Note: This page contains sample records for the topic europe projects effects from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

How an effective project culture can help to achieve business success: establishing a project culture in Kimberly-Clark Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisations use project management to bring key people together to achieve specific goals. Yet many struggle to achieve this effectively because the culture does not support the disciplines involved. Offers some insights into the strategy used to deliver a new steps and gates product development process at Kimberly-Clark in Europe – and to achieve a change in culture to support

Mike Palmer

2002-01-01

2

Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe, the PHEWE project: background, objectives, design  

PubMed Central

Background The project "Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe" (PHEWE) had the aim of assessing the association between weather conditions and acute health effects, during both warm and cold seasons in 16 European cities with widely differing climatic conditions and to provide information for public health policies. Methods The PHEWE project was a three-year pan-European collaboration between epidemiologists, meteorologists and experts in public health. Meteorological, air pollution and mortality data from 16 cities and hospital admission data from 12 cities were available from 1990 to 2000. The short-term effect on mortality/morbidity was evaluated through city-specific and pooled time series analysis. The interaction between weather and air pollutants was evaluated and health impact assessments were performed to quantify the effect on the different populations. A heat/health watch warning system to predict oppressive weather conditions and alert the population was developed in a subgroup of cities and information on existing prevention policies and of adaptive strategies was gathered. Results Main results were presented in a symposium at the conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology in Paris on September 6th 2006 and will be published as scientific articles. The present article introduces the project and includes a description of the database and the framework of the applied methodology. Conclusion The PHEWE project offers the opportunity to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in 16 European cities, representing a wide range of climatic, socio-demographic and cultural characteristics; the use of a standardized methodology allows for direct comparison between cities.

Michelozzi, Paola; Kirchmayer, Ursula; Katsouyanni, Klea; Biggeri, Annibale; McGregor, Glenn; Menne, Bettina; Kassomenos, Pavlos; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Baccini, Michela; Accetta, Gabriele; Analytis, Antonis; Kosatsky, Tom

2007-01-01

3

The Shale Gas in Europe project (GASH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the present time no shale gas play has been brought to the production level in Europe. While the opportunities appear abundant, there are still many challenges to be overcome in Europe such as land access and environmental issues. Costs per well are still higher than in the US, and mining regulations are tighter. As yet it remains unclear whether European shales can support commercial shale gas production. First, it will be essential to test the sub-surface and the potential deliverability of wells, supported by basic research. GASH is the first major scientific initiative in Europe that is focussed on shale gas; it is ambitious in that it is broad ranging in scientific scope and that it unites leading European research groups and geological surveys with industry. US know-how is also integrated into the programme to avoid reinventing the wheel, or, still worse, the flat tyre. GASH is currently funded by eight companies, and comprises two main elements: compilation of a European Black Shale Database (EBSD) and focussed research projects that are based on geochemical, geophysical and geomechanical investigations. The EBSD is being built by a team of more than 20 geological surveys, extending from Sweden in the north, through western Europe and the Baltic states down to southern Europe, and over to Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic in the east. The research projects apply numerical modelling, process simulations and laboratory analyses to selected regional study areas or "natural laboratories" from both Europe and the USA - the goal: to predict gas-in-place and fracability based on process understanding. The European black shales selected as natural shale gas laboratories are the Cambrian Alum Shale from Sweden and Denmark, the Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale from Central Germany, and Carboniferous black shales from the UK in the west via the Netherlands to Germany in the east. Fresh core material for detailed investigations will be recovered during the mid-2010 drilling of the Alum Shale on Bornholm, a small Danish island in the Baltic Sea. North American black shales which hold successful shale gas plays such as the Barnett and Marcellus Shale are also incorporated in the studies to help calibrate known features and processes.

Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian; Gash-Team

2010-05-01

4

The Shale Gas in Europe project (GASH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time no shale gas play has been brought to the production level in Europe. While the opportunities appear abundant, there are still many challenges to be overcome in Europe such as land access and environmental issues. Costs per well are still higher than in the US, and mining regulations are tighter. As yet it remains unclear whether

Hans-Martin Schulz; Brian Horsfield

2010-01-01

5

Office Information Systems research and development projects in Europe (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe most research projects in the area of Office Information Systems are concentrated around public communication services and transmission networks. Very few projects exist in what we call the Automated Office of the Future. In the first category, known as TELEMATIQUE, we find the videotex services, which consist of data banks connected to public networks and offering access to

Najah Naffah

1982-01-01

6

Towards harmonisation of indirect effects in transport project appraisal Guidelines and current practice in Europe - miles apart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the appropriate treatment of indirect socio-economic effects of transport investments and policies. A central question is how assessment of indirect effects can be improved and harmonised in a European context. First, the paper describes state of the art in assessment (identifying types of indirect socio-economic effects, modelling). Secondly, an overview is presented on current practice in

Wouter Jonkhoff; Menno Rustenburg

2005-01-01

7

Western Europe: Deferred oil project list grows  

SciTech Connect

Western Europe is the subject of this review on petroleum outlooks. Observations include: Most UK North Sea operators cut budgets by +.30%; Shell is the exception; Last year's 31 UK discoveries won't be repeated, plus 28 offshore rigs are stacked; Spain's Gaviota gas field is now onstream; Germany's Mittelplate oil field is closed; Norwegian government continues to talk with Opec countries on production accord; Last year's record 50 E and A wells drilled offshore Norway will fall to 35-40; French saw record drilling levels in 1985; 1986 budgets now cut by 25%, except Elf's; License commitments stabilize Holland's activity, although gas prices tied to oil; Italy's ENI promises to maintain domestic expenditures despite price decline.

Not Available

1986-08-01

8

Ensemble projections of future streamflow droughts in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is growing concern in Europe about the possible rise in the severity and frequency of extreme drought events as a manifestation of global change. In order to plan suitable adaptation strategies it is important for decision makers to know how drought conditions will develop at regional scales. This paper therefore addresses the issue of future developments in streamflow drought characteristics across Europe. Through off-line coupling of a hydrological model with an ensemble of bias-corrected climate simulations (IPCC SRES A1B) and a water use scenario (Economy First), long term (1961-2100) ensemble streamflow simulations are generated that account for changes in climate, and the uncertainty therein, and in water consumption. Using extreme value analysis we derive minimum flow and deficit indices and evaluate how the magnitude and severity of low flow conditions may evolve throughout the 21st century. This analysis shows that streamflow droughts will become more severe and persistent in many parts of Europe due to climate change, except for northern and northeastern parts of Europe. Especially southern regions will face strong reductions in low flows. Future water use will aggravate the situation by 10-30% in Southern Europe, whereas in some sub-regions in Western, Central and Eastern Europe a positive climate signal may be reversed due to intensive water use. The multi-model ensemble projections of more frequent and severe streamflow droughts in the south and decreasing drought hazard in the north are highly significant, while the projected changes are more dissonant in a transition zone in between.

Forzieri, G.; Feyen, L.; Rojas, R.; Flörke, M.; Wimmer, F.; Bianchi, A.

2013-08-01

9

Second phase of the European Project CERGOP-2/Environment (Central Europe Regional Geodynamics Project)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper includes concise information on the status of the international geodynamic project CERGOP (Central Europe Regional Geodynamics Project). The achievements of the realisation of the first phase of the Project are summarised. The enlarged objectives, the programme and scope of work of the second phase of the Project are shortly described. List of workpackages covering particular fields of activities within the Project is given. Project is supported financially by the European Commission. Project CERGOP was an impulse for the establishment of the CEGRN Consortium of institutes involved in realisation of the Project. The Consortium will also be a seedbed of new European projects and initiatives.

Sledzinski, Janusz

10

Does Europe need immigrants? Population and work force projections.  

PubMed

European countries defined as all Northern and Western Europe including the former East Germany had a population of 498.4 million in 1990. In 1990 Western Europe had 374.4 million people. The European Community (EC) makes u 92% of the total population. Projections forecast a peak of the EC population (excluding the former East Germany) in 2005 at 334.2 million compared with 327 million in 1989, then declining to 332.5 million in 2010, 329.0 million min 2015 and 324.5 million in 2020. In Europe outside the East, the 20-24 year old work force entrance age group will drop from 29,860,000 in 1990 to 26,400,000 in 1005 and 23,480,000 in 2000: decreasing by 6,380,000 or 21.3%. Fertility rose by 22% in Sweden between 1985 and 1990, the rise of negligible in France and Belgium, but 2% in the UK and Switzerland, 4% in the Netherlands, 13% in Norway, 16% in Denmark, and even 6% in Germany and Luxembourg. The Ec labor force was 145 million in 1990 (excluding East Germany); it is projected to peak at 146.9 million in 2000, decline slowly until 2010 and decline faster up to 2025 with the steepest decline occurring in Germany and Italy. Unemployment rates would change from the 1990 estimate of 15.7 million to 15.5 million in 1995. Net migration into the 12 EC countries was on average -4,800 from 1965 to 1969; 357,000 from 1970 to 1974; 164,400 from 1980 to 1984; and 533,000/year from 1985 to 1989 as a result of the rise of asylum applicants and migration of ethnic Germans into Germany. Increased immigration is not needed to satisfy work force shortages for the next 10-20 years in Western Europe or in the EC. Other issues addressed are the economic activity forecast, the hidden labor supply, skill shortages, Eastern Europe, and teenage shortage. High-level manpower movements, immigration of asylum seekers, and illegal immigration will continue, but in the long run the conditions of employment and welfare support have to be improved for the women of Europe. PMID:12285858

Coleman, D A

1992-01-01

11

Future of Europe and US national security. Study project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world region that will most affect the national security of the United States in the next twenty-five years is Europe. Europe is the key region because of history and heritage, economics, geographic location, the military threat, technology growth, and increasing European unity. All these factors tie U.S. national interests to Europe, moreso than any other region. The vision of

McCloskey

1988-01-01

12

Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, the need to protect people and property, the reality for society in Europe to live with hazard and risk and the need to manage risk were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). It started on 1 May 2009 and will go on for 3 years, ending on 30 April 2012. There project involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://www.safeland-fp7.eu/ . SafeLand is an ongoing project, which results will be finalized in 2012. This lecture summarizes the SafeLand's activities and achievements until November 2011. The main results achieved so far include: - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots by an objective, GIS-based analysis for Europe. The results show clearly where landslides pose the largest hazard in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional climate model simulations over Europe (from the EU FP6 project ENSEMBLES) at a spatial resolution of 25 x 25 km have been used to perform an extreme value analysis for trends in heavy precipitation events. In winter a general trend towards more heavy precipitation events across all analyzed regional climate model simulations is found. For summer, a slight increase of heavy precipitation in Northern Europe and a general decrease in southern Europe is found in all regional climate model simulations. - The prototype of a web-based "toolbox" of innovative and technically appropriate prevention and mitigation measures was developed. The toolbox does a preliminary assessment and ranking of up to 60 structural and non-structural landslide risk mitigation options. - Development of an empirical model for assessing the changes in landslide frequency (hazard) as a function of changes in the demography and population density. - Case histories and "hotspots" of European Land¬slides have been collected and documented. Data for 41 potential case study sites have been compiled and summarized. These comprise 39 sites in Europe located in Italy, France, Norway, Switzerland, Austria, Andorra, and Romania; as well as one site in Canada and one in India. Almost every type of landslide and every type of movement is represented in these sites. - Research on stakeholder workshops and participatory processes to involve the population exposed to landslide risk in the decision-making process for choosing the most appropriate risk mitigation measure(s).

Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B. G.; SafeLand Research Consortium

2011-12-01

13

Future of Europe and US national security. Study project  

SciTech Connect

The world region that will most affect the national security of the United States in the next twenty-five years is Europe. Europe is the key region because of history and heritage, economics, geographic location, the military threat, technology growth, and increasing European unity. All these factors tie U.S. national interests to Europe, moreso than any other region. The vision of Europe twenty-five years hence is of an economically vibrant region, comfortable dealing with both East and West in trade and all other aspects of international relations, military less dependent on the United States, acting more as a unified region than separate countries and an emerging superpower in its own right. To safeguard its national security, the United States must respond to this future Europe in several ways. It must revise its European military strategy to include the phased withdrawal of all major ground forces, enhance American economic competitiveness while simultaneously stimulating East-West trade, adequately resource the national diplomatic effort and establish and sustain a consensus of support for this new strategy among the American people and their representatives.

McCloskey, C.C.

1988-02-17

14

Project DAFNE - Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are currently developing a new ICDP project 'Drillling Active Faults in Northern Europe' (DAFNE) which aims at investigating, via scientific drilling, the tectonic and structural characteristics of postglacial (PG) faults in northern Fennoscandia, including their hydrogeology and associated deep biosphere [1, 2]. During the last stages of the Weichselian glaciation (ca. 9,000 - 15,000 years B.P.), reduced ice load and glacially affected stress field resulted in active faulting in Fennoscandia with fault scarps up to 160 km long and 30 m high. These postglacial (PG) faults are usually SE dipping, SW-NE oriented thrusts, and represent reactivated, pre-existing crustal discontinuities. Postglacial faulting indicates that the glacio-isostatic compensation is not only a gradual viscoelastic phenomenon, but includes also unexpected violent earthquakes, suggestively larger than other known earthquakes in stable continental regions. The research is anticipated to advance science in neotectonics, hydrogeology and deep biosphere studies, and provide important information for nuclear waste and CO2 disposal, petroleum exploration on the Norwegian continental shelf and studies of mineral resources in PG fault areas. We expect that multidisciplinary research applying shallow and deep drilling of postglacial faults would provide significant scientific results through generating new data and models, namely: (1) Understanding PG fault genesis and controls of their locations; (2) Deep structure and depth extent of PG faults; (3) Textural, mineralogical and physical alteration of rocks in the PG faults; (4) State of stress and estimates of paleostress of PG faults; (5) Hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and hydraulic properties of PG faults; (6) Dating of tectonic reactivation(s) and temporal evolution of tectonic systems hosting PG faults; (7) Existence/non-existence of deep biosphere in PG faults; (8) Data useful for planning radioactive waste disposal in crystalline bedrock; (9) Data on rock stress changes in the periphery of the inland ice; (10) Stress pattern along the Norwegian continental margin in relation to the bending spreading ridge and Plio-Pleistocene erosion, uplift and sedimentation with implications for fluid migration and sealing properties of petroleum reservoirs. (11) Data useful in predicting future seismic activity in areas of current deglaciation due to ongoing climatic warming.

Kukkonen, I. T.; Ask, M. S. V.; Olesen, O.

2012-04-01

15

Monitoring and Forecasting the Ionosphere Over Europe: The DIAS Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the state of the upper atmosphere, and in particular its ionospheric part, is very important in several applications affected by space weather, especially the communications and navigation systems that rely on radio transmission. To better classify the ionosphere and forecast its disturbances over Europe, a data collection endeavour called the European Digital Upper Atmosphere Server (DIAS) was initiated

Anna Belehaki; Ljiljana Cander; Bruno Zolesi; Juergen Bremer; Christer Juren; Iwona Stanislawska; Dimitris Dialetis; Mihalis Hatzopoulos

2006-01-01

16

Europe  

SciTech Connect

In Europe during 1980, the need to find more oil caused an intensification of exploration activity into producing basins and even into producing zones for existing plays. The high-risk nature of many of the prospects tested is expressed in the low success ratios for several countries. The success rate continued to rise, however, in the North Sea, where many more appraisal wells were drilled and many wells tested fault blocks adjacent to existing oil fields. There were increases in development drilling almost everywhere and further application of fracturing techniques to existing fields. Development drilling began to decline in the North Sea, a trend likely to continue as government-enforced depletion policies are introduced. In the onshore producing areas, many new exploration licenses were awarded. The new exploration areas are likely to increase in importance. There were some encouraging results in these areas during 1980. The offshore zones of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean proved equally exciting. However, the quickest returns will be gained from onshore discoveries; the reexamination of hydrocarbon-bearing areas not so far developed proved highly successful. The Swiss Entlebuch 1 gas discovery opens up a new exploration tract of the deep autochthon of central Europe. It is just this area where oil production has been declining. Gas production continues to decline in nearly all areas except the North Sea. 20 figures, 24 tables.

Kat, C.

1981-10-01

17

Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to protect people and property with a changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, and the reality for societies in Europe to live with the risk associated with natural hazards, were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). The project started on 1 May 2009 and will end on 30 April 2012. It involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://safeland-fp7.eu/. Main results achieved in SafeLand include: - Various guidelines related to landslide triggering processes and run-out modelling. - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides, and development of an empirical model for assessing the changes in landslide frequency (hazard) as a function of changes in the demography and population density. - Guideline for landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment and zoning. - New methodologies for physical and societal vulnerability assessment. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots for Europe. The results show clearly where areas with the largest landslide risk are located in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional and local climate model simulations over selected regions of Europe at spatial resolutions of 10x10 km and 2.8x2.8 km. These simulations were used to perform an extreme value analysis for trends in heavy precipitation events, and subsequent effects on landslide hazard and risk trends. - Guidelines for use of remote sensing techniques, monitoring and early warning systems. - Development of a prototype web-based "toolbox" of innovative and technically appropriate prevention and mitigation measures. The toolbox does a preliminary assessment and ranking of up to 60 structural and non-structural landslide risk mitigation options. - Case histories and "hotspots" of European Land¬slides have been collected and documented. Data for close to fifty potential case study sites have been compiled and summarized. Most of the case study sites are located in Europe (Italy, France, Norway, Switzerland, Austria, Andorra, and Romania); but they also include one site in Canada and one in India. Almost every type of landslide and every type of movement is represented in these sites. - Research on stakeholder workshops and participatory processes to involve the population exposed to landslide risk in the decision-making process for choosing the most appropriate risk mitigation measure(s).

Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B.

2012-04-01

18

Obesity and other health determinants across Europe: The EURALIM Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVEEURALIM (EURope ALIMentation), a European collaborative study, aimed to determine and describe the extent to which European data on risk factor distributions from different populations could be pooled and harmonised in a common database for international comparisons.SETTINGSeven independent population-based surveys from six European countries (France, Italy, Northern Ireland\\/United Kingdom, Spain, Switzerland, the Netherlands).METHODSData for 18 381 women and 12

S Beer-Borst; A Morabia; S Hercberg; O Vitek; M S Bernstein; P Galan; R Galasso; S Giampaoli; S Houterman; E McCrum; S Panico; F Pannozzo; P Preziosi; L Ribas; L Serra-Majem; W M M Verschuren; J Yarnell; M E Northridge

2000-01-01

19

History without Frontiers: A Practical Guide to International History Projects in Schools in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide presents a wide cross-section of approaches, experiences, and ideas for a useful starting point for those thinking of establishing an international initiative in history teaching. This guide grew out of a meeting of representatives of innovative history projects in the Council of Europe. The projects identified offer approaches to…

Lang, Sean

20

Climate change impacts in Europe. Final report of the PESETA research project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PESETA research project integrates a set of high-resolution climate change projections and physical models into an economic modelling framework to quantify the impacts of climate change on vulnerable aspects of Europe. Four market impact categories are considered (agriculture, river floods, coastal systems, and tourism) and one non-market category (human health). Considering the market impacts, without public adaptation and if

Juan-Carlos Ciscar; Antonio Soria; Clare M. Goodess; Ole B. Christensen; Ana Iglesias; Luis Garrote; Marta Moneo; Sonia Quiroga; Luc Feyen; Rutger Dankers; Robert Nicholls; Julie Richards; Francesco Bosello; Roberto Roson; Bas Amelung; Alvaro Moreno; Paul Watkiss; Alistair Hunt; Stephen Pye; Lisa Horrocks; László Szabó; Denise van Regemorter

2009-01-01

21

Summary of the CARBOSOL project: Present and retrospective state of organic versus inorganic aerosol over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol is an important source of uncertainty concerning the role of the atmosphere in climate forcing. In particular, major gaps exist with respect to its carbonaceous fraction in terms of composition, source apportionment (natural versus anthropogenic), change over the past, and radiative impact. The CARBOSOL project contributes to reduce these uncertainties. CARBOSOL combines a 2-year study of present-day carbonaceous aerosol in air and precipitation in western/central Europe with the trends of climatically relevant species in Alpine ice cores. Comparisons between observed atmospheric distributions (present and proxy of past) and transport/chemistry model simulations allow to test the accuracy of present and past anthropogenic emission inventories and enable for the first time a comparison of the model results for individual components (primary, secondary, fossil fuel, and biogenic) against data derived from measurements. The net radiative effect of the aerosol load and composition (inorganic/organic) in Europe is evaluated using radiative/chemistry/transport models. This summary paper gives an overview of the CARBOSOL goals, and reports on the key findings as a guide to the results detailed in the papers that follow.

Legrand, M.; Puxbaum, H.

2007-12-01

22

Projected Changes in Extreme Weather and Climate Events in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extreme weather and climate events have wide ranging impacts on society as well as on biophysical systems. That society, on occasions, is unable to cope with extreme weather and climate events is concerning, especially as increases in the frequency and intensity of certain events are predicted by some global climate change projections. Extreme events come in many different shapes and

Glenn McGregor; Christopher Ferro; David Stephenson

23

Future scenarios for viticultural zoning in Europe: ensemble projections and uncertainties.  

PubMed

Optimum climate conditions for grapevine growth are limited geographically and may be further challenged by a changing climate. Due to the importance of the winemaking sector in Europe, the assessment of future scenarios for European viticulture is of foremost relevance. A 16-member ensemble of model transient experiments (generated by the ENSEMBLES project) under a greenhouse gas emission scenario and for two future periods (2011-2040 and 2041-2070) is used in assessing climate change projections for six viticultural zoning indices. After model data calibration/validation using an observational gridded daily dataset, changes in their ensemble means and inter-annual variability are discussed, also taking into account the model uncertainties. Over southern Europe, the projected warming combined with severe dryness in the growing season is expected to have detrimental impacts on the grapevine development and wine quality, requiring measures to cope with heat and water stress. Furthermore, the expected warming and the maintenance of moderately wet growing seasons over most of the central European winemaking regions may require a selection of new grapevine varieties, as well as an enhancement of pest/disease control. New winemaking regions may arise over northern Europe and high altitude areas, when considering climatic factors only. An enhanced inter-annual variability is also projected over most of Europe. All these future changes pose new challenges for the European winemaking sector. PMID:23306774

Fraga, H; Malheiro, A C; Moutinho-Pereira, J; Santos, J A

2013-01-10

24

Major risk from rapid, large-volume landslides in Europe (EU Project RUNOUT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project RUNOUT has investigated methods for reducing the risk from large-volume landslides in Europe, especially those involving rapid rates of emplacement. Using field data from five test sites (Bad Goisern and Köfels in Austria, Tessina and Vajont in Italy, and the Barranco de Tirajana in Gran Canaria, Spain), the studies have developed (1) techniques for applying geomorphological investigations and optical

Christopher R. J. Kilburn; Alessandro Pasuto

2003-01-01

25

Probabilistic climate and agroclimatic scenarios for Europe (PRASCE project results)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future climate projections are loaded by multiple uncertainties. PRASCE project (2008-2011), aimed at a development of the probabilistic projection of climate accounting for the uncertainties coming from various sources. The methodology was based on linking the stochastic weather generator (which may itself represent uncertainty due to natural climate variability) with the GCM-based climate change scenarios. These scenarios were determined by the pattern scaling technique, in which the changes in climatic characteristics for a specific future period, site and month of the year are determined as a product of the GCM-based standardized scenario (= scenario related to 1 K rise in global mean temperarure) and global mean temperature. Simple climate model MAGICC was used to determine the global temperature for various combinations of emission scenario and climate sensitivity to account for the uncertainties in these two parameters. The modelling (inter-GCM) uncertainty is represented either by using all available GCMs or a representative subset of 3-7 GCMs. The first part of the contribution will present a methodology with a stress on some of its crucial steps: (i) Deriving the climate change scenario from GCM outputs. These outputs consist of monthly and daily series of surface weather characteristics, which are used to derive changes in WG parameters (including those, which drive the variability and extremes). The problem of incompleteness of the database (e.g. surface humidity and wind speed are missing in some GCM simulations) will be also mentioned. (ii) Modification of the WG (= modification of WG parameters set) according to the climate change scenario (this procedure is more complicated than the pattern-scaling's formula "the changes in climatic characteristics are proportional to changes in global mean temperature" may suggest). (iii) Choosing the representative GCM subsets. Implementation of this step follows from the fact, that some climate change impact experiments do not allow (e.g. due to limited computer resources) to involve all available GCM simulations. The second part of the contribution will present results obtained by applying the above methodology to a set of European stations and using GCM outputs from the IPCC-AR4 database. The changes in selected climatic (focusing on the extremal precipitation and temperature characteristics) and agroclimatic (including number of days during vegetation season with heat and drought stresss) characteristics will be shown in maps representing the multi GCM mean and variability. Acknowledgements: The study is supported by project CLIMSAVE (EU FP 7. Contract no. 244031), KONTAKT ME 10128 and the GAAV Grant Agency (project IAA300420806).

Dubrovsky, M.; Trnka, M.

2012-04-01

26

The Balassa-Samuelson Effect and Europe's Southern Periphery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of Drine and Rault (2003), this paper tests for the Balassa-Samuelson effect in four of Europe's Southern peripheral countries, namely Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal. The Korean experience is used as a canonical case since there appears to be a consensus in the literature that the country did in fact experience the Balassa-Samuelson effect. Using time series

Elpida Tzilianos

2006-01-01

27

An developing ICDP drilling project on intraplate seismicity: Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe (DAFNE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combined effects of reduced ice load and glacially affected rock stresses are believed to have generated dramatic postglacial fault (PGF) structures in northern Europe, reflecting a special type of intraplate seismicity. A total of 14 PGFs have been identified up to date, with fault scarps up to 160 km in length and 30 m in height. They are usually SE dipping, SW-NE oriented thrusts that represent reactivated, pre-existing crustal discontinuities. Local and national seismic networks reveal that, at least some of the faults are still very active, with several hundreds of microseismic events each year. It is evident that if they were formed in single events, they would imply massive intraplate earthquakes (up to M 7-8). Hence, PGFs may generate larger intraplate earthquakes than generally assumed. Similar structures in North America have not been reported yet. Currently, an International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) project on Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe (DAFNE) is under development. The aim of the project is to investigate tectonic and structural characteristics of PGFs in northern Fennoscandia, including their hydrogeology and associated deep biosphere. The research is anticipated to advance science in neotectonics, hydrogeology and deep biosphere studies, and provide important information for nuclear waste and CO2 disposal, petroleum exploration on the Norwegian continental shelf and studies of mineral resources in PG fault areas. We expect that multidisciplinary research applying shallow and deep drilling of PGFs would provide significant scientific results through generating new data and models, namely: 1. Understanding PGF genesis and controls of their locations; 2. Deep structure and depth extent of PGFs; 3. Textural, mineralogical and physical alteration of rocks in the PGFs; 4. State of stress and estimates of paleostress of PGFs; 5. Hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and hydraulic properties of PGFs; 6. Dating of tectonic reactivation(s) and temporal evolution of tectonic systems hosting PGFs; 7. Existence/non-existence of deep biosphere in PGFs; 8. Data useful for planning radioactive waste disposal in crystalline bedrock; 9. Data on rock stress changes in the periphery of the inland ice; 10. Stress pattern along the Norwegian continental margin in relation to the bending spreading ridge and Plio-Pleistocene erosion, uplift and sedimentation with implications for fluid migration and sealing properties of petroleum reservoirs; and 11. Data useful in predicting future seismic activity in areas of current deglaciation due to ongoing climatic warming.

Ask, M. V.; Kukkonen, I. T.; Olesen, O.; Steffen, H.; Schmitt, D.

2011-12-01

28

Comparing Emission Inventories and Model-Ready Emission Datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII Project  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper highlights the similarities and differences in how emission inventories and datasets were developed and processed across North America and Europe for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project and then characterizes the emissions for the...

29

The Joint CEDEFOP/ETF Project on 'Scenarios and Strategies for Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Europe': A Contribution to the Debate on the Future of Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A project in Europe is working to improve the quality of work, promote equal opportunities, combat exclusion and poverty; promote lasting economic growth and a European Union economic policy; and promote sustainable development and quality of life. In order to achieve these goals, three main objectives for vocational education and training (VET)…

Sellin, Burkart

30

Assessing the burden of paediatric influenza in Europe: the European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project  

PubMed Central

The European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project is a multi-country project that was created to collect, analyse and present data regarding the paediatric influenza burden in European countries, with the purpose of providing the necessary information to make evidence-based decisions regarding influenza immunisation recommendations for children. The initial approach taken is based on existing weekly virological and age-specific influenza-like illness (ILI) data from surveillance networks across Europe. We use a multiple regression model guided by longitudinal weekly patterns of influenza virus to attribute the weekly ILI consultation incidence pattern to each influenza (sub)type, while controlling for the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemics. Modelling the ILI consultation incidence during 2002/2003–2008 revealed that influenza infections that presented for medical attention as ILI affected between 0.3% and 9.8% of children aged 0–4 and 5–14 years in England, Italy, The Netherlands and Spain in an average season. With the exception of Spain, these rates were always higher in children aged 0–4 years. Across the six seasons analysed (five seasons were analysed from the Italian data), the model attributed 47–83% of the ILI burden in primary care to influenza virus infection in the various countries, with the A(H3N2) virus playing the most important role, followed by influenza viruses B and A(H1N1). National season averages from the four countries studied indicated that between 0.4% and 18% of children consulted a physician for ILI, with the percentage depending on the country and health care system. Influenza virus infections explained the majority of paediatric ILI consultations in all countries. The next step will be to apply the EPIA modelling approach to severe outcomes indicators (i.e. hospitalisations and mortality data) to generate a complete range of mild and severe influenza burden estimates needed for decision making concerning paediatric influenza vaccination.

Paget, W. John; Casas, Inmaculada; Donker, Ge; Edelman, Laurel; Fleming, Douglas; Larrauri, Amparo; Meijer, Adam; Puzelli, Simona; Rizzo, Caterina; Simonsen, Lone

2010-01-01

31

Employment and Occupations in Europe in the 1980s. Effects of Technical and Economic Changes on the Employment Situation. Project No. 1 of the CCC: "Preparation for Life." Preparation for Working Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper is an attempt to forecast for 1990 the following: (1) employment structures in the member countries of the Council of Europe for all three major sectors of the economy; and (2) employment structures in the Council of Europe for the nine major sectors of the manufacturing industry (food, textiles, leather and clothing, wood and…

Cacace, Nicole

32

Analyses of climate and extreme indices in Central and Eastern Europe within the CECILIA project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EU-project CECILIA (Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and VulnerabiLIty Assessment) aims at delivering a climate change impacts and vulnerability assessment in targeted areas of Central and Eastern Europe. This region appears particularly vulnerable with regard to future changes in extremes (Christensen and Christensen 2003, Schär et al. 2004), likely due to regional specificities such as highly varying topography and continentality, and due to changes in soil moisture content (Seneviratne et al. 2006). In the project, emphasis is given to applications of regional climate modeling studies at a resolution of 10 km for local impact studies in key sectors of the region. The project includes the analysis of extreme weather events in present day and future climate in the target region. For this purpose, an extensive list of precipitation and temperature indices was defined. Observational data used for the indices calculation comes from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset project (ECA&D, Klein Tank et al. 2002), from the ENSEMBLES gridded observations (E-Obs, Haylock et al. 2008), and from station data of the local partners in Central and Eastern Europe. Moreover, the same indices were calculated consistently for a selection of pre-existing RCM datasets (PRUDENCE, ENSEMBLES), and for the CECILIA driving models. Later on, the 10 km high-resolution climate simulations from CECILIA will be included in the analysis. Here we focus on the analysis of a selection of temperature indices, and on the validation of the model-derived indices with the observations. Generally, the spatial agreement between the models and the observations is very good for mean, maximum and minimum temperature (both in terms of the spatial variability and the spatial correlation). The spread between the models is larger for the daily temperature range, with most models showing larger spatial variability compared to the observations. When it comes to heat and cold wave indices, the models perform relatively well for the mean heat and cold wave occurrence, although the spread between the models is large. The results are worse for the percentile-based heat and cold wave durations. In these cases, the spatial correlations between the models and E-Obs decrease to around zero, with some models even showing negative correlations. References: Christensen, J. H., and O. B. Christensen (2003). Severe Summer Flooding in Europe. Nature, 421, 805-806. Haylock, M. R., N. Hofstra, A. M. G. Klein Tank, E. J. Klok, P. D. Jones, and M. New (2008). A European daily high-resolution gridded dataset of surface temperature and precipitation for 1950-2006. J. Geophys. Res., 113(D20119):doi:10.1029/2008JD010201. Klein Tank, A. M. G., et al. (2002). Daily dataset of 20th-century surface air temperature and precipitation series for the European Climate Assessment. Int. J. Climatol., 22, 1441-1453. Schär, C., P. L. Vidale, D. Luthi, C. Frei, C. Haberli, M. A. Liniger, and C. Appenzeller (2004). The role of increasing temperature variability in European summer heat waves. Nature, 427, 332-336. Seneviratne, S. I., D. Lüthi, M. Litschi, and C. Schär (2006). Land-atmosphere coupling and climate change in Europe. Nature, 443, 205-209.

Hirschi, M.; Boberg, F.; Christensen, O. B.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Stepanek, P.; Wp4 Members, Cecilia

2009-04-01

33

Preventing socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviour in adolescents in Europe: Background, design and methods of project TEENAGE  

PubMed Central

Background Higher prevalence rates of unhealthy behaviours among lower socioeconomic groups contribute substantially to socioeconomic inequalities in health in adults. Preventing the development of these inequalities in unhealthy behaviours early in life is an important strategy to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in health. Little is known however, about health promotion strategies particularly effective in lower socioeconomic groups in youth. It is the purpose of project TEENAGE to improve knowledge on the prevention of socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents in Europe. This paper describes the background, design and methods to be used in the project. Methods/design Through a systematic literature search, existing interventions aimed at promoting physical activity, a healthy diet, preventing the uptake of smoking or alcohol, and evaluated in the general adolescent population in Europe will be identified. Studies in which indicators of socioeconomic position are included will be reanalysed by socioeconomic position. Results of such stratified analyses will be summarised by type of behaviour, across behaviours by type of intervention (health education, environmental interventions and policies) and by setting (individual, household, school, and neighbourhood). In addition, the degree to which effective interventions can be transferred to other European countries will be assessed. Discussion Although it is sometimes assumed that some health promotion strategies may be particularly effective in higher socioeconomic groups, thereby increasing socioeconomic inequalities in health-related behaviour, there is little knowledge about differential effects of health promotion across socioeconomic groups. Synthesizing stratified analyses of a number of interventions conducted in the general adolescent population may offer an efficient guidance for the development of strategies and interventions to prevent socioeconomic inequalities in health early in life.

van Lenthe, Frank J; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Lien, Nanna; Moore, Laurence; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Kunst, Anton E; Mackenbach, Johan P

2009-01-01

34

RAND Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

RAND Europe is part of the US-based RAND Corporation and has been active for the past 15 years. Based in Cambridge, UK, RAND Europe conducts research and analysis on the challenges facing many European countries. RAND Europe also provides a number of their research publications which can be viewed alphabetically, chronologically, or browsed by topic. The homepage includes articles on recent research findings, current projects and news highlights.

35

Solar effects on circulation types over Europe: an analysis based on a large number of classifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, effects of the 11-year solar cycle on various aspects of tropospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere in winter have been recognized. One of our previous studies showed a significant solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types from the Hess-Brezowsky catalogue. Here, we use a large collection of varied classifications of circulation patterns, defined over central Europe, assembled within the COST733 Action "Harmonization and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions" to detect the solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types. The advantage of this multi-classification approach is that peculiarities or biases present in any single classification (catalogue) that might influence the detected solar signal are eliminated once a large ensemble of classifications is used. We divide winter months (December to March) into three groups according to the mean monthly solar activity, quantified by the solar 10.7 cm flux. The three groups correspond to the minima of the 11-year solar cycle, a moderate solar activity, and solar maxima. Within each group, frequencies of occurrence of individual circulation types are calculated. Differences in the occurrence of individual classes between solar activity groups indicate the presence of a solar activity effect on atmospheric circulation over Europe. Statistical significance of these differences is estimated by a block resampling method. An enhanced frequency under solar minima and a reduced frequency under solar maxima are observed almost exclusively for the types with easterly flow over central Europe. On the other hand, a reduced frequency under solar minima and an enhanced frequency under solar maxima are found for the types with westerly flow over central Europe. The research is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805, and by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic, contract OC115.

Huth, R.; Cahynová, M.; Kyselý, J.

2010-09-01

36

The range of regional climate change projections in central Europe: How to deal with the spread of climate model results?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regional climate change projections for central Europe in the 21st century show a large spread of simulated temperature and precipitation trends due to natural variability and modelling uncertainties. The questions are how to extract robust climate change signals and how to transfer the range of possible temperature and precipitation trends to climate change impact studies and adaptation strategies? Within

D. Rechid; D. Jacob; R. Podzun

2010-01-01

37

CHIPPAC-interconnect technology development in Europe. A European collaborative project within ESPRIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost effective high performance packaging of electronic systems is critical to the market success of modern electronic products. CHIPPAC is a 2.5 year, European Union (ESPRIT) sponsored, multinational, collaborative project involving 11 partners. The aim of CHIPPAC is to develop and compare technology options available for exploitation in products today. Work tasks in the project look at the real issues

M. Bremond; P. Buquen; J. Joly; D. Lambert; S. Tyler

1995-01-01

38

Policies to promote healthy eating in Europe: a structured review of policies and their effectiveness.  

PubMed

This review provides a classification of public policies to promote healthier eating as well as a structured mapping of existing measures in Europe. Complete coverage of alternative policy types was ensured by complementing the review with a selection of major interventions from outside Europe. Under the auspices of the Seventh Framework Programme's Eatwell Project, funded by the European Commission, researchers from five countries reviewed a representative selection of policy actions based on scientific papers, policy documents, grey literature, government websites, other policy reviews, and interviews with policy-makers. This work resulted in a list of 129 policy interventions, 121 of which were in Europe. For each type of policy, a critical review of its effectiveness was conducted, based on the evidence currently available. The results of this review indicate a need exists for a more systematic and accurate evaluation of government-level interventions as well as for a stronger focus on actual behavioral change rather than changes in attitude or intentions alone. The currently available evidence is very heterogeneous across policy types and is often incomplete. PMID:22364161

Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Shankar, Bhavani; Macias, José Brambila; Verbeke, Wim; Pérez-Cueto, Federico J A; Kozio?-Kozakowska, Agnieszka; Piórecka, Beata; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; D'Addesa, Dina; Saba, Anna; Turrini, Aida; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Strand, Mathias; Smillie, Laura; Wills, Josephine; Traill, W Bruce

2012-02-01

39

Rare neuroendocrine tumours: Results of the surveillance of rare cancers in Europe project.  

PubMed

Because of the low incidence, and limited opportunities for large patient volume experiences, there are very few relevant studies of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). A large population-based database (including cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002 and registered in 76 population-based cancer registries [CRs]), provided by the project 'surveillance of rare cancers in Europe' (RARECARE) is used to describe the basic indicators of incidence, prevalence and survival of NETs, giving a unique overview on the burden of NETs in Europe. NETs at all cancer sites, excluding lung, were analysed in this study. In total over 20,000 incident cases of NETs were analysed and a data quality check upon specific NETs was performed. The overall incidence rate for NETs was 25/1,000,000 and was highest in patients aged 65years and older with well differentiated endocrine carcinomas (non-functioning pancreatic and gastrointestinal) (40 per 1,000,000). We estimated that slightly more than 100,000 people were diagnosed with NETs and still alive in EU27 at the beginning of 2008. Overall, NETs had a 5year relative survival of 50%; survival was low (12%) for poorly differentiated endocrine carcinoma, and relatively high (64%) for well differentiated carcinoma (not functioning of the pancreas and digestive organs). Within NETs, endocrine carcinoma of thyroid gland had the best 5-year relative survival (82%). Because of the complexity and number of the different disciplines involved with NETs (as they arise in many organs), a multidisciplinary approach delivered in highly qualified reference centres and an international network between those centres is recommended. PMID:23541566

van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Trama, Annalisa; Otter, Renée; Larrañaga, Nerea; Tavilla, Andrea; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo; Baudin, Eric; Poston, Graeme; Links, Thera

2013-03-27

40

Future air quality in Europe: a multi-model assessment of projected exposure to ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to explore future air quality in Europe at the 2030 horizon, two emission scenarios developed in the framework of the Global Energy Assessment including varying assumptions on climate and energy access policies are investigated with an ensemble of six regional and global atmospheric chemistry transport models. A specific focus is given in the paper to the assessment of uncertainties and robustness of the projected changes in air quality. The present work relies on an ensemble of chemistry transport models giving insight into the model spread. Both regional and global scale models were involved, so that the ensemble benefits from medium-resolution approaches as well as global models that capture long-range transport. For each scenario a whole decade is modelled in order to gain statistical confidence in the results. A statistical downscaling approach is used to correct the distribution of the modelled projection. Last, the modelling experiment is related to a hind-cast study published earlier, where the performances of all participating models were extensively documented. The analysis is presented in an exposure-based framework in order to discuss policy relevant changes. According to the emission projections, ozone precursors such as NOx will drop down to 30% to 50% of their current levels, depending on the scenario. As a result, annual mean O3 will slightly increase in NOx saturated areas but the overall O3 burden will decrease substantially. Exposure to detrimental O3 levels for health (SOMO35) will be reduced down to 45% to 70% of their current levels. And the fraction of stations where present-day exceedences of daily maximum O3 is higher than 120 ?g m-3 more than 25 days per year will drop from 43% down to 2 to 8%. We conclude that air pollution mitigation measures (present in both scenarios) are the main factors leading to the improvement, but an additional cobenefit of at least 40% (depending on the indicator) is brought about by the climate policy.

Colette, A.; Granier, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Jakobs, H.; Maurizi, A.; Nyiri, A.; Rao, S.; Amann, M.; Bessagnet, B.; D'Angiola, A.; Gauss, M.; Heyes, C.; Klimont, Z.; Meleux, F.; Memmesheimer, M.; Mieville, A.; Rouïl, L.; Russo, F.; Schucht, S.; Simpson, D.; Stordal, F.; Tampieri, F.; Vrac, M.

2012-11-01

41

Future air quality in Europe: a multi-model assessment of projected exposure to ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to explore future air quality in Europe at the 2030 horizon, two emission scenarios developed in the framework of the Global Energy Assessment including varying assumptions on climate and energy access policies are investigated with an ensemble of six regional and global atmospheric chemistry transport models. A specific focus is given in the paper to the assessment of uncertainties and robustness of the projected changes in air quality. The present work relies on an ensemble of chemistry transport models giving insight into the model spread. Both regional and global scale models were involved, so that the ensemble benefits from medium-resolution approaches as well as global models that capture long-range transport. For each scenario a whole decade is modelled in order to gain statistical confidence in the results. A statistical downscaling approach is used to correct the distribution of the model projection. Last, the modelling experiment is linked to a hind-cast study published earlier, where the performances of all participating models were extensively documented. The analysis is presented in an exposure-based framework in order to discuss policy relevant changes. According to the emission projections, ozone precursors such as NOx will drop to 30% to 50% of their current levels, depending on the scenario. As a result, annual mean O3 will slightly increase in NOx saturated areas but the overall O3 burden will decrease substantially. Exposure to detrimental O3 levels for health (SOMO35) will be reduced down to 45% to 70% of their current levels. And the fraction of stations where present-day exceedences of daily maximumO3 is higher than 120 ?g m-3 more than 25 days per year will drop from 43% down to 2 to 8%. We conclude that air pollution mitigation measures (present in both scenarios) are the main factors leading to the improvement, but an additional cobenefit of at least 40% (depending on the indicator) is brought about by the climate policy.

Colette, A.; Granier, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Jakobs, H.; Maurizi, A.; Nyiri, A.; Rao, S.; Amann, M.; Bessagnet, B.; D'Angiola, A.; Gauss, M.; Heyes, C.; Klimont, Z.; Meleux, F.; Memmesheimer, M.; Mieville, A.; Rouïl, L.; Russo, F.; Schucht, S.; Simpson, D.; Stordal, F.; Tampieri, F.; Vrac, M.

2012-06-01

42

Adaptation of vulnerable regional agricultural systems in Europe to climate change - results from the ADAGIO project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2007-2009 the ADAGIO project (http://www.adagio-eu.org) is carried out to evaluate regional adaptation options in agriculture in most vulnerable European regions (mediterranean, central and eastern European regions). In this context a bottom-up approach is used beside the top-down approach of using scientific studies, involving regional experts and farmers in the evaluation of potential regional vulnerabilities and adaptation options. Preliminary results of the regional studies and gathered feedback from experts and farmers show in general that (increasing) drought and heat are the main factors having impact on agricultural vulnerability not only in the Mediterranean region, but also in the Central and southern Eastern European regions. Another important aspect is that the increasing risk of pest and diseases may play a more important role for agricultural vulnerability than assumed before, however, till now this field is only rarely investigated in Europe. Although dominating risks such as increasing drought and heat are similar in most regions, the vulnerabilities in the different regions are very much influenced by characteristics of the dominating agroecosystems and prevailing socio-economic conditions. This will be even be more significant for potential adaptation measures at the different levels, which have to reflect the regional conditions.

Eitzinger, J.; Kubu, G.; Alexandrov, V.; Utset, A.; Mihailovic, D. T.; Lalic, B.; Trnka, M.; Zalud, Z.; Semeradova, D.; Ventrella, D.; Anastasiou, D. P.; Medany, M.; Altaher, S.; Olejnik, J.; Lesny, J.; Nemeshko, N.; Nikolaev, M.; Simota, C.; Cojocaru, G.

2009-10-01

43

Projected Changes in Northern Europe Storm and Precipitation Characteristics: Uncertainty and the Implications for Climate Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future changes in storm characteristics and storm tracks over the eastern North Atlantic may have profound implications for energy providers, coastal communities and water resources availability across the European sector. Shifts in the storm tracks and the amount and intensity of precipitation are of particular concern to local/ municipal governments as they contemplate climate change adaptation/ mitigation strategies. Communicating the latest science to these end users is a two-pronged problem. On one prong the scientific community still has some way to go before fully understanding the physical mechanisms driving projected changes at local to regional scales and their associated uncertainties (which can be quite large). On the other prong planners require up-to-date, reliable information at just these scales as they seek to make decisions, which will resonate for decades. The present study investigates projected changes to storms and precipitation over Northern Europe and decomposes the sources of uncertainty surrounding these changes. Strategies for communicating these changes and uncertainties with planners are also discussed. The city of Bergen, which is a participant in the ECLISE project, is employed as a case study for how complex and often counterintuitive climate information can be made useful for end users. Some large-scale, robust changes in storm track statistics have been identified in the ensemble mean climate change response. However, there are often widely varying responses between models and little analysis on the role intra-model variability. A focus on the multi model ensemble mean response is useful in that it isolates externally forced (i.e. climate change) aspects of future variability. However, this approach underestimates the influence of internal variability (weather-related "noise") and its contribution to total uncertainty. Recent research suggests that internal variability can make a large contribution to overall uncertainty with clear implications for future prediction efforts. The present study investigates projected regional changes to seasonal storm characteristics and precipitation over the eastern North Atlantic and Northern Europe using a high-resolution, stretched grid, AGCM (ARPEGE). An extra-tropical cyclone-tracking algorithm is applied to simulations for present (1980-1999) and future (2020-2060) periods and NCEP reanalysis data (1980-1999). Two present day simulations are carried out: one with spectral nudging toward the large-scale circulation (Nudged) and one without (Free). Four future realizations are run that differ only in their SST specifications, which are taken from four A1B AOGCM simulations from different modeling groups. Storm track statistics are computed for all months with winter (DJF) and summer (JJA) shown. Future changes are evaluated by subtracting the 20th century seasonal mean of the Free run from the ensemble mean of the (2041-2060) 21st century runs. The multiple future realizations allow for the decomposition of total future variability into parts due to forced and internal variability. Despite the dominance of internal variability in the seasonal storm response, robust precipitation signals are identified. These results suggest that, in these simulations at least, the changes in the precipitation come mainly from the thermodynamic rather than the dynamic response of the atmosphere to global warming.

Sobolowski, S.; Mesquita, M.; Keay, K.

2012-04-01

44

Dietary exposure assessments for children in europe (the EXPOCHI project): rationale, methods and design  

PubMed Central

Background/purpose The number of dietary exposure assessment studies focussing on children is very limited. Children are however a vulnerable group due to their higher food consumption level per kg body weight. Therefore, the EXPOCHI project aims [1] to create a relational network of individual food consumption databases in children, covering different geographical areas within Europe, and [2] to use these data to assess the usual intake of lead, chromium, selenium and food colours. Methods EXPOCHI includes 14 food consumption databases focussed on children (1-14 y old). The data are considered representative at national/regional level: 14 regions covering 13 countries. Since the aim of the study is to perform long-term exposure assessments, only data derived from 24 hr dietary recalls and dietary records recorded on at least two non-consecutive days per individual were included in the dietary exposure assessments. To link consumption data and concentration data of lead, chromium and selenium in a standardised way, categorisation of the food consumption data was based on the food categorisation system described within the SCOOP Task report 3.2.11. For food colours, the food categorisation system specified in the Council Directive 94/36/EC was used. Conclusion The EXPOCHI project includes a pan-European long-term exposure assessment of lead, chromium, selenium and food colours among children living in 13 different EU countries. However, the different study methods and designs used to collect the data in the different countries necessitate an in-depth description of these different methods and a discussion about the resulting limitations.

2011-01-01

45

Geriatric Home-and Community-Based Care Training Project for Transitional Societies from Central and Eastern Europe Through Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Societies from Central Europe through Asia are struggling to develop home-and community-based care programs prompted by the poor quality and limited quantities of institutional care for older adults. A three-year home-and community-based care training and program development project has provided education and training to 130 professionals from the disciplines of social work, medicine, nursing, and rehabilitation who reside in 20

Charles A. Emlet; Merl C. Hokenstad

2001-01-01

46

Determining maximum magnitude in Europe (SHARE project) from earthquake and active fault data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the SHARE project, a specific task is devoted to the assessment of the expected maximum magnitude (Mmax) for earthquakes in Europe, to serve as input for the computation of seismic hazard. We present the results of Mmax determination for the first one of the two alternative seismogenic source zone models adopted in the project: i) a classical model constituted by area source zones where seismicity is uniformly distributed and activity rates derive from earthquake catalog only, and ii) a fault source model integrated by zones of background seismicity. Besides the area source zone (ASZ) model, input data for the evaluation of Mmax were the earthquake catalog and the active fault database produced for SHARE. We tried to define a transparent procedure to determine Mmax, that could be reproduced and reapplied if new data become available, and only few choices by expert judgment were made at the end of the evaluation. First, we assigned earthquakes and faults to every ASZ and derived the largest observed/expected magnitude (Mobs) according to the two data sets. Same reliability was given to Mobs from seismicity and fault data both providing a lower bound on Mmax. To avoid too much heterogeneity of Mmax over the study area, ASZs (many of which are very small) were grouped into larger "superzones" characterized by similar seismotectonic setting and Mobs values from earthquake catalog and fault database were reassessed for each of them. Great care was devoted to designing the superzones because their use implies that Mmax estimates are spread from a single ASZ (the one with maximum Mobs) to all the other ones belonging to the same superzone. Superzones were then classified as stable continental regions (SCRs) or high seismicity (active) areas and different procedures were applied to the two types. For the former, a global-analog approach was followed (similar to the one used by USGS for the 2008 U.S. seismic hazard maps) and two distributions of four Mmax values were proposed, one for extended and one for non-extended crust regions, starting from Mobs in the earthquake catalog for the two types of SCRs. For active superzones, instead, two values of Mmax were determined, that is the maximum between Mobs from the seismic catalog and the fault database and this value plus an increment. Different weights were then assigned to the four/two Mmax values to take into account uncertainty in maximum magnitude in a logic-tree approach.

Meletti, C.; D'Amico, V.

2011-12-01

47

Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP): a collaborative research project of the TopoEurope initiative of ESF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With elevations of several kilometers, low local relief and pronounced relief contrasts with surrounding regions, orogenic plateaus are first-order tectonic and topographic features of several Cenozoic mountain belts. The morphologic characteristics of plateaus may result from efficient tectonic uplift of mountain ranges that successively incorporate foreland domains into intermontane sedimentary environments. This process may ultimately lead to leeward aridification and a reduction of erosional power and inability of the fluvial network to keep pace with uplift. The combination of tectonic uplift and the decreasing ability of the fluvial system to keep pace with the tectonic processes causes a transition from externally to internally drained basins that eventually become overfilled and coalesce, causing low local relief at high elevations in the orogen interior. Although many studies are being carried out on the Tibetan and Puna-Altiplano plateaus, very little attention has been devoted to the development of the smaller Central Anatolia Plateau (CAP). With its low local relief located at high elevations and with an arid interior compared to deeply incised, humid flanks, the CAP fulfills all characteristics of orogenic plateaus. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanisms controlling the topographic development of this region and to quantify the competing tectonic, geomorphic and climatic processes, we have developed a multidisciplinary project (VAMP) under the umbrella of the TopoEurope initiative of ESF. Our project integrates 11 research institutions from 7 countries. We study a ~400-km-wide strip from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean that includes CAP and its flanks, the offshore basins and Cyprus. The semi-arid CAP interior has a subdued topography at elevations of ~1500m. The plateau interior comprises internally drained sedimentary basins that have helped reduce the refielf contrasts between individual ranges and intervening depressions. Infilling by Miocene to Quaternary continental sediments has created low local relief, where large shallow lakes occur. However, several basins have been captured by headward erosion and major rivers (Göksu River in the S and K?z?l?rmak River in the N) now expose basin-fill sediments and drain large areas of the CAP and form deeply incised gorges along the northern and southern margins, respectively. Miocene marine sediments, locally up to 2 km thick and deposited in a basin stretching, at least, from Antalya to Adana unconformably overlie rocks of the Taurus orogen in S Turkey. Northward, these units grade into a partly preserved erosional surface. To the south, correlative Miocene marine sediments are found in the Cilicia offshore basin and in the N Cyprus thrust-belt. These sediments provide a topographic datum for the beginning of plateau development. In addition these units provide information on the behavior of the Anatolian crust during subsidence. The end of marine sedimentation (~Tortonian) provides a maximum age for the onset of CAP uplift. Thereafter, uplift was coeval with, and tectonically linked to subsidence in the offshore basins. Interestingly, other important events occurred at this time as well. This includes the Messinian salinity crisis and the onset of fragmentation of the Tethyan slab. In our study, an interdisciplinary approach with a wide range of temporal and spatial scales of is adopted to (1) better constrain the kinematics of plateau (de)formation; (2) the timing of associated climatic changes; (3) to quantify patterns of sediment routing and deposition; and to (4) reconstruct the (deep) geometry of Anatolia and surrounding sedimentary basins. We furthermore assess the importance of crustal shortening, magmatic underplating and possible lithospheric segmentation and delamination with respect to plateau uplift and analyze the nature of the interactions between tectonic forcing and changing climate. We will perform structural, geomorphological and sedimentological studies and will apply low-T geochronology, cosmogenic exposure dating of geomor

Strecker, M.; Bertotti, G.; Echtler, H.; Ciner, A.; Dirik, E. Aydar (4), K.; Rojay, B.; Mulch, A.; Ková?ová, M.; Govers, R.; Gliozzi, E.; Simpson, G.; Aksu, A.

2009-04-01

48

Effects of climate change on aerosol concentrations in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High concentrations of particulate matter less than 2.5 ?m in size (PM2.5), ozone and other major constituents of air pollution, have adverse effects on human health, visibility and ecosystems (Seinfeld and Pandis, 2006), and are strongly influenced by meteorology. Emissions control policy is currently made assuming that climate will remain constant in the future. However, climate change over the next decades is expected to be significant (IPCC, 2007) and may impact local and regional air quality. Determining the sensitivity of the concentrations of air pollutants to climate change is an important step toward estimating future air quality. In this study we applied PMCAMx (Fountoukis et al., 2011), a three dimensional chemical transport model, over Europe, in order to quantify the individual effects of various meteorological parameters on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations. A suite of perturbations in various meteorological factors, such as temperature, wind speed, absolute humidity and precipitation were imposed separately on base case conditions to determine the sensitivities of PM2.5 concentrations and composition to these parameters. Different simulation periods (summer, autumn 2008 and winter 2009) are used to examine also the seasonal dependence of the air quality - climate interactions. The results of these sensitivity simulations suggest that there is an important link between changes in meteorology and PM2.5 levels. We quantify through separate sensitivity simulations the processes which are mainly responsible for the final predicted changes in PM2.5 concentration and composition. The predicted PM2.5 response to those meteorology perturbations was found to be quite variable in space and time. These results suggest that, the changes in concentrations caused by changes in climate should be taken into account in long-term air quality planning. References Fountoukis C., Racherla P. N., Denier van der Gon H. A. C., Polymeneas P., Charalampidis P. E., Pilinis C., Wiedensohler A., Dall'Osto M., O'Dowd C., and S. N. Pandis: Evaluation of a three-dimensional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) in the European domain during the EUCAARI May 2008 campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 10331-10347, 2011. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Fourth Assessment Report: Summary for Policymakers, 2007. Seinfeld, J. H., and Pandis, S. N.: Atmospheric chemistry and physics: From air pollution to climate change, 2nd ed.; John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 2006.

Megaritis, Athanasios G.; Fountoukis, Christos; Pandis, Spyros N.

2013-04-01

49

Modelling eWork in Europe: Estimates, Models and Forecasts from the EMERGENCE Project. IES Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study combined results of a survey of employers in 18 European countries to establish the extent to which they are currently using eWork with European official statistics to develop models, estimates, and forecasts of the numbers of eWorkers in Europe. These four types of "individual" eWork were identified: telehomeworking; multilocational…

Bates, P.; Huws, U.

50

Summer Heat Waves in Western Europe, Their Past Change and Future Projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summer heat waves and extremely hot temperatures are a serious threat to society, the environment and the economy of Europe.\\u000a In this chapter we present an overview of selected recent literature which looks specifically at European heat waves and extreme\\u000a temperature events, their past change and expected future change from 1880 to 2100. Della-Marta et al. (2007b) show that over

P. M. Della-Marta; M. Beniston

51

Comparing emission inventories and model-ready emission datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper highlights the similarities and differences in how emission inventories and datasets were developed and processed across North America and Europe for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project and then characterizes the emissions for the two domains. We focus specifically on the creation of "model-ready" gridded emission datasets for 2006 across the two continental study domains. The practice of creating and processing the two inventories is discussed with a focus on emission factors, spatial allocation, temporal variability, speciation of PM and VOCs, and the mechanics of distributing the data and supporting emission algorithms to the modeling community. The spatial and temporal distribution on common scales is compared for the pollutants of primary concern: NOx, VOCs, SO2, PM2.5, CO, and NH3. Because of differences of population distribution, emissions across North America tend to be more heterogeneous in spatial coverage than in Europe. The temporal patterns in the estimated emissions are largely the result of assumptions used to characterize human activity, with the exception of "natural" emissions, which are modulated by meteorological variability, and emissions from large electric generating units in the U.S., which have the benefit of continuous emission monitors that provide hourly resolved profiles. Emission estimates in both study domains are challenged by several important but poorly characterized emission source sectors, notably road dust, agricultural operations, biomass burning, and road transport. Finally, this paper provides insight on the strengths and weaknesses of emission inventory preparation practices on both continents. One important outcome of this comparison of 2006 emissions between Europe and North America is the greater understanding provided into how the emission estimates developed for the AQMEII project impact regional air quality model performance.

Pouliot, George; Pierce, Thomas; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Schaap, Martijn; Moran, Michael; Nopmongcol, Uarporn

2012-06-01

52

Quantifying nitrogen fluxes and their influence on the greenhouse gas balance - recent findings of the NitroEurope Integrated Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human-driven production of reactive nitrogen to stimulate agricultural productivity and its unintended formation in combustion processes both have major impacts on the global environment. Effects of excess reactive nitrogen include reductions in air quality, water quality, soil quality and biodiversity. One of the most controversial impacts of nitrogen, however, is on the greenhouse gas balance. While recent papers have highlighted a possible benefit of nitrogen in enhancing rates of carbon sequestration, there remain many trade-offs between nitrogen and greenhouse gas exchange. The result is that the net effect of reactive nitrogen on the global radiative balance is currently far from clear. To better quantity these relationships requires measurement data and modelling that make the link between different nitrogen forms and their fate in the environment. It is essential to measure fluxes for a wide range of ecosystems considering the biosphere-atmosphere exchange each of the reactive nitrogen components and greenhouse gases, as well as the fixation and denitrification of di-nitrogen. Long term observations are needed for representative ecosystems, together with results from experiments addressing the responses of the key nitrogen and greenhouse gas fluxes to different global change drivers. The NitroEurope Integrated Project of the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission European has developed a strategy to quantifying these different terms on multiple scales. This presentation reports some of the emerging results. It highlights the first estimates of net greenhouse gas exchange for a series of 13 flux ‘supersites’, complemented by the emerging results of reactive nitrogen concentrations a large network of 58 ‘inferential sites’, which are being used to estimate nitrogen inputs. In addition to these, new low cost methods to measure nitrogen fluxes will be reported, which are being tested at the ‘supersites’ and a network of regional sites, which extend the European representativity of the results. Results from this 3-tier flux network will be complemented by emerging findings from an extensive Manipulation Network, and by modelling at plot, landscape and European scales. Finally the paper will illustrate how nitrogen mitigation techniques are being considered at the European scale, including an estimation of the scale of costs involved in simultaneously mitigating nitrous oxide, ammonia and nitrate losses.

Sutton, M. A.; Nemitz, E.; Reis, S.; Beier, C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Cellier, P.; Cotrufo, M.; Erisman, J.; Skiba, U.; de Vries, W.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Bleeker, A.; Calanca, P. S.; Dalgaard, T.; Dragosits, U.; Duyzer, J.; Gundersen, P.; Hensen, A.; Kros, H.; Leip, A.; Olesen, J.; Phillips, G. J.; Rees, R. M.; Smith, P.; Soussana, J.; Tang, S.; Theobald, M. R.; Winiwarter, W.; van Oijen, M.; Vesala, T.

2009-12-01

53

Extended regional climate model projections for Europe until the mid-twentyfirst century: combining ENSEMBLES and CMIP3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims at sharpening the existing knowledge of expected seasonal mean climate change and its uncertainty over Europe for the two key climate variables air temperature and precipitation amount until the mid-twentyfirst century. For this purpose, we assess and compensate the global climate model (GCM) sampling bias of the ENSEMBLES regional climate model (RCM) projections by combining them with the full set of the CMIP3 GCM ensemble. We first apply a cross-validation in order to assess the skill of different statistical data reconstruction methods in reproducing ensemble mean and standard deviation. We then select the most appropriate reconstruction method in order to fill the missing values of the ENSEMBLES simulation matrix and further extend the matrix by all available CMIP3 GCM simulations forced by the A1B emission scenario. Cross-validation identifies a randomized scaling approach as superior in reconstructing the ensemble spread. Errors in ensemble mean and standard deviation are mostly less than 0.1 K and 1.0 % for air temperature and precipitation amount, respectively. Reconstruction of the missing values reveals that expected seasonal mean climate change of the ENSEMBLES RCM projections is not significantly biased and that the associated uncertainty is not underestimated due to sampling of only a few driving GCMs. In contrast, the spread of the extended simulation matrix is partly significantly lower, sharpening our knowledge about future climate change over Europe by reducing uncertainty in some regions. Furthermore, this study gives substantial weight to recent climate change impact studies based on the ENSEMBLES projections, since it confirms the robustness of the climate forcing of these studies concerning GCM sampling.

Heinrich, Georg; Gobiet, Andreas; Mendlik, Thomas

2013-06-01

54

Current experiments and future projects and their possible implications for Western Europe. General picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contributions made to direct satellite TV broadcasting by the ATS-6 and CTS satellites are examined both from the point of view of space technology and from that of the utilization of television. Benefits derived from these projects for the European satellite and for operational satellite projects are outlined.

A. M. Hieronimus

1977-01-01

55

Z39.50 and the OPAC Network in Europe (ONE) Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the use of the Z39.50 standard for information retrieval in the British Library's efforts toward networked information retrieval and online public access catalogs in cooperation with the European Union and other countries. OSI (open systems interconnection) and project ONE (a collaborative project in the European Union) are explained.…

Smith, Neil

1996-01-01

56

Projection of occurrence of extreme dry-wet years and seasons in Europe with stationary and nonstationary Standardized Precipitation Indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The probabilities of the occurrence of extreme dry/wet years and seasons in Europe are estimated by using two ways of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and SPI-GEV) and the Standardized Nonstationary Precipitation Index (SnsPI). The latter is defined as the SPI by fitting precipitation data with a nonstationary Gamma distribution in order to model the precipitation time dependence under climate change. Bias-corrected daily precipitation outputs from five different regional climate models (RCMs) provided by the ENSEMBLES project are used. The five RCMs are selected so as to represent the main statistical properties of the whole ENSEMBLES set and the most extreme deviation from the ensemble mean. All indicators are calculated for the ensemble of the five models over the period 1971-2098. Results show that under global warming, climate in Europe will significantly change from its current state with the probability of the occurrence of extreme dry and wet years and seasons increasing, respectively, over southern dry and northern wet regions. Comparing nonstationary and stationary indices, the SnsPI is found to be more robust than the common SPI in the prediction of precipitation changes with multimodel ensembles.

Russo, S.; Dosio, A.; Sterl, A.; Barbosa, P.; Vogt, J.

2013-07-01

57

Sharing knowledge to advance healthcare policies in Europe for people living with dementia and their carers: the ALCOVE project  

PubMed Central

Background Alzheimer’s disease and other related dementias are public health priorities in the European Union due to their prevalence, cost and profound impact on society. Because of these pressing implications, the European Union decided to create a Joint Action to share knowledge about dementia and health policy in order to preserve the health, quality of life, autonomy and dignity of people living with dementia and their carers in Europe. Methods ALCOVE is a European Community-funded Joint Action coordinated by the HAS (French National Authority for Health) with a 24-month duration. The project’s life cycle has been divided into the following four steps: (1) collection of existing information, (2) analysis of existing information and making comparisons across Member States, (3) identifying Evidence, Needs, and Priorities, (4) drafting recommendations and disseminating them. Results 19 countries are participating in the ALCOVE initiative. The project will publish its final findings in 2013. The project’s objectives, participants, method, on-going procedures and work plans are already available on the ALCOVE website: http://www.alcove-project.eu/. Preliminary results show that recommendations will need to focus on clinical and epidemiological data collection, diagnostic system assessment, outstanding approaches for treating behavioural disorders, limiting antipsychotic use, and competence assessment in this vulnerable population. Conclusions The European Member States involved are mobilized to share best health policy practices in order to tackle the challenge of dementia’s threat on European health and social systems and to improve the quality of life and care for individuals and their family carers.

2012-01-01

58

Priorities for mental health research in Europe: A survey among national stakeholders' associations within the ROAMER project  

PubMed Central

Within the ROAMER project, funded by the European Commission, a survey was conducted with national associations/organizations of psychiatrists, other mental health professionals, users and/or carers, and psychiatric trainees in the 27 countries of the European Union, aiming to explore their views about priorities for mental health research in Europe. One hundred and eight associations/organizations returned the questionnaire. The five most frequently selected research priorities were early detection and management of mental disorders, quality of mental health services, prevention of mental disorders, rehabilitation and social inclusion, and new medications for mental disorders. All these areas, except the last one, were among the top ten research priorities according to all categories of stakeholders, along with stigma and discrimination. These results seem to support the recent argument that some rebalancing in favor of psychosocial and health service studies may be needed in psychiatric research.

Fiorillo, Andrea; Luciano, Mario; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Sampogna, Gaia; Obradors-Tarrago, Carla; Maj, Mario

2013-01-01

59

Priorities for mental health research in Europe: A survey among national stakeholders' associations within the ROAMER project.  

PubMed

Within the ROAMER project, funded by the European Commission, a survey was conducted with national associations/organizations of psychiatrists, other mental health professionals, users and/or carers, and psychiatric trainees in the 27 countries of the European Union, aiming to explore their views about priorities for mental health research in Europe. One hundred and eight associations/organizations returned the questionnaire. The five most frequently selected research priorities were early detection and management of mental disorders, quality of mental health services, prevention of mental disorders, rehabilitation and social inclusion, and new medications for mental disorders. All these areas, except the last one, were among the top ten research priorities according to all categories of stakeholders, along with stigma and discrimination. These results seem to support the recent argument that some rebalancing in favor of psychosocial and health service studies may be needed in psychiatric research. PMID:23737426

Fiorillo, Andrea; Luciano, Mario; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Sampogna, Gaia; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Maj, Mario

2013-06-01

60

Inventory of Government-Supported Research Projects on Foreign Affairs. Volume 3: Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Inventory of Government-Supported Research Projects on Foreign Affairs is prepared annually for the Under Secretaries Subconnnittee on Foreign Affairs Research (USC/FAR). The subcommittee was established in 1971 pursuant to a Presidential directive th...

1975-01-01

61

Short-term Associations between Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and Hospitalizations in Southern Europe: Results from the MED-PARTICLES Project.  

PubMed

Background: Evidence on the short-term effects of fine and coarse particles on morbidity in Europe is scarce and inconsistent.Objectives: We aimed to estimate the association between daily concentrations of fine and coarse particles with hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in eight Southern European cities, within the MED-PARTICLES project.Methods: City-specific Poisson models were fitted to estimate associations of daily concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), ? 10 ?m (PM10), and their difference (PM2.5-10) with daily counts of emergency hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. We derived pooled estimates from random-effects meta-analysis and evaluated the robustness of results to co-pollutant exposure adjustment and model specification. Pooled concentration-response curves were estimated using a meta-smoothing approach.Results: We found significant associations between all PM fractions and cardiovascular admissions. Increases of 10 ?g/m3 in PM2.5, 6.3 ?g/m3 in PM2.5-10, and 14.4 ?g/m3 in PM10 (lag 0-1 days) were associated with increases in cardiovascular admissions of 0.51% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.90%), 0.46% (95% CI: 0.10, 0.82%), and 0.53% (95% CI: 0.06, 1.00%), respectively. Stronger associations were estimated for respiratory hospitalizations, ranging from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.21, 2.11%) for PM10 to 1.36% (95% CI: 0.23, 2.49) for PM2.5 (lag 0-5 days).Conclusions: PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were positively associated with cardiovascular and respiratory admissions in eight Mediterranean cities. Information on the short-term effects of different PM fractions on morbidity in Southern Europe will be useful to inform European policies on air quality standards.Citation: Stafoggia M, Samoli E, Alessandrini E, Cadum E, Ostro B, Berti G, Faustini A, Jacquemin B, Linares C, Pascal M, Randi G, Ranzi A, Stivanello E, Forastiere F, the MED-PARTICLES Study Group. 2013. Short-term associations between fine and coarse particulate matter and hospitalizations in Southern Europe: results from the MED-PARTICLES project. Environ Health Perspect 121:1026-1033; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206151. PMID:23777832

Stafoggia, Massimo; Samoli, Evangelia; Alessandrini, Ester; Cadum, Ennio; Ostro, Bart; Berti, Giovanna; Faustini, Annunziata; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Linares, Cristina; Pascal, Mathilde; Randi, Giorgia; Ranzi, Andrea; Stivanello, Elisa; Forastiere, Francesco

2013-06-17

62

Short-term Associations between Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and Hospitalizations in Southern Europe: Results from the MED-PARTICLES Project  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence on the short-term effects of fine and coarse particles on morbidity in Europe is scarce and inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to estimate the association between daily concentrations of fine and coarse particles with hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in eight Southern European cities, within the MED-PARTICLES project. Methods: City-specific Poisson models were fitted to estimate associations of daily concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), ? 10 ?m (PM10), and their difference (PM2.5–10) with daily counts of emergency hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. We derived pooled estimates from random-effects meta-analysis and evaluated the robustness of results to co-pollutant exposure adjustment and model specification. Pooled concentration–response curves were estimated using a meta-smoothing approach. Results: We found significant associations between all PM fractions and cardiovascular admissions. Increases of 10 ?g/m3 in PM2.5, 6.3 ?g/m3 in PM2.5–10, and 14.4 ?g/m3 in PM10 (lag 0–1 days) were associated with increases in cardiovascular admissions of 0.51% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.90%), 0.46% (95% CI: 0.10, 0.82%), and 0.53% (95% CI: 0.06, 1.00%), respectively. Stronger associations were estimated for respiratory hospitalizations, ranging from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.21, 2.11%) for PM10 to 1.36% (95% CI: 0.23, 2.49) for PM2.5 (lag 0–5 days). Conclusions: PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 were positively associated with cardiovascular and respiratory admissions in eight Mediterranean cities. Information on the short-term effects of different PM fractions on morbidity in Southern Europe will be useful to inform European policies on air quality standards. Citation: Stafoggia M, Samoli E, Alessandrini E, Cadum E, Ostro B, Berti G, Faustini A, Jacquemin B, Linares C, Pascal M, Randi G, Ranzi A, Stivanello E, Forastiere F, the MED-PARTICLES Study Group. 2013. Short-term associations between fine and coarse particulate matter and hospitalizations in Southern Europe: results from the MED-PARTICLES project. Environ Health Perspect 121:1026–1033; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206151

Samoli, Evangelia; Alessandrini, Ester; Cadum, Ennio; Ostro, Bart; Berti, Giovanna; Faustini, Annunziata; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Linares, Cristina; Pascal, Mathilde; Randi, Giorgia; Ranzi, Andrea; Stivanello, Elisa; Forastiere, Francesco

2013-01-01

63

Projections for the Production of Bulk Volume Bio-Based Polymers in Europe and Environmental Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we provide an overview of the most important emerging groups of bio-based polymers for bulk volume applications and we discuss market projections for these types of bio-based polymers in the EU, thereby distinguishing between three scenarios. Bio-based polymers are projected to reach a maximum of 1.75-3.0 million tonnes by 2020 in the EU-25 under very favourable conditions.

M. K. Patel; M. Crank

2007-01-01

64

Geokinematics of Central Europe: New insights from the CERGOP-2\\/Environment Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central European Geodynamics Project CERGOP-2, funded by the European Union from 2003 to 2006 under the 5th Framework Programme, benefited from repeated measurements of the coordinates of epoch and permanent GPS stations of the Central European GPS Reference Network (CEGRN), starting in 1994. Here we report on the results of the systematic processing of available data up to 2005.

A. Caporali; C. Aichhorn; M. Becker; I. Fejes; L. Gerhatova; D. Ghitau; G. Grenerczy; J. Hefty; S. Krauss; D. Medak; G. Milev; M. Mojzes; M. Mulic; A. Nardo; P. Pesec; T. Rus; J. Simek; J. Sledzinski; M. Solaric; G. Stangl; F. Vespe; G. Virag; F. Vodopivec; F. Zablotskyi

2008-01-01

65

Long-term projections and acclimatization scenarios of temperature-related mortality in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady increase in greenhouse gas concentrations is inducing a detectable rise in global temperatures. The sensitivity of human societies to warming temperatures is, however, a transcendental question not comprehensively addressed to date. Here we show the link between temperature, humidity and daily numbers of deaths in nearly 200 European regions, which are subsequently used to infer transient projections of

Joan Ballester; Jean-Marie Robine; François Richard Herrmann; Xavier Rodó

2011-01-01

66

The prediction and management of aquatic nitrogen pollution across Europe: an introduction to the Integrated Nitrogen in European Catchments project (INCA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess nitrogen in soils, fresh water, estuarine and marine systems contributes to nutrient enrichment in key ecosystems throughout Europe, often leading to detrimental environmental impacts, such as soil acidification or the eutrophication of water bodies. The Integrated Nitrogen model for European Catchments (INCA) project aims to develop a generic version of the Integrated Nitrogen in Catchments (INCA) model to simulate

A. J. Wade; P. G. Whitehead; L. C. M. O’Shea

2002-01-01

67

THE EFFECTS OF DREISSENA POLYMORPHA (PALLAS) INVASION ON AQUATIC COMMUNITIES IN EASTERN EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dreissena polymorpha has been invading fresh waterbodies of eastern and western Europe since the beginning of the 19th century and is still invading. A long history of monitoring and experimental studies conducted in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) has provided us with an understanding of the effects of zebra mussels on waterbodies they invade. However, this work has not been

ALEXANDER Y. KARATAYEV

1997-01-01

68

THE EFFECT OF PESTICIDES ON DUCKWEED AT THEIR PREDICTED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS IN EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Pesticides may enter the environment and pose nega- tive effects on non-target organisms. The predicted envi- ronmental concentration (PEC) is used to assess the risk of chemicals listed in Europe's pesticide registration. Duckweed is one of the most prevalently used indicator plants for bioassays in many countries. This work may be the first to give broad information on toxicity

Cafer Turgut

69

Regional Growth in Central Europe. Long-term Effects of Population and Traffic Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a simple growth model we explore the current and future growth effects of the regional population structure. Regional GDP growth in 227 regions within six countries in central Europe is explored as how they depend on the young and old dependency ratio. The young dependency ratio (YDR) is defined as ratio of the less than 20 years old and

Wolfgang Polasek; Helmut Berrer

2005-01-01

70

The Heidelberg Basin Drilling Project - Exploring one of the most complete successions of mid-continental Quaternary in Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Heidelberg Basin, located in the northern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (Germany) hosts one of the thickest and most complete successions of Plio-/Pleistocene sediments in continental Mid-Europe. Since Late Pliocene / Early Pleistocene, the River Rhine has acted as the only drainage system that connected the Alps with Northern Europe, especially the North Sea. The ongoing subsidence of the Upper Rhine Graben offers a unique potential for continuous sediment accumulation and preservation. Especially the Heidelberg Basin, as the distal sediment trap for alpine sediments, defines a key location to understand the glacial evolution of the Alps since Late Pliocene. With the aim to establish a reference profile of Quaternary stratigraphy of the region north of the Alps, that must be discussed in the context of the 4-D basin evolution, the Heidelberg Basin is investigated by new cored boreholes at three different locations. Each borehole is between 300 m and 500 m deep. Petrographic, sequence stratigraphic, biostratigraphic, and magnetostratigraphic approaches are included and complemented by geochronological and geophysical data. First investigations of the core material confirm that the depocenter of the basin is located close to the eastern main fault of the Rhine Graben, as was demonstrated by seismic pre-site surveys. The pollen data of the deepest borehole revealed a pollen assemblage that is interpreted as Tegelen interglacial. In the sense of climate stratigraphy, the sediment succession seems to be complete. Glacials and interglacials are found in superposition along one profile - a unique situation for Western Europe. A significant part of the cored boreholes consists of fine sediments. Therefore, the potential of the material for further research that concentrates e.g. on the control of sedimentation by tectonics and climate, the characterization of Base Quaternary by a combination of different datasets, the detailed characterization of the glacial and interglacials, and the spatial-temporal evolution of the basin, is already given. Reference Gabriel, G., Ellwanger, D., Hoselmann, C., Weidenfeller, M. (guest editors). Special Issue 'The Heidelberg Basin Drilling Project'. - Quaternary Science Journal (Eiszeitalter und Gegenwart), 57(3/4), 2008.

Gabriel, Gerald; Ellwanger, Dietrich; Frechen, Manfred; Hoselmann, Christian; Simon, Theo; Weidenfeller, Michael; Wielandt-Schuster, Ulrike

2010-05-01

71

Meteorology and photochemical air pollution in Southern Europe: Experimental results from EC research projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MECAPIP project of EC has served to document the summer atmospheric circulations and the related air pollution dynamics over Spain and the Western Mediterranean. The first includes surface wind convergence over the Iberian peninsula, large-scale compensatory subsidence over the surrounding coastal areas, and the formation of re-circulatory cells as a result of the sea breezes combining with up-slope winds

B. Artnano

1996-01-01

72

Cost-effective emission abatement in europe considering interrelations in agriculture.  

PubMed

Agriculture is an important source of ammonia (NH3), which contributes to acidification and eutrophication, as well as emissions of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). Controlling emissions of one of these pollutants through application of technical measures might have an impact (either beneficial or adverse) on emissions of the others. These side effects are usually ignored in policy making. This study analyses cost-effectiveness of measures to reduce acidification and eutrophication as well as agricultural emissions of N2O and CH4 in Europe, taking into account interrelations between abatement of NH3, N2O, and CH4 in agriculture. The model used is based on the RAINS (Regional Air pollution INformation and Simulation) model for air pollution in Europe, which includes emissions, abatement options, and atmospheric source-receptor relationships for pollutants contributing to acidification and eutrophication. We used an optimisation model that is largely based on the RAINS model but that also includes emissions of N2O and CH4 from agriculture and technical measures to reduce these emissions. For abatement options for agricultural emissions we estimated side effects on other emissions. The model determines abatement strategies to meet restrictions on emission and/or deposition levels at the least cost. Cost-effective strategies to reduce acidification and eutrophication in Europe were analysed. We found that NH3 abatement may cause an increase in N2O emissions. If total agricultural N2O and CH4 emissions in Europe were not allowed to increase, cost-effective allocation of emission reductions over countries in Europe changed considerably. PMID:12805885

Brink, C; van Ierland, E; Hordijk, L; Kroeze, C

2001-10-30

73

Coordination of research on internal dosimetry in Europe: the CONRAD project.  

PubMed

The EUropean RAdiation DOSimetry Group (EURADOS) initiated in 2005 the CONRAD Project, a Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry funded by the European Commission (EC), within the 6th Framework Programme (FP). The main purpose of CONRAD is to generate a European Network in the field of Radiation Dosimetry and to promote both research activities and dissemination of knowledge. The objective of CONRAD Work Package 5 (WP5) is the coordination of research on assessment and evaluation of internal exposures. Nineteen institutes from 14 countries participate in this action. Some of the activities to be developed are continuations of former European projects supported by the EC in the 5th FP (OMINEX and IDEAS). Other tasks are linked with ICRP activities, and there are new actions never considered before. A collaboration is established with CONRAD Work Package 4, dealing with Computational Dosimetry, to organise an intercomparison on Monte Carlo modelling for in vivo measurements of (241)Am deposited in a knee phantom. Preliminary results associated with CONRAD WP5 tasks are presented here. PMID:17686965

Lopez, M A; Etherington, G; Castellani, C M; Franck, D; Hurtgen, C; Marsh, J W; Nosske, D; Doerfel, H; Andrasi, A; Bailey, M; Balashazy, I; Battisti, P; Bérard, P; Berkowski, V; Birchall, A; Blanchardon, E; Bonchuk, Y; de Carlan, L; Cantone, M C; Challeton-de Vathaire, C; Cruz-Suarez, R; Davis, K; Dorrian, D; Giussani, A; Le Guen, B; Hodgson, A; Jourdain, J R; Koukouliou, V; Luciani, A; Malatova, I; Molokanov, A; Moraleda, M; Muikku, M; Oeh, U; Puncher, M; Rahola, T; Ratia, H; Stradling, N

2007-08-08

74

Structural equation model of project planning effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research studies investigating the impact of situational variables on project planning effectiveness have not examined how the situational variables work together to influence planning effectiveness. A structural equation model (SEM) has been developed for describing and quantifying the influence of situational factors in project environments and organizational characteristics of performing organizations on project planning effectiveness. The individual effects of

M. D. Mainul Islam; Olusegun O. Faniran

2005-01-01

75

Regional effects of ENSO in Central/Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effects on the European circulation features and on the regional climate of Hungary are evaluated in this paper. European climate is represented by atmospheric macrocirculation patterns (MCPs). Local climate characteristics are linked to ENSO phases through regionally averaged temperature values and precipitation amounts. Significant statistical relationship was found between the European circulation and the ENSO phases. Furthermore, considerable differences were detected in the empirical frequency distribution of monthly climate anomalies in Hungary during El Niño and La Niña episodes.

Bartholy, J.; Pongrácz, R.

2006-01-01

76

Assessing projected changes in heat waves over Northern Europe using two regional climate models at 8-km resolution.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As temperatures in Northern Europe increase due to climate change the occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves is likely to change. A higher occurrence rate of heat waves can have serious health consequences, in particular for the elderly, but also for very young children and the infirm. Not only the occurrence rate of heat waves, but also changes in the duration of individual heat waves, is of importance. It is therefore of relevance to investigate how the occurrence of heat waves is likely to increase in the future, to allow for adaptation. We have looked at the projected changes in the occurrence rate of heat waves in a part of northern Europe including southern Scandinavia, the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, according to two different greenhouse gas emission scenarios: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. In this study we have chosen to use the Danish Meteorological Institutes definition, in which a high temperature event is classified as a heat wave if the average of the maximum temperature of a period of at least 3 consecutive days exceeds 28°C. To estimate the change in the occurrence rate of heat waves we have used two different GCM-RCM combinations, NorESM-WRF (BCCR) and EC-EARTH-HIRHAM5 (DMI). Both regional models have down-scaled the global models to a resolution of about 8 km, and hourly values of several parameters including temperature, precipitation and wind have been stored. We compare the climate model data from three different time slices, 1981-2010 run with historical greenhouse gas concentrations, 2021-2050 (RPC4.5 and RCP 8.5) and 2071-2100 (RPC4.5 and RCP 8.5), to see the time evolution in the occurrence rate of heat waves for the two RCP scenarios. Our results indicate that the occurrence rate of heat waves in this region will increase as a consequence of global warming, and that individual heat waves will tend to last longer.

Fox Maule, Cathrine; Christensen, Ole B.; Mayer, Stephanie; Thejll, Peter

2013-04-01

77

Mitigation of higher order ionospheric effects on GNSS users in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current dual-frequency GPS measurements can only eliminate the first-order ionospheric term and may cause a higher-order range\\u000a bias of several centimeters. This research investigates the second-order ionospheric effect for GNSS users in Europe. In comparison\\u000a to previous studies, the electron density profiles of the ionosphere\\/plasmasphere are modeled as the sum of three Chapman\\u000a layers describing electron densities of the ionospheric

M. Mainul Hoque; N. Jakowski

2008-01-01

78

Development of NO2 and NOx land use regression models for estimating air pollution exposure in 36 study areas in Europe - The ESCAPE project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating within-city variability in air pollution concentrations is important. Land use regression (LUR) models are able to explain such small-scale within-city variations. Transparency in LUR model development methods is important to facilitate comparison of methods between different studies. We therefore developed LUR models in a standardized way in 36 study areas in Europe for the ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) project.Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were measured with Ogawa passive samplers at 40 or 80 sites in each of the 36 study areas. The spatial variation in each area was explained by LUR modelling. Centrally and locally available Geographic Information System (GIS) variables were used as potential predictors. A leave-one out cross-validation procedure was used to evaluate the model performance.There was substantial contrast in annual average NO2 and NOx concentrations within the study areas. The model explained variances (R2) of the LUR models ranged from 55% to 92% (median 82%) for NO2 and from 49% to 91% (median 78%) for NOx. For most areas the cross-validation R2 was less than 10% lower than the model R2. Small-scale traffic and population/household density were the most common predictors. The magnitude of the explained variance depended on the contrast in measured concentrations as well as availability of GIS predictors, especially traffic intensity data were important. In an additional evaluation, models in which local traffic intensity was not offered had 10% lower R2 compared to models in the same areas in which these variables were offered.Within the ESCAPE project it was possible to develop LUR models that explained a large fraction of the spatial variance in measured annual average NO2 and NOx concentrations. These LUR models are being used to estimate outdoor concentrations at the home addresses of participants in over 30 cohort studies.

Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Vienneau, Danielle; Eeftens, Marloes; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Pedeli, Xanthi; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino; Schikowski, Tamara; Marcon, Alessandro; Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Stephanou, Euripides; Patelarou, Evridiki; Lanki, Timo; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Declercq, Christophe; Falq, Grégoire; Stempfelet, Morgane; Birk, Matthias; Cyrys, Josef; von Klot, Stephanie; Nádor, Gizella; Varró, Mihály János; D?del?, Audrius; Gražulevi?ien?, Regina; Mölter, Anna; Lindley, Sarah; Madsen, Christian; Cesaroni, Giulia; Ranzi, Andrea; Badaloni, Chiara; Hoffmann, Barbara; Nonnemacher, Michael; Krämer, Ursula; Kuhlbusch, Thomas; Cirach, Marta; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Bellander, Tom; Korek, Michal; Olsson, David; Strömgren, Magnus; Dons, Evi; Jerrett, Michael; Fischer, Paul; Wang, Meng; Brunekreef, Bert; de Hoogh, Kees

2013-06-01

79

The Contingent Effects on Project Performance of Conducting Project Reviews and Deploying Project Management Offices  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little empirical evidence on the benefits of deploying a project management office (PMO) and\\/or conducting project reviews. Drawing on the information processing view of organizations, goal setting and social cognitive theory, this study investigates the effects of those two organizational mechanisms on the project performance of organizations in the construction and information systems (IS) industries. The results show

Li Liu; Philip Yetton

2007-01-01

80

Effective Pedagogy for Student-Team Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two pedagogical tools—the instructor's response to an initial draft of student-team projects and the group-project outline—are shown to be useful for enhancing the quality of term-long team projects in a marketing class. Findings are based upon students' assessment of the effectiveness of numerous pedagogical tools. Suggestions are offered for supervising student teams.

