The goal of the Functional Food Science in Europe (FUFOSE) concerted action was to reach consensus on scientific concepts of functional foods in Europe by using the science base that supports evidence that specific nutrients positively affect physiological functions. The outcome proposes "a working definition" of functional foods: foods can be regarded as functional if they can be satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way relevant to an improved state of health and well-being and/or reduction of risk of disease. Functional foods must remain foods and they must achieve their effects in amounts normally consumed in a diet. Evidence from human studies, based on markers relating to biological response or on intermediate endpoint markers of disease, could provide a sound scientific basis for messages and claims about the functional food products. Two types of claims are proposed that relate directly to these two categories of markers: Enhanced function claims (type A) and reduced risk of disease claims (type B). A new EU Concerted Action will start with, and build upon, the principles defined within FUFOSE. This project PASSCLAIM will (i) produce a consensus on principles for the scientific substantiation of health-related claims for food and food components, (ii) select common criteria for how markers should be identified, validated and used in well-designed studies to explore the links between diet and health and (iii) to evaluate critically the existing schemes which assess the scientific substantiation of claims. PMID:11894747

Contor, L

2001-08-01

154

Effects of platforms on new product development projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate effects of platforms on new product development (NPD) projects. Emphasis has been put on the following effect categories: project performance, process changes, and the use of performance measurements. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on data collected in a survey of Swedish manufacturing firms. The survey collected data on platform

Maximilian Pasche; Magnus Persson; Hans Löfsten

2011-01-01

155

Substantial and reversible brain gray matter reduction but no acute brain lesions in ultramarathon runners: experience from the TransEurope-FootRace Project  

PubMed Central

Background During the extremely challenging 4,487 km ultramarathon TransEurope-FootRace 2009, runners showed considerable reduction of body weight. The effects of this endurance run on brain volume changes but also possible formation of brain edema or new lesions were explored by repeated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Methods A total of 15 runners signed an informed consent to participate in this study of planned brain scans before, twice during, and about 8 months after the race. Because of dropouts, global gray matter volume analysis could only be performed in ten runners covering three timepoints, and in seven runners who also had a follow-up scan. Scanning was performed on three identical 1.5 T Siemens MAGNETOM Avanto scanners, two of them located at our university. The third MRI scanner with identical sequence parameters was a mobile MRI unit escorting the runners. Volumetric 3D datasets were acquired using a magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE) sequence. Additionally, diffusion-weighted (DWI) and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging was performed. Results Average global gray matter volume as well as body weight significantly decreased by 6% during the race. After 8 months, gray matter volume returned to baseline as well as body weight. No new brain lesions were detected by DWI or FLAIR imaging. Conclusions Physiological brain volume reduction during aging is less than 0.2% per year. Therefore a volume reduction of about 6% during the 2 months of extreme running appears to be substantial. The reconstitution in global volume measures after 8 months shows the process to be reversible. As possible mechanisms we discuss loss of protein, hypercortisolism and hyponatremia to account for both substantiality and reversibility of gray matter volume reductions. Reversible brain volume reduction during an ultramarathon suggests that extreme running might serve as a model to investigate possible mechanisms of transient brain volume changes. However, despite massive metabolic load, we found no new lesions in trained athletes participating in a multistage ultramarathon. See related commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/171

2012-01-01

156

Ion Beam Therapy in Europe  

SciTech Connect

At present, seven facilities in Europe treat deep-seated tumors with particle beams, six with proton beams and one with carbon ions. Three of these facilities are in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Dubna, Russia. Other facilities include the TSL Uppsala, Sweden, CPO Orsay, France, and PSI Villigen, Switzerland, all for proton therapy, and GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, which utilizes carbon ions only. But only two of these facilities irradiate with scanned ion beams: the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI), Villigen (protons) and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt. These two facilities are experimental units within physics laboratories and have developed the technique of intensity-modulated beam scanning in order to produce irradiation conforming to a 3-D target. There are three proton centers presently under construction in Munich, Essen and Orsay, and the proton facility at PSI has added a superconducting accelerator connected to an isocentric gantry in order to become independent of the accelerator shared with the physics research program. The excellent clinical results using carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) in Chiba and GSI have triggered the construction of four new heavy-ion therapy projects (carbon ions and protons), located in Heidelberg, Pavia, Marburg and Kiel. The projects in Heidelberg and Pavia will begin patient treatment in 2009, and the Marburg and Kiel projects will begin in 2010 and 2011, respectively. These centers use different accelerator designs but have the same kind of treatment planning system and use the same approach for the calculation of the biological effectiveness of the carbon ions as developed at GSI [1]. There are many other planned projects in the works. Do not replace the word ''abstract,'' but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your ''Enter'' key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style sample before you begin working on your paper.

Kraft, Gerhard [GSI Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany)

2009-03-10

157

Ion Beam Therapy in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, seven facilities in Europe treat deep-seated tumors with particle beams, six with proton beams and one with carbon ions. Three of these facilities are in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Dubna, Russia. Other facilities include the TSL Uppsala, Sweden, CPO Orsay, France, and PSI Villigen, Switzerland, all for proton therapy, and GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, which utilizes carbon ions only. But only two of these facilities irradiate with scanned ion beams: the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI), Villigen (protons) and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt. These two facilities are experimental units within physics laboratories and have developed the technique of intensity-modulated beam scanning in order to produce irradiation conforming to a 3-D target. There are three proton centers presently under construction in Munich, Essen and Orsay, and the proton facility at PSI has added a superconducting accelerator connected to an isocentric gantry in order to become independent of the accelerator shared with the physics research program. The excellent clinical results using carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) in Chiba and GSI have triggered the construction of four new heavy-ion therapy projects (carbon ions and protons), located in Heidelberg, Pavia, Marburg and Kiel. The projects in Heidelberg and Pavia will begin patient treatment in 2009, and the Marburg and Kiel projects will begin in 2010 and 2011, respectively. These centers use different accelerator designs but have the same kind of treatment planning system and use the same approach for the calculation of the biological effectiveness of the carbon ions as developed at GSI [1]. There are many other planned projects in the works. Do not replace the word ``abstract,'' but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your ``Enter'' key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style sample before you begin working on your paper.

Kraft, Gerhard

2009-03-01

158

Family planning in Europe.  

PubMed

Today Europe has the lowest fertility ever, and even Albania and Ireland are recording less than 3 children/woman. Europe can be divided into 3 groups of countries: 1) countries in which women rely on medical contraception, where abortion is used only to correct contraceptive failures, and where there are few sterilizations; 2) countries where abortion is less frequent (UK, the Netherlands especially), because sterilization is much more widespread; and 3) countries of the former Communist bloc where abortion frequently takes the place of contraception and sterilizations are insignificant. Couples' free access to birth control in practice faces legal and administrative restrictions and poor reception systems that discriminate against adolescents, ethnic minorities, and migrants. In Europe a certain inequality of access to birth control persists. The legislators occasionally resist, as in Ireland and in Poland. In many eastern European countries there is resistance toward the widespread distribution of modern contraceptive methods; other countries place more emphasis on sterilization than on stricter practice of contraception. Voluntary sterilization of couples reached the 40 or 50% level in the US and Canada at the end of the 1980s, while it has only exceeded 20% in the UK and the Netherlands. Europe has made progress in legislation on abortion. Prohibitions had disastrous effects on the maternal mortality rates in Albania and Romania before the recent political changes. The European birth control literature is rife with analyses based on approximations, biased indexes, and partial statistics, but assessment is often avoided because of political and economic interests. In order to comprehend the resistance to the spread of contraception and the reasons for the sociocultural choice of abortion, sterilization, or contraception, these events in particular abortions and sterilizations, must be recorded. PMID:12222242

Blayo, C

1993-06-01

159

Local and regional effects of large scale atmospheric circulation patterns on winter wind power output in Western Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies (Brayshaw, 2009, Garcia-Bustamante, 2010, Garcia-Bustamante, 2013) have drawn attention to the sensitivity of wind speed distributions and likely wind energy power output in Western Europe to changes in low-frequency, large scale atmospheric circulation patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Wind speed variations and directional shifts as a function of the NAO state can be larger or smaller depending on the North Atlantic region that is considered. Wind speeds in Ireland and the UK for example are approximately 20 % higher during NAO + phases, and up to 30 % lower during NAO - phases relative to the long-term (30 year) climatological means. By contrast, in southern Europe, wind speeds are 15 % lower than average during NAO + phases and 15 % higher than average during NAO - phases. Crucially however, some regions such as Brittany in N.W. France have been identified in which there is negligible variability in wind speeds as a function of the NAO phase, as observed in the ERA-Interim 0.5 degree gridded reanalysis database. However, the magnitude of these effects on wind conditions is temporally and spatially non-stationary. As described by Comas-Bru and McDermott (2013) for temperature and precipitation, such non-stationarity is caused by the influence of two other patterns, the East Atlantic pattern, (EA), and the Scandinavian pattern, (SCA), which modulate the position of the NAO dipole. This phenomenon has also implications for wind speeds and directions, which has been assessed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and the indices obtained from the PC analysis of sea level pressure over the Atlantic region. In order to study the implications for power production, the interaction of the NAO and the other teleconnection patterns with local topography was also analysed, as well as how these interactions ultimately translate into wind power output. The objective is to have a better defined relationship between wind speed and power output at a local level and a tool that wind farm developers could use to inform site selection. A particular priority was to assess how the potential wind power outputs over a 25-30 year windfarm lifetime in less windy, but resource-stable regions, compare with those from windier but more variable sites.

Zubiate, Laura; McDermott, Frank; Sweeney, Conor; O'Malley, Mark

2014-05-01

160

Secondary Transfer Effects of Intergroup Contact: A Cross-National Comparison in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines so-called secondary transfer effects of intergroup contact, a phenomenon whereby positive intergroup contact experiences can influence attitudes not only toward encountered (primary) outgroups but also toward other (secondary) outgroups that were not initially involved in the intergroup encounter. The current study relies on…

Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Kupper, Beate; Zick, Andreas; Wagner, Ulrich

2012-01-01

161

A Standardized Vascular Disease Health Check in Europe: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background No clinical trials have assessed the effects or cost-effectiveness of health check strategies to detect and manage vascular disease. We used a mathematical model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of several health check strategies in six European countries. Methods We used country-specific data from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and the United Kingdom to generate simulated populations of individuals aged 40–75 eligible for health checks in those countries (e.g. individuals without a previous diagnosis of diabetes, myocardial infarction, stroke, or serious chronic kidney disease). For each country, we used the Archimedes model to compare seven health check strategies consisting of assessments for diabetes, hypertension, lipids, and smoking. For patients diagnosed with vascular disease, treatment was simulated in a standard manner. We calculated the effects of each strategy on the incidence of type 2 diabetes, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), and microvascular complications in addition to quality of life, costs, and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Results Compared with current care, health checks reduced the incidence of MACE (6–17 events prevented per 1000 people screened) and diabetes related microvasular complications (5–11 events prevented per 1000 people screened), and increased QALYs (31–59 discounted QALYs) over 30 years, in all countries. The cost per QALY of offering a health check to all individuals in the study cohort ranged from €14903 (France) to cost saving (Poland). Pre-screening the population and offering health checks only to higher risk individuals lowered the cost per QALY. Pre-screening on the basis of obesity had a cost per QALY of €10200 (France) or less, and pre-screening with a non-invasive risk score was similar. Conclusions A vascular disease health check would likely be cost effective at 30 years in Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and the United Kingdom.

Schuetz, C. Andy; Alperin, Peter; Guda, Swathi; van Herick, Andrew; Cariou, Bertrand; Eddy, David; Gumprecht, Janusz; Nicolucci, Antonio; Schwarz, Peter; Wareham, Nick J.; Witte, Daniel R.; Smith, Ulf

2013-01-01

162

Health Effects of High Radon Environments in Central Europe: Another Test for the LNT Hypothesis?  

PubMed Central

Among the various “natural laboratories” of high natural or technical enhanced natural radiation environments in the world such as Kerala (India), Brazil, Ramsar (Iran), etc., the areas in and around the Central European Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge) in the southern parts of former East Germany, but also including parts of Thuringia, northern Bohemia (now Czech Republic), and northeastern Bavaria, are still relatively little known internationally. Although this area played a central role in the history of radioactivity and radiation effects on humans over centuries, most of the valuable earlier results have not been published in English or quotable according to the current rules in the scientific literature and therefore are not generally known internationally. During the years 1945 to 1989, this area was one of the world’s most important uranium mining areas, providing the former Soviet Union with 300,000 tons of uranium for its military programs. Most data related to health effects of radon and other carcinogenic agents on miners and residents became available only during the years after German reunification. Many of the studies are still unpublished, or more or less internal reports. By now, substantial studies have been performed on the previously unavailable data about the miners and the population, providing valuable insights that are, to a large degree, in disagreement with the opinion of various international bodies assuming an increase of lung cancer risk in the order of 10% for each 100 Bq/m3 (or doubling for 1000 Bq/m3), even for small residential radon concentrations. At the same time, other studies focusing on never-smokers show little or no effects of residential radon exposures. Experiments in medical clinics using radon on a large scale as a therapeutic against various rheumatic and arthritic disease demonstrated in randomized double-blind studies the effectiveness of such treatments. The main purpose of this review is to critically examine, including some historical references, recent results primarily in three areas, namely the possible effects of the inhalation of very high radon concentrations on miners; the effect of increased residential radon concentrations on the population; and the therapeutic use of radon. With many of the results still evolving and/or under intense discussion among the experts, more evidence is emerging that radon, which has been inhaled at extremely high concentrations in the multimillion Bq/m3 range by many of older miners (however, with substantial confounders, and large uncertainties in retrospective dosimetry), was perhaps an important but not the dominating factor for an increase in lung cancer rates. Other factors such as smoking, inhalation of quartz and mineral dust, arsenic, nitrous gases, etc. are likely to be more serious contributors to increased miner lung cancer rates. An extrapolation of miner data to indoor radon situations is not feasible. Concerning indoor radon studies, the by far dominating effect of smoking on the lung cancer incidence makes the results of some studies, apparently showing a positive dose-response relationship, questionable. According to recent studies in several countries, there are no, or beneficial, residential radon effects below about 600 to 1000 Bq/m3 (the extensive studies in the U.S., in particular by B. Cohen, and the discussions about these data, will not be part of this review, because they have already been discussed in detail in the U.S. literature). As a cause of lung cancer, radon seems to rank — behind active and passive smoking, and probably also air pollution in densely populated and/or industrial areas (diesel exhaust soot, etc.) — as a minor contributor in cases of extremely high residential radon levels, combined with heavy smoking of the residents. As demonstrated in an increasing number of randomized double-blind clinical studies for various painful inflammatory joint diseases such as rheumatism, arthritic problems, and Morbus Bechterew, radon treatments are beneficial, with the positiv

Becker, Klaus

2003-01-01

163

Adapting wheat in Europe for climate change  

PubMed Central

Increasing cereal yield is needed to meet the projected increased demand for world food supply of about 70% by 2050. Sirius, a process-based model for wheat, was used to estimate yield potential for wheat ideotypes optimized for future climatic projections for ten wheat growing areas of Europe. It was predicted that the detrimental effect of drought stress on yield would be decreased due to enhanced tailoring of phenology to future weather patterns, and due to genetic improvements in the response of photosynthesis and green leaf duration to water shortage. Yield advances could be made through extending maturation and thereby improve resource capture and partitioning. However the model predicted an increase in frequency of heat stress at meiosis and anthesis. Controlled environment experiments quantify the effects of heat and drought at booting and flowering on grain numbers and potential grain size. A current adaptation of wheat to areas of Europe with hotter and drier summers is a quicker maturation which helps to escape from excessive stress, but results in lower yields. To increase yield potential and to respond to climate change, increased tolerance to heat and drought stress should remain priorities for the genetic improvement of wheat.

Semenov, M.A.; Stratonovitch, P.; Alghabari, F.; Gooding, M.J.

2014-01-01

164

Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. A Secondary Education for Europe Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph, published as part of the project "A Secondary Education for Europe," makes no claim to deal with all the questions relating to minorities, from either the legal point of view of that of international action. The paper does not aim to suggest recommendations on a theme which has concerned the Council of Europe for years. The…

Foucher, Michel

165

The Effect of Group Projects on Content-Related Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business schools often assign student group projects to enhance student learning of course content and to build teamwork skills. However, the characteristics of effective collaborative learning tasks, including group goals and individual accountability, are often not found in student group projects assigned in business classes. The current…

Bacon, Donald R.

2005-01-01

166

Effective Teaching Methods--Project-based Learning in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents results of the research of new effective teaching methods in physics and science. It is found out that it is necessary to educate pre-service teachers in approaches stressing the importance of the own activity of students, in competences how to create an interdisciplinary project. Project-based physics teaching and learning…

Holubova, Renata

2008-01-01

167

Assessing the Human Genome Project: Effects on world agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Human Genome Project is the attempt to sequence the complement of human DNA. Its ultimate purpose is to understand and control human genetics. The social and ethical concerns raised by this attempt have been much debated, especially fears concerning human genetic engineering and eugenics. An almost completely neglected aspect of the genome project's potential effects is its impact on

M. S. Lesney; V. B. Smocovitis

1994-01-01

168

Effects of Resource Allocation Policies on Project Durations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimizing duration is critical to success in many construction projects. As a primary driver of progress and an effective management tool, resource allocation among development activities can strongly influence durations. Limitations and costs of improving development processes and increasing resource quantities and productivities make improving resource allocation policies an important source of schedule improvement. Policies for reduced project duration are

Zee Woon Lee; David N. Ford; Nitin Joglekar

169

A comparison of the cost-effectiveness of treatment of prolonged acute convulsive epileptic seizures in children across Europe  

PubMed Central

In the majority of children and adolescents with epilepsy, optimal drug therapy adequately controls their condition. However, among the remaining patients who are still uncontrolled despite mono-, bi- or tri-therapy with chronic anti-epileptic treatment, a rescue medication is required. In Western Europe, the licensed medications available for first-line treatment of prolonged acute convulsive seizures (PACS) vary widely, and so comparators for clinical and economic evaluation are not consistent. No European guidelines currently exist for the treatment of PACS in children and adolescents and limited evidence is available for the effectiveness of treatments in the community setting. The authors present cost-effectiveness data for BUCCOLAM® (midazolam oromucosal solution) for the treatment of PACS in children and adolescents in the context of the treatment pathway in seven European countries in patients from 6 months to 18 years. For each country, the health economic model consisted of a decision tree, with decision nodes informed by clinical data and expert opinion obtained via a Delphi methodology. The events modelled are those associated with a patient experiencing a seizure in the community setting. The model assessed the likelihood of medication being administered successfully and of seizure cessation. The associated resource use was also modelled, and ambulance call-outs and hospitalisations were considered. The patient’s quality of life was estimated by clinicians, who completed a five-level EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire from the perspective of a child or adolescent suffering a seizure. Despite differences in current therapy, treatment patterns and healthcare costs in all countries assessed, BUCCOLAM was shown to be cost saving and offered increased health-related benefits for patients in the treatment of PACS compared with the current local standard of care.

2014-01-01

170

Resolution effects on regional climate model simulations of seasonal precipitation over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze a set of nine regional climate model simulations for the period 1961-2000 performed at 25 and 50 km horizontal grid spacing over a European domain in order to determine the effects of horizontal resolution on the simulation of precipitation. All of the models represent the seasonal mean spatial patterns and amount of precipitation fairly well. Most models exhibit a tendency to over-predict precipitation, resulting in a domain-average total bias for the ensemble mean of about 20% in winter (DJF) and less than 10% in summer (JJA) at both resolutions, although this bias could be artificially enhanced by the lack of a gauge correction in the observations. A majority of the models show increased precipitation at 25 km relative to 50 km over the oceans and inland seas in DJF, JJA, and ANN (annual average), although the response is strongest during JJA. The ratio of convective precipitation to total precipitation decreases over land for most models at 25 km. In addition, there is an increase in interannual variability in many of the models at 25 km grid spacing. Comparison with gridded observations indicates that a majority of models show improved skill in simulating both the spatial pattern and temporal evolution of precipitation at 25 km compared to 50 km during the summer months, but not in winter or on an annual mean basis. Model skill at higher resolution in simulating the spatial and temporal character of seasonal precipitation is found especially for Great Britain. This geographic dependence of the increased skill suggests that observed data of sufficient density are necessary to capture fine-scale climate signals. As climate models increase their horizontal resolution, it is thus a key priority to produce high quality fine scale observations for model evaluation.

Rauscher, Sara A.; Coppola, Erika; Piani, Claudio; Giorgi, Filippo

2010-09-01

171

Gas supply to Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper gives a statistical information on the gas supply to Europe. The statistics concerned deal with gas proved reserves and natural gas production together market relations in Western and Eastern Europe. 24 figs., 3 tabs.

1990-01-01

172

Pollen-inferred quantitative reconstructions of Holocene land-cover in NW Europe for the evaluation of past climate-vegetation feedbacks - The Swedish LANDCLIM project and the NordForsk LANDCLIM network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable predictive models are needed to describe potential future climate changes and their impacts. Land surface-atmosphere feedbacks and their impacts on climate are a current priority in the climate modelling community, but reliable records of long-term land use and vegetation change required for model evaluation are limited. Palaeoecological and palaeo-climatic data provide a unique record of the past changes in vegetation, land use and climate on time scales relevant to vegetation processes and global change projections. The application of a new technique (the REVEALS model (Sugita 2007) to landscape reconstruction using fossil pollen data makes robust comparisons with vegetation model output possible . The model corrects for biases caused by e.g. inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and dispersal. Our results show that pollen percentages, a traditional indicator of land cover changes, generally underestimate the unforested areas and certain broad-leaved trees such as Corylus and Tilia, while they often overestimate Betula and Pinus (see Cui et al. BG 6.2). Climate models use simplified land-surface classifications (plant functional types (PFTs)), such as grass (i.e. open land), deciduous trees, and conifers. Therefore, the observed large discrepancies in past land cover between the REVEALS estimates and pollen percentages are expected to influence model outcomes of the Holocene regional climate in NW Europe. The LANDCLIM project and research network (sponsored by the Swedish [VR] and Nordic [NordForsk] Research Councils) aim to quantify human-induced changes in regional vegetation/land-cover in NW Europe during the Holocene, and to evaluate the effects of these changes on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. We use the REVEALS model, theoretically derived and empirically tested, to estimate the percentage cover of taxa and groups of taxa (PFTs) from fossil pollen data for selected time windows of the Holocene, at a spatial resolution of ca. 1o x 1o. The REVEALS estimates of the past cover of PFTs will be 1) compared with the outputs of the LPJ-GUESS (10 PFTs), a widely-used dynamic vegetation model and 2) used as an alternative to the LPJ-GUESS-simulated vegetation (3 PFTs) to run for the past the regional climate model RCA3 developed at the Rossby Centre, Norrköping, Sweden. The study will evaluate and further refine these models (RCA3 and LPJ-GUESS) using a data-model comparison approach that incorporates new syntheses of palaeoclimatic data as well. It will lead to new assessments of the possible effect of various factors on climate, such as deforestations and afforestations, and changes in vegetation composition and spatial patterns of land cover/land use. Refined climate models and empirical land-cover reconstructions will shed new light on controversial hypotheses of past climate change and human impacts, such as the "Ruddiman hypothesis". First maps of REVEALS estimates of plant functional types (PFTs) are now available for Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Estonia, Poland, Germany, The Czech Republic, Switzerland and Britain (see Mazier et al. C1.21 and Trondman et al. C1.22). Correlation tests show that the REVEALS estimates are robust in terms of ranking of the PFTs' abundance (see Mazier et al, C1.21). The LANDCLIM project and network are a contribution to the IGBP-PAGES-Focus 4 PHAROS programme on human impact on environmental changes in the past. The following LANDCLIM members are acknowledged for providing pollen records, for help with pollen databases, and for providing results to the project: Mihkel Kangur and Tiiu Koff (Univ. Tallinn, Tallinn); Erik Kjellström (SMHI, Norrköping), Anna Broström, Lena Barnekow and Thomas Persson (GeoBiosphere Science Centre, Lund University); Anneli Poska (Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University); Thomas Giesecke (Albrecht-von-Haller-Institute for Plant Sciences, University of Göttingen), Anne Bjune and John Birks (Dept. of Biology, University of Bergen); Pim van der Knaap (Institute of Plant Sciences, Univ

Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Sugita, Shinya; Rundgren, Mats; Smith, Benjamin; Mazier, Florence; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Fyfe, Ralph; Kokfelt, Ulla; Nielsen, Anne-Birgitte; Strandberg, Gustav

2010-05-01

173

Europe's Second Demographic Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By 1985, fertility rates in Europe were below the replacement level of 2.1 births per woman in all but Albania, Ireland, Malta, Poland, and Turkey, following a steady decline from a 1965 postwar peak well above 2.5 in Northern, Western, and Southern Europe and an erratic trend from a lower level in Eastern Europe. Natural decrease (fewer births…

van de Kaa, Dirk J.

1987-01-01

174

Ethnic German Immigration from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union to Germany: the Effects of Migrant Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper employed a widely accepted theoretical concept, the ‘theory of migrant networks’ to look at the recent immigration and absorption experience of ethnic Germans (Aussiedler) from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union in Germany. Consistent with network theory, the social background of the Aussiedler group became more representative of the sending communities as migrant networks expanded. The paper

Barbara Dietz

1999-01-01

175

Which specific causes of death are associated with short term exposure to fine and coarse particles in Southern Europe? Results from the MED-PARTICLES project.  

PubMed

We investigated the short-term effects of particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5?m (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10?m (PM2.5-10) and less than 10?m (PM10) on deaths from diabetes, cardiac and cerebrovascular causes, lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in 10 European Mediterranean metropolitan areas participating in the MED-PARTICLES project during 2001-2010. In the first stage of the analysis, data from each city were analyzed separately using Poisson regression models, whereas in the second stage, the city-specific air pollution estimates were combined to obtain overall estimates. We investigated the effects following immediate (lags 0-1), delayed (lags 2-5) and prolonged exposure (lags 0-5) and effect modification patterns by season. We evaluated the sensitivity of our results to co-pollutant exposures or city-specific model choice. We applied threshold models to investigate the pattern of selected associations. For a 10?g/m(3) increase in two days' PM2.5 exposure there was a 1.23% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): -1.63%, 4.17%) increase in diabetes deaths, while six days' exposure statistically significantly increased cardiac deaths by 1.33% (95% CI: 0.27, 2.40%), COPD deaths by 2.53% (95% CI: -0.01%, 5.14%) and LRTI deaths by 1.37% (95% CI: -1.94%, 4.78%). PM2.5 results were robust to co-pollutant adjustments and alternative modeling approaches. Stronger effects were observed in the warm season. Coarse particles displayed positive, even if not statistically significant, associations with mortality due to diabetes and cardiac causes that were more variable depending on exposure period, co-pollutant and seasonality adjustment. Our findings provide support for positive associations between PM2.5 and mortality due to diabetes, cardiac causes, COPD, and to a lesser degree to cerebrovascular causes, in the European Mediterranean region, which seem to drive the particles short-term health effects. PMID:24657768

Samoli, Evangelia; Stafoggia, Massimo; Rodopoulou, Sophia; Ostro, Bart; Alessandrini, Ester; Basagaña, Xavier; Díaz, Julio; Faustini, Annunziata; Gandini, Martina; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Kelessis, Apostolos G; Le Tertre, Alain; Linares, Cristina; Ranzi, Andrea; Scarinzi, Cecilia; Katsouyanni, Klea; Forastiere, Francesco

2014-06-01

176

Decline in tropospheric NO2 and the effects of the 2008-09 economic crisis observed by OMI over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a trend analysis of tropospheric NO2 for the time period of 2004-2010. Necessary for monitoring pollution abatement strategies, NO2 trends analyses are often based on surface networks, which suffer from high NO2 biases and spatial representativity issues inherent to the standard monitoring method (thermal reduction of NO2 followed by reaction with ozone and chemiluminescence). Space based NO2 trends are unbiased and self-consistent, but over Europe they have not been as obvious as those observed over North America and East Asia. In this work we exploit the daily NO2 column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in order to isolate long-term (timescales greater than one year) variability in NO2 over Europe without imposing a parametric fit to the data. In general, we find between 2005 and 2008, 1-5% per year declines in NO2 concentration in many polluted regions (e.g. Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Spain), but also 1-5% per year increases over the English Channel and the southern North Sea (a major shipping channel), as well as the United Kingdom, northern France and Eastern Europe. In 2009, NO2 almost exclusively decreased over Europe at a rate of 5-10% per year, coinciding with the abrupt decrease in industrial production and construction prompted by the global economic crisis. By 2010, in many areas the NO2 rate of change returned to pre-2009 levels suggesting economic recovery. We employ a simple fitting model to separate the forcing by meteorological variability, which can influence apparent NO2 trends, from that of NOx emissions. We calculate 1-3% per year NOx emissions reduction rates over most of Europe and an additional 15-30% per year decrease in NOx emissions during the economic crisis time period.

Castellanos, P.; Boersma, F. F.

2011-12-01

177

Estimating Intervention Effectiveness: Synthetic Projection of Field Evaluation Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a 46-site, 5-year high-risk youth substance abuse prevention evaluation, effect sizes were adjusted using a meta-analytic regression technique to project potential effectiveness under more optimal research and implementation conditions. Adjusting effect size estimates to control for the impact of comparison group prevention exposure, service intensity, and coherent program implementation raised the mean effectiveness estimate from near zero (.02, SD

James H. Derzon; Elizabeth Sale; J. Fred Springer; Paul Brounstein

2005-01-01

178

Evaluation of multidecadal variability in CMIP5 surface solar radiation and inferred underestimation of aerosol direct effects over Europe, China, Japan, and India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations from the Global Energy Balance Archive indicate regional decreases in all sky surface solar radiation from ˜1950s to 1980s, followed by an increase during the 1990s. These periods are popularly called dimming and brightening, respectively. Removal of the radiative effects of cloud cover variability from all sky surface solar radiation results in a quantity called "clear sky proxy" radiation, in which multidecadal trends can be seen more distinctly, suggesting aerosol radiative forcing as a likely cause. Prior work has shown climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) generally underestimate the magnitude of these trends, particularly over China and India. Here we perform a similar analysis with 173 simulations from 42 climate models participating in the new CMIP5. Results show negligible improvement over CMIP3, as CMIP5 dimming trends over four regions—Europe, China, India, and Japan—are all underestimated. This bias is largest for both India and China, where the multimodel mean yields a decrease in clear sky proxy radiation of -1.3±0.3 and -1.2±0.2 W m-2decade-1, respectively, compared to observed decreases of -6.5±0.9 and -8.2±1.3 W m-2decade-1. Similar underestimation of the observed dimming over Japan exists, with the CMIP5 mean dimming ˜20% as large as observed. Moreover, not a single simulation reproduces the magnitude of the observed dimming trend for these three regions. Relative to dimming, CMIP5 models better simulate the observed brightening, but significant underestimation exists for both China and Japan. Overall, no individual model performs particularly well for all four regions. Model biases do not appear to be related to the use of prescribed versus prognostic aerosols or to aerosol indirect effects. However, models exhibit significant correlations between clear sky proxy radiation and several aerosol-related fields, most notably aerosol optical depth (AOD) and absorption AOD. This suggests model underestimation of the observed trends is related to underestimation of aerosol direct radiative forcing and/or deficient aerosol emission inventories.

Allen, R. J.; Norris, J. R.; Wild, M.

2013-06-01

179

Efficacy of hand rubs with a low alcohol concentration listed as effective by a national hospital hygiene society in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background Some national hospital hygiene societies in Europe such as the French society for hospital hygiene (SFHH) have positive lists of disinfectants. Few hand disinfectants with a rather low concentration of ethanol are listed by one society as effective for hygienic hand disinfection with 3 mL in 30 s including a virucidal activity in 30 s or 60 s, but published data allow having doubts. We have therefore evaluated the efficacy of three commonly used hand disinfectants according to EN 1500 and EN 14476. Methods Products 1 (Aniosgel 85 NPC) and 2 (Aniosrub 85 NPC) were based on 70% ethanol, product 3 (ClinoGel derma+) on 60% ethanol and 15% isopropanol (all w/w). They were tested in 3 laboratories according to EN 1500. Three mL were applied for 30 s and compared to the reference treatment of 2 × 3 mL applications of isopropanol 60% (v/v), on hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli. Each laboratory used a cross-over design against the reference alcohol with 15 or 20 volunteers. The virucidal activity of the products was evaluated (EN 14476) in one laboratory against adenovirus and poliovirus in different concentrations (80%, 90%, 97%), with different organic loads (none; clean conditions; phosphate-buffered saline) for up to 3 min. Results Product 1 revealed a mean log10-reduction of 3.87 ± 0.79 (laboratory 1) and 4.38 ± 0.87 (laboratory 2) which was significantly lower compared to the reference procedure (4.62 ± 0.89 and 5.00 ± 0.87). In laboratory 3 product 1 was inferior to the reference disinfection (4.06 ± 0.86 versus 4.99 ± 0.90). Product 2 revealed similar results. Product 3 fulfilled the requirements in one laboratory but failed in the two other. None of the three products was able to reduce viral infectivity of both adenovirus and poliovirus by 4 log10 steps in 3 min according to EN 14476. Conclusions Efficacy data mentioned in a positive list published by a society for hospital hygiene should still be regarded with caution if they quite obviously contradict published data on the same or similar products.

2013-01-01

180

Tidal Tilt Measurement in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

FOR many years instruments have been installed in underground observatories throughout Europe and elsewhere to observe the tilting of the Earth's surface caused by Earth tides and the loading effects of the ocean and shallow-sea tides. Analysis methods have been developed to permit comparison between the measured data and theoretical tides generated from astronomical data and information concerning Earth rigidity

G. C. P. King; R. G. Bilham

1973-01-01

181

Measuring Muslim Integration in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (established by the Council of Europe in 1997) has warned that anti-terrorism security measures risk disrupting the task of integrating Muslim communities in EU member states. Without reliable statistics, the effects of these measures are difficult to assess. Fears of Muslim radicalization and “cultural conflict” can then be exploited to justify just

Pamela Irving Jackson

2009-01-01

182

The foot in multistage ultra-marathon runners: experience in a cohort study of 22 participants of the Trans Europe Footrace Project with mobile MRI  

PubMed Central

Objectives 67 runners participated in the Trans Europe FootRace 2009 (TEFR09), a 4487?km (2789 mi) multistage ultra-marathon covering the south of Europe (Bari, Italy) to the North Cape. Reports on ultra-marathons are lacking, but the literature reports overuse injuries in athletes, especially to the Achilles tendon (AT), ankle or hind foot. Bone oedema may be related to exposure and is present in fatigue fractures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine prospectively if sustained maximal load during an ultra-marathon leads to damage to the foot. Design and participants In a cohort study, repeated scanning of the 22 athletes participating in the study was performed before and during (approximately every 1000?km) the race. Using the obtained fat saturated inversion recovery sequence, two experienced readers blinded to the clinical data rated the images regarding foot lesions. Statistical analysis included regression analysis and computation of the inter-rater reliability. Setting The TEFR09 course. MRI scanning was performed according to prearranged schedules for every participant, using a mobile 1.5?Tesla MRI unit on a trailer following the race. Primary outcome measures MRI data such as AT diameter, bone or tendon lesions, subcutaneous, plantar fascia or intraosseous oedema. Results The 22 study participants did not differ significantly from the total of the 67 TEFR09 runners regarding height, weight and age. The AT diameter increased significantly from 6.8 to 7.8?mm as did intraosseous signal, bone lesions and subcutaneous oedema. However, finishers differed only regarding plantar aponeurosis and subcutaneous oedema from participants aborting the TEFR09. Inter-rater reliability was 0.88–0.98. Conclusion Under the extreme stress of the TEFR09, an increase of the AT diameter as well as bone signal are thought to be adaptive since only subcutaneous oedema and plantar fascia oedema were related to abortion of the race. Trial registration number University of Ulm, Germany Ethics Committee Number 78/08-UBB/se.

Weber, Frank; Billich, Christian; Schuetz, Uwe H

2012-01-01

183

Enhancement of the aerosol direct radiative effect by semi-volatile aerosol components: airborne measurements in North-Western Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case study of atmospheric aerosol measurements exploring the impact of the vertical distribution of aerosol chemical composition upon the radiative budget in North-Western Europe is presented. Sub-micron aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) on both an airborne platform and a ground-based site at Cabauw in the Netherlands. The examined period in May 2008

W. T. Morgan; J. D. Allan; K. N. Bower; M. Esselborn; B. Harris; J. S. Henzing; E. J. Highwood; A. Kiendler-Scharr; G. R. McMeeking; A. A. Mensah; M. J. Northway; S. Osborne; P. I. Williams; R. Krejci; H. Coe

2010-01-01

184

A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic relationships of numerous branches within the core Y-chromosome haplogroup R-M207 support a West Asian origin of haplogroup R1b, its initial differentiation there followed by a rapid spread of one of its sub-clades carrying the M269 mutation to Europe. Here, we present phylogeographically resolved data for 2043 M269-derived Y-chromosomes from 118 West Asian and European populations assessed for the M412 SNP that largely separates the majority of Central and West European R1b lineages from those observed in Eastern Europe, the Circum-Uralic region, the Near East, the Caucasus and Pakistan. Within the M412 dichotomy, the major S116 sub-clade shows a frequency peak in the upper Danube basin and Paris area with declining frequency toward Italy, Iberia, Southern France and British Isles. Although this frequency pattern closely approximates the spread of the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), Neolithic culture, an advent leading to a number of pre-historic cultural developments during the past ?10 thousand years, more complex pre-Neolithic scenarios remain possible for the L23(xM412) components in Southeast Europe and elsewhere.

Myres, Natalie M; Rootsi, Siiri; Lin, Alice A; Jarve, Mari; King, Roy J; Kutuev, Ildus; Cabrera, Vicente M; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Rudan, Pavao; Baldovic, Marian; Herrera, Rene J; Chiaroni, Jacques; Di Cristofaro, Julie; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A

2011-01-01

185

The Manhattan Project and its Effects on American Women Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been many detailed historical accounts of the Manhattan Project, but few have recognized the technical role women scientists and engineers crucially played in the Project's success. Despite their absence from these prominent accounts, recent studies have revealed that, in fact, women participated in every non-combat operation associated with the Manhattan Project. With such extensive participation of women and such a former lack of historical attention upon them, little analysis has been done on how the Manhattan Project might have influenced the prospectus of women scientists after the war. This talk has two aims: 1) to recount some of the technical and scientific contributions of women to the Manhattan Project, and 2) to examine what effects these contributions had on the women's careers as scientists. In other words, I intend offer a preliminary explanation of the extent to which the Manhattan Project acted both as a boon and as a detriment to American women scientists. And finally, I will address what this historical analysis could imply about the effects of current efforts to recruit women into science.

Fletcher, Samuel

2008-04-01

186

Peatland-GHG emissions in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managed peatlands are hot spots for CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. GHG which have been not fully integrated in past European climate projects. Peatlands contribute to European GHG emissions 10 times more per unit area than other terrestrial ecosystems. Peatland management and exploration by drainage, agricultural use and peat extraction turned pristine peatland GHG sinks into sources. Emissions can reach more than 40 t CO2equiv. ha-1 a-1 in intensively managed peatlands. On the other hand, the restoration of degraded peatlands does normally reduce these emissions significantly towards climate neutral levels, once the restoration work is done wisely. But in some cases the net climate effect do not decrease significantly depending on hydrological regimes, fertilization status of the peatlands, climate and vegetation type. In many European countries with significant peatland cover nationally funded projects were set up to investigate peatland GHG fluxes and their drivers. These scattered data and knowledge are currently being brought together under the coverage of the GHG-Europe project (Grant agreement no.: 244122) within a new synthesis to develop the relevant EF, identify the drivers and develop upscaling options for GHG-emissions. The talk will: (1) show a first cut of new Emission Factors for peatlands in Europe and compare these with IPCC-default values. (2) discuss the developed sensible response functions for GHG-fluxes against natural and anthropogenic drivers such as land use intensity, land management with drainage and climate variability. (3) show case studies from Germany show the applicability of response functions for upscaling of GHG-balances. (4) An outlook is given to the future European peatland GHG-Balance.

Droesler, Matthias

2013-04-01

187

The Contribution of Local Experiments and Negotiation Processes to Field-Level Learning in Emerging (Niche) Technologies: Meta-Analysis of 27 New Energy Projects in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how local experiments and negotiation processes contribute to social and field-level learning. The analysis is framed within the niche development literature, which offers a framework for analyzing the relation between projects in local contexts and the transfer of local experiences into generally applicable rules. The…

Raven, Rob P. J. M.; Heiskanen, Eva; Lovio, Raimo; Hodson, Mike; Brohmann, Bettina

2008-01-01

188

Transhorizon cochannel interference path measurements in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing methods for predicting co-channel interference levels are very inadequate, and development of these methods has been severely limited by the lack of suitable data. There are particular problems within Europe because there is a wide range of climatic and geographical conditions. COST Project 210 was set up to provide suitable data and prediction methods. The prime objective is to develop and evaluate models to serve as a basis for frequency planning co-ordination procedures and interference calculations, in order to improve the organization of further radio communication systems within Europe. After giving an up-to-date statement on the COST 210 activities set out above, early results obtained from three representative areas of study are given: (1) statistics of high signal level, and case studies, essentially in clear-air conditions, on paths of 150 to 300 km from France to the U.K. (in collaboration with CNET (Paris), CNET (Lannion), Portsmouth Polytechnic, IBA and RSGB); (2) hydrometeor scatter studies using a 10 cm wavelength dual-polarization radar at RAL, where a radar-derived raincell database is being used to simulate interference paths and to examine relative effects of ice and rain, etc; and (3) hydrometeor scatter statistics and case studies on a 131 km overland path (in collaboration with DTI), and a 48 km overland path, both in conjunction with the radar mentioned above, and two oversea paths of 201 and 302 km (in collaboration with CNET).

Hall, Martin P. M.

1988-12-01

189

Effects of Projected Transient Changes in Climate on Tennessee Forests  

SciTech Connect

This study examines transient effects of projected climate change on the structure and species composition of forests in Tennessee. The climate change scenarios for 2030 and 2080 were provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) from three General Circulation Models (GCMs) that simulate the range of potential climate conditions for the state. The precipitation and temperature projections from the three GCMs for 2030 and 2080 were related to changes in the ecoregions by using the monthly record of temperature and precipitation from 1980 to 1997 for each 1 km cell across the state as aggregated into the five ecological provinces. Temperatures are projected to increase in all ecological provinces in all months for all three GCMs for both 2030 and 2080. Precipitation patterns are more complex with one model projecting wetter summers and two models projecting drier summers. The forest ecosystem model LINKAGES was used to simulate conditions in forest stands for the five ecological provinces of Tennessee from 1989 to 2300. These model runs suggest there will be a change in tree diversity and species composition in all ecological provinces with the greatest changes occurring in the Southern Mixed Forest province. Most projections show a decline in total tree biomass followed by recovery as species replacement occurs in stands. The changes in forest biomass and composition, as simulated in this study, are likely to have implications on forest economy, tourism, understory conditions, wildlife habitat, mast provisioning, and other services provided by forest systems.

Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Tharp, M Lynn [ORNL; Lannom, Karen O. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hodges, Donald G. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2010-01-01

190

Effects of Applied Strain on Rates of Ageing: Project Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the stated intents of this project has been to make some assessment of effects of strain on rates of ageing of project thermoplastics exposed to project fluids. To this end, certain straining jigs which apply in various modes - tensile, four-point bending and crack growth using compact tension samples - were designed and made for holding samples during fluid exposures. During testing, features of the thermoplastics have been observed which have tended to confuse apparent strain effects on the polymers' aged performance, but recent assessments of the topic and its data have led to considerable progress being made in identifying test procedures necessary for strain and related effects on chemical deterioration to manifest themselves. It is the intent of this report to provide a summary of what has been determined on strain and related effects thus far, and provide recommendations for clarifying them in Phase 2 by means of further test procedures which will increase and focus the severity of the conditions applying. The choice of flexible pipe rather than umbilicals service for assessing service strain conditions reflects the major interest of project members. However, Tefzel data are still provided.

Campion, R. P.

1997-01-01

191

Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe  

SciTech Connect

Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Planning and Strategic Business Development Div.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Glicken, J. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S. [Columbia Environmental Services, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States)

1997-05-01

192

Coexistence of effects from an algebra of two projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coexistence relation of quantum effects is a fundamental structure, describing those pairs of experimental events that can be implemented in a single setup. Only in the simplest case of qubit effects is an analytic characterization of coexistent pairs known. We generalize the qubit coexistence characterization to all pairs of effects in arbitrary dimensions that belong to the von Neumann algebra generated by two projections. We demonstrate the presented mathematical machinery by several examples, and show that it covers physically relevant classes of effect pairs.

Heinosaari, Teiko; Kiukas, Jukka; Reitzner, Daniel

2014-06-01

193

NASA atmospheric effects of aviation projects: Status and plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project is developing a scientific basis for assessment of the atmospheric impact of subsonic and supersonic aviation. Issues addressed include predicted ozone changes and climatic impact, and related uncertainties. A primary goal is to assist assessments of United Nations scientific organizations and, hence, consideration of emission standards by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Project focus is on simulation of atmospheric processes by computer models, but studies of aircraft operations, laboratory studies, and remote and in situ observations of chemical, dynamic, and radiative processes are also included.

Wesoky, Howard L.; Thompson, Anne M.; Stolarski, Richard S.

1994-01-01

194

OneGeology-Europe Plus Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geological Surveys of the European countries hold valuable resources of geological data but, to discover, understand and use this data efficiently, a good level of standardization is essential. The OneGeology-Europe project had the aim of making geological maps at a scale 1:1M from Europe discoverable and accessible, available under a common data license and described by multilingual metainformation. A harmonized specification for basic geological map data was developed so that significant progress towards harmonizing the datasets was achieved. Responsibility for the management of the OneGeology-Europe portal has been taken by EuroGeoSurveys and provided by CGS and BRGM. Of the 34 members of EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), only 20 participated in the OneGeology-Europe project (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Spain, United Kingdom), so the European area was not completely covered. At the 33rd General Meeting and Directors Workshop in 2012 it was therefore decided to establish a successor initiative OneGeology Europe Plus (1G-E+) with the purpose of extending the coverage by geological maps at a scale of 1:1 M to all the EGS member countries (including Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Iceland, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine) and also, if possible, to the other European countries (Belorussia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Faeroe Islands, Kosovo, Latvia, Macedonia, Moldavia, Montenegro, Serbia). In order to achieve the desired result, it has been necessary for the new GSOs who intend to supply the additional 1G-E standardized services to carry out the work using their own staff and resources. The technical guidance and other support have been provided by the 1G-E+ Technical Support Team, funded from the internal budgets of their respective surveys. The team is coordinated by the Czech Geological Survey (CGS) working with the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), the British Geological Survey (BGS), the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the Geological Survey of Slovenia (GeoZS). The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (TNO) decided to provide financial support for the initiative. The Technical Support Team has been providing the technical advice required to enable the inclusion of geological maps from new countries in the 1G-E Portal using the standards developed and accepted for 1G-E. Cookbooks, on-line help and a helpdesk are provided during the work. A technical workshop was organized at which all the technical steps required to reach the target solution were presented and discussed. All newcomers must agree the existing common license that was created for downloading the 1G-E data. It should be emphasized that the results will be displayed as part of the 1G-E project and metadata/portal infrastructures. The process is still ongoing because the harmonization work for most of the countries involved has been a demanding process. Some countries are facing difficulties because of the lack of expert personnel or insufficient resources of data. Despite some problems, the 1G-E+ initiative and the work involved has contributed to effective networking and technical cooperation between the GSOs across the wider European region.

Capova, Dana; Kondrova, Lucie

2014-05-01

195

Screening and Rapid Molecular Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Prisons in Russia and Eastern Europe: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Prisons of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have high rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and are thought to drive general population tuberculosis (TB) epidemics. Effective prison case detection, though employing more expensive technologies, may reduce long-term treatment costs and slow MDR-TB transmission. Methods and Findings We developed a dynamic transmission model of TB and drug resistance matched to the epidemiology and costs in FSU prisons. We evaluated eight strategies for TB screening and diagnosis involving, alone or in combination, self-referral, symptom screening, mass miniature radiography (MMR), and sputum PCR with probes for rifampin resistance (Xpert MTB/RIF). Over a 10-y horizon, we projected costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and TB and MDR-TB prevalence. Using sputum PCR as an annual primary screening tool among the general prison population most effectively reduced overall TB prevalence (from 2.78% to 2.31%) and MDR-TB prevalence (from 0.74% to 0.63%), and cost US$543/QALY for additional QALYs gained compared to MMR screening with sputum PCR reserved for rapid detection of MDR-TB. Adding sputum PCR to the currently used strategy of annual MMR screening was cost-saving over 10 y compared to MMR screening alone, but produced only a modest reduction in MDR-TB prevalence (from 0.74% to 0.69%) and had minimal effect on overall TB prevalence (from 2.78% to 2.74%). Strategies based on symptom screening alone were less effective and more expensive than MMR-based strategies. Study limitations included scarce primary TB time-series data in FSU prisons and uncertainties regarding screening test characteristics. Conclusions In prisons of the FSU, annual screening of the general inmate population with sputum PCR most effectively reduces TB and MDR-TB prevalence, doing so cost-effectively. If this approach is not feasible, the current strategy of annual MMR is both more effective and less expensive than strategies using self-referral or symptom screening alone, and the addition of sputum PCR for rapid MDR-TB detection may be cost-saving over time. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Winetsky, Daniel E.; Negoescu, Diana M.; DeMarchis, Emilia H.; Almukhamedova, Olga; Dooronbekova, Aizhan; Pulatov, Dilshod; Vezhnina, Natalia; Owens, Douglas K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

2012-01-01

196

In situ bioremediation in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Site remediation activity in Europe is increasing, even if not at the forced pace of the US. Although there is a better understanding of the benefits of bioremediation than of other approaches, especially about in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, relatively few projects have been carried out full-scale in Europe or in the US. Some engineering companies and large industrial companies in Europe are investigating bioremediation and biotreatment technologies, in some cases to solve their internal waste problems. Technologies related to the application of microorganisms to the soil, release of nutrients into the soil, and enhancement of microbial decontamination are being tested through various additives such as surfactants, ion exchange resins, limestone, or dolomite. New equipment has been developed for crushing and mixing or injecting and sparging the microorganisms, as have new reactor technologies (e.g., rotating aerator reactors, biometal sludge reactors, and special mobile containers for simultaneous storage, transportation, and biodegradation of contaminated soil). Some work has also been done with immobilized enzymes to support and restore enzymatic activities related to partial or total xenobiotic decontamination. Finally, some major programs funded by public and private institutions confirm that increasing numbers of firms have a working interest in bioremediation.

Porta, A. [Battelle Europe, Geneva (CH); Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

1993-06-01

197

No effects of Bacillus thuringiensis maize on nontarget organisms in the field in southern Europe: a meta-analysis of 26 arthropod taxa.  

PubMed

Maize with the insecticidal properties of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, known as Bt maize, has been sown in Europe since 1998. For several years, EU and Spanish regulations have required laboratory and field trials to assess risks of genetically modified crops for nontarget organisms prior to their authorization. Thirteen field trials were conducted in Spain to measure the effects of Bt maize on a broad range of arthropod taxa; no effects were found in accordance with most literature records. However, statistical analyses of single trials rarely have the statistical power to detect low effect sizes if they do not have a sufficient sample size. When sample size is low, meta-analysis may improve statistical power by combining several trials and assuming a common measure of effect size. Here we perform a meta-analysis of the results of 13 independent field trials conducted in Spain in which effects of single or stacked Bt traits on several arthropod taxa were measured with no significant results. Since the taxa included in each single trial were not the same for all trials, for the meta-analysis we selected only those taxa recorded in a minimum of six trials, resulting finally in 7, 7, and 12 taxa analyzed in visual counts, pitfall traps and yellow sticky traps, respectively. In comparison with single trial analysis, meta-analysis dramatically increased the detectability of treatment effects for most of the taxa regardless of the sampling technique; of the 26 taxa analyzed, only three showed poorer detectability in the meta-analysis than the best recorded in the 13 single trials. This finding reinforces the conclusion that Bt maize has no effect on the most common herbivore, predatory and parasitoid arthropods found in the maize ecosystems of southern Europe. PMID:23904218

Comas, C; Lumbierres, B; Pons, X; Albajes, R

2014-02-01

198

Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first part of the presentation is devoted to the consequences of the severe accident in the 1986 Chernobyl NPP. It lead to a substantial radioactive contaminated of large parts of Europe and thus raised the awareness for off-site nuclear accident consequences. Spatial patterns of the (transient) contamination of the air and (persistent) contamination of the ground were studied by both measurements and model simulations. For a variety of reasons, ground contamination measurements have variability at a range of spatial scales. Results will be reviewed and discussed. Model simulations, including inverse modelling, have shown that the standard source term as defined in the ATMES study (1990) needs to be updated. Sensitive measurements of airborne activities still reveal the presence of low levels of airborne radiocaesium over the northern hemisphere which stems from resuspension. Over time scales of months and years, the distribution of radionuclides in the Earth system is constantly changing, for example relocated within plants, between plants and soil, in the soil, and into water bodies. Motivated by the permanent risk of transboundary impacts from potential major nuclear accidents, the multidisciplinary project flexRISK (see http://flexRISK.boku.ac.at) has been carried out from 2009 to 2012 in Austria to quantify such risks and hazards. An overview of methods and results of flexRISK is given as a second part of the presentation. For each of the 228 NPPs, severe accidents were identified together with relevant inventories, release fractions, and release frequencies. Then, Europe-wide dispersion and dose calculations were performed for 2788 cases, using the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. Maps of single-case results as well as various aggregated risk parameters were produced. It was found that substantial consequences (intervention measures) are possible for distances up to 500-1000 km, and occur more frequently for a distance range up to 100-300 km, which is in agreement with Chernobyl experiences. However, emergency planning presently is still often focussing on too small areas. In reality, almost all of Europe should be prepared for nuclear disaster. The project investigated also the effect of a simple phase-out scenario. A regional phase-out policy is effective for reducing or even eliminating high damage in the respective regions. It should also be mentioned that risk distribution depends strongly on accident frequency, but this parameter is highly uncertain. The work in flexRISK was funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund (KLI.EN).

Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

2013-04-01

199

Evaluation of Enviro-HIRLAM model and aerosols effect during wildfires episodes in Europe and Central Russia in summer 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The summer of 2010 was characterized by severe weather events such as floods, heat waves and droughts across Middle East, most of Europe and European Russia. Among them the wildfires in Portugal and European Russia were some of the most prominent and led to substantial increase of atmospheric aerosols concentration. For instance, pollution from Russian wildfires, which were the most noticeable, spread around the entire central part of the country and also dispersed towards the Northern Europe. This study is devoted to Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) model evaluation and analysis of radiation balance change due to increased aerosol burden caused by wildfires in Russia. For this purpose the model was forced by boundary and initial conditions produced by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) IFS and MOZART models for meteorology and atmospheric composition, respectively. The model setup included aerosol microphysics module M7 with simple tropospheric sulfur chemistry, anthropogenic emissions by TNO, wildfires emissions by FMI and interactive sea-salt and dust emissions. During the model run surface data assimilation of meteorological parameters was applied. The HIRLAM Savijarvi radiation scheme has been improved to account explicitly for aerosol radiation interactions. So that the short-wave radiative transfer calculations are performed as standard 2-stream calculations for averages of aerosol optical properties weighted over the entire spectrum. The model shows good correlation of particulate matter (PM) concentrations on diurnal cycle as well as day-to-day variability, but one always has negative bias of PM. The Enviro-HIRLAM is able to capture concentration peaks both from short-term and long-term trans boundary transport of PM and predicted the Aerosol Optical Thickness (at 550 nm) up to 2 over wildfire-polluted regions. And the direct radiative forcing is less than -100 W/m2.

Nuterman, Roman; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Baklanov, Alexander; Kaas, Eigil

2014-05-01

200

Treatment of patients with ruptured aneurysm by neurosurgeons that perform both open surgical and endovascular techniques is safe and effective: results of a single centre in Europe.  

PubMed

In Europe only few neurosurgeons are trained in both open surgical clipping as well as in endovascular techniques for treatment of intracranial aneurysms. To investigate the safety and efficacy of performing both techniques we, two dual trained neurosurgeons, analyzed our results in repairing ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Prospectively collected data from 356 patients that underwent open surgical or endovascular repair of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm at the Neurosurgical Centre Nijmegen from 2006 to 2012 by two dual trained neurosurgeons were retrospectively analyzed. Complication rates, occlusion rates, and retreatment rates were obtained. Combined procedural persistent neurological morbidity and mortality after endovascular treatment and open surgical clipping were 2.1 % and 1.4 %, respectively. Overall procedure-related clinical complication rate for endovascular treatment was 5.9 % in 285 procedures for 295 aneurysms. Overall procedure-related clinical complication rate for open treatment was 9.9 % in 71 procedures for 72 aneurysms. Follow-up was available for 255 out of 295 coiled aneurysms, 48 aneurysms recurred and 34 needed retreatment. For clipping 54 out of 72 treated aneurysms had follow-up; four aneurysms were incompletely clipped. One aneurysm was retreated. Treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms by neurosurgeons that perform both open surgical clipping as well as endovascular techniques is safe and effective. Developing training programs in Europe for hybrid neurosurgeons that can provide comprehensive patient care should be considered. PMID:24789710

de Vries, Joost; Boogaarts, Hieronymus D

2014-07-01

201

An Effective Algorithm for Project Scheduling with Arbitrary Temporal Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resource-constrained project scheduling problem with time windows (RCPSP\\/max) is an important generalization of a number of well studied scheduling problems. In this paper, we present a new heuristic algorithm that combines the benefits of squeaky wheel optimization with an effective conflict resolution mechanism, called bulldozing, to address RCPSP\\/max problems. On a range of benchmark problems, the algorithm is competitive

Tristan B. Smith; John M. Pyle

2004-01-01

202

Development of superconducting power devices in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Europe celebrated last year (2008) the 100-year anniversary of the first liquefaction of helium by H. Kammerling Onnes in Leiden. It led to the discovery of superconductivity in 1911. Europe is still active in the development of superconducting (SC) devices. The discovery of high critical temperature materials in 1986, again in Europe, has opened a lot of opportunities for SC devices by broking the 4 K cryogenic bottleneck. Electric networks experience deep changes due to the emergence of dispersed generation (renewable among other) and to the advances in ICT (Information Communication Technologies). The networks of the future will be “smart grids”. Superconductivity will offer “smart” devices for these grids like FCL (Fault Current Limiter) or VLI (Very Low Inductance) cable and would certainly play an important part. Superconductivity also will participate to the required sustainable development by lowering the losses and enhancing the mass specific powers. Different SC projects in Europe will be presented (Cable, FCL, SMES, Flywheel and Electrical Machine) but the description is not exhaustive. Nexans has commercialized the first two FCLs without public funds in the European grid (UK and Germany). The Amsterdam HTS cable is an exciting challenge in term of losses for long SC cables. European companies (Nexans, Air Liquide, Siemens, Converteam, …) are also very active for projects outside Europe (LIPA, DOE FCL, …).

Tixador, Pascal

2010-11-01

203

Estimating intervention effectiveness: synthetic projection of field evaluation results.  

PubMed

In a 46-site, 5-year high-risk youth substance abuse prevention evaluation, effect sizes were adjusted using a meta-analytic regression technique to project potential effectiveness under more optimal research and implementation conditions. Adjusting effect size estimates to control for the impact of comparison group prevention exposure, service intensity, and coherent program implementation raised the mean effectiveness estimate from near zero (.02, SD = .21) to .24 (SD = .18). This finding suggests that adolescent prevention programs can have significant positive effects under optimal, yet obtainable conditions. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The authors present a meta-analytic technique that promises to be an important tool for understanding what works in multi-site community-based prevention settings. Researchers will find this to be a creative approach to model the "noise'' in implementation that may often overshadow the potential impact of prevention programs. PMID:15995802

Derzon, James H; Sale, Elizabeth; Springer, J Fred; Brounstein, Paul

2005-07-01

204

Feasibility and Effectiveness of Indicator Condition-Guided Testing for HIV: Results from HIDES I (HIV Indicator Diseases across Europe Study)  

PubMed Central

Improved methods for targeting HIV testing among patients most likely to be infected are required; HIDES I aimed to define the methodology of a European wide study of HIV prevalence in individuals presenting with one of eight indicator conditions/diseases (ID); sexually transmitted infection, lymphoma, cervical or anal cancer/dysplasia, herpes zoster, hepatitis B/C, mononucleosis-like illness, unexplained leukocytopenia/thrombocytopenia and seborrheic dermatitis/exanthema, and to identify those with an HIV prevalence of >0.1%, a level determined to be cost effective. A staff questionnaire was performed. From October 2009– February 2011, individuals, not known to be HIV positive, presenting with one of the ID were offered an HIV test; additional information was collected on previous HIV testing behaviour and recent medical history. A total of 3588 individuals from 16 centres were included. Sixty-six tested positive for HIV, giving an HIV prevalence of 1.8% [95% CI: 1.42–2.34]; all eight ID exceeded 0.1% prevalence. Of those testing HIV positive, 83% were male, 58% identified as MSM and 9% were injecting drug users. Twenty percent reported previously having potentially HIV-related symptoms and 52% had previously tested HIV negative (median time since last test: 1.58 years); which together with the median CD4 count at diagnosis (400 cell/uL) adds weight to this strategy being effective in diagnosing HIV at an earlier stage. A positive test was more likely for non-white individuals, MSM, injecting drug users and those testing in non-Northern regions. HIDES I describes an effective strategy to detect undiagnosed HIV infection. All eight ID fulfilled the >0.1% criterion for cost effectiveness. All individuals presenting to any health care setting with one of these ID should be strongly recommended an HIV test. A strategy is being developed in collaboration with ECDC and WHO Europe to guide the implementation of this novel public health initiative across Europe.

Sullivan, Ann K.; Raben, Dorthe; Reekie, Joanne; Rayment, Michael; Mocroft, Amanda; Esser, Stefan; Leon, Agathe; Begovac, Josip; Brinkman, Kees; Zangerle, Robert; Grzeszczuk, Anna; Vassilenko, Anna; Hadziosmanovic, Vesna; Krasnov, Maksym; Sonnerborg, Anders; Clumeck, Nathan; Gatell, Jose; Gazzard, Brian; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Rockstroh, Jurgen; Lundgren, Jens D.

2013-01-01

205

West Europe Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains articles about Western Europe. Some topics discussed are socialism, political parties, international relations, foreign policy, sociology, consumerism, economics, military operations, commerce, industries, energy, trade, private inv...

1987-01-01

206

Environment for Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with how European policy makers are trying to work out a distinctively European approach to environmental problems which Europe is experiencing. Atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems pollutions from various sources and efforts ...

1995-01-01

207

Quantifying Nitrogen Fluxes and Their Influence on the Greenhouse gas Balance Research Strategy and new Findings From the NitroEurope Integrated Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human-driven production of reactive nitrogen to stimulate agricultural productivity and its unintended formation in combustion processes both have major impacts on the global environment. Effects of excess reactive nitrogen include reductions in air quality, water quality, soil quality and biodiversity. One of the most controversial impacts of nitrogen, however, is on the greenhouse gas balance. While recent papers have

M. Sutton; E. Nemitz; S. Reis; C. Beier; K. Butterbach-Bahl; P. Cellier; M. F. Cotrufo; J. W. Erisman; U. M. Skiba; W. de Vries; S. Zechmeister-Baltenstern; A. Bleeker; P. Calanca; T. Dalgaard; U. Dragosits; J. H. Duyzer; P. Gundersen; A. Hensen; H. Kros; A. Leip; M. Obersteiner; J. E. Olesen; G. Phillips; R. M. Rees; P. E. Smith; J. Soussana; Y. Tang; M. R. Theobald; A. van Amstel; M. van Oijen; M. Bakker; T. Vesala

2008-01-01

208

Where Europe meets Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from a portion of the imagery acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera during 2000-2002 were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of southwestern Europe and northwestern Morocco and Algeria. The image extends from 48oN, 16oW in the northwest to 32oN, 8oE in the southeast. It is displayed in Albers conic equal-area projection (a projection which is frequently used for equal-area maps of regions that are predominantly east-west in extent).

From the northeast, the image traverses a portion of the Swiss Alps (partially snow-covered) and a small part of Italy's Po Valley. The northern portion of the image also includes the western coast of France and much of southern and southwestern France's undulating terrain, which continues until reaching the hills of the Pyrenees. The Pyrenees act as the natural frontier to the Iberian Peninsula -- a landmass comprised of Spain and Portugal. The Peninsular landscapes are extremely varied, with some almost desert-like, others green and fertile. About half of Spain is situated atop a high plain, known as the Central Plateau, and many mountain ranges, rivers, geological basement rock and vegetation types are found across this great plateau. The largest alluvial plain is Andalusia in the south, where the valley of the Guadalquivir River is shut in by mountain ranges on every side except the southwest, where the valley descends to the Atlantic. The islands of Mallorca, Menorca and Ibiza are Spanish territories in the western Mediterranean. At the Strait of Gibralter, Spain and Morocco very nearly kiss, and Morocco appears relatively verdant along its northern coastal corner. The rugged Atlas Mountain ranges traverse northern Algeria and Morocco.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during 2000-2002. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2005-01-01

209

Project D.A.R.E. Outcome Effectiveness Revisited  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We provide an updated meta-analysis on the effectiveness of Project D.A.R.E. in preventing alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among school-aged youths. Methods. We used meta-analytic techniques to create an overall effect size for D.A.R.E. outcome evaluations reported in scientific journals. Results. The overall weighted effect size for the included D.A.R.E. studies was extremely small (correlation coefficient = 0.011; Cohen d = 0.023; 95% confidence interval = ?0.04, 0.08) and nonsignificant (z = 0.73, NS). Conclusions. Our study supports previous findings indicating that D.A.R.E. is ineffective.

West, Steven L.; O'Neal, Keri K.

2004-01-01

210

Interactive effects of cations on multi-decade trends in sulfate and acid deposition in North America and Europe: a new look at an old problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization and industrial activities have profoundly altered both local and regional precipitation chemistry, with strong implications for soil and receiving water biogeochemistry. For example, increased N and S in precipitation have altered soil and water nutrient status and acidity, with mitigating effects from altered cation deposition. In 1995, Hedin et al. reported steep declines in atmospheric deposition of base cations in Europe and North America that offset the success of the 40-year history of regulation of acid precipitation, especially through sulfate control from urbanization and industrial activities. Using records from various sources including the North American LTER program, NADP, and the European EMAP data set, we extended the temporal extent of the analysis by 15 years to 2009 and expanded the analysis spatially by examining three contrasting site types with: (i) continuously high pollution and acidic deposition loads, (ii) historically high loads that experienced abrupt declines in atmospheric loading due to economic and industrial collapse (e.g. much of Eastern Europe), and (iii) relatively low and constant pollutant loading (e.g. western North America). Our goals were to (1) determine the spatial extent of the steep decline in cation deposition, (2) examine correlates, such as fossil fuel energy use and land management practices, to trends in cation deposition, and (3) determine more recent temporal trends in cation deposition in urbanized and rural sites. Our analysis suggests that for many sites that showed steep declines in base cation deposition in the earlier analysis, such as Sweden and New England, base cation deposition has stabilized at a lower rate, and sulfate and acidity in precipitation continue to decline. Other sites, particularly in Eastern Europe, are still experiencing steep declines in cation deposition with strong implications for the relationship between sulfate deposition and precipitation acidity. Other regions without significant changes in land use or energy use (such as Spain) have not shown significant changes in cation deposition. Yet other sites, such as those in western North America, have shown more recent declines in cation deposition perhaps related to changes in land use and management.

Lajtha, K.; Jones, J. A.

2010-12-01

211

The potential of fuelwood to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project FEEDS (Fuelwood in Europe for Environment and Development Strategies) has been carried out to analyze possibilities of increasing fuelwood use for five selected European countries in the year 2020, considering environmental, technical and socio-economic aspects. In this paper the effects of increased use of fuelwood on emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2, CH4 and N2O, are

H. Schwaiger; B. Schlamadinger

1998-01-01

212

Diabetes in Europe: an update.  

PubMed

Diabetes is among the leading causes of death in the IDF Europe Region (EUR), continues to increase in prevalence with diabetic macro- and microvascular complications resulting in increased disability and enormous healthcare costs. In 2013, the number of people with diabetes is estimated to be 56 million in EUR with an overall estimated prevalence of 8.5%. However, estimates of diabetes prevalence in 2013 vary widely in the 56 diverse countries in EUR from 2.4% in Moldova to 14.9% in Turkey. Trends in diabetes prevalence also vary between countries with stable prevalence since 2002 for many countries but a doubling of diabetes prevalence in Turkey. For 2035, a further increase of nearly 10 million people with diabetes is projected for the EUR. Prevalence of type 1 has also increased over the past 20 years in EUR and there was estimated to be 129,350 cases in children aged 0-14 years in 2013. Registries provide valid information on incidence of type 1 diabetes with more complete data available for children than for adults. There are large differences in distribution of risk factors for diabetes at the population level in EUR. Modifiable risk factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, smoking behaviour (including secondhand smoking), environmental pollutants, psychosocial factors and socioeconomic deprivation could be tackled to reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Europe. In addition, diabetes management is a major challenge to health services in the European countries. Improved networking practices of health professionals and other stakeholders in combination with empowerment of people with diabetes and continuous quality monitoring need to be further developed in Europe. PMID:24300019

Tamayo, T; Rosenbauer, J; Wild, S H; Spijkerman, A M W; Baan, C; Forouhi, N G; Herder, C; Rathmann, W

2014-02-01

213

Describing the direct and indirect radiative effects of atmospheric aerosols over Europe by using coupled meteorology-chemistry simulations: a contribution from the AQMEII-Phase II exercise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the response of the aerosol levels in the atmosphere to a changing climate and how this affects the radiative budget of the Earth (direct, semi-direct and indirect effects) is an essential topic to build confidence on climate science, since these feedbacks involve the largest uncertainties nowadays. Air quality-climate interactions (AQCI) are, therefore, a key, but uncertain contributor to the anthropogenic forcing that remains poorly understood. To build confidence in the AQCI studies, regional-scale integrated meteorology-atmospheric chemistry models (i.e., models with on-line chemistry) that include detailed treatment of aerosol life cycle and aerosol impacts on radiation (direct effects) and clouds (indirect effects) are in demand. In this context, the main objective of this contribution is the study and definition of the uncertainties in the climate-chemistry-aerosol-cloud-radiation system associated to the direct radiative forcing and the indirect effect caused by aerosols over Europe, using an ensemble of fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry model simulations with the WRF-Chem model run under the umbrella of AQMEII-Phase 2 international initiative. Simulations were performed for Europe for the entire year 2010. According to the common simulation strategy, the year was simulated as a sequence of 2-day time slices. For better comparability, the seven groups applied the same grid spacing of 23 km and shared common processing of initial and boundary conditions as well as anthropogenic and fire emissions. With exception of a simulation with different cloud microphysics, identical physics options were chosen while the chemistry options were varied. Two model set-ups will be considered here: one sub-ensemble of simulations not taking into account any aerosol feedbacks (the baseline case) and another sub-ensemble of simulations which differs from the former by the inclusion of aerosol-radiation feedback. The existing differences for meteorological variables (mainly 2-m temperature and precipitation) and air quality levels (mainly ozone an PM10) between both sub-ensembles of WRF-Chem simulations have been characterized. In the case of ozone and PM10, an increase in solar radiation and temperature has generally resulted in an enhanced photochemical activity and therefore a negative feedback (areas with low aerosol concentrations present more than 50 W m-2 higher global radiation for cloudy conditions). However, simulated feedback effects between aerosol concentrations and meteorological variables and on pollutant distributions strongly depend on the model configuration and the meteorological situation. These results will help providing improved science-based foundations to better assess the impacts of climate variability, support the development of effective climate change policies and optimize private decision-making.

Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Balzarini, Alessandra; Baró, Rocío; Curci, Gabriele; Forkel, Renate; Hirtl, Marcus; Honzak, Luka; Langer, Matthias; Pérez, Juan L.; Pirovano, Guido; San José, Roberto; Tuccella, Paolo; Werhahn, Johannes; Zabkar, Rahela

2014-05-01

214

Holocene to contemporary fluvial sediment budgets in small glacier-fed valley-fjord systems (ESF-NRF SedyMONT - Norway Project, SedyMONT, TOPO-EUROPE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sediment budget study contains analysis and quantification of the processes of sediment production, storage and transfer. For constructing a sediment budget at a small-catchment scale (50-100 km2) it is necessary to integrate the temporal and spatial variations of supply of material from sediment sources, sediment transport and storage and to identify how far the different system components are coupled to each other. The analysis of sedimentary fluxes and budgets as well as their controls at different timescales (Holocene to contemporary) is a basis for the assessment of complex landscape responses to Holocene to recent changes in temperature, precipitation and runoff. This PhD project is part of the NFR funded Norwegian Individual Project within the ESF SedyMONT (Timescales of sediment dynamics, climate and topographic change in mountain landscapes) TOPO-EUROPE Programme. Two neighbouring glacier-fed valley-fjord systems (Erdalen & Bødalen) with a different topographic inheritance from Pleistocene glaciations are compared. It is of special interest how the different valley morphometries have influenced Holocene to contemporary sediment fluxes and budgets. Different approaches for sediment budget studies are used to interpret and understand the spatial and temporal sediment flux variability during the Holocene with the main focus on i) the quantification and analysis of storage element volumes for estimation of Holocene sedimentation rates and sediment yields, ii) the analysis of the spatial and temporal sediment flux variability, iii) the analysis of the linkages between sediment transfer and storage, iv) the analysis of controlling factors for postglacial, subrecent and contemporary sediment fluxes and v) the construction of Holocene to contemporary sediment budgets for Erdalen and Bødalen. Both valleys are instrumented with a year-round monitoring system (runoff, suspended and solute transport) for analysing fluvial sediment fluxes. The results enable to link sediment transport and runoff (events) and the spatial and temporal variability of sediment transport processes. In addition, several channel test stretches in the two catchments are defined. Channel surveys include seasonally repeated channel morphometry studies and pepple counts for bedload transport and storage estimations. Sediment traps are deployed to indentify different sediment sources using grain size and SEM analysis. Lake sediment investigations are focused on i) quantifying post-Little Ice Age to contemporary sedimentation rates, ii) the temporal variability of process rates and iii) the detection and analysis of sediment sources. Sediment cores are retrieved in defined lakes within Erdalen and Bødalen. Geophysical methods (Georadar, Geoseismic) are applied for calculation of the total valley infills and for interpretation of the stratigraphic architecture, with the goal to define the controlling factors for the postglacial sediment storage within the two glacially eroded valleys. This research contributes to the understanding of controls of Holocene to contemporary sedimentary processes and budgets in formerly glaciated steep mountain environments. This presentation was supported by the EUROCORES programme TOPO-EUROPE of the European Science Foundation.

Liermann, Susan; Beylich, Achim A.; Rubensdotter, Lena; Hansen, Louise

2010-05-01

215

Structural control and 3D modelling of a wrench rift basin: the Upper Rhine Graben of NW Europe as a case study - Contribution of the EU GeORG project.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) of NW Europe is a Cenozoic wrench rift basin about 300 km long and 30 to 40 km wide, with syn- to post-rift Eocene to Quaternary sedimentary fill up to 4 km thick. The EU transnational GeORG project aims to give a detailed knowledge of its deep geological structure, in order to assist the safe and successful use of its great geological potential (e.g. geothermal energy, CO2 sequestration...). Products are based on a Gocad 3D geological model of the URG (from the Variscan basement to the surface), mostly based on the interpretation of about 5400 km of reprocessed seismic lines (3900 km in Germany and 1500 km in France), and a database of about 2150 wells, from oil, mining and thermal water exploration. It's the first time that such an amount of subsurface data is gathered, studied and modelled in the URG. We put the emphasis on the inventory of the various observed structural features (e.g., normal and strike-slip faults, salt domes), and their implication regarding the structural evolution the URG. We demonstrate the predominant role of the Miocene-to-present NNE-SSW strike-slip regime of the URG, which is characterized by the development of transtensional faults and flower structures, local transpression and inversion of older normal fault planes. A remarkable feature is also the offset of reactivated Paleozoic basement faults, known outside the basin. Thus, the Neogene strike-slip deformation tends to obliterate the initial rift structure as well as its basement structural heritage, giving a distorted view of pre-Miocene structural styles. We finally present a new tectonic map of the subsurface of the URG, which unravels the imbricated structural pattern of the graben, and highlights the newly defined tectonic blocks, faults and fault zones.

Beccaletto, Laurent; Nitsch, Edgar; Anders, Birte; Dressmann, Horst; Rupf, Isabel; Tesch, Jörg; Zumsprekel, Heiko; Cruz-Mermy, Davy; Capar, Laure; GeORG Team

2013-04-01

216

Endemic syphilis in Europe.  

PubMed

Nonvenereal syphilis (endemic syphilis) has existed in Europe since the 16th century. Main characteristics of the disease are its presence for a longer time in a specific territory and its transmission regardless of age and sex, mainly extragenitally in unsanitary living conditions. Nonvenereal syphilis was described under different names in almost all regions of Europe. The primary genital chancre was absent, and lesions were most frequently found in the mouth and affected mostly children. The disease spread in rural areas with poor economic and hygienic conditions. The disease was eradicated in Europe in the 20th century, but it is still present in some rural regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Southwest Asia, and North Africa. PMID:24559557

Lipozen?i?, Jasna; Marinovi?, Branka; Gruber, Franjo

2014-01-01

217

Effect of a Collective Project on Group Cohesion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immediately before their second group therapy session, 10 newly formed inpatient therapy groups were randomly assigned to complete either collective or individual art projects. The members of a group in the collective-project condition completed a single art project as a group. Each member of a group assigned to the individual project condition…

Shipley, Robert H.

218

The effects of a regional telepathology project: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Telepathology, which is an emerging form of telemedicine in Canada, is defined as the electronic transmission of pathological images, usually derived from microscopes, from one location to another. There are various applications of telepathology, including case referral for an expert opinion, provision of an emergency service in the absence of a resident pathologist, and education. Until now, there has been relatively little use of telepathology for core diagnostic services in the absence of a local pathologist, but this practice is likely to increase in the future. The Laval University Integrated Health Network is in the process of deploying a telepathology system, primarily to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to small hospitals in sparsely populated areas which are experiencing a severe shortage of on-site pathologists. The telepathology project involves 17 hospitals located in five regions of eastern Quebec, Canada. This paper describes the study protocol that will be used to evaluate the benefits associated with the project. Methods/Design A panel of experts was first assembled by Canada Health Infoway to agree on a set of benefits indicators that could be applied to all telepathology projects across Canada. Using the set of indicators as an input, we have developed a three-step study protocol. First, a survey questionnaire will be distributed to appraise the way pathologists, pathology technologists and surgeons perceive the telepathology system and its impacts. Second, a series of semi-structured interviews will be conducted with project leaders and telepathology users at sites that are representative of all the hospitals in the Laval University Integrated Health Network. The overall aim is to better understand the expected and unexpected effects of telepathology on health care professionals and patients as well as on the regional organization and delivery of care services. Finally, a pre-post design using secondary data is proposed to evaluate a wide array of tangible benefits to the patients, the health care providers, the hospitals, and the region as a whole. Discussion The Laval University Integrated Health Network's telepathology project is expected to yield positive and significant results that are relevant internationally. Our findings will provide valuable information on the nature and extent of benefits associated with telepathology systems intended to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to remote hospitals experiencing a shortage of specialists.

2012-01-01

219

Optical Effects at projection measurements for Terahertz tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical effects like refraction, diffraction and edge effects have an influence on Terahertz measurements. They can result in image artifacts which makes it difficult to detect and resolve material defects inside the samples. We used a geometrical optical ray tracing approach to analyze the optical effects at Terahertz projection measurements which can be used to perform 2D or 3D THz images. We measured rectangular and cylindrical samples made of PEEK (Polyetheretherketon), POM (Polyoxymethylen), and PMMA (Polymethylmethacrylat) and compared the results to simulations that are realized with the software ZEMAX. We were able to simulate the measured Fresnel refraction and transmission behavior for rectangular cuboids with a length of 25 mm and cylinders with diameter of 25 mm. We showed the influence of diffraction and edge effects at samples with different sizes made of PMMA. Thus, the optical effect of refraction was significant and observable for cylinders with diameters greater than 1.5 mm and holes with diameter greater than 2.5 mm.

Brahm, A.; Wilms, A.; Tymoshchuk, M.; Grossmann, C.; Notni, G.; Tünnermann, A.

2014-10-01

220

Effectivity of Risk Management for Design & Construct Projects of Large Contractors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an evaluation on the risk analysis and risk management of a contractor for large Design and Construct projects. Risk management and risk analysis are vital tools to secure project profitability. The evaluation of individual projects brings to surface some discrepancies that obstruct the learning-cycle for today's projects. Therefore recommendations are made to increase effectiveness of risk management

J. G. Vastert

221

Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This seventh edition of the Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe, available in English and French, was posted on the Web in September 2001. The atlas, a project of Christos Nussli, consists of maps "depicting with accuracy the states of this continent every first day of each centennial year from AD 1 to AD 2000." A legend helps users understand each of the maps, which are presented as expandable thumbnails. The site also links to a bibliography and maps from De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. Though the site functions in part as an advertisement for Nussli's CD version of the atlas, it is nonetheless a useful stop in its own right.

Nussli, Christos.

222

EPOS: Integrating seismological Research Infrastructures within Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismological data, products and models are currently produced in Europe within individual countries or research organizations, and with the contribution of coordinating organizations like ORFEUS and EMSC. In spite of these partly scattered resources, significant scientific results are obtained, excellent monitoring and information systems are operational and a huge amount of research quality data is being archived and disseminated. The seismological community, however, realizes that an effective European-scale integration of seismological and related geophysical data, products and models, combined with broad and easy access, is needed to facilitate future top level geoscience, for example, to appropriately harness the technological advancements enabling large scale and near-real time data processing. Here we present the technical concepts and developments within European seismology that will build the next generation of integrated services. Within the EPOS initiative and a number of related projects, where seismology infrastructure and IT developments are merging, in depth discussions are on-going on how to realize an effective integration. Concepts and visions addressing the obviously complex challenges resulting from the current highly distributed facilities and resources in Europe are emerging and are already partly being implemented. We will provide an overview of developments within key EU projects (NERA, VERCE, COOPEUS, EUDAT, REAKT, COMMIT, etc) and demonstrate how these are in coherence with EPOS and other on-going global initiatives. Within seismology current focus is on addressing IT related challenges to a) organize distributed data archives, develop metadata attributes for improved data searching, specifically including quality indicators, and define products from data and/or models, and b) define and create(on-line) monitoring, data access and processing tools. While developments to meet those challenges originate partly from within the community itself, it is important to harvest relevant ideas and tools from other scientific communities dealing with similar issues. We will present a short summary of those developments and how they fit within the proposed visions and concepts. These integration developments address a wide framework of seismological services that include: basic seismological data services (waveform data from velocity and acceleration sensors from land and underwater sites); seismological data products (source mechanism and process estimates, earthquake catalogues, structural and tomography model estimations); seismological models (synthetic waveforms, earth and earthquake source models, hazard models).Our aim is to build significantlyimproved seismological services and valuable products for multidisciplinary earth science research.

Eck Van, Torild; Clinton, John; Haslinger, Florian; Michelini, Alberto

2013-04-01

223

Predicting effectiveness of construction project management: Decision-support tool for competitive bidding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents construction project management effectiveness modelling from the construction management organization\\u000a perspective. The paper reports on construction project performance data collected from construction management companies in\\u000a Lithuania and the United States of America. Construction project management effectiveness model (CPMEM) was established by\\u000a applying artificial neural networks (ANN) methodology. The discussions of project management effectiveness (success) factors\\u000a identified in

Rasa Apanaviciene; Arvydas Juodis

2006-01-01

224

Financial Patenting in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We take a first look at financial patents at the European Patent Office (EPO). As is the case at the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the number of financial patents in Europe has increased significantly in parallel with significant changes in payment and financial systems. Scholars have argued that financial patents, like other business methods patents, have low value

Bronwyn H. Hall; Grid Thoma; Salvatore Torrisi

2009-01-01

225

Taxes in Europe Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Taxes in Europe database is the European Commission's on-line information tool covering the main taxes in force in the EU Member States. Access is free for all users. The system contains information on around 650 taxes, as provided to the European Commission by the national authorities. The \\

2009-01-01

226

HRD Models in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains two papers from a symposium on human resource development (HRD) in Europe moderated by Wim Nijhof at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "HRD Roles in Germany" (Linda E. Odenthal, Wim J. Nijhof) reports on a German study based on a study of the job profiles of HRD practitioners in the United…

1996

227

Regions and Western Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that regional geography is undergoing important changes in its method of study to achieve a greater degree of relevancy in the context of a global system. Presents Western Europe as a case study to reflect this new approach. Includes 11 maps illustrating 6 generalizations applied to regional patterns. (CFR)

Brunt, Barry M.

1995-01-01

228

Financial patenting in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We take a first look at financial patents at the European Patent Office (EPO). As is the case at the United States Patent and Trademark Office, the number of financial patents in Europe has increased significantly in parallel with significant changes in payment and financial systems. Scholars have argued that financial patents, like other business methods patents, have low value

Bronwyn H. Hall; Grid Thoma; Salvatore Torrisi

2010-01-01

229

Rotavirus vaccination in Europe: drivers and barriers.  

PubMed

Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a vaccine-preventable disease that confers a high medical and economic burden in more developed countries and can be fatal in less developed countries. Two vaccines with high efficacy and good safety profiles were approved and made available in Europe in 2006. We present an overview of the status of rotavirus vaccination in Europe. We discuss the drivers (including high effectiveness and effect of universal rotavirus vaccination) and barriers (including low awareness of disease burden, perception of unfavourable cost-effectiveness, and potential safety concerns) to the implementation of universal rotavirus vaccination in Europe. By February, 2014, national universal rotavirus vaccination had been implemented in Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria, Finland, Greece, Luxembourg, Norway, and the UK. Four other German states have issued recommendations and reimbursement is provided by sickness funds. Other countries were at various stages of recommending or implementing universal rotavirus vaccination. PMID:24758998

Parez, N; Giaquinto, C; Du Roure, C; Martinon-Torres, F; Spoulou, V; Van Damme, P; Vesikari, T

2014-05-01

230

Effective noise reduction and equalization in projection domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CT image quality is affected by various artifacts including noise. Among these artifacts of different causes, noisy data due to photon starvation should be contained in early processing stage to better mitigate other artifacts as they can cause severe streaks and noise in reconstructed CT image. For low dose imaging, it is critical to use effective processing method to handle the photon starved data in order to obtain required image quality with desired resolution, texture, low contrast detectability. In this paper, two promising projection domain noise reduction methods are proposed. They are derived from (1) the noise model that connects the noise behaviors in count and attenuation; (2) predicted noise reduction from a finite impulse response (FIR) filter; (3) two pre-determined noise reduction requirements (noise equalization and electronic noise suppression). Both methods showed significant streaks and noise reduction in tested cases while reasonably maintaining the resolution of the images.

Yang, Zhi; Zamyatin, Alexander A.; Nakanishi, Satoru

2014-03-01

231

The cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination: Comparative analyses for five European countries and transferability in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost-effectiveness analyses are usually not directly comparable between countries because of differences in analytical and modelling assumptions. We investigated the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in five European Union countries (Belgium, England and Wales, Finland, France and the Netherlands) using a single model, burden of disease estimates supplied by national public health agencies and a subset of common assumptions. Under base

Mark Jit; Joke Bilcke; Marie-Josée J. Mangen; Heini Salo; Hugues Melliez; W. John Edmunds; Yazdanpanah Yazdan; Philippe Beutels

2009-01-01

232

Tempo Effects in the Fertility Decline in Eastern Europe: Evidence from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent formula due to Bongaarts and Feeney allows us todisentangle tempo and quantum effects in changes of the totalfertility rate. This article applies the TFR adjustment toBulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Russia.Substantial differences between the adjusted and the observed TFRindicate important tempo effects in the recent decline offertility. Moreover, these five countries differ in the relativeimportance of

Dimiter Philipov; Hans-Peter Kohler

2001-01-01

233

Education and ethnic prejudice in Europe : explanations for cross-national variances in the educational effect on ethnic prejudice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education is often found to be a strong determinant of ethnic pre judice. However, there is preliminary evidence that this educational effect varies across countries. Moreover, there are also theoretical arguments to expect cross-national variances in the educational effect on ethnic pre judice. From both a cultural and structural perspective, we set out to explain these cross-national variances in the

Evelyn Hello; Peer Scheepers; Mérove Gijsberts

2002-01-01

234

Education and Ethnic Prejudice in Europe: Explanations for Cross-National Variances in the Educational Effect on Ethnic Prejudice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied cross-national variances in the effect of education on ethnic prejudice using data from11 European countries with a total sample of 11,904 adults. Findings show that a country's democratic tradition and degree of religious heterogeneity are important for the strength of an educational effect on ethnic prejudice, while ethnic composition…

Hello, Evelyn; Scheepers, Peer; Gijsberts, Merove

2002-01-01

235

A surveillance network for meningococcal disease in Europe.  

PubMed

Between 1999 and 2004, the European Union Invasive Bacterial Infections Surveillance Network (EU-IBIS) received c. 50,000 reports of meningococcal disease from 27 participating countries. Analysis has demonstrated a major decline in the incidence of invasive disease in those countries that have introduced routine vaccination against serogroup C infection. The establishment of rapid reporting of W135 and B2a/B2b strains has been able to provide early reassurance that these strains are not emerging as major public health problems in Europe. Between September 2001 and February 2005, the EU-MenNet project offered further opportunities for enhancing this data resource. Collaborative projects included: improving the EU-IBIS website; reviewing case ascertainment in Europe; reviewing cost-effectiveness studies for meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccination; international comparisons of MCC vaccine efficacy; and mathematical modelling studies. In addition, linking of data from the European Meningococcal Multi-locus Sequence Type Centre to epidemiological data was performed. Particular clonal complexes were found to be preferentially associated with certain serogroups. Case fatality was also found to vary with clonal complex, suggesting that genotype can be a marker for hypervirulence. The importance of close collaboration between networks of epidemiologists, microbiologists, and the wider scientific and public health community is demonstrated. PMID:17168995

Trotter, Caroline L; Chandra, Manosree; Cano, Rosa; Larrauri, Amparo; Ramsay, Mary E; Brehony, Carina; Jolley, Keith A; Maiden, Martin C J; Heuberger, Sigrid; Frosch, Matthias

2007-01-01

236

The Development of Project Information Packages for the Dissemination of Effective Educational Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dissemination to schools of information about effective projects has been inadequate to bring about widespread replications. The purpose of this research was to test the feasibility of Project Information Packages (PIPs) as a means of widespread dissemination of effective programs. The study assumed that a project could be packaged with…

Foat, Classie M.; And Others

237

Does Europe Have Cosmopolitan Borders?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current thinking on Europe's borders is characterised by a tension between, on the one hand, the idea of ‘network Europe’, in which the importance of internal borders is much reduced as a result of the flows and mobilities characteristic of the single market and the ‘four freedoms’, and, on the other, the idea that Europe is being ‘rebordered’ as the

Chris Rumford

2007-01-01

238

Economic Effects of Projected Climate Change on Outdoor Recreation in Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Climate change projections from three General Circulation Models were used to adjust the temperature and precipitation in 2030 and 2080 in each of five ecological provinces in Tennessee to estimate the direct economic effects of the projected changes on r...

D. G. Hodges J. Fogel V. H. Dale

2010-01-01

239

Uncertainties of modeling gross primary productivity over Europe: A systematic study on the effects of using different drivers and terrestrial biosphere models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental to global-scale modeling of the carbon cycle using process-based models is subject to large uncertainties. These uncertainties originate from the model structure and uncertainty in model forcing fields; however, little is known about their relative importance. A thorough understanding and quantification of uncertainties is necessary to correctly interpret carbon cycle simulations and guide further model developments. This study elucidates the effects of different state-of-the-art land cover and meteorological data set options and biosphere models on simulations of gross primary productivity (GPP) over Europe. The analysis is based on (1) three different process-oriented terrestrial biosphere models (Biome-BGC, LPJ, and Orchidee) driven with the same input data and one model (Biome-BGC) driven with (2) two different meteorological data sets (ECMWF and REMO), (3) three different land cover data sets (GLC2000, MODIS, and SYNMAP), and (4) three different spatial resolutions of the land cover (0.25° fractional, 0.25° dominant, and 0.5° dominant). We systematically investigate effects on the magnitude, spatial pattern, and interannual variation of GPP. While changing the land cover map or the spatial resolution has only little effect on the model outcomes, changing the meteorological drivers and especially the model results in substantial differences. Uncertainties of the meteorological forcings affect particularly strongly interannual variations of simulated GPP. By decomposing modeled GPP into their biophysical and ecophysiological components (absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (APAR) and radiation use efficiency (RUE), respectively) we show that differences of interannual GPP variations among models result primarily from differences of simulating RUE. Major discrepancies appear to be related to the feedback through the carbon-nitrogen interactions in one model (Biome-BGC) and water stress effects, besides the modeling of croplands. We suggest clarifying the role of nitrogen dynamics in future studies and revisiting currently applied concepts of carbon-water cycle interactions regarding the representation of canopy conductance and soil processes.

Jung, Martin; Vetter, Mona; Herold, Martin; Churkina, Galina; Reichstein, Markus; Zaehle, Soenke; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Bondeau, Alberte; Chen, Youmin; Trusilova, Kristina; Feser, Frauke; Heimann, Martin

2007-12-01

240

Infection with hepatitis B and C virus in Europe: a systematic review of prevalence and cost-effectiveness of screening  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is improving but not benefiting individuals unaware to be infected. To inform screening policies we assessed (1) the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV-Ab) prevalence for 34 European countries; and (2) the cost-effectiveness of screening for chronic HBV and HCV infection. Methods We searched peer-reviewed literature for data on HBsAg and anti-HCV-Ab prevalence and cost-effectiveness of screening of the general population and five subgroups, and used data for people who inject drugs (PWID) and blood donors from two European organizations. Of 1759 and 468 papers found in the prevalence and cost-effectiveness searches respectively, we included 124 and 29 papers after assessing their quality. We used decision rules to calculate weighted prevalence estimates by country. Results The HBsAg and anti-HCV-Ab prevalence in the general population ranged from 0.1%-5.6% and 0.4%-5.2% respectively, by country. For PWID, men who have sex with men and migrants, the prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV-Ab was higher than the prevalence in the general population in all but 3 countries. There is evidence that HCV screening of PWID and HBsAg screening of pregnant women and migrants is cost-effective. Conclusion The prevalence of chronic HBV and HCV infection varies widely between European countries. Anti-HCV-Ab screening of PWID and HBsAg screening of pregnant women and migrants have European public health priority. Cost-effectiveness analyses may need to take effect of antiviral treatment on preventing HBV and HCV transmission into account.

2013-01-01

241

A meta-analysis of the effects of agricultural management on soil physical quality for different farm typologies across Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite important research efforts directed towards increasing our understanding of the links between agricultural management practices and environmental degradation and crop yield decline, current knowledge is still insufficient to provide an integrated approach for untangling relationships with soil quality from a chemical, biological and physical perspective. (Davis et al. 2012). Within the European project CATCH-C (ten Berge 2011) a practical tool is being developed for analyzing the sustainability of soil management practices for a wide range of farm typologies across European. As a partner of CATCH-C, the Spanish team aims at assessing physical soil quality by using meta-analysis techniques, previously used to assess other aspects of agricultural management (van den Putte et al. 2010; González et al. 2012; Quemada et al. 2013). As a first step, key indicators for characterizing soil physical quality such as bulk density, resistance to penetration, hydraulic conductivity, runoff and sediment yield have been identified. A literature review of the performance of these indicators was carried out. Data extracted from literature, was integrated in an online database developed by Plant Research International (Wageningen, UR). After an exploratory data analysis, a meta-analysis of the indicators with baseline treatments allowed a proper interpretation of the indicators to elucidate relationships between agricultural management and soil physical quality. References: Davis A.S. et al. 2012. Plos ONE 7(10): e4719. doi:10.1371/journalpone.0047149. González-Sánchez E.J.et al. 2012. Soil Till. Res. 122: 52-60. Quemada M. et al. 2013. Agric. Ecosyst. Environm. 174: 1-10. ten Berge, H.F.T.M. coord. 2011. Compatibility of Agricultural Management Practices and Types of Farming in the EU to enhance Climate Change Mitigation and Soil Health. KBBE.2011.1.2-01, GA 289782. van den Putte A.et al. 2010. Eur. J. Agron. 33: 231-41.

Guzmán, Gema; Sáenz de Rodrigáñez, Marta; Laguna, Ana; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Vanderlinden, Karl; Ten Berge, Hein

2014-05-01

242

Estimating the effects of risk transfer mechanisms against floods in Europe and U.S.A.: A dynamic panel approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the effects of natural hazards on society does not solely depend on a region's topographic or climatic exposure to natural processes, but the region's institutional resilience to natural processes that ultimately determines whether natural processes result in a natural hazard or not. An appropriate method for an international institutional comparison in the field of natural hazard management

Paul Raschky

2007-01-01

243

Bias in effect size of systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility loci across Europe: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Introduction We aimed to investigate whether the effect size of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk alleles varies across European subpopulations. Methods European SLE patients (n = 1,742) and ethnically matched healthy controls (n = 2,101) were recruited at 17 centres from 10 different countries. Only individuals with self-reported ancestry from the country of origin were included. In addition, participants were genotyped for top ancestry informative markers and for 25 SLE associated SNPs. The results were used to compare effect sizes between the Central Eureopan and Southern European subgroups. Results Twenty of the 25 SNPs showed independent association with SLE, These SNPs showed a significant bias to larger effect sizes in the Southern subgroup, with 15/20 showing this trend (P = 0.019) and a larger mean odds ratio of the 20 SNPs (1.46 vs. 1.34, P = 0.02) as well as a larger difference in the number of risk alleles (2.06 vs. 1.63, P = 0.027) between SLE patients and controls than for Central Europeans. This bias was reflected in a very significant difference in the cumulative genetic risk score (4.31 vs. 3.48, P = 1.8 × 10-32). Effect size bias was accompanied by a lower number of SLE risk alleles in the Southern subjects, both patients and controls, the difference being more marked between the controls (P = 1.1 × 10-8) than between the Southern and Central European patients (P = 0.016). Seven of these SNPs showed significant allele frequency clines. Conclusion Our findings showed a bias to larger effect sizes of SLE loci in the Southern Europeans relative to the Central Europeans together with clines of SLE risk allele frequencies. These results indicate the need to study risk allele clines and the implications of the polygenic model of inheritance in SLE.

2012-01-01

244

Satellite broadcasting in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three main communications services are recognized by the International Telecommunications Union: the Fixed Service, the Mobile Service and the Broadcasting Service. In Europe, EUTELSAT has just begun to exploit the first ECS satellite. The ESA-launched satellite was originally designed to provide an international public telecommunication service, however, the satellite will be used now almost exclusively for TV program distribution, while a second ECS satellite will be used for telephony. Despite plans for the launch of a third, countries in Europe are looking to other organizations such as INTELSAT for greater satellite capacity. Other organizations include Unisat, DFS/Copernicus, GDL, and Videosat. Both satellite and cable networks will increase the program-viewing audience, thus encouraging plans for a pan-European television service intended for an international audience. Although the combination of cable networks and distribution satellites looks promising, high-power broadcasting satellites will play an important role because of flexibility and additional program distribution.

Bartholome, P.

1984-05-01

245

Edge effect of low-traffic forest roads on bird communities in secondary production forests in central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide forests fragmentation has lead to a massive increase of habitat edges, creating both negative and positive impacts\\u000a on birds. While busy highways dissecting forested areas create edges which are known to reduce bird densities due to the disturbing\\u000a effect of noise, the impacts of logging forest roads with low traffic volumes have rarely been studied. In this study, we

Miroslav Šálek; Jana Svobodová; Petr Zasadil

2010-01-01

246

HIV in Europe.  

PubMed

In 2011, the estimated number of people living with HIV in Europe and Central Asia was 2.3 million. This is more than twice the 2001 figure. At the same time, approximately 50% of the infected people may not know their HIV status. The Europe/Central Asia region is one of only two regions in which HIV infections continue to increase. The estimated prevalence rate in the west and center of the region, however, has remained stable at 0.2%. The HIV epidemics in Eastern Europe and Central Asia are typically driven by unsafe drug injection and by onward transmission to the sexual partners of people who inject drugs. In the western part of the region, the epidemic remains concentrated among men who have sex with men and migrants from countries with generalized epidemics. Means of preventing and fighting HIV should, first and foremost, be directed to those parts of the population that are most exposed to the risk of the infection. Proceeding from the data presented, recommendations are given for ways of decreasing HIV prevalence in the region, such as promoting dialogue and awareness among multistakeholders, including policy makers, donors, and population groups most exposed to the infection. PMID:24559564

Põder, Airi; Haldre, Madli

2014-01-01

247

PACS developments in Europe.  

PubMed

Although the concept of picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) was developed in Europe during the latter part of the 1970s, no working system was completed at that time. The first PACS implementations took place in the United States in the early 1980s, e.g. at Pennsylvania University, UCLA, and Kansas City University. Some more or less successful PACS developments also took place in Europe in the 1980s, particularly in the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Scandinavia, and Germany. Most systems could be characterized by their focus on a single department, such as radiology or nuclear medicine. European hospital-wide PACS with high visibility evolved in the early 1990s in London (Hammersmith Hospital) and Vienna (SMZO). These were followed during the latter part of the 1990s by approximately 10-20 PACS installations in each of the major industrialized countries of Europe. Wide-area PACS covering several health care institutions in a region are now in the process of being implemented in a number of European countries. Because of limitations of space, some countries, for i.e. Switzerland, Denmark, Finland, Spain, Greece, as well as Eastern European countries, etc. could not be appropriately represented in this paper. PMID:12620301

Lemke, Heinz U

2003-01-01

248

Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ˜273?800 km2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus-Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and biodiversity, and for increasing agricultural production on previously cultivated lands.

Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Müller, Daniel

2012-06-01

249

Research on effective cost control in highway projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highway construction cycle is quite long and technology involved is complicated. Highway project, as a whole, is comprehensive by taking in all kinds of factors in consideration, involving both the technical aspects and the social aspects. It also consumes a lot of manpower and material resources. Currently, funds for highway construction are not abundant and stable, and for some projects,

Jieyu Wang; Haicheng Xu

2011-01-01

250

The impact of climate change on grain maize production over Europe - adaptation with different irrigation strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial distribution of water deficit and maize yield deficit across Europe has been compared between current and expected climatic conditions in the near future (time window 2030). Maize yields and water requirements were simulated using the WOFOST (World Food Studies) crop growth model. In our study, the priority has been given to future projections of the A1B emission scenario produced within the ENSEMBLE project: HadRM3 RCM nested within the HADCM3 GCM (HADLEY) and HIRHAM5 RCM nested within ECHAM5 GCM (ECHAM). The two realizations can be considered as warm (HADLEY) and cold (ECHAM5) according to simulated temperature in the near future and therefore represent the extremes in air temperature change within those analyzed in ENSEMBLES project, allowing us to evaluate the largest range of uncertainty in weather inputs to the impact model. In addition, we also explored the advantages of different irrigation strategies for the target crop to offset climate change impacts. In wake of limited amount of water availability for agriculture purposes, we explored effectiveness of three different irrigation strategies on maize yield over Europe, namely full, deficit and supplemental irrigation. The results of our study indicate that the maize yield under rainfed conditions is expected to decrease over the Southern Europe as well as regions around the Black Sea during the 2030s under both climate model realizations. Water deficit is expected to increase especially in the Mediterranean, whereas slightly less in parts of Central and Western Europe. However, adaptation strategies followed in this study negate the detrimental effect of climate change and result in an increased maize yield. Three irrigation strategies have been simulated differing in timing of water application and in the total volume of water supplied during the growing season. The results show that yields, achieved using deficit and full irrigation strategies, are not significantly different. Hence, at least 30 % of irrigation water in the current and future climate conditions can be saved when using deficit irrigation strategy.

Ceglar, A.; Srivastava, A. K.; Chukaliev, O.; Duveiller, G.; Niemeyer, S.

2013-12-01

251

Imaging space weather over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the introduction of the first all-sky imaging system for low-light-level optical observations of the disturbed ionosphere over mid-latitude Europe. Using 6300 Å auroral emissions that come from the 200-400 km altitude range, we demonstrate that sub-visual optical patterns spanning the European continent can be obtained from a single site in Italy. Pilot observations during the 26-27 September 2011 geomagnetic storm show that the diffuse aurora's low latitude boundary can be used to find where the poleward wall of the ionospheric trough is located. This relates directly to regions of radiowave disruptions caused by the precipitation of energetic particles from the magnetospheric plasma sheet that move to lower latitudes during space weather events. Images of stable auroral red (SAR) arcs can be used to track the magnetospheric ring current and plasmapause location, a second region of radiowave interference. Comparisons with ground-based and satellite observations of the ionosphere during the same storm demonstrate how ASI images reveal the lowest energy components of magnetospheric input to the ionosphere-thermosphere system. Such observations can be used, potentially, for both now-casting of storm effects spanning Europe, and for retrospective validation of existing models of space weather impacts at sub-auroral locations.

Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Wroten, Joei; Mendillo, Michael; Martinis, Carlos; Barbieri, Cesare; Umbriaco, Gabriele; Mitchell, Cathryn; Kinrade, Joe; Materassi, Massimo; Ciraolo, Luigi; Hairston, Marc

2013-02-01

252

Modal aerosol dynamics model for Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe (MADE) has been developed as an extension to mesoscale chemistry transport models to allow a more detailed treatment of aerosol effects in these models. Due to the complexity of the atmospheric aerosol system an approach has been chosen which is, on the one hand, fast enough for this application and, on the other,

Ingmar J. Ackermann; Heinz Hass; M. Memmesheimer; A. Ebel; Francis S. Binkowski; Uma Shankar

1998-01-01

253

Acid rain: In the UK and Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain is not just an American problem; it is the most serious environmental problem facing the UK and Europe as well. Its effect will continue to cause untold damage there unless drastic changes are made to the production processes that spew out the chemicals from which acid rain forms. This book provides both an explanation of what acid rain

Elsworth

1985-01-01

254

Estimating the impact of wintry weather on transportation in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wintry weather conditions have high impact on transportation. Sub-zero temperatures combined to snowfall result in traffic jams and increased accident rate. Dense snowfall causes poor grip between the road surface and tires and reduces the visibility, thus increasing the risk for severe pile-ups on highways. Low temperature and snowfall have a strong negative impact also on railway traffic and aviation, as experienced in Europe during winter 2009/10. Many big airfields in Central Europe were closed during several days and thousands of people had to spend the night at the airport or in the hotels nearby. The estimated total costs from a single major snowfall event can climb up to 1.3 billion pounds (1.5 billion euro), as happened in UK on 1-2 February 2009. By investigating the effect of hazardous winter weather conditions on different transport modes the worst situations can be identified and impact thresholds for different weather parameters and their combination can be assessed. In this study we estimate the impact thresholds for snowfall, wind gust and temperature as well as for their combination, the blizzard. This work is based on an impact review collected from literature and media reports as well as on local studies concerning the link between snowfall and traffic accidents for example. From the study on six winters it appears for example that a snowfall of 10 cm/24 h resulted in a double car accident rate on average in southern Finland. Such situations can be regarded as high impact cases (peak days of traffic accidents). It is estimated that climate change and global warming will decrease the average yearly number of wintry days in Europe. Even the northern part will probably have a shorter period of snow cover during the coming decades. However, the variability between different winters will remain and cold air outbreaks with even heavy snowfall can occasionally occur also during mild winters. Several studies have shown that the more uncommon some hazardous event is, the more disruptive it can be to the society. This study, where we assess the impact thresholds for different weather parameters, will give guidelines for calculating the probabilities of hazardous wintry events in Europe at present and in the future. This study is associated with the EU/FP7 project EWENT. The objective of the project is to study the impacts of hazardous weather on European transportation system by taking into account the changing climate.

Juga, I.; Rauhala, J.; Vajda, A.

2010-09-01

255

Working with Teachers to Develop Fair and Reliable Measures of Effective Teaching. MET Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to develop and test multiple measures of teacher effectiveness. The goal of the MET project is to improve the quality of information about teaching effectiveness available to education professionals within states and districts--information…

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

2010-01-01

256

Effect of nursery habitat degradation on flatfish population: Application to Solea solea in the Eastern Channel (Western Europe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuaries and coastal waters are essential nursery habitats for many marine species, and especially for flatfishes. Thus, investigating how anthropogenic disturbances affect the quality of these habitats is of major importance to understand their consequences on the population renewal of marine species. The aim of the present study was to analyse the effects of estuarine habitat degradation on the population of the common sole in the Eastern Channel, a key species in the fish community and fisheries in this area. We especially focused on the drastic drop in the surface area and on the low water quality of the Seine estuary, the main river of the Eastern Channel. A geographic Information System (GIS) was used to develop quantitative maps of sole nursery habitats in the Eastern Channel by using a habitat suitability model based on bathymetry and sediment structure. This approach indicated that juvenile densities are low in the Seine estuary with regards to other nursery sectors. Then, thanks to historical maps of the Seine estuary, habitat suitability maps were built for key dates in the modifications of this estuary since 1850. This backward predictive approach suggests that habitat loss in the Seine estuary has led to a 42% decrease of its nursery capacity. As the density of juvenile sole in the Seine estuary is low in comparison to other sectors, this represents only a 3% loss at the sole population scale, in the Eastern Channel. However, when we assumed that prior to anthropogenic disturbance the juvenile density in the Seine estuary might have been equivalent to the current density of adjacent sectors with higher quality, the loss in abundance could be nearly 23% (8-36%). Results suggest that the loss in habitat surface combined with habitat degradation has led to an important loss in the contribution of the Seine estuary nursery to the whole sole population in the Eastern Channel.

Rochette, S.; Rivot, E.; Morin, J.; Mackinson, S.; Riou, P.; Le Pape, O.

2010-07-01

257

Project Career REACH: Marketing Strategies for Effective Guidance Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the practical marketing strategies used to implement Project Career REACH, a career development program for high school freshmen. Marketing basics for guidance programs are discussed, including mission analysis, market analysis, resource analysis, strategic planning, and evaluation. (TE)

Bollendorf, Marsha; And Others

1990-01-01

258

Developing an effective diving program for a hydro maintenance project  

SciTech Connect

A trash problem at the Fort Randall hydropower project threatened to affect operations and cause potential machinery damage. When traditional approaches to clean away the trash were judged unfeasible, US Army Corps of Engineers managers developed a combined mechanical cleanup and underwater diving program. A contractor successfully removed 500 tons of debris at a cost of about $302,000. The dive plan and problems experienced during the project are detailed in the article.

Stasch, E. [Corps of Engineers, Pierre, SD (United States)

1997-08-01

259

Europe's nuclear power experiment  

SciTech Connect

The OECD (Dragon) Project was a joint venture of 12 European countries set up to study the development of high temperature reactor technology and whose programme included the construction of a demonstration high temperature helium cooled reactor and its eventual operation. The Project, which spanned 17 years, was widely regarded as an extremely successful excercise in international collaboration in nuclear technology. This specially commissioned work describes the international background to the launching of the Project, providing an unbiased appraisal of the industrial, technical, administrative and political aspects of the Project's development and the problems encountered, and an evaluation of the Project's significance in the general, context of nuclear power development.

Shaw, E.N.

1983-01-01

260

Smart displays in intelligent environments: a vision for Europe 2007+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future electronic systems will create "ambient intelligence": environments that recognise us, applications which can be used intuitively. Displays will always be a key part of such systems, because visual information provides a densely packed fast link to our brain. European researchers and suppliers are global drivers in display innovation - on the other hand Europe is a major influence on the market for display applications. However, today displays are produced in Asia, European research and development is scattered, and lacks both collaboration and a strong production base. That is why adria, a European network for the displays community, has been formed: Its goal is to substantially enhance the standing of the displays industry in Europe by creating a common knowledge base, by generating a common vision for a display future in Europe and by establishing appreciated services for a future association that will serve as a "one-stop-shop" for the community. To effectively start the discussion, a vision paper1 has been compiled including inputs from 95 individuals from 17 European countries. It describes the state displays research and industry are in today and estimates future developments displays will take towards intelligent systems in the next decade and beyond. Recommendations are made to reinforce the displays industry in a sustainable way building on existing strengths in research, as well as in the materials and equipment sectors. The adria network, its roadmapping approach as well as key projections and findings of the vision paper are described here, going beyond the topic of Organic Light Emitting Diodes alone.

Maiser, Eric

2005-07-01

261

New fire-prone areas in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With climate change, fire risk is projected to increase in many parts of Europe. Under severe climate change this could also lead to an increase of fire in ecosystems, which are not dominated by fires under current climate. In that case, fire risk would cause area and biomass burnt to increase, i.e. keep the linear relationship, and lead to an enormous increase in fire severity. We have developed an algorithm to map new fire-prone areas in Europe. It identifies grid points where large-scale fires, yet rare, are becoming the mean at the end of the 21st century. We applied this algorithm to simulation results from experiments where the dynamic vegetation-fire models LPJ-GUESS-SIMFIRE and LPJmL-SPITFIRE model were applied to scenarios of climate change and human population. Since both models simulate bi-directional feedbacks of vegetation dynamics and fire, simulated changes in fire regimes inherently reflect changes in fuel composition and fuel availability. Changes in future fire regimes and resulting new fire-prone areas as projected for the 21st century using CMIP5 climate scenarios (RCP8.5 vs. RPC2.6) will be presented. First results indicate that the new fire-prone areas would be found in eastern Europe. Depending on the climate scenario and vegetation-fire model used, it could also extend to central and south-eastern Europe. What this implies for vegetation composition and dynamics in the affected areas and how fire and climate change interact to lead to such changes will be shown.

Thonicke, Kirsten; Knorr, Wolfgang; Wu, Minchao; Arneth, Almut

2014-05-01

262

Bluetongue vaccines in Europe.  

PubMed

The article reviews the history, present status and the future of BT vaccines in Europe. So far, an attenuated (modified live viruses, MLV) and inactivated virus vaccines against BT were developed and used in the field. Moreover, the virus-like particles (VLPs) produced from recombinant baculovirus, and live recombinant vaccinia or canarypox virus-vectored vaccines were tested in the laboratory. The main aims of BT vaccination strategy are: to prevent clinical disease, to reduce the spread of the BTV in the environment and to protect movement of susceptible animals between affected and free zones. Actually, all of the most recent European BT vaccination campaigns have used exclusively inactivated vaccines. The use of inactivated vaccines avoid risk associated with the use of live-attenuated vaccines, such as reversion to virulence, reassortment of genes with field strain, teratogenicity and insufficient attenuation leading to clinical disease. The mass vaccinations of all susceptible animals are the most efficient veterinary method to fight against BT and successful control of disease. The vaccination of livestock has had a major role in reducing BTV circulation and even in eradicating the virus from most areas of Europe. PMID:21721420

Niedbalski, W

2011-01-01

263

Adria/Europe collision effects  

SciTech Connect

In the Senonian, the Adriatic promontory of the African plate lay between two transform faults which joined the north-vergent Alpine-Carpathian front with the south-vergent Apenninic and Hellenic fronts. In the late Eocene it collided with the European continent. The head of the promontory was crushed by compression in the Oligocene and lengthened in a west-east direction. This initiated formation of the West Alpine and West Carpathian arcs. A bay of thin European crust in the area now occupied by the Carpathians facilitated a more pronounced advance of the eastern arc. A wedge-shaped body with the Bakony Mountains in its rigid core was pressed out from the Alpine region. The eastern Alps and the West Carpathians as well as the Southern Alps and the middle Pannonian units suffered sinistral and dextral shear, respectively, which resulted in their lengthening and zonality. In the early-middle Miocene in the Adriatic promontory was broken up. Its northern part suffered counterclockwise rotation in connection with the opening of the Ligurian Sea while the southern part only shifted relative to Africa. Rotation of the northern microplate forced the Dinaric-Hellenic arc to change its shape from convex to concave, and the intra-Carpathian units advanced toward the northeast and rotated toward each other. This completed the Carpathian arc and initiated subsidence in the Pannonian basin. Since the late Miocene the Adriatic promontory has acted again as a part of Africa with a maximum 60-km shift toward the west, caused by the escaping Turkish microplate.

Balla, Z.

1988-08-01

264

The Effects of Mobility: The Rights of the Child in Europe. Report of the Conference (Athens, Greece, April 14-16, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The European Forum for Child Welfare (EFCW) is committed to promoting the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the Convention's views underpin and influence the work program of the EFCW. The 1994 EFCW Conference concentrated on articles within the Convention whereby mobility within Europe may have a…

Williams, Sarah, Ed.

265

Generating effective project scheduling heuristics by abstraction and reconstitution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A project scheduling problem consists of a finite set of jobs, each with fixed integer duration, requiring one or more resources such as personnel or equipment, and each subject to a set of precedence relations, which specify allowable job orderings, and a set of mutual exclusion relations, which specify jobs that cannot overlap. No job can be interrupted once started. The objective is to minimize project duration. This objective arises in nearly every large construction project--from software to hardware to buildings. Because such project scheduling problems are NP-hard, they are typically solved by branch-and-bound algorithms. In these algorithms, lower-bound duration estimates (admissible heuristics) are used to improve efficiency. One way to obtain an admissible heuristic is to remove (abstract) all resources and mutual exclusion constraints and then obtain the minimal project duration for the abstracted problem; this minimal duration is the admissible heuristic. Although such abstracted problems can be solved efficiently, they yield inaccurate admissible heuristics precisely because those constraints that are central to solving the original problem are abstracted. This paper describes a method to reconstitute the abstracted constraints back into the solution to the abstracted problem while maintaining efficiency, thereby generating better admissible heuristics. Our results suggest that reconstitution can make good admissible heuristics even better.

Janakiraman, Bhaskar; Prieditis, Armand

1992-01-01

266

An efficient energy future: Prospects for Europe and North America  

SciTech Connect

Industrial countries will have to use energy more efficiently in the years to come to manage a wide range of energy and economic problems. The Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, the United States and Western Europe are analyzed in this book to show the potential for energy conservation up to the year 2000. Seventeen eastern and western countries are studied in detail to show what energy savings are possible with conservation measures that are widely available today. The study makes detailed energy demand projections largely based on physical activity and technology. Energy per ton of steel, for instance, is forecast along with the total tonnage of steel produced. Two views of the energy future are taken. They both rely on the same economic and activity forecasts. One shows energy needs to the end of the century with current average technology. It shows that energy demand will rise steeply if past trends continue. The other view is of an efficient energy future. It reveals how much energy could be saved using only the most efficient technology that is commercially available now. International comparisons explain how different countries use energy much more efficiently than others today. Current best technology provides a vast array of demonstrably effective conservation measures for countries to choose from.

Not Available

1983-01-01

267

Perspectives on Europe: Language Issues and Language Planning in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers includes the following: "Language Issues and Language Planning in Europe" (Anthony J. Liddicoat and Karis Muller); "Language and National Identity" (Peter M. Hill); "Language Planning, Linguistic Diversity and Democracy in Europe" (Anthony J. Liddicoat); "Language Competition in European Community Institutions" (Karis…

Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Muller, Karis, Ed.

268

New Orleans Effective Schools Project. An Interim Report to the Orleans Parish School Board.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of the Southern Coalition for Educational Equity's New Orleans Effective Schools Project is to improve academic achievement at one middle school, Martin Behrman, in ways that can be replicated by schools facing similar problems. The Project is based on research findings about school improvement from the school effectiveness

David, Jane L.

269

Community sports projects and effective community empowerment: a case study in Rochdale  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can community empowerment be most effectively achieved through the use of sport? In a case study of a bespoke voluntary sector project, an action research approach revealed insights into effective community empowerment. Although focused on a comparatively small project within a provincial UK town, the issues addressed and lessons learned can be generalised and transferred much more universally to

Janine Partington; Mick Totten

2012-01-01

270

"Project ALERT's" Effects on Adolescents' Prodrug Beliefs: A Replication and Extension Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article represents a replication and extension of previous studies of the effects of "Project ALERT", a school-based substance use prevention program, on the prodrug beliefs of adolescents. Specifically, the authors' research examined "Project ALERT's" effects on adolescents' intentions to use substances in the future, beliefs about substance…

Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Hanley, Sean; Shamblen, Stephen R.

2010-01-01

271

AOD and trace gases retrieved with satellite over Europe during the Pegasos campaigns 2012-2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite retrievals have been used in the Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS) EU project to provide a general context of the three field campaigns involve in the project: the Benelux area and the Po Valley in the spring and summer 2012 respectively and in central Finland during the spring 2013. In this work we present the regional gradients of the AOD base on MODIS retrievals, NO2 and O3 retrieved with OMI and CO retrieved with AIRS to understand and analyze the regional effects of the different gases and aerosol concentrations as well as the transportation of the different pollutants. During the field campaign in Hyytiälä a forest fires plume was transported from Southeast Europe, to detect this, besides the already mention parameters the Aerosol Absorbing Index (AAI) from OMI was also used. The results show the largest concentration of NO2 over the Benelux area during the three campaigns. The lowest concentrations for all parameters were registered during the spring campaign in 2013. The CO concentration does not show a large variability over Europe, but an increase of the concentration was clear during the days where the plume of the forest was detected over central Finland. The AOD shows the Po Valley and the Benelux area like hot spots over Europe.

Rodríguez, Edith; Kolmonen, Pekka; Virtanen, Timo; Sogacheva, Larisa; Maija Sundström, Anu; de Leeuw, Gerrit

2014-05-01

272

Regional Climate Change Scenarios - Benefits of Modeling in High Resolution for Central and Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolution of regional climate simulation is an important factor affecting the accuracy of dynamical downscaling of the global changes. Especially the extremes are strongly dependent on the terrain patterns as shape of orography or land use, which can contribute to extreme temperatures or precipitation appearance and distribution. In EC FP6 Project CECILIA (Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment) we are studying the impact of climate change in complex topography of the Central and Eastern Europe in very high resolution of 10 km. Complex verification of ERA40 driven simulation of the RegCM will be presented against observational data for Czech Republic as well as in broader context of Central Europe with respect to ENSEMBLES climatology. Climate change signal will be shown based on runs driven by ICTP RegCM@25km driven by ECHAM5 in ENSEMBLES Project for time slices 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 with respect to control period 1961-1990. Emphasis will be given to the benefits of high resolution performance at 10km grid. The climate change signal looks to be consistent with driving fields, however local details and behavior can appear. Output localization technique is used to enable to compare the model results to observational data or to get climate change scenarios to real areas of impact studies. Effects on distribution of variables are analyzed as well.

Halenka, T.; Miksovsky, J.; Belda, M.

2009-09-01

273

Earlier effective monitoring of alcohol-fuels projects may have minimized problems  

SciTech Connect

Although the Department of Energy's system for monitoring projects for the development and production of alcohol fuels now seems effective, it was not established until 7 months after some of the projects started and after major portions of them were conducted. This contributed to problems which may result in some projects not being completed after substantial portions of project funds were spent. GAO also found that 24 grantees scheduled to be paid on a reimbursable basis were erroneously advanced about $3 million. Of those grantees, only five returned a total of $378,110; and by the time the errors were detected, grantees had spent the balance of the funds advanced. Earlier effective monitoring may have detected the errors sooner, enabled more advances to be returned, and prevented a weakening of the Department's oversight and control over the projects. GAO makes recommendations which could help future projects from starting without effective monitoring.

Not Available

1982-04-23

274

Developing Instructional Technology Products Using Effective Project Management Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Delivering a successful instructional technology (IT) product depends on more than just having an extremely creative instructional solution or following an instructional systems design (ISD) model. Proper planning, direction, and execution of the project are require, as well. We present a model of management that encompasses the ISD process. Five…

Allen, Stephanie; Hardin, Paul C.

2008-01-01

275

An Evaluation of the Effects of Estuarine Engineering Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes ecological studies conducted in Moses Lake, Jones Bay, Cedar Bayou and Trinity Bay of the Galveston Bay System. Studies were set up to study larger animals and plants of the project areas, to determine the extent and quality of nurse...

R. B. Johnson

1970-01-01

276

Complementary medicine in Europe.  

PubMed Central

Complementary or unconventional treatments are used by many doctors and other therapists throughout Europe. The major forms are acupuncture, homoeopathy, manual therapy or manipulation, and phytotherapy or herbal medicine. The relative popularity of therapies differs between countries, but public demand is strong and growing. Regulation of practitioners varies widely: in most countries only registered health professionals may practice, but in the United Kingdom practice is virtually unregulated. Germany and some Scandinavian countries have intermediate systems. Legal reforms are in progress in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. European institutions are starting to influence the development of complementary medicine. Harmonisation of training and regulation of practitioners is the challenge for the future. Images FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 1 FIG 2

Fisher, P.; Ward, A.

1994-01-01

277

Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common Ragweed) is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. This study is realised within the framework of the ATOPICA project (https://www.atopica.eu/) which is designed to provide first steps in tools and estimations of the fate of allergies in Europe due to changes in climate, land use and air quality. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. Models have been developed or adapted for simulating the phenology (PMP phonological modelling platform), inter-annual production (ORCHIDEE vegetation model), release and airborne processes (CHIMERE chemical transport model) of ragweed pollen. Airborne pollens follow processes similar to air quality pollutants in CHIMERE with some adaptations. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations (2000 - 2012) driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, 20-year long historical simulations (1986 - 2005) are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe. The spatial distribution is well captured with correlation equal to 0.7, but the daily variability of pollen counts remains to be improved with correlations varying between 0.1 and 0.75. The model chain captures reasonably well the inter-annual variability of pollen yearly mean concentrations, correlations, even not statistically significant due to the short length of time series, are positive for about 80% of sites. The main uncertainty in ambrosia pollen modelling is linked to the uncertainty in the plant density distribution. Preliminary results of the impact of environmental changes on pollen concentrations in the future will also be shown.

Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Colette, Augustin

2014-05-01

278

A follow-up and conclusive report on the attitude towards hydrogen fuel cell buses in the CUTE project—From passengers in Stockholm to bus operators in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the attitude towards the fuel cell bus and the hydrogen technology used in the CUTE project, represented by two passenger surveys performed in Stockholm, a survey performed among drivers in four cities and final statements as well as recommendations for future projects by project partners.Main results are:•The passengers’ willingness to pay for having more fuel cell buses

M. Saxe; A. Folkesson; P. Alvfors

2007-01-01

279

Financial crisis, austerity, and health in Europe.  

PubMed

The financial crisis in Europe has posed major threats and opportunities to health. We trace the origins of the economic crisis in Europe and the responses of governments, examine the effect on health systems, and review the effects of previous economic downturns on health to predict the likely consequences for the present. We then compare our predictions with available evidence for the effects of the crisis on health. Whereas immediate rises in suicides and falls in road traffic deaths were anticipated, other consequences, such as HIV outbreaks, were not, and are better understood as products of state retrenchment. Greece, Spain, and Portugal adopted strict fiscal austerity; their economies continue to recede and strain on their health-care systems is growing. Suicides and outbreaks of infectious diseases are becoming more common in these countries, and budget cuts have restricted access to health care. By contrast, Iceland rejected austerity through a popular vote, and the financial crisis seems to have had few or no discernible effects on health. Although there are many potentially confounding differences between countries, our analysis suggests that, although recessions pose risks to health, the interaction of fiscal austerity with economic shocks and weak social protection is what ultimately seems to escalate health and social crises in Europe. Policy decisions about how to respond to economic crises have pronounced and unintended effects on public health, yet public health voices have remained largely silent during the economic crisis. PMID:23541059

Karanikolos, Marina; Mladovsky, Philipa; Cylus, Jonathan; Thomson, Sarah; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

2013-04-13

280

Future scenarios for viticultural bioclimatic indices in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Winemaking has a predominant economic, social and environmental relevance in several European countries. Studies addressing the influence of climate variability and change in viticulture are particularly pertinent, as climate is one of the main conditioning factors of this activity. In this context, bioclimatic indices are a useful zoning tool, allowing the description of the suitability of a particular region for wine production. In this study, we compute climatic indices (concerning to thermal and hydrological conditions) for Europe, characterize regions with different viticultural aptitude, and assess possible variations in these regions under a future climate conditions using a state-of-the-art regional climate model. The indices are calculated from climatic variables (mostly daily maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation) obtained from the NCEP reanalysis dataset. Then, the same indices are calculated for present and future climate conditions using data from the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (Consortium for Small Scale Modelling - Climate Limited-area Modelling). Maps of theses indices for recent-past periods (1961-2008) and for the SRES A1B scenario are considered in order to identify significant changes in their patterns. Results show that climate change is projected to have a significant negative impact in wine quality by increased dryness and cumulative thermal effects during growing seasons in Southern European regions (e.g. Portugal, Spain and Italy). These changes represent an important constraint to grapevine growth and development, making crucial adaptation/mitigation strategies to be adopted. On the other hand, regions of western and central Europe (e.g. southern Britain, northern France and Germany) will benefit from this scenario both in wine quality, and in new potential areas for viticulture. This approach provides a macro-characterization of European areas where grapevines may preferentially grow, as well as their projected changes under human-induced forcing. As such, it can be a useful tool for viticultural zoning in a changing climate.

Santos, João.; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Fraga, Helder; Pinto, Joaquim G.

2010-05-01

281

"europe Towards the Stars"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

YOUNG EUROPEANS AND THEIR TEACHERS TO OBSERVE WITH SUPER-TELESCOPE With the above title, and following the very successful events of the past two years [1], ESO again organises an "educational adventure" in 1995. It takes place within the framework of the "Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture", initiated and supported by the European Commission. This time ESO will invite about fifty 17-18 year old grammar school pupils with their teachers to try their skills at one of the world's most advanced astronomical telescopes. The young people are the winners of a Europe-wide astronomy contest that will take place during the summer and early autumn. The main event involves a free, week-long stay at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory in November this year. During this time, the participants will experience modern astronomy and astrophysics at one of the world's foremost international centres and also have the opportunity to perform remote observations via a satellite link with two telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory in Chile. THE CONTEST This year's programme will begin with national competitions in sixteen European countries. It is devised as a contest between joint teams of pupils and teachers. Each team is expected to consist of (up to) three pupils and their teacher. They can choose between four different subjects requiring either practical or theoretical work. Each subject has a strong scientific and technological component. Here are short descriptions: At the telescope - Catching and interpreting the signals. "You observe with an existing telescope and instrument of your own choice. In your observational report you describe the scientific goal, the capability of your equipment, the execution of the observation. You discuss the observational data including an error analysis, and describe the conclusions." Technology for Science - Building an Instrument. "You build an astronomical instrument (e.g. a photometer or a spectrograph, fitted with the associated detector). In the instrument documentation, you describe the instrument, its design, construction and the test results." A Future Space Mission - Designing an on-board Instrument. "You design an instrument for a future space mission to the outer Solar System. The purpose is to carry out observations of Pluto and Transneptunian Objects. Describe the design, the physical/chemical principles of the instrument and the observations to be made with it. Give examples of some possible results." Theory - Looking into the Future. "You describe a stable planetary system around another star. Your report contains a description of the conditions (inner structure, composition, surface features, atmosphere) of the planets. What are the technical requirements for observing this system from the Earth? Which kind of observations of these objects can be done with available instruments?" None of these subjects are easy to treat, but experience has shown that thanks to very dedicated teachers, the teaching of astronomy takes place at a surprisingly high level at many of Europe's schools. The establishment of the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) last year has also resulted in a Europe-wide, increasing interest in these matters and many EAAE members actively promote the present contest and participate in the organisation. Many good entries are therefore expected. The participation is open to pupils in their last or second-to-last year before baccalaureate. In each country, a National Committee has been established that will organise the contest and evaluate the responses. In most cases, the closing date is early October 1995, and the national award ceremonies will take place in early November. Detailed information about this programme may be obtained from the National Committees at the addresses below. A VISIT TO ESO The members of the winning teams from each country will be invited to spend an exciting and informative week at the ESO Headquarters in Garching near Munich (

1995-06-01

282

Resonance effects of longitudinal HOMS in Project X linac  

SciTech Connect

Results of analysis of losses due to excitation of longitudinal high order modes (HOMs) in the accelerating RF system of the CW proton linac of the Project X facility are presented. The necessity of HOM dampers in the superconducting (SC) cavities of the linac is discussed. Project X is a multi-MW proton source which is under development at Fermilab. The facility is based on a 3 GeV CW linac. The main fraction of H{sup -} beam from the linac is split into three parts for Mu2e experiment, kaon experiments, and another which is not yet decided. The layout of the linac is shown in Figure 1. It includes three sections based on 325 MHz single-spoke cavities, and a low-energy and a high-energy sections of 650 MHz elliptical cavities with geometrical beta of 0.61 and 0.9, respectively. The linac provides a beam with an average current of 1 mA and time structure (shown in Figure 2) devised to satisfy specific requirements of the experiments. Each bunch contains 9 {center_dot} 10{sup 7} H{sup -} ions. The bunch sequence frequency for the Mu2e experiment is 162.5 MHz with a total pulse duration of 100 ns and pulse repetition rate of 1 MHz. The bunch sequence frequency for Kaon and other experiments is 27.08 MHz. Figure 3 shows the idealized beam current spectrum, which contains harmonics of multiplies of 27.08 MHz and harmonics of multiplies of 1 MHz. The 5-cell 650 MHz cavities for Project X are currently under development. A critical design decision is to define the necessity of HOM dampers for these types of cavities.

Yakovlev, V.; Vostrikov, A.; Gonin, I.; Khabiboulline, T.; Lunin, A.; Solyak, N.; Saini, a.; Sukhanov, A.; /Fermilab

2011-03-01

283

Project DARE: no effects at 10-year follow-up.  

PubMed

The present study examined the impact of Project DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education), a widespread drug-prevention program, 10 years after administration. A total of 1,002 individuals who in 6th grade had either received DARE or a standard drug-education curriculum, were reevaluated at age 20. Few differences were found between the 2 groups in terms of actual drug use, drug attitudes, or self-esteem, and in no case did the DARE group have a more successful outcome than the comparison group. Possible reasons why DARE remains so popular, despite the lack of documented efficacy, are offered. PMID:10450631

Lynam, D R; Milich, R; Zimmerman, R; Novak, S P; Logan, T K; Martin, C; Leukefeld, C; Clayton, R

1999-08-01

284

THE EFFECT OF WEB-BASED PROJECT APPLICATIONS ON STUDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARDS CHEMISTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students perform intensive web-based applications during their education. One of these is project-based application. In this study, the effect of web based project applications on students' attitudes towards chemistry has been investigated. 42 students attending Hacettepe University, Faculty of Education, and Department of Chemistry Education have been participated in these applications. Attitude Scale towards Chemistry has been administered before and

Inci MORGIL; Hatice GUNGOR SEYHAN; Evrim URAL ALSAN; Senar TEMEL

2008-01-01

285

Creating a Ripple Effect: Incorporating Multimedia-Assisted Project-Based Learning in Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the effects of multimedia-assisted, project-based learning in teacher education. We conducted pre- and post-surveys to investigate how the experience of developing multimedia projects influenced preservice teachers' knowledge and self-efficacy in (a) technology, (b) subject matter, and (c) teaching. Forty-two preservice…

Seo, Kay Kyeongju; Templeton, Rosalyn; Pellegrino, Debra

2008-01-01

286

The Detroit Effective Schools Project: Year 1 Evaluation Report, 1986-87.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Key results and conclusions from the first year (1986-87) of the Detroit (Michigan) Effective Schools Project are presented. The project was designed to determine how low-achieving schools in Detroit can best be helped and to ascertain factors with greatest impact on retention and achievement. Focus is on assisting selected schools designated as…

Green, Robert L.; And Others

287

The Effect of Web-Based Project Applications on Students' Attitudes towards Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students perform intensive web-based applications during their education. One of these is project-based application. In this study, the effect of web based project applications on students' attitudes towards chemistry has been investigated. 42 students attending Hacettepe University, Faculty of Education, and Department of Chemistry Education have…

Morgil, Inci; Gungor Seyhan, Hatice; Ural Alsan, Evrim; Temel, Senar

2008-01-01

288

Student Teacher Candidates' Effect on Student Learning as Measured through Action Research Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The unit determined that "Assessment 5: Effect on Student Learning" would be best measured by student teachers and interns utilizing an action research activity in their clinical experience. Twenty four action research projects were evaluated by the Director of Student Teaching. Interraters blind to the Director's scores evaluated the projects.…

Moffett, David W.; Reid, Barbara K.; Zhou, Yunfang

2008-01-01

289

The Germanic Europe cluster: where employees have a voice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter describes characteristics of the Germanic Europe cluster which is, based on research conducted by the GLOBE project, comprised of Austria, Germany (former West), Germany (former East), The Netherlands, and Switzerland. Results are presented pertaining to societal culture and leadership. The data suggest that the current models of cooperation between “labor” and “capital” in place in all four countries

Erna Szabo; Felix C. Brodbeck; Deanne N. Den Hartog; Gerhard Reber; Jürgen Weibler; Rolf Wunderer

2002-01-01

290

Dental Education in Europe: The Challenges of Variety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds that dental education varies considerably across Europe, with differing traditions of stomatology and odontology. The European Union's Dental Directives are often poorly followed by individual schools, and differences will likely intensify as Eastern/Central European countries join. The DentEd Thematic Network Project, which aims to promote…

Scott, John

2003-01-01

291

Use of ?-, ?- and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane in Europe, 1970–1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on current and historical usage of ?-, ?- and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH ) in Europe are presented. The data were collected and estimated as a part of a project studying the regional cycling of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Baltic environment (Popcycling-Baltic). Better data on sources, environmental discharges and atmospheric emissions of HCH and other POPs are needed to

Knut Breivik; Jozef M. Pacyna; Jörg Münch

1999-01-01

292

OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OneGeology-Europe is making geological spatial data held by the geological surveys of Europe more easily discoverable and accessible via the internet. This will provide a fundamental scientific layer to the European Plate Observation System Rich geological data assets exist in the geological survey of each individual EC Member State, but they are difficult to discover and are not interoperable. For those outside the geological surveys they are not easy to obtain, to understand or to use. Geological spatial data is essential to the prediction and mitigation of landslides, subsidence, earthquakes, flooding and pollution. These issues are global in nature and their profile has also been raised by the OneGeology global initiative for the International Year of Planet Earth 2008. Geology is also a key dataset in the EC INSPIRE Directive, where it is also fundamental to the themes of natural risk zones, energy and mineral resources. The OneGeology-Europe project is delivering a web-accessible, interoperable geological spatial dataset for the whole of Europe at the 1:1 million scale based on existing data held by the European geological surveys. Proof of concept will be applied to key areas at a higher resolution and some geological surveys will deliver their data at high resolution. An important role is developing a European specification for basic geological map data and making significant progress towards harmonising the dataset (an essential first step to addressing harmonisation at higher data resolutions). It is accelerating the development and deployment of a nascent international interchange standard for geological data - GeoSciML, which will enable the sharing and exchange of the data within and beyond the geological community within Europe and globally. The geological dataset for the whole of Europe is not a centralized database but a distributed system. Each geological survey implements and hosts an interoperable web service, delivering their national harmonized geological data. These datasets are registered in a multilingual catalogue, who is one the main part of this system. This catalogue and a common metadata profile allows the discovery of national geological and applied geological maps at all scapes, Such an architecture is facilitating re-use and addition of value by a wide spectrum of users in the public and private sector and identifying, documenting and disseminating strategies for the reduction of technical and business barriers to re-use. In identifying and raising awareness in the user and provider communities, it is moving geological knowledge closer to the end-user where it will have greater societal impact and ensure fuller exploitation of a key data resource gathered at huge public expense. The project is providing examples of best practice in the delivery of digital geological spatial data to users, e.g. in the insurance, property, engineering, planning, mineral resource and environmental sectors. The scientifically attributed map data of the project will provide a pan-European base for science research and, importantly, a prime geoscience dataset capable of integration with other data sets within and beyond the geoscience domain. This presentation will demonstrate the first results of this project and will indicate how OneGeology-Europe is ensuring that Europe may play a leading role in the development of a geoscience spatial data infrastructure (SDI) globally.

Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

2010-05-01

293

76 FR 76153 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Caney River Wind Project, LLC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Caney River Wind Project, LLC, Mesquite Solar 1, LLC, Copper Crossing Solar LLC, Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC, Pinnacle Wind, LLC, Bellevue Solar, LLC, Yamhill Solar, LLC, Osage...

2011-12-06

294

The Effect of Virtual Image Projection Distance on the Accommodative Response of the Eye.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Virtual image displays utilize either aircraft mounted or helmet mounted beam splitters, or combining screens. The effect on the accommodative response of the projection distance of the virtual image was measured by photographing the first and fourth Purk...

G. Twine Chisum P. E. Morway

1977-01-01

295

Eastern Europe: Please Stand By.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the Task Force on Telecommunications and Broadcasting in Eastern Europe are: (1) to assess and evaluate the current infrastructure, policies and plans for telecommunications and broadcasting; (2) to make recommendations to the Department...

D. L. Dougan J. Hoagland J. Koehler T. Marshall E. Sekulow

1990-01-01

296

ADS Europe Flight Trials Programme.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The world's largest trial of satellite based Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) in the ICAO Aeronautical Telecommunications Network standard environment is being executed in Europe. A Consortium, led by the United Kingdom's National Air Traffic Servic...

S. S. van Leeuwen

1996-01-01

297

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subject of nanoscience and/or nanotechnology is of considerable interest as a rapidly expanding frontier of research. This report documents information gathered at 44 laboratories in Europe by the author over a six month period. Research activities in...

W. A. Tolles

1994-01-01

298

TBNET - Collaborative research on tuberculosis in Europe  

PubMed Central

Networking is a key feature of scientific success. The Tuberculosis Network European Trialsgroup (TBNET) was founded in 2006 as a non-profit, non-governmental peer-initiated scientific organization to collaboratively address research priorities in the area of tuberculosis in Europe. Today, TBNET is the largest tuberculosis research organization in Europe with nearly 500 members from 22 EU countries and 49 countries worldwide (www.tb-net.org). Apart from small multicenter basic research studies, a particular strength of TBNET is the performance of large collaborative projects, pan-European multicenter studies and database projects. In recent years, research from TBNET has substantially contributed to the understanding of the management, risk and prognosis of patients with multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis and led to a better understanding of the clinical value of novel tests for the identification of adults and children with tuberculosis and latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2009, two branches of TBNET were founded to specifically address tuberculosis in the pediatric population (ptbnet) and non-tuberculous mycobacterial diseases (NTM-NET). In addition to the research activities, TBNET is developing expert consensus documents for clinical management and provides training and capacity building especially for members from Eastern European countries, where tuberculosis is still a prevalent health problem.

Giehl, C.; Duarte, R.; Bothamley, G.; Gerlach, C.; Cirillo, D.M.; Wagner, D.; Kampmann, B.; Goletti, D.; Juers, T.; Sester, M.

2012-01-01

299

Ensemble predictions of future streamflow drought in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in climate modeling suggest that global warming and growing human water use are likely to favor conditions for the development of streamflow droughts in several parts of Europe by the end of this century. In this study, we quantify how future drought hazard in Europe may develop in view of these drivers by comparing low-flow predictions of the LISFLOOD hydrological model coupled to a water consumption module and driven by an ensemble of climate projections. This ensemble consists of 12 bias-corrected climate simulations conducted within the ENSEMBLES project, forced by the A1B emission scenario for the period 1961-2100. For time slices of 30 years, low-flow characteristics - quantified in terms of minimum flows, environmental flows and deficits - are derived from the simulated streamflow series and further analyzed using extreme value theory. Changes in extreme river conditions are then analyzed with respect to the 1961-1990 control period. Two main domains with opposite signal of change in drought characteristics can be identified in Europe, as well as a transition zone between them. Southern parts of Europe - from the Iberian to Balkan Peninsula- but also France, Belgium and British Isles are expected to be more prone to severe and persistent low-flow conditions. In contrast, the Scandinavia Peninsula and Northeast Europe show a robust decrease in future drought hazard. In a transition zone between these two regions, climate-induced changes are projected to be marginal. Water use under an A1B-consistent scenario will further aggravate drought conditions in the south as well as in the transition zone. In the regions with a clear pattern of change in streamflow drought, indices derived from the hydrological simulations for different climate experiments are highly consistent, whereas in the transition zone between North and South Europe the consistency in changes amongst the ensemble members is lower.

Forzieri, Giovanni; Feyen, Luc; Rojas, Rodrigo

2013-04-01

300

Quantifying Observational Projection Effects Using Molecular Cloud Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical properties of molecular clouds are often measured using spectral-line observations, which provide the only probes of the clouds' velocity structure. It is hard, though, to assess whether and to what extent intensity features in position-position-velocity (PPV) space correspond to "real" density structures in position-position-position (PPP) space. In this paper, we create synthetic molecular cloud spectral-line maps of simulated molecular clouds, and present a new technique for measuring the reality of individual PPV structures. Using a dendrogram algorithm, we identify hierarchical structures in both PPP and PPV space. Our procedure projects density structures identified in PPP space into corresponding intensity structures in PPV space and then measures the geometric overlap of the projected structures with structures identified from the synthetic observation. The fractional overlap between a PPP and PPV structure quantifies how well the synthetic observation recovers information about the three-dimensional structure. Applying this machinery to a set of synthetic observations of CO isotopes, we measure how well spectral-line measurements recover mass, size, velocity dispersion, and virial parameter for a simulated star-forming region. By disabling various steps of our analysis, we investigate how much opacity, chemistry, and gravity affect measurements of physical properties extracted from PPV cubes. For the simulations used here, which offer a decent, but not perfect, match to the properties of a star-forming region like Perseus, our results suggest that superposition induces a ~40% uncertainty in masses, sizes, and velocity dispersions derived from 13CO (J = 1-0). As would be expected, superposition and confusion is worst in regions where the filling factor of emitting material is large. The virial parameter is most affected by superposition, such that estimates of the virial parameter derived from PPV and PPP information typically disagree by a factor of ~2. This uncertainty makes it particularly difficult to judge whether gravitational or kinetic energy dominate a given region, since the majority of virial parameter measurements fall within a factor of two of the equipartition level ? ~ 2.

Beaumont, Christopher N.; Offner, Stella S. R.; Shetty, Rahul; Glover, Simon C. O.; Goodman, Alyssa A.

2013-11-01

301

Noctilucent cloud over Britain & western Europe, 2009-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Record amounts of noctilucent cloud were reported in the 2009 season, but they were significantly fewer in 2010. Weather conditions in the UK and Europe may have been poorer in 2010 but increasing solar activity may also have had the effect of reducing the number of nights on which NLC was observed. This report presents observations of NLC received in 2009 & 2010 from western Europe and the British Isles.

Kennedy, K.

2011-12-01

302

Weakened thermohaline circulation will increase snow cover over Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A high resolution regional climate model nested into a global climate model was used to perform a Thermohaline Circulation (THC) slowdown experiment. Freshwater corresponding to one-sixth of the Greenland ice sheet melting over 100 years was introduced into the northern Atlantic. This reduced THC strength by half, changing atmospheric circulation and enhancing maritime climate influences over Europe. Implications of weakened thermohaline circulation's effects on specific locations in Europe are discussed.

Al., Jacob E.; Agu

303

Adjoint tomography of Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use spectral-element and adjoint methods to image crustal and upper mantle heterogeneity in Europe. The study area involves the convergent boundaries of the Eurasian, African and Arabian plates and the divergent boundary between the Eurasian and North American plates, making the tectonic structure of this region complex. Our goal is to iteratively fit observed seismograms and improve crustal and upper mantle images by taking advantage of 3D forward and inverse modeling techniques. We use data from 200 earthquakes with magnitudes between 5 and 6 recorded by 262 stations provided by ORFEUS. Crustal model Crust2.0 combined with mantle model S362ANI comprise the initial 3D model. Before the iterative adjoint inversion, we determine earthquake source parameters in the initial 3D model by using 3D Green functions and their Fréchet derivatives with respect to the source parameters (i.e., centroid moment tensor and location). The updated catalog is used in the subsequent structural inversion. Since we concentrate on upper mantle structures which involve anisotropy, transversely isotropic (frequency-dependent) traveltime sensitivity kernels are used in the iterative inversion. Taking advantage of the adjoint method, we use as many measurements as can obtain based on comparisons between observed and synthetic seismograms. FLEXWIN (Maggi et al., 2009) is used to automatically select measurement windows which are analyzed based on a multitaper technique. The bandpass ranges from 15 second to 150 second. Long-period surface waves and short-period body waves are combined in source relocations and structural inversions. A statistical assessments of traveltime anomalies and logarithmic waveform differences is used to characterize the inverted sources and structure.

Zhu, H.; Bozdag, E.; Peter, D. B.; Tromp, J.

2010-12-01

304

Headache yesterday in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background Surveys enquiring about burden of headache over a prior period of time (eg, 3 months) are subject to recall bias. To eliminate this as far as possible, we focused on presence and impact of headache on the preceding day (“headache yesterday”). Methods Adults (18-65 years) were surveyed from the general populations of Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, from a work-force population in Spain and from mostly non-headache patient populations of Austria, France and UK. A study of non-responders in some countries allowed detection of potential participation bias where initial participation rates were low. Results Participation rates varied between 11% and 59% (mean 27%). Non-responder studies suggested that, because of participation bias, headache prevalence might be overestimated in initial responders by up to 2% (absolute). Across all countries, 1,422 of 8,271 participants (15-17%, depending on correction for participation bias) had headache yesterday lasting on average for 6 hours. It was bad or very bad in 56% of cases and caused absence from work or school in 6%. Among those who worked despite headache, 20% reported productivity reduced by >50%. Social activities were lost by 24%. Women (21%) were more likely than men (12%) to have headache yesterday, but impact was similar in the two genders. Conclusions With recall biases avoided, our findings indicate that headache costs at least 0.7% of working capacity in Europe. This calculation takes into account that most of those who missed work could make up for this later, which, however, means that leisure and social activities are even more influenced by headache.

2014-01-01

305

Effect of projective viewpoint in detecting temporal density changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important question in mammographic image analysis is the importance of the projected view of the breast. Can temporal changes in density be detected equally well using either one of the commonly available views Medio-Lateral (ML) and Cranio-Caudal (CC) or a combination of the two? Two sets of mammograms of 50 patients in a double-blind, placebo controlled hormone replacement therapy (HRT) experiment were used. One set of ML and CC view from 1999 and one from 2001. HRT increases density which means that the degree of separation of the populations (one group receiving HRT and the other placebo) can be used as a measure of how much density change information is carried in a particular view or combination of views. Earlier results have shown a high correlation between CC and ML views leading to the conclusion that only one of them is needed for density assessment purposes. A similar high correlation coefficient was observed in this study (0.85), while the correlation between changes was a bit lower (0.71). Using both views to separate the patients receiving hormones from the ones receiving placebo increased the area under corresponding ROC curves from 0.76 +/- 0.04 to 0.79 +/- 0.04.

Raundahl, Jakob; Nielsen, Mads; Olsen, Ole F.; Bagger, Yu Z.

2004-05-01

306

Radiative Enhancement Effects on Flame Spread (REEFS) Project Studied "Green House" Effects on Fire Spread  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Radiative Enhancement Effects on Flame Spread (REEFS) project, slated for flight aboard the International Space Station, reached a major milestone by holding its Science Concept Review this year. REEFS is led by principal investigator Paul Ronney from the University of Southern California in conjunction with a project team from the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study is focusing on flame spread over flat solid fuel beds to improve our understanding of more complex fires, such as those found in manned spacecraft and terrestrial buildings. The investigation has direct implications for fire safety, both for space and Earth applications, and extends previous work with emphasis on the atmospheres and flow environments likely to be present in fires that might occur in microgravity. These atmospheres will contain radiatively active gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) from combustion products, and likely gaseous fuels such as carbon monoxide (CO) from incomplete combustion of solid fuel, as well as flows induced by ventilation currents. During tests in the 2.2-Second Drop Tower and KC-135 aircraft at Glenn, the principal investigator introduced the use of foam fuels for flame spread experiments over thermally thick fuels to obtain large spread rates in comparison to those of dense fuels such as PMMA. This enables meaningful results to be obtained even in the 2.2 s available in drop tower experiments.

Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Ronney, Paul

2003-01-01

307

Role of fire in biome-boundary shifts in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown that climatic fire risk is projected to increase with future climate change due to increases in droughts and heat waves. In many fire regimes this trend translates into increasing area burnt, but recent analyses of fire statistics and other fire-related data have shown that climate fire risk is not always linearly related to area burnt or fire severity. This means that vegetation productivity, i.e. fuel production, or landscape fragmentation, e.g. through land-use and transportation routes, influence fire spread. Drier climate negatively impacts vegetation productivity, thus leading to less fuel load which further limits fire spread despite similar fire risk. The sensitivity of the affected vegetation also influences fire effects and post-fire mortality. Climate variability additionally contributes to the non-linearity of these processes, which is likely to change under future climate conditions. All these factors point to important feedbacks between vegetation and fire, which can be investigated using dynamic process-based vegetation-fire models such as LPJmL-SPITFIRE. We investigate the role of climate variability on European fire regimes, and if the interaction between climate variability and fire can be responsible for biome shifts under climate change conditions. We apply LPJmL-SPITFIRE to future climate change scenario, 1) the WATCH-ERAI-REMO climate scenario which was run for the SRES A1B emission scenario to Europe and 2) the same climate scenario but with reduced climate variability. Here, we investigate the effects of climate variability and CO2-fertilization on future fire regimes, vegetation dynamics and associated biome shifts. It is hypothesized that climate variability influences vegetation-fire interactions along biome borders, especially in Eastern Europe. Mediterranean countries are most likely to face fuel limitation, leading to a reduction in fire towards the end of the century. Transitions in vegetation composition leading to both types of trajectories will be examined.

Thonicke, Kirsten; Rolinski, Susanne; von Bloh, Werner; Walz, Ariane; Rammig, Anja

2013-04-01

308

Austerity and health in Europe.  

PubMed

Many European governments have abundantly cut down public expenditure on health during the financial crisis. Consequences of the financial downturn on health outcomes have begun to emerge. This recession has led to an increase in poor health status, raising rates of anxiety and depression among the economically vulnerable. In addition, the incidence of some communicable diseases along with the rate of suicide has increased significantly. The recession has also driven structural reforms, and affected the priority given to public policies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse how austerity impacts health in Europe and better understand the response of European health systems to the financial crisis. The current economic climate, while challenging, presents an opportunity for reforming and restructuring health promotion actions. More innovative approaches to health should be developed by health professionals and by those responsible for health management. In addition, scientists and experts in public health should promote evidence-based approaches to economic and public health recovery by analyzing the present economic downturn and previous crisis. However, it is governance and leadership that will mostly determine how well health systems are prepared to face the crisis and find ways to mitigate its effects. PMID:24176290

Quaglio, Gianluca; Karapiperis, Theodoros; Van Woensel, Lieve; Arnold, Elleke; McDaid, David

2013-11-01

309

Life+ EnvEurope DEIMS - improving access to long-term ecosystem monitoring data in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term ecological (LTER) studies aim at detecting environmental changes and analysing its related drivers. In this respect LTER Europe provides a network of about 450 sites and platforms. However, data on various types of ecosystems and at a broad geographical scale is still not easily available. Managing data resulting from long-term observations is therefore one of the important tasks not only for an LTER site itself but also on the network level. Exchanging and sharing the information within a wider community is a crucial objective in the upcoming years. Due to the fragmented nature of long-term ecological research and monitoring (LTER) in Europe - and also on the global scale - information management has to face several challenges: distributed data sources, heterogeneous data models, heterogeneous data management solutions and the complex domain of ecosystem monitoring with regard to the resulting data. The Life+ EnvEurope project (2010-2013) provides a case study for a workflow using data from the distributed network of LTER-Europe sites. In order to enhance discovery, evaluation and access to data, the EnvEurope Drupal Ecological Information Management System (DEIMS) has been developed. This is based on the first official release of the Drupal metadata editor developed by US LTER. EnvEurope DEIMS consists of three main components: 1) Metadata editor: a web-based client interface to manage metadata of three information resource types - datasets, persons and research sites. A metadata model describing datasets based on Ecological Metadata Language (EML) was developed within the initial phase of the project. A crosswalk to the INSPIRE metadata model was implemented to convey to the currently on-going European activities. Person and research site metadata models defined within the LTER Europe were adapted for the project needs. The three metadata models are interconnected within the system in order to provide easy way to navigate the user among the related resources. 2) Discovery client: provides several search profiles for datasets, persons, research sites and external resources commonly used in the domain, e.g. Catalogue of Life , based on several search patterns ranging from simple full text search, glossary browsing to categorized faceted search. 3) Geo-Viewer: a map client that portrays boundaries and centroids of the research sites as Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Each layer provides a link to both Metadata editor and Discovery client in order to create or discover metadata describing the data collected within the individual research site. Sharing of the dataset metadata with DEIMS is ensured in two ways: XML export of individual metadata records according to the EML schema for inclusion in the international DataOne network, and periodic harvesting of metadata into GeoNetwork catalogue, thus providing catalogue service for web (CSW), which can be invoked by remote clients. The final version of DEIMS will be a pilot implementation for the information system of LTER-Europe, which should establish a common information management framework within the European ecosystem research domain and provide valuable environmental information to other European information infrastructures as SEIS, Copernicus and INSPIRE.

Kliment, Tomas; Peterseil, Johannes; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pugnetti, Alessandra; Blankman, David

2013-04-01

310

Understanding the Many Steps for Effective Collaborative Language Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New technologies are increasingly becoming a component of education, as computers are integrated into both students' lives and as a teacher's tool of management and teaching. At the same time, constructivist learning theories have had extensive effects at the level of learning paradigms and in prescribed education goals. Yet there are worrying…

Dooly, Melinda

2008-01-01

311

Straight Talking: Effective Career Discussions at Work. NICEC Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The key features of effective career discussions at work were explored in a large-scale investigation that included semi-structured interviews with employers from 5 organizations in England, 118 employees who had participated in discussions about their own careers, and 30 employees identified by their employers as excellent givers of career…

Hirsh, Wendy; Jackson, Charles; Kidd, Jennifer M.

312

Social-Emotional Effects of Day Care. Final Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the effects of group day care, family day care, and full parental care on such aspects of children's social-emotional adjustment as curiosity, attachment, self-concept, sex role, achievement motivation, impulse control, cooperation, and sharing. Initial differences between groups were controlled by matching on race, sex, number…

Lippman, Marcia Z.; Grote, Barbara H.

313

The New England School Effectiveness Project: A Facilitator's Sourcebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The School Team Facilitator assists participating New England secondary schools in planning and implementing improvement efforts based on school effectiveness research. This publication, distributed at a team training conference, begins with the conference schedule, a list of facilitators, instructions on choosing a school team, and letters to…

Northeast Regional Exchange, Inc., Chelmsford, MA.

314

Projection imaging of photon beams by the Cerenkov effect  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A novel technique for beam profiling of megavoltage photon beams was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced Cerenkov emission in water, as a potential surrogate for the imparted dose in irradiated media. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire 2D projection images of Cerenkov emission from a 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 cm{sup 2} 6 MV linear accelerator (LINAC) x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 400 MU/min incident on a water tank with transparent walls. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the LINAC sync pulse to reduce background light artifacts, and the measurement quality was investigated by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and measurement repeatability as a function of delivered dose. Monte Carlo simulations were used to derive a calibration factor for differences between the optical images and deposited dose arising from the anisotropic angular dependence of Cerenkov emission. Finally, Cerenkov-based beam profiles were compared to a percent depth dose (PDD) and lateral dose profile at a depth of d{sub max} from a reference dose distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system (TPS). Results: The signal to noise ratio was found to be 20 at a delivered dose of 66.6 cGy, and proportional to the square root of the delivered dose as expected from Poisson photon counting statistics. A 2.1% mean standard deviation and 5.6% maximum variation in successive measurements were observed, and the Monte Carlo derived calibration factor resulted in Cerenkov emission images which were directly correlated to deposited dose, with some spatial issues. The dose difference between the TPS and PDD predicted by Cerenkov measurements was within 20% in the buildup region with a distance to agreement (DTA) of 1.5-2 mm and {+-}3% at depths beyond d{sub max}. In the lateral profile, the dose difference at the beam penumbra was within {+-}13% with a DTA of 0-2 mm, {+-}5% in the central beam region, and 2%-3% in the beam umbra. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of Cerenkov emission imaging to profile x-ray photon LINAC beams in water. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method.

Glaser, Adam K.; Davis, Scott C.; McClatchy, David M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W.; Gladstone, David J. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Thayer School of Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States)

2013-01-15

315

Projection imaging of photon beams by the ?erenkov effect  

PubMed Central

Purpose: A novel technique for beam profiling of megavoltage photon beams was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced ?erenkov emission in water, as a potential surrogate for the imparted dose in irradiated media. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire 2D projection images of ?erenkov emission from a 4 × 4 cm2 6 MV linear accelerator (LINAC) x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 400 MU/min incident on a water tank with transparent walls. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the LINAC sync pulse to reduce background light artifacts, and the measurement quality was investigated by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and measurement repeatability as a function of delivered dose. Monte Carlo simulations were used to derive a calibration factor for differences between the optical images and deposited dose arising from the anisotropic angular dependence of ?erenkov emission. Finally, ?erenkov-based beam profiles were compared to a percent depth dose (PDD) and lateral dose profile at a depth of dmax from a reference dose distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system (TPS). Results: The signal to noise ratio was found to be 20 at a delivered dose of 66.6 cGy, and proportional to the square root of the delivered dose as expected from Poisson photon counting statistics. A 2.1% mean standard deviation and 5.6% maximum variation in successive measurements were observed, and the Monte Carlo derived calibration factor resulted in ?erenkov emission images which were directly correlated to deposited dose, with some spatial issues. The dose difference between the TPS and PDD predicted by ?erenkov measurements was within 20% in the buildup region with a distance to agreement (DTA) of 1.5–2 mm and ±3% at depths beyond dmax. In the lateral profile, the dose difference at the beam penumbra was within ±13% with a DTA of 0–2 mm, ±5% in the central beam region, and 2%–3% in the beam umbra. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of ?erenkov emission imaging to profile x-ray photon LINAC beams in water. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method.

Glaser, Adam K.; Davis, Scott C.; McClatchy, David M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W.; Gladstone, David J.

2013-01-01

316

Looking back to see the future: building nuclear power plants in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The so-called ‘nuclear renaissance’ in Europe is promulgated by the execution of two large engineering projects involving the construction of two European Pressurized Reactors (EPRs) in Flamanville, France and Olkiluoto in Finland. As both projects have faced budget overruns and delays, this paper analyses their governance and history to derive lessons useful for the construction of future projects. Analysis indicates

Giorgio Locatelli; Mauro Mancini

2012-01-01

317

Offshore northern Europe activity begins a slow recovery  

SciTech Connect

The offshore industry in northwest Europe has begun its recovery. Investment in new oil projects has resumed, reflecting growing confidence that the $18/bbl crude price is sustainable. Renewed spending on oil projects has also been helped by revamping offshore projects to reduce costs and make new development viable at lower prices. Industry confidence in the North Sea was also given a boost by the decision to proceed with the $7.8 billion development of the Troll and Sleipner gas fields. Drilling activity is also starting to recover. Since the beginning of this year, 14 rigs have been brought back into service and there are now 50 semisubmersibles and jack ups active on exploration and appraisal work. There were 88 rigs operating at the start of 1986, and there are still 61 rigs stacked in northwest Europe.

Vielvoye, R.

1987-06-29

318

Pharmacogenetics in Europe: barriers and opportunities.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the current situation in the field of pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics (PGx) in Europe. High expectations surrounding the clinical application of PGx remain largely unmet, as only a limited number of such applications have actually reached the market and clinical practice. Thus, the potential impact of PGx-based diagnostics on healthcare and its socio-economic implications are still unclear. With the aim of shedding some light on these uncertainties, the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) has conducted a review of the 'state of the art' and a further analysis on the use of pharmacogenetics diagnostics for preventing toxic drug reactions and improving drug efficacy in Europe. The paper presents highlights from the JRC-IPTS studies and discusses possibilities for improving translation of PGx research in Europe by comparing some experiences in the USA. We also illustrate the related barriers for the clinical uptake of PGx in Europe with specific case-studies. Most of the barriers identified extend beyond the European context. This reflects the global problems of scarcity of data demonstrating proven clinical validity or utility and favorable cost-effectiveness studies to support the clinical application of PGx diagnostic tests in the clinical setting. Another key barrier is the lack of incentives for the private sector to invest in the development and licensing of PGx diagnostic tests for improving the safety and efficacy of out-of-patent drugs. It therefore seems that one key aspect where policy can affect the clinical uptake of PGx is via sustaining large-scale industry-academia collaborations for developing and proving the utility of PGx diagnostics. PMID:19204415

Gurwitz, D; Zika, E; Hopkins, M M; Gaisser, S; Ibarreta, D

2009-01-01

319

Using project performance to measure effectiveness of quality management system maintenance and practices in construction industry.  

PubMed

This paper proposed seven existing and new performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of quality management system (QMS) maintenance and practices in construction industry. This research is carried out with a questionnaire based on QMS variables which are extracted from literature review and project performance indicators which are established from project management's theory. Data collected was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings indicate that client satisfaction and time variance have positive and significant relationship with QMS while other project performance indicators do not show significant results. Further studies can use the same project performance indicators to study the effectiveness of QMS in different sampling area to improve the generalizability of the findings. PMID:24701182

Leong, Tiong Kung; Zakuan, Norhayati; Mat Saman, Muhamad Zameri; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Tan, Choy Soon

2014-01-01

320

Using Project Performance to Measure Effectiveness of Quality Management System Maintenance and Practices in Construction Industry  

PubMed Central

This paper proposed seven existing and new performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of quality management system (QMS) maintenance and practices in construction industry. This research is carried out with a questionnaire based on QMS variables which are extracted from literature review and project performance indicators which are established from project management's theory. Data collected was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings indicate that client satisfaction and time variance have positive and significant relationship with QMS while other project performance indicators do not show significant results. Further studies can use the same project performance indicators to study the effectiveness of QMS in different sampling area to improve the generalizability of the findings.

Leong, Tiong Kung; Ariff, Mohd. Shoki Md.

2014-01-01

321

Fundamental remote sensing science research program: The Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Effects Characterization Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Effects Characterization (SRAEC) Project was established within the NASA Fundamental Remote Sensing Science Research Program to improve our understanding of the fundamental relationships of energy interactions between the sensor and the surface target, including the effect of the atmosphere. The current studies are generalized into the following five subject areas: optical scene modeling, Earth-space radiative transfer, electromagnetic properties of surface materials, microwave scene modeling, and scatterometry studies. This report has been prepared to provide a brief overview of the SRAEC Project history and objectives and to report on the scientific findings and project accomplishments made by the nineteen principal investigators since the project's initiation just over three years ago. This annual summary report derives from the most recent annual principal investigators meeting held January 29 to 31, 1985.

Deering, D. W.

1985-01-01

322

The Pentalfa project. 3: participant evaluations of the interactivity of the educational videoconferences and the effectiveness of project promotion.  

PubMed

A distance continuing medical education programme was established at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven using multipoint videoconferencing via ISDN lines at 384 kbit/s. During each academic year, 24-26 sessions were organized. The interactivity afforded by the videoconferencing was investigated during the first three years of the project. More than 60% of the participants rated the interactivity as good or very good. No differences were found between the sites or over the three years of the project, but female participants were more positive (66% making ratings of good or very good) in this regard than male participants (57%). Also, the effectiveness of the various types of publicity used to promote the programme was analysed. A brochure was the main source of information (62% of participants heard of the programme by this means), followed by direct mailings (27%), posters (15%), personal contact (14%) and the programme's Website (1%). The proportions of participants who heard of the programme through these different means varied with age and gender. PMID:12877779

Himpens, B

2003-01-01

323

Community wind power ownership schemes in Europe and their relevance to the United States  

SciTech Connect

With varying success, the United States and Europe have followed a more or less parallel path of policies to support wind development over the past twenty years. Feed-in laws and tax incentives first popularized in California in the early 1980s and greatly expanded upon in Europe during the 1990s are gradually giving way to market-based support mechanisms such as renewable portfolio standards, which are being implemented in one form or another in ten US states and at least three European nations. At the same time, electricity markets are being liberalized in both the US and Europe, and many electricity consumers are being given the choice to support the development of renewable energy through higher tariffs, both in traditionally regulated and newly competitive markets. One notable area in which wind development in Europe and United States has not evolved in common, however, is with respect to the level of community ownership of wind turbines or clusters. While community ownership of wind projects is unheard of in the United States, in Europe, local wind cooperatives or other participatory business schemes have been responsible for a large share of total wind development. In Denmark, for example, approximately 80% of all wind turbines are either individually or cooperatively owned, and a similar pattern holds in Germany, the world leader in installed wind capacity. Sweden also has a strong wind cooperative base, and the UK has recently made forays into community wind ownership. Why is it that wind development has evolved this way in Europe, but not in the United States? What incremental effect have community-owned wind schemes had on European wind development? Have community-owned wind schemes driven development in Europe, or are they merely a vehicle through which the fundamental driving institutions have been channeled? Is there value to having community wind ownership in the US? Is there reason to believe that such schemes would succeed in the US? If so, which model seems most appropriate, and what barriers--legal, regulatory, tax, market, or investment--stand in the way of implementing such a scheme? These are the questions this report seeks to address. The report begins with a discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of community wind ownership, as opposed to the large commercially-owned projects that have so far dominated US wind development. Next, four detailed case studies relate community-owned wind experience in Denmark, Sweden, the UK, Germany, focusing primarily on the different participatory models employed in each country. The report then categorizes the various models into three main groupings--community-led, developer-led, and investment funds--and draws general conclusions about the success of each category in Europe, and the conditions that dictate the effective use of one approach over another. Finally, the focus shifts to the US, where the report discusses the domestic barriers facing each model category, and identifies the category offering the most value with the fewest barriers to implementation. The report concludes with a high-level introduction to potential applications for community wind ownership within the United States.

Bolinger, Mark

2001-05-15

324

The HLA-net GENE[RATE] pipeline for effective HLA data analysis and its application to 145 population samples from Europe and neighbouring areas.  

PubMed

In this review, we present for the first time an integrated version of the Gene[rate] computer tools which have been developed during the last 5 years to analyse human leukocyte antigen (HLA) data in human populations, as well as the results of their application to a large dataset of 145 HLA-typed population samples from Europe and its two neighbouring areas, North Africa and West Asia, now forming part of the Gene[va] database. All these computer tools and genetic data are, from now, publicly available through a newly designed bioinformatics platform, HLA-net, here presented as a main achievement of the HLA-NET scientific programme. The Gene[rate] pipeline offers user-friendly computer tools to estimate allele and haplotype frequencies, to test Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), selective neutrality and linkage disequilibrium, to recode HLA data, to convert file formats, to display population frequencies of chosen alleles and haplotypes in selected geographic regions, and to perform genetic comparisons among chosen sets of population samples, including new data provided by the user. Both numerical and graphical outputs are generated, the latter being highly explicit and of publication quality. All these analyses can be performed on the pipeline after scrupulous validation of the population sample's characterisation and HLA typing reporting according to HLA-NET recommendations. The Gene[va] database offers direct access to the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1 and -DPB1 frequencies and summary statistics of 145 population samples having successfully passed these HLA-NET 'filters', and representing three European subregions (South-East, North-East and Central-West Europe) and two neighbouring areas (North Africa, as far as Sudan, and West Asia, as far as South India). The analysis of these data, summarized in this review, shows a substantial genetic variation at the regional level in this continental area. These results have main implications for population genetics, transplantation and epidemiological studies. PMID:24738646

Nunes, J M; Buhler, S; Roessli, D; Sanchez-Mazas, A

2014-05-01

325

Comprehensive health effects testing program for Denver's potable water reuse demonstration project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Health Effects Testing Program for the Denver Water Department's Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project is designed to evaluate the relative health effects of highly treated reclaimed water derived from secondary wastewater compared to Denver's present high?quality drinking water. The 1 million gallon per day (1 mgd) demonstration plant provides water to be evaluated in the studies treating unchlorinated

William C. Lauer; Frank J. Johns; Gary W. Wolfe; Barbara A. Myers; Lyman W. Condie; Joseph F. Borzelleca

1990-01-01

326

The effect of sonophoresis on topical anesthesia: a pilot project.  

PubMed

The dental anesthesia sonophoresis device (DASD) is a novel device that is intended to reduce the discomfort associated with intraoral mucosa needle puncture. The DASD produces ultrasonic energy that provides a sonophoretic effect on the oral mucosa, generating microchannels through the lipids between the keratinized cells that make up the stratum corneum. Once the topical anesthetic has permeated the stratum corneum, it quickly diffuses through the soft tissue, desensitizing the nerve endings and reducing the perception of pain caused by needle penetration. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether topical anesthesia applied using the DASD will reduce the discomfort of the needle puncture when compared to the control device. A split-mouth model, using 50 healthy subjects with puncture site at the maxillary canine vestibule, was used for this study. Subjects received a needle puncture on both sides of the mouth. Prior to the needle puncture, there was randomized application of 5% lidocaine with the DASD and a control device. Subjects rated their discomfort after needle punctures utilizing the visual analog scale pain scoring system. There was no statistically significant difference in the pain perception using the DASD versus the control device. PMID:23763557

Packer, Joseph L; Krall, Barry; Makki, Ali; Torabinejad, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

327

Occupational Health in Eastern Europe  

PubMed Central

Progress may be fostered as much by spreading information as by research. The aim of this review is to add to the existing knowledge of the pattern of occupational health services in the socialist countries of Eastern Europe. The work consists of two main parts. Part I is based on official information issued by government departments or typewritten reports prepared by government officials, and relates mostly to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and to Czechoslovakia. Part II is largely based on direct observation, discussion, and comparison of the occupational health services in Czechoslovakia, of which I have more extensive knowledge than of the other countries of Eastern Europe. This part embodies a number of conclusions and is followed by a list of bibliographical references. Throughout the review I have endeavoured to show how problems which exist all over the world are dealt with in Eastern Europe.

Malan, R. M.

1963-01-01

328

Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

this study we present an assessment of the impact of future climate change on total fire probability, burned area, and carbon (C) emissions from fires in Europe. The analysis was performed with the Community Land Model (CLM) extended with a prognostic treatment of fires that was specifically refined and optimized for application over Europe. Simulations over the 21st century are forced by five different high-resolution Regional Climate Models under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B. Both original and bias-corrected meteorological forcings is used. Results show that the simulated C emissions over the present period are improved by using bias corrected meteorological forcing, with a reduction of the intermodel variability. In the course of the 21st century, burned area and C emissions from fires are shown to increase in Europe, in particular in the Mediterranean basins, in the Balkan regions and in Eastern Europe. However, the projected increase is lower than in other studies that did not fully account for the effect of climate on ecosystem functioning. We demonstrate that the lower sensitivity of burned area and C emissions to climate change is related to the predicted reduction of the net primary productivity, which is identified as the most important determinant of fire activity in the Mediterranean region after anthropogenic interaction. This behavior, consistent with the intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis, limits the sensitivity of future burned area and C emissions from fires on climate change, providing more conservative estimates of future fire patterns, and demonstrates the importance of coupling fire simulation with a climate driven ecosystem productivity model.

Migliavacca, Mirco; Dosio, Alessandro; Camia, Andrea; Hobourg, Rasmus; Houston-Durrant, Tracy; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Krasovskii, Andrey A.; Marcolla, Barbara; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Ward, Daniel S.; Cescatti, Alessandro

2013-12-01

329

Improving Tsunami Resilience in Europe - ASTARTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Adjacent Seas (called NEAM by IOC-UNESCO) is known to be exposed to tsunamis and, like other regions of the world, faces increasing levels of risk due to i) the continuous development of coastal areas with critical infrastructures and accumulated values, and ii) the year-round presence of millions of tourists. In recent years, European researchers have greatly advanced knowledge of tsunami hazards and implementation of operational infrastructures, such as the creation of a regional system of candidate tsunami watch providers (CTWP) and national tsunami warning centers (NTWC). However, significant gaps remain and intensified efforts are needed. The ASTARTE (Assessment STrategy And Risk for Tsunami in Europe) is a three-year long EU-funded project, started in November 2013, that aims to develop a comprehensive strategy to mitigate tsunami impact in the NEAM region. To achieve this goal, an interdisciplinary consortium has been assembled. It includes all NEAM CTWPs and expert institutions across Europe and worldwide. ASTARTE will improve i) the basic knowledge on tsunami generation and recurrence with novel empirical data and new statistical analyses for assessing long-term recurrence and hazards of large events in sensitive areas within NEAM, ii) numerical techniques for tsunami simulation focusing on real-time codes, novel statistical emulation approaches, and experiments on damage analysis, and iii) methods for the assessment of hazard, vulnerability, and risk. ASTARTE will also provide i) guidelines for tsunami Eurocodes, ii) better forecasting and warning tools for CTWPs and NTWCs, and iii) guidelines for decision makers to increase the sustainability and resilience of coastal communities. In summary, ASTARTE will develop basic scientific and technical elements allowing for a significant enhancement of the Tsunami Warning System in the NEAM region in terms of monitoring, early warning,forecast, and resilience, with specific implementation in 9 tsunami test sites. Overall, this will lead to the goal of the European/NEAM Horizon 2020 strategy: to foster tsunami resilient communities. www.astarte-project.eu This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3).

Baptista, Maria Ana; Yalciner, Ahmet; Canals, Miquel; Behrens, Joern; Fuhrman, David; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Harbitz, Carl; Kanoglu, Utku; Karanci, Nurai; Lavigne, Franck; Lorito, Stefano; Meghraoui, Mustafa; Melis, Nikolaos S.; Necmioglu, Ocal; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Rudloff, Alexander; Schindele, François; Terrinha, Pedro; Tinti, Stefano

2014-05-01

330

Photovoltaic prospects in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economics of solar cells is reviewed with an eye to potential cost reductions in processing, and potential markets are explored. Current solar cell systems costs are noted to be on the road to achieving the U.S. DoE goals of $0.40/kWp by 1990. Continued progress will depend on technical developments in cheaper materials and processes, scaling up production, and the success of sales programs. Various consumer and professional markets are outlined, with a prediction that a 12 MWp deman will be reached as a steady state by 1995. Photovoltaic panels may conceivably replace conventional roofing materials, resulting in the projection that, if grid-supplied power continues to inflate in price, then all new European homes would be equipped with photovoltaics by the year 2000. Further, accomplishment of the cost goals could generate a 1 GWp/yr industrial market at the same time.

Starr, M. R.

331

ESD around the world: Europe.  

PubMed

In Europe, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is widely accepted as an appropriate diagnostic approach to obtain specimens for accurate histopathologic evaluation, which may change grading and local staging of early neoplasia determined by prior biopsies and imaging. In contrast to EMR, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allows resection of even large lesions in a single piece. Evidence on the clinical value of ESD is still limited and mainly based on data from Japan, and may not be directly applicable to Europe, where the outcome of ESD may be less favorable because of the limited Western expertise in this challenging technique. PMID:24679240

Neuhaus, Horst

2014-04-01

332

Europe: Vers La Societe Cognitive (Europe: Towards a Cognitive Society).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the idea behind the European Community's recently published white paper on education and teaching, titled "To Teach and to Learn--Towards a Cognitive Society." The paper declares that Europe is undergoing a transition to a new type of society, describes the issues at stake, and proposes steps to encourage member States to assume their…

Olivieri, Claude

1996-01-01

333

Energy-projected effective-medium theory of long-range hopping on energetically disordered lattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce energy-projected equations of motion to treat the diffusive transport of charge carriers that undergo long-range (i.e., greater than nearest-neighbor) hopping among the sites of an energetically disordered lattice. This approach leads naturally to an energy-projected effective-medium theory for treating such systems. Exact expressions for the diffusion constant associated with the energy-projected effective medium theory are obtained. Using the formalism in conjunction with what is normally a rather poor approximation, i.e., the virtual-crystal approximation, we are able to obtain the exact diffusion constant for the long-range symmetric-random-well problem. Effective-medium calculations and numerical simulations are presented for nearest-neighbor and long-range hopping on a disordered binary lattice.

Parris, P. E.; Bookout, B. D.

1993-10-01

334

SOLAR-PERIODIC FULL MOON EFFECT IN THE FOURMILAB RETROPSYCHOKINESIS PROJECT EXPERIMENT DATA: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radin and Rebman (1998) claimed evidence of psychokinesis effects in casino payout rates depending on lunar phases. They found the peak effect in the full-moon interval. This paper reports on an experimental data evaluation of 199,632 retroPK experiment trials, covering eight years. The hypothesis of a full moon effect is tested with the large database of the Fourmilab RetroPsychoKinesis Project.

Eckhard Etzold

335

Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe  

PubMed Central

We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified.

Suk, Jonathan E.

2011-01-01

336

Distortionary effects of a production-sharing fiscal system in a sequential modular offshore petroleum project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research examines the distortionary effects of a discovered and undeveloped sequential modular offshore project under five different designs for a production-sharing agreement (PSA). The model differs from previous research by looking at the effect of taxation from the perspective of a host government, where the objective is to maximize government utility over government revenue generated by the project and the non-pecuniary benefits to society. This research uses Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) theory, which is able to provide a good measure of the asset value accruing to various stakeholders in the project combined with the optimal decision rule for the development of the investment opportunity. Monte Carlo simulation was also applied to incorporate into the model the most important sources of risk associated with the project and to account for non-linearity in the cash flows. For a complete evaluation of how the fiscal system affects the project development, an investor's behavioral model was constructed, incorporating three operational decisions: investment timing, capacity size and early abandonment. The model considers four sources of uncertainty that affect the project value and the firm's optimal decision: the long run oil price and short-run deviations from that price, cost escalation and the reservoir recovery rate. The optimizations outcomes show that all fiscal systems evaluated produce distortion over the companies' optimal decisions, and companies adjust their choices to avoid taxation in different ways according to the fiscal system characteristics. Moreover, it is revealed that fiscal systems with tax provisions that try to capture additional project profits based on production profitability measures leads to stronger distortions in the project investment and output profile. It is also shown that a model based on a fixed percentage rate is the system that creates the least distortion. This is because companies will be subjected to the same government share of profit oil independently of any operational decision which they can make to change the production profile to evade taxation.

Neves de Campos, Thiago

337

Exhibitionism outside Europe and America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the results of a postal inquiry into the occurrence of exhibitionism in countries outside Europe. Psychiatrists were contacted and reports received from 24 non-European countries. Experience in these countries suggests that exhibitionism is in general very rare, particularly in African societies, although most respondents knew of isolated cases. A surprising result was that in Japan, which has

Graham Rooth

1973-01-01

338

NUCLEAR FUEL COSTS IN EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review is presented of fuel costs for nuclear power plants in ; Europe. Both natural and enriched uranium are considered, and the variables ; involved in the cost analysis are discussed. Long-term trends in fuel ; fabrication and management are considered. It is concluded that nuclear fuel ; costs are already low for natural-uranium reactors and should decrease

Gillams

1963-01-01

339

Europe 1992: A Language Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues for the survival of the federalist language formula in the European (Economic) Community through a modified, more restricted form so as to be more functional and open to the demands of worldwide communication. It is suggested that, despite its weaknesses, it more adequately reflects the mosaic-like cultural heritage of Europe. (eight…

Leitner, Gerhard

1991-01-01

340

The first hominin of Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest hominin occupation of Europe is one of the most debated topics in palaeoanthropology. However, the purportedly oldest of the Early Pleistocene sites in Eurasia lack precise age control and contain stone tools rather than human fossil remains. Here we report the discovery of a human mandible associated with an assemblage of Mode 1 lithic tools and faunal remains

Eudald Carbonell; José M. Bermúdez de Castro; Josep M. Parés; Alfredo Pérez-González; Gloria Cuenca-Bescós; Andreu Ollé; Marina Mosquera; Rosa Huguet; Jan van der Made; Antonio Rosas; Robert Sala; Josep Vallverdú; Nuria García; Darryl E. Granger; María Martinón-Torres; Xosé P. Rodríguez; Greg M. Stock; Josep M. Vergès; Ethel Allué; Francesc Burjachs; Isabel Cáceres; Antoni Canals; Alfonso Benito; Carlos Díez; Marina Lozano; Ana Mateos; Marta Navazo; Jesús Rodríguez; Jordi Rosell; Juan L. Arsuaga

2008-01-01

341

Maternal health outcomes in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To use PERISTAT data on indicators of maternal mortality and morbidity to explore maternal health outcomes in Europe, and to discuss the implications of variations in the data sources for these indicators. Study design: The PERISTAT feasibility study provides the source for this descriptive study, covering 15 European countries. Maternal mortality ratios are calculated, and data to describe maternal

Sophie Alexander; Katherine Wildman; Weihong Zhang; Martin Langer; Christian Vutuc; Gunilla Lindmarke

342

Pesticides in rainfall in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers and published reports investigating the presence of pesticides in rainfall in Europe were reviewed. Approximately half of the compounds that were analysed for were detected. For those detected, most concentrations were below about 100 ng\\/l, but larger concentrations, up to a few thousand nanograms per litre, were detected occasionally at most monitoring sites. The most frequently detected compounds were

I. G. Dubus; J. M. Hollis; C. D. Brown

2000-01-01

343

A Process-Based Approach to Predicting the Effect of Climate Change on the Distribution of an Invasive Allergenic Plant in Europe  

PubMed Central

Ambrosia artemisiifolia is an invasive weed in Europe with highly allergenic pollen. Populations are currently well established and cause significant health problems in the French Rhône valley, Austria, Hungary and Croatia but transient or casual introduced populations are also found in more Northern and Eastern European countries. A process-based model of weed growth, competition and population dynamics was used to predict the future potential for range expansion of A.artemisiifolia under climate change scenarios. The model predicted a northward shift in the available climatic niche for populations to establish and persist, creating a risk of increased health problems in countries including the UK and Denmark. This was accompanied by an increase in relative pollen production at the northern edge of its range. The southern European limit for A.artemisiifolia was not expected to change; populations continued to be limited by drought stress in Spain and Southern Italy. The process-based approach to modelling the impact of climate change on plant populations has the advantage over correlative species distribution models of being able to capture interactions of climate, land use and plant competition at the local scale. However, for this potential to be fully realised, additional empirical data are required on competitive dynamics of A.artemisiifolia in different crops and ruderal plant communities and its capacity to adapt to local conditions.

Storkey, Jonathan; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Chapman, Daniel S.; Vidotto, Francesco; Semenov, Mikhail A.

2014-01-01

344

Student Lead Nanosatellite Design/Build Projects: making a cost effective approach to Earth and Space Observational Science even more cost efficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advancement of technologies and the miniaturization of sensors and electrical/computational components satellites are also undergoing miniaturization. With lower manufacturing cost and a decreased design/build cycle (~2 years from start to launch), compared to conventional large scale satellites, nanosatellites have become a cost effective alternative for satellite Earth and Space Observations. The University of Alberta student nanosatellite (10x10x30cm; <4kg) design/build team, AlbertaSat-1, is a participant in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CSDC) implemented by the CSA and Geocentrix Ltd. in addition to 15 other Universities from across Canada. AlbertaSat-1 will be launched in early 2013, after a 2 year design/build process and environmental testing. AlbertaSat-1 will be an Earth Observation satellite monitoring GHG (CO2, H2O & CH4) concentrations over many regions of the earth with the use of a NIR spectrometer. Here we present the planning, design and future manufacturing of AlbertaSat-1 with a focus on budget and cost effective solutions. Since this is a student project, AlbertaSat-1 will incur certain benefits making them exempt from certain financial requirements and obtaining services and equipment at very low or no cost. The largest cost benefit of AlbertaSat-1 is the virtual elimination of labor costs by having a team consisting of only unpaid students. Labor costs of typical satellite missions can be a very costly component. The educational components of such projects offer more indirect benefits to effective development of this industry/discipline, nevertheless just as important, by developing skills and knowledge that can only be learned through realistic hands on design/build projects. Student lead projects and student design/build initiatives such as CSDC (among many others in the U.S. and Europe lead by NASA and ESA, respectively) will have a major impact on shaping the future of Space and Earth Observational Sciences. We will present the future implications of such student projects and initiatives for the development of research and engineering in Space and Earth Observational Sciences.

Bottoms, J.; Lange, B. A.; AlbertaSat

2011-12-01

345

Norwegian gas supplies to Eastern Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper evaluates the supply of gas from Norway to Eastern Europe Following aspects are discussed: Proven natural gas resources; gas supply and demand in Western Europe; East European gas sales prospects; transportation distances; Norwegian natural gas ...

B. Haamsoe

1990-01-01

346

Genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Europe: genotyping methods in forensic and epidemiologic investigations.  

PubMed

Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, a zoonosis relatively common throughout the world, can be used as an agent of bioterrorism. In naturally occurring outbreaks and in criminal release of this pathogen, a fast and accurate diagnosis is crucial to an effective response. Microbiological forensics and epidemiologic investigations increasingly rely on molecular markers, such as polymorphisms in DNA sequence, to obtain reliable information regarding the identification or source of a suspicious strain. Over the past decade, significant research efforts have been undertaken to develop genotyping methods with increased power to differentiate B. anthracis strains. A growing number of DNA signatures have been identified and used to survey B. anthracis diversity in nature, leading to rapid advances in our understanding of the global population of this pathogen. This article provides an overview of the different phylogenetic subgroups distributed across the world, with a particular focus on Europe. Updated information on the anthrax situation in Europe is reported. A brief description of some of the work in progress in the work package 5.1 of the AniBioThreat project is also presented, including (1) the development of a robust typing tool based on a suspension array technology and multiplexed single nucleotide polymorphisms scoring and (2) the typing of a collection of DNA from European isolates exchanged between the partners of the project. The know-how acquired will contribute to improving the EU's ability to react rapidly when the identity and real origin of a strain need to be established. PMID:23971802

Derzelle, Sylviane; Thierry, Simon

2013-09-01

347

Regional Climate Change Scenarios in High Resolution for Central and Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolution of regional climate simulation is an important factor affecting the accuracy of dynamical downscaling of the global changes. Especially the extremes are strongly dependent on the terrain patterns as shape of orography or land use, which can contribute to extreme temperatures or precipitation appearance and distribution. Project EC FP6 CECILIA (Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment) is studying the impact of climate change in complex topography of the Central and Eastern Europe in very high resolution of 10 km. The impacts on agriculture, forestry, hydrology and air-quality are studied within the project, and precise information from regional climate simulations is necessary. In addition to basic verification based on ERA40 driven simulations the comparison of the RegCM results to the driving fields in scenarios runs by ECHAM5 GCM for time slices 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 are provided with respect to control period 1961-1990 analyzing the benefits of high resolution performance at 10km grid. The climate change signal looks to be consistent with driving fields, however local details and behavior can appear. Output localization technique is used to enable to compare the model results to observational data or to get climate change scenarios to real areas of impact studies. Effects on distribution of variables are analyzed as well.

Halenka, Tomas; Belda, Michal; Miksovsky, Jiri

2010-05-01

348

Europe-USSR rehabilitation paces pipe line construction  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on USSR rehabilitation of pipe line construction. Again this year the bulk of the current and future pipe line work in Western Europe involves the North Sea. Although the big projects, such as Zeepipe, Europipe, CATS, Nogat and Sage receive the lion's share of the limelight, significant activity is occurring on smaller projects with the development of new, and in most cases small, North Sea fields. In Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, recent political upheavals have created uncertainty about plans announced two to three year ago. However, the region, including Russia and the nearly independent Soviet Republics, has a tremendous rebuilding and development job ahead to bring it into the community of modern industrial nations. Therefore, area activity should be high for the next decade and beyond, especially in the Soviet Union, involving significant amounts of Western technology.

Not Available

1991-11-01

349

The Winds of Change: Higher Education Management Programmes in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amid the Bologna Process and as a direct effect of it, European higher education institutions have to rethink their core institutional policies in order to effectively deal with the increasing demands and needs of their "customers" and society at large. The higher education management programmes across Europe, with some specific needs and…

Pausits, Attila; Pellert, Ada

2009-01-01

350

Biogenic emissions in Europe. 2. Implications for ozone control strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

As shown in a companion paper, uncertainties in the emissions of isoprene in Europe are significant, quite possibly of the order of 500%, and this uncertainty must be taken into account when assessing the effects of emission control measures in reducing ozone. The EMEP MSC-W model has been used to estimate the effects of 50% reductions in man-made NOx (nitrogen

David Simpson

1995-01-01

351

Effects of the Philippine family planning outreach project on contraceptive prevalence: a multivariate analysis.  

PubMed

The 1980 Community Outreach Survey was used to assess the impact of the Outreach Project involving 2600 community workers on contraceptive prevalence. The primary measure was clinical prevalence (numerator limited to use of clinical methods--pills, IUD, and sterilization; the denominator was married women aged 15-44). The 46 socioeconomic (SES) and program input variables that appeared to be most closely correlated with contraceptive prevalence were subject to multivariate analysis on a stepwise basis. Of these 5 out of 7 SES variables accounted for 26.9% of the variance in clinical prevalence (household SES 22%, education of head of household 3%). 10 program variables (apart from specific Outreach Project variables) accounted for less than 4%. 12 Outreach Project variables accounted for a further 11.9% of the total variance or 17.2% of the residual variance. The most influential Outreach Project variables were whether the supply point officer was currently using a clinical method and the amount of personal contact with couples. The Outreach Project variables with no appreciable independent effect included mass media inputs, background characteristics of workers, and job satisfaction of the workers. Overall, the multivariate analysis demonstrated that the Outreach Project has affected contraceptive prevalence in the rural areas of the Philippines not reached by clinic-based operations. PMID:7348467

Laing, J E

1981-11-01

352

[The migration problem in Europe from a demographic, economic, and social viewpoint, with special reference to Germany].  

PubMed

The demographic situation in Western Europe is reviewed, with an emphasis on projections of population decrease, demographic aging, and labor supply during the period 1990-2030. The potential for international migration to Europe is then examined, and migration policy problems in Germany are discussed. PMID:12345490

Schmid, J

1993-01-01

353

Short-Term Effects of Carbon Monoxide on Mortality: An Analysis within the APHEA Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the short-term effects of carbon monoxide on total and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cities participating in the APHEA-2 (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach) project. METHODS: We examined the association using hierarchical models implemented in two stages. In the first stage, data from each city were analyzed separately, whereas in the second stage the city-

Evangelia Samoli; Giota Touloumi; Joel Schwartz; Hugh Ross Anderson; Christian Schindler; Bertil Forsberg; Maria Angela Vigotti; Judith Vonk; Mitja Košnik; Jiri Skorkovsky; Klea Katsouyanni

2007-01-01

354

The Life Interventions for Family Effectiveness (LIFE) Project: Preliminary Findings on Alternative School Intervention for Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A non-randomized control trial was conducted to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the Life Interventions for Family Effectiveness (LIFE) project: a family-based, evidence-based comprehensive substance abuse intervention for at-risk adolescents and their families. The Matrix Adolescent Treatment Model of program delivery was utilized in the…

Watson, Donnie W.; Mouttapa, Michele; Reiber, Chris; McCuller, William Jason; Arancibia, Ruben; Kavich, Julia A.; Nieves, Elena; Novgrod, Judith; Mai, Noemi; Bisesi, Lorrie; Sim, Tiffanie

2007-01-01

355

The Effects of Community Service Learning Projects on L2 Learners' Cultural Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This small-scale study investigates the effects of community service learning (CSL) projects or a cultural presentation on the development of the cultural understanding of low- and high-intermediate L2 students. Fifty-two learners in four sections of two Spanish classes in Canada participated in the study. The participants also completed pre- and…

Zapata, Gabriela

2011-01-01

356

Oklahoma City Alcohol Safety Action Project: Effectiveness and Efficiency; Analytic Study No. I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the progress and performance of the Oklahoma City Alcohol Safety Action Project (ASAP) during the five-year period 1972 - 1976. The findings of this study include: (1) ASAP enforcement personnel effected 17,187 DUI arrests in Oklahom...

R. F. Krenek

1977-01-01

357

The Effects of the Japan Bridge Project on Third Graders' Cultural Sensitivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of the Japan BRIDGE Project, a global education program, on its third grade participants. Characterization of lessons and analysis of student interviews were used to investigate the nature of the curriculum and whether or not student participants were more culturally sensitive due to participation. Results indicate…

Meyer, Lindsay; Sherman, Lilian; MaKinster, James

2006-01-01

358

Strategies for Effective Dissemination of the Outcomes of Teaching and Learning Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an empirical study that addresses the question of how higher education institutions can disseminate effectively the outcomes of projects that seek to achieve large-scale change in teaching and learning. Traditionally, dissemination of innovation and good practice is strongly advocated within universities, but little…

Southwell, Deborah; Gannaway, Deanne; Orrell, Janice; Chalmers, Denise; Abraham, Catherine

2010-01-01

359

Projected climate change effects on winterkill in shallow lakes in the northern United States  

SciTech Connect

Each winter, hundreds of ice-covered, shallow lakes in the northern US are aerated to prevent winterkill, the death of fish due to oxygen depletion under the ice. How will the projected climate warming influence winterkill and the need to artificially aerate lakes? To answer this question, a deterministic, one-dimensional year-round water quality model, which simulates daily dissolved oxygen (DO) profiles and associated water temperatures as well as ice/snow covers on lakes, was applied. Past and projected climate scenarios were investigated. The lake parameters required as model input are surface area, maximum depth, and Secchi depth as a measure of radiation attenuation and trophic state. The model is driven by daily weather data. Weather records from 209 stations in the contiguous US for the period 1961--1979 were used to represent past climate conditions. The projected climate change due to a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} was obtained from the output of the Canadian Climate Center General Circulation Model. To illustrate the effect of projected climate change on lake DO characteristics, the authors present herein DO information simulated, respectively, with inputs of past climate conditions and with a projected 2 x CO{sub 2} climate scenario, as well as differences of those values. Specific parameters obtained were minimum under-ice and lake bottom DO concentration in winter, duration of under-ice anoxic conditions and low DO conditions, and percentage of anoxic and low DO lake volumes during the ice cover period. Under current climate conditions winterkill occurs typically in shallow eutrophic lakes of the northern contiguous US. Climate warming is projected to eliminate winterkill in these lakes. This would be a positive effect of climate warming. Fish species under ice may still experience periods of stress and zero growth due to low DO conditions under projected climate warming.

Fang, X.; Stefan, H.G.

2000-03-01

360

"Physics and Life" for Europe's Science Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EIROforum Contribution to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 [Physics on Stage 3 Logo] What do you know about modern science? Was your school science teacher inspiring and enthusiastic? Or was physics class a good time to take a nap? Unfortunately, many young Europeans don't have the fondest memories of science in school, and the result is a widespread disinterest and lack of understanding of science among adults. This has become a real problem - especially at a time when science is having a growing impact on our daily lives, and when society needs more scientists than ever! What can be done? Some of Europe's leading research organisations, scientists and teachers have put their heads together and come up with a unique approach called "Physics on Stage" . This will be the third year that these institutes, with substantial support from the European Commission, are running this project - attacking the problem at its roots. EIROforum and "Physics on Stage 3" [EIROforum Logo] "Physics On Stage 3" is based on the very successful "Physics On Stage" concept that was introduced in 2000. It is directed towards science teachers and students in Europe's secondary schools. It is a part of the year-long build-up to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 (3-9 November), an initiative by the European Commission, and is run by seven of Europe's leading Intergovernmental Research Organizations (the EIROforum) [1]. The project addresses the content and format of science teaching in European schools , seeking to improve the quality of teaching and to find new ways to stimulate pupils to take an interest in science. Innovative and inspirational science teaching is seen as a key component to attract young people to deal with scientific issues, whether or not they finally choose a career in science. Hence, "Physics On Stage 3" aims to stimulate the interest of young people through the school teachers, who can play a key role in reversing the trend of falling interest in science and current scientific research. The goals of "Physics On Stage 3" [EWST Logo] "Physics on Stage 3" also aims to facilitate the exchange of good practice and innovative ideas among Europe's science teachers and to provide a forum for a broad debate among educators, administrators and policy-makers about the key problems in science education today. Moreover, it will make available the considerable, combined expertise of the EIROforum organisations to the European scientific teaching community, in order to promote the introduction of "fresh" science into the curricula and thus to convey a more realistic image of modern science to the pupils. "Physics on Stage 3" is concerned with basic science and also with the cross-over between different science disciplines - a trend becoming more and more important in today's science, which is not normally reflected in school curricula. A key element of the programme is to give teachers an up-to-date "insiders'" view of what is happening in science and to tell them about new, highly-diverse and interesting career opportunities for their pupils. Theme of the activities The theme of "Physics on Stage" this year is "Physics and Life" , reflecting the decision to broaden the Physics on Stage activities to encompass all the natural sciences. Including other sciences will augment the already successful concept, introducing a mixture of cross-over projects that highlight the multidisciplinary aspects of modern science. Among the many subjects to be presented are radiation, physics and the environment, astrobiology (the search for life beyond earth), complex systems, self-organising systems, sports science, the medical applications of physics, mathematics and epidemiology, etc. The main elements National activities "Physics on Stage 3" has already started and National Steering Committees in 22 countries, composed of eminent science teachers, scientists, administrators and others involved in se

2003-04-01

361

Electronic health record: Wiring Europe’s healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Commission wants to boost the digital economy by enabling all Europeans to have access to online medical records anywhere in Europe by 2020. With the newly enacted Directive 2011\\/24\\/EU on patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare due for implementation by 2013, it is inevitable that a centralised European health record system will become a reality even before 2020. However,

Patrick Kierkegaard

2011-01-01

362

Europe's space photovoltaics programme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current space PV (photovoltaic) technology development program of ESA is described. The program is closely coupled to the European space mission scenario for the next 10 year period and has as its main objective to make the most effective use of the limited resources available for technology in the present economical climate. This requires a well-balanced approach between concentration on very few options and keeping the competition alive if more than one promising technology exists. The paper describes ESA's main activities in the areas of solar array technology, solar cell technology, solar cell assembly technology, and special test and verification activities including the in-orbit demonstration of new technologies.

Bogus, Klaus P.

1994-01-01

363

Economic effects of projected climate change on outdoor recreation in Tennessee.  

SciTech Connect

Climate change projections from three General Circulation Models were used to adjust the temperature and precipitation in 2030 and 2080 in each of five ecological provinces in Tennessee to estimate the direct economic effects of the projected changes on recreation using the Tourism Climatic Index. The indirect effects on recreation were evaluated qualitatively, based on current demand for the unique values associated with current conditions. The results of the direct impact evaluation reveal that climate change will have variable effects on recreational activities in Tennessee. The magnitude and direction of the effects vary by the recreational activity involved, patterns of precipitation and temperature regimes, and specific location in Tennessee. Recreational activities such as rock climbing, winter activities independent of snow, and whitewater boating are likely to benefit from projected climate changes due to increased temperatures in the winter months. Summer-based activities such as lake recreation and camping are likely to decline with increasing seasonal temperatures. The indirect effects of climate change on recreation are likely to have a larger effect than the direct impacts of climatic variables.

Hodges, Donald G. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Fogel, Jonah [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Lannom, Karen O. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tharp, M Lynn [ORNL

2010-01-01

364

SMA-EUROPE workshop report: opportunities and challenges in developing clinical trials for spinal muscular atrophy in Europe  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common lethal recessive disease in childhood, and there is currently no effective treatment to halt disease progression. The translation of scientific advances into effective therapies is hampered by major roadblocks in clinical trials, including the complex regulatory environment in Europe, variations in standards of care, patient ascertainment and enrolment, a narrow therapeutic window and a lack of biomarkers of efficacy. In this context, SMA-Europe organized its first international workshop in July 2012 in Rome, gathering 34 scientists, clinicians and representatives of patient organizations to establish recommendations for improving clinical trials for SMAa.

2013-01-01

365

Recent trends of persistent organic pollutants in air in central Europe - Air monitoring in combination with air mass trajectory statistics as a tool to study the effectivity of regional chemical policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use air mass back trajectory analysis of persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels monitored at a regional background site, Košetice, Czech Republic, as a tool to study the effectiveness of emission reduction measures taken in the last decade in the region. The representativity of the chosen trajectory starting height for air sampling near ground was ensured by excluding trajectories starting at time of inversions lower than their starting height. As the relevant pollutant sources are exclusively located in the atmospheric boundary layer, trajectory segments above this layer were also excluded from the analysis. We used a linear time weight to account for the influence of dispersion and deposition on trace components abundances and to quantify the ground source loading, a continuous measure for the influence of surface emissions. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and two time periods, the years 1997-1999 and 2004-2006, were studied. The pollutant levels transported to Košetice decreased for all substances except HCB. Except for lindane seasonal emissions were insignificant. Increasing emissions of HCB were at least partly linked to the 2002 floods in the Danube basin. Major emissions of 1997-1999 which decreased significantly were in France (lindane), western Poland, Hungary and northern ex-Yugoslavia (technical HCH), and the Czech Republic (DDT). Emissions remaining in 2004-2006 include HCB and DDT in the northern Czech Republic, HCB and PCBs in Germany. Besides changes in emission strength meteorological factors influence the level of transported pollutant concentrations. The prevailing air flow pattern limits the geographic coverage of this analysis to central Europe and parts of western Europe. However, no POP monitoring stations exist in areas suitable for a possible extension of the study area.

Dvorská, A.; Lammel, G.; Holoubek, I.

366

Genetic, geographic, and linguistic distances in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Genetic and taxonomic distances were computed for 3466 samples of human populations in Europe based on 97 allele frequencies and 10 cranial variables. Since the actual samples employed differed among the genetic systems studied, the genetic distances were computed separately for each system, as were matrices of geographic distances and of linguistic distances based on membership in the same language family of phylum. Significant matrix correlations between genetics and geography were found for the majority of systems; somewhat less frequent are significant correlations between genetics and language. The effects of the two factors can be separated by means of partial matrix correlations. These show significant values for both genetics and geography, language kept constant, and genetics and language, geography kept constant, with a tendency for the former to be higher. These findings demonstrate that speakers of different language families in Europe differ genetically and that this difference remains even after geographic differentiation is allowed for. The greater effect of geography than of language may be due to the several factors that bring about spatial differentiation in human populations.

Sokal, R.R.

1988-03-01

367

New times for migrants' health in Europe.  

PubMed

Patterns of migration can change greatly over time, with the size and composition of migrant populations reflecting both, current and historical patterns of migration flows. The recent economic crisis has caused a decrease on migration flows towards the most affected areas, as well as cut offs in health interventions addressed to migrants. The objective of this paper is to review available data about interventions on migrants' health in Europe, and to describe changes in migrant health policies across Europe after the economic crisis, that can have a negative effect in their health status. Although migrants have the right to health care under legal settlements issued by the EU, there is no a standard European approach to offer health care to migrants, since; policies in each EU Member State are developed according to specific migrant experience, political climate, and attitudes towards migration. Migrants use to face greater health problems and major health care access barriers, compared with their counterparts from the EU. Therefore, migrant health policies should focus in protects this vulnerable group, especially during economic hardship, taking into account economic and socio-demographic risk factors. There is an especial need for research in the cost-effectiveness of investing in the health care of the migrant population, demonstrating the benefit of such, even in the health of the European native population, and the need for constant intervention despite of resource constraints. PMID:25072789

Reyes-Uruena, J M; Noori, T; Pharris, A; Jansà, J M

2014-10-01

368

Drilling surges off northern Europe  

SciTech Connect

This article reports how drilling activity off northern Europe is climbing to record levels. The number of offshore rigs available in the region has increased to 130; only six are stacked. The midsummer 1990 figures show a considerable increase in drilling compared with the same period of 1989, when the region's rig count totaled 122 available units with 12 stacked. The U.K. sector remains busiest. At midsummer it accounted for 61 of 92 wells in progress off northern Europe. British sector operators were drilling 30 exploratory, 8 appraisal, and 23 development wells. The midsummer 1989 rig count showed 50 wells in progress off the U.K. companies expect this year's high level of activity to continue into 1991 and 1992 as new acreage becomes available.

Not Available

1990-08-20

369

PIXE pollution studies across Europe  

SciTech Connect

We collected vegetation and soil samples from various locations along a route covering Eastern and Western Europe. We measured the level of elemental pollution in different places uniformly spread across the continent to determine which of them may have common sources. To achieve these objectives, samples were collected along the main roads from Romania to Portugal and analyzed using in-air PEE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission).

Innegraeve, O.; Blanchet, X.; Muntele, C. I.; Muntele, I. C.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Popa-Simil, L. (Liviu); Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P. M.; Ila, D.

2002-01-01

370

Living Apart Together in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A couple of years ago Joschka Fischer, the German minister of Foreign Affairs\\u000aarticulated his European dream, calling for a specification of the 'Finalität', that is the\\u000aultimate goal of the process of European integration. It came at a moment that Europe is\\u000achallenged by two conflicting developments - globalization and localization - labeled by\\u000aTom Courchene as 'glocalization' [Watts

Aubel van J. P; Nispen tot Pannerden van F. K. M

2002-01-01

371

Absorber pin development in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron absorbing material chosen for the absorber elements of the European fast reactor (EFR) is boron carbide. Various pin designs are studied in Europe: (1) vented helium-bonded pins chosen for prototype fast reactor (PFR) control rods, (2) vented sodium-bonded pins chosen for the Phenix and Superphenix control rods, (3) vented shrouded sodium-bonded pins chosen for future loads of Superphenix

A. Languille; J. Escleine; B. Kryger; B. Munroe; B. Steinmetz

1992-01-01

372

What Can We Learn from 15,000 Teachers in Central Europe and Central Asia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the "Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking Project" which has now sent more than 70 volunteer teacher educators into 20 countries across Central Europe and Central Asia to help teachers to try out methods that foster active learning and critical thinking. Discusses support for the project, teaching strategies introduced, and the…

Temple, Charles

2000-01-01

373

Status of floriculture in Europe.  

PubMed

Europe is traditionally the largest producer of floricultural products in the world with an estimated production value of over 12 billion euro in 2006. The Netherlands, Italy, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom and France are the main centres of production. More recently, a significant growth in production area was observed in Poland also. The Dutch auctions remain the world's largest trading system for flowers and plants. Looking at the intra-European trade, Belgium and Denmark are also major exporting countries. The consumption of floricultural products increased strongly within Europe during the last years. Especially, Eastern Europe has a big potential as a new market. In these countries, the demand for ornamentals will increase due to the rise of income and the level of prosperity. In spite of the positive developments in consumption and production, increasing energy costs, growing environmental concern and globalisation of production, trade and markets will form the major challenges European floricultural industry has to deal with in the near future. PMID:20099115

Van Huylenbroeck, Johan

2010-01-01

374

ArcFuel methodology for mapping forest fuels in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ArcFuel project aims to develop a generic methodology, which will enable the regular production of consistent forest vegetation fuel maps over Europe. Such maps can be used to simulate fire scenarios and support the design and implementation of effective prevention and mitigation measures against fires. ArcFuel uses the results of a recent effort of JRC Ispra, which aimed to create a standardized scheme of fuel types, representative of the vegetation occurring in the European forest regions. Based on this approach and using existing European spatial datasets and multi-temporal remotely sensed images ArcFuel defines a methodology for producing vegetation fuel maps compatible with the relevant scheme of JRC. The choice of input material was mainly driven by the need of keeping the production cost low and updating regularly the European vegetation fuel map. The proposed methodology can be applied in all EU regions and is currently tested and validated in pilot areas in Greece, Portugal, Spain and Italy.

Toukiloglou, Pericles; Eftychidis, George; Gitas, Ioannis; Tompoulidou, Maria

2013-08-01

375

Accelerator science and technology in Europe 2008-2017  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

European Framework Research Projects have recently added a lot of meaning to the building process of the ERA - the European Research Area. Inside this, the accelerator technology plays an essential role. Accelerator technology includes large infrastructure and intelligent, modern instrumentation embracing mechatronics, electronics, photonics and ICT. During the realization of the European research and infrastructure project FP6 CARE 2004-2008 (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe), concerning the development of large accelerator infrastructure in Europe, it was decided that a scientific editorial series of peer-reviewed monographs from this research area will be published in close relation with the projects. It was a completely new and quite brave idea to combine a kind of a strictly research publisher with a transient project, lasting only four or five years. Till then nobody did something like that. The idea turned out to be a real success. The publications now known and valued in the accelerator world, as the (CERN-WUT) Editorial Series on Accelerator Science and Technology, is successfully continued in already the third European project EuCARD2 and has logistic guarantees, for the moment, till the 2017, when it will mature to its first decade. During the realization of the European projects EuCARD (European Coordination for Accelerator R&D 2009-2013 and TIARA (Test Infrastructure of Accelerator Research Area in Europe) there were published 18 volumes in this series. The ambitious plans for the nearest years is to publish, hopefully, a few tens of new volumes. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, published in the monographs of the European Framework Projects (FP) on accelerator technology. The succession of CARE, EuCARD and EuCARD Projects is evidently creating a new quality in the European Accelerator Research. It is consolidating the technical and research communities in a new way, completely different than the traditional ones, for example via the periodic topical conferences.

Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

2013-10-01

376

Inventory of pesticide emissions into the air in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creation of a reliable and comprehensive emission inventory of the pesticides used in Europe is a key step towards quantitatively assessing the link between actual pesticide exposure and adverse health effects. An inventory of pesticide emissions was generated at a 1 × 1 km grid, for the year 2000. The emission model comprises three components: estimates of active substance (AS) wind drift taking into account crop type, volatilization during pesticide application and volatilization from the crop canopy. Results show that atmospheric emission of pesticides varies significantly across Europe. Different pesticide families are emitted from different parts of Europe as a function of the main crop(s) cultivated, agro-climatic conditions and production intensity. The pesticide emission inventory methodology developed herein is a valuable tool for assessing air quality in rural and peri-urban Europe, furnishing the necessary input for atmospheric modelling at different scales. Its estimates have been tested using global sensitivity and Monte Carlo analysis for uncertainty assessment and they have been validated against national and local surveys in four European countries; the results demonstrate the robustness and reliability of the inventory. The latter may therefore be readily used for exposure and health risk assessment studies targeting farmers, applicators, but also bystanders and the general population in Europe.

Sarigiannis, D. A.; Kontoroupis, P.; Solomou, E. S.; Nikolaki, S.; Karabelas, A. J.

2013-08-01

377

SIMULATION OF FROST RESISTANCE OF WINTER WHEAT IN EUROPE BETWEEN 1975 AND 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frost damage is very important especially for Eastern Europe, but in some winters this aspect is of interest also for larger areas of Europe. The effect of the temperature at the crown level (considered as a function of snow and air temperature, Aase and Siddoway, 1979) it is better estimated if the physiological condition of the plant (hardening index) is

378

Seismological data networks and services in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seismic Data Portal (http://www.seismicportal.eu) provides a collection of tools to discover, visualize, and access a variety of seismological data sets, including earthquake parameters, broadband and accelerometric data, European tomography, and historical earthquake catalogs. The Portal was developed as part of the Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology project, which was funded under the 6th European Framework Programme to integrate data and service resources for the seismological community. The NERIES project brought together 25 participating institutions and organizations under 19 work packages to produce numerous scientific results through coordinated research, development, networking, and integration activities. The Seismic Data Portal provides a single point of access to the heterogeneous and distributed data sets developed or made available through the NERIES project. These tools operate in a coordinated manner to provide a cohesive distributed search environment, linking data search and access across multiple data providers. Through interactive, map-based tools, a researcher is able to build queries linking event parametric data with seismological broadband or accelerometric waveform data. The Portal architecture is based on a suite of standards and standard technologies, allowing interoperability between tools and the integration of new tools as they become available. The data tools are supported by web services running at their respective data centers. These web services provide the programmatic interface between the interactive, web-based tools, and the underlying data archives. Moreover they are in turn available to external applications, allowing direct programmatic queries to the data archives. Work on the Data Portal, access tools, and services architecture will continue under other EU funded projects. The NERA, Network of European Research Infrastructures for Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation project, funded under the 7th European Framework Program, will bring into the Data Portal new extensions to include new data sets and access tools from new partners in the Seismology and Earthquake Engineering communities. We will implement a Common Services Architecture based on OGC services APIs. This services layer API provides Resource-Oriented common interfaces across the data access and processing services to improve interoperability between tools and across projects, enabling the development of higher-level applications that can uniformly access the data and processing services of all participants. The effort for such extensions of the current Data Portal will be conducted jointly with another EU funded project VERCE - Virtual Earthquake and Seismology Research Community for Europe. VERCE aims to enable seismologists to exploit the wealth of seismic data within a data-intensive computation framework, which will be tailored to the specific needs of the community. It will provide a new interoperable infrastructure, as the computational backbone laying behind the publicly available interfaces.

Spinuso, A.; Kamb, L.; Trani, L.; Frobert, L.

2011-12-01

379

Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute for Earth Sciences and Astronomy (INSU) of the CNRS. To build consensus on priorities in a very diverse community, the Science Vision and Roadmap were developed in an open process involving intensive interaction with the community through large open meetings and feedback via e-mail and the web. The result is a plan now backed by astronomers in 28 Member and Associated States of the EU, with over 500 million inhabitants. Over 60 selected experts from across Europe contributed to the construction of the ASTRONET Roadmap, ensuring that European astronomy has the tools to compete successfully in answering the challenges of the Science Vision. They identified and prioritised a set of new facilities to observe the Universe from radio waves to gamma rays, to open up new ways of probing the cosmos, such as gravitational waves, and to advance in the exploration of our Solar System. In the process, they considered all the elements needed by a successful scientific enterprise, from global-scale cooperation on the largest mega-project to the need for training and recruiting skilled young scientists and engineers. One of two top-priority large ground-based projects is ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope. Its 42-metre diameter mirror will make the E-ELT the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world -- "the biggest eye on the sky". The science to be done with the E-ELT is extremely exciting and includes studies of exoplanets and discs, galaxy formation and dark energy. ESO Director General Tim de Zeeuw says: "The top ranking of the E-ELT in the Roadmap is a strong endorsement from the European astronomical community. This flagship project will indisputably raise the European scientific, technological and industrial profile". Among other recommendations, the Roadmap considers how to maximise the future scientific impact of existing facilities in a cost-effective manner. It also identifies a need for better access to state-of-the art computing and laboratory facilities, and for a stronger involvement of European high-tech industry in the deve

2008-11-01

380

Intravenous artesunate for severe malaria in travelers, Europe.  

PubMed

Multicenter trials in Southeast Asia have shown better survival rates among patients with severe malaria, particularly those with high parasitemia levels, treated with intravenous (IV) artesunate than among those treated with quinine. In Europe, quinine is still the primary treatment for severe malaria. We conducted a retrospective analysis for 25 travelers with severe malaria who returned from malaria-endemic regions and were treated at 7 centers in Europe. All patients survived. Treatment with IV artesunate rapidly reduced parasitemia levels. In 6 patients at 5 treatment centers, a self-limiting episode of unexplained hemolysis occurred after reduction of parasitemia levels. Five patients required a blood transfusion. Patients with posttreatment hemolysis had received higher doses of IV artesunate than patients without hemolysis. IV artesunate was an effective alternative to quinine for treatment of malaria patients in Europe. Patients should be monitored for signs of hemolysis, especially after parasitologic cure. PMID:21529383

Zoller, Thomas; Junghanss, Thomas; Kapaun, Annette; Gjorup, Ida; Richter, Joachim; Hugo-Persson, Mats; Mørch, Kristine; Foroutan, Behruz; Suttorp, Norbert; Yürek, Salih; Flick, Holger

2011-05-01