Science.gov

Sample records for europe projects effects

  1. Effect of Soviet cancellation of petrochemical plant projects on east and west Europe and Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, P.

    1985-02-01

    The Soviet Union has scaled down plans to build four petrochemical projects, each worth more than US $1 billion, over the next five years because it is giving priority to the re-equipment of plants. The project to build a polyvinyl plant on the shores of Lake Baikal in Siberia has been cancelled. Another scheme to build a nylon plant at Kursk has been delayed, but might still be resurrected during the present five-year plan (1986-1990). The two projects still going ahead, or which British companies are bidding, are a polyolefin plant in the north Caucasus and a polyester plant in the Urals. Despite the investment priority given by the Soviet leadership to high technology and re-equipment, diplomats in Moscow do not expect a surge of orders for Western companies. They say there are two reasons for this; Moscow wants to rely as much as possible on imports of machinery from Eastern Europe, notably East Germany and Czechoslovakia, in return for its exports of oil and gas. Senior officials say that where they cannot obtain high technology from West because of restrictive legislation they will not be prepared to accept less efficient equipment. The level of Soviet imports from hard currency supplies will be limited by the fall in Soviet exports revenues. These have been hit by a decline of some four per cent in oil exports last year and the drop in the world oil price. The Soviet Union needs to keep its customers for gas which has given increased leverage to consumers such as West Germany, Italy and France in the award of contracts. This was exemplified by the visit of Mme. Edith Cresson, the French Foreign Trade Minister, to Moscow to discuss increasing trade. Paris wants the Soviet Union to redress the adverse trade balance with France with amounted to 4.5 billion francs (L 410 million) in the first 11 months of last year.

  2. Improving Environmental Projections in Nonboreal Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Ivanov, Sergiy; Gutman, Garik; Simmer, Clemens

    2009-02-01

    Regional Aspects of Climate-Terrestrial-Hydrologic Interactions in Non-boreal Eastern Europe; Odessa, Ukraine, 23-28 August 2008; Ecosystems in Eastern Europe, in particular environments such as grasslands and semiarid regions, have undergone significant changes during the entire twentieth century due to warming climate and socioeconomic impacts. As a result, the biome boundaries between forests and steppes and between steppes and semideserts have become increasingly volatile, with dramatic changes in phenology and land fertility. Compounding these problems is a dense rural population engaging in intense land use, a population that suffers socioeconomic hardships resulting from recent and still unsettled political changes. Such political problems combined with a lack of local funds have limited the amount of observational data collected in Eastern Europe, leaving climate modelers unable to validate regional climate projections.

  3. Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. Methods/Design This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating coherent messages to

  4. The Shale Gas in Europe project (GASH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian; Gash-Team

    2010-05-01

    At the present time no shale gas play has been brought to the production level in Europe. While the opportunities appear abundant, there are still many challenges to be overcome in Europe such as land access and environmental issues. Costs per well are still higher than in the US, and mining regulations are tighter. As yet it remains unclear whether European shales can support commercial shale gas production. First, it will be essential to test the sub-surface and the potential deliverability of wells, supported by basic research. GASH is the first major scientific initiative in Europe that is focussed on shale gas; it is ambitious in that it is broad ranging in scientific scope and that it unites leading European research groups and geological surveys with industry. US know-how is also integrated into the programme to avoid reinventing the wheel, or, still worse, the flat tyre. GASH is currently funded by eight companies, and comprises two main elements: compilation of a European Black Shale Database (EBSD) and focussed research projects that are based on geochemical, geophysical and geomechanical investigations. The EBSD is being built by a team of more than 20 geological surveys, extending from Sweden in the north, through western Europe and the Baltic states down to southern Europe, and over to Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic in the east. The research projects apply numerical modelling, process simulations and laboratory analyses to selected regional study areas or "natural laboratories" from both Europe and the USA - the goal: to predict gas-in-place and fracability based on process understanding. The European black shales selected as natural shale gas laboratories are the Cambrian Alum Shale from Sweden and Denmark, the Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale from Central Germany, and Carboniferous black shales from the UK in the west via the Netherlands to Germany in the east. Fresh core material for detailed investigations will be recovered during the mid

  5. Concerted Uranium Research in Europe (CURE): toward a collaborative project integrating dosimetry, epidemiology and radiobiology to study the effects of occupational uranium exposure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Olivier; Gomolka, Maria; Haylock, Richard; Blanchardon, Eric; Giussani, Augusto; Atkinson, Will; Baatout, Sarah; Bingham, Derek; Cardis, Elisabeth; Hall, Janet; Tomasek, Ladislav; Ancelet, Sophie; Badie, Christophe; Bethel, Gary; Bertho, Jean-Marc; Bouet, Ségolène; Bull, Richard; Challeton-de Vathaire, Cécile; Cockerill, Rupert; Davesne, Estelle; Ebrahimian, Teni; Engels, Hilde; Gillies, Michael; Grellier, James; Grison, Stephane; Gueguen, Yann; Hornhardt, Sabine; Ibanez, Chrystelle; Kabacik, Sylwia; Kotik, Lukas; Kreuzer, Michaela; Lebacq, Anne Laure; Marsh, James; Nosske, Dietmar; O'Hagan, Jackie; Pernot, Eileen; Puncher, Matthew; Rage, Estelle; Riddell, Tony; Roy, Laurence; Samson, Eric; Souidi, Maamar; Turner, Michelle C; Zhivin, Sergey; Laurier, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    The potential health impacts of chronic exposures to uranium, as they occur in occupational settings, are not well characterized. Most epidemiological studies have been limited by small sample sizes, and a lack of harmonization of methods used to quantify radiation doses resulting from uranium exposure. Experimental studies have shown that uranium has biological effects, but their implications for human health are not clear. New studies that would combine the strengths of large, well-designed epidemiological datasets with those of state-of-the-art biological methods would help improve the characterization of the biological and health effects of occupational uranium exposure. The aim of the European Commission concerted action CURE (Concerted Uranium Research in Europe) was to develop protocols for such a future collaborative research project, in which dosimetry, epidemiology and biology would be integrated to better characterize the effects of occupational uranium exposure. These protocols were developed from existing European cohorts of workers exposed to uranium together with expertise in epidemiology, biology and dosimetry of CURE partner institutions. The preparatory work of CURE should allow a large scale collaborative project to be launched, in order to better characterize the effects of uranium exposure and more generally of alpha particles and low doses of ionizing radiation. PMID:27183135

  6. Final Year Engineering Projects in Australia and Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, H.; Goh, S.

    2010-01-01

    The paper starts by emphasising that final year engineering projects are regarded important in the training and education of professional engineers in Australia and Europe. The sources of projects available to students were also mentioned. Some Australian universities insist on individual projects but some not, each with their own reasons.…

  7. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific aims, work plan, and organization of the Middle Atmosphere Program winter in northern Europe (MAP/WINE) are described. Proposed contributions to the MAP/WINE program from various countries are enumerated. Specific atmospheric parameters to be examined are listed along with the corresponding measurement technique.