Madan M. Batra; Barbara E. Walvoord; Krish S. Krishnan

1997-01-01

81

Operational Model Evaluation for Particulate Matter in Europe and North America in the Context of the AQMEII Project  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten state-of-the-science regional air quality (AQ) modeling systems have been applied to continental scale domains in North America and Europe for full-year simulations of 2006 in the context of Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII), whose main goals are ...

82

The effect of climate and climate change on ammonia emissions in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here a dynamical method for modelling temporal and geographical variations in ammonia emissions in regional-scale chemistry transport models (CTMs) and chemistry climate models (CCMs). The method is based on the meteorology in the models and gridded inventories. We use the dynamical method to investigate the spatiotemporal variability of ammonia emissions across part of Europe and study how these emissions are related to geographical and year-to-year variations in atmospheric temperature alone. For simplicity we focus on the emission from a storage facility related to a standard Danish pig stable with 1000 animals and display how emissions from this source would vary geographically throughout central and northern Europe and from year to year. In view of future climate changes, we also evaluate the potential future changes in emission by including temperature projections from an ensemble of climate models. The results point towards four overall issues. (1) Emissions can easily vary by 20% for different geographical locations within a country due to overall variations in climate. The largest uncertainties are seen for large countries such as the UK, Germany and France. (2) Annual variations in overall climate can at specific locations cause uncertainties in the range of 20%. (3) Climate change may increase emissions by 0-40% in central to northern Europe. (4) Gradients in existing emission inventories that are seen between neighbour countries (e.g. between the UK and France) can be reduced by using a dynamical methodology for calculating emissions. Acting together these four factors can cause substantial uncertainties in emission. Emissions are generally considered among the largest uncertainties in the model calculations made with CTM and CCM models. Efforts to reduce uncertainties are therefore highly relevant. It is therefore recommended that both CCMs and CTMs implement a dynamical methodology for simulating ammonia emissions in a similar way as for biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) - a method that has been used for more than a decade in CTMs. Finally, the climate penalty on ammonia emissions should be taken into account at the policy level such as the NEC and IPPC directives.

Skjøth, C. A.; Geels, C.

2013-01-01

83

Is there evidence for an aerosol indirect effect during the recent aerosol optical depth decline in Europe?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol indirect effects are some of the largest uncertainties of anthropogenic climate change. To estimate the first aerosol indirect radiative effect (or cloud albedo effect), we analyzed global solar irradiance measurements under completely overcast skies during the recent period of aerosol optical depth decline in Europe. Although measurements from 15 Swiss and 8 northern German sites show clear evidence for

Christian Ruckstuhl; Joel R. Norris; Rolf Philipona

2010-01-01

84

Iberia versus Europe - Effects of continental break-up and round-up on hydrocarbon habitat  

SciTech Connect

Based on the continuity of foldbelts and the positions of intermountain continental nuclei and transcontinental megashears, a close Pangea fit is proposed for the central and north Atlantic borderlands. The Variscan arch segment missing between Brittany and Galicia in the Gulf of Gascony (Biscaye) can tentatively be identified with the Flemish Cap block off Newfoundland. At the same time the northwest African-Gondwana border (central Morocco) was located some 800 km farther to the west-northwest, as compared to its present position in southwestern Europe (Iberia). During the opening of the central and northern segments of the Atlantic Ocean (Jurassic and Cretaceous) and during the closure of the western Mediterranean basin, i.e., the thrust of Africa toward southern Europe (Tertiary), the European continental mass underwent deformation in the transtensive and transpressive modes, which reactivated parts of its inherited structural network. The trailing south European continental margin was partially dismembered into loosely bound continental blocks, to be assembled again during the subsequent Alpine orogenic cycle. These events can be compared with processes known in the northernmost and western segments of the North American continent. Mechanisms are proposed for the formation and deformation of inter- and intraplate basins by way of moderate shifts (wrenching) and slight rotations, the direction of which changed during the Mesozoic-Tertiary according to the global stress field. The above evolution and mechanisms had multiple and decisive effects on hydrocarbon generation, habitat, and accumulation.

Bourrouilh, R.; Zolnai, G.

1988-08-01

85

Review of recent studies from central and eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to {open_quotes}traditional{close_quotes} air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review focuses on epidemiologic evidence regarding health effects of poor air quality in Central and Eastern Europe. It appears that short-term high levels of air pollutants (primarily particulates and SO{sub 2}) may increase mortality in sensitive parts of the population. Associations were also seen between air pollution levels and prevalence of respiratory diseases as well as lung function disturbances in adults and children. One study indicated that urban air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer. Several investigations pointed to strong interactions between risk factors. The poor scientific standard of the studies often makes it difficult to evaluate the findings. Several steps should be taken to develop environmental epidemiology in Central and Eastern Europe, including international collaboration in research projects and training. 30 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

Jedrychowski, W. [Univ. Medical School, Cracow (Poland)

1995-03-01

86

Assessing uncertainties in climate change impacts on resource potential for Europe based on projections from RCMs and GCMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is presented of the estimated impacts of climate change on resource potential in Europe under a wide range of\\u000a model-based climate scenarios. Simple models and indices were used to assess impacts on the growing season, potential biomass,\\u000a thermal suitability for the cultivation of crops, and potential energy demand for indoor cooling. Impacts were estimated for\\u000a climate during the

Stefan Fronzek; Timothy R. Carter

2007-01-01

87

Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates effects of wildfire emissions on air quality in Europe during an intense fire season that occurred in summer 2003. A meso-scale chemistry transport model CHIMERE is used, together with ground based and satellite aerosol optical measurements, to assess the dispersion of fire emissions and to quantify the associated radiative effects. The model has been improved to

A. Hodzic; S. Madronich; B. Bohn; S. Massie; L. Menut; C. Wiedinmyer

2007-01-01

88

Detection of the Effect of Changing Land Use on Warm Extremes in Europe and North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human health is adversely affected by extreme temperatures and events like heatwaves are often accompanied by mortality increases. It is therefore essential to understand how extremes respond in a climate forced by anthropogenic forcings. We combine information about changes in warm day extremes during 1950- 2005 from observations and the Hadley Centre HadGEM1 general circulation model (GCM) to carry out an optimal detection analysis. We investigate the effect of changing land use in Europe and North America, where the impact on warm day extremes is the opposite. We find that the loss of trees in both regions since 1850 can explain the bulk of the observed change and propose a mechanism for the perhaps counterintuitive cooling over the Southeast United States (SE US).

Christidis, N.; Hegerl, G. C.; Stott, P. A.; Betts, R. A.

2009-05-01

89

Auditing Medical Information Services across Western Europe: A Cost-Effective Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

AstraZeneca is a large global ethical pharmaceutical company with 17 local affiliates in Western Europe. Each affiliate provides a medical information service to customers in its country on AstraZeneca products. Although medical information services are mentioned in some promotional codes of practice in Europe, there is no single set of standards that covers them, either externally (globally or regionally) or

Charlotte Wormleighton; Sharon Leighton

2009-01-01

90

Update of survey, regulation and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe.  

PubMed

The most frequent toxigenic fungi in Europe are Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium species. They produce aflatoxin B1 transformed into aflatoxin M1 found in the milk, as well as Ochratoxins and Zearalenone, Fumonisin B1, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin), which are of increasing concern in human health. These mycotoxins are under continuous survey in Europe, but the regulatory aspects still need to be set up and/or harmonised at European level. They are found in foodstuffs and are not destroyed by normal industrial processing or cooking since they are heat-stable. Some of their metabolites are still toxic and may be involved in human diseases. Their toxic effects (liver, kidney and hematopoetic toxicity, immune toxicity, reproduction toxicity, foetal toxicity and teratogenicity, and mainly carcinogenicity) are mostly known in experimental models, the extrapolation to humans being always inaccurate. The inaccuracy of extrapolation to humans may be explained by the lack of adequate food consumption data, lack of knowledge about relative health risks associated with specifically proposed limits and by the possibility of synergism with other mycotoxins present in the same food commodities. Other pathological causes are viral hepatitis, immune or hormonal deficiencies or organ dysfunction. Even when a specific biomarker of a given mycotoxin is identified in humans, it remains difficult to establish the relation with a given illness, because of genetic polymorphism and the possible beneficial influence of diet, and because other environmental toxicants may well interfere. The acceptable daily intake limits are mostly based on animal data and may be too high, due to the differences in the sensitivity of different animal species. The prevention involves first reduction of mycotoxin levels in foodstuffs and further increasing the intake of diet components such as vitamins, antioxidants and substances known to prevent carcinogenesis. PMID:12052637

Creppy, Edmond E

2002-02-28

91

Quantifying Nitrogen Fluxes and Their Influence on the Greenhouse gas Balance- Research Strategy and new Findings From the NitroEurope Integrated Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human-driven production of reactive nitrogen to stimulate agricultural productivity and its unintended formation in combustion processes both have major impacts on the global environment. Effects of excess reactive nitrogen include reductions in air quality, water quality, soil quality and biodiversity. One of the most controversial impacts of nitrogen, however, is on the greenhouse gas balance. While recent papers have highlighted a possible benefit of nitrogen in enhancing rates of carbon sequestration, there remain many trade-offs between nitrogen and greenhouse gas exchange. The result is that the net effect of reactive nitrogen on the global radiative balance is currently far from clear. To better quantity these relationships requires measurement data and modelling that make the link between different nitrogen forms and their fate in the environment. It is essential to measure fluxes for a wide range of ecosystems considering the biosphere-atmosphere exchange each of the reactive nitrogen components and greenhouse gases, as well as the fixation and denitrification of di-nitrogen. Long term observations are needed for representative ecosystems, together with results from experiments addressing the responses of the key nitrogen and greenhouse gas fluxes to different global change drivers. The NitroEurope Integrated Project of the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission European has developed a strategy to quantifying these different terms on multiple scales. This paper presents the experimental approach including a) a 3-tier flux network, combining process level measurements and new method development with low-cost measurements at many sites, b) a network of manipulation experiments with different global change drivers, c) a network of contrasting European landscapes for analysis of land- use and land management interactions assessing the multiple nitrogen fluxes within and between air, land and water. The paper illustrates the new datasets emerging, and shows how these are being used to support the development of site, landscape and regional-scale models of nitrogen fluxes and net greenhouse gas exchange. Finally, the paper describes how independent verification activities are providing the basis to analyze the uncertainty in regional-scale nitrogen and greenhouse gas fluxes.

Sutton, M.; Nemitz, E.; Reis, S.; Beier, C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Cellier, P.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Erisman, J. W.; Skiba, U. M.; de Vries, W.; Zechmeister-Baltenstern, S.; Bleeker, A.; Calanca, P.; Dalgaard, T.; Dragosits, U.; Duyzer, J. H.; Gundersen, P.; Hensen, A.; Kros, H.; Leip, A.; Obersteiner, M.; Olesen, J. E.; Phillips, G.; Rees, R. M.; Smith, P. E.; Soussana, J.; Tang, Y.; Theobald, M. R.; van Amstel, A.; van Oijen, M.; Bakker, M.; Vesala, T.

2008-12-01

92

Mixed effects of organic farming and landscape compexity on farmland biodiversity and biological control potential across Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Organic farming in Europe has been shown to enhance biodiversity locally, but potential interactions with the surrounding landscape and the potential effects on ecosystem services are less well known. 2.?In cereal fields on 153 farms in five European regions, we examined how the species richness and abundance of wild plants, ground beetles and breeding birds, and the biological control potential

C. Winqvist; J. Bengtsson; T. Aavik; F. Berendse; L. W. Clement; S. Eggers; C. Fischer; A. Flohre; F. Geiger; J. Liira

2011-01-01

93

Public Research Projects in Europe and East Asia: Cooperation or Competition? A Comparative Analysis of the ITER and Galileo Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The projects discussed in this paper, Galileo and ITER, are two contrasting experiences of Euro-Asian cooperation within Very\\u000a Large (Public) Scientific Enterprises. They offer key insights into the deepening relations which have given shape to the\\u000a rapidly expanding field of Euro-Asian collaborative interregional projects. Cooperative agendas within such \\

Frederik Ponjaert; Julien Béclard

2010-01-01

94

Examining effective and ineffective transformational project leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Aims to examine effective and ineffective leader behaviors from direct participant observations in several cases of a large multiyear cross-industry international research project to prove the hypothesis that effective team performance management requires strong transformational leadership. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Transformational and charismatic leadership theories are briefly discussed from management science to explain how their principles can apply to and

Kenneth David Strang

2005-01-01

95

Projection of occurrence of extreme dry-wet years and seasons in Europe with stationary and non-stationary Standardized Precipitation Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The probability of the occurrence of extreme dry/wet years and seasons in Europe are estimated by using both the Standarzided Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standarzided non-stationary Precipitation Index (SnsPI). The latter is defined as the SPI by fitting precipitation data with non-stationary gamma distribution, in order to model precipitation time dependence under climate change. Daily precipitation outputs from five different regional climate models provided by the ENSEMBLES project, and bias corrected, are used to predict extreme dry and wet hazard under the A1B emission scenario. The five RCMs are selected in order that one is the best representative of the ensemble mean, and four standing out as wet-cold, wet-warm, dry-cold and dry-warm. All indicators are calculated both for each single RCM output and for the ensemble of the five models over the period 1961-2098. Results show that, under global warming, climate in Europe will significantly change from its current state with the probability of the occurrence of extreme dry and wet years and seasons increasing respectivelly over Southern dry and Northen wet regions. Comparing non stationary and stationary indices the SnsPI seems to be more robust than the common SPI in the prediction of precipitation changes with multimodel ensembles.

Russo, Simone; Barbosa, Paulo; Dosio, Alessandro; Sterl, Andreas; Vogt, Juergen

2013-04-01

96

The PASTURE project: EU support for the improvement of knowledge about risk factors and preventive factors for atopy in Europe.  

PubMed

Since January 2002, the European Commission is funding a large project, 'Protection against Allergy--Study in Rural Environments' (PASTURE; contract no. QLK4-2001-00250), under the Fifth Framework Program in the field of epidemiology of allergic diseases. The aim of this paper was to describe the background and design as well as the aims of the project. Asthma and allergic disorders are a major public health problem in many Western countries. The aetiology of asthma and allergic disease remains poorly understood despite considerable research. Epidemiology has the potential to add greatly to the understanding by elucidating the risk factors for asthma and allergic disease and thereby suggesting productive avenues for research into causation and prevention. Several risk factors for the development of asthma and atopic disease in children such as passive smoke exposure during pregnancy and infancy, low birth weight or high body mass index later in life have been described. Furthermore, there is consistent evidence that the prevalence of atopy increases with higher socio-economic status. Levels of air pollution such as ozone, NO2, SO2 and particles are likely to provoke acute exacerbations of pre-existent respiratory disease. Their role in the inception of asthma and allergies remains to be clarified. Allergen exposure has been linked to the development of atopic sensitization to that particular allergen in children as well as in adults with occupational exposures. Exposure to house dust mite or cat allergen is, however, unlikely to contribute to the development of childhood asthma. In turn, pet keeping in the first year of life, particularly, dog keeping, has been inversely related to the development of wheeze and atopic illnesses. Several prospective birth cohort studies found a decreased prevalence of atopic disease in children having daily contact to pets, in particular to cats and dogs, during early infancy. The protective effect might be attributable to allergen or other exposures associated with pet ownership, but may also in part be because of the removal of pets in families with sensitized or symptomatic children or in families with a positive history for atopy at the time the child was born. PMID:16512801

von Mutius, E; Schmid, S

2006-04-01

97

Mortality among problem drug users in Europe: A project of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is currently co-ordinating a project which aims to enrol and follow up prospective cohorts of problem drug users (PDUs) in several countries, so as to compare overall and cause-specific mortality. Within the project a literature overview of drug user mortality and a comparative analysis of data from already followed-up cohorts

Anna Maria Bargagli; Alessandra Sperati; Marina Davoli; Carlo Perucci; Julian Vicente; Richard Hartnoll; Joseph Barry; Teresa Brugal; Marcel Buster; Filipa Ferraz de Oliveira; Lene Haastrup; Axel Heinemann; Angelos Kouklinos; Daniele Risser; Daniel Svensson; Erkki Vuori

98

Gestational Age Patterns of Fetal and Neonatal Mortality in Europe: Results from the Euro-Peristat Project  

PubMed Central

Background The first European Perinatal Health Report showed wide variability between European countries in fetal (2.6–9.1‰) and neonatal (1.6–5.7‰) mortality rates in 2004. We investigated gestational age patterns of fetal and neonatal mortality to improve our understanding of the differences between countries with low and high mortality. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on 29 countries/regions participating in the Euro-Peristat project were analyzed. Most European countries had no limits for the registration of live births, but substantial variations in limits for registration of stillbirths before 28 weeks of gestation existed. Country rankings changed markedly after excluding deaths most likely to be affected by registration differences (22–23 weeks for neonatal mortality and 22–27 weeks for fetal mortality). Countries with high fetal mortality ?28 weeks had on average higher proportions of fetal deaths at and near term (?37 weeks), while proportions of fetal deaths at earlier gestational ages (28–31 and 32–36 weeks) were higher in low fetal mortality countries. Countries with high neonatal mortality rates ?24 weeks, all new member states of the European Union, had high gestational age-specific neonatal mortality rates for all gestational-age subgroups; they also had high fetal mortality, as well as high early and late neonatal mortality. In contrast, other countries with similar levels of neonatal mortality had varying levels of fetal mortality, and among these countries early and late neonatal mortality were negatively correlated. Conclusions For valid European comparisons, all countries should register births and deaths from at least 22 weeks of gestation and should be able to distinguish late terminations of pregnancy from stillbirths. After excluding deaths most likely to be influenced by existing registration differences, important variations in both levels and patterns of fetal and neonatal mortality rates were found. These disparities raise questions for future research about the effectiveness of medical policies and care in European countries.

Mohangoo, Ashna D.; Buitendijk, Simone E.; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Chalmers, Jim; Irgens, Lorentz M.; Bolumar, Francisco; Nijhuis, Jan G.; Zeitlin, Jennifer

2011-01-01

99

The development of a common risk assessment methodology for local authorities in southeast Europe focusing on climate change related hazards - first results from the SEERISK project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is expected to influence the magnitude and frequency of a number of natural hazards in the future and hence, change the spatial patterns of risk and vulnerability. Local authorities, emergency planners and other decision makers are in need of tools that enable the assessment of the risks associated with the natural hazards. This research is embedded in the EU-funded SEERISK project ("Joint disaster management risk assessment and preparedness for the Danube macro-region"). The principle aim of this project is to improve coherence and consistency among risk assessments undertaken by the partner countries in national, regional and local level. The project focuses on bringing decision makers from southeast Europe together and it attempts the development of a common methodology for risk assessment of climate change related hazards that will be applied in various pilot areas in the partner countries (Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Bosnia Herzegovina and Romania). The common methodology takes into consideration the lack of data in most of the cases and it offers alternatives for the risk assessment but also for the data collection following future events. The common methodology is presented here in the form of methodological steps for four different natural hazards, namely, floods, droughts, heat waves and extreme wind. The proposed methodology is in line with the EC Guidelines for Risk assessment and mapping and will be implemented in the near future in respective regions.

Papathoma-Koehle, Maria; Promper, Catrin; Glade, Thomas

2013-04-01

100

Higher education and unemployment in Europe: an analysis of the academic subject and national effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of an academic degree and field of study on short and longterm unemployment across Europe (EU15).\\u000a Labour Force Survey (LFS) data on over half a million individuals are utilised for that purpose. The harmonized LFS classification\\u000a of level of education and field of study overcomes past problems of comparability across Europe. The study analyses (1)

Imanol Núñez; Ilias Livanos

2010-01-01

101

Climate condition in the Central Europe during the Weichselian Ice Sheet according to the Educational Global Climate Modeling Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expansion and retreat of the ice sheet is controlled by climate changes, and from the other hand, a huge ice mass influences on the climate in the regional scale. This mechanism is commonly known as the fact but often without making reconstruction by using climatological modeling. The purpose of our study is to reconstruct the climate condition during the Weichselian Ice Sheet in the Central Europe, especially for Poland and surrounded countries. The Global Climate Model (GCM) is made for predicting climate, but simplified version can be useful for reconstructing paleoclimate. Hence, the simple initial conditions and surface data proposed by the Educational version of the GCM was applied. In our study we used a simplified version of the GCM to calculate main climate characteristics within the time limits c. 21 000 BP - 18 000 BP, which has been previously invented on Columbia University. The model is constructed on grid with a horizontal resolution 8° latitude by 10° longitude and was establish for modeling most of weather conditions based on available paleoclimate data. It is possible to estimate the probable climate condition along the southern ice sheets margin on the basis of output from the GCM and GIS modeling techniques. Above the ice mass occurs local high pressure area, which seriously interfered on atmospheric circulation. Whereas the low pressure systems in the southern part of continent may caused permanent barometric situation, which stimulates wind directions as well as the precipitable water available in the mass of air. The climate on the east-south border of ice margin was colder and drier than on the west-south region, where it was more ocean-reliable and gentle with higher temperatures. The differences in temperature between the western and eastern part of the Central Europe reached few centigrade. Against a background of the mean paleoclimatic situation in the Central Europe there is coming out a question about the particular paleoclimate condition in Poland. In this area occurred a huge ice-lobe, distinct in the geomorphology, during the Weichselian Ice Sheet. Authors try to define the role of such a big ice-barrier on the climate changes at the foreland, between the western and eastern side. It is necessary to consider the ice cap thickness in the lobe estimated from separately prepared in GIS software (GRASS) 3D ice-sheet surface elevation model, together with the climatic data from the GCM for regional situation. The results of modeling are also related to available abiotic parameters for Poland. Finally, it is suggested that the ice-lobe was high enough barrier to cause the differences in temperature distribution due to limitation of delivery the warm Atlantic air masses to the eastern region. It has also significant impact on local wind field, especially in transition areas.

Szuman, Izabela; Czernecki, Bartosz

2010-05-01

102

Differences in Weight Status and Energy-Balance Related Behaviors among Schoolchildren across Europe: The ENERGY-Project  

PubMed Central

Background Current data on the prevalence of overweight and energy-balance behaviors among European children is necessary to inform overweight prevention interventions. Methodology/Principal Findings A school-based survey among 10–12 year old children was conducted in seven European countries using a standardized protocol. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured; Engagement in physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviors, and sleep duration were self-reported. Descriptive analyses were conducted, looking at differences according to country, gender, and parental education. 7234 children (52%girls; 11.6±0.7 years) participated. 25.8% and 5.4% of boys, and 21.8% and 4.1% of girls were overweight (including obese) and obese (according to International Obesity Task Force criteria), respectively. Higher prevalence of overweight/obesity was observed in Greece, Hungary, Slovenia and Spain than in Belgium, Netherlands and Norway. Large differences between countries were found in intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages, breakfast, active transport, TV and computer time. More favorable overweight status and behavior patterns were found in girls than boys and in children of higher educated parents than in children of lower educated parents. Conclusions/Significance High levels and striking differences in overweight status and potential risk behaviors were found among schoolchildren across Europe.

Brug, Johannes; van Stralen, Maartje M.; te Velde, Saskia J.; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lien, Nanna; Bere, Elling; Maskini, Victoria; Singh, Amika S.; Maes, Lea; Moreno, Luis; Jan, Natasa; Kovacs, Eva; Lobstein, Tim; Manios, Yannis

2012-01-01

103

Soil moisture effects on seasonal temperature and precipitation forecast scores in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Second Global Land Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE2) is designed to explore the improvement of forecast skill of summertime temperature and precipitation up to 8 weeks ahead by using realistic soil moisture initialization. For the European continent, we show in this study that for temperature the skill does indeed increase up to 6 weeks, but areas with (statistically significant) lower skill also exist at longer lead times. The skill improvement is smaller than shown earlier for the US, partly because of a lower potential predictability of the European climate at seasonal time scales. Selection of extreme soil moisture conditions or a subset of models with similar initial soil moisture conditions does improve the forecast skill, and sporadic positive effects are also demonstrated for precipitation. Using realistic initial soil moisture data increases the interannual variability of temperature compared to the control simulations in the South-Central European area at longer lead times. This leads to better temperature forecasts in a remote area in Western Europe. However, the covered range of forecast dates (1986-1995) is too short to isolate a clear physical mechanism for this remote correlation.

van den Hurk, Bart; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Koster, Randal D.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Camargo, Helio

2012-01-01

104

NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During August 1-14, 1999, NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) convened a workshop at the NASA Langley Research Center to try to determine why such a wide variation in aerosol emissions indices and chemical and physical properties has bee...

B. E. Anderson C. Pui C. C. Wey D. Chen D. E. Hagen E. L. Winstead P. Whitefield T. Sanders V. S. Connors W. R. Cofer

2001-01-01

105

Effective Showcase Projects: Office of Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Indian Education Programs supplement state, local, and tribal education efforts to improve the quality of Indian education and assure parental and community participation. Each year, the Office of Indian Education, assisted by the six regional Indian Education Technical Assistance Centers, selects effective projects to be showcased at the…

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC. Indian Education Programs.

106

CNBC Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CNBC EuropeEBN Interactive is the web site of the European Business News (EBN) channel. The site posts the latest business news from all over Europe. Visitors can also listen to EBN's live broadcast of European news or specific programs. The Markets section provides continuous updates of European stock markets and daily market reports for each stock exchange. The Features section holds a collection of video clips from EBN programs such as "The Big Game," "Automotive," and "Your Money," among others.

1998-01-01

107

Europe and Central Asia region Middle East and North Africa region population projects : 1992-93 edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population projections for all countries are prepared annually by the Bank's Population and Human Resources Department. They are published first in summary form in the Bank's World Development Report and later in greater detail as technical notes or working papers and, in alternate years, as a book. Separate papers cover the six Bank regions: (1) Africa (sub-Saharan); (2) Latin America

My T. Vu; Eduard Bos; Ann Levin

1992-01-01

108

EC-Project MEREDIAN: Improved data exchange infrastructure and a virtual network for Europe and the Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the Mediterranean-European Rapid Earthquake Data Information and Archiving Network (MEREDIAN) project is to improve the existing European infrastructure for seismological data exchange while simultaneously addressing relevant scientific and technical requirements. Coordinated by the Observatories and Research Facilities for EUropean Seismology (ORFEUS) in The Netherlands, the MEREDIAN consortium is composed of 18 national institutions. Accessibility to both data

C. Trabant; T. van Eck; B. Dost; F. Goutbeek; R. Sleeman

2003-01-01

109

Projective invariance and the kinetic depth effect.  

PubMed

Seven experiments test the assumption that, in the kinetic depth effect, observers have reliable and direct access to the equivalence of shapes in projective geometry. The assumption is implicit in 'inverse optics' approaches to visual form perception. Observers adjusted a comparison shape to match a standard shape; both standard and comparison were portrayed as in continuous rotation in space, using a graphics computer. The shapes were either plane quadrilaterals or solid prisms. The angular difference of the planes of the shapes was varied, as was the dot density of a texture in those planes. Departure from projective equivalence was measured in six studies by measuring the planar analogue of cross ratio, and in a seventh by measuring the cross ratio for points in space. Projective equivalence was not found to be perceived uniformly, except in one experiment that did not involve rotation in depth. Otherwise changes in orientation of up to 180 degrees about a single coordinate axis had no significant effect on matches in shape, while changes in orientation about more than one coordinate axis produced significant effects. The addition of texture and a change in rotation speed did not correct departures from projective equivalence. PMID:1481702

Niall, K K

1992-11-01

110

Evaluations and Project Effectiveness : an Investigation into the Evaluation Processes of Development Projects in Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to answer the question, do formalized evaluation procedures contribute to increased project effectiveness? Project effectiveness is defined as the successful attainment of project goals and objectives. According to the literature, evaluations have the potential to improve a project's success by raising awareness of problem areas and offering ways suggestions for improvement. To test this theory, the evaluation

Kristin Saucier

2004-01-01

111

Optimizing Suicide Prevention Programs and Their Implementation in Europe (OSPI Europe): an evidence-based multi-level approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour are significant public health issues in Europe requiring effective preventive interventions. However, the evidence for effective preventive strategies is scarce. The protocol of a European research project to develop an optimized evidence based program for suicide prevention is presented. METHOD: The groundwork for this research has been established by a regional community based intervention

Ulrich Hegerl; Lisa Wittenburg; Ella Arensman; Chantal Van Audenhove; James C Coyne; David McDaid; Christina Feltz-Cornelis; Ricardo Gusmão; Mária Kopp; Margaret Maxwell; Ullrich Meise; Saska Roskar; Marco Sarchiapone; Armin Schmidtke; Airi Värnik; Anke Bramesfeld

2009-01-01

112

EC-Project MEREDIAN: Improved data exchange infrastructure and a virtual network for Europe and the Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the Mediterranean-European Rapid Earthquake Data Information and Archiving Network (MEREDIAN) project is to improve the existing European infrastructure for seismological data exchange while simultaneously addressing relevant scientific and technical requirements. Coordinated by the Observatories and Research Facilities for EUropean Seismology (ORFEUS) in The Netherlands, the MEREDIAN consortium is composed of 18 national institutions. Accessibility to both data archives and real-time data streams at MEREDIAN consortium member sites are being improved to provide a distributed European data archive and facilitate rapid data exchange. The data infrastructure developed by ORFEUS over the last 16 years is being modernized to provide a backbone for this rapid data exchange. Procedures for data collection and handling at the ORFEUS Data Center (ODC) will undergo a significant evolution; much of the ground work for this has already been completed. With an emphasis on providing uninhibited access to real-time and archived seismic waveform data, the project is supporting the development of general purpose tools and standards for both seismic data suppliers and consumers. The result will allow ORFEUS and the MEREDIAN consortium to provide homogeneous access to (near) real-time waveforms rapidly following a European-Mediterranean event from a well distributed set of existing broadband stations within the region as well as access to data archived at member data centers. Much of this work also helps facilitate data exchange between data centers. A major component of the project is the (near) real-time collection of data at the ODC, the result of which is the Virtual European Broadband Seismograph Network (VEBSN). Composed of data streams contributed by consortium members and others, the VEBSN is a fully functional automatic seismic network which locates earthquakes, calculates magnitudes and generates seismic event alerts. The primary purpose of the VEBSN is to expedite and automate data collection at the ODC. Now operational, this system allows the ODC to provide event based data sets within minutes or hours of a European-Mediterranean event. After being quality controlled, these data sets will be included in the ODC archive. Event alerts generated by the VEBSN are contributed to the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC). EC-Project MEREDIAN: Contract No. EVR1-CT-2000-40007

Trabant, C.; van Eck, T.; Dost, B.; Goutbeek, F.; Sleeman, R.

2003-04-01

113

EC-Project MEREDIAN: Improved Data Exchange Infrastructure and a Virtual Network for Europe and the Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean-European Rapid Earthquake Data Information and Archiving Network (MEREDIAN) project aims to improve the existing European infrastructure for seismological data exchange while simultaneously addressing relevant scientific and technical requirements. Coordinated by the Observatories and Research Facilities for EUropean Seismology (ORFEUS) in The Netherlands, the MEREDIAN consortium is composed of 18 national institutions. With an emphasis on providing uninhibited access to real-time and archived seismic waveform data, the project is supporting the development of general purpose tools and standards for both seismic data suppliers and consumers. A major component of this project is the ongoing development of the Virtual European Broadband Seismograph Network (VEBSN). The ORFEUS Data Center (ODC) performs the network operations for the VEBSN while data streams from broad-band seismic stations are contributed by consortium members and others. The VEBSN is a fully functional automatic seismic network which locates earthquakes, calculates magnitudes and generates seismic event alerts. The primary purpose of the VEBSN is to expedite and automate data collection at the ODC. This system allows the ODC to provide event-based data sets, from a well distributed group of broad-band stations in the region, within minutes or hours of significant European-Mediterranean seismic events. Our requirements for developing the VEBSN were 1) flexible data transmission software that can interface with diverse data sources at peer institutions, 2) reliable exchange protocols, resistant to data gaps during network congestion or problems and 3) a central system to collect and process all the incoming data streams. Our solution to the first two challenges was to adopt and support the open source Seismological Communication Processor (SeisComP). This package is lightweight, flexible and implements a reliable data transmission protocol, making it an invaluable component of the VEBSN. Besides the SeedLink protocol used by SeisComP we collect data streams using two other reliable protocols, Antelope ORB and CD-1, due to their pre-existence at peer sites. In the interest of time and cost efficiency we purchased the proprietary Antelope software system to function as the central collection and processing hub. EC-Project MEREDIAN: Contract No. EVR1-CT-2000-40007

Trabant, C.; van Eck, T.; Dost, B.; Ec-Project Meredian, .

2003-12-01

114

New approach to cost effective projects: High performance project teams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In low oil price environment in which environmental conditions are more challenging, reservoir characteristics less favourable and political risk increasing, successful projects are required in such cases. The present paper deals with the visionary proces...

N. C. Chambers

1994-01-01

115

The Effects of Group Longevity on Project Communication and Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research on 50 project groups in a large corporation's research and development facility examined the effect of group longevity and project characteristics on internal and external communication and project performance. Results indicate that projects became increasingly isolated, adversely affecting technical performance the longer project

Katz, Ralph

1982-01-01

116

The effect of welfare provisions on female labour supply in Central and Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Former socialist countries in Central and Eastern Europe encouraged women to work full time and provided various in-kind and cash transfers to mothers. Female labour supply was high under socialism but decreased sharply during the transition to a market economy. It is unclear how much of this decrease can be explained by the structural changes in the labour market, and

Ágota Scharle

2007-01-01

117

The Citizen's Effect: 25 Features about the Europe for Citizens Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Public forums and shared spaces in which citizens can debate and deliberate have always constituted essential elements of a democratic society. Today, the Europe for Citizens Programme serves to create a modern European agora. Launched in 2007, the programme supports initiatives that bring people together in international and intercultural…

Reding, Viviane

2012-01-01

118

An Analysis of the Asymmetrical Effects of Fiscal Policy between the United States and Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the asymmetries between the United States and Europe in terms of differences in structural characteristics as these are captured by the elasticities of the underlying LM and AS curves. The AS elasticity is further decomposed into those factors that underlie Okun's Law and those that affect the inflation-unemployment relationship. With respect to the latter, two reasons are

Elias Karakitsos

1988-01-01

119

Incentive effects of social security on labor force participation: evidence in Germany and across Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

All across Europe, old age labor force participation has declined dramatically during the last decades. This secular trend coincides with population aging. The European social security systems therefore face a double threat: Retirees receive pensions for a longer time while there are less workers per retiree to shoulder the financial burden of the pension systems. This paper shows that a

Axel Börsch-Supan

2000-01-01

120

Demand for movies in Europe and the effects of multiplex diffusion: a panel approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

After three decades of decreasing admissions, cinema attendance in Europe showed a significant rise during the nineties despite the competition of several audiovisual media. This growth in ticket sales must be compared with the declining share of exhibition in total film revenues. In this period exhibition started to be for movies the first window of a complex multi release strategy

Orietta DESSY; Marco GAMBARO

2008-01-01

121

Effective wavelength calibration for moire fringe projection  

SciTech Connect

The fringe patterns seen when using moire instruments are similar to the patterns seen in traditional interferometry but differ in the spacing between consecutive fringes. In traditional interferometry, the spacing is constant and related to the wavelength of the source. In moire fringe projection, the spacing (the effective wavelength) may not be constant over the field of view and the spacing depends on the system geometry. In these cases, using a constant effective wavelength over the field of view causes inaccurate surface height measurements. We examine the calibration process of the moirefringe projection measurement, which takes this varying wavelength into account to produce a pixel-by-pixel wavelength map. The wavelength calibration procedure is to move the object in the out-of-plane direction a known distance until every pixel intensity value goes through at least one cycle. A sinusoidal function is then fit to the data to extract the effective wavelength pixel by pixel, yielding an effective wavelength map. A calibrated step height was used to validate the effective wavelength map with results within 1% of the nominal value of the step height. The error sources that contributed to the uncertainty in determining the height of the artifact are also investigated.

Purcell, Daryl; Davies, Angela; Farahi, Faramarz

2006-12-01

122

Climate modelling and near future solar power assessment in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the near future (2030-2050) solar power in Europe is assessed using numerical experiments. The photovoltaic energy is computed on the basis of the solar radiation and air temperature simulated by regional climate models run in the framework of the FP6-ENSEMBLES project. The multi-model simulation of the climate evolution over Europe is performed at a 25 km resolution using the IPCC A1B scenario, and the period 1961-2050 is analyzed. The A1B scenario assumes a world of very rapid economic growth, with a global population peak in mid-century. Preliminary results show a general increase of near-surface air temperature, accompanied by an increase (reduction) of the solar radiation in Southern (Northern) Europe, with significant positive effects on the photovoltaic energy availability over Western Europe.

Gaetani, Marco; Vignati, Elisabetta; Huld, Thomas; Monforti-Ferrario, Fabio; Wilson, Julian; Dosio, Alessandro

2013-04-01

123

Seasonality of flood events in a changing climate - An uncertainty assessment for Europe through the combination of different climate projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate models (GCMs) project an increasing intensity and frequency of heavy rainfall events due to climate change. As a result, the frequency and magnitude of severe flood events is expected to increase in many regions. Furthermore, a change in the seasonality of flood events can be anticipated. In regions that regularly experience snowmelt floods, for instance, temperature increase will lead to a decreased snow accumulation and to a shortened duration of the snowpack. Thus, the risk of spring floods may be reduced. This study aims to estimate the impact of the projected climate change on the seasonality of flood events in the European region. For this purpose large scale river discharge simulations were carried out with the integrated, global model WaterGAP3 (Water - Global Assessment and Prognosis) with a spatial resolution of the grid cells of 5'. WaterGAP3 couples a hydrological model for the simulation of the terrestrial water cycle with a water use model that computes withdrawal and consumptive water use of the sectors manufacturing, electricity production, agriculture and private households. Thus, on the basis of daily climate input parameters with a spatial resolution of 0.5° and downscaled to the 5' grid scale level daily stream flow was simulated and analyzed. First, the seasonality of flood events of defined recurrence periods was determined for the reference period 1961-1990 and validated against measured river discharge data. Subsequently, WaterGAP3 was forced with bias corrected time series originating from simulation runs of different GCMs for the scenario period 2071-2100. To asses the uncertainty that arises from the GCM output used as input forcing to the hydrological model, the calculations were carried out for three different GCMs (Echam5, CNRM, ISLP) and two emission scenarios (A2 and B1 of the IPCC SRES scenarios), respectively. The study demonstrates that the selection of a particular GCM is a major source of uncertainty in assessing future trends in flood seasonality. I.e. modeling results in river discharge differ more significantly between the applied GCMs than simulation results for the two selected emission scenarios.

Eisner, Stephanie; Voß, Frank; Schneider, Christof

2010-05-01

124

Europe Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A recent succession of landmark events have rendered world history textbooks out of date. Educators need to answer students' questions about the changes of the past few years and provide some context as to the causes of change. Lists a number of selected resources for information on eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. (MLF)|

Sewall, Gilbert T.

1993-01-01

125

The SAFE project: 'plant food allergies: field to table strategies for reducing their incidence in Europe' an EC-funded study.  

PubMed

The true prevalence of food allergy as an IgE mediated reaction is still under discussion. Using apple as a model allergen source a multidisciplinary consortium worked together at developing various strategies for reducing the incidence of fruit allergies in an EC-funded project. Patient allergen profiles were established using in vitro and in vivo tests with respect to geographic area and mild or severe symptoms. Apple allergens (Mal d 1-Mal d 4) were characterised, variants identified, cloned and sequenced. These individual allergens were used to increase the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis. Furthermore, they provided better prognosis of disease severity. RT-PCR and ELISA were developed for determining the allergen specific mRNA and expressed allergenic protein in a large number of apple cultivars. Similarly, changes in allergen characteristics from harvest through storage to processing and the impact of agronomic practices were investigated. Allergen genes were mapped on a molecular linkage map of apple. The biological function of Mal d 1 was studied using the RNA interference strategy. Finally, consumer attitudes in Northern, Central and Southern Europe were gauged on the acceptability of low allergen cultivars or a GMO and its impact on product quality. PMID:15727573

Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K

2005-04-01

126

Vertical cultural transmission effects on demic front propagation: Theory and application to the Neolithic transition in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that Lotka-Volterra interaction terms are not appropriate to describe vertical cultural transmission. Appropriate interaction terms are derived and used to compute the effect of vertical cultural transmission on demic front propagation. They are also applied to a specific example, the Neolithic transition in Europe. In this example, it is found that the effect of vertical cultural transmission can be important (about 30%). On the other hand, simple models based on differential equations can lead to large errors (above 50%). Further physical, biophysical, and cross-disciplinary applications are outlined.

Fort, Joaquim

2011-05-01

127

Health effects of air pollution observed in cohort studies in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, several studies in Europe have associated within-city contrasts in air pollution with various health end points including mortality in cohort studies of adults, and respiratory morbidity in cross-sectional and cohort studies of children. Many of these studies have used NO2 contrasts as the primary exposure variable, which raises the issue of whether such associations are uniquely found

Bert Brunekreef

2007-01-01

128

The effectiveness of behavioural and psychosocial HIV/STI prevention interventions for MSM in Europe: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Given the need of programme planners and policy makers for descriptions of specific interventions and quantitative estimates of intervention effects to make informed decisions concerning prevention funding and research, there is a need for a systematic review that updates the current knowledge base about HIV/STI preventive interventions targeted at men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe. The aim was to summarise and assess the effectiveness of HIV/STI prevention interventions for MSM living in Europe, and to identify intervention characteristics associated with effectiveness as well as potential gaps in the evidence base. A systematic search for relevant literature in eight international databases and in reference lists of relevant reviews and included studies was performed. Studies were selected according to pre-specified criteria and appraised for risk of bias. We summarised results using tables and calculated effect estimates for sexual behaviour outcomes. Results from six controlled studies, involving a total of 4,111 participants at entry from four different European countries were summarised. The results showed that there was 'high' or 'unclear' risk of bias in one or more of the assessed domains in all studies. The pooled effect estimate of the four interventions for which data were available suggested that MSM who participate in HIV/STI prevention initiatives may be somewhat less likely to report unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). The evidence base was insufficient to examine characteristics of interventions most closely associated with magnitude of effect and to draw solid conclusions about unique gaps in the evaluation literature. Despite the maturity of the HIV epidemic, rigorous outcome evaluations of any form of behavioural HIV/STI intervention for MSM in Europe are scarce. The results point to possible short term effects of interventions in terms of reductions in the proportion of MSM who engage in UAI, but the paucity of controlled studies demonstrates the need for research in this area. There is an overall deficit in outcome evaluations of interventions aimed at reducing HIV/STI risk behaviour among MSM in Europe. Designing behavioural HIV/STI preventive strategies to avert new infections, and the evaluation of such prevention programmes for MSM is an important component of a comprehensive HIV/STI containment strategy across the continuum of prevention and care. PMID:20003895

Berg, R

2009-12-03

129

Preventing socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviour in adolescents in Europe: Background, design and methods of project TEENAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Higher prevalence rates of unhealthy behaviours among lower socioeconomic groups contribute substantially to socioeconomic inequalities in health in adults. Preventing the development of these inequalities in unhealthy behaviours early in life is an important strategy to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in health. Little is known however, about health promotion strategies particularly effective in lower socioeconomic groups in youth. It is

Frank J van Lenthe; Ilse de Bourdeaudhuij; Knut-Inge Klepp; Nanna Lien; Laurence Moore; Fabrizio Faggiano; Anton E Kunst; Johan P Mackenbach

2009-01-01

130

Alien mammals in Europe: updated numbers and trends, and assessment of the effects on biodiversity.  

PubMed

This study provides an updated picture of mammal invasions in Europe, based on detailed analysis of information on introductions occurring from the Neolithic to recent times. The assessment considered all information on species introductions, known extinctions and successful eradication campaigns, to reconstruct a trend of alien mammals' establishment in the region. Through a comparative analysis of the data on introduction, with the information on the impact of alien mammals on native and threatened species of Europe, the present study also provides an objective assessment of the overall impact of mammal introductions on European biodiversity, including information on impact mechanisms. The results of this assessment confirm the constant increase of mammal invasions in Europe, with no indication of a reduction of the rate of introduction. The study also confirms the severe impact of alien mammals, which directly threaten a significant number of native species, including many highly threatened species. The results could help to prioritize species for response, as required by international conventions and obligations. PMID:22938522

Genovesi, Piero; Carnevali, Lucilla; Alonzi, Anna; Scalera, Riccardo

2012-09-01

131

Neogene sedimentary history of the Outer Cilicia Basin, eastern Mediterranean: a contribution to the TopoEurope VAMP project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP) addresses the Neogene uplift of the Taurides and the Central Anatolian Plateau. While terrestrial studies are focussed on erosion in the sediment source area, and deposition within the Turkish landmass, our marine work is intended to provide a history of deposition in one of the ultimate sinks: the eastern Mediterranean. In particular, we are mapping the distribution in space and time of sediment deposited from the Göksu River into the Cilicia Basin. In 2008 we obtained km of high-resolution marine multi-channel seismic profiles radiating out from the river delta across the basin. Many of the profiles are processed and images of the data are presented. Interpretation of the available industry seismic reflection profiles show that during the the Miocene the northeastern Mediterranean, including the Cilicia Basin, experienced regional compression, which resulted in the formation of a broad and arcuate fold-thrust belt extending from the Taurides in the north, across the Troodos ophiolite complex into the Cyprus Arc in the south. Two prominent culminations were developed: one was located along the Misis-Kyrenia Fault Zone, another developed in the Amanos-Larnaka-Troodos Fault Zone. Stratigraphic and structural relationships demonstrated that the late Pliocene-Quaternary Cilicia-Adana Basin complex evolved as an asymmetric piggyback basin on the hanging-wall of the south-verging Misis-Kyrenia thrust culmination. Detailed mapping demonstrated that the S/SE-directed contraction culminated in the latest Miocene, and is followed in the early Pliocene by a progressive transition to partitioned contraction and extension related to the initiation of strike slip along the eastern Anatolian Transform Fault and its marine extensions. The shift in kinematics is expressed by the development of major NE-SW trending (Inner Cilicia Basin) and E-W trending (Outer Cilicia Basin) steep faults with extensional separations bounding the Pliocene-Quaternary basins. These basement-rooted faults are incompatible with the contractional regime that existed in this part of the basin complex during the Miocene, and signal the onset of a regime with partitioned stress in the region.The 2008 seismic reflection profiles showed that within the Cilicia Basin a linked extensional-contractional fault system developed, which is detached at the base of the Messinian evaporites. The extensional fault system in the Inner Cilicia Basin is characterized by imbricate fans of listric normal faults. A complementary contractional fault system is developed in Outer Cilicia Basin and is characterized by a thinner Pliocene-Quaternary cover overlying a relatively uniform salt substrate. Here a series of salt-cored growth folds are commonly associated with thrusts of variable vergence.

Piercey, Tiffany; Akhun, Selin; Hall, Jeremy; Aksu, Ali; ?ifçi, Günay

2010-05-01

132

Trading with Eastern Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Overview--How To Get Information on Eastern Europe; Straight Answers to Frequent Questions About Eastern Europe; U.S. Government Programs Help Open Doors to Eastern Europe; The Changing Face of Agriculture in Eastern Europe (July 1990). Bulgaria...

1991-01-01

133

Europe’s Growth Emergency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highlights 1) The European Union growth agenda has become even more pressing because growth is needed to support public and private sector deleveraging, reduce the fragility of the banking sector, counter the falling behind of southern European countries and prove that Europe is still a worthwhile place to invest. 2) The crisis has had a similar impact on most European

Zsolt Darvas; Jean Pisani-Ferry

2011-01-01

134

SETI in Europe: A synopsis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution to the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) and to Bioastronomy by European workers is evaluated. It reaches the interesting level of 24% of the total international input. Leading European contributors are France, Austria, and Italy. Europe contributes mainly to SETI strategies, and while France is the sole contributor to SETI searches, Italy has search projects in development. Europe ought to play a more official role at the international level in the SETI enterprise.

Heidmann, Jean

1994-02-01

135

Neogene sedimentary history of the Inner Cilicia Basin, eastern Mediterranean: a contribution to the TopoEurope VAMP project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP) addresses the Neogene uplift of the Taurides and the Central Anatolian Plateau. While terrestrial studies are focused on erosion in the sediment source area and deposition within the Turkish landmass, our marine work is focused to provide a history of deposition in one of the ultimate sinks: the eastern Mediterranean. In particular, we are mapping the distribution in space and time of sediment deposited from the Göksu River into the Cilicia Basin. In 2008 we collected ~2000 km of high-resolution marine multi-channel seismic reflection profiles radiating out from the present-day mouth of the Göksu River across the basin. The Göksu River delta is located on a narrow shelf at the junction of the Inner and Outer Cilicia Basins. The Inner Cilicia Basin consists of a 40 km-wide shelf linking to the onshore Adana Basin and a slope down to the deeper water (~ 1 km) of the Outer Cilicia Basin. The shelf is built out of a >2.5 km-thick sequence of Pliocene-Quaternary sediment overlying Messinian evaporites or older Miocene sediments. The evaporites have been mobilised to move down slope during the Pliocene-Quaternary so that the shelf is located above an extensional fault fan, complemented by a salt-cored fold/thrust belt in deeper water (see poster by Piercey et al., this meeting). The 2008 seismic reflection profiles show that the western margin of the Inner Cilicia Basin seaward of the mouth of the Göksu River is constructed by numerous vertically stacked and east-prograded delta successions. Detailed mapping in this region revealed that the sediment input from the Göksu River can be readily distinguished from the larger influxes from the coalescing Tarsus, Seyhan and Ceyhan Rivers to the north. The bases of major delta packages supplied by the Göksu River are marked by strong reflections, defining shelf-crossing unconformities, which can be correlated across the Inner Cilicia Basin. Industry exploration wells in the Inner Cilicia and Adana basins allow us to tie our seismic interpretation to known stratigraphies. For example, we can confidently correlate our Units 1, 2 and 3 with Pliocene-Quaternary, Messinian and pre-Messinian Miocene successions. Linear extrapolations using constant rate of sedimentation in the deepest portion of the Inner Cilicia Basin allows a tentative chronology to be established for the major prograded delta successions. Subsidence of the Göksu River delta is recognised, and can be timed from, deeply-buried topset/foreset transitions. We correlate the Pliocene-Quaternary sequence across the basin to derive sediment volumes deposited through time. In the Inner Cilicia Basin, we have also to separate the contributions of the Göksu River from those of the Seyhan and Ceyhan Rivers. Initial estimates of the Göksu River contributions are given. Determining the Miocene depositional history is more challenging because of the impacts of superficial evaporite mobility, the complex basement-related compressional history and the consequent difficulty of imaging pre-Messinian sequences. Initial ideas on the Miocene story will be presented.

Walsh, Susan; Kurtbo?an, Bahar; Akhun, Selin; Aksu, Ali; Hall, Jeremy; ?ifçi, Günay

2010-05-01

136

Immigrants' health in Europe: a cross-classified multilevel approach to examine origin country, destination country, and community effects.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined origin, destination, and community effects on first- and second-generation immigrants' health in Europe. We used information from the European Social Surveys (2002–2008) on 19,210 immigrants from 123 countries of origin, living in 31 European countries. Cross-classified multilevel regression analyses reveal that political suppression in the origin country and living in countries with large numbers of immigrant peers have a detrimental influence on immigrants' health. Originating from predominantly Islamic countries and good average health among natives in the destination country appear to be beneficial. Additionally, the results point toward health selection mechanisms into migration. PMID:22803186

Huijts, Tim; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

2012-01-01

137

The effects of drug market regulation on pharmaceutical prices in Europe: overview and evidence from the market of ACE inhibitors  

PubMed Central

This study provides an overview of policy measures targeting pharmaceutical expenditure in Europe and analyses their impact on originator pharmaceutical prices. Panel data methods are used to examine the market of ACE Inhibitors in six European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom) over period 1991-2006. We find that although some measures are effective in reducing originator prices, others appear to have an insignificant effect. Results suggest that supply side measures such as mandatory generic substitution, regressive pharmacy mark-ups and claw-backs are effective in reducing pharmaceuticals prices. Results are not as strong for demand side measures. Profit controls and the use of cost-effectiveness analysis appear to have a negative effect on prices, while results on reference pricing are inconclusive. Findings also indicate that, although originator prices are not immediately affected by generic entry, they may be influenced by changes in generic prices post patent expiry.

2011-01-01

138

Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study investigates effects of wildfire emissions on air quality in Europe during an intense fire season that occurred in summer 2003. A meso-scale chemistry transport model CHIMERE is used, together with ground based and satellite aerosol optical measurements, to assess the dispersion of fire emissions and to quantify the associated radiative effects. The model has been improved to take into account a MODIS-derived daily smoke emission inventory as well as the injection altitude of smoke particles. The simulated aerosol optical properties are put into a radiative transfer model to estimate (off-line) the effects of smoke particles on photolysis rates and atmospheric radiative forcing. We have found that the simulated wildfires generated comparable amounts of primary aerosol pollutants (130 kTons of PM2.5, fine particles) to anthropogenic sources during August 2003, and caused significant changes in aerosol optical properties not only close to the fire source regions, but also over a large part of Europe as a result of the long-range transport of the smoke. Including these emissions into the model significantly improved its performance in simulating observed aerosol concentrations and optical properties. Quantitative comparison with MODIS and POLDER data during the major fire event (3-8 August 2003) showed the ability of the model to reproduce high aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over Northern Europe caused by the advection of the smoke plume from the Portugal source region. Although there was a fairly good spatial agreement with satellite data (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.4 to 0.9), the temporal variability of AOT data at specific AERONET locations was not well captured by the model. Statistical analyses of model-simulated AOT data at AERONET ground stations showed a significant decrease in the model biases suggesting that wildfire emissions are responsible for a 30% enhancement in mean AOT values during the heat-wave episode. The implications for air quality over a large part of Europe are significant during this episode. First, directly, the modeled wildfire emissions caused an increase in average PM2.5 ground concentrations from 20 to 200%. The largest enhancement in PM2.5 concentrations stayed, however, confined within a 200 km area around the fire source locations and reached up to 40 ?g/m³. Second, indirectly, the presence of elevated smoke layers over Europe significantly altered atmospheric radiative properties: the model results imply a 10 to 30% decrease in photolysis rates and an increase in atmospheric radiative forcing of 10-35 W m-2 during the period of strong fire influence throughout a large part of Europe. These results suggest that sporadic wildfire events may have significant effects on regional photochemistry and atmospheric stability, and need to be considered in current chemistry-transport models.

Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Bohn, B.; Massie, S.; Menut, L.; Wiedinmyer, C.

2007-08-01

139

Solar and geomagnetic effects on the frequency of atmospheric circulation types over Europe: an analysis based on a large number of classifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, effects of the 11-year solar cycle on various aspects of tropospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere in winter have been recognized. One of our previous studies showed a significant solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types from the Hess-Brezowsky catalogue. Here, we use a large collection of varied classifications of circulation patterns, assembled within the COST733 Action "Harmonization and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions" to detect the solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types. The collection contains both objective and subjective classifications. The advantage of this multi-classification approach is that peculiarities or biases of any single classification (catalogue) that might influence the detected solar signal vanish once a large ensemble of classifications is used. We divide winter months (December to March) into three groups according to the mean monthly solar activity, quantified by the F10.7 flux. The three groups correspond to the minima of the 11-year solar cycle, a moderate solar activity, and solar maxima. Within each group, frequencies of occurrence of individual circulation types are calculated. Differences in the occurrence of individual classes between solar activity groups indicate the presence of a solar activity effect on atmospheric circulation over Europe. Statistical significance of these differences is estimated by a block resampling method. The research is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805, and by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic, contract OC115.

Huth, Radan; Cahynová, Monika; Kyselý, Jan

2010-05-01

140

PCBs and their putative effects on polecat (Mustela putorius) populations in Central Europe.  

PubMed

In Europe polecat populations are declining for unknown reasons during the last decades. Data on the river otter, another mustelid predator, indicate that PCB levels are high enough in some populations to interfere with the reproduction of this aquatic species. Since the diet of the polecats consists to a large amount of aquatic prey (amphibians) it appears reasonable to assume that PCBs ingested with the prey are a factor in the decline of polecats. To test this assumption PCB residues in amphibians and in adipose tissue and liver of polecats from Southwest Germany were quantified and the results were compared with literature data on the reproductive toxicity of PCBs in feral mink. According to the current data total PCB levels in polecats (adipose tissue, mean 1244 ng/g lipids; liver, mean 1677 ng/g lipids) and their prey (frogs, mean 9279 ng/kg fresh weight; toads, 4948 ng/kg fresh weight) are comparatively low. Using the toxic equivalent approach, it was calculated that polecats could feed exclusively on amphibians without consuming a harmful amount of PCBs. Therefore, PCBs cannot be an agent currently affecting polecat populations in Central Europe. Other environmental factors like habitat destruction or road accidents are more likely to have a negative impact on polecat populations. PMID:11161692

Engelhart, A; Behnisch, P; Hagenmaier, H; Apfelbach, R

2001-02-01

141

Numerical quantization effects in KHILS projection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Honeywell resistor arrays produce radiance outputs, which are observed to have a strong non-linear dependence on the voltage out of the digital-to-analog-converters (DACs). In order for the projection system to run in a radiometrically calibrated mode, the radiances in the image generator must be transformed with exactly the inverse of the resistor array response function before they are sent to the DACs. Representing the image values out of the image generator and the values into the DACs with quantized, digital values introduces errors in the radiance out of the resistor array. Given the functional form of the emitter array response and the number of bits used to represent the image values, these errors in the radiometric output due to the quantization effects can be calculated. This paper describes the calculations and presents results for WISP, MSSP, and the new extended range and standard range BRITE II arrays.

Flynn, David S.; Thompson, Rhoe A.; Goldsmith, George C.

2002-07-01

142

Mediated and Moderated Effects of Business and Project Planning on Innovation Projects in Hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on multi?respondent data of 130 innovation projects in hospitals, our study analyses the role of planning intensity for project success. Besides showing that also in complex service systems innovation projects are supported through planning, we contribute to innovation management research, first, by clearly differentiating between the effects of business and project planning; second, by integrating intra?team co?ordination as a

Carsten Schultz

2011-01-01

143

Postglacial hillslope development in paraglacial tributary catchments (ESF-NFR SedyMONT-Norway Project, SedyMONT, Topo-Europe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topography and landforms of different spatial scales are generated by different operating processes and are characterized by different variables, evolved over different time periods. Changes in climate affect Earth surface systems and shapes Earth surface processes around the world and seem to have major impacts on sediment dynamics, especially in cold climate environments. Understanding climate and landform development from a Holocene to contemporary time perspective can contribute to document change of the Earth surface systems as well as to detect responsible processes for climatic and topographic change. Analyzing postglacial hillslope development and studying sediment transport within two small deglaciated, subarctic valley systems in Western Norway will improve the understanding of the complex response of mountain landscape formation. The innovative approach of this PhD research project is the combination of knowledge on Holocene process rates with data on subrecent to contemporary sedimentary fluxes, -budgets and process rates using different advanced methods and techniques. The PhD project is part of the NFR funded SedyMONT-Norway Project within the ESF EUROCORES TOPO-EUROPE SedyMONT (Timescales of sediment dynamics, climate and topographic change in mountain landscapes) Programme. Research is carried out within the Erdalen and Bødalen catchments of the Nordfjord valley-fjord system (inner Nordfjord, Western Norway). Both valleys can be described as steep U-shaped and glacier-fed tributary valleys. The runoff regime is complex with a high variability of discharge over the year. Instrumentation in both catchments includes an automatic weather station as well as five stationary stations for continuous and year-round monitoring of runoff, fluvial suspended sediment and solute transport. The main aims of the PhD project are to analyse (i) the spatial distribution of hillslopes, their contemporary structure, controls and current process rates, (ii) the quantification of slope storage volumes, (iii) the identification of sediment sources and (iv) delivery pathways/hillslope-channel coupling over Holocene to contemporary timescales. Sediment storage and hillslope-channel coupling are important factors that influence sediment delivery through catchments. A process-based approach is used to assess the role of these factors by quantifying the various components within the catchment sediment transfer system. Appropriate hillslope test sites are selected for monitoring present-day rates of slope processes as well as for geophysical investigations. Advanced techniques for bed load monitoring (including impact sensors and pit tags) and different dating techniques (lichenometry and dendrochronology) are used. Geophysical methods (georadar, seismic refraction surveys), high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) data and GIS techniques provide new possibilities for the quantification of sediment storage volumes. This research on current complex slope processes, sediment storage volumes and contemporary sediment transfer rates contributes to a better understanding of postglacial landscape evolution as well as the prediction of possibly future trends of landform development.

Laute, Katja; Beylich, Achim A.; Hansen, Louise; Vatne, Geir

2010-05-01

144

Ozone and forests in South-Western Europe.  

PubMed

The paper provides basic information about background, objectives and structure of O3SWE (Ozone at the permanent monitoring plots in South-Western Europe), an international co-operative project aimed at evaluating O3 concentrations, cumulative exposure, uptake and effects on forest vegetation in four countries of South-Western Europe (France, Italy, Luxenbourg, Spain and Switzerland). The project covers a total of 83 permanent plots of the EU and UN/ECE intensive forest monitoring programme and span over three years of investigation (2000-2002). The O3SWE project aims to demonstrate how, using data collected routinely in an intensive forest monitoring network, O3 exposure, flux and effects can be assessed and exceedances critically evaluated. PMID:16777305

Ferretti, Marco; Bussotti, Filippo; Calatayud, Vicent; Sanz, Maria-José; Schaub, Marcus; Kräuchi, Norbert; Petriccione, Bruno; Sanchez-Peña, Gerardo; Ulrich, Erwin

2006-06-13

145

Application of circulation classifications from the COST733 collection to the detection of solar and geomagnetic effects on tropospheric circulation over Europe in winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies of circulation classifications are biased by the fact that they are based on a single classification only; that is, their results are affected by the properties of a particular classification to an unknown extent. A large number of circulation classifications produced and collected in the COST733 database allows such a bias to be removed. As an example, we examine effects of solar activity variations on the frequency of circulation types, making use of more than sixty objective classifications for each of 12 domains, defined over Europe. To determine the solar effects, winter months (December to March) are divided into three classes according to the mean monthly solar activity, within which the frequencies of occurrence of circulation types are calculated. Circulation types coming from any classification with significant differences in frequency between high and low solar activity are identified. Current results generally confirm results of a previous study based on a single classification only (subjective Hess-Brezowsky) that (a) westerly types are more frequent under high than low solar activity; (b) northerly types are more frequent under low than high activity, and (iii) easterly and anticyclonic types are more frequent under low than moderate solar activity; the opposite holds for cyclonic types. The research is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic under contract OC115 and the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805.

Huth, Radan; Cahynová, Monika; Kyselý, Jan

2010-05-01

146

New Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1993, New Europe is a weekly publication that covers 49 countries, with a particular focus on institutions in the European Union (EU). Their site offers access to the contents of their print publication, along with additional information on their outreach activities that involve higher education, media groups, and think tanks. Users may wish to start by looking through the "EU Update" area on the left-hand side of the page. Here they will find news stories and investigative reporting that looks into the governmental organization and politics surrounding the European Union. Further down the page, visitors can look through sections such as "Business Update", "Regional News", and the individual country news area, which covers nations from Albania to Uzbekistan.

147

Emotional intelligence as a facilitator of project leader effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework that examines how emotional intelligence can contribute to the success of project leaders and their teams. We review the interaction of project leaders with their teams and how emotional intelligence can improve interpersonal effectiveness, provides the skills to deal with sponsors and stakeholders and how the emotionally intelligent project leaders can utilize their resources to

Joann Farrell Quinn; David Wilemon

2009-01-01

148

[Consequences of opposition to vaccination in France and Europe. How to maintain effective vaccine coverage in 2010?].  

PubMed

Refusal of vaccination can result in inadequate vaccine coverage. The collective benefit of immunisation depends on a sufficient and sustained level of vaccine coverage. Low vaccine coverage can lead to the persistence of preventable diseases and, in some cases, to a dangerous shift in the age of pathogen encounter towards adulthood. This is the case of measles in Europe, where some countries, including France, have not reached the effective vaccine coverage rate of 95%. Outbreaks are occurring, leading to complications (encephalitis and pneumonia) in adolescents and adults, necessitating hospitalization in nearly one-third of cases. The French population is also under-vaccinated against hepatitis B, due to fears of a risk of demyelinating disorders: the coverage rate is currently only about 30% in infants and 10% in adolescents. These difficulties are due to negligence and to vaccine refusal by parents. Refusal of immunisation has a long history in Europe, and explains for example why pertussis remained endemic in many countries until 1995, and also the resurgence of diphtheria in the Russian federation during the 1990s. Sections of Western society are now questioning the need for some routine vaccines, overlooking the fact that they have eradicated some diseases (polio, diphtheria, etc.) and protect effectively against lesser-known pathogens such as hepatitis B virus and HPV. In France, it will be necessary to restructure healthcare professional training programs in vaccinology and to provide the public with more thorough information on the risk-benefit ratio of vaccination. The recent controversy surrounding pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccination demonstrates that the public and the media tend to focus more on the potential risks of vaccination than on its benefits. A vigorous ethical and political debate is needed to shape an effective and acceptable vaccine policy for the 21st century. PMID:21568045

Bégué, Pierre

149

Energy Options and Strategies for Western Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western Europe, now largely dependent on oil imports, has to prepare for strong competition for oil and energy imports in general before the year 2000. The more unlikely it is for Western Europe to secure from outside rich supplies of coal or uranium at readily acceptable economic and political conditions, the more serious this competition becomes. Even exceptionally low projections

Wolf Hafele; Wolfgang Sassin

1978-01-01

150

Central Europe Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you are interested in reading news directly from Central Europe, then this is the publication for you. Central Europe Today is a daily English language radio news magazine syndicated throughout Central Europe.

151

The STAIRRS project, work package 1: a cost-effectiveness analysis of railway noise reduction on a European scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise control is a major economic factor for the railways as national and European Union environmental legislation is being enacted. In an effort to determine optimal strategies on a European level, the EU fifth framework programme has co-financed the Strategies and Tools to Assess and Implement noise Reducing measures for Railway Systems (STAIRRS) project. Work package 1 developed the necessary software to undertake large-scale cost-effectiveness analyses. The acoustically relevant geographic, traffic and track data were collected for 11000km of lines in seven European countries. Standard cost-benefit methodologies were adapted to fit the requirements of the project. An extrapolation mechanism allowed studies on Europe as a whole and, in an approximate manner, also on individual countries. Major conclusions are that the highest cost-effectiveness can be achieved by combining measures; freight rolling stock has a high cost-effectiveness on its own as well as in combination with other measures, especially when combined with track measures; noise barriers, in particular high ones, have a low cost-effectiveness. The conclusions for Europe as a whole are also true for individual countries. The STAIRRS project co-ordinator is the European Rail Research Institute, the work package leader is the Swiss Federal Railways with the participation of AEAT Technology (NL), German Railways, French Railways, PSI-Akustik (A), the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and the Free University of Brussels.

Oertli, J.

2003-10-01

152

Communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care in Europe: the case for improvement. The rationale for the RESTORE FP 7 project.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to substantiate the importance of research about barriers and levers to the implementation of supports for cross-cultural communication in primary care settings in Europe. After an overview of migrant health issues, with the focus on communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care and the importance of language barriers, we highlight the fact that there are serious problems in routine practice that persist over time and across different European settings. Language and cultural barriers hamper communication in consultations between doctors and migrants, with a range of negative effects including poorer compliance and a greater propensity to access emergency services. It is well established that there is a need for skilled interpreters and for professionals who are culturally competent to address this problem. A range of professional guidelines and training initiatives exist that support the communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care. However, these are commonly not implemented in daily practice. It is as yet unknown why professionals do not accept or implement these guidelines and interventions, or under what circumstances they would do so. A new study involving six European countries, RESTORE (REsearch into implementation STrategies to support patients of different ORigins and language background in a variety of European primary care settings), aims to address these gaps in knowledge. It uses a unique combination of a contemporary social theory, normalisation process theory (NPT) and participatory learning and action (PLA) research. This should enhance understanding of the levers and barriers to implementation, as well as providing stakeholders, with the opportunity to generate creative solutions to problems experienced with the implementation of such interventions. PMID:23601205

van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Burns, Nicola; O'Donnell, Catherine; Mair, Frances; Spiegel, Wolfgang; Lionis, Christos; Dowrick, Chris; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; de Brun, Tomas; Macfarlane, Anne

2013-04-22

153

Project ABLE: Altering Bowel Learning Effectively.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project addressed the problem of fecal incontinence in children with myelomeningocele by developing an affordable instructional package for health care providers and a parent instruction program in order to help these children develop bowel control. T...

M. F. Cataldo A. W. Riley

1990-01-01

154

Quality, comparability and methods of analysis of data on childhood cancer in Europe (1978–1997): Report from the Automated Childhood Cancer Information System project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In collaboration with 62 population-based cancer registries contributing to the Automated Childhood Cancer Information System (ACCIS), we built a database to study incidence and survival of children and adolescents with cancer in Europe. We describe the methods and evaluate the quality and internal comparability of the database, by geographical region, period of registration, type of registry and other characteristics. Data

E. Steliarova-Foucher; P. Kaatsch; B. Lacour; V. Pompe-Kirn; S. Eser; A. Miranda; A. Danzon; A. Ratiu; D. M. Parkin

2006-01-01

155

The Common Ingredients of Successful School Effectiveness Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Points out eight factors consistently associated with effective schools (academic focus, student participation in decision-making, etc.) and eight common problems with effective schools projects (short-term focus, unrealistic expectations, etc.). Summarizes successful projects at a K-12 village school and an urban junior high school. (JHZ)|

Renihan, Patrick J.; And Others

1986-01-01

156

Effects of human resource management on project effectiveness and success: Toward a new conceptual framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project management strategy research has focused on the effects of structure and planning operations (such as budgets, date completion and quality) on project success. In the past, projects have been managed as technical systems instead of behavioral systems. Relatively little attention has been paid to human resource factor. However, the Project Management Institute in its official definition of Project Management

Adnane Belout

1998-01-01

157

BSEP/CSEP Reading Evaluation: A Study of the Effectiveness of the U.S. Army Europe's Basic Skills/Career Skills Job-Specific Reading Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To measure the effectiveness of the Basic Skills Education Program (BSEP) reading curriculum--eight reading skill modules employing military job-specific reading materials and used by the U.S. Army in Europe (USAREUR)--and to provide information for improving it, a study examined 183 soldiers from 38 European posts who were enrolled in the BSEP…

Philippi, Jorie W.

158

PELLETS FOR EUROPE - BARRIERS AND PERSPECTIVES FOR INCREASED MARKET PENETRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pellets for Europe is an European expert network on pellets working together in the ALTENER-project Pellets for Europe. 17 pellet expert centres in 12 European countries work for increased production and use of biomass pellets from woody and agricultural residues in Europe. Technologies using pellets for heat and electricity is commercially available in countries like Sweden, Denmark, and Austria. Pellets

Jeppe Bjerg

159

Renewable fuels: Policy effectiveness and project risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of government policy on the risk profile of a small ethanol production facility. We derive four key results from a simulation model. First, we show that commodity price risk may discourage investment in a project, despite a positive expected rate of return. Second, we show that political uncertainty may have significant impacts on the risk

Andrew Leach; Joseph Doucet; Trevor Nickel

2011-01-01

160

How effective are soil conservation techniques in reducing plot runoff and soil loss in Europe and the Mediterranean?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of soil and water conservation techniques (SWCTs) on annual runoff (Ra), runoff coefficients (RCa) and annual soil loss (SLa) at the plot scale have been extensively tested on field runoff plots in Europe and the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, a comprehensive overview of these effects and the factors controlling the effectiveness of SWCTs is lacking. Especially the effectiveness of SWCT in reducing Ra is poorly understood. Therefore, an extensive literature review is presented that compiles the results of 101 earlier studies. In each of these studies, Ra and SLa was measured on field runoff plots where various SWCTs were tested. In total, 353 runoff plots (corresponding to 2093 plot-years of data) for 103 plot-measuring stations throughout Europe and the Mediterranean were considered. SWCTs include (1) crop and vegetation management (i.e. cover crops, mulching, grass buffer strips, strip cropping and exclosure), (2) soil management (i.e. no-tillage, reduced tillage, contour tillage, deep tillage, drainage and soil amendment) and (3) mechanical methods (i.e. terraces, contour bunds and geotextiles). Comparison of the frequency distributions of SLa rates on cropland without and with the application of SWCTs shows that the exceedance probability of tolerable SLa rates is ca. 20% lower when SWCT are applied. However, no notable effect of SWCTs on the frequency distribution of RCa is observed. For 224 runoff plots (corresponding to 1567 plot-year data), SWCT effectiveness in reducing Ra and/or SLa could be directly calculated by comparing measured Ra and/or SLa with values measured on a reference plot with conventional management. Crop and vegetation management techniques (i.e. buffer strips, mulching and cover crops) and mechanical techniques (i.e. geotextiles, contour bunds and terraces) are generally more effective than soil management techniques (i.e. no-tillage, reduced tillage and contour tillage). Despite being generally less effective, no-tillage, reduced tillage and contour tillage have received substantially more attention in the literature than the other SWCTs. Soil and water conservation techniques are generally less effective in reducing Ra than in reducing SLa, which is an important consideration in areas where water is a key resource and in regions susceptible to flooding. Furthermore, all SWCTs show a more consistent and effective reduction of both Ra and SLa with increasing Ra and SLa magnitude, which is attributed to the reduced influence of measurement uncertainties. Although some significantly negative correlations between SWCT effectiveness and plot slope length, slope gradient or annual precipitation were found, the importance of these factors in explaining the observed variability in effectiveness seems limited. Time-series analyses of Ra during multiple years of SWCT application strongly indicate that no-tillage and conservation tillage become less effective in reducing Ra over time. Such an effect is not observed for SLa.

Maetens, W.; Poesen, J.; Vanmaercke, M.

2012-10-01

161

Ion Beam Therapy in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, seven facilities in Europe treat deep-seated tumors with particle beams, six with proton beams and one with carbon ions. Three of these facilities are in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Dubna, Russia. Other facilities include the TSL Uppsala, Sweden, CPO Orsay, France, and PSI Villigen, Switzerland, all for proton therapy, and GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, which utilizes carbon ions only. But only two of these facilities irradiate with scanned ion beams: the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI), Villigen (protons) and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt. These two facilities are experimental units within physics laboratories and have developed the technique of intensity-modulated beam scanning in order to produce irradiation conforming to a 3-D target. There are three proton centers presently under construction in Munich, Essen and Orsay, and the proton facility at PSI has added a superconducting accelerator connected to an isocentric gantry in order to become independent of the accelerator shared with the physics research program. The excellent clinical results using carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) in Chiba and GSI have triggered the construction of four new heavy-ion therapy projects (carbon ions and protons), located in Heidelberg, Pavia, Marburg and Kiel. The projects in Heidelberg and Pavia will begin patient treatment in 2009, and the Marburg and Kiel projects will begin in 2010 and 2011, respectively. These centers use different accelerator designs but have the same kind of treatment planning system and use the same approach for the calculation of the biological effectiveness of the carbon ions as developed at GSI [1]. There are many other planned projects in the works. Do not replace the word ``abstract,'' but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your ``Enter'' key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style sample before you begin working on your paper.

Kraft, Gerhard

2009-03-01

162

How to write a history of Europe: Europe, Europes, Eurasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the history of European culture from three angles, those of European uniqueness, European variety and European consciousness. The first section discusses the question of whether the fundamental unit of study, for cultural as well as economic historians, is not Eurasia. The second section is concerned with cultural divisions within Europe, with Europes in the plural. It

Peter Burke

2006-01-01

163

Regional and microclimatic pollution effects on atmospheric corrosion in Prague and Europe  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric corrosion test results for structural metals in open air and under shelter from multilateral European programs (1968 to 1992) are presented and the effects of SO{sub 2} pollution analyzed. Regional and microclimatic pollution effects are documented by test results from Czech permanent test sites, test sites throughout Prague, and test sites on the St. Vitus Cathedral. The effects of variations in pollution activity, time of wetness, and type of metal are considered.

Knotkova, D.; Vlckova, J.; Kreislova, K. [SVUOM Praha a.s., Prague (Czech Republic)

1995-06-01

164

The Effects of IFRS 7 Adoption on Bank Disclosure in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the endorsement of IFRS 7, which became effective in 2007, the European regulation of bank disclosures has substantially changed. Using a sample of 171 banks from 28 European countries, I analyze the effect of the standard's first-time adoption on disclosure quality. I find that disclosure quality has generally increased both in financial statements and in risk reports but that

Jannis Bischof

2009-01-01

165

Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. A Secondary Education for Europe Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph, published as part of the project "A Secondary Education for Europe," makes no claim to deal with all the questions relating to minorities, from either the legal point of view of that of international action. The paper does not aim to suggest recommendations on a theme which has concerned the Council of Europe for years. The…

Foucher, Michel

166

EURO4M: monitoring weather and climate extremes in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new project called EURO4M: European Reanalysis and Observations for Monitoring (www.euro4m.eu), which is funded under the European Union FP7 programme. The ambitious plans in this project will be illustrated by examples from ongoing work and some early results. EURO4M sets out to develop the capacity for, and deliver the best possible and most complete (gridded) climate change time series and monitoring services covering all of Europe. The focus is on weather and climate extremes. Key questions include: What changes in weather and climate extremes do we observe in Europe over recent decades? How certain are we about these changes? Are our monitoring systems adequate to address these questions? EURO4M addresses the situation of fragmentation and scarcity of long-term climate change monitoring information for Europe. The project will extend, in a cost effective manner, European capacity to systematically monitor climate variability and change on a range of space and time scales. It will do so by combining seamlessly two different but complementary approaches: regional observation datasets of GCOS Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) and newly developed regional reanalysis. EURO4M will reach out with innovative and integrated data products and services to policy-makers, researchers, planners and citizens at European, national and local levels. This will directly address the needs of, for instance, the European Environment Agency for their environmental assessment reports - and even provide online reporting during emerging extreme events. EURO4M intends to become Europe's primary source of timely and reliable information about the state of the climate. The project has the potential to evolve into a future GMES service on climate change monitoring that is fully complimentary and supporting the existing operational GMES services. The EURO4M consortium consists of 9 partners from 8 countries. The project will run from 1 April 2010 until 31 March 2014. Co-ordinator is KNMI, the Netherlands.

Klein Tank, A. M. G.

2010-09-01

167

Cost-effective emission abatement in Europe considering interrelations in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is an important source of ammonia (NH3), which contributes to acidification and eutrophication, as well as emissions of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). Controlling emissions of one of these pollutants through application of technical measures might have an impact (either beneficial or adverse) on emissions of the others. These side effects are usually ignored in

Corjan Brink; Ekko van Ierland; Leen Hordijk; Carolien Kroeze

2001-01-01

168

The Balassa-Samuelson effect in Central and Eastern Europe: Myth or reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the Balassa-Samuelson effect in 9 CEECs . Using panel cointegration techniques, we find strong empirical evidence in favour of what we call the internal transmission mechanism since productivity growth in the open sector is found to bring about non-tradable inflation. However, we also shed new light on the fact that the impact of the internal transmission mechanism

Balázs Égert; Imed Drine; Kirsten Lommatzsch; Christophe Rault

2002-01-01

169

The Balassa-Samuelson effect in Central and Eastern Europe: myth or reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the Balassa-Samuelson effect in 9 CEECs . Using panel cointegration techniques, we find strong empirical evidence in favour of what we call the internal transmission mechanism since productivity growth in the open sector is found to bring about non-tradable inflation. However, we also shed new light on the fact that the impact of the internal transmission mechanism

Balazs Egert; Imed Drine; Kirsten Lommatzsch; Christophe Rault

2003-01-01

170

The Economic Impact of Climate, CO2, and Tropospheric Ozone Effects on Crop Yields in China, the US, and Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple environmental changes that may occur over the next century will affect crop productivity. Some of these effects are likely to be positive (CO2 fertilization), some negative (tropospheric ozone damage), and some may be either positive or negative (temperature and precipitation). Climate effects may operate in either direction because the direction of change may differ across regions (more precipitation in some areas and less in others) and warming may increase growing season lengths in cold-limited growing areas while acting as a detriment to productivity in areas with already high temperatures. Previous work has shown the effects of these combined environmental changes on carbon sequestration in natural and managed systems, and valued these effects in terms of avoided costs of fossil fuel carbon abatement. The more direct and obvious economic effect, however, is the changes in crop yields implied by these vegetation effects. Here we use the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) to analyze the potential economic impact of changes in crop yields. For this work we have augmented the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model by further disaggregating the agricultural sector. This allows us to simulate economic effects of changes in yield (i.e. the productivity of cropland) on the regional economies of the world, including impacts on agricultural trade. The EPPA model includes multiple channels of market-based adaptation, including input substitution and trade. We are thus able to examine the extent to which market forces contribute toward adaptation and thus modify the initial yield effects. We examine multiple scenarios where tropospheric ozone precursors are controlled or not, and where greenhouse gas emissions are abated or not. This allows us to consider how these policies interact. We focus on China, the US, and Europe which are currently regions with high levels of tropospheric ozone damage. We find significant negative effects of tropospheric ozone on crop yields and the agricultural economy under current conditions. Our results compare favorably with other methods that show damages of the same level. Our future simulations depend highly on whether tropospheric ozone precursors are controlled in the future. While policies exist in countries to limit tropospheric ozone as a local/regional pollutant, a growing problem particularly in the northern latitudes that include our focus regions, will be that background levels of ozone could reach levels such that it will be difficult for any one country to control its ozone levels without similar control efforts in other regions. This preliminary work highlights the importance of these policy interactions, and emphasizes the need for improved modeling of the atmospheric transport of pollutants.

Reilly, J. M.; Felzer, B. S.; Paltsev, S.; Melillo, J. M.; Prinn, R. G.; Wang, C.; Sokolov, A. P.; Wang, X.

2004-12-01

171

The Balassa–Samuelson effect in Central and Eastern Europe: myth or reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the Balassa–Samuelson effect in nine Central and East European countries. Using panel cointegration techniques, we find that the productivity growth differential in the open sector leads to inflation in non-tradable goods. Because of the low share of non-tradables and the high share of food items in addition to regulated prices, the consumer price index is misleading when

Balázs Égert; Imed Drine; Kirsten Lommatzsch; Christophe Rault

2003-01-01

172

Archeomagnetism in Western Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to present a short review of the archeomagnetic research conducted in Europe. Reference curves of the directional variations of the geomagnetic field over the last two thousand years are now available for France, Great Britain, Bulgaria, Hungary, Ukraine and Caucasus. A reference curve, built using historical volcanic rocks was also published for Italy. Less detailed results were obtained in Germany, Greece, Switzerland, Denmark and Belgium. Our knowledge of the secular variation of the field for older periods is more limited, except in Bulgaria. Very recently, data covering the first millennium BC were obtained in France and Germany. Few paleointensity data have been collected in Western Europe in comparison with other archaeomagnetic areas, such as Bulgaria. More knowledge about the variations of the geomagnetic field strength will allow for developing better models of the past geomagnetic field and should also be useful for future archaeomagnetic dating, especially in the case of pottery and for displaced objects such as tiles, where only the paleoinclination and the paleointensity can be determined. For paleointensity determinations, different experimental techniques (methods of Thellier, Shaw, Tanguy) and different materials (tiles, bricks, pottery) were used. The effect of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) anisotropy upon the paleointensity values was investigated by different teams. The most efficient method of correction for this effect is to determine the TRM anisotropy tensors for each sample. The effect of the cooling rate upon the TRM intensity seems more difficult to correct. An analysis of the paleointensity data available for the last two thousand years, obtained from sites in Western Europe, was performed using a weighting factor which takes into account the number and type of the samples studied as well as the technique used for the paleointensity determination. This analysis clearly shows that some of the existing data might not be reliable.

Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.

2001-05-01

173

Project Bears (Bacteriological Effects, Aircraft Refueling Systems).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers investigations carried out to determine characteristics and growth rates of microbial contaminants in Military fuels; to learn effects of such contaminants on performance of filter/separators and other fueling system components; and to a...

R. R. Rogowski R. N. Brown

1964-01-01

174

Factors influencing seed germination of Cyperus capitatus, inhabiting the moving sand dunes in southern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyperus capitatus Vandelli (Cyperaceae) is distributed in coastal sandy habitats and mobile dunes of south Europe. Its seed germination ecology is not known, despite its potential to be used in re-vegetation projects. Laboratory experiments were conduced to assess the effects of salinity, light regime, cold stratification and burial on seed germination of this species. Overall, increasing salinity delayed germination, increased

S. Redondo-Gómez; L. Andrades-Moreno; R. Parra; E. Mateos-Naranjo; A. M. Sánchez-Lafuente

2011-01-01

175

Social exclusion and macro-economic policy in Europe: a problem of dynamic and spatial change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses whether macroeconomic developments in Europe will assist the reduction of social exclusion under EMU. It concludes that the objectives of the Lisbon Council will be difficult to meet. Enlargement, ageing and the `new economy' may alter projections but more rapid structural change has adverse asymmetric effects on average and regional unemployment. As increased public spending can have

David G. Mayes

2002-01-01

176

Europe's Second Demographic Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|By 1985, fertility rates in Europe were below the replacement level of 2.1 births per woman in all but Albania, Ireland, Malta, Poland, and Turkey, following a steady decline from a 1965 postwar peak well above 2.5 in Northern, Western, and Southern Europe and an erratic trend from a lower level in Eastern Europe. Natural decrease (fewer births…

van de Kaa, Dirk J.

1987-01-01

177

Nuclear weapons in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents papers on the issue of the deployment of intermediate-range American nuclear missiles in Western Europe. Topics considered include an American view on the struggle for Europe, military strategy, nuclear deterrence, the illusion of NATO's nuclear defense, arms control, political aspects, national security, and a German Social Democrat's perspective on nuclear weapons in Europe.

1984-01-01

178

Cenozoic vertical movements in Northwest Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the interdisciplinary project CENMOVE is to unravel the causal relations and relative importance of Cenozoic tectonics in NW Europe, eustasy and climate. The approach of the project revolves around 1) isotopic profiling in Paleocene sediments in the eastern North Sea area, 2) thermochronometry in Southern Norway and Southern Sweden, 3) receiver function analysis in southern Norway and

S. B. Nielsen

2003-01-01

179

High-tech Start-ups in Europe: The Effect of Regulatory Competition on the Emergence of New Business Forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will examine the theoretical arguments for and against the importance of new business forms for the growth of start-ups. Part I briefly reviews the recent history of business organisational law and reform within Europe. Our review of extant European business forms reveals that the absence of new business entities (and structural reforms) may be due to status quo

Joseph A. McCahery; Erik P. M. Vermeulen

2001-01-01

180

Russian Natural Gas Exports to Europe: Effects of Russian Gas Market Reforms and the Rising Market Power of Gazprom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gazprom, the dominant gas company in Russia, is widely believed to be the key supplier of gas to Europe in the foreseeable future. However, there are numerous uncertainties and challenges within the Russian and European gas industry that may alter the allocation of Gazprom´s gas sales between domestic and export markets. In this paper we use both theoretical and numerical

Eirik Lund Sagen; Marina Tsygankova

2006-01-01

181

Russian Natural Gas Exports to Europe. Effects of Russian gas market reforms and the rising market power of Gazprom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gazprom, the dominant gas company in Russia, is widely believed to be the key supplier of gas to Europe in the foreseeable future. However, there are numerous uncertainties and challenges within the Russian and European gas industry that may alter the allocation of Gazprom´s gas sales between domestic and export markets. In this paper we use both theoretical and numerical

2006-01-01

182

Time trend and age-period-cohort effect on kidney cancer mortality in Europe, 1981–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The incorporation of diagnostic and therapeutic improvements, as well as the different smoking patterns, may have had an influence on the observed variability in renal cancer mortality across Europe. This study examined time trends in kidney cancer mortality in fourteen European countries during the last two decades of the 20th century. METHODS: Kidney cancer deaths and population estimates for

Napoleón Pérez-Farinós; Gonzalo López-Abente; Roberto Pastor-Barriuso

2006-01-01

183

Child and adolescent mental health: infrastructure, policies and practices in England: the CAMHEE project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union-supported Child and Adolescent Mental Health in an Enlarged Europe (CAMHEE) project aimed to provide an overview of the challenges, current practice and guidelines for developing effective mental health promotion and mental illness prevention policy and practice across Europe. As part of this work, an analysis was undertaken of the situation in England, making use of a bespoke

Rachel Jenkins; Howard Meltzer; Brian Jacobs; David McDaid

2010-01-01

184

Decline in tropospheric NO2 and the effects of the 2008-09 economic crisis observed by OMI over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a trend analysis of tropospheric NO2 for the time period of 2004-2010. Necessary for monitoring pollution abatement strategies, NO2 trends analyses are often based on surface networks, which suffer from high NO2 biases and spatial representativity issues inherent to the standard monitoring method (thermal reduction of NO2 followed by reaction with ozone and chemiluminescence). Space based NO2 trends are unbiased and self-consistent, but over Europe they have not been as obvious as those observed over North America and East Asia. In this work we exploit the daily NO2 column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in order to isolate long-term (timescales greater than one year) variability in NO2 over Europe without imposing a parametric fit to the data. In general, we find between 2005 and 2008, 1-5% per year declines in NO2 concentration in many polluted regions (e.g. Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Spain), but also 1-5% per year increases over the English Channel and the southern North Sea (a major shipping channel), as well as the United Kingdom, northern France and Eastern Europe. In 2009, NO2 almost exclusively decreased over Europe at a rate of 5-10% per year, coinciding with the abrupt decrease in industrial production and construction prompted by the global economic crisis. By 2010, in many areas the NO2 rate of change returned to pre-2009 levels suggesting economic recovery. We employ a simple fitting model to separate the forcing by meteorological variability, which can influence apparent NO2 trends, from that of NOx emissions. We calculate 1-3% per year NOx emissions reduction rates over most of Europe and an additional 15-30% per year decrease in NOx emissions during the economic crisis time period.

Castellanos, P.; Boersma, F. F.

2011-12-01

185

The Manhattan Project and its Effects on American Women Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been many detailed historical accounts of the Manhattan Project, but few have recognized the technical role women scientists and engineers crucially played in the Project's success. Despite their absence from these prominent accounts, recent studies have revealed that, in fact, women participated in every non-combat operation associated with the Manhattan Project. With such extensive participation of women and such a former lack of historical attention upon them, little analysis has been done on how the Manhattan Project might have influenced the prospectus of women scientists after the war. This talk has two aims: 1) to recount some of the technical and scientific contributions of women to the Manhattan Project, and 2) to examine what effects these contributions had on the women's careers as scientists. In other words, I intend offer a preliminary explanation of the extent to which the Manhattan Project acted both as a boon and as a detriment to American women scientists. And finally, I will address what this historical analysis could imply about the effects of current efforts to recruit women into science.

Fletcher, Samuel

2008-04-01

186

Post-Cold War encounters with Eastern Europe: Sites in return and trajectories of desire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This interdisciplinary project is an inquiry into how post-Communist sites enter America post Cold War and how post Cold War America and American identity are imagined in relation to “Eastern Europe.” I pursue these questions by focussing on the 1996 NBC coverage of the Olympic Games, travelguides to “Eastern Europe,” and narratives of return to “Eastern Europe.” My project is

Andaluna C Borcila

2000-01-01

187

How rigid is Europe's lithosphere?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integrated strength distribution and variations of the effective elastic plate thickness (T e ) have been estimated for the European lithosphere based on thermal and rheological data for the crust and upper mantle. The new results show a significant spatial variability demonstrating that both ‘jelly sandwich’ and ‘crème brûlée’ models might be valid depending on lithospheric physical conditions. In most of Europe crustal strength provides a relatively large contribution (˜50%) to the lithospheric strength. Western Europe appears mostly characterized by mechanically decoupled lithospheric layers, low strength and T e < 30 km. The contribution of the mechanically strong mantle to T e is low in most parts of western Europe. No clear relationship between T e and thermal age is found in the continent: the values for the tectonic provinces older than 85 Ma are significantly smaller than theoretically expected for their age and crustal thickness, whereas the opposite is true for the younger provinces.

Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Cloetingh, Sierd A. P. L.

2009-08-01

188

Wake fields effects for the eRHIC project  

SciTech Connect

An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) with a high peak electron bunch current is proposed for the Electron-Ion collider (eRHIC) project at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The present design is based on the multi-pass electron beam transport in existing tunnel of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). As a result of a high peak current and a very long beam transport, consideration of various collective beam dynamics effects becomes important. Here we summarize effects of the coherent synchrotron radiation, resistive wall, accelerating cavities and wall roughness on the resulting energy spread and energy loss for several scenarios of the eRHIC project.

Fedotov A. V.; Belomestnykh, S.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.; Ptitsyn, V.

2012-05-20

189

Measuring Muslim Integration in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (established by the Council of Europe in 1997) has warned that anti-terrorism security measures risk disrupting the task of integrating Muslim communities in EU member states. Without reliable statistics, the effects of these measures are difficult to assess. Fears of Muslim radicalization and “cultural conflict” can then be exploited to justify just

Pamela Irving Jackson

2009-01-01

190

The Contribution of Local Experiments and Negotiation Processes to Field-Level Learning in Emerging (Niche) Technologies: Meta-Analysis of 27 New Energy Projects in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines how local experiments and negotiation processes contribute to social and field-level learning. The analysis is framed within the niche development literature, which offers a framework for analyzing the relation between projects in local contexts and the transfer of local experiences into generally applicable rules. The…

Raven, Rob P. J. M.; Heiskanen, Eva; Lovio, Raimo; Hodson, Mike; Brohmann, Bettina

2008-01-01

191

Peatland-GHG emissions in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managed peatlands are hot spots for CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. GHG which have been not fully integrated in past European climate projects. Peatlands contribute to European GHG emissions 10 times more per unit area than other terrestrial ecosystems. Peatland management and exploration by drainage, agricultural use and peat extraction turned pristine peatland GHG sinks into sources. Emissions can reach more than 40 t CO2equiv. ha-1 a-1 in intensively managed peatlands. On the other hand, the restoration of degraded peatlands does normally reduce these emissions significantly towards climate neutral levels, once the restoration work is done wisely. But in some cases the net climate effect do not decrease significantly depending on hydrological regimes, fertilization status of the peatlands, climate and vegetation type. In many European countries with significant peatland cover nationally funded projects were set up to investigate peatland GHG fluxes and their drivers. These scattered data and knowledge are currently being brought together under the coverage of the GHG-Europe project (Grant agreement no.: 244122) within a new synthesis to develop the relevant EF, identify the drivers and develop upscaling options for GHG-emissions. The talk will: (1) show a first cut of new Emission Factors for peatlands in Europe and compare these with IPCC-default values. (2) discuss the developed sensible response functions for GHG-fluxes against natural and anthropogenic drivers such as land use intensity, land management with drainage and climate variability. (3) show case studies from Germany show the applicability of response functions for upscaling of GHG-balances. (4) An outlook is given to the future European peatland GHG-Balance.

Droesler, Matthias

2013-04-01

192

Efficacy of hand rubs with a low alcohol concentration listed as effective by a national hospital hygiene society in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background Some national hospital hygiene societies in Europe such as the French society for hospital hygiene (SFHH) have positive lists of disinfectants. Few hand disinfectants with a rather low concentration of ethanol are listed by one society as effective for hygienic hand disinfection with 3 mL in 30 s including a virucidal activity in 30 s or 60 s, but published data allow having doubts. We have therefore evaluated the efficacy of three commonly used hand disinfectants according to EN 1500 and EN 14476. Methods Products 1 (Aniosgel 85 NPC) and 2 (Aniosrub 85 NPC) were based on 70% ethanol, product 3 (ClinoGel derma+) on 60% ethanol and 15% isopropanol (all w/w). They were tested in 3 laboratories according to EN 1500. Three mL were applied for 30 s and compared to the reference treatment of 2 × 3 mL applications of isopropanol 60% (v/v), on hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli. Each laboratory used a cross-over design against the reference alcohol with 15 or 20 volunteers. The virucidal activity of the products was evaluated (EN 14476) in one laboratory against adenovirus and poliovirus in different concentrations (80%, 90%, 97%), with different organic loads (none; clean conditions; phosphate-buffered saline) for up to 3 min. Results Product 1 revealed a mean log10-reduction of 3.87 ± 0.79 (laboratory 1) and 4.38 ± 0.87 (laboratory 2) which was significantly lower compared to the reference procedure (4.62 ± 0.89 and 5.00 ± 0.87). In laboratory 3 product 1 was inferior to the reference disinfection (4.06 ± 0.86 versus 4.99 ± 0.90). Product 2 revealed similar results. Product 3 fulfilled the requirements in one laboratory but failed in the two other. None of the three products was able to reduce viral infectivity of both adenovirus and poliovirus by 4 log10 steps in 3 min according to EN 14476. Conclusions Efficacy data mentioned in a positive list published by a society for hospital hygiene should still be regarded with caution if they quite obviously contradict published data on the same or similar products.

2013-01-01

193

65 FR 25970 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs Southeast Europe Youth Leadership Program; Notice...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cultural Affairs Southeast Europe Youth Leadership Program; Notice: Request for Proposals...competition for the Southeast Europe Youth Leadership Program. Public and private non-profit...project focused on civic education, leadership, and community activism, or...

2000-05-04

194

The Effect of Test Selection on Title I Project Impact.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An alternative is proposed to the legally required uniform procedures and criteria for reporting the results of Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I projects. It is suggested that Congress is unlikely to respond to nationwide impact data on the effectiveness of Title I even when such data are available. It is further proposed that the RMC…

Jaeger, Richard M.

195

Project EFFECT. Energy for the Future: Education, Conservation, Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Project EFFECT (Energy for the Future: Education, Conservation, Training) was a three-year experimental program in curriculum development focusing on energy conservation, technology, and training. It had three objectives: (1) create a comprehensive training program for adults without previous technical training, applicable to community energy…

Indiana Univ., South Bend. Center for Energy Conservation.

196

Curriculum Projects and their Effects on Astronomy Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

National curriculum projects can have a long-lasting and widespread effect on the teaching of astronomy in schools and thus on the supply of astronomers and on knowledge of astronomy among the general public. For example, the omission of astronomy as a requirement in 1893 by the Committee of Ten (J.L. Bishop in Pasachoff and Percy, The Teaching of Astronomy, Proc.

Jay M. Pasachoff

1993-01-01

197

Heat-related respiratory hospital admissions in Europe in a changing climate: a health impact assessment  

PubMed Central

Objectives Respiratory diseases are ranked second in Europe in terms of mortality, prevalence and costs. Studies have shown that extreme heat has a large impact on mortality and morbidity, with a large relative increase for respiratory diseases. Expected increases in mean temperature and the number of extreme heat events over the coming decades due to climate change raise questions about the possible health impacts. We assess the number of heat-related respiratory hospital admissions in a future with a different climate. Design A Europe-wide health impact assessment. Setting An assessment for each of the EU27 countries. Methods Heat-related hospital admissions under a changing climate are projected using multicity epidemiological exposure–response relationships applied to gridded population data and country-specific baseline respiratory hospital admission rates. Times-series of temperatures are simulated with a regional climate model based on four global climate models, under two greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Results Between a reference period (1981–2010) and a future period (2021–2050), the total number of respiratory hospital admissions attributed to heat is projected to be larger in southern Europe, with three times more heat attributed respiratory hospital admissions in the future period. The smallest change was estimated in Eastern Europe with about a twofold increase. For all of Europe, the number of heat-related respiratory hospital admissions is projected to be 26?000 annually in the future period compared with 11?000 in the reference period. Conclusions The results suggest that the projected effects of climate change on temperature and the number of extreme heat events could substantially influence respiratory morbidity across Europe.

Astrom, Christofer; Orru, Hans; Rocklov, Joacim; Strandberg, Gustav; Ebi, Kristie L; Forsberg, Bertil

2013-01-01

198

JPRS Report, East Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains articles from foreign periodicals that are translated into English. These articles concern Eastern Europe. Some topics include political science, political parties and economics.

1987-01-01

199

JPRS Report, East Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: East Europe, Party Activities, Socialist Party, Freedom Fighters, Education, Youth Training, Historian, Death Penalty, Peace Making Duties, Socialism, Communism, Economics, Restructuring, Catastrophic Condition, Computer Production, edit...

1988-01-01

200

Promoting Community Coalition Functioning: Effects of Project STEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been relatively little research on effects of interventions aimed directly at improving internal community coalition\\u000a functioning, particularly in the area of planning for adoption of evidence-based prevention programs. The current study investigated\\u000a the effect of Project STEP, a prevention diffusion trial, on three factors hypothesized to improve coalition prevention planning\\u000a (quality of coalition plans, extent of plan implementation,

Nathaniel R. Riggs; Morgan Nakawatase; Mary Ann Pentz

2008-01-01

201

Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe  

SciTech Connect

Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Planning and Strategic Business Development Div.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Glicken, J. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S. [Columbia Environmental Services, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States)

1997-05-01

202

Ukraine: Europe`s next crisis?  

SciTech Connect

The emergence of an independent Ukraine was one of the most important geopolitical results of the collapse of the former Soviet Union. It dramatically changed the geostrategic map of Europe, creating a critical strategic buffer between Russia and Europe, especially Eastern Europe. But two years after independence, Ukraine is in the midst of a severe political and economic crisis, and engaged in a series of elections that could have major and immediate consequences not only for Ukraine`s political future and security orientation, but for Western policy. Parliamentary elections were held in March, but runoff elections are needed for about one-quarter of the seats, and presidential elections will be held June 26.

Larrabee, F.S. [RAND Corp., Santa Monica, CA (United States)

1994-07-01

203

Physical and economic consequences of climate change in Europe  

PubMed Central

Quantitative estimates of the economic damages of climate change usually are based on aggregate relationships linking average temperature change to loss in gross domestic product (GDP). However, there is a clear need for further detail in the regional and sectoral dimensions of impact assessments to design and prioritize adaptation strategies. New developments in regional climate modeling and physical-impact modeling in Europe allow a better exploration of those dimensions. This article quantifies the potential consequences of climate change in Europe in four market impact categories (agriculture, river floods, coastal areas, and tourism) and one nonmarket impact (human health). The methodology integrates a set of coherent, high-resolution climate change projections and physical models into an economic modeling framework. We find that if the climate of the 2080s were to occur today, the annual loss in household welfare in the European Union (EU) resulting from the four market impacts would range between 0.2–1%. If the welfare loss is assumed to be constant over time, climate change may halve the EU's annual welfare growth. Scenarios with warmer temperatures and a higher rise in sea level result in more severe economic damage. However, the results show that there are large variations across European regions. Southern Europe, the British Isles, and Central Europe North appear most sensitive to climate change. Northern Europe, on the other hand, is the only region with net economic benefits, driven mainly by the positive effects on agriculture. Coastal systems, agriculture, and river flooding are the most important of the four market impacts assessed.

Ciscar, Juan-Carlos; Iglesias, Ana; Feyen, Luc; Szabo, Laszlo; Van Regemorter, Denise; Amelung, Bas; Nicholls, Robert; Watkiss, Paul; Christensen, Ole B.; Dankers, Rutger; Garrote, Luis; Goodess, Clare M.; Hunt, Alistair; Moreno, Alvaro; Richards, Julie; Soria, Antonio

2011-01-01

204

Telecommunications in Western Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distinctive character of each major national telecommunications operating agency in Europe is analyzed followed by a brief survey of the national networks and of their interrelation. The most typical transmission and switching systems are introduced, and a summary of the most recent developments is presented. This rapid survey of telecommunications in Europe shows that the political conditions have been

E. Deloraine

1964-01-01

205

Immigrant Languages in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio); "South Asian…

Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

206

In situ bioremediation in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Site remediation activity in Europe is increasing, even if not at the forced pace of the US. Although there is a better understanding of the benefits of bioremediation than of other approaches, especially about in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, relatively few projects have been carried out full-scale in Europe or in the US. Some engineering companies and large industrial companies in Europe are investigating bioremediation and biotreatment technologies, in some cases to solve their internal waste problems. Technologies related to the application of microorganisms to the soil, release of nutrients into the soil, and enhancement of microbial decontamination are being tested through various additives such as surfactants, ion exchange resins, limestone, or dolomite. New equipment has been developed for crushing and mixing or injecting and sparging the microorganisms, as have new reactor technologies (e.g., rotating aerator reactors, biometal sludge reactors, and special mobile containers for simultaneous storage, transportation, and biodegradation of contaminated soil). Some work has also been done with immobilized enzymes to support and restore enzymatic activities related to partial or total xenobiotic decontamination. Finally, some major programs funded by public and private institutions confirm that increasing numbers of firms have a working interest in bioremediation.

Porta, A. [Battelle Europe, Geneva (CH); Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

1993-06-01

207

High Energy Solar Physics Data in Europe (HESPE): a European project for the exploitation of hard X-ray data in solar flare physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been recognized since the early days of the space program that high-energy observations play a crucial role in understanding the basic mechanisms of solar eruptions. Unfortunately, the peculiar nature of this radiation makes it so difficult to extract useful information from it that non-conventional observational techniques together with complex data analysis procedures must be adopted. HESPE is a European project funded within the seventh Framework Program, with the aim of realizing computational methods for solar high-energy data analysis and technological tools for the intelligent exploitation of science-ready products. Such products and methods are put at disposal of the solar, heliospheric and space weather communities, who will exploit them in order to build flare prediction models and to integrate the information extracted from hard X-rays and gamma rays data, with the one extracted from other wavelengths data.

Piana, M.; Csillaghy, A.; Kontar, E. P.; Fletcher, L.; Veronig, A. M.; Vilmer, N.; Hurford, G. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Schwartz, R. A.; Massone, A.; Krucker, S.; Benvenuto, F.; Etesi, L. I.; Guo, J.; Hochmuth, N.; Reid, H.

2011-12-01

208

Project Effectiveness and the Balance of Power in Matrix Organizations: An Exploratory Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis was to develop a research design for measuring the relationship between project effectiveness and the balance of power between the functional and project managers in matrixed organizations during different project phases. Specif...

C. F. Peterson

1986-01-01

209

Screening and Rapid Molecular Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Prisons in Russia and Eastern Europe: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Prisons of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have high rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and are thought to drive general population tuberculosis (TB) epidemics. Effective prison case detection, though employing more expensive technologies, may reduce long-term treatment costs and slow MDR-TB transmission. Methods and Findings We developed a dynamic transmission model of TB and drug resistance matched to the epidemiology and costs in FSU prisons. We evaluated eight strategies for TB screening and diagnosis involving, alone or in combination, self-referral, symptom screening, mass miniature radiography (MMR), and sputum PCR with probes for rifampin resistance (Xpert MTB/RIF). Over a 10-y horizon, we projected costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and TB and MDR-TB prevalence. Using sputum PCR as an annual primary screening tool among the general prison population most effectively reduced overall TB prevalence (from 2.78% to 2.31%) and MDR-TB prevalence (from 0.74% to 0.63%), and cost US$543/QALY for additional QALYs gained compared to MMR screening with sputum PCR reserved for rapid detection of MDR-TB. Adding sputum PCR to the currently used strategy of annual MMR screening was cost-saving over 10 y compared to MMR screening alone, but produced only a modest reduction in MDR-TB prevalence (from 0.74% to 0.69%) and had minimal effect on overall TB prevalence (from 2.78% to 2.74%). Strategies based on symptom screening alone were less effective and more expensive than MMR-based strategies. Study limitations included scarce primary TB time-series data in FSU prisons and uncertainties regarding screening test characteristics. Conclusions In prisons of the FSU, annual screening of the general inmate population with sputum PCR most effectively reduces TB and MDR-TB prevalence, doing so cost-effectively. If this approach is not feasible, the current strategy of annual MMR is both more effective and less expensive than strategies using self-referral or symptom screening alone, and the addition of sputum PCR for rapid MDR-TB detection may be cost-saving over time. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Winetsky, Daniel E.; Negoescu, Diana M.; DeMarchis, Emilia H.; Almukhamedova, Olga; Dooronbekova, Aizhan; Pulatov, Dilshod; Vezhnina, Natalia; Owens, Douglas K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

2012-01-01

210

Effects of simulated natural variability on Arctic temperature projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A five-member ensemble with a coupled atmosphere-sea ice-ocean model is used to examine the effects of natural variability on climate projections for the Arctic. The individual ensemble members are initialized from a 300 years control experiment, each starting from different strengths and phases of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The ensemble members are integrated for 80 years with a 1%

Asgeir Sorteberg; Tore Furevik; Helge Drange; Nils Gunnar Kvamstø

2005-01-01

211

EWork in Southern Europe. IES Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Part of the EMERGENCE project to measure and map employment relocation in a global economy in the new communications environment, this report on eWork in southern Europe (SE) combines results of a European employer survey, case studies, and data from other sources. Chapter 1 analyzes national and sector dimensions. Chapter 2 studies eWork…

Altieri, G.; Birindelli, L.; Bracaglia, P.; Tartaglione, C.; Albarracin, D.; Vaquero, J.; Fissamber, V.

212

Impact of extreme events on the carbon cycle of cropland in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme weather events will increase in frequency in future and will affect the carbon cycle. To get a better understanding of these impacts the CarboExtreme project investigates these effects on different land uses. As part of this project the study presented here focuses on droughts and heat waves and their impact on cropland in Europe. Net primary production (NPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) are simulated for 1901-2100; results from two periods (1971-2000 and 2071-2100) are presented here. The simulation results of 2003 are used as a reference for a "dry" year, based on several publications that describe a spatially wide-spread drought in Central Europe for this year. The simulations are performed with the process-based model DailyDayCent. Beside the impact of weather conditions, the carbon cycle of croplands is strongly affected by management (e.g. crop rotation, tillage, fertilizer), which is difficult to simulate or predict. To consider these effects, data from the NitroEurope project are aggregated to the spatial and temporal scale of CarboExtreme. Additionally, two approaches are taken to isolate the impact of the climate from the impact of management: First, crop (wheat) and management are assumed to be constant over time (not in space); second, varying crop rotations are considered, with variable management practice. The results show the impact of droughts on the European level, as well as general effects of climate change on NPP and NEE. The simulation results for wheat show the highest values of NPP in Central Europe and low values in the South-West and the North of Europe for the control period 1971-2000. This distribution is similar for the second period (2071-2100), but increased (up to 100 gC per square meter). The comparison with the "dry" year 2003 shows a strong decrease of the productivity in Central Europe, but small impacts in the East, North and South-West of Europe. The pattern for NEEs is similar and shows the croplands as a small source of carbon (except Northern Europe), which increases in the second period (2071-2100).

Kuhnert, Matthias; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Smith, Pete

2013-04-01

213

Islamist Extremism in Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the vast majority of Muslims in Europe are not involved in radical activities, Islamist extremists and vocal fringe communities that advocate terrorism exist and reportedly have provided cover for terrorist cells. Germany and Spain were identifie...

K. Archick J. Rollins S. Woehrel

2005-01-01

214

JPRS Report, West Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on Western Europe. Titles include: Flemish Associations Envision Future of Communities, Brussels; CP Old Guard Described as Bitter Following Congress Setback; Poll Finds Terror...

1987-01-01

215

SETI in Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The contribution to SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) and to bioastronomy by European workers is evaluated. It reaches the level of 24 percent of the total international input. Contributors are France, Austria, and Italy. Europe contributes ...

J. Heidmann

1992-01-01

216

Human Thelaziasis, Europe  

PubMed Central

Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm is a nematode transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores in Europe. It has also been reported in the Far East in humans. We report T. callipaeda infection in 4 human patients in Italy and France.

Dutto, Moreno

2008-01-01

217

West Europe Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains articles about Western Europe. Some topics discussed are socialism, political parties, international relations, foreign policy, sociology, consumerism, economics, military operations, commerce, industries, energy, trade, private inv...

1987-01-01

218

JPRS Report, East Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains articles from foreign periodicals that have been translated into English. These articles concern Eastern Europe. Topics include political science, political parties, socialism, labor, disarmament, militia, culture, and education.

1987-01-01

219

Living in Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weblogs on just about every topic imaginable (including a few which no one would have imagined) are now available. And, after some time spent living in the shadows of traditional formats such as television and mainstream periodicals, they have garnered the attention of major media programs. One of the more interesting weblog sites out there is Living in Europe, which consists of a cooperative of bloggers and writers who contribute essays, photographs, personal diaries, and news items from Europe. The perspectives section of the site offers some commentaries on the expansion of the European Union and a diary of a foreigner living in Turkey. The photos section features contributions from various parts of Europe, including some musings and photos from Catalonia and Bristol. Visitors who develop a penchant for the site may sign up to help with the administration of the site, or just offer their own commentaries on life in Europe.

220

Europe's first farmers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

People migrating from the Middle East brought farming techniques to present-day Germany and other parts of central Europe about 7,500 years ago. For years, scientists have been arguing over whether people with European ancestors are closely related to these first farmers. Some scientists say yes. Others say no and argue instead that people with European roots are closely related to the humans who lived in Europe long before the first farmers showed up.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2005-11-10

221

A New Space Strategy for Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper shows how there is a one-time opportunity for Europe to take the lead in reducing the cost of access to space by adopting an aviation approach to transport to and from low earth orbit. Such an approach, using launchers like aeroplanes to replace those like missiles, was widely promoted in the 1960s but has never happened, initially because of Cold War pressures and then because of established habits of thinking. SpaceShipOne has shown that it is now possible to catch up rapidly with what might have been, using technologies developed since the 1960s for other projects. Europe is well placed to lead this breakthrough.

Ashford, D.

222

Estimates of the cancer incidence and mortality in Europe in 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Monitoring the evolution of the cancer burden in Europe is of great value. Estimates of the cancer burden in Europe have been published for 2004 and estimates are now being presented for cancer incidence and mortality in Europe for 2006. Methods: The most recent sources of cancer incidence and mortality data have been collected and projections have been carried

J. Ferlay; P. Autier; M. Boniol; M. Heanue; M. Colombet; P. Boyle

2007-01-01

223

Feasibility and Effectiveness of Indicator Condition-Guided Testing for HIV: Results from HIDES I (HIV Indicator Diseases across Europe Study)  

PubMed Central

Improved methods for targeting HIV testing among patients most likely to be infected are required; HIDES I aimed to define the methodology of a European wide study of HIV prevalence in individuals presenting with one of eight indicator conditions/diseases (ID); sexually transmitted infection, lymphoma, cervical or anal cancer/dysplasia, herpes zoster, hepatitis B/C, mononucleosis-like illness, unexplained leukocytopenia/thrombocytopenia and seborrheic dermatitis/exanthema, and to identify those with an HIV prevalence of >0.1%, a level determined to be cost effective. A staff questionnaire was performed. From October 2009– February 2011, individuals, not known to be HIV positive, presenting with one of the ID were offered an HIV test; additional information was collected on previous HIV testing behaviour and recent medical history. A total of 3588 individuals from 16 centres were included. Sixty-six tested positive for HIV, giving an HIV prevalence of 1.8% [95% CI: 1.42–2.34]; all eight ID exceeded 0.1% prevalence. Of those testing HIV positive, 83% were male, 58% identified as MSM and 9% were injecting drug users. Twenty percent reported previously having potentially HIV-related symptoms and 52% had previously tested HIV negative (median time since last test: 1.58 years); which together with the median CD4 count at diagnosis (400 cell/uL) adds weight to this strategy being effective in diagnosing HIV at an earlier stage. A positive test was more likely for non-white individuals, MSM, injecting drug users and those testing in non-Northern regions. HIDES I describes an effective strategy to detect undiagnosed HIV infection. All eight ID fulfilled the >0.1% criterion for cost effectiveness. All individuals presenting to any health care setting with one of these ID should be strongly recommended an HIV test. A strategy is being developed in collaboration with ECDC and WHO Europe to guide the implementation of this novel public health initiative across Europe.

Sullivan, Ann K.; Raben, Dorthe; Reekie, Joanne; Rayment, Michael; Mocroft, Amanda; Esser, Stefan; Leon, Agathe; Begovac, Josip; Brinkman, Kees; Zangerle, Robert; Grzeszczuk, Anna; Vassilenko, Anna; Hadziosmanovic, Vesna; Krasnov, Maksym; Sonnerborg, Anders; Clumeck, Nathan; Gatell, Jose; Gazzard, Brian; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Rockstroh, Jurgen; Lundgren, Jens D.

2013-01-01

224

Radiative Enhancement Effects on Flame Spread (REEFS) Project Studied 'Green House' Effects on Fire Spread.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Radiative Enhancement Effects on Flame Spread (REEFS) project, slated for flight aboard the International Space Station, reached a major milestone by holding its Science Concept Review this year. REEFS is led by principal investigator Paul Ronney from...

S. A. Gokoglu P. Ronney

2003-01-01

225

Influence of circulation types on temperature extremes in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to determine the influence of atmospheric circulation on the recently observed changes in the number of warm days and cold days in Europe. The temperature series for stations in the European Climate Assessment and Data set project and the Grosswetterlagen (GWL) were used here. The temperature series were first adjusted for global warming before determining the indices for cold and warm extremes. The 29 GWLs were grouped in ten circulation types. Then, the number of days a certain circulation type occurred was determined for each winter (December, January and February) and summer (June, July and August). The relation between the circulation type frequencies and the temperature indices was modelled with a multi-regression fit over the period 1947-1974 and tested for the period 1974-2000. The difference between the observed indices and the calculated indices in the second period (using the fit coefficients for the first period) shows a warming effect for both winter and summer and for at least the warm day index, which is unaccounted for by the global warming trend. A simple snow model shows that variations in the European snow cover extent are likely influencing the cold and warm day indices in winter: there is a correlation between the decreasing trend of the snow cover extent in Europe and the increasing (decreasing) trend of the number of warm (cold) days for stations throughout Europe.

van den Besselaar, E. J. M.; Klein Tank, A. M. G.; van der Schrier, G.

2009-05-01

226

Relation between temperature indices and circulation types in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to determine the influence of atmospheric circulation on the recent changes in the number of warm days and cold days in Europe. This influence was modelled with a multi-regression fit over the period 1947-1974 and tested for the period 1974-2000. The temperature series for stations in the European Climate Assessment and Dataset project (eca.knmi.nl) and the GrossWetterLagen (GWL) were used as input. These temperature series were first adjusted for global warming before determining the cold day and warm day indices. The 29 GWLs were grouped in ten circulation types. Then the number of days a certain circulation type occurred during the winter period was determined for each year. The difference between the observed indices and the calculated indices, based on the regression with circulation types, in the second period indicates a warming effect, which is unaccounted for by the global warming trend. One hypothesis for this might be that the influence of each circulation type (or at least a few) has changed in recent years, i.e. the same circulation type brings more warm or cold air to Europe than in the past. For example, changes in the snow cover extent over Europe might change the influence of circulation types bringing air from the North or the East. These results have important implications not only for understanding the observed changes in the past, but also for evaluation of future climate projections of extremes. Only if the climate models succeed in reproducing the observed relations, we can have confidence in the projected future changes in extremes.

van den Besselaar, E. J. M.; Klein Tank, A. M. G.; van der Schrier, G.

2009-04-01

227

[Project to improve perinatal care effectiveness in Vietnamese women].  

PubMed

The number of new immigrant female spouses, particularly from Vietnam, continues to increase steadily in Taiwan. However, these women are nearly all young and become pregnant early, while still in an immature psychosomatic status. Furthermore, various life adaptations are stacked against their maintaining good personal health or providing good healthcare to their babies. Therefore, the aim of this project was to understand the problems faced by Vietnamese women during the perinatal period in order to improve care effectiveness. Following data analysis, problems identified included lack of completeness of perinatal care processes, a dearth of education tools in the Vietnamese language and poor communications, which resulted in poor nursing education outcomes and a low 1.64-point satisfaction with nursing service (total = 4 points). After (1) revising perinatal care processes, (2) producing Vietnamese communication cards, nursing education pamphlets, CD of notices during pregnancy, and video-CDs for baby bathing and breast feeding skills, and (3) holding mother classes in cooperation with health stations, perinatal checkups during pregnancy increased from 26% to 83.9%; proper practice of Lamaze during labor rose from 43% to 80.6%; accurately performed postnatal uterus massage increased from 46% to 90.3%; use of proper baby bathing techniques rose from 39% to 77.4%; proper breastfeeding increased from 57% to 100% and satisfaction with nursing services increased to 3.78 points. These improvements achieved project aims. This project not only improved the effectiveness of perinatal care for Vietnamese women, but also improved their satisfaction with nursing services. PMID:19051175

Tsai, Mei-Niang; Kao, Li-Ru; Kang, Chun-Mei

2008-12-01

228

Holocene to contemporary fluvial sediment budgets in small glacier-fed valley-fjord systems (ESF-NRF SedyMONT - Norway Project, SedyMONT, TOPO-EUROPE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sediment budget study contains analysis and quantification of the processes of sediment production, storage and transfer. For constructing a sediment budget at a small-catchment scale (50-100 km2) it is necessary to integrate the temporal and spatial variations of supply of material from sediment sources, sediment transport and storage and to identify how far the different system components are coupled to each other. The analysis of sedimentary fluxes and budgets as well as their controls at different timescales (Holocene to contemporary) is a basis for the assessment of complex landscape responses to Holocene to recent changes in temperature, precipitation and runoff. This PhD project is part of the NFR funded Norwegian Individual Project within the ESF SedyMONT (Timescales of sediment dynamics, climate and topographic change in mountain landscapes) TOPO-EUROPE Programme. Two neighbouring glacier-fed valley-fjord systems (Erdalen & Bødalen) with a different topographic inheritance from Pleistocene glaciations are compared. It is of special interest how the different valley morphometries have influenced Holocene to contemporary sediment fluxes and budgets. Different approaches for sediment budget studies are used to interpret and understand the spatial and temporal sediment flux variability during the Holocene with the main focus on i) the quantification and analysis of storage element volumes for estimation of Holocene sedimentation rates and sediment yields, ii) the analysis of the spatial and temporal sediment flux variability, iii) the analysis of the linkages between sediment transfer and storage, iv) the analysis of controlling factors for postglacial, subrecent and contemporary sediment fluxes and v) the construction of Holocene to contemporary sediment budgets for Erdalen and Bødalen. Both valleys are instrumented with a year-round monitoring system (runoff, suspended and solute transport) for analysing fluvial sediment fluxes. The results enable to link sediment transport and runoff (events) and the spatial and temporal variability of sediment transport processes. In addition, several channel test stretches in the two catchments are defined. Channel surveys include seasonally repeated channel morphometry studies and pepple counts for bedload transport and storage estimations. Sediment traps are deployed to indentify different sediment sources using grain size and SEM analysis. Lake sediment investigations are focused on i) quantifying post-Little Ice Age to contemporary sedimentation rates, ii) the temporal variability of process rates and iii) the detection and analysis of sediment sources. Sediment cores are retrieved in defined lakes within Erdalen and Bødalen. Geophysical methods (Georadar, Geoseismic) are applied for calculation of the total valley infills and for interpretation of the stratigraphic architecture, with the goal to define the controlling factors for the postglacial sediment storage within the two glacially eroded valleys. This research contributes to the understanding of controls of Holocene to contemporary sedimentary processes and budgets in formerly glaciated steep mountain environments. This presentation was supported by the EUROCORES programme TOPO-EUROPE of the European Science Foundation.

Liermann, Susan; Beylich, Achim A.; Rubensdotter, Lena; Hansen, Louise

2010-05-01

229

Estimation of carbon mass fluxes over Europe using the C-Fix model and Euroflux data  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the aims of the EU funded project Long-term regional effects of climate change on European forests: impact assessment and consequences for carbon budgets (LTEEF-II, ENV4-CT97-0577) is to quantify the fluxes of carbon and water between vegetation (forests) and atmosphere and to assess the carbon balance of forests in Europe.This paper presents the results of the application of the

Frank Veroustraete; Hendrik Sabbe; Herman Eerens

2002-01-01

230

A New Tool for Effective and Efficient Project Management  

SciTech Connect

Organizations routinely handle thousands of projects per year, and it is difficult to manage all these projects concurrently. Too often, projects do not get the attention they need when they need it. Management inattention can lead to late projects or projects with less than desirable content and/or deliverables. This paper discusses the application of Visual Project Management (VPM) as a method to track and manage projects. The VPM approach proved to be a powerful management tool without the overhead and restrictions of traditional management methods.

Willett, Jesse A.

2011-12-01

231

The effects of a regional telepathology project: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Telepathology, which is an emerging form of telemedicine in Canada, is defined as the electronic transmission of pathological images, usually derived from microscopes, from one location to another. There are various applications of telepathology, including case referral for an expert opinion, provision of an emergency service in the absence of a resident pathologist, and education. Until now, there has been relatively little use of telepathology for core diagnostic services in the absence of a local pathologist, but this practice is likely to increase in the future. The Laval University Integrated Health Network is in the process of deploying a telepathology system, primarily to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to small hospitals in sparsely populated areas which are experiencing a severe shortage of on-site pathologists. The telepathology project involves 17 hospitals located in five regions of eastern Quebec, Canada. This paper describes the study protocol that will be used to evaluate the benefits associated with the project. Methods/Design A panel of experts was first assembled by Canada Health Infoway to agree on a set of benefits indicators that could be applied to all telepathology projects across Canada. Using the set of indicators as an input, we have developed a three-step study protocol. First, a survey questionnaire will be distributed to appraise the way pathologists, pathology technologists and surgeons perceive the telepathology system and its impacts. Second, a series of semi-structured interviews will be conducted with project leaders and telepathology users at sites that are representative of all the hospitals in the Laval University Integrated Health Network. The overall aim is to better understand the expected and unexpected effects of telepathology on health care professionals and patients as well as on the regional organization and delivery of care services. Finally, a pre-post design using secondary data is proposed to evaluate a wide array of tangible benefits to the patients, the health care providers, the hospitals, and the region as a whole. Discussion The Laval University Integrated Health Network's telepathology project is expected to yield positive and significant results that are relevant internationally. Our findings will provide valuable information on the nature and extent of benefits associated with telepathology systems intended to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to remote hospitals experiencing a shortage of specialists.

2012-01-01

232

USE OF PROJECT PARTNERING IN CONSTRUCTION Examining the Effect of Project Integration and Target Pricing in Three Pilot Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a trend in organizing the building process with stronger focus on better integration of the different actors and use of new procurement methods. Our experiences started with the research project \\

OLA LÆDRE; TORE I. HAUGEN

233

How Europe regulates its genes  

SciTech Connect

As Europe moves toward unification in 1992, more than two dozen regulations and directives that will affect biotech are working their way through the complex European legislative system. The result could mean tough scrutiny for genetically engineered products. One reason is that the European Community (EC) has chosen to examine genetically engineered products as a special category - an approach the FDA has rejected. Another is that the EC is considering enacting regulations that would mandate consideration of the socioeconomic effects of biotech products in addition to their safety. In addition, some - particularly in industry - fear a nightmare of overlapping and contradictory regulations. It's too soon to tell how well the European system will work, or how stifling the regulations might be. In all likelihood the regulations emerging in Europe won't be demonstrably superior - or inferior - to the American ones, just different, with different strengths and weaknesses. But since many US biotech companies are looking to the huge market that a unified Europe represents, the specifics of those strengths and weaknesses will ultimately be of more than passing interest.

Balter, M.

1991-06-07

234

How secular is Europe?  

PubMed

A large body of literature has developed, yielding evidence that religion in general and Churches and Church leaders in particular have lost their once dominant position in contemporary Europe. Evidence is often cited in declining levels of church attendance. Whether Europe should also be qualified as secularized in terms of religious beliefs remains unclear. In this paper we investigate the degree to which European people are secular, focusing not only on religious practices, but also on beliefs. We argue that trajectories of religious change occur all over Europe, but not at similar speeds. We formulate hypotheses regarding the differences in the degree to which individuals and societies are secularized. Data from the recent European Values Study surveys are used to empirically test these hypotheses concerning patterns of variation in religious beliefs and practices. The findings provide evidence in favour of secularization theories and in contradiction to rational choice theories. In Europe, religious pluralism produces not higher levels, but lower levels of religiosity. The findings also reveal that religious denomination as well as cultural and socio-economic heritages are important factors in explaining the patchwork pattern in levels of religiosity and religious participation in contemporary Europe. PMID:16759195

Halman, Loek; Draulans, Veerle

2006-06-01

235

Have streamflow droughts in Europe become more severe or frequent?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in the magnitude and frequency of droughts will have extensive impacts on water management, agriculture and aquatic ecosystems. With the projected global temperature increase, scientists generally agree that the global hydrological cycle will intensify and suggest that extremes will become or have already become more common. In this study, a pan-European dataset of more than 600 daily streamflow records from the European Water Archive (EWA) was analysed to detect spatial and temporal changes in streamflow droughts. Four different time periods were analysed: 1962-1990, 1962-1995, 1930-1995 and 1911-1995. The focus was on hydrological droughts derived by applying the threshold level approach, which defines droughts as periods during which the streamflow is below a certain threshold. The Annual Maximum Series (AMS) of drought severity and the frequency of droughts in Partial Duration Series (PDS) were studied. Despite several reports on recent droughts in Europe, the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and a resampling test for trend detection showed that it is not possible to conclude that drought conditions in general have become more severe or frequent. The period analysed and the selection of stations strongly influenced the regional pattern. For most stations, no significant changes were detected. However, distinct regional differences were found. Within the period 1962-1990 examples of increasing drought deficit volumes were found in Spain, the eastern part of Eastern Europe and in large parts of the UK, whereas decreasing drought deficit volumes occurred in large parts of Central Europe and in the western part of Eastern Europe. Trends in drought deficit volumes or durations could, to a large extent, be explained through changes in precipitation or artificial influences in the catchment. Changes in the number of drought events per year were determined by the combined effect of climate and catchment characteristics such as storage capacity. The importance of the time period chosen for trend analysis is illustrated using two very long time series.

Hisdal, Hege; Stahl, Kerstin; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Demuth, Siegfried

2001-03-01

236

The effect of desiccation on UMTRA Project radon barrier materials  

SciTech Connect

The proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards (40 CFR 192) require that Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project remedial action designs meet low numerical limits for contaminants contained in water or vapors exiting the disposal cell embankments. To meet the standards, a cover of compacted, fine-grained soil is placed over UMTRA Project embankments. One of the functions of this cover is to limit infiltration into the disposal cell . The hydraulic conductivity of this infiltration barrier must be low in order to reduce the resultant seepage from the base of the cell to the extent necessary to comply with the proposed EPA groundwater standards. Another function of this cover is to limit the emission of radon gas. The air permeability of the cover must be low in order to reduce radon emissions to comply with EPA standards. Fine-grained soils exposed to evaporation will dry. Continued exposure will cause shrinking that, if allowed to continue, will eventually result in the development of cracks. The results of the cracking could be an increase in the hydraulic conductivity and an increase in the air permeability. This could then allow additional infiltration and increased radon emissions. Cracking of the radon barrier has been noted at one UMTRA Project location. The potential for cracking of the radon barrier during construction has been addressed by requiring moistening of previously compacted surfaces prior to placing additional lifts. The efficacy of these treatments has not been verified. The potential for cracking after construction of the cover is completed has also not been examined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential for cracking of the radon barrier both during construction and after completion of the cover. The effect of shrinkage cracking on the performance of the radon barrier will also be examined.

Not Available

1990-11-01

237

Predicting effectiveness of construction project management: Decision-support tool for competitive bidding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents construction project management effectiveness modelling from the construction management organization\\u000a perspective. The paper reports on construction project performance data collected from construction management companies in\\u000a Lithuania and the United States of America. Construction project management effectiveness model (CPMEM) was established by\\u000a applying artificial neural networks (ANN) methodology. The discussions of project management effectiveness (success) factors\\u000a identified in

Rasa Apanaviciene; Arvydas Juodis

2006-01-01

238

SIDASS project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SIDASS project “A spatially distributed simulation model predicting the dynamics of agro-physical soil state within Eastern and Western Europe countries for the selection of management practices to prevent soil erosion based on sustainable soil–water interactions” required a method for estimating the dates (or soil water conditions) under which soil tillage operations could be performed. For this purpose, methods were

A. R. Dexter; E. A. Czy?; M. Birkás; E. Diaz-Pereira; E. Dumitru; R. Enache; H. Fleige; R. Horn; K. Rajkaj; D. de la Rosa; C. Simota

2005-01-01

239

Seasonal effects on a mars aerocapture manoeuvre, an ISU project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design project for the 1994 ISU Summer Session was to study a mission to Mars, which included use of an aerobraking manoeuvre. The effect of atmospheric conditions on this manoeuvre has been the subject of further study work between ISU participants as described in this paper. A computer simulation of Mars aerobraking manoeuvres has been developed with 3 degrees of freedom, based on software produced during the Summer Session project. Furthermore a software module was developed for optimisation of aerobraking manoeuvres in order to identify optimal initial trajectories and steering programmes. The optimisation variable in this case was the total heatload on the vehicle, which was minimised. An optimum steering programme was obtained for fixed start and end conditions for use in the simulator. The simulator was run with atmosphere models for different latitudes and seasons in order to study their influence on the manoeuvre. It was found that the different models have a significant influence on the manoeuvre and that the season in which the manoeuvre is performed has to be taken into account for mission planning purposes.

Sanders, H. M.

1996-01-01

240

Climate-change effects on extreme precipitation in central Europe: uncertainties of scenarios based on regional climate models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations as well as most climate model simulations are generally in accord with the hypothesis that the hydrologic cycle\\u000a should intensify and become highly volatile with the greenhouse-gas-induced climate change, although uncertainties of these\\u000a projections as well as the spatial and seasonal variability of the changes are much larger than for temperature extremes.\\u000a In this study, we examine scenarios of

Jan Kyselý; Romana Beranová

2009-01-01

241

The greying of Europe.  

PubMed Central

About a quarter of the population of Europe is now of pensionable age. Facilities for caring for very old or disabled people differ throughout Europe in scope and means of funding, and the countries of the European Union are far from equity in the status of pensioners. Health expectations have increased in older people--most of the calculated gain in life expectancy is likely to be without disability. Most countries now have specialist geriatric medicine facilities, and international research programmes are under way. Images p1283-a p1285-a

Dall, J. L.

1994-01-01

242

Project team effectiveness: the case for sufficient setup and top management involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Launching and supporting successful maintenance projects is an overlooked aspect of maintenance management research. This paper examines the effects of four important factors on project success: resource allocation, team leader authority, significant project objectives, and top management involvement. Additionally, we investigate the moderating effects of top management involvement on the relationship between inputs and team performance. By examining the responses

S. A. McComb; D. M. Kennedy; S. G. Green; W. D. Compton

2008-01-01

243

The Manhattan Project and its Effects on American Women Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been many detailed historical accounts of the Manhattan Project, but few have recognized the technical role women scientists and engineers crucially played in the Project's success. Despite their absence from these prominent accounts, recent studies have revealed that, in fact, women participated in every non-combat operation associated with the Manhattan Project. With such extensive participation of women and

Samuel Fletcher

2008-01-01

244

Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This seventh edition of the Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe, available in English and French, was posted on the Web in September 2001. The atlas, a project of Christos Nussli, consists of maps "depicting with accuracy the states of this continent every first day of each centennial year from AD 1 to AD 2000." A legend helps users understand each of the maps, which are presented as expandable thumbnails. The site also links to a bibliography and maps from De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. Though the site functions in part as an advertisement for Nussli's CD version of the atlas, it is nonetheless a useful stop in its own right.

Nussli, Christos.

245

A surveillance network for meningococcal disease in Europe.  

PubMed

Between 1999 and 2004, the European Union Invasive Bacterial Infections Surveillance Network (EU-IBIS) received c. 50,000 reports of meningococcal disease from 27 participating countries. Analysis has demonstrated a major decline in the incidence of invasive disease in those countries that have introduced routine vaccination against serogroup C infection. The establishment of rapid reporting of W135 and B2a/B2b strains has been able to provide early reassurance that these strains are not emerging as major public health problems in Europe. Between September 2001 and February 2005, the EU-MenNet project offered further opportunities for enhancing this data resource. Collaborative projects included: improving the EU-IBIS website; reviewing case ascertainment in Europe; reviewing cost-effectiveness studies for meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccination; international comparisons of MCC vaccine efficacy; and mathematical modelling studies. In addition, linking of data from the European Meningococcal Multi-locus Sequence Type Centre to epidemiological data was performed. Particular clonal complexes were found to be preferentially associated with certain serogroups. Case fatality was also found to vary with clonal complex, suggesting that genotype can be a marker for hypervirulence. The importance of close collaboration between networks of epidemiologists, microbiologists, and the wider scientific and public health community is demonstrated. PMID:17168995

Trotter, Caroline L; Chandra, Manosree; Cano, Rosa; Larrauri, Amparo; Ramsay, Mary E; Brehony, Carina; Jolley, Keith A; Maiden, Martin C J; Heuberger, Sigrid; Frosch, Matthias

2006-12-01

246

Patterns of Smoking Prevalence among the Elderly in Europe  

PubMed Central

Scant information is available on determinants of smoking prevalence in the vulnerable population of the elderly, particularly in Europe. Therefore, we analyzed smoking patterns among older adults (?65 years old), using data from a representative survey based on 3,071 elderly, conducted in 17 European countries in 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project. Overall smoking prevalence in 17 European countries was 11.5% (15.3% in men and 8.6% in women). An inverse relation with level of education was observed among men, while no specific pattern was evident among women. Smoking prevalence was highest in eastern/central Europe for men (20.3%) and northern Europe for women (13.1%). In both sexes combined, smokers were more frequent in countries with low implementation of tobacco control activities (14.9%). Anti-tobacco campaigns and smoking cessation interventions specifically targeted to the elderly are urgently needed in Europe.

Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boccia, Stefania; Murisic, Bojana; Gallus, Silvano

2013-01-01

247

Feasibility and effectiveness of indicator condition-guided testing for HIV: results from HIDES I (HIV indicator diseases across Europe study).  

PubMed

Improved methods for targeting HIV testing among patients most likely to be infected are required; HIDES I aimed to define the methodology of a European wide study of HIV prevalence in individuals presenting with one of eight indicator conditions/diseases (ID); sexually transmitted infection, lymphoma, cervical or anal cancer/dysplasia, herpes zoster, hepatitis B/C, mononucleosis-like illness, unexplained leukocytopenia/thrombocytopenia and seborrheic dermatitis/exanthema, and to identify those with an HIV prevalence of >0.1%, a level determined to be cost effective. A staff questionnaire was performed. From October 2009- February 2011, individuals, not known to be HIV positive, presenting with one of the ID were offered an HIV test; additional information was collected on previous HIV testing behaviour and recent medical history. A total of 3588 individuals from 16 centres were included. Sixty-six tested positive for HIV, giving an HIV prevalence of 1.8% [95% CI: 1.42-2.34]; all eight ID exceeded 0.1% prevalence. Of those testing HIV positive, 83% were male, 58% identified as MSM and 9% were injecting drug users. Twenty percent reported previously having potentially HIV-related symptoms and 52% had previously tested HIV negative (median time since last test: 1.58 years); which together with the median CD4 count at diagnosis (400 cell/uL) adds weight to this strategy being effective in diagnosing HIV at an earlier stage. A positive test was more likely for non-white individuals, MSM, injecting drug users and those testing in non-Northern regions. HIDES I describes an effective strategy to detect undiagnosed HIV infection. All eight ID fulfilled the >0.1% criterion for cost effectiveness. All individuals presenting to any health care setting with one of these ID should be strongly recommended an HIV test. A strategy is being developed in collaboration with ECDC and WHO Europe to guide the implementation of this novel public health initiative across Europe. PMID:23341910

Sullivan, Ann K; Raben, Dorthe; Reekie, Joanne; Rayment, Michael; Mocroft, Amanda; Esser, Stefan; Leon, Agathe; Begovac, Josip; Brinkman, Kees; Zangerle, Robert; Grzeszczuk, Anna; Vassilenko, Anna; Hadziosmanovic, Vesna; Krasnov, Maksym; Sönnerborg, Anders; Clumeck, Nathan; Gatell, José; Gazzard, Brian; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Lundgren, Jens D

2013-01-15

248

Public Relations on Fusion in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summary will be presented of PR efforts on fusion energy research in Europe. A 3-D movie of a fusion research experimental reactor has been realized at the start of this year. It has been made entirely on virtual animation basis. Two versions exists, a short version of 3 min., as a video clip, and a longer version of nearly 8 min. Both could be viewed in 3D, using special projections and passive glasses or in normal VHS video projections. A new CD-ROM for individual and classroom use will be presented, discussing (i) the different energy forms, (ii) general principles of fusion, (iii) current research efforts and (iv) future prospects of fusion. This CD-ROM is now produced in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese Several new brochures and leaflets intended to increase the public awareness on fusion in Europe will be on display.

Ongena, J.; van Oost, G.; Paris, P. J.

2000-10-01

249

Central Europe – management training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the experiences of the European Operations of the Otis Elevator Company in setting up joint ventures in Central Europe, viewed from the management training perspective. Relates the problems of designing and putting together a program for the top management teams of the three countries concerned, Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic. Examines the reasons for creating a program taught

Colin R. Coast

1995-01-01

250

Asparagopsis in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE spread of Asparagopsis in Europe has rightly attracted considerable attention, but the excitement with which each new record has been greeted has tended to obscure certain unanswered questions regarding two species at present accepted, A. armata Harv. and A. taxiformis (Delile) Trev.

Peter S. Dixon

1964-01-01

251

Welcome to Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bruegel Fellow Jakob von Weizsäcker argues that Europe needs more high-skilled migration and the debate on low-skilled migration should not be an excuse to slow this process down. Rather, the EU should use a couple of tools to encourage high-skilled migration: a skill-based points system with a â??Blue Card\\

2006-01-01

252

Responsible advertising in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines how self-regulation in advertising, within a framework of legislation, can help reverse the trends toward childhood obesity and excessive consumerism by protecting children from undesirable advertising practices. Outlines how this works in Europe: a code of advertising practice is created, based on the codes of the International Chamber of Commerce, and a self-regulatory organisation (SRO) is formed to operate

Oliver Gray

2005-01-01

253

Taenia saginata in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the EU directives that regulate meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis, Taenia saginata is still present in Europe and causes economic losses due to condemnation, refrigeration and downgrading of infected carcasses. The main reasons for this persistence include the low sensitivity of current meat inspection protocols, the dissemination and survival of eggs in the environment and cattle husbandry

P. Dorny; N. Praet

2007-01-01

254

Satellite broadcasting in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three main communications services are recognized by the International Telecommunications Union: the Fixed Service, the Mobile Service and the Broadcasting Service. In Europe, EUTELSAT has just begun to exploit the first ECS satellite. The ESA-launched satellite was originally designed to provide an international public telecommunication service, however, the satellite will be used now almost exclusively for TV program distribution, while

P. Bartholome

1984-01-01

255

Competitive Intelligence in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considers the development of competitive intelligence as a formal discipline, noting that the use of competitive intelligence in Europe has been stimulated by developments in the USA. Notes that the pressure on companies to move from being competitor aware to being competitor intelligent is driven by the need to have a competitive strategy, the ability to use the intelligence once

Chris West

1999-01-01

256

Childbirth in eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's experiences of pregnancy and childbirth in the countries of central and eastern Europe are explored in this paper.A capacity building intervention programme in St Petersburg, Russia, which attempts to reform practices within the city, is described. The difficulties inherent in integrating differing cultural approaches to childbirth are highlighted.

Beverley Chalmers

1997-01-01

257

Reprocessing in Europe today  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reprocessing of irradiated fuel and the ancillary services of transport ; and finishing have been organized to serve the nuclear power industrv within ; Europe around United Reprocessors. It was formed in October 1971 between the ; major nuclear countries, France, Germany and the United Kingdom to coordinate R & ; D with plant design and construction and supporting services

Zuehlke

1973-01-01

258

FISHERIES OCEANOGRAPHY IN EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any review of the status and acconiplishmellts of fisheries oceanography would be incomplete without an account of fisheries oceanography in Europe, where the science began and is still vigorous after more than 50 years. Fisheries oceanography may be said to have begun with the establishment in 1902 of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, by representa- tives

MAURICE BLACKBURN

259

Europe's Growth Emergency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highlights: The European Union growth agenda has become even more pressing because growth is needed to support public and private sector deleveraging, reduce the fragility of the banking sector, counter the falling behind of southern European countries and prove that Europe is still a worthwhile place to invest. The crisis has had a similar impact on most European countries and

Zsolt Darvas; Jean Pisani-Ferry

2011-01-01

260

Europe's growth emergency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union growth agenda has become even more pressing because growth is needed to support public and private sector deleveraging, reduce the fragility of the banking sector, counter the falling behind of southern European countries and prove that Europe is still a worthwhile place to invest. The crisis has a similar impact on most European countries and the US:

Zsolt Darvas; Jean Pisani-Ferry

2011-01-01

261

Institutionalizing Intersectionality in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Special Issue analyses the current transformations in anti-discrimination and equality policies in Europe. As a result of the expansion of European Union (EU) law to combat discrimination, a number of European countries have reformed their equality bodies and law. This has resulted in the creation of ‘single equality bodies’ in, for example, Britain, Norway and some Central and Eastern

Johanna Kantola; Kevät Nousiainen

2009-01-01

262

Democratization of Eastern Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are many experts who claimed that the democratization process in Eastern Europe was inevitable and that the events of the past forty years were a prelude to events as they unfolded in 1989. This study focuses on the development of Communism througho...

S. M. Backman

1990-01-01

263

HRD Models in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains two papers from a symposium on human resource development (HRD) in Europe moderated by Wim Nijhof at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "HRD Roles in Germany" (Linda E. Odenthal, Wim J. Nijhof) reports on a German study based on a study of the job profiles of HRD practitioners in the United…

1996

264

Renewable Energy in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

areas of motivation to support RES. The characteristics of RES lead to public benefits in all of these areas. Additionally, the growing integration of Europe is influencing the importance and the future development of RES. At the moment national goals and political measures still determine substantially the actual growth of RES. But besides national targets for the extension of RES,

Joachim Nitsch; Wolfram Krewitt; Ole Langniss

265

Acid rain in Europe and the United States: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the evolution of science and policies to control acid rain in Europe and the United States over the past several decades. Acid rain gained prominence in the late 1960s because of its perceived effects on ecosystem integrity. Extensive research efforts in both Europe and the United States, however, have concluded that the effects of acid rain—at least

Fredric C. Menz; Hans M. Seip

2004-01-01

266

Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers` Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to

R. R. Hinchman; S. D. Zellmer; W. D. Severinghaus; J. J. Brent

1989-01-01

267

Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to

R. R. Hinchman; S. D. Zellmer; W. D. Severinghaus; J. J. Brent

1989-01-01

268

Europe needs a better crisis management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

I proposes a comprehensive approach towards crisis management and explore the relation of crisis management to European politics.\\u000a Drawing insight from my work as Special Co-ordinator of the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe, I propose ten lessons\\u000a for crisis management that could provide a perspective for both the future of conflict prevention and the European project.\\u000a The profound changes

Erhard Busek

2008-01-01

269

Biomass energy in Western Europe to 2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently biomass energy supplies at least 2 EJ\\/yr (47 Mtoe) in OECD Europe, which is about 4% of total primary energy consumption (54.1 EJ). Estimates of the potential for bioenergy in the next century range from 2 to 20 EJ\\/yr. This paper estimates a potential of 9.0–13.5 EJ in 2050, which represents 17–30% of projected total energy requirements. This depends

JI House

1995-01-01

270

Long-Term Options and Forecasts for Transport in Europe - Summary Report. FAST Series Number 8.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a research project on long-term options and forecasts for transport in Europe are presented in summary form. The project was to identify the major long-term prospects, problems and risks in international transport in Europe, and on this bas...

R. Allport K. Gwilliam

1982-01-01

271

Short-Term Effects of Air Pollution on Hospital Admissions of Respiratory Diseases in Europe: A Quantitative Summary of APHEA Study Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach (APHEA) project is a coordinated study of the short-term effects of air pollution on mortality and hospital admissions. Five West European cities (i.e., London, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Paris, Milano) contributed several years of hospital admissions data for all respiratory causes. In the current study, the authors describe the results obtained from the quantitative

Claudia Spix; H. Ross Anderson; Joel Schwartz; Maria Angela Vigotti; Alain Letertre; Judith M. Vonk; Giota Touloumi; Franck Balducci; Tomasz Piekarski; Ljuba Bacharova; Aurelio Tobias; Antti Pönkå; Klea Katsouyanni

1998-01-01

272

Religion and Party Choice in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates religiosity in relation to party choice in European Parliament elections. Conventional wisdom tells us that as Europe has secularised, the effect of religion on party choice should also have diminished. Yet, this cross-national and cross-temporal study of religious voting in European elections from 1989 to 2004 paints a more nuanced picture. It shows that a) the effect

Wouter van der Brug; Sara B. Hobolt; Claes H. de Vreese

2009-01-01

273

Do welfare regimes mediate the effect of socioeconomic position on health in adolescence? A Cross-national comparison in Europe, North America, and Israel.  

PubMed

This article examines whether different types of welfare states mediate the effect of socioeconomic position on adolescents' health. The authors' main hypothesis is that countries with stronger redistributive policies will be more effective in weakening the association between socioeconomic position and health, thus reducing health inequalities. Analyses were carried out for Israel and 32 countries of Europe and North America. Data in the 2001-2002 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey were collected through self-administered questionnaires distributed in schools to boys and girls 11, 13, and 15 years old. Socioeconomic position was measured with the Family Affluence Scale, based on reported consumption in the family. Health indicators were perceived health, general well-being, symptom load, and health behaviors. Social welfare regimes were classified using an expanded Esping-Andersen classification. The analysis supports the authors' hypothesis, at least partially. Social democratic and conservative welfare regimes rank lowest in the strength of association between low socioeconomic position and poor health, followed by liberal and other regime types, but it is more difficult to interpret data from Mediterranean and post-communist countries. PMID:16878395

Zambon, Alessio; Boyce, Will; Cois, Ester; Currie, Candace; Lemma, Patrizia; Dalmasso, Paola; Borraccino, Alberto; Cavallo, Franco

2006-01-01

274

Tempo Effects in the Fertility Decline in Eastern Europe: Evidence from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent formula due to Bongaarts and Feeney allows us todisentangle tempo and quantum effects in changes of the totalfertility rate. This article applies the TFR adjustment toBulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Russia.Substantial differences between the adjusted and the observed TFRindicate important tempo effects in the recent decline offertility. Moreover, these five countries differ in the relativeimportance of

Dimiter Philipov; Hans-Peter Kohler

2001-01-01

275

The responses of agriculture in Europe to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human activities are projected to lead to substantial increases in temperature that will impact northern Europe during winter\\u000a and southern Europe during summer. Moreover, it is expected that these changes will cause increasing water shortages along\\u000a the Mediterranean and in the south-west Balkans and in the south of European Russia. The consequences on the European agricultural\\u000a ecosystems are likely to

Marco BindiJørgen; Jørgen E. Olesen

2011-01-01

276

Legal and illegal immigration into Europe: experiences and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The end of the Cold War marked a major break for migration policies in Europe. Defensive projections and visions of migration came to the fore in a European Union whose integration and openness toward the internal border-free single market went hand-in-hand with joint isolation of a Fortress Europe vis- -vis undesirable and, especially illegal, in-migration from outside its borders. As

KLAUS J. BADE

2004-01-01

277

Cocaine Use in Europe – A Multi-Centre Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase in the use of cocaine and crack in several parts of Europe has raised the question whether this trend is similar to that of the USA in the 1980s. However, research in the field of cocaine use in Europe has been only sporadic. Therefore, a European multi-centre and multi-modal project was designed to study specific aspects of cocaine

Christian Haasen; Michael Prinzleve; Heike Zurhold; Juergen Rehm; Franziska Güttinger; Gabriele Fischer; Reinhold Jagsch; Börje Olsson; Mats Ekendahl; Annette Verster; Antonella Camposeragna; Anne-Marie Pezous; Michael Gossop; Victoria Manning; Gemma Cox; Niamh Ryder; Jozsef Gerevich; Erika Bacskai; Miguel Casas; Josep Lluis Matali; Michael Krausz

2004-01-01

278

Quantitative Assessment of Water Resources Adaptation Policies in Mediterranean Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many factors challenge water management in Southern Europe: scarce water resources, climate change, population growth, environmental concerns and economic development, among others. Water policy in the region is designed to ensure future sustainability of water resources under strong socioeconomic forcing while maintaining the strategic ecological and social services of water. Climate change is projected to intensify these conflicts, since most models agree that Southern Europe will show a significant drying trend, especially during the second half of the century. For this reason, there is a strong need to integrate climate change adaptation into implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. From the policy perspective, there are many studies on how climate change might lead to changes in hydrologic regime, water demands, water quality or ecosystems, but there little knowledge on how much water demand might be met with future hydrologic regime. In water scarce regions, water demands are supplied by means of hydraulic infrastructure, which performs functions of storage, transportation and distribution, to overcome the spatio-temporal irregularities of hydrologic regime. Knowledge on the relationship between natural water resources, reservoir storage and water demands is essential to assess the effectiveness of alternative policy options to ensure adequate public water supply. In this paper we provide a simple way to account for the influence of socioeconomic factors (hydraulic infrastructure and water policy) on climate change impacts on water resources in the Mediterranean region. We present a methodology to identify and evaluate climate change adaptation policies in this context. The methodology is based on the application of the WAAPA (Water Availability and Adaptation Policy Assessment) model, which computes net water availability for consumptive use for a river basin taking into account the regulation capacity of its water supply system and a set of management standards defined through water policy. The model was applied to 47 River Basin Districts in Southern Europe to estimate water availability under different climate change projections and several adaptation policy scenarios. Climate change projections were taken from the results of the Regional Climate Models applied in the ENSEMBLES European project. The WAAPA model allows to obtain the maximum demand that could be supplied under certain conditions (demand seasonal distribution, water supply system management, reliability criteria) for different policy alternatives. Adaptation policy targets may be defined in terms of maintaining social services of water by comparison between water availability in current and future time horizons. Several possible options, like increasing the efficiency of water use or improving the management of water supply systems, were analyzed and compared in quantitative terms. It was found that, although significant reductions in water availability can be expected, the effectiveness of certain adaptation policies might mitigate the expected impacts to a large extent.

Garrote, L. M.; Mediero, L.; Martin-Carrasco, F.

2011-12-01

279

Environmental Effects of Conservation Practices on Grazing Lands: A Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography is one in a multi-volume set developed by the Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library in support of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). This bibliography is a...

J. R. Makuch R. A. Maderik S. R. Gagnon

2006-01-01

280

Effects of organizational support on components of virtual project teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Virtual project teams are teams whose members use technology to varying degrees in working across locational, temporal, and relational boundaries to accomplish an interdependent task. Work in virtual project teams is a challenge for many organizations. Having studied the issue for several years, the authors propose in this paper to delve deeper into the question from the point

Nathalie Drouin; Mario Bourgault; Caroline Gervais

2010-01-01

281

Privatization in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Three factors have slowed the pace of power sector privatization, particularly in Europe: Capital shortages, political interests, scarce human capital resources. Balancing these factors are powerful drivers for privatization. These include the financial distress many European governments are facing, which limit their ability to continue subsidies and protection of unproductive state enterprises. Increasingly sophisticated customers are also demanding better products and services at lower prices. Privatization progress in Europe will probably move slowly and unevenly. Power generation will likely be the first beneficiary of any reform because it is not a natural monopoly. Transmission and distribution will remain regulated, despite discussion within the European Union regarding open or third-party access. What is likely to speed up the pace of privatization in some countries is a power crisis along the lines of what occurred in the Philippines. Greece, Italy and Portugal and perhaps the most likely prospects for such a scenario.

Cartselos, T.

1994-02-01

282

Satellite broadcasting in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three main communications services are recognized by the International Telecommunications Union: the Fixed Service, the Mobile Service and the Broadcasting Service. In Europe, EUTELSAT has just begun to exploit the first ECS satellite. The ESA-launched satellite was originally designed to provide an international public telecommunication service, however, the satellite will be used now almost exclusively for TV program distribution, while a second ECS satellite will be used for telephony. Despite plans for the launch of a third, countries in Europe are looking to other organizations such as INTELSAT for greater satellite capacity. Other organizations include Unisat, DFS/Copernicus, GDL, and Videosat. Both satellite and cable networks will increase the program-viewing audience, thus encouraging plans for a pan-European television service intended for an international audience. Although the combination of cable networks and distribution satellites looks promising, high-power broadcasting satellites will play an important role because of flexibility and additional program distribution.

Bartholome, P.

1984-05-01

283

Europe: Past, present, future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jean Monnet: The First Statesman of Interdependence. By FRANÇOIS DUCHÊNE. New York, Norton, 1994. Pp.458, notes, sources, publications, index. £22 (cloth), £10.95 (paper) ISBN 0–393–03497–6 and ?393–31490–1.Elusive Union: The Process of Economic and Monetary Union in Europe. By KENNETH DYSON. London, Longman, 1994. Pp.xiii + 361, index. £40 (cloth), £17.99 (paper). ISBN 0–582–225132?X and 0–582–25131–1.The Road to Monetary Union in

Jonathan Story

1996-01-01

284

Europe Targets the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tentatively set for a July 2003 launch, the Smart-1 spacecraft will host Europe's first lunar mission. A news article from the BBC outlines the objectives of this pioneering mission. The Smart-1 is incorporating many new technologies and testing them for the first time in space. One of the most notable is the ion thruster, but several other novel items used in the Smart-1, if successful, will end up in a mission to Mercury around 2010.

Amos, Jonathan.

2003-01-01

285

Pediatric otorhinolaryngology in Europe.  

PubMed

Nowadays Europe encompasses more than 30 countries. These countries differ in climate, in culture, in population density, in history, in socio-economic system and in the organization of medical care. Despite these differences there is a general trend of unification in politics, in industry and in science. In the field of medicine, medical faculties and professional organizations try to harmonize medical curricula and training programmes for medical specialists. PMID:10577767

Verwoerd, C D; Verwoerd-Verhoef, H L

1999-10-01

286

For Better or Worse: Contemporary Social, Cultural and Economic Changes in Europe and Their Significance for Cultural and Educational Policies. The CDCC's Project No. 7: "The Education and Cultural Development of Migrants."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contemporary demographic, economic, political, and social changes in Europe are influencing cultural and educational processes. International migration, internal migration from rural to urban centers, emergence of the welfare state, professionalization of society, technological advancement, and changes in occupational structure and the situation…

Lithman, Yngve Georg

287

Working with Teachers to Develop Fair and Reliable Measures of Effective Teaching. MET Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to develop and test multiple measures of teacher effectiveness. The goal of the MET project is to improve the quality of information about teaching effectiveness available to education professionals within states and districts--information…

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

2010-01-01

288

Mineral facilities of Europe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

2010-01-01

289

Uncertainties of modeling gross primary productivity over Europe: A systematic study on the effects of using different drivers and terrestrial biosphere models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental to global-scale modeling of the carbon cycle using process-based models is subject to large uncertainties. These uncertainties originate from the model structure and uncertainty in model forcing fields; however, little is known about their relative importance. A thorough understanding and quantification of uncertainties is necessary to correctly interpret carbon cycle simulations and guide further model developments. This study elucidates the effects of different state-of-the-art land cover and meteorological data set options and biosphere models on simulations of gross primary productivity (GPP) over Europe. The analysis is based on (1) three different process-oriented terrestrial biosphere models (Biome-BGC, LPJ, and Orchidee) driven with the same input data and one model (Biome-BGC) driven with (2) two different meteorological data sets (ECMWF and REMO), (3) three different land cover data sets (GLC2000, MODIS, and SYNMAP), and (4) three different spatial resolutions of the land cover (0.25° fractional, 0.25° dominant, and 0.5° dominant). We systematically investigate effects on the magnitude, spatial pattern, and interannual variation of GPP. While changing the land cover map or the spatial resolution has only little effect on the model outcomes, changing the meteorological drivers and especially the model results in substantial differences. Uncertainties of the meteorological forcings affect particularly strongly interannual variations of simulated GPP. By decomposing modeled GPP into their biophysical and ecophysiological components (absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (APAR) and radiation use efficiency (RUE), respectively) we show that differences of interannual GPP variations among models result primarily from differences of simulating RUE. Major discrepancies appear to be related to the feedback through the carbon-nitrogen interactions in one model (Biome-BGC) and water stress effects, besides the modeling of croplands. We suggest clarifying the role of nitrogen dynamics in future studies and revisiting currently applied concepts of carbon-water cycle interactions regarding the representation of canopy conductance and soil processes.

Jung, Martin; Vetter, Mona; Herold, Martin; Churkina, Galina; Reichstein, Markus; Zaehle, Soenke; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Bondeau, Alberte; Chen, Youmin; Trusilova, Kristina; Feser, Frauke; Heimann, Martin

2007-12-01

290

Infection with hepatitis B and C virus in Europe: a systematic review of prevalence and cost-effectiveness of screening  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is improving but not benefiting individuals unaware to be infected. To inform screening policies we assessed (1) the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV-Ab) prevalence for 34 European countries; and (2) the cost-effectiveness of screening for chronic HBV and HCV infection. Methods We searched peer-reviewed literature for data on HBsAg and anti-HCV-Ab prevalence and cost-effectiveness of screening of the general population and five subgroups, and used data for people who inject drugs (PWID) and blood donors from two European organizations. Of 1759 and 468 papers found in the prevalence and cost-effectiveness searches respectively, we included 124 and 29 papers after assessing their quality. We used decision rules to calculate weighted prevalence estimates by country. Results The HBsAg and anti-HCV-Ab prevalence in the general population ranged from 0.1%-5.6% and 0.4%-5.2% respectively, by country. For PWID, men who have sex with men and migrants, the prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV-Ab was higher than the prevalence in the general population in all but 3 countries. There is evidence that HCV screening of PWID and HBsAg screening of pregnant women and migrants is cost-effective. Conclusion The prevalence of chronic HBV and HCV infection varies widely between European countries. Anti-HCV-Ab screening of PWID and HBsAg screening of pregnant women and migrants have European public health priority. Cost-effectiveness analyses may need to take effect of antiviral treatment on preventing HBV and HCV transmission into account.

2013-01-01

291

Seasonal and air mass trajectory effects on dissolved organic matter of bulk deposition at a coastal town in south-western Europe.  

PubMed

Rainwater contains a complex mixture of organic compounds which may influence climate, terrestrial and maritime ecosystems and thus human health. In this work, the characteristics of DOM of bulk deposition at a coastal town on the southwest of Europe were assessed by UV-visible and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopies and by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. The seasonal and air mass trajectory effects on dissolved organic matter (DOM) of bulk deposition were evaluated. The absorbance at 250 nm (UV(250 nm)) and integrated fluorescence showed to be positively correlated with each other, and they were also positively correlated to the DOC in bulk deposition, which suggest that a constant fraction of DOM is likely to fluoresce. There was more chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) present in summer and autumn seasons than in winter and spring. Bulk deposition associated with terrestrial air masses contained a higher CDOM content than bulk deposition related to marine air masses, thus highlighting the contribution of terrestrial/anthropogenic sources. PMID:22648347

Santos, Patrícia S M; Santos, Eduarda B H; Duarte, Armando C

2012-05-31

292

Quality of life effects of alprostadil therapy for erectile dysfunction: results of a trial in Europe and South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Quality of life (QOL) data were used to evaluate the effects of self-administered intracavernosal injection of alprostadil for erectile dysfunction, when used for up to 18 months during a 13 country Phase III clinical trial.Methods: The Duke Health Profile was used to measure patients’ physical and psychosocial QOL at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. Changes from baseline

RJ Willke; W Yen; GR Parkerson; OI Linet; MH Erder; HA Glick

1998-01-01

293

Estimating the impact of wintry weather on transportation in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wintry weather conditions have high impact on transportation. Sub-zero temperatures combined to snowfall result in traffic jams and increased accident rate. Dense snowfall causes poor grip between the road surface and tires and reduces the visibility, thus increasing the risk for severe pile-ups on highways. Low temperature and snowfall have a strong negative impact also on railway traffic and aviation, as experienced in Europe during winter 2009/10. Many big airfields in Central Europe were closed during several days and thousands of people had to spend the night at the airport or in the hotels nearby. The estimated total costs from a single major snowfall event can climb up to 1.3 billion pounds (1.5 billion euro), as happened in UK on 1-2 February 2009. By investigating the effect of hazardous winter weather conditions on different transport modes the worst situations can be identified and impact thresholds for different weather parameters and their combination can be assessed. In this study we estimate the impact thresholds for snowfall, wind gust and temperature as well as for their combination, the blizzard. This work is based on an impact review collected from literature and media reports as well as on local studies concerning the link between snowfall and traffic accidents for example. From the study on six winters it appears for example that a snowfall of 10 cm/24 h resulted in a double car accident rate on average in southern Finland. Such situations can be regarded as high impact cases (peak days of traffic accidents). It is estimated that climate change and global warming will decrease the average yearly number of wintry days in Europe. Even the northern part will probably have a shorter period of snow cover during the coming decades. However, the variability between different winters will remain and cold air outbreaks with even heavy snowfall can occasionally occur also during mild winters. Several studies have shown that the more uncommon some hazardous event is, the more disruptive it can be to the society. This study, where we assess the impact thresholds for different weather parameters, will give guidelines for calculating the probabilities of hazardous wintry events in Europe at present and in the future. This study is associated with the EU/FP7 project EWENT. The objective of the project is to study the impacts of hazardous weather on European transportation system by taking into account the changing climate.

Juga, I.; Rauhala, J.; Vajda, A.

2010-09-01

294

Imaging space weather over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the introduction of the first all-sky imaging system for low-light-level optical observations of the disturbed ionosphere over mid-latitude Europe. Using 6300 Å auroral emissions that come from the 200-400 km altitude range, we demonstrate that sub-visual optical patterns spanning the European continent can be obtained from a single site in Italy. Pilot observations during the 26-27 September 2011 geomagnetic storm show that the diffuse aurora's low latitude boundary can be used to find where the poleward wall of the ionospheric trough is located. This relates directly to regions of radiowave disruptions caused by the precipitation of energetic particles from the magnetospheric plasma sheet that move to lower latitudes during space weather events. Images of stable auroral red (SAR) arcs can be used to track the magnetospheric ring current and plasmapause location, a second region of radiowave interference. Comparisons with ground-based and satellite observations of the ionosphere during the same storm demonstrate how ASI images reveal the lowest energy components of magnetospheric input to the ionosphere-thermosphere system. Such observations can be used, potentially, for both now-casting of storm effects spanning Europe, and for retrospective validation of existing models of space weather impacts at sub-auroral locations.

Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Wroten, Joei; Mendillo, Michael; Martinis, Carlos; Barbieri, Cesare; Umbriaco, Gabriele; Mitchell, Cathryn; Kinrade, Joe; Materassi, Massimo; Ciraolo, Luigi; Hairston, Marc

2013-02-01

295

The role of women in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

With major events including the European Economic Community, German unification and the fall of the former Soviet Union, there is an increased reality of a large united Europe. With these societal and political changes comes change in the role of women. As the number of women entering the labour market increases, the effect of job equality must be investigated. Examines

Marilyn M. Helms; Cynthia J. Guffey

1997-01-01

296

Principal land use changes anticipated in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major changes in land use may be anticipated in Europe in the decades to come as a result of technological, socio-economic and political developments as well as global environmental change. The type and effects of these changes will strongly depend on policy decisions which are governed, amongst others, by: (i) an increasing agricultural productivity; (ii) an increasing realization of the

J. Bouma; G. Varallyay; N. H. Batjes

1998-01-01

297

Adoption of conservation agriculture in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to KASSA findings, conservation agriculture is less adopted in Europe compared to other adopting regions and, reduced tillage is more common than no-tillage and cover crops. Currently, it is not popularised and it is less researched. The lack of knowledge on conservation agriculture systems and their management and, the absence of dynamic and effective innovation systems make it difficult

Rabah Lahmar

2010-01-01

298

Maintenance erlotinib in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer: cost-effectiveness in EGFR wild-type across Europe  

PubMed Central

Background First-line maintenance erlotinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has demonstrated significant overall survival and progression-free survival benefits compared with best supportive care plus placebo, irrespective of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status (SATURN trial). The cost-effectiveness of first-line maintenance erlotinib in the overall SATURN population has been assessed and published recently, but analyses according to EGFR mutation status have not been performed yet, which was the rationale for assessing the cost-effectiveness of first-line maintenance erlotinib specifically in EGFR wild-type metastatic NSCLC. Methods The incremental cost per life-year gained of first-line maintenance erlotinib compared with best supportive care in patients with EGFR wild-type stable metastatic NSCLC was assessed for five European countries (the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Spain, and Italy) with an area-under-the-curve model consisting of three health states (progression-free survival, progressive disease, death). Log-logistic survival functions were fitted to Phase III patient-level data (SATURN) to model progression-free survival and overall survival. The first-line maintenance erlotinib therapy cost (modeled for time to treatment cessation), medication cost in later lines, and cost for the treatment of adverse events were included. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses using Monte Carlo simulation (1000 iterations) were performed. Results According to the model simulations, first-line maintenance erlotinib compared with best supportive care in EGFR wild-type stable metastatic NSCLC resulted in 4.57 months of life gained (17.82 months for erlotinib versus 13.24 months for best supportive care) and 1.14 months of life without progression gained (erlotinib 4.29 versus best supportive care 3.15), and incremental total costs of erlotinib from €7897 (UK) to €9580 (Germany). The corresponding mean incremental cost per life-year gained of erlotinib ranged between €20,711 (UK) and €25,124 (Germany). Sensitivity analyses confirmed these results. Conclusion First-line erlotinib maintenance treatment is cost-effective compared with best supportive care in EGFR wild-type stable metastatic NSCLC, irrespective of the country setting.

Walleser, Silke; Ray, Joshua; Bischoff, Helge; Vergnenegre, Alain; Rosery, Hubertus; Chouaid, Christos; Heigener, David; de Castro Carpeno, Javier; Tiseo, Marcello; Walzer, Stefan

2012-01-01

299

Europe's nuclear power experiment  

SciTech Connect

The OECD (Dragon) Project was a joint venture of 12 European countries set up to study the development of high temperature reactor technology and whose programme included the construction of a demonstration high temperature helium cooled reactor and its eventual operation. The Project, which spanned 17 years, was widely regarded as an extremely successful excercise in international collaboration in nuclear technology. This specially commissioned work describes the international background to the launching of the Project, providing an unbiased appraisal of the industrial, technical, administrative and political aspects of the Project's development and the problems encountered, and an evaluation of the Project's significance in the general, context of nuclear power development.

Shaw, E.N.

1983-01-01

300

WHO Air Quality Guidelines for Europe.  

PubMed

This article describes the WHO Air Quality Guidelines and highlights two projects that were initiated to update the risk assessment of the main air pollutants: "Systematic Review of Health Aspects of Air Quality in Europe" and the "Global Update of WHO Air Quality Guidelines." The report of the Systematic Review emphasizes that the accumulated evidence is sufficient to require actions reducing the health impacts of air pollution in Europe. The global update of the air quality guidelines focuses on particulate matter (PM), ozone, NO2, and SO2 and addresses issues associated with the practical feasibility of attaining the guidelines in developing countries. The article illustrates WHO's activities toward gathering the best available international scientific evidence to support air quality policy development in all regions of the world. PMID:18080893

Krzyzanowski, Michal

2008-01-01

301

Actions to Reduce the Impact of Construction Products on Indoor Air: Outcomes of the European Project HealthyAir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European project — HealthyAir is a network project involving six institutions in Europe on actions and activities that address the effects of construction products on indoor air. Different ways to improve indoor air quality were reviewed, ranging from source control to education of occupants on how to manage the built environment to achieve healthy and acceptable indoor air. Through

Philomena M. Bluyssen; Sabine de Richemont; Derrick Crump; François Maupetit; Thomas Witterseh; Petr Gajdos

2010-01-01

302

Smart displays in intelligent environments: a vision for Europe 2007+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future electronic systems will create "ambient intelligence": environments that recognise us, applications which can be used intuitively. Displays will always be a key part of such systems, because visual information provides a densely packed fast link to our brain. European researchers and suppliers are global drivers in display innovation - on the other hand Europe is a major influence on the market for display applications. However, today displays are produced in Asia, European research and development is scattered, and lacks both collaboration and a strong production base. That is why adria, a European network for the displays community, has been formed: Its goal is to substantially enhance the standing of the displays industry in Europe by creating a common knowledge base, by generating a common vision for a display future in Europe and by establishing appreciated services for a future association that will serve as a "one-stop-shop" for the community. To effectively start the discussion, a vision paper1 has been compiled including inputs from 95 individuals from 17 European countries. It describes the state displays research and industry are in today and estimates future developments displays will take towards intelligent systems in the next decade and beyond. Recommendations are made to reinforce the displays industry in a sustainable way building on existing strengths in research, as well as in the materials and equipment sectors. The adria network, its roadmapping approach as well as key projections and findings of the vision paper are described here, going beyond the topic of Organic Light Emitting Diodes alone.

Maiser, Eric

2005-07-01

303

The effect of total solar eclipse of October 3, 2005, on the total electron content over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GPS observations from EUREF permanent GPS network were used to observe the response of TEC (Total Electron Content) to the total solar eclipse on October 3, 2005, under quiet geomagnetic conditions of the daytime ionosphere. The effect of the eclipse was detected in diurnal variations and more distinctly in the variations of TEC along individual satellite passes. The trough-like variations with a gradual decrease and followed by an increase of TEC at the time of the eclipse were observed over a large region. The depression of TEC amounted to 3 4 TECU. The maximum depression was observed over all stations located at the maximum path of the solar eclipse. The delay of a minimum level of TEC with respect to the maximum phase of the eclipse was about 20 30 min. The two-dimensional TEC maps constructed with high temporal resolution (5-min interval) show that the eclipse produced remarkable changes in the structure of the ionosphere. These TEC maps demonstrate also that the depression of TEC reached 20 30% compared to a quiet day (October 4, 2005). The complex pattern in the spatio-temporal TEC distribution presents the important role in the dynamic processes in the ionosphere during the eclipse.

Krankowski, A.; Shagimuratov, I. I.; Baran, L. W.; Yakimova, G. A.

304

Does information matter? The effect of the Meth Project on meth use among youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are demand-side interventions effective at curbing drug use? To the extent demand-side programs are successful, their cost effectiveness can be appealing from a policy perspective. Established in 2005, the Montana Meth Project (MMP) employs a graphic advertising campaign to deter meth use among teens. Due to the MMP's apparent success, seven other states have adopted Meth Project campaigns. Using data

D. Mark Anderson

2010-01-01

305

Community sports projects and effective community empowerment: a case study in Rochdale  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can community empowerment be most effectively achieved through the use of sport? In a case study of a bespoke voluntary sector project, an action research approach revealed insights into effective community empowerment. Although focused on a comparatively small project within a provincial UK town, the issues addressed and lessons learned can be generalised and transferred much more universally to

Janine Partington; Mick Totten

2012-01-01

306

The relationship between intercultural effectiveness and perceived project team performance in the context of international development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working effectively in the development context—humanitarian aid or capacity building as in any intercultural context requires specific skills and abilities such as special knowledge of human relationships as these projects bring people together from different cultures, mentalities, and backgrounds. The research examines the relationship between intercultural effectiveness and project team performance in the international development field based on the Canadian

Diana Simkhovych

2009-01-01

307

Production of knowledge revisited: The impact of academic spin-offs on public research performance in Europe (PROKNOW). Abbreviated description of the research project funded by the European Commission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Das Eu-geförderte Projekt Production of Knowledge Revisited: The Impact of Academic Spin-Offs on Public Research Performance in Europe (PROKNOW) analysiert Interaktionen zwischen öffentlichen Forschungseinrichtungen und deren akademischen Ausgründungen („Spin-offs“) und hat dabei die Folgen der unternehmerischen Aktivitäten auf das akademische Forschungssystem im Fokus. Auf der Grundlage von Ansätzen aus der Organisationssoziologie und der neueren Wissenschaftsforschung fragt das Projekt nach Gewinnen

2006-01-01

308

An efficient energy future: Prospects for Europe and North America  

SciTech Connect

Industrial countries will have to use energy more efficiently in the years to come to manage a wide range of energy and economic problems. The Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, the United States and Western Europe are analyzed in this book to show the potential for energy conservation up to the year 2000. Seventeen eastern and western countries are studied in detail to show what energy savings are possible with conservation measures that are widely available today. The study makes detailed energy demand projections largely based on physical activity and technology. Energy per ton of steel, for instance, is forecast along with the total tonnage of steel produced. Two views of the energy future are taken. They both rely on the same economic and activity forecasts. One shows energy needs to the end of the century with current average technology. It shows that energy demand will rise steeply if past trends continue. The other view is of an efficient energy future. It reveals how much energy could be saved using only the most efficient technology that is commercially available now. International comparisons explain how different countries use energy much more efficiently than others today. Current best technology provides a vast array of demonstrably effective conservation measures for countries to choose from.

Not Available

1983-01-01

309

Adjoint tomography of Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use spectral-element and adjoint methods to iteratively resolve crustal and upper mantle heterogeneity in Europe, using 159 earthquakes, with magnitudes from 5 to 6.5, and data from 338 stations. Crustal model EPcrust1.0 (Molinari& Morelli, 2010) combined with mantle model S362ANI (Kustowski et al. 2008) comprise the initial 3D model M00. Before the iterative inversion, earthquake source parameters (i.e, centroid moment tensor and location), are recalculated using 3D Green's functions and Fréchet derivatives. Since we concentrate on upper mantle structures, involving significant anisotropy in the asthenosphere, transversely isotropic (frequency-dependent) traveltime sensitivity kernels are employed in the inversion. Long-period surface waves (25 s -- 150 s) and short-period body waves (15 s -- 40 s) are combined to constrain shallow and deep structures simultaneously. With each iteration, higher frequency signals are incorporated in the inversion. Statistical assessments of traveltime anomalies and logarithmic waveform differences enable us to validate the inverted sources and structural parameters. Our current model, M15, shows numerous interesting features, for instance, slabs underneath the Hellenic, Vrancea and Calabria arcs, a slab detachment underneath the Central Apennines, mantle upwelling associated with the Eifel hotspot in Northern German, slow wavespeed structures in several back-arc basins, e.g., the Ponnonian basin and the Tyrrhenian sea, and a sharp transition of the Teisseyre-Tornquist suture zone between central Europe and the East European platform.

Zhu, H.; Bozdag, E.; Peter, D. B.; Tromp, J.

2011-12-01

310

Bluetongue vaccines in Europe.  

PubMed

The article reviews the history, present status and the future of BT vaccines in Europe. So far, an attenuated (modified live viruses, MLV) and inactivated virus vaccines against BT were developed and used in the field. Moreover, the virus-like particles (VLPs) produced from recombinant baculovirus, and live recombinant vaccinia or canarypox virus-vectored vaccines were tested in the laboratory. The main aims of BT vaccination strategy are: to prevent clinical disease, to reduce the spread of the BTV in the environment and to protect movement of susceptible animals between affected and free zones. Actually, all of the most recent European BT vaccination campaigns have used exclusively inactivated vaccines. The use of inactivated vaccines avoid risk associated with the use of live-attenuated vaccines, such as reversion to virulence, reassortment of genes with field strain, teratogenicity and insufficient attenuation leading to clinical disease. The mass vaccinations of all susceptible animals are the most efficient veterinary method to fight against BT and successful control of disease. The vaccination of livestock has had a major role in reducing BTV circulation and even in eradicating the virus from most areas of Europe. PMID:21721420

Niedbalski, W

2011-01-01

311

Design and simulation of opera lighting and projection effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major problem challenging opera designers is the inability to co-ordinate lighting, projection systems, and set designs in the preliminary planning phase. New computer graphics techniques, which provide the set and lighting designer the opportunity to evaluate, test, and control opera designs prior to the construction of full scale systems are presented. These techniques---light source input, simulation of directional lighting,

Julie O'b. Dorsey; François X. Sillion; Donald P. Greenberg

1991-01-01

312

Countering the false positive projection effect in nonlinear asymmetric classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work concerns the problem of asymmetric classification and provides the following contributions. First, it introduces the method of KDDA - a kernelized extension of the distance-based discriminant analysis technique that treats data asymmetrically and naturally accommodates indefinite kernels. Second, it demonstrates that KDDA and other asymmetric nonlinear projective approaches, such as BiasMap and KFD are often prone to an

Serhiy Kosinov; S. Marchand-Maillet; T. Pun

2005-01-01

313

Evaluation of the WIN Project, Evidence of Effectiveness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From 1999 to 2003, the Women and Infant Health (WIN) Project worked in close collaboration with the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation to improve the quality of maternal and newborn services and to increase access to and demand for high quality ...

2003-01-01

314

Project Description The Effects of Improving Caregiving on Early Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This project has implemented two interventions in an orphanage for children, both typically developing and with disabilities, birth to 4 years in St. Petersburg, Russia: 1) Training to promote more warm, sensitive, responsive caregiving, and 2) structural changes to promote positive relationships between children and caregivers, predominantly to increase the consistency of fewer caregivers in the lives of the

Christina J. Groark; Robert B. McCall; Rifkat Muhamedrahimov

315

Working towards healthy air in dwellings in Europe.  

PubMed

Poor indoor air quality has been implicated in the increase in allergic and respiratory diseases seen in industrialized countries in recent decades. Although air pollution in the workplace is well studied, much less is known about the consequences of poor air quality in homes. In an attempt to halt or slow down the increase in allergic and respiratory diseases, the European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA) carried out the EU-funded project entitled 'Towards Healthy Air in Dwellings in Europe' (THADE). The aims were to: compile an overview of evidence-based data about exposure to indoor air pollution and its health effects, particularly in relation to allergies, asthma and other respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; review cost-effective measures and technology to improve indoor air quality; review legislation and guidelines on indoor air pollution; produce maps of pollutants in dwellings; and recommend an integrated strategy that defines appropriate indoor air quality policies for implementation in Europe. This paper summarizes the information about air quality in dwellings and indoor environment-related diseases collected by expert consultants within the framework of THADE and terminates with recommendations for actions aimed at improving air quality in homes. The results of this project confirmed that air pollution in dwellings is a relevant health problem. It is a complex problem that must be addressed at European and international levels, and it involves the medical profession, scientific societies, patients' organizations, lawmakers, architects and the building industry. The complete THADE report is available at http://www.efanet.org/activities/documents/THADEReport.pdf. PMID:16792586

Franchi, M; Carrer, P; Kotzias, D; Rameckers, E M A L; Seppänen, O; van Bronswijk, J E M H; Viegi, G; Gilder, J A; Valovirta, E

2006-07-01

316

Perspectives on Europe: Language Issues and Language Planning in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers includes the following: "Language Issues and Language Planning in Europe" (Anthony J. Liddicoat and Karis Muller); "Language and National Identity" (Peter M. Hill); "Language Planning, Linguistic Diversity and Democracy in Europe" (Anthony J. Liddicoat); "Language Competition in European Community Institutions" (Karis…

Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Muller, Karis, Ed.

317

Perspectives on Europe: Language Issues and Language Planning in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of papers includes the following: "Language Issues and Language Planning in Europe" (Anthony J. Liddicoat and Karis Muller); "Language and National Identity" (Peter M. Hill); "Language Planning, Linguistic Diversity and Democracy in Europe" (Anthony J. Liddicoat); "Language Competition in European Community Institutions" (Karis…

Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Muller, Karis, Ed.

318

Reaching out to Europe’s older minorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a rapidly growing number of older people among minority groups in Europe who were born or grew up in different parts of the world with different cultural and religious traditions. For the most part, these people came to Europe for three main reasons: A large percentage emigrated as a result of a colonial past--they came from Pakistan and

Harry Mertens; Helena Scott

1993-01-01

319

Eirik Lund Sagen and Marina Tsygankova Russian Natural Gas Exports to Europe Effects of Russian gas market reforms and the rising market power of Gazprom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gazprom, the dominant gas company in Russia, is widely believed to be the key supplier of gas to Europe in the foreseeable future. However, there are numerous uncertainties and challenges within the Russian and European gas industry that may alter the allocation of Gazproms gas sales between domestic and export markets. In this paper we use both theoretical and numerical

Eirik Lund Sagen; Marina Tsygankova

320

The Search for Effective Biological Control Agents in Europe: History and Lessons from Leafy Spurge ( Euphorbia esula L.) and Cypress Spurge ( Euphorbia cyparissias L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During field surveys made in Europe nearly 40 specialized insect species were found and considered as potential biological control agents of leafy spurge and cypress spurge (Euphorbia esula and Euphorbia cyparissias). More insect species were found on the most common and the geographically most widespread spurge species and on those occurring in a wide range of habitat types. The insect

A. Gassmann; D. Schroeder

1995-01-01

321

The effects of deregulation, changed customer requirements and new technology on the organisation and spatial patterns of the air freight sector in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Customer requirements, new technologies and the deregulation and liberalisation measures of the last 15 years have had a significant influence on market structures in air freight transport in Europe. The study examines the sector using the concept of global production networks. It describes the reorganisation in various dimensions. Firstly, there is the development from single air freight forwarders to global

Cordula Neiberger

2008-01-01

322

A follow-up and conclusive report on the attitude towards hydrogen fuel cell buses in the CUTE project—From passengers in Stockholm to bus operators in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the attitude towards the fuel cell bus and the hydrogen technology used in the CUTE project, represented by two passenger surveys performed in Stockholm, a survey performed among drivers in four cities and final statements as well as recommendations for future projects by project partners.Main results are:•The passengers’ willingness to pay for having more fuel cell buses

M. Saxe; A. Folkesson; P. Alvfors

2007-01-01

323

The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) Project: Estimating the Mortality Effects of Particulate Matter in Bangkok, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Air pollution data in Bangkok, Thailand, indicate that levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 10 µm (PM10) are significantly higher than in most cities in North America and Western Europe, where the health effects of PM10 are well documented. However, the pollution mix, seasonality, and demographics are different from those in developed Western coun- tries. It is

Nuntavarn Vichit-Vadakan; Nitaya Vajanapoom; Bart Ostro

2008-01-01

324

Quality improvement project: detecting, instigating and assessing effective handover techniques.  

PubMed

Safe handover is integral to patient safety. Since the implementation of the European Working Time Regulations, doctors' working patterns have largely moved to a full shift system. Consequently, there is now greater need for numerous thorough handovers between medical teams. According to the Royal College of Physicians report, poor handover between doctors is a common cause of error in hospitals, and is a major preventable cause of patient harm. Therefore, a number of initiatives have been devised by the Royal College of Physicians and British Medical Association over the last two years in an attempt to standardise the system to reduce errors.(1 2) As Junior doctors we recognised that our medical team weekend handover system was an area needing improvement. The Weekend doctor had to collate handover information from multiple emails which was time consuming and tedious. The Quality Improvement team aimed to optimise staff efficiency by improving the weekend handover system by; enabling easy assimilation and identification of patients requiring on-call SpR and SHO review, creating a standardised word document template for handover saved onto a shared network drive accessible to all doctors, evaluating the effectiveness of the new template by assessing perceptions of the new system prior to and after it was introduced. We developed an anonymised online questionnaire for senior house officers and specialist registrars. Questions included; the time taken to collate the weekend list, their confidence in the completeness of the handover, how appropriate the jobs requested were. The questionnaire was carried out pre-and post-instigation of the new template. We analysed this information using graphical represention of the Likert scale data on doctors attitudes to the new template (see Figure 1). All but one doctor felt that the previous weekend handover method needed improving. All clinicians felt the weekend handover we introduced was better than the pre-existing system. SHO time spent on amalgamating the weekend list was reduced on average by 1 hour. Doctor's impressions before implementation of the handover template ranged from 'very difficult' to 'average'. Afterwards a majority felt it was 'easy.' We have responded to feedback to optimise the template. There are plans to extend this template system to weekday handovers. We also aim to create a better forum with registrars for verbal weekend handover. We plan to assess measurable qualitative outcomes of these changes before and after their implementation, to ensure that they are sustainable and serve their purpose. This quality improvement project has shown that the introduction of a simple template has increased the efficiency and confidence of doctors in the weekend handover of patients at our hospital. The team learnt the importance of acting upon, rather than tolerating inefficient systems in health provision. PMID:24109035

Warrell, Clare; Doshi, Anisha; Mayhew, Joseph; Thacker, Eve; McColgan, Peter; Yates, Timothy; Rohrer, Jonathan; Ingle, Gordon

2013-11-01

325

Project DARE: No Effects at 10Year Follow-Up  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the impact of Project DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education), a widespread drug-prevention program, 10 years after administration. A total of 1,002 individuals who in 6th grade had either received DARE or a standard drug-education curriculum, were reevaluated at age 20. Few differences were found between the 2 groups in terms of actual drug use, drug attitudes,

Donald R. Lynam; Richard Milich; Rick Zimmerman; Scott P. Novak; T. K. Logan; Catherine A. Martin; Carl Leukefeld; Richard Clayton

1999-01-01

326

Photovoltaic power for Europe - A scenario for implementation and current experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Commission of the EEC has conducted a research and development program for photovoltaic technology since 1975, under which research contracts are granted to industrial and academic research institutions in Europe. The first of a series of 15 pilot projects in the 100-kW range has been completed in Greece, and the cumulative generation capacity of all pilot projects is expected to exceed 1MW. Also conducted under Commission contract is an assessment study, 'Photovoltaic Power for Europe', which has projected considerable growth of photovoltaics applications in Europe.

Palz, W.; Starr, M. R.

327

Central Europe Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new weekly online journal from Central and East European New Media Initiative (CEENMI) offers news and analysis of events in politics, society, and culture across the region. With over 45 contributors from 17 countries, the journal provides a surprising amount of coverage each week. In addition to regular columns and weekly news summaries, the journal contains several in-depth articles and special feature pieces, including a number of resources (such as articles, film and book reviews, and related links) grouped around a weekly theme. The journal also offers a weekly list of Central and East European cultural events in the UK, links to related stories from other online news sources, and an archive. Users can read the Central Europe Review at the site or receive free weekly summaries via email.

328

Europe's last Mesozoic bird  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Birds known from more than isolated skeletal elements are rare in the fossil record, especially from the European Mesozoic. This paucity has hindered interpretations of avian evolution immediately prior to, and in the aftermath of, the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction event. We report on a specimen of a large ornithurine bird (closely related to Ichthyornis) from the uppermost Cretaceous (Maastricht Formation) of Belgium. This is the first record of a bird from these historic strata and the only phylogenetically informative ornithurine to be recovered from the Mesozoic of Europe. Because this new specimen was collected from 40 m below the K-T boundary (approximate age of 65.8 Ma), it is also the youngest non-neornithine (=non-modern) bird known from anywhere in the world.

Dyke, Gareth; Dortangs, Rudi; Jagt, John; Mulder, Eric; Schulp, Anne; Chiappe, Luis

2002-08-01

329

EUROPE Gateway: Bulgaria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Institute is committed to providing high quality information about a wide variety of European Union countries, and this particular site deals with the nation of Bulgaria. On the site, visitors can view recent news highlights drawn from a wide range of media outlets, and then move on to the "Analyses" area. Here they will find editorial pieces and other items that address everything from human rights to the current state of economic affairs in Bulgaria. The "Interview" area includes talks and discussions with various policy leaders, journalists, and commentators on issues of the day facing Bulgaria. Finally, visitors can also use the "Navigation" tools along the left-hand side of the homepage to learn about the rest of the Gateway Europe site.

330

Clinical ethics support services in Europe.  

PubMed

The paper presents the main debates that have taken place on clinical ethics committees within the European project entitled Ethical Function in Hospital Ethics Committees. It depicts the great variety of formula existing in Europe in terms of legal status, functions, accessibility, composition and training requirements and a the onset of clinical ethics concept itself. Moreover, in the interstices of the various institutionalised ethics systems we can find extremely innovative initiatives under development, spawned more by premises of a political nature than drawn from the specialised corps of medical ethics. Could clinical ethical committees play some role in the overall democratisation process in medicine? PMID:16607716

Lebeer, Guy

2005-01-01

331

Collaborative inquiry project-based learning: Effects on reading ability and interests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The academic performance of students has been shown to be associated with reading ability. Inquiry learning can potentially enhance the reading abilities and interests of students. This study verified this proposition by examining the effects of an inquiry approach to group projects on the reading abilities of primary school students. Using a case study design, an inquiry project-based learning (PBL)

Samuel Kai Wah Chu; Shek Kam Tse; Elizabeth Ka Yee Loh; Ken Chow

2011-01-01

332

The Effect of Web-Based Project Applications on Students' Attitudes towards Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students perform intensive web-based applications during their education. One of these is project-based application. In this study, the effect of web based project applications on students' attitudes towards chemistry has been investigated. 42 students attending Hacettepe University, Faculty of Education, and Department of Chemistry Education have…

Morgil, Inci; Gungor Seyhan, Hatice; Ural Alsan, Evrim; Temel, Senar

2008-01-01

333

Internet project-based learning environment: the effects of thinking styles on learning transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study, in an environment of Internet project-based learning, is to undertake research on the effects of thinking styles on learning transfer. In this study, we establish an environment that incorporates project-based learning and Internet. Within this environment, we divide our sample of elementary school students into four groups: Executive Group, Legislative Group, Judicial Group, and Mixed

C.-I. Lee; F.-Y. Tsai

2004-01-01

334

Effective Schools/Teaching Project: Its Impact on a Senior High Principal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the positive changes in the organizational climate and the role of the principal in one high school during four years of implementing the Spencerport (New York) Effective Schools/Teaching Project. A gradual increase in the building level commitment of the project has led to a redefinition of leadership to include the Building…

Selander, Wilbur R.

335

Project SUCCESS' effects on the substance use of alternative high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project SUCCESS is a selective and indicated substance use prevention program that targets high risk students in secondary school settings. We evaluated the effects of Project SUCCESS on adolescents' substance use immediately following program implementation, and again one year later. Two successive cohorts of alternative high schools were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group, yielding seven schools per

Heddy Kovach Clark; Chris L. Ringwalt; Sean Hanley; Stephen R. Shamblen; Robert L. Flewelling; Mary C. Hano

2010-01-01

336

THE EFFECT OF PROJECT WORK ON THE ATTITUDES TO SCIENCE HELD BY SIXTH?FORM PUPILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an investigation into attitudes held towards science by sixth?form pupils concerned in project work as part of the Nuffield ‘A’ Level course in Physical Science. The links between attitudes and attitude changes and project marks are explored, together with other factors that may affect these quantities. It is shown that attitudes have some effect in determining the

J. Wilmut

1973-01-01

337

Evaluation Indicator System and Weights Research of Communication Effects in ERP Implementation Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on communication theory and characteristics of communication in ERP implementation project, this paper focuses on communication influencing factors analysis and proposes a new two level evaluation indicator system of communication effects for ERP implementation project. Besides, this paper carries on a weights research of the indicator system by means of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, questionnaire survey and

Zhang Yuying; Xu Yanan

2009-01-01

338

Deaf Effect for Risk Warnings: A Causal Examination applied to Information Systems Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escalation of commitment to a chosen course of action is a phenomenon that shows for example when failing strategic Information Systems (IS) projects are continued for much too long. With this study we contribute to the explanation of why managers (Project Owners) respond with the Deaf Effect to Risk Warnings, even when these warnings are provided by a credible messenger,

Nuijten A. L. P

2012-01-01

339

Appraising the unusual: Framing effects and moderators of uniqueness-seeking and social projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine people’s appraisals of unusual objects and their intuitions about whether others will like those objects. Prior work suggests uniqueness motives (e.g., Need for Uniqueness) affect appraisals, but the effect of these motives on projection of appraisals to others is unclear. Contrary to some prior work, we argue that uniqueness motives do not govern projection of

Daniel R. Ames; Sheena S. Iyengar

2005-01-01

340

Forecast, observation and modelling of a deep stratospheric intrusion event over Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of measurements was carried out in central and southeastern Europe within the framework of the EU-project STACCATO (Influence of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange in a Changing Climate on Atmospheric Transport and Oxidation Capacity) with the principle goal to create a comprehensive data set on stratospheric air intrusions into the troposphere along a rather frequently observed pathway over central Europe

P. Zanis; T. Trickl; A. Stohl; H. Wernli; O. Cooper; C. Zerefos; H. Gaeggeler; C. Schnabel; L. Tobler; P. W. Kubik; A. Priller; H. E. Scheel; H. J. Kanter; P. Cristofanelli; C. Forster; P. James; E. Gerasopoulos; A. Delcloo; A. Papayannis; H. Claude

2003-01-01

341

Future scenarios for viticultural bioclimatic indices in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Winemaking has a predominant economic, social and environmental relevance in several European countries. Studies addressing the influence of climate variability and change in viticulture are particularly pertinent, as climate is one of the main conditioning factors of this activity. In this context, bioclimatic indices are a useful zoning tool, allowing the description of the suitability of a particular region for wine production. In this study, we compute climatic indices (concerning to thermal and hydrological conditions) for Europe, characterize regions with different viticultural aptitude, and assess possible variations in these regions under a future climate conditions using a state-of-the-art regional climate model. The indices are calculated from climatic variables (mostly daily maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation) obtained from the NCEP reanalysis dataset. Then, the same indices are calculated for present and future climate conditions using data from the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (Consortium for Small Scale Modelling - Climate Limited-area Modelling). Maps of theses indices for recent-past periods (1961-2008) and for the SRES A1B scenario are considered in order to identify significant changes in their patterns. Results show that climate change is projected to have a significant negative impact in wine quality by increased dryness and cumulative thermal effects during growing seasons in Southern European regions (e.g. Portugal, Spain and Italy). These changes represent an important constraint to grapevine growth and development, making crucial adaptation/mitigation strategies to be adopted. On the other hand, regions of western and central Europe (e.g. southern Britain, northern France and Germany) will benefit from this scenario both in wine quality, and in new potential areas for viticulture. This approach provides a macro-characterization of European areas where grapevines may preferentially grow, as well as their projected changes under human-induced forcing. As such, it can be a useful tool for viticultural zoning in a changing climate.

Santos, João.; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Fraga, Helder; Pinto, Joaquim G.

2010-05-01

342

Significance and effect of ecological rehabilitation project in inland river basins in northwest China.  

PubMed

The Ecological Water Transfer and Rehabilitation Project in the arid inland area of northwest China is an important measure in restoring a deteriorated ecosystem. However, the sustainability of the project is affected by many socio-economic factors. This article examines the attitudes of the local populace toward the project, its impact on the livelihood of the people, and the positive effects of water-efficient agricultural practices in Ejina County. Related data were collected through questionnaire surveys and group discussions. The results identified three critical issues that may influence the sustainability of the project in the study area. The first issue relates to the impact of the project on the livelihood of local herdsmen. The potential for the sustainability of the project is compromised because the livelihood of the herdsmen greatly depends on the compensation awarded by the project. The second issue is that the project did not raise the water resource utilization ratio, which may undermine its final purpose. Finally, the compensation provided by the project considers losses in agriculture, but neglects the externalities and public benefit of eco-water. Thus, appropriate compensation mechanisms should be established and adopted according to local economic, environmental, and social conditions. Some recommendations for improving the sustainability of the project are provided based on the results of this study. PMID:23716005

Wang, Yu; Feng, Qi; Chen, Lijuan; Yu, Tengfei

2013-05-29

343

Siberian gas for Europe: pipeline into Germany causes controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controversial plan to build a 5000-km natural-gas pipeline from Siberia to Germany involves complex negotiations between banks, pipeline builders, and gas distributors. The project will use Western technology and piping to move 40 billion cubic meters of gas a year to Europe. The US and some German critics object to increasing German dependence on Russian gas at a time

Boyes

1981-01-01

344

Natural Gas Corridors in Southeastern Europe and European Energy Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The question of European energy security has brought attention to the strategic significance of Southeastern Europe as a transport hub of natural gas and a key region for European energy security. The questions how to secure natural gas quantities sufficient for increasing European needs and how to reduce energy dependency on Russia led to pipeline projects aiming to provide

Ioannis N. Grigoriadis

345

Status of Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae in Europe1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the recognition that Phytophthora ramorum (the cause of sudden oak death in the U.S.) was present in Europe as well as America, emergency European Community (EC) phytosanitary measures were put in place in September 2002 to prevent spread of P. ramorum, and also to stop introductions of the pathogen from elsewhere. A 3 year European project then started in

Joan F. Webber

346

Innovation Seeking Strategy of IT Outsourcing on e-Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we emphasize the opportunities concerning the implementation of an intelligence receptive organizational culture, that allows the fast and flexible response of companies’ strategies in the competitive e-business. Due to the promotion of an an intelligence receptive culture, e-Europe software companies start to see the Romanian IT firms as extremely attractive targets for outsourcing projects that suppose not

Rozalia NISTOR; Gianita BLEOJU; Alexandru CAPATINA

2007-01-01

347

IR 250 International Relations in the New Europe Spring 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europe today appears to have entered a new era. The old nationalist and ideological rivalries that plunged the continent into a disastrous conflict three times during the twentieth century (WW I, WW II and the Cold War) appear to have been tamed. A bold new project, the European Union, has demonstrated its ability to hold together the fractious nations of

Thomas U. Berger

348

Reversible air conditioning potential in office buildings in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

One can estimate to more than 600 millions of square meters of office buildings, which are air conditioned in Europe-15. The reversible use of the chillers is a promising alternative to the use of boilers. This paper, based on results carried out in the framework of IEA_ECBCS annex 48 project, presents an estimate of primary energy and CO2 savings in

M. Caciolo; P. Stabat; D. Marchio

349

Human lymphocytes micronucleus assay in Europe. An international survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human lymphocytes micronucleus assay has been extensively used in Europe since the cytochalasin-B method was introduced. However, a large range of inter-laboratory variability has been reported, limiting its applicability in European coordinated projects as well as its acceptance in international regulatory guidelines. Thus, an European survey was proposed in order to (a) determine the present state of the human

J Surrallés; A. T Natarajan

1997-01-01

350

Modelling the risk of ecosystem disruption in Europe with a dynamic vegetation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What will be the European ecosystem responses to future climate? With unprecedented speed and extent, the projected climate change might lead to a disruption of terrestrial plants functioning in many regions. In the framework of the EcoChange project, transient projections over the 1901-2100 period have been performed with a process-based dynamic vegetation model, CARAIB DVM (Dury et al., 2011, iForest 4: 82, 99). The vegetation model was driven by the outputs of four climate models under the SRES A1B scenario: the ARPEGE/Climate model and three regional climate models (KNMI-RACMO2, DMI-HIRHAM5 and HC-HadRM3Q0 RCMs) from the European Union project ENSEMBLES. DVMs are appropriate tools to apprehend potential climate change impacts on ecosystems and identify threatened regions over Europe. CARAIB outputs (soil moisture, runoff, net primary productivity, fire, etc.) were used to characterise the ecosystem evolution. To assess consequences on biodiversity, the evolution of 100 natural common European species (47 herbs, 12 shrubs and 41 trees) has been studied year-to-year over the 1901-2100 period. Under the combined effects of projected changes particularly in temperature and precipitations, CARAIB simulates important reductions in the annual soil water content. The species productivities vary strongly from year to year reaching during the driest years values much lower than present-day average productivities. According to CARAIB, a lot of species might go beyond their water tolerance very frequently, particularly after 2050, due to more intense summer droughts. In the northern part of Europe and in the Alps, with reduced temperature variability and positive soil water anomalies, NPP variability tends to decrease. Regions with more severe droughts might also be affected by an increase of the frequency and intensity of wildfires. With this background, the species distributions might be strongly modified at the end of the century. 15% of tree species and 30% of herb and shrub species (respectively 30% and 60% if the CO2 fertilization effect on species is not taken into account) might experience a loss of 30% or more of their current distribution. Proportions of new species appearance were also studied. Southern Europe might suffer important species extinction while the more suitable climate conditions in northern Europe might lead to a gain in species diversity.

Dury, M.; Hambuckers, A.; Warnant, P.; Jacquemin, I.; Thuiller, W.; François, L.

2012-04-01

351

Risk of sexually transmitted infections and violence among indoor-working female sex workers in London: the effect of migration from Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo examine risk factors associated with HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and experience of physical and sexual violence among sex workers in London, with a particular focus on differences in risk between migrants from Eastern Europe (EE) or the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and UK-born sex workers.MethodsThe authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of sex workers born in the UK,

Lucy Platt; Pippa Grenfell; Chris Bonell; Sarah Creighton; Kaye Wellings; John Parry; Tim Rhodes

2011-01-01

352

Upper mantle anisotropy beneath central Europe from SKS wave splitting: Effects of absolute plate motion and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary topography?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast polarization directions ? of split SKS waves in Central Europe change from NE\\/ENE in the western part to dominatingly E\\/ESE orientation towards north and east. This coincides strikingly well with the dominating trend of Hercynian deformational crustal features. It hints to frozen anisotropy related to paleo-crustal fabric. But when considering plausible anisotropy values of about 2–3% then only a

P. Bormann; G. Grünthal; R. Kind; H. Montag

1996-01-01

353

Using Open Plan with integrated Xbase applications for effective project management solutions  

SciTech Connect

Open Plan`s open architecture allows the user many advantages that are not available from other project management software. One of these advantages is its ability to interface with various database management systems, thereby allowing the user to develop a project management system tailored to their specific needs. This open architecture offers maximum flexability to the user to personalize reports, screens, data structures, and develop customized management systems. Using Xbase, applications can be developed for every facet of a complete project management system including baseline development, performance measurement, reporting, and analysis. These applications can range from simple routines such as user-defined status worksheets, milestone logs and other reports, to complex cost,and schedule control systems. The combined power of Xbase and Open Plan can be used to produce effective project management solutions. Customized applications are easily obtainable allowing the user to gather information more timely and efficiently, produce customized reports, and analyze project management information more effectively.

Freier, K.D.; Hirschi, E.J.

1994-04-01

354

Local Administrative Effects of Federal Health Grants (Project Title): Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project grant conducted an inventory of the perceived effects of Federal health grants on the administrative procedures, program priorities, and relations between health providers in the Greater Delaware Valley Region. Rather than substantive policy, ...

D. G. Smith

1976-01-01

355

A Worked Function Point model for effective software project size evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work explains the Worked Function Point model for effective software project size evaluation. This model was originally proposed in a contractual framework of fixed cost per function point, in order to achieve a more significant \\

Luca Santillo; Italo Della Noce

356

Showcase Europe: Guide to E-commerce Markets in Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

European electronic-commerce markets offer immediate opportunities for U.S. exporters of information and communications technology (ICT). This report, part of the U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service's 'Showcase Europe' initiative, looks at the ICT markets...

2001-01-01

357

The Soviet military presence in Eastern Europe: A new equilibrium  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to analyze: (1) how the collapse of Communist regimes in Eastern Europe impacts on the Soviet military presence in this region and on Soviet security interests; (2) how political changes in Eastern Europe and Soviet troop reductions in this area affect the military forces and security interests of individual countries and the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO); and (3) how Soviet troop reductions reflect on political and economic relations between the countries affected by these reductions and the USSR. This study is one of a series of planned reports dealing with the causes and effects of a military force reductions in Europe.

Zinner, P.E.

1990-04-01

358

Dispersal time for ancient human migrations: Americas and Europe colonization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I apply the recently proposed intermittence strategy to investigate the ancient human migrations in the world. That is, the Americas colonization (Bering-bridge and Pacific-coast theories) and Neanderthal replacement in Europe around 45000 years before the present. Using a mathematical equation related to diffusion and ballistic motion, I calculate the colonization time in all these cases in good agreement with archeological data (including Neolithic transition in Europe). Moreover, to support these calculations, I obtain analytically the effective speed of colonization in Europe veff=0.62 [km/yr] and related to the Aurignacian culture propagation.

Flores, J. C.

2007-07-01

359

OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OneGeology-Europe is making geological spatial data held by the geological surveys of Europe more easily discoverable and accessible via the internet. This will provide a fundamental scientific layer to the European Plate Observation System Rich geological data assets exist in the geological survey of each individual EC Member State, but they are difficult to discover and are not interoperable. For those outside the geological surveys they are not easy to obtain, to understand or to use. Geological spatial data is essential to the prediction and mitigation of landslides, subsidence, earthquakes, flooding and pollution. These issues are global in nature and their profile has also been raised by the OneGeology global initiative for the International Year of Planet Earth 2008. Geology is also a key dataset in the EC INSPIRE Directive, where it is also fundamental to the themes of natural risk zones, energy and mineral resources. The OneGeology-Europe project is delivering a web-accessible, interoperable geological spatial dataset for the whole of Europe at the 1:1 million scale based on existing data held by the European geological surveys. Proof of concept will be applied to key areas at a higher resolution and some geological surveys will deliver their data at high resolution. An important role is developing a European specification for basic geological map data and making significant progress towards harmonising the dataset (an essential first step to addressing harmonisation at higher data resolutions). It is accelerating the development and deployment of a nascent international interchange standard for geological data - GeoSciML, which will enable the sharing and exchange of the data within and beyond the geological community within Europe and globally. The geological dataset for the whole of Europe is not a centralized database but a distributed system. Each geological survey implements and hosts an interoperable web service, delivering their national harmonized geological data. These datasets are registered in a multilingual catalogue, who is one the main part of this system. This catalogue and a common metadata profile allows the discovery of national geological and applied geological maps at all scapes, Such an architecture is facilitating re-use and addition of value by a wide spectrum of users in the public and private sector and identifying, documenting and disseminating strategies for the reduction of technical and business barriers to re-use. In identifying and raising awareness in the user and provider communities, it is moving geological knowledge closer to the end-user where it will have greater societal impact and ensure fuller exploitation of a key data resource gathered at huge public expense. The project is providing examples of best practice in the delivery of digital geological spatial data to users, e.g. in the insurance, property, engineering, planning, mineral resource and environmental sectors. The scientifically attributed map data of the project will provide a pan-European base for science research and, importantly, a prime geoscience dataset capable of integration with other data sets within and beyond the geoscience domain. This presentation will demonstrate the first results of this project and will indicate how OneGeology-Europe is ensuring that Europe may play a leading role in the development of a geoscience spatial data infrastructure (SDI) globally.

Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

2010-05-01

360

Quantifying Observational Projection Effects Using Molecular Cloud Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical properties of molecular clouds are often measured using spectral-line observations, which provide the only probes of the clouds' velocity structure. It is hard, though, to assess whether and to what extent intensity features in position-position-velocity (PPV) space correspond to "real" density structures in position-position-position (PPP) space. In this paper, we create synthetic molecular cloud spectral-line maps of simulated molecular clouds, and present a new technique for measuring the reality of individual PPV structures. Using a dendrogram algorithm, we identify hierarchical structures in both PPP and PPV space. Our procedure projects density structures identified in PPP space into corresponding intensity structures in PPV space and then measures the geometric overlap of the projected structures with structures identified from the synthetic observation. The fractional overlap between a PPP and PPV structure quantifies how well the synthetic observation recovers information about the three-dimensional structure. Applying this machinery to a set of synthetic observations of CO isotopes, we measure how well spectral-line measurements recover mass, size, velocity dispersion, and virial parameter for a simulated star-forming region. By disabling various steps of our analysis, we investigate how much opacity, chemistry, and gravity affect measurements of physical properties extracted from PPV cubes. For the simulations used here, which offer a decent, but not perfect, match to the properties of a star-forming region like Perseus, our results suggest that superposition induces a ~40% uncertainty in masses, sizes, and velocity dispersions derived from 13CO (J = 1-0). As would be expected, superposition and confusion is worst in regions where the filling factor of emitting material is large. The virial parameter is most affected by superposition, such that estimates of the virial parameter derived from PPV and PPP information typically disagree by a factor of ~2. This uncertainty makes it particularly difficult to judge whether gravitational or kinetic energy dominate a given region, since the majority of virial parameter measurements fall within a factor of two of the equipartition level ? ~ 2.

Beaumont, Christopher N.; Offner, Stella S. R.; Shetty, Rahul; Glover, Simon C. O.; Goodman, Alyssa A.

2013-11-01

361

Climate for Innovation and ICT Implementation Effectiveness: A Missing Link in Italian E-government Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Italy is very oriented to the introduction of new reforms but is often weak in their implementation. In particular, the implementation of ICT tools in e-government projects has shown implementation effectiveness, with a major gap between the availability and effective use of these tools. This study measures the climate for innovation in order to better understand the effectiveness of ICT

Daniele Binci

2011-01-01

362

Effective Supervision Seminar the Management Development Seminar: Final Project Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has been providing the Effective Supervision Seminar (ESS) on a regular basis since 1978. The course is primarily targeted for new, probationary DOE supervisors. Incumbent supervisors who have not had equivalent training or ...

1989-01-01

363

Effect of projective viewpoint in detecting temporal density changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important question in mammographic image analysis is the importance of the projected view of the breast. Can temporal changes in density be detected equally well using either one of the commonly available views Medio-Lateral (ML) and Cranio-Caudal (CC) or a combination of the two? Two sets of mammograms of 50 patients in a double-blind, placebo controlled hormone replacement therapy (HRT) experiment were used. One set of ML and CC view from 1999 and one from 2001. HRT increases density which means that the degree of separation of the populations (one group receiving HRT and the other placebo) can be used as a measure of how much density change information is carried in a particular view or combination of views. Earlier results have shown a high correlation between CC and ML views leading to the conclusion that only one of them is needed for density assessment purposes. A similar high correlation coefficient was observed in this study (0.85), while the correlation between changes was a bit lower (0.71). Using both views to separate the patients receiving hormones from the ones receiving placebo increased the area under corresponding ROC curves from 0.76 +/- 0.04 to 0.79 +/- 0.04.

Raundahl, Jakob; Nielsen, Mads; Olsen, Ole F.; Bagger, Yu Z.

2004-05-01

364

River restoration in the United States: Evaluating the effectiveness of stream restoration projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National River Restoration Science Synthesis working group (www.nrrss.umd.edu) has developed two databases. The Summary Database is a compilation of basic information on >38,000 stream and river restoration projects from across the U.S. The Survey Database is a compilation of information from > 350 interviews with restoration project managers. For the latter, we developed and calibrated an interview protocol with a series of questions related to individual projects that largely targeted what factors contribute to ecologically effective stream and river restoration. The projects selected for interviews are representative of projects across the U.S. and were selected in a stratified, random fashion from the Survey Database. The interviews specifically focused on: how each project was designed, implemented and coordinated; what form of monitoring (if any) was completed; how the project outcome was evaluated and if it generated knowledge to improve future efforts; and, views on what science is needed to improve the effectiveness of restoration. We will provide a national level summary of the information we obtained from each of these four interview categories. It is our hope that databases such as NRRSS provide information helpful in prioritizing restoration efforts and prioritizing research that can enhance the effectiveness of restoration.

Palmer, M. A.; Hassett, B.

2005-05-01

365

West Europe Report No. 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains information concerning Western Europe's theater forces, energy economics, politics, and military. The following countries are included: (1) Netherlands, (2) Italy, (3) Sweden, and (4) Federal Republic of Germany.

1982-01-01

366

Inequality, Unemployment and Contemporary Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unemployment has social costs such as psychological harm, social exclusion, family breakdown, and loss of political voice. It can exacerbate inequality and technological conservatism. Reducing unemployment would contribute to solving many of Europe's social ills. (SK)

Sen, Amartya

1997-01-01

367

Investigating organizational quality improvement systems, patient empowerment, organizational culture, professional involvement and the quality of care in European hospitals: the 'Deepening our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe (DUQuE)' project  

PubMed Central

Background Hospitals in European countries apply a wide range of quality improvement strategies. Knowledge of the effectiveness of these strategies, implemented as part of an overall hospital quality improvement system, is limited. Methods/Design We propose to study the relationships among organisational quality improvement systems, patient empowerment, organisational culture, professionals' involvement with the quality of hospital care, including clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient involvement. We will employ a cross-sectional, multi-level study design in which patient-level measurements are nested in hospital departments, which are in turn nested in hospitals in different EU countries. Mixed methods will be used for data collection, measurement and analysis. Hospital/care pathway level constructs that will be assessed include external pressure, hospital governance, quality improvement system, patient empowerment in quality improvement, organisational culture and professional involvement. These constructs will be assessed using questionnaires. Patient-level constructs include clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient involvement, and will be assessed using audit of patient records, routine data and patient surveys. For the assessment of hospital and pathway level constructs we will collect data from randomly selected hospitals in eight countries. For a sample of hospitals in each country we will carry out additional data collection at patient-level related to four conditions (stroke, acute myocardial infarction, hip fracture and delivery). In addition, structural components of quality improvement systems will be assessed using visits by experienced external assessors. Data analysis will include descriptive statistics and graphical representations and methods for data reduction, classification techniques and psychometric analysis, before moving to bi-variate and multivariate analysis. The latter will be conducted at hospital and multilevel. In addition, we will apply sophisticated methodological elements such as the use of causal diagrams, outcome modelling, double robust estimation and detailed sensitivity analysis or multiple bias analyses to assess the impact of the various sources of bias. Discussion Products of the project will include a catalogue of instruments and tools that can be used to build departmental or hospital quality and safety programme and an appraisal scheme to assess the maturity of the quality improvement system for use by hospitals and by purchasers to contract hospitals.

2010-01-01

368

Road traffic emissions – predictions of future contributions to regional ozone levels in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the European Commission research project “Assessment of policy instruments for efficient ozone abatement strategies in Europe”, detailed emission projections have been developed for the year 2010 based upon currently adopted measures, and feasible reductions. For road-traffic emissions this projection considers passenger cars, light- and heavy-duty vehicles, mopeds and motorcycles. Here we present model calculations made with the

S Reis; D Simpson; R Friedrich; J. E Jonson; S Unger; A Obermeier

2000-01-01

369

Adjoint tomography of Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use spectral-element and adjoint methods to image crustal and upper mantle heterogeneity in Europe. The study area involves the convergent boundaries of the Eurasian, African and Arabian plates and the divergent boundary between the Eurasian and North American plates, making the tectonic structure of this region complex. Our goal is to iteratively fit observed seismograms and improve crustal and upper mantle images by taking advantage of 3D forward and inverse modeling techniques. We use data from 200 earthquakes with magnitudes between 5 and 6 recorded by 262 stations provided by ORFEUS. Crustal model Crust2.0 combined with mantle model S362ANI comprise the initial 3D model. Before the iterative adjoint inversion, we determine earthquake source parameters in the initial 3D model by using 3D Green functions and their Fréchet derivatives with respect to the source parameters (i.e., centroid moment tensor and location). The updated catalog is used in the subsequent structural inversion. Since we concentrate on upper mantle structures which involve anisotropy, transversely isotropic (frequency-dependent) traveltime sensitivity kernels are used in the iterative inversion. Taking advantage of the adjoint method, we use as many measurements as can obtain based on comparisons between observed and synthetic seismograms. FLEXWIN (Maggi et al., 2009) is used to automatically select measurement windows which are analyzed based on a multitaper technique. The bandpass ranges from 15 second to 150 second. Long-period surface waves and short-period body waves are combined in source relocations and structural inversions. A statistical assessments of traveltime anomalies and logarithmic waveform differences is used to characterize the inverted sources and structure.

Zhu, H.; Bozdag, E.; Peter, D. B.; Tromp, J.

2010-12-01

370

Noctilucent cloud over Britain & western Europe, 2009-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Record amounts of noctilucent cloud were reported in the 2009 season, but they were significantly fewer in 2010. Weather conditions in the UK and Europe may have been poorer in 2010 but increasing solar activity may also have had the effect of reducing the number of nights on which NLC was observed. This report presents observations of NLC received in 2009 & 2010 from western Europe and the British Isles.

Kennedy, K.

2011-12-01

371

Weakened thermohaline circulation will increase snow cover over Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A high resolution regional climate model nested into a global climate model was used to perform a Thermohaline Circulation (THC) slowdown experiment. Freshwater corresponding to one-sixth of the Greenland ice sheet melting over 100 years was introduced into the northern Atlantic. This reduced THC strength by half, changing atmospheric circulation and enhancing maritime climate influences over Europe. Implications of weakened thermohaline circulation's effects on specific locations in Europe are discussed.

Al., Jacob E.; Agu

372

Rainfall-induced landslides in Europe: hotspots and thresholds (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution presents preliminary results of the European project SafeLand. SafeLand is a large-scale integrating collaborative research project on landslide risks in Europe, funded by the Seventh Framework Programme for research and technological development (FP7) of the European Commission. SafeLand was launched in May 2009 and will run for three years. The project team, which comprises 27 institutions from 12 European countries, is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) in Norway. SafeLand aims to develop and implement an integrated and comprehensive approach to help and guide decision-making in connection with mitigation of landslide risks. Quantifying the effects of global change (changes in demography and climate change) on evolution of landslide risk in Europe is one of the main goals of SafeLand. The methodologies are tested in selected hazard and risk "hotspots” in Europe, in turn improving knowledge, methodologies and integration strategies for the management of landslide risk. The present contribution is focused on two components of SafeLand: (1) the identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots and (2) the estimation and assessment of rainfall thresholds for triggering of landslides. Hotspots of landslide hazard and risk were identified by an objective GIS-based analysis. The results show clearly where landslide pose the largest hazard in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. In absolute numbers, Italy is the country with the highest amount of area and population exposed. Relative to absolute number of inhabitants and area, small alpine countries such as Lichtenstein and Montenegro score highest where as much as 40% of the population could be exposed. It is obvious that the type and quality of the input data are decisive for the quality of the results. Especially the estimation of extreme precipitation events needs improvement. These preliminary results are based only on one of three applied hazard models. The two other models are currently being evaluated. Empirical rainfall thresholds for landslide triggering have been estimated in selected locations in Italy, France, Switzerland and Norway. Six different empirical models were used. The datasets included landslide inventories as well as hourly or daily observations of precipitation. The types of events were predominantly soil slides and debris flows, a few rock slides and rock falls, and the acceleration of a slowly-moving landslide. The results indicate that the occurrence of soil slides and debris flows can be predicted using precipitation observations. On the other hand, empirical models based on rainfall characteristics fail to predict rock falls and rock slides, presumably due to the predominant influence of other triggering factors. Soil slides are controlled by a combination of antecedent precipitation for short and long periods (1-10 days and 1-5 months, respectively). Debris flows are controlled by short duration precipitation lasting less than 12 hours. Since the inventories contain events with uncertainty in time of occurrence (from a few hours to several days), an innovative procedure was implemented for the inclusion of this uncertainty in the estimation of thresholds.

Cepeda, J.; Jaedicke, C.; Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B.

2010-12-01

373

The impact of effectiveness and efficiency on project success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effectiveness is the extent of the accomplishment of the right things, the right ends, and efficiency is the economics of doing things right, the economics of the right means. These are two fundamental concepts in all human activities and work, yet rarely are these two concepts collectively tested empirically. The lack of such experiential support limits a more complete conceptualization

Timothy M. Phelan

2005-01-01

374

Understanding the Many Steps for Effective Collaborative Language Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|New technologies are increasingly becoming a component of education, as computers are integrated into both students' lives and as a teacher's tool of management and teaching. At the same time, constructivist learning theories have had extensive effects at the level of learning paradigms and in prescribed education goals. Yet there are worrying…

Dooly, Melinda

2008-01-01

375

Projecting effects of intensified biomass extraction with alternative modelling approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of intensified biomass extraction on forest ecosystems is a timely question since harvest residues are increasingly utilised to produce energy and the impacts of the changed management practises are not always well understood. We compared two different modelling approaches, the MOTTI-YASSO and the EFIMOD-ROMUL model combinations, with respect to the simulated impacts of the biomass extraction in final

Taru Palosuo; Mikko Peltoniemi; Alexey Mikhailov; Alex Komarov; Patrick Faubert; Esther Thürig; Marcus Lindner

2008-01-01

376

Project Sanguine Biological Effects Test Program Pilot Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pilot laboratory experiments were conducted to assess preliminarily the possibility of effects on biota from exposures of various durations to electric fields of 10 and 20 volts per meter and magnetic fields of 1.0 and 2.0 gauss at two extremely low frequ...

W. B. Coate R. E. Kimball W. O. Negherbon S. S. Hoo R. A. Pledger

1970-01-01

377

Straight Talking: Effective Career Discussions at Work. NICEC Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The key features of effective career discussions at work were explored in a large-scale investigation that included semi-structured interviews with employers from 5 organizations in England, 118 employees who had participated in discussions about their own careers, and 30 employees identified by their employers as excellent givers of career…

Hirsh, Wendy; Jackson, Charles; Kidd, Jennifer M.

378

Measuring the Effects of a Peer Coaching Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes a peer coaching study that was conducted in a large urban school district. Discussion focused on the training model and the means used to measure the effects of inservice training on teacher attitudes toward a writing process model. Using instruments from the Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM), the researcher evaluated the…

Hosack-Curlin, Karen

379

Overview Chapter 3: Birth regulation in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early in the 21st century modern contraception -- primarily hormonal methods, advanced IUDs, sterilization and condoms -- has become the main instrument of birth regulation in Northern and Western Europe and gaining ground in Southern Europe and the formerly state socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Legal induced abortion use, which was highly prevalent in Central and Eastern Europe,

Tomas Frejka

2008-01-01

380

Variation matters: epidemiological surveillance in Europe.  

PubMed

Communicable diseases do not respect national boundaries and are important challenges to health internationally. This article aims to support the improvement and integration of surveillance systems in Europe and beyond by drawing on research comparing national systems. Definitions and concepts of epidemiological surveillance are described as a continuous systematic process that observes and reflects the real situation in society not only within but also across political boundaries. Outbreaks that affect more than one country show that a systematic comparative analysis of surveillance systems in Europe can help improve disease control. National surveillance systems from six European Union countries and from a later comparison of twenty-six European countries are examined. An effective surveillance system can provide information for action and act as a monitoring body for health authorities. Nevertheless, many European surveillance systems still require improvement in the interests of public health. PMID:22899836

Reintjes, Ralf

2012-08-16

381

Slow and not so sure: Europe`s long march to electricity market liberalization  

SciTech Connect

Under Europe`s recent Directive on competition in electricity, Member States retain immense autonomy to set the competitive agenda within their borders. The result may well be a distinctly skewed - and far from open - trade in electricity, and little opportunity for even large customers to make a meaningful choice of suppliers. The final adoption last year by The European Council - effectively the legislative body of the European Community - of a regulatory measure requiring gradual liberalization of Europe`s electricity market is an event of more symbolic than real significance. During the seven years it has taken to negotiate and compromise upon a suitable legal framework for electricity market liberalization, the European market itself has moved on. Effective implementation of the newly adopted framework rules is unlikely to be a real catalyst for change in its own right, although it could still be an important force in shaping the direction of liberalization programs already underway at the national level. This article will examine the state of electricity market liberalization in what is now known as the European Union - the loose quasi-federal structure which subsists between the 15 Member States of the European Community (EC). It will focus in part upon the provisions of the new EC Directive on the creation of a single market for electricity, and in part upon the complex changes which are gradually transforming the European electricity market.

Hancher, L. [Univ. of Tilburg (Netherlands)

1997-11-01

382

Impacts of future air pollution mitigation strategies on the aerosol direct radiative forcing over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projections of aerosol emissions for 2030 have been recently generated and implemented in a comprehensive chemistry-transport model to analyse the future evolution of the aerosol radiative forcing over Europe. In this study, numerical developments based on an off-line coupling between the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE (extended by an aerosol optical module) and the radiative transfer code GAME have been implemented in order to simulate the interaction of physico-chemically resolved aerosols with radiation at regional scale. This novel approach is used to examine the shortwave aerosol direct radiative forcing response to two air pollution reduction scenarios for 2030 over Europe. Our study suggests that measures introduced to improve future air quality could have large implication on the aerosol climate forcing over Europe. Results of simulations indicate that abatement of aerosols in the near future could lead to a decrease of the aerosol cooling effect at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere over the main anthropogenic emission regions. Especially over the Moscow region, different strategies of reduction for scattering sulphate and absorbing black carbon aerosols between the two scenarios could result, however, in either a reduction or an enhancement in atmospheric radiative forcing.

Péré, J. C.; Colette, A.; Dubuisson, P.; Bessagnet, B.; Mallet, M.; Pont, V.

2012-12-01

383

Applying the cost-effective energy standards in rehabilitation projects  

SciTech Connect

The guide explains to local Community Development managers and others how to apply HUD's Cost Effective Energy Conservation Standards (CEECS) to properties they rehabilitate. It explains what the CEECS require in terms of energy conservation measures and the procedures for calculating cost - effectiveness for both single - family and multifamily buildings. Requirements for all buildings include weatherstripping, caulking, and, when replacing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, insulation of supply and return pipes and ducts in unconditioned spaces. The step - by - step method for calculating cost - effectiveness of conservation measures requires identification and consideration of the fuel consumption over the life of the improvement, rate of heat loss from building, number of heating days and cooling hours, heating value of fuel, and other values. Enclosed charts can be used to calculate the variables. An energy audit questionnaire and worksheets are also provided. The various HUD rehabilitation programs in which the CEECS are required include the Section 312 Rehabilitation Loan program, the Community Development Block Grant program, Section 203 (k) Home Mortgage Insurance program, Section 8 Substantial Rehabilitation Program, and the Flexible Subsidy program. Tables; forms, including an energy audit questionnaire; a glossary of terms; and a list of HUD area offices are provided.

Not Available

1982-09-01

384

Pilot project to estimate the centralized volt\\/VAr control effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a volt\\/VAr control (VVC) project in which a centralized network-model based VVC was put in place to control a 13.8 kV distribution subsystem. The goal of the project is to estimate the effectiveness of VVC based on different objective functions, including an objective function for future market economy (revenue maximization). The technical issues which are critical to

I. Roytelman; B. K. Wee; R. L. Lugtu; T. M. Kulas; T. Brossart

1997-01-01

385

Pilot project to estimate the centralized volt\\/VAr control effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a volt\\/VAr control (VVC) project in which a centralized network-model based VVC was put in place to control a 13.8 kV distribution subsystem. The goal of the project is to estimate the effectiveness of VVC based on different objective functions, including an objective function for future market economy (revenue maximization). The technical issues which are critical to

I. Roytelman; B. K. Wee; R. L. Lugtu; T. M. Kulas; T. Brossart

1998-01-01

386

Comprehensive health effects testing program for Denver's potable water reuse demonstration project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Health Effects Testing Program for the Denver Water Department's Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project is designed to evaluate the relative health effects of highly treated reclaimed water derived from secondary wastewater compared to Denver's present high?quality drinking water. The 1 million gallon per day (1 mgd) demonstration plant provides water to be evaluated in the studies treating unchlorinated

William C. Lauer; Frank J. Johns; Gary W. Wolfe; Barbara A. Myers; Lyman W. Condie; Joseph F. Borzelleca

1990-01-01

387

Effectiveness of stream restoration following highway reconstruction projects on two freshwater streams in Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

After new highway construction near or across a stream, the site often requires remediation to reestablish suitable habitat for local biota. This study addresses effectiveness of environmental mitigation efforts for these construction projects, and contributes to the development of a protocol for environmental mitigation to be adopted by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet. Effects of remediation on two small KY, USA,

David J. Price; Wesley J. Birge

2005-01-01

388

The Effects of Project Success on Student Academic Performance: A Quasi-Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Project SUCCESS (PS) is a substance use prevention program that targets indicated high school students. We used archival data to explore the program's effects on students' academic achievement and disciplinary problems. It is essential to demonstrate such effects, if prevention curricula are to survive in schools that face multiple competing…

Shamblen, Stephen R.; Ringwalt, Chris

2008-01-01

389

Brain research has high returns but Europe is lagging behind.  

PubMed

We have shown that brain disorders cost Europe almost 400 billion euros annually, whereas the funding for brain research is only 1% of that amount. There is a growing understanding of the ability of research to improve prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of brain disease and thereby reduce the burden on the affected individuals and on society. New studies have shown that brain research is highly profitable, with conservatively measured annual returns of 50% or more. However, funding of brain research in Europe, particularly public funding, is lagging behind when compared with the US. We argue that increased public investment in brain research in Europe is critical and will most likely be highly cost-effective to European society. If Europe wants to remain competitive in the field of brain research, public investments must be increased several fold over today's investment. PMID:17539958

Sobocki, P; Olesen, J; Jönsson, B

2007-06-01

390

The effect of sonophoresis on topical anesthesia: a pilot project.  

PubMed

The dental anesthesia sonophoresis device (DASD) is a novel device that is intended to reduce the discomfort associated with intraoral mucosa needle puncture. The DASD produces ultrasonic energy that provides a sonophoretic effect on the oral mucosa, generating microchannels through the lipids between the keratinized cells that make up the stratum corneum. Once the topical anesthetic has permeated the stratum corneum, it quickly diffuses through the soft tissue, desensitizing the nerve endings and reducing the perception of pain caused by needle penetration. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether topical anesthesia applied using the DASD will reduce the discomfort of the needle puncture when compared to the control device. A split-mouth model, using 50 healthy subjects with puncture site at the maxillary canine vestibule, was used for this study. Subjects received a needle puncture on both sides of the mouth. Prior to the needle puncture, there was randomized application of 5% lidocaine with the DASD and a control device. Subjects rated their discomfort after needle punctures utilizing the visual analog scale pain scoring system. There was no statistically significant difference in the pain perception using the DASD versus the control device. PMID:23763557

Packer, Joseph L; Krall, Barry; Makki, Ali; Torabinejad, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

391

Assessing the cumulative effects of projects using geographic information systems  

SciTech Connect

Systems that allow users to store and retrieve spatial data, provide for analyses of spatial data, and offer highly detailed display of spatial data are referred to as geographic information systems, or more typically, GIS. Since their initial usage in the 1960s, GISs have evolved as a means of assembling and analyzing diverse data pertaining to specific geographical areas, with spatial locations of the data serving as the organizational basis for the information systems. The structure of GISs is built around spatial identifiers and the methods used to encode data for storage and manipulation. This paper examines how GIS has been used in typical environmental assessment, its use for cumulative impact assessment, and explores litigation that occurred in the United States Federal court system where GIS was used in some aspect of cumulative effects. The paper also summarizes fifteen case studies that range from area wide transportation planning to wildlife and habitat impacts, and draws together a few lessons learned from this review of literature and litigation.

Atkinson, Samuel F., E-mail: atkinson@unt.edu [Institute of Applied Science, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle 310559, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Canter, Larry W., E-mail: envimptr@aol.com [Environmental Impact Training, P.O. Box 9143, Horseshoe Bay, TX 78657 (United States)

2011-09-15

392

Patterns of Smoking Prevalence among the Elderly in Europe.  

PubMed

Scant information is available on determinants of smoking prevalence in the vulnerable population of the elderly, particularly in Europe. Therefore, we analyzed smoking patterns among older adults (?65 years old), using data from a representative survey based on 3,071 elderly, conducted in 17 European countries in 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project. Overall smoking prevalence in 17 European countries was 11.5% (15.3% in men and 8.6% in women). An inverse relation with level of education was observed among men, while no specific pattern was evident among women. Smoking prevalence was highest in eastern/central Europe for men (20.3%) and northern Europe for women (13.1%). In both sexes combined, smokers were more frequent in countries with low implementation of tobacco control activities (14.9%). Anti-tobacco campaigns and smoking cessation interventions specifically targeted to the elderly are urgently needed in Europe. PMID:24048208

Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boccia, Stefania; Murisic, Bojana; Gallus, Silvano

2013-09-17

393

Projecting climate change effects on forest net primary productivity in subtropical Louisiana, USA.  

PubMed

This study projected responses of forest net primary productivity (NPP) to three climate change scenarios at a resolution of 5 km x 5 km across the state of Louisiana, USA. In addition, we assessed uncertainties associated with the NPP projection at the grid and state levels. Climate data of the scenarios were derived from Community Climate System Model outputs. Changes in annual NPP between 2000 and 2050 were projected with the forest ecosystem model PnET-II. Results showed that forest productivity would increase under climate change scenarios A1B and A2, but with scenario B1, it would peak during 2011-2020 and then decline. The projected average NPP under B1 over the years from 2000 to 2050 was significantly different from those under A1B and A2. Forest NPP appeared to be primarily a function of temperature, not precipitation. Uncertainties of the NPP projection were due to large spatial resolution of the climate variables. Overall, this study suggested that in order to project effects of climate change on forest ecosystem at regional level, modeling uncertainties could be reduced by increasing the spatial resolution of the climate projections. PMID:21848139

Wang, Fugui; Xu, Y Jun; Dean, Thomas J

2011-07-01

394

Taking Europe To The Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first step in this ESA initiated programme is a unique project called 'Euromoon 2000' which is currently being studied by ESA engineers/ scientists and key European Space Industries. The project is intended to celebrate Europe's entry into the New Millennium; and to promote public awareness and interest in science, technology and space exploration. Euromoon 2000 has an innovative and ambitious implementation plan. This includes a 'partnership with industry' and a financing scheme based on raising part of the mission's budget from sponsorship through a dynamic public relations strategy and marketing programme. The mission begins in earnest with the small (approx. 100 kg) LunarSat orbiter satellite, to be designed and built by 50 young scientists and engineers from across Europe. Scheduled for launch in 2000 as a secondary payload on a European Ariane 5 rocket, it will then orbit the Moon, mapping the planned landing area in greater detail in preparation of the EuroMoon Lander in 2001. The Lander's 40 kg payload allocation will accommodate amongst others scientific instrumentation for in-situ investigation of the unique site. Elements of specific support to the publicity and fund-raising campaign will also be considered. The Lander will aim for the 'Peak of Eternal Light' on the rim of the 20 km-diameter, 3 km-deep Shackleton South Pole crater - a site uniquely suited for establishing a future outpost. This location enjoys almost continuous sunlight thus missions can rely on solar power instead of bulky batteries or costly and potentially hazardous nuclear power generation. As a consequence of the undulating South Pole terrain there are also permanently shadowed areas - amongst the coldest in the Solar System resulting in conditions highly favourable for the formation of frozen volatiles (as suggested by the Clementine mission in 1994). Earlier this year (7th January 1998), NASA launched its Lunar Prospector satellite which is currently performing polar lunar orbits surveying areas of the moon's surface rarely documented in previous missions. The data now being received back from Prospector strongly suggests the presence of the suspected volatiles (water ice?). Understandably the presence of billions-of-years-old frozen water in proximity to Euromoon's planned landing site would provide a tremendous boost for the implementation of the EuroMoon project now in its 10th month of study. The in-situ analysis of such rare substances will provide an invaluable scientific window back in time (the Moon is believed to have been formed over 3.5 billion years ago from elements of the earth's mantel). The water's constituent elements of hydrogen and oxygen have also the possibility of offering an essentially free supply of rocket propellant and oxygen for exploitation during future activities. EuroMoon is the only mission being studied that can investigate this ice in-situ, while the US satellite will remain in a orbit. The mission is particularly challenging because of the required landing precision (within 100 m2) in terrain varying between +6 km and -5 km in altitude. Achieving the required pinpoint touchdown capability would allow the future exploitation of other interesting sites. One such site is the 6 km-high Malapert Mountain, 120 km from the pole from which the Earth can always be seen thus allowing continuous communications with the home planet for any future outpost in the region. The 'Peak of Eternal Light' (described above) is in direct view of Malapert, the twin peaks offer the tantalising possibility of both of uninterrupted power and communications. Euromoon can be seen as be the initial step in founding the first extraterrestrial outpost, founding the infrastructure for a 'robotic village' controlled by a 'virtual community' of Earth-based operators using telescience. This would indeed mark the beginning of an expansion of the human domain beyond Earth without the risk or cost of manned space travel. This concept also forms an essential element of the fund-raising campaign which will create an exciting media opport

1998-03-01

395

Impact of climate change on ozone-related mortality and morbidity in Europe.  

PubMed

Ozone is a highly oxidative pollutant formed from precursors in the presence of sunlight, associated with respiratory morbidity and mortality. All else being equal, concentrations of ground-level ozone are expected to increase due to climate change. Ozone-related health impacts under a changing climate are projected using emission scenarios, models and epidemiological data. European ozone concentrations are modelled with the model of atmospheric transport and chemistry (MATCH)-RCA3 (50×50 km). Projections from two climate models, ECHAM4 and HadCM3, are applied under greenhouse gas emission scenarios A2 and A1B, respectively. We applied a European-wide exposure-response function to gridded population data and country-specific baseline mortality and morbidity. Comparing the current situation (1990-2009) with the baseline period (1961-1990), the largest increase in ozone-associated mortality and morbidity due to climate change (4-5%) have occurred in Belgium, Ireland, the Netherlands and the UK. Comparing the baseline period and the future periods (2021-2050 and 2041-2060), much larger increases in ozone-related mortality and morbidity are projected for Belgium, France, Spain and Portugal, with the impact being stronger using the climate projection from ECHAM4 (A2). However, in Nordic and Baltic countries the same magnitude of decrease is projected. The current study suggests that projected effects of climate change on ozone concentrations could differentially influence mortality and morbidity across Europe. PMID:22743679

Orru, Hans; Andersson, Camilla; Ebi, Kristie L; Langner, Joakim; Aström, Christofer; Forsberg, Bertil

2012-06-27

396

SOLAR-PERIODIC FULL MOON EFFECT IN THE FOURMILAB RETROPSYCHOKINESIS PROJECT EXPERIMENT DATA: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radin and Rebman (1998) claimed evidence of psychokinesis effects in casino payout rates depending on lunar phases. They found the peak effect in the full-moon interval. This paper reports on an experimental data evaluation of 199,632 retroPK experiment trials, covering eight years. The hypothesis of a full moon effect is tested with the large database of the Fourmilab RetroPsychoKinesis Project.

Eckhard Etzold

397

Challenges of the biomedical engineering education in Europe.  

PubMed

Higher education in Europe has passed through a very dynamic period of changes during the last ten years. Since the signing of the Bologna Declaration in 1999 by the Ministers of Education from the EU states, European higher education system has aimed toward establishing harmonized programs enabling students and teachers to extensively exchange knowledge, ideas and skills. Education in the field of Biomedical Engineering has experienced changes also because of the research and development in the field which was more intensive than in other fields. Besides research in new power sources, it is the most intensive and productive research field. Much of the development in BME education in Europe is influenced by the European research policy expressed through the 7th Framework Programme where health is the major theme. In order to foster and support the changes in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) according to the needs of research sector and the labor market, the Tempus scheme of projects was established. Tempus scheme aims to support the modernization of higher education and create an area of co-operation in the countries surrounding the EU. Our Tempus project, CRH-BME "Curricula Reformation and Harmonization in the field of Biomedical Engineering" aims to create guidelines for updating existing curricula in the field of BME in Europe in order to meet recent and future developments in the area, address new emerging interdisciplinary domains that appear as the result of the R&D progress and respond to the BME job market demands. In this paper, some policy and economic factors affecting BME education in Europe are discussed and the results of a BME education survey we prepared within the Tempus CHR-BME project are presented. The number of BME programmes in Europe has in the last decade significantly increased and there are more BME specializations as the result of growing complexity of the research and production in the field. PMID:21095995

Magjarevic, Ratko; Lackovic, Igor; Bliznakov, Zhivko; Pallikarakis, Nicolas

2010-01-01

398

Photovoltaic prospects in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economics of solar cells is reviewed with an eye to potential cost reductions in processing, and potential markets are explored. Current solar cell systems costs are noted to be on the road to achieving the U.S. DoE goals of $0.40/kWp by 1990. Continued progress will depend on technical developments in cheaper materials and processes, scaling up production, and the success of sales programs. Various consumer and professional markets are outlined, with a prediction that a 12 MWp deman will be reached as a steady state by 1995. Photovoltaic panels may conceivably replace conventional roofing materials, resulting in the projection that, if grid-supplied power continues to inflate in price, then all new European homes would be equipped with photovoltaics by the year 2000. Further, accomplishment of the cost goals could generate a 1 GWp/yr industrial market at the same time.

Starr, M. R.

399

Tradition and Innovation: Europe’s Accumulated Executive Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue in this article that Europe has in fact had a kind of executive order for centuries but that we only now see that the contours of this order are qualitatively different from the intergovernmental order inherited from the past. We ascribe this phenomenon in particular to the consolidation of the European Commission as a new and distinctive executive

Deirdre Curtin; Morten Egeberg

2008-01-01

400

Determining the Effectiveness of Riparian Revegetation Projects in the Maroochy Catchment, Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restoration projects are often performed without a post-project assessment, which leads to uncertainty if they are producing the desired results. Local government and community organizations in the Maroochy Catchment, in Queensland, Australia, organized a series of stream revegetation projects along streams flowing through areas with little or no riparian vegetation. The purpose of the project was to prevent high sediment fluxes and nutrient fluxes in the catchment, which were adversely affecting the Maroochy Estuary. Between October and November 2008, field data on selected physical, chemical and biological indicators were collected from three types of stream riparian zones in the catchment: mature forest, revegetated (3-8 years), and pastoral. Indicators included nutrient concentrations of riparian soils and stream water, water quality parameters (e.g. dissolved oxygen, conductivity, etc.), canopy percentages and sediment chlorophyll-a. Data were analyzed statistically to determine post-project success of the revegetated sites by comparing their key indicators to that of mature forest and pastoral sites. The purpose of this poster is to present the effectiveness of riparian zone revegetation projects in the Maroochy Catchment.

Bronner, C. E.; Newham, M.; Fellows, C. S.; Rabideau, A. J.

2009-05-01

401

Comparison between satellite wildfire databases in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For Europe, several databases of wildfires based on the satellite imagery are currently available and being used to conduct various studies and produce official reports. The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) burned area perimeters database comprises fires with burnt area greater than 1.0 ha occurred in the Europe countries during the 2000 - 2011 period. The MODIS Burned Area Product (MCD45A1) is a monthly global Level 3 gridded 500m product containing per-pixel burning, quality information, and tile-level metadata. The Burned Area Product was developed by the MODIS Fire Team at the University of Maryland and is available April 2000 onwards. Finally, for Portugal the National Forest Authority (AFN) discloses the national mapping of burned areas of the years 1990 to 2011, based on Landsat imagery which accounts for fires larger than 5.0 ha. This study main objectives are: (i) provide a comprehensive description of the datasets, its limitations and potential; (ii) do preliminary statistics on the data; and, (iii) to compare the MODIS and EFFIS satellite wildfires databases throughout/across the entire European territory, based on indicators such as the spatial location of the burned areas and the extent of area burned annually and complement the analysis for Portugal will the inclusion of database AFN. This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692, the project FLAIR (PTDC/AAC-AMB/104702/2008) and the EU 7th Framework Program through FUME (contract number 243888).

Amraoui, Malik; Pereira, Mário; DaCamara, Carlos

2013-04-01

402

The Coriolis anti pairing effect and angular momentum projection in rare earth nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ``back bending'' for the nuclei 160Dy and 162Er is calculated in the framework of the Coriolis Antipairing (CAP) effect. Angular momentum, proton and neutron number projections are performed before the minimization of the expectation value of the total Hamiltonian with respect to the pairing degree of freedom for every angular momentum independently. The Hamiltonian is represented by the spherical

A. Faessler; L. Lin; F. Wittmann

1973-01-01

403

An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the 4-H TV Science Project in Jackson County.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study evaluates the effectiveness of a 4-H TV Science Club Project Series, in Jackson County, Georgia, conducted in January, 1970, by the Georgia Cooperative Extension Service for upper elementary school age students in Georgia. Its objectives are: (1) To obtain information useful to Extension personnel and others interested in planning and…

Mathis, Ronnie R.

404

The Measures of Effective Teaching Project: An Experiment to Build Evidence and Trust  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Measures of Effective Teaching project has collected performance data using multiple indicators from over three thousand teachers across six urban districts. In the second year of the study, classes of students were randomly assigned to teachers in order to assess the impact of assignment bias on performance judgments. This article discusses…

Cantrell, Steven M.

2012-01-01

405

The Effects of Community Service Learning Projects on L2 Learners' Cultural Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This small-scale study investigates the effects of community service learning (CSL) projects or a cultural presentation on the development of the cultural understanding of low- and high-intermediate L2 students. Fifty-two learners in four sections of two Spanish classes in Canada participated in the study. The participants also completed pre- and…

Zapata, Gabriela

2011-01-01

406

The Effectiveness of Lap-Dissolving Projections for Visualizing in Three Dimensions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effectiveness of stereochemistry lap-dissolve projection as an aid to students in developing three-dimensional imaging and whether certain visual orientation tasks could be correlated with aptitude. Students found the slides helpful, and a modest correlation of achievement and visual skills was found. (MSE)

Wood, James K.

1983-01-01

407

Comparative Effectiveness of Two Strategies of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Teaching Orthographic Projections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to compare a linear strategy of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with a tutorial strategy of CAI and to ascertain the effectiveness of each in teaching selected cognitive elements of orthographic projection to sixth grade students. The comparison was made in terms of student achievement on the final task and the…

Hill, Clair S.

408

The Effects of a Community-Based Long Term Care Project on Nursing Home Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the effect of the Community Long Term Care project on nursing home utilization. Over an 18-month period of participation, experimental group clients experienced significantly fewer admissions and a 38 percent reduction in nursing home use. (Author/BL)

Nocks, Barry C.; And Others

1986-01-01

409

The Life Interventions for Family Effectiveness (LIFE) Project: Preliminary Findings on Alternative School Intervention for Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A non-randomized control trial was conducted to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the Life Interventions for Family Effectiveness (LIFE) project: a family-based, evidence-based comprehensive substance abuse intervention for at-risk adolescents and their families. The Matrix Adolescent Treatment Model of program delivery was utilized in the…

Watson, Donnie W.; Mouttapa, Michele; Reiber, Chris; McCuller, William Jason; Arancibia, Ruben; Kavich, Julia A.; Nieves, Elena; Novgrod, Judith; Mai, Noemi; Bisesi, Lorrie; Sim, Tiffanie

2007-01-01

410

Effects of offshore outsourcing of information technology work on client project management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – While strategic outsourcing decisions are crafted by senior executives, they are executed by middle managers and staff who may not share the vision or enthusiasm of their senior leadership team. The purpose of this paper is to provide a deep understanding of the effects of outsourcing on one of those stakeholder groups – the client project managers –

Mary C. Lacity; Joseph W. Rottman

2009-01-01

411

The Effectiveness of Lap-Dissolving Projections for Visualizing in Three Dimensions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study investigated the effectiveness of stereochemistry lap-dissolve projection as an aid to students in developing three-dimensional imaging and whether certain visual orientation tasks could be correlated with aptitude. Students found the slides helpful, and a modest correlation of achievement and visual skills was found. (MSE)|

Wood, James K.

1983-01-01

412

OVERVIEW OF THE MARK TWAIN LAKE/SALT RIVER BASIN CONSERVATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mark Twain Lake/Salt River Basin was selected as one of 12 USDA-Agricultural Research Service benchmark watersheds for the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) because of documented soil and water quality problems and broad stakeholder interest. The basin is located in northeastern Mis...

413

Conservation Effects Assessment Project research in the Leon River and Riesel watersheds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2003, the Leon River basin was selected as a Benchmark watershed for the USDA Conservation Effects Project (CEAP) to complement the historical USDA-ARS experimental watersheds near Riesel, TX. In both watersheds the major water quality concerns are excessive nutrient and bacteria concentrations ...

414

SUITABILITY OF SWAT FOR THE CONSERVATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT: COMPARISON ON USDA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE WATERSHEDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent interest in tracking environmental benefits of conservation practices on agricultural watersheds throughout the United States has led to the development of the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). The purpose of CEAP is to assess environmental...

415

CONSERVATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT (CEAP) WATERSHED ASSESSMENT STUDIES: YALOBUSHA RIVER WATERSHED [ABSTRACT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA ARS-NRCS has established a joint Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) that will assess the environmental benefits due to conservation practices on 12 benchmark watersheds. The Yalobusha River Watershed (YRW), which covers 168,750 ha consisting of 18% cropland, 19% pasture areas, 5...

416

Russia and Europe: Whose Society?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia’s traditionally ambivalent relationship to ‘Europe’ is now assuming new forms. Although the country since 1991 has formally adopted the panoply of Western democratic norms, their implementation is impeded by both practical and political forms of resistance to the universalism proclaimed by its erstwhile Cold War protagonists. The unstable relationship between Russia and various levels of international society has given

Richard Sakwa

2011-01-01

417

The nuclear confrontation in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Focusing on the debate over theatre nuclear forces in Europe, this volume, produced at Harvard's Center for Science and International Affairs, discusses the background events of the 1950s and 1960s; the military logic and political purpose of the weapons; the role of British, French and Soviet forces; and the arms control issues all these raise for the INF negotiations.

Boutwell, J.D.; Doty, P.; Treverton, G.F.

1985-01-01

418

Europe and the immigration debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European debate on immigration is marred by stereotypes, such as the supposition that Europe is full, that asylum seekers can be separated from economic immigrants, that the sending countries suffer from brain drain and that immigrants take jobs away from the population in the receiving countries. Many of these arguments can be reversed, but recently immigrants have indeed been

P. C. EMMER

2004-01-01

419

Remaking Education in Western Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article makes a contribution to discussion on the neo-liberal reshaping of education in Western Europe. It argues for a greater attentiveness on the part of education researchers to collective social actors such as trade unions and social movements. Making use of concepts from Gramsci and from Poulantzas, it suggests that such actors had a…

Jones, Ken

2005-01-01

420

Restructuring Enterprises in Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enterprise sectors of Eastern Europe are undergoing fundamental reform. This article evaluates alternative forms of corporate restructuring. It emphasizes differences in the sequence in which reforms are undertaken in different countries. In some countries, restructuring is being undertaken by the state before privatization; in some, restructuring is delegated to private-sector institutions before shares are offered to the public at

Wendy Carlin; Colin Mayer

1992-01-01

421

Organic dairy farming in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic milk production has gained importance in Europe. The European Union introduced regulations to standardise organic production throughout all member countries. The market for organic products is constantly increasing and still has not reached market stability. The differential price of organic products could maintain farms in marginal environments. In many cases, the market is still encouraging as the limit seems

A. Rosati; A. Aumaitre

2004-01-01

422

Europe 1992: A Language Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues for the survival of the federalist language formula in the European (Economic) Community through a modified, more restricted form so as to be more functional and open to the demands of worldwide communication. It is suggested that, despite its weaknesses, it more adequately reflects the mosaic-like cultural heritage of Europe. (eight…

Leitner, Gerhard

1991-01-01

423

Capacities: Political Science in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay portrays the capacities of political science in Western as well as in Central and Eastern Europe. The discussion is divided into four subtopics: (1) the political and social context in which European political science developed after World War II, (2) its degree of institutionalisation as an academic discipline, (3) its professional organisation and communication structure, and (4) its

Hans-Dieter Klingemann

2008-01-01

424

Babesia microti Infection in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of babesia infections in Europe are life-threatening and caused by Babesia divergens and B. bovis. Although Babesia microti has been detected in ticks from Switzerland, few if any cases of babesiosis have been caused by B. microti. This first reported case, diagnosed by serology, DNA detection, and microscopy, is additionally interesting because there appears to be coinfection with

Laurence Meer-Scherrer; Martin Adelson; Eli Mordechai; Beatrice Lottaz; Richard Tilton

2004-01-01

425

New Approaches to Teaching European Politics: Reintroducing Central Europe. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many educators in high schools and colleges have taught about European history and politics in the context of the Cold War and the division of Europe into two blocs. The revolutionary changes in 1989 and the collapse of the Soviet Union have made obsolete the superpower spheres of influence that divided Europe. This curriculum project contributes…

Wittman, Phillip M.

426

New Approaches to Teaching European Politics: Reintroducing Central Europe. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators in high schools and colleges have taught about European history and politics in the context of the Cold War and the division of Europe into two blocs. The revolutionary changes in 1989 and the collapse of the Soviet Union have made obsolete the superpower spheres of influence that divided Europe. This curriculum project contributes…

Wittman, Phillip M.

427

EUREKA Project LEADFREE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. EUREKA is a European initiative to co-ordinate research within Europe. In this network LEADFREE has been started in co-operation with several partners from industry and research to evaluate the properties of lead free solder alloys and the reliability of solder joints made of lead free solder. In the project comparative reliability data between various lead free

G. Grossmann

2001-01-01

428

Pediatric environmental medicine in Eastern Central Europe.  

PubMed

Pediatric environmental medicine in Central Eastern Europe needs support and development on national, institutional and individual basis. This situation is quantitatively, but not fundamentally different from what is to be found in Central Europe. PMID:17870663

Muceniece, S; Muszynska, M; Otto, M; Rozentale, G; Rudkowski, Z; Skerliene, B; Slotova, K; Suurorg, L; Tur, I; von Mühlendahl, K E

2007-09-17

429

Assessment of exposure to opiates and cocaine during pregnancy in a Mediterranean city: Preliminary results of the “Meconium Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time in Europe, the “Meconium Project” aimed to estimate the prevalence of drug use by pregnant women and the effects of exposure to illicit drugs during pregnancy on the fetus and infant. Between October 2002 and February 2004, 1151 (79%) dyads among the 1439 mother–infant dyads from the Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain, met eligibility criteria and

Simona Pichini; Carme Puig; Piergiorgio Zuccaro; Emilia Marchei; Manuela Pellegrini; Janeth Murillo; Oriol Vall; Roberta Pacifici; Óscar García-Algar

2005-01-01

430

ADORE – Attention–Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Observational Research in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Since there is little information about the naturalistic way of treatment in daily European practice, the Attention–Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Observational Research in Europe (ADORE) project was designed as a prospective, non–interventional study of approximately 1,500 patients observed by approximately 300 investigators in various European regions. Objective The primary objective is the description of the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed

Stephen J. Ralston; M. J. M. Lorenzo

2004-01-01

431

Important findings expected from Europe's largest seismic array  

Microsoft Academic Search

An international, interdisciplinary project, which 2 years ago deployed the largest dense seismic antenna ever in Europe, expects in the next 2 years to present important findings on the lithosphere and asthenosphere of a portion of the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). Final processing is currently under way of the data from the array of 120 seismographs along a 900-km-long by

Søren Gregersen; L. B. Pedersen; R. G. Roberts; H. Shomali; A. Berthelsen; H. Thybo; K. Mosegaard; T. Pedersen; P. Voss; R. Kind; G. Bock; J. Gossler; K. Wylegala; W. Rabbel; I. Woelbern; M. Budweg; H. Busche; M. Korn; S. Hock; A. Guterch; M. Grad; M. Wilde-Piorko; M. Zuchniak; J. Plomerova; J. Ansorge; E. Kissling; R. Arlitt; F. Waldhauser; P. Ziegler; U. Achauer; H. Pedersen; N. Cotte; H. Paulssen; E. R. Engdahl

1999-01-01

432

Towards a single seismological service infrastructure in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last five year services and data providers, within the seismological community in Europe, focused their efforts in migrating the way of opening their archives towards a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). This process tries to follow pragmatically the technological trends and available solutions aiming at effectively improving all the data stewardship activities. These advancements are possible thanks to the cooperation and the follow-ups of several EC infrastructural projects that, by looking at general purpose techniques, combine their developments envisioning a multidisciplinary platform for the earth observation as the final common objective (EPOS, Earth Plate Observation System) One of the first results of this effort is the Earthquake Data Portal (http://www.seismicportal.eu), which provides a collection of tools to discover, visualize and access a variety of seismological data sets like seismic waveform, accelerometric data, earthquake catalogs and parameters. The Portal offers a cohesive distributed search environment, linking data search and access across multiple data providers through interactive web-services, map-based tools and diverse command-line clients. Our work continues under other EU FP7 projects. Here we will address initiatives in two of those projects. The NERA, (Network of European Research Infrastructures for Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation) project will implement a Common Services Architecture based on OGC services APIs, in order to provide Resource-Oriented common interfaces across the data access and processing services. This will improve interoperability between tools and across projects, enabling the development of higher-level applications that can uniformly access the data and processing services of all participants. This effort will be conducted jointly with the VERCE project (Virtual Earthquake and Seismology Research Community for Europe). VERCE aims to enable seismologists to exploit the wealth of seismic data within a data-intensive computation framework, which will be tailored to the specific needs of the community. It will provide a new interoperable infrastructure, as the computational backbone laying behind the publicly available interfaces. VERCE will have to face the challenges of implementing a service oriented architecture providing an efficient layer between the Data and the Grid infrastructures, coupling HPC data analysis and HPC data modeling applications through the execution of workflows and data sharing mechanism. Online registries of interoperable worklflow components, storage of intermediate results and data provenance are those aspects that are currently under investigations to make the VERCE facilities usable from a large scale of users, data and service providers. For such purposes the adoption of a Digital Object Architecture, to create online catalogs referencing and describing semantically all these distributed resources, such as datasets, computational processes and derivative products, is seen as one of the viable solution to monitor and steer the usage of the infrastructure, increasing its efficiency and the cooperation among the community.

Spinuso, A.; Trani, L.; Frobert, L.; Van Eck, T.

2012-04-01

433

Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the\\u000a consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent\\u000a in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always\\u000a be

Julie Barnett; Aine McConnon; Jean Kennedy; Monique Raats; Richard Shepherd; Wim Verbeke; Jon Fletcher; Margôt Kuttschreuter; Luisa Lima; Josephine Wills; Patrick Wall

2011-01-01

434

Economic effects of projected climate change on outdoor recreation in Tennessee.  

SciTech Connect

Climate change projections from three General Circulation Models were used to adjust the temperature and precipitation in 2030 and 2080 in each of five ecological provinces in Tennessee to estimate the direct economic effects of the projected changes on recreation using the Tourism Climatic Index. The indirect effects on recreation were evaluated qualitatively, based on current demand for the unique values associated with current conditions. The results of the direct impact evaluation reveal that climate change will have variable effects on recreational activities in Tennessee. The magnitude and direction of the effects vary by the recreational activity involved, patterns of precipitation and temperature regimes, and specific location in Tennessee. Recreational activities such as rock climbing, winter activities independent of snow, and whitewater boating are likely to benefit from projected climate changes due to increased temperatures in the winter months. Summer-based activities such as lake recreation and camping are likely to decline with increasing seasonal temperatures. The indirect effects of climate change on recreation are likely to have a larger effect than the direct impacts of climatic variables.

Hodges, Donald G. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Fogel, Jonah [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Lannom, Karen O. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tharp, M Lynn [ORNL

2010-01-01

435

Alien Birds, Amphibians and Reptiles of Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

DAISIE aims to integrate information on current invasions across Europe through an online freely available database of alien\\u000a species (www.europe-aliens. org, Shirley and Kark 2006). Overall, the DAISIE database includes 55 islands or countries in\\u000a Europe (including European Russia), Israel and the Macaronesian islands (hereby referred to as Europe). Patterns of alien\\u000a introductions, their impacts and management tools differ for

Salit Kark; Wojciech Solarz; François Chiron; Philippe Clergeau; Susan Shirley

436

Modeling of elemental carbon over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional EMEP model has been applied to calculate EC concentrations over Europe for the years 2002-2004 using a new EC emission inventory. The results are compared with measurements from the CARBOSOL and EMEP EC/OC campaigns. The model underestimates EC concentrations by 19% on average, and the spatial correlation is 0.80. For individual sites, the model bias varies from -79 to 77% and the average temporal correlation is 0.53, varying from 0.25 to 0.79. The model flattens the north-south EC gradient as it tends to overestimate EC for Nordic sites and underestimate EC for more southern sites. We have also studied the contributions of various processes to the model EC results. Using EC as a tracer of primary PM emissions from combustion sources we have made a preliminary evaluation of the anthropogenic EC (PM) emission. There are indications of a possible underestimation of EC emissions from traffic in some areas and both underestimation and overestimation of EC emissions from residential combustion for some European countries. The largest uncertainties probably lie in EC emissions from residential wood/fossil combustion and are associated with both emission factors and spatial and temporal variation. The need to develop accurate and time resolved wildfire emissions is emphasized. The effect of EC aging is shown be rather limited for most of Europe (1 to 4%). Changes in EC wet scavenging ratio have a noticeable effect on calculated EC (between 5 and 25% for most Europe and 30-40% in remote areas), but EC scavenging ratios are still poorly known.

Tsyro, S.; Simpson, D.; Tarrasón, L.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Pio, C.; Yttri, K. E.

2007-12-01

437