  8. The ELISE II Project: A Digital Image Library for Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunz, Bob; Waters, Mairead

    This paper describes the progress made under the ELISE II electronic image library project from a technical standpoint. The ELISE II project is a European-wide initiative that aims to provide a comprehensive electronic image library service for Europe. It is funded under the European Commission, DG XIII-E, Telematics for Libraries Initiative. The…

  9. Facing Europe: visualizing spontaneous in-group projection.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Roland; Dotsch, Ron; Bianchi, Mauro; Banse, Rainer; Wigboldus, Daniël H J

    2011-12-01

    Individuals perceive their own group to be more typical of a shared superordinate identity than other groups are. This in-group projection process has been demonstrated with both self-report and indirect measures. The two studies reported here extend this research to the visual level, specifically, within the domain of faces. Using an innovative reverse-correlation approach, we found that German and Portuguese participants' visual representations of European faces resembled the appearance typical for their own national identity. This effect was found even among participants who explicitly denied that one nation was more typical of Europe than the other (Study 1). Moreover, Study 2 provides experimental evidence that in-group projection is restricted to inclusive superordinate groups, as the effect was not observed for visual representations of a category ("Australian") that did not include participants' in-group. Implications for the in-group projection model, as well as for the applicability of reverse-correlation paradigms, are discussed. PMID:22082611

  10. Developing financeable projects in Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Chelberg, R.; Prerad, V.

    1995-12-01

    POWER`s engineering and development experience in the Czech Republic creating financeable projects within the power generation industry will be presented. POWER has been involved in the Czech Republic`s privatization process, environmental legislation as well as formation of the regulatory environment. Strategic methods for accomplishing the development of financeable projects often include ownership and financial restructuring of the projects. This is done by utilizing internal cash flows, external debt and equity placement (provided by international financial institutions) by restructuring the facility`s contractual relationships and operations (providing as least cost solution to engineering) and possibly using existing governmental guarantees. In order to make any recommendations on how to come into compliance with the country`s environmental legislation, it is necessary to begin with an analysis of the existing facility. This involves preparation of technical and economic feasibility study, evaluation of technology and preliminary engineering solutions. It further involves restructuring of power sales agreements, heat sales agreements, and fuel supply agreements. The goal is to provide suitable security for the equity and debt financing participants by mitigating risk and creating a single purpose business unit with predictable life and economics.

  11. Projections of extreme storm surge levels along Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Annunziato, Alessandro; Giardino, Alessio; Feyen, Luc

    2016-02-01

    Storm surges are an important coastal hazard component and it is unknown how they will evolve along Europe's coastline in view of climate change. In the present contribution, the hydrodynamic model Delft3D-Flow was forced by surface wind and atmospheric pressure fields from a 8-member climate model ensemble in order to evaluate dynamics in storm surge levels (SSL) along the European coastline (1) for the baseline period 1970-2000; and (2) during this century under the Representative Concentration Pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Validation simulations, spanning from 2008 to 2014 and driven by ERA-Interim atmospheric forcing, indicated good predictive skill (0.06 m < RMSE < 0.29 m and 10 % < RMSE < 29 % for 110 tidal gauge stations across Europe). Peak-over-threshold extreme value analysis was applied to estimate SSL values for different return periods, and changes of future SSL were obtained from all models to obtain the final ensemble. Values for most scenarios and return periods indicate a projected increase in SSL at several locations along the North European coastline, which is more prominent for RCP8.5 and shows an increasing tendency towards the end of the century for both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Projected SSL changes along the European coastal areas south of 50°N show minimal change or even a small decrease, with the exception of RCP8.5 under which a moderate increase is projected towards the end of the century. The present findings indicate that the anticipated increase in extreme total water levels due to relative sea level rise (RSLR), can be further enforced by an increase of the extreme SSL, which can exceed 30 % of the RSLR, especially for the high return periods and pathway RCP8.5. This implies that the combined effect could increase even further anticipated impacts of climate change for certain European areas and highlights the necessity for timely coastal adaptation and protection measures. The dataset is publicly available under this link: http://data.jrc.ec.europa.eu/collection/LISCOAST.

  12. Future meteorological drought: projections of regional climate models for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagge, James; Tallaksen, Lena; Rizzi, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    In response to the major European drought events of the last decade, projecting future drought frequency and severity in a non-stationary climate is a major concern for Europe. Prior drought studies have identified regional hotspots in the Mediterranean and Eastern European regions, but have otherwise produced conflicting results with regard to future drought severity. Some of this disagreement is likely related to the relatively coarse resolution of Global Climate Models (GCMs) and regional averaging, which tends to smooth extremes. This study makes use of the most current Regional Climate Models (RCMs) forced with CMIP5 climate projections to quantify the projected change in meteorological drought for Europe during the next century at a fine, gridded scale. Meteorological drought is quantified using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which normalize accumulated precipitation and climatic water balance anomaly, respectively, for a specific location and time of year. By comparing projections for these two indices, the importance of precipitation deficits can be contrasted with the importance of evapotranspiration increases related to temperature changes. Climate projections are based on output from CORDEX (the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment), which provides high resolution regional downscaled climate scenarios that have been extensively tested for numerous regions around the globe, including Europe. SPI and SPEI are then calculated on a gridded scale at a spatial resolution of either 0.44 degrees (~50 km) or 0.11 degrees (~12.5km) for the three projected emission pathways (rcp26, rcp45, rcp85). Analysis is divided into two major sections: first validating the models with respect to observed historical trends in meteorological drought from 1970-2005 and then comparing drought severity and frequency during three future time periods (2011-2040, 2041-2070, 2071-2100) to the

  13. Projected changes in clear-sky erythemal and vitamin D effective UV doses for Europe over the period 2006 to 2100.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Haeffelin, Martial; Bekki, Slimane; Saiag, Philippe; Badosa, Jordi; Jégou, Fabrice; Pazmiño, Andrea; Mahé, Emmanuel

    2013-06-01

    The benefits and the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure have been well discussed. Most studies show concern for the solar overexposure in the tropics and low latitude sites and its scarcity at higher latitudes. Both cases are of concern, the first for diseases such as skin cancer and the second for the lack of vitamin D production in the skin. In this study, we evaluate the influence of climate change scenarios on the total ozone content (TOC) and typical aerosol properties, such as the optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA), over Europe. From these parameters, we estimate the erythemal and the vitamin D effective UVR doses from 2006 to 2100. Our results indicate a small reduction of the UVR daily doses caused by the ozone layer recovery and partially compensated by an AOD diminution through this century. The attenuation will be larger at high latitudes, during the springtime and for more polluted scenarios during this century. However, this diminution should not be sufficient to provide a protection condition for erythema. On the other hand, at higher latitudes, it possibly contributes to a relevant increase in the exposure time necessary for the synthesis of vitamin D, mainly during autumn and spring seasons. PMID:23549360

  14. Soil threats in Europe for the RECARE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolte, Jannes; Tesfai, Mehretaeb; Oygarden, Lillian

    2015-04-01

    Soil is one of our most important natural resources that provides us with vital goods and services to sustain life. Nevertheless, soils functions are threatened by a wide range of processes and a number of soil threats have been identified in Europe. Although there is a large body of knowledge available on soil threats in Europe, the complexity and functioning of soil systems and their interaction with human activities, climate change, and ecosystem services (ESS), is still not fully understood. An extensive literature review was carried out by a group of experts on soil threats at the European level. In total, around 60 experts from the 17 case study sites of the RECARE project, were involved in the process of reviewing and drafting the report and 11 soil threats were identified. The objective of WP2 of the RECARE project was to provide an improved overview of existing information on soil threats and degradation at the European scale. These soil threats are soil erosion by water, soil erosion by wind, decline of organic matter (OM) in peat, decline of OM in minerals soils, soil compaction, soil sealing, soil contamination, soil salinization, desertification, flooding and landslides and decline in soil biodiversity. The final report of WP2 provides a comprehensive thematic information on the major soil threats of Europe with due attention given to the Driving force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response to soil threats. Interrelationships between soil threats, between soil threats and soil functions and between soil threats and Ecosystems Services are made, and will be presented. A synergy between the soil threats is made based on the given information in each of the chapters, where we tried to identify the interactions between the threats. We tried to identify in what way one threat acts as a threat for another threat. Also, the link between soil degradation and Ecosystem Services are identified. Again, based on the information given in each chapter, the major climate

  15. Strategies for financing energy projects in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Fortino, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses financing options available for energy (power/steam) projects in East Central Europe. It is intended to be an overview and practical guide to such options in today`s environment. A survey is made of the principal multilateral and other financial institutions providing funding and/or credit support in the region. These include the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the export credit agencies, and the commercial banks. Specific guarantee and other support mechanisms which some of these institutions provide are covered, including the latest developments. In addition to loan financing, potential sources of equity financing are discussed. Next, a description of the credit rating process by such institutions as Standard and Poor`s, and an example of a successful rating effort in the Czech Republic, lead into a discussion of accessing foreign and domestic bond markets to finance energy projects in the region.

  16. Effects of climate change on landslide hazard in Europe (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Solheim, A.

    2009-12-01

    Landslides represent a major threat to human life, property and constructed facilities, infrastructure and natural environment in most mountainous and hilly regions of the world. As a consequence of climatic changes and potential global warming, an increase of landslide activity is expected in some parts of the world in the future. This will be due to increased extreme rainfall events, changes of hydrological cycles, meteorological events followed by sea storms causing coastal erosion and melting of snow and of frozen soils in the high mountains. During the past century, Europe experienced many fatalities and significant economic losses due to landslides. Since in many parts of Europe landslides are the most serious natural hazard, several recent European research projects are looking into the effects of climate change on the risk associated with landslides. Examples are the recently initiated SafeLand project, which looks into this problem across the continent, and GeoExtreme, which focused on Norway. The ongoing project SafeLand (www.safeland-fp7.eu) is a large, integrating project financed by the European Commission. It involves close to 30 organizations from 13 countries in Europe, and it looks into the effects of global change (mainly changes in demography and climate change) on the pattern of landslide risk in Europe. The SafeLand objectives are to (1) provide policy-makers, public administrators, researchers, scientists, educators and other stakeholders with improved harmonized framework and methodology for the assessment and quantification of landslide risk in Europe's regions; (2) evaluate the changes in risk pattern caused by climate change, human activity and policy changes; and (3) provide guidelines for choosing the most appropriate risk management strategies, including risk mitigation and prevention measures. To assess the changes in the landslide risk pattern in Norway over the next 50 years, the four-year integrated research project GeoExtreme (www

  17. Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B. G.; SafeLand Research Consortium

    2011-12-01

    The changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, the need to protect people and property, the reality for society in Europe to live with hazard and risk and the need to manage risk were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). It started on 1 May 2009 and will go on for 3 years, ending on 30 April 2012. There project involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://www.safeland-fp7.eu/ . SafeLand is an ongoing project, which results will be finalized in 2012. This lecture summarizes the SafeLand's activities and achievements until November 2011. The main results achieved so far include: - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots by an objective, GIS-based analysis for Europe. The results show clearly where landslides pose the largest hazard in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional climate model simulations over Europe (from the EU FP6 project ENSEMBLES) at a spatial resolution of 25 x 25 km have been used to perform an extreme value analysis for trends in heavy precipitation events. In winter a general trend towards more heavy precipitation events across all analyzed regional climate model

  18. The SAFER-Project and Seismic Early Warning in Europe (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschau, J.; Gasparini, P.

    2009-12-01

    SAFER (Seismic EArly Warning For EuRope) is the first large scale scientific project in Europe on earthquake early warning. It is funded by the European Commission in the context of Framework Program 6 under the theme Sustainable Development, Global Change and Ecosystems. Its general objective is to develop knowledge and tools for increasing the capability of effective earthquake early warning in Europe and to implement and test these tools in selected European cities. The SAFER project was carried out between 2006 and 2009 by a consortium formed by 20 institutes from 11 European and Mediterranean countries (Germany, Italy, Greece, Romania, Switzerland, Norway, France, the Netherlands, Iceland, Turkey and Egypt) and one each from Japan, Taiwan and USA. Five major earthquake prone cities were chosen as test areas: Athens, Bucharest, Cairo, Istanbul and Naples. The combined population of these cities is about 40 million inhabitants and all have experienced severe earthquakes in recent years. SAFER is strongly multi-disciplinary, calling upon expertise in seismology, structural and geotechnical engineering, informatics and statistics. Some of the specific problems addressed are related to - the rapid determination of earthquake size, complex earthquake features, and damage potential; - the implementation of a fully probabilistic framework for applications of earthquake early warning based on cost-benefit analysis; - the development of a new generation of early warning systems being decentralised and people-centred, and - the implementation of the real-time “shake map”-technology in large European cities. The presentation will review the major scientific findings, comment on the improvements of the earthquake early warning capabilities achieved by SAFER in the five test cities, and present some ideas for the future development of earthquake early warning in Europe.

  19. Retirement effects on health in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Norma B.; Zamarro, Gema

    2013-01-01

    What are the health impacts of retirement? As talk of raising retirement ages in pensions and social security schemes continues around the world, it is important to know both the costs and benefits for the individual, as well as the governments’ budgets. In this paper we use the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) dataset to address this question in a multi-country setting. We use country-specific early and full retirement ages as instruments for retirement behavior. These statutory retirement ages clearly induce retirement, but are not related to an individual’s health. Exploiting the discontinuities in retirement behavior across countries, we find significant evidence that retirement has a health-preserving effect on overall general health. Our estimates indicate that retirement leads to a 35 percent decrease in the probability of reporting to be in fair, bad, or very bad health, and an almost one standard deviation improvement in the health index. While the self-reported health seems to be a temporary impact, the health index indicates there are long-lasting health differences. PMID:21183235

  20. Aerosol effect on climate extremes in Europe under different future scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillmann, J.; Pozzoli, L.; Vignati, E.; Kloster, S.; Feichter, J.

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates changes in extreme temperature and precipitation events under different future scenarios of anthropogenic aerosol emissions (i.e., SO2 and black and organic carbon) simulated with an aerosol-climate model (ECHAM5-HAM) with focus on Europe. The simulations include a maximum feasible aerosol reduction (MFR) scenario and a current legislation emission (CLEmod) scenario where Europe implements the MFR scenario, but the rest of the world follows the current legislation scenario and a greenhouse gas scenario. The strongest changes relative to the year 2000 are projected for the MFR scenario, in which the global aerosol reduction greatly enforces the general warming effect due to greenhouse gases and results in significant increases of temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe. Regional warming effects can also be identified from aerosol reductions under the CLEmodscenario. This becomes most obvious in the increase of the hottest summer daytime temperatures in Northern Europe.

  1. Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B.

    2012-04-01

    The need to protect people and property with a changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, and the reality for societies in Europe to live with the risk associated with natural hazards, were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). The project started on 1 May 2009 and will end on 30 April 2012. It involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://safeland-fp7.eu/. Main results achieved in SafeLand include: - Various guidelines related to landslide triggering processes and run-out modelling. - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides, and development of an empirical model for assessing the changes in landslide frequency (hazard) as a function of changes in the demography and population density. - Guideline for landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment and zoning. - New methodologies for physical and societal vulnerability assessment. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots for Europe. The results show clearly where areas with the largest landslide risk are located in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional and local climate model simulations over selected regions of Europe at spatial resolutions of 10x10 km and 2.8x2.8 km

  2. The SPACELAB Project: A Transatlantic challenge for Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottemeyer, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The contribution of Europe to the U.S. space program is related to the development of Spacelab. The Federal Republic of Germany is to contribute 53% and Italy 18% of the expenses. The industrial team conducting the development work for the Spacelab consists of experts from firms of the ten nations participating financially in the program. Attention is given to organizational problems, details on the development program, aspects of mission preparation, and future developments.

  3. Validation of five hydrological models across Europe and their suitability for making projections of future changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greuell, Wouter; Donnelly, Chantal; Gerten, Dieter; Ludwig, Fulco; Pisacane, Giovanna; Rossberg, Jörgen; Roudier, Philippe; Schaphoff, Sibyll

    2015-04-01

    One of the objectives of the EU-project IMPACT2C is to provide projections of water in Europe for the plus-two-degrees climate. For this purpose, a multi-model assessment was carried out using five hydrological models (E-HYPE, Lisflood, LPJmL, VIC and WBM) forced by the output from eleven selected CORDEX simulations, resulting in an ensemble of 55 simulations. We found significant changes in 30-year mean runoff in the north-eastern half of Europe, while significant drying is confined to some parts of the Mediterranean. In order to obtain insight in the suitability of the participating models to make climate projections, the models were extensively validated with river discharge measurements. Each model was run twice for the period 1979-2000 using two different climate forcing data sets, EOBS and WFDEI. Results show that model biases were very sensitive to the choice of the forcing data set, in particular to precipitation. However, we postulate that a model's ability to project climate change is better assessed by the skill of the model to simulate interannual variability than by the model bias. We then found that, despite large inter-model differences in structure and complexity, all models simulated interannual variability about equally well. Nevertheless, model rankings are shuffled considerably when EOBS forcing is replaced by WFDEI forcing. This was found both when models were ranked in terms of the magnitude of the bias and in terms of their ability to simulate interannual variability. We also validated the five hydrological models when forced by bias-corrected output from the CORDEX simulations for 1979-2000. We found that the computed discharges from the bias-corrected CORDEX simulations and the EOBS observational simulation differ insignificantly, in terms of all of the statistics that we considered and for all five models. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the bias corrections.

  4. Risk reduction projects in Russia, Ukraine, and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Guppy, J.G.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Reisman, A.W. ); Spencer, B.W. )

    1993-01-01

    Assistance to Russia, Ukraine, and Central and Eastern Europe countries (CEEC) in the area of nuclear power safety has been undertaken in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for implementing the nuclear safety portion of this assistance. One aspect of this work is to provide near-term improvement to the safety of VVER and RBMK nuclear power plants (NPPs). This activity has been designated as near-term risk reduction (NTRR). This accident risk reduction effort is being conducted by utilizing teams of experts.

  5. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE). The project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE): Introduction and outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1989-01-01

    The project Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) comprised a multinational study of the structure, dynamics and composition of the middle atmosphere in winter at high latitudes. Coordinated field measurements were performed during the winter 1983 to 1984 by a large number of ground-based, air-borne, rocket-borne and satellite-borne instruments. Many of the individual experiments were performed in the European sector of the high latitude and polar atmosphere. Studies of the stratosphere, were, in addition, expanded to hemispheric scales by the use of data obtained from remotely sensing satellites. Beyond its direct scientific results, which are reviewed, MAP/WINE has stimulated quite a number of follow-on experiments and projects which address the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere at high and polar latitudes.

  6. Climate Change and Aedes Vectors: 21st Century Projections for Dengue Transmission in Europe.

    PubMed

    Liu-Helmersson, Jing; Quam, Mikkel; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Stenlund, Hans; Ebi, Kristie; Massad, Eduardo; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-05-01

    Warming temperatures may increase the geographic spread of vector-borne diseases into temperate areas. Although a tropical mosquito-borne viral disease, a dengue outbreak occurred in Madeira, Portugal, in 2012; the first in Europe since 1920s. This outbreak emphasizes the potential for dengue re-emergence in Europe given changing climates. We present estimates of dengue epidemic potential using vectorial capacity (VC) based on historic and projected temperature (1901-2099). VC indicates the vectors' ability to spread disease among humans. We calculated temperature-dependent VC for Europe, highlighting 10 European cities and three non-European reference cities. Compared with the tropics, Europe shows pronounced seasonality and geographical heterogeneity. Although low, VC during summer is currently sufficient for dengue outbreaks in Southern Europe to commence-if sufficient vector populations (either Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) were active and virus were introduced. Under various climate change scenarios, the seasonal peak and time window for dengue epidemic potential increases during the 21st century. Our study maps dengue epidemic potential in Europe and identifies seasonal time windows when major cities are most conducive for dengue transmission from 1901 to 2099. Our findings illustrate, that besides vector control, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions crucially reduces the future epidemic potential of dengue in Europe. PMID:27322480

  7. Sea level rise projections for Northern Europe under RCP8.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinsted, Aslak; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Riva, Riccardo; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2015-04-01

    We calculate regional projections of 21st century sea level rise in Northern Europe, focusing on the British Isles, the Baltic, and the North Sea. The input to the regional sea level projection is a probabilistic projection of the major components global sea level budget. Local sea level rise is partly compensated by vertical land movement from glacial isostatic adjustment. We explore the uncertainties beyond the likely range provided by IPCC, including the risk and potential rate of marine ice sheet collapse.

  8. Projections of heat waves with high impact on human health in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amengual, A.; Homar, V.; Romero, R.; Brooks, H. E.; Ramis, C.; Gordaliza, M.; Alonso, S.

    2014-08-01

    Climate change will result in more intense, more frequent and longer lasting heat waves. The most hazardous conditions emerge when extreme daytime temperatures combine with warm night-time temperatures, high humidities and light winds for several consecutive days. Here, we assess present and future heat wave impacts on human health in Europe. Present daily physiologically equivalent temperatures (PET) are derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. PET allows to specifically focus on heat-related risks on humans. Regarding projections, a suite of high-resolution regional climate models - run under SRES A1B scenario - has been used. A quantile-quantile adjustment is applied to the daily simulated PET to correct biases in individual model climatologies and a multimodel ensemble strategy is adopted to encompass model errors. Two types of heat waves differently impacting human health - strong and extreme stress - are defined according to specified thresholds of thermal stress and duration. Heat wave number, frequency, duration and amplitude are derived for each type. Results reveal relatively strong correlations between the spatial distribution of strong and extreme heat wave amplitudes and mortality excess for the 2003 European summer. Projections suggest a steady increase and a northward extent of heat wave attributes in Europe. Strong stress heat wave frequencies could increase more than 40 days, lasting over 20 days more by 2075-2094. Amplitudes might augment up to 7 °C per heat wave day. Important increases in extreme stress heat wave attributes are also expected: up to 40 days in frequency, 30 days in duration and 4 °C in amplitude. We believe that with this information at hand policy makers and stakeholders on vulnerable populations to heat stress can respond more effectively to the future challenges imposed by climate warming.

  9. Future scenarios for viticultural zoning in Europe: ensemble projections and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, H.; Malheiro, A. C.; Moutinho-Pereira, J.; Santos, J. A.

    2013-11-01

    Optimum climate conditions for grapevine growth are limited geographically and may be further challenged by a changing climate. Due to the importance of the winemaking sector in Europe, the assessment of future scenarios for European viticulture is of foremost relevance. A 16-member ensemble of model transient experiments (generated by the ENSEMBLES project) under a greenhouse gas emission scenario and for two future periods (2011-2040 and 2041-2070) is used in assessing climate change projections for six viticultural zoning indices. After model data calibration/validation using an observational gridded daily dataset, changes in their ensemble means and inter-annual variability are discussed, also taking into account the model uncertainties. Over southern Europe, the projected warming combined with severe dryness in the growing season is expected to have detrimental impacts on the grapevine development and wine quality, requiring measures to cope with heat and water stress. Furthermore, the expected warming and the maintenance of moderately wet growing seasons over most of the central European winemaking regions may require a selection of new grapevine varieties, as well as an enhancement of pest/disease control. New winemaking regions may arise over northern Europe and high altitude areas, when considering climatic factors only. An enhanced inter-annual variability is also projected over most of Europe. All these future changes pose new challenges for the European winemaking sector.

  10. Future scenarios for viticultural zoning in Europe: ensemble projections and uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Fraga, H; Malheiro, A C; Moutinho-Pereira, J; Santos, J A

    2013-11-01

    Optimum climate conditions for grapevine growth are limited geographically and may be further challenged by a changing climate. Due to the importance of the winemaking sector in Europe, the assessment of future scenarios for European viticulture is of foremost relevance. A 16-member ensemble of model transient experiments (generated by the ENSEMBLES project) under a greenhouse gas emission scenario and for two future periods (2011-2040 and 2041-2070) is used in assessing climate change projections for six viticultural zoning indices. After model data calibration/validation using an observational gridded daily dataset, changes in their ensemble means and inter-annual variability are discussed, also taking into account the model uncertainties. Over southern Europe, the projected warming combined with severe dryness in the growing season is expected to have detrimental impacts on the grapevine development and wine quality, requiring measures to cope with heat and water stress. Furthermore, the expected warming and the maintenance of moderately wet growing seasons over most of the central European winemaking regions may require a selection of new grapevine varieties, as well as an enhancement of pest/disease control. New winemaking regions may arise over northern Europe and high altitude areas, when considering climatic factors only. An enhanced inter-annual variability is also projected over most of Europe. All these future changes pose new challenges for the European winemaking sector. PMID:23306774

  11. Strategies for Reforming Initial Vocational Education and Training in Europe. Final Report of the Project. Leonardo da Vinci/Transnational Pilot Projects: Multiplier Effect, Strand III.3.a. Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking (1997-2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenstrom, Marja-Leena, Ed.; Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    This document contains 24 papers examining strategies for reforming initial vocational education and training (VET) in Europe. The following papers are included: "Reassessing VET Reform Strategies in a New Context: Implementation of the SPES-NET (Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking) Project" (Marja-Leena…

  12. Record dry summer in 2015 challenges precipitation projections in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Orth, René; Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-01-01

    Central Europe was characterized by a humid-temperate climate in the 20th century. Climate change projections suggest that climate in this area will shift towards warmer temperatures by the end of the 21st century, while projected precipitation changes are highly uncertain. Here we show that the 2015 summer rainfall was the lowest on record since 1901 in Central Europe, and that climate models that perform best in the three driest years of the historical time period 1901–2015 project stronger drying trends in the 21st century than models that perform best in the remaining years. Analyses of precipitation and derived soil moisture reveal that the 2015 event was drier than both the recent 2003 or 2010 extreme summers in Central Europe. Additionally there are large anomalies in satellite-derived vegetation greenness. In terms of precipitation and temperature anomalies, the 2015 summer in Central Europe is found to lie between historical climate in the region and that characteristic of the Mediterranean area. Even though the models best capturing past droughts are not necessarily generally more reliable in the future, the 2015 drought event illustrates that potential future drying trends have severe implications and could be stronger than commonly assumed from the entire IPCC AR5 model ensemble. PMID:27323864

  13. Record dry summer in 2015 challenges precipitation projections in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, René; Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-06-01

    Central Europe was characterized by a humid-temperate climate in the 20th century. Climate change projections suggest that climate in this area will shift towards warmer temperatures by the end of the 21st century, while projected precipitation changes are highly uncertain. Here we show that the 2015 summer rainfall was the lowest on record since 1901 in Central Europe, and that climate models that perform best in the three driest years of the historical time period 1901–2015 project stronger drying trends in the 21st century than models that perform best in the remaining years. Analyses of precipitation and derived soil moisture reveal that the 2015 event was drier than both the recent 2003 or 2010 extreme summers in Central Europe. Additionally there are large anomalies in satellite-derived vegetation greenness. In terms of precipitation and temperature anomalies, the 2015 summer in Central Europe is found to lie between historical climate in the region and that characteristic of the Mediterranean area. Even though the models best capturing past droughts are not necessarily generally more reliable in the future, the 2015 drought event illustrates that potential future drying trends have severe implications and could be stronger than commonly assumed from the entire IPCC AR5 model ensemble.

  14. Record dry summer in 2015 challenges precipitation projections in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Orth, René; Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    2016-01-01

    Central Europe was characterized by a humid-temperate climate in the 20(th) century. Climate change projections suggest that climate in this area will shift towards warmer temperatures by the end of the 21(st) century, while projected precipitation changes are highly uncertain. Here we show that the 2015 summer rainfall was the lowest on record since 1901 in Central Europe, and that climate models that perform best in the three driest years of the historical time period 1901-2015 project stronger drying trends in the 21(st) century than models that perform best in the remaining years. Analyses of precipitation and derived soil moisture reveal that the 2015 event was drier than both the recent 2003 or 2010 extreme summers in Central Europe. Additionally there are large anomalies in satellite-derived vegetation greenness. In terms of precipitation and temperature anomalies, the 2015 summer in Central Europe is found to lie between historical climate in the region and that characteristic of the Mediterranean area. Even though the models best capturing past droughts are not necessarily generally more reliable in the future, the 2015 drought event illustrates that potential future drying trends have severe implications and could be stronger than commonly assumed from the entire IPCC AR5 model ensemble. PMID:27323864

  15. High-resolution meteorological drought projections for Europe using a single combined indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoni, Jonathan; Naumann, Gustavo; Vogt, Jürgen; Dosio, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Among the climate disasters, drought is one of the most difficult to characterise because of its complex nature and variety of impacts. These issues can be reflected in possible biases when drought indicators are projected to the future. Many studies are based on indicators independently computed and then compared; though this approach is powerful, the conclusions might vary according to each indicator, thus possibly resulting in contradicting findings. In this study, we focus on the frequency, duration, intensity, and severity of meteorological drought events in Europe and their projection until the end of this century, using a single indicator derived from the rational weighting of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), and the Reconnaissance Drought Indicator (RDI). The combination of the different indicators is based on the predominance of the drought signal, thus avoiding possible contradictory results. Future droughts have been studied for the periods 2041 to 2070 and 2071 to 2100, using an ensemble of the EURO-CORDEX high-resolution (0.11°) models that were bias-adjusted using the E-OBS observational dataset. Results show that meteorological drought events tend to be longer, more frequent and severe in southern Europe, especially in the period from 2071 to 2100 under the RCP8.5 scenario, while under the RCP4.5 scenario smaller but still significant drying trends are predicted. Both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 project a wetting tendency for Northern and Central Europe, though in 2041-2070 individual model results can be contradictory for Central Europe. The combined indicator, which incorporates precipitation as well as minimum and maximum temperature, therefore, helps understanding future European drought patterns at regional level especially in climate change transition areas as Central and Eastern Europe.

  16. Evaluation of five hydrological models across Europe and their suitability for making projections under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greuell, W.; Andersson, J. C. M.; Donnelly, C.; Feyen, L.; Gerten, D.; Ludwig, F.; Pisacane, G.; Roudier, P.; Schaphoff, S.

    2015-10-01

    The main aims of this paper are the evaluation of five large-scale hydrological models across Europe and the assessment of the suitability of the models for making projections under climate change. For the evaluation, 22 years of discharge measurements from 46 large catchments were exploited. In the reference simulations forcing was taken from the E-OBS dataset for precipitation and temperature, and from the WFDEI dataset for other variables. On average across all catchments, biases were small for four of the models, ranging between -29 and +23 mm yr-1 (-9 and +8 %), while one model produced a large negative bias (-117 mm yr-1; -38 %). Despite large differences in e.g. the evapotranspiration schemes, the skill to simulate interannual variability did not differ much between the models, which can be ascribed to the dominant effect of interannual variation in precipitation on interannual variation in discharge. Assuming that the skill of a model to simulate interannual variability provides a measure for the model's ability to make projections under climate change, the skill of future discharge projections will not differ much between models. The quality of the simulation of the mean annual cycles, and low and high discharge was found to be related to the degree of calibration of the models, with the more calibrated models outperforming the crudely and non-calibrated models. The sensitivity to forcing was investigated by carrying out alternative simulations with all forcing variables from WFDEI, which increased biases by between +66 and +85 mm yr-1 (21-28 %), significantly changed the inter-model ranking of the skill to simulate the mean and increased the magnitude of interannual variability by 28 %, on average.

  17. Trends in the mortality effects of hot spells in central Europe: adaptation to climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysely, J.; Plavcova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Europe has recently been affected by several long-lasting and severe heat waves, particularly in July-August 2003 (western Europe), June-July 2006 (central Europe), July 2007 (southeastern Europe) and July 2010 (western Russia). The heat waves influenced many sectors of human activities, with enormous socio-economic and environmental impacts. With estimated death tolls exceeding 50,000, the 2003 and 2010 heat waves were the worst natural disasters in Europe over the last 50 years, yielding an example of how seriously may also high-income societies be affected by climate change. The present study examines temporal changes in mortality associated with spells of large positive temperature anomalies (hot spells) in the population of the Czech Republic (around 10 million inhabitants, central Europe). Declining trends in the mortality impacts since 1986 are found, in spite of rising temperature trends. The findings remain unchanged if possible confounding effects of within-season acclimatization to heat and the mortality displacement effect are taken into account, and they are similar for all-cause mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Recent positive socio-economic development, following the collapse of communism in central and eastern Europe in 1989, and better public awareness of heat-related risks are likely the primary causes of the declining vulnerability in the examined population (Kyselý and Plavcová, 2012). The results are also consistent with those reported for other developed regions of the world (the US, western Europe, Australia) and suggest that climate change may have relatively little influence on heat-related deaths, since changes in other factors that affect vulnerability of the population are dominant instead of temperature trends. It is essential to better understand the observed non-stationarity of the temperature-mortality relationship and the role of adaptation and its limits, both physiological and technological, and to address

  18. Employment and Occupations in Europe in the 1980s. Effects of Technical and Economic Changes on the Employment Situation. Project No. 1 of the CCC: "Preparation for Life." Preparation for Working Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacace, Nicole

    This paper is an attempt to forecast for 1990 the following: (1) employment structures in the member countries of the Council of Europe for all three major sectors of the economy; and (2) employment structures in the Council of Europe for the nine major sectors of the manufacturing industry (food, textiles, leather and clothing, wood and…

  19. Multi-model projections of water resources in Europe under two degree global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Fulco; Donnelly, Chantal; Gerten, Dieter; Greuell, Wouter; Pisacane, Giovanna; Rossberg, Jörgen; Roudier, Philippe; Schaphoff, Sibyll

    2015-04-01

    One of the main objectives of the EU-FP7-project IMPACT2C is to develop projections of water fluxes and stores in Europe under two degree global warming. For this purpose, a multi-model assessment was carried out using eleven CORDEX climate change simulations, which were carried out with five different GCM/RCM combinations driven by three different RCPs (2.6, 4.5 and 8.5). After making bias corrections, the output from the eleven climate simulations was used to force five pan-European hydrological models (E-HYPE, Lisflood, LPJmL, VIC and WBM), resulting in an ensemble of 55 simulations. The ensemble of climate changes (the plus-two-degrees climate relative to 1971-2000) was evaluated in terms of the median, the standard deviation (measure for uncertainty) and significant changes. The latter are defined as those changes for which the absolute value of the median exceeds the standard deviation. We also performed a flood analysis for two return periods (10 and 100 years) fitting a GEV distribution on the data. Changes in water resources and largely driven by changes in precipitation. Precipitation is projected to increase in most parts of Europe with decreases confined to Southern Europe. Generally, the patterns of changes in evapotranspiration and runoff mimic the precipitation change pattern. As a result river discharge is projected to increase in the majority of Europe in the plus-two-degrees climate. The largest increases occur in the east and the far north while discharge decreases in parts of the Mediterranean. Due to a large spread in model outcome only in half of Europe the projected changes in discharge are significant. Changes (mostly decreases) in soil moisture are significant only in parts of the Mediterranean. It was found that uncertainty in runoff change was to a larger extent due to the climate models than to the hydrological models whereas uncertainty in soil moisture changes was mainly due to the hydrological models.

  20. Projection of climatic suitability for Aedes albopictus Skuse (Culicidae) in Europe under climate change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Dominik; Thomas, Stephanie Margarete; Niemitz, Franziska; Reineking, Björn; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2011-07-01

    During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus ( Ae. albopictus) has rapidly spread around the globe. The spread of this species raises serious public health concerns. Here, we model the present distribution and the future climatic suitability of Europe for this vector in the face of climate change. In order to achieve the most realistic current prediction and future projection, we compare the performance of four different modelling approaches, differentiated by the selection of climate variables (based on expert knowledge vs. statistical criteria) and by the geographical range of presence records (native range vs. global range). First, models of the native and global range were built with MaxEnt and were either based on (1) statistically selected climatic input variables or (2) input variables selected with expert knowledge from the literature. Native models show high model performance (AUC: 0.91-0.94) for the native range, but do not predict the European distribution well (AUC: 0.70-0.72). Models based on the global distribution of the species, however, were able to identify all regions where Ae. albopictus is currently established, including Europe (AUC: 0.89-0.91). In a second step, the modelled bioclimatic envelope of the global range was projected to future climatic conditions in Europe using two emission scenarios implemented in the regional climate model COSMO-CLM for three time periods 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100. For both global-driven models, the results indicate that climatically suitable areas for the establishment of Ae. albopictus will increase in western and central Europe already in 2011-2040 and with a temporal delay in eastern Europe. On the other hand, a decline in climatically suitable areas in southern Europe is pronounced in the Expert knowledge based model. Our projections appear unaffected by non-analogue climate, as this is not detected by Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis. The generated risk maps

  1. The Joint CEDEFOP/ETF Project on 'Scenarios and Strategies for Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Europe': A Contribution to the Debate on the Future of Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellin, Burkart

    A project in Europe is working to improve the quality of work, promote equal opportunities, combat exclusion and poverty; promote lasting economic growth and a European Union economic policy; and promote sustainable development and quality of life. In order to achieve these goals, three main objectives for vocational education and training (VET)…

  2. Comparing Emission Inventories and Model-Ready Emission Datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the similarities and differences in how emission inventories and datasets were developed and processed across North America and Europe for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project and then characterizes the emissions for the...

  3. Net effect of 250 years of forest management in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Naudts, Kim; McGrath, Matthew M.; Ryder, James; Chen, Yiying; Otto, Juliane; Valade, Aude

    2015-04-01

    Globally, 70% of the forest is managed and the importance of management is still increasing both in relative and absolute terms. In Europe, almost all forest is intensively managed by humans. Forests not only influence the global carbon cycle, they also dramatically affect the water vapour and energy fluxes exchanged with the overlying atmosphere. Recently, forest management has become a top priority on the agenda of the political negotiations to mitigate climate change. However, the net effect of biogeochemical and biophysical impacts of forest management is poorly understood. To this aim, the land surface model ORCHIDEE was extended for studying the effects of forest management on the land-atmosphere interaction and forest management was reconstructed for Europe between 1600 and 2010. The effects of forest management on the C-budget was quantified by means of a factorial experiment between 1750 and 2000. Climate change alone was responsible for a cumulated terrestrial sink of 8.1 Pg between 1750 and 2000, land cover changes and forest management sequestered another 0.8 Pg. In the absence of forest management, climate change alone would not have been able to compensate for the losses due to land cover changes. The factorial experiment was extended by coupled land-atmopshere simulations to quantify the effects of forest management on the climate over Europe. The net effect of both biogeochemical and biophysical changes due to present day land management is an increase of the top of the atmosphere radiative forcing by 0.11 to 0.16 Wm-2 on top of the increase due to climate change. 0.09 to 0.14 Wm-2 can be attributed to forest management including litter raking, changes in management strategies and species changes.

  4. Statistical multi-model climate projections of surface ocean waves in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Jorge; Menendez, Melisa; Camus, Paula; Mendez, Fernando J.; Losada, Inigo J.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the impact of climate change on sea surface waves has received increasingly more attention by the climate community. Indeed, ocean waves reaching the coast play an important role in several processes concerning coastal communities, such as inundation and erosion. However, regional downscaling at the high spatial resolution necessary for coastal studies has received less attention. Here, we present a novel framework for regional wave climate projections and its application in the European region. Changes in the wave dynamics under different scenarios in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean are analyzed. The multi-model projection methodology is based on a statistical downscaling approach. The statistical relation between the predictor (atmospheric conditions) and the predictand (multivariate wave climate) is based on a weather type (WT) classification. This atmospheric classification is developed by applying the k-means clustering technique over historical offshore sea level pressure (SLP) fields. Each WT is linked to sea wave conditions from a wave hindcast. This link is developed by associating atmospheric conditions from reanalysis with multivariate local waves. This predictor-predictand relationship is applied to the daily SLP fields from global climate models (GCMs) in order to project future changes in regional wave conditions. The GCMs used in the multi-model projection are selected according to skill criteria. The application of this framework uses CMIP5-based wave climate projections in Europe. The low computational requirements of the statistical approach allow a large number of GCMs and climate change scenarios to be studied. Consistent with previous works on global wave climate projections, the estimated changes from the regional wave climate projections show a general decrease in wave heights and periods in the Atlantic Europe for the late twenty-first century. The regional projections, however, allow a more detailed

  5. Uncertainties in future ozone and PM10 projections over Europe from a regional climate multiphysics ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; Jerez, S.; Montávez, J. P.; Trigo, R. M.

    2013-11-01

    Due to the computational time required for modeling air quality climatologies, the characterization of processes introducing the largest uncertainty in air quality-climate projections is a sound field of research. Here an air quality ensemble is assessed over Europe for present (1971-2000) and future (2071-2100, SRES A2) periods to characterize the sensitivity of regional air quality projections to the physics of the regional climate model driving the simulations. The ensemble comprises eight members resulting from combining two options of parameterization schemes for the planetary boundary layer, cumulus, and microphysics. The differences in the ensemble members (spread) for the concentration of tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM10) are strongly affected by the physics selected and could be considered as a matter of uncertainty in the change signals. Also, the leading processes causing the largest uncertainties in air quality projections have been identified and are mainly related to the election of the cumulus schemes.

  6. Adria-Europe crustal structure relationship in the Eastern Alps (project EASI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetényi, György; Plomerová, Jaroslava; Bianchi, Irene; Kampfová Exnerová, Hana

    2016-04-01

    Project EASI is the first implemented Complementary Experiment within the AlpArray program (http://www.alparray.ethz.ch) and stands for Eastern Alpine Seismic Investigation. The seismological field experiment ran for one year, from Summer 2014 to Summer 2015, composed of 55 broadband stations deployed in zig-zag in a ca. 15 km-wide band along longitude 13.35°E, spanning 540 km from the Czech-German border to the Adriatic Sea. Here we present first results using P-to-S converted waves from teleseismic distances. The variation of Moho depth along the profile is analyzed and linked to the two colliding plates, Adria and Europe, as well as to the overlying lithospheric blocks of the Bohemian Massif. The suggested Moho "hole" between Adria and Europe is characterized. We investigate the anisotropic nature of the lower crust of both plates. We conclude on the structural relationship of Adria and Europe at the crustal level, and infer their respective positions at depth. Furthermore, preliminary S-to-P conversions illuminating the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary test the significant depth variation of this boundary along the EASI transect and complement our receiver function study.

  7. Scintillations and TEC gradients from Europe to Africa: a picture by the MISW project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonsi, Lucilla; Spogli, Luca; Cesaroni, Claudio; Vadakke Veettil, Sreeja; Aquino, Marcio; Zin, Alberto; Wilhelm, Nicolas; Serant, Damien; Forte, Biagio; Mitchell, Cathryn N.; Grzesiak, Marcin; Kos, Timoslav; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Zurn, Martin; Enell, Carl-Fredrik; Haggstrom, Ingemar

    2016-04-01

    MISW (Mitigation of space weather threats to GNSS services) is an EU/FP7 project with the purpose of tackling the research challenges associated with Space Weather effects on GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). In particular, the objective of MISW is to develop suitable algorithms capable of enabling Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (e.g. EGNOS) in the low-latitude African sector. For this purpose, MISW has created a detailed picture of extreme space weather events that occurred in the past and in the current solar cycle. Despite its weakness, the current solar cycle exhibited two superstorms that happened during the descending phase, in March and in June 2015. The latter has been studied in detail through a careful analysis of GNSS data acquired by TEC (Total Electron Content) and scintillation monitors and by IGS and regional geodetic networks located in Europe and in Africa. The investigation enabled creating the actual scenarios of TEC gradients and scintillation that occurred over a wide latitudinal extent between 21 and 30 June 2015. The investigation is based on calibrated TEC from different receivers, aiming at the estimation of east-west and north-south TEC gradients and on the integration of calibrated TEC and TEC gradients with the scintillation data. The impact of the storm on GNSS performance has also been investigated in terms of losses of lock. The results of this study highlight the importance of assessing the latitudinal and the longitudinal TEC gradients as crucial information to identify to what extent different ionospheric sectors are severely affected by scintillation. On the other hand, this study also shows evidences of how TEC gradients are not always responsible for the observed scintillation. Finally, the outcomes of the study demonstrate the complex relation between scintillation, TEC gradients and losses of GNSS satellites lock.

  8. Understanding climate change projections for precipitation over Western Europe with a weather typing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, João A.; Belo-Pereira, Margarida; Fraga, Helder; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation over Western Europe (WE) is projected to increase (decrease) roughly northward (equatorward) of 50°N during the twenty first century. These changes are generally attributed to alterations in the regional large-scale circulation, e.g. jet stream, cyclone activity and blocking frequencies. A novel weather typing within the sector (30°W-10°E, 25-70°N) is used for a more comprehensive dynamical interpretation of precipitation changes. A k-means clustering on daily mean sea level pressure was undertaken for ERA-Interim reanalysis (1979-2014). Eight weather types are identified: S1, S2, S3 (summertime types), W1, W2, W3 (wintertime types), B1 and B2 (blocking-like types). Their distinctive dynamical characteristics allow identifying the main large-scale precipitation-driving mechanisms. Simulations with 22 CMIP5 models for recent climate conditions show biases in reproducing the observed seasonality of weather types. In particular, an overestimation of weather type frequencies associated with zonal airflow is identified. Considering projections following the RCP8.5 scenario over 2071-2100, the frequencies of the three driest types (S1, B2 and W3) are projected to increase (mainly S1, +4%) in detriment of the rainiest types, particularly W1 (-3%). These changes explain most of the precipitation projections over WE. However, a weather type-independent background signal is identified (increase/decrease in precipitation over northern/southern WE), suggesting modifications in precipitation-generating processes and/or model inability to accurately simulate these processes. Despite these caveats in the precipitation scenarios for WE, which must be taken into account, our approach permits a better understanding of the projected trends for precipitation over Western Europe.

  9. Assessing the burden of paediatric influenza in Europe: the European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project

    PubMed Central

    Paget, W. John; Casas, Inmaculada; Donker, Gé; Edelman, Laurel; Fleming, Douglas; Larrauri, Amparo; Meijer, Adam; Puzelli, Simona; Rizzo, Caterina; Simonsen, Lone

    2010-01-01

    The European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project is a multi-country project that was created to collect, analyse and present data regarding the paediatric influenza burden in European countries, with the purpose of providing the necessary information to make evidence-based decisions regarding influenza immunisation recommendations for children. The initial approach taken is based on existing weekly virological and age-specific influenza-like illness (ILI) data from surveillance networks across Europe. We use a multiple regression model guided by longitudinal weekly patterns of influenza virus to attribute the weekly ILI consultation incidence pattern to each influenza (sub)type, while controlling for the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemics. Modelling the ILI consultation incidence during 2002/2003–2008 revealed that influenza infections that presented for medical attention as ILI affected between 0.3% and 9.8% of children aged 0–4 and 5–14 years in England, Italy, The Netherlands and Spain in an average season. With the exception of Spain, these rates were always higher in children aged 0–4 years. Across the six seasons analysed (five seasons were analysed from the Italian data), the model attributed 47–83% of the ILI burden in primary care to influenza virus infection in the various countries, with the A(H3N2) virus playing the most important role, followed by influenza viruses B and A(H1N1). National season averages from the four countries studied indicated that between 0.4% and 18% of children consulted a physician for ILI, with the percentage depending on the country and health care system. Influenza virus infections explained the majority of paediatric ILI consultations in all countries. The next step will be to apply the EPIA modelling approach to severe outcomes indicators (i.e. hospitalisations and mortality data) to generate a complete range of mild and severe influenza burden estimates needed for decision making

  10. The Cosmetics Europe strategy for animal-free genotoxicity testing: project status up-date.

    PubMed

    Pfuhler, S; Fautz, R; Ouedraogo, G; Latil, A; Kenny, J; Moore, C; Diembeck, W; Hewitt, N J; Reisinger, K; Barroso, J

    2014-02-01

    The Cosmetics Europe (formerly COLIPA) Genotoxicity Task Force has driven and funded three projects to help address the high rate of misleading positives in in vitro genotoxicity tests: The completed "False Positives" project optimized current mammalian cell assays and showed that the predictive capacity of the in vitro micronucleus assay was improved dramatically by selecting more relevant cells and more sensitive toxicity measures. The on-going "3D skin model" project has been developed and is now validating the use of human reconstructed skin (RS) models in combination with the micronucleus (MN) and Comet assays. These models better reflect the in use conditions of dermally applied products, such as cosmetics. Both assays have demonstrated good inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility and are entering validation stages. The completed "Metabolism" project investigated enzyme capacities of human skin and RS models. The RS models were shown to have comparable metabolic capacity to native human skin, confirming their usefulness for testing of compounds with dermal exposure. The program has already helped to improve the initial test battery predictivity and the RS projects have provided sound support for their use as a follow-up test in the assessment of the genotoxic hazard of cosmetic ingredients in the absence of in vivo data. PMID:23811264

  11. Inventory of veterinary syndromic surveillance initiatives in Europe (Triple-S project): current situation and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Bronner, Anne; Watson, Eamon; Wuyckhuise-Sjouke, Linda; Reist, Martin; Fouillet, Anne; Calavas, Didier; Hendrikx, Pascal; Perrin, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-09-01

    Within the current context that favours the emergence of new diseases, syndromic surveillance (SyS) appears increasingly more relevant tool for the early detection of unexpected health events. The Triple-S project (Syndromic Surveillance Systems in Europe), co-financed by the European Commission, was launched in September 2010 for a three year period to promote both human and animal health SyS in European countries. Objectives of the project included performing an inventory of current and planned European animal health SyS systems and promoting knowledge transfer between SyS experts. This study presents and discusses the results of the Triple-S inventory of European veterinary SyS initiatives. European SyS systems were identified through an active process based on a questionnaire sent to animal health experts involved in SyS in Europe. Results were analyzed through a descriptive analysis and a multiple factor analysis (MFA) in order to establish a typology of the European SyS initiatives. Twenty seven European SyS systems were identified from twelve countries, at different levels of development, from project phase to active systems. Results of this inventory showed a real interest of European countries for SyS but also highlighted the novelty of this field. This survey highlighted the diversity of SyS systems in Europe in terms of objectives, population targeted, data providers, indicators monitored. For most SyS initiatives, statistical analysis of surveillance results was identified as a limitation in using the data. MFA results distinguished two types of systems. The first one belonged to the private sector, focused on companion animals and had reached a higher degree of achievement. The second one was based on mandatory collected data, targeted livestock species and is still in an early project phase. The exchange of knowledge between human and animal health sectors was considered useful to enhance SyS. In the same way that SyS is complementary to traditional

  12. Preventing socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviour in adolescents in Europe: Background, design and methods of project TEENAGE

    PubMed Central

    van Lenthe, Frank J; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Lien, Nanna; Moore, Laurence; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Kunst, Anton E; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2009-01-01

    Background Higher prevalence rates of unhealthy behaviours among lower socioeconomic groups contribute substantially to socioeconomic inequalities in health in adults. Preventing the development of these inequalities in unhealthy behaviours early in life is an important strategy to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in health. Little is known however, about health promotion strategies particularly effective in lower socioeconomic groups in youth. It is the purpose of project TEENAGE to improve knowledge on the prevention of socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents in Europe. This paper describes the background, design and methods to be used in the project. Methods/design Through a systematic literature search, existing interventions aimed at promoting physical activity, a healthy diet, preventing the uptake of smoking or alcohol, and evaluated in the general adolescent population in Europe will be identified. Studies in which indicators of socioeconomic position are included will be reanalysed by socioeconomic position. Results of such stratified analyses will be summarised by type of behaviour, across behaviours by type of intervention (health education, environmental interventions and policies) and by setting (individual, household, school, and neighbourhood). In addition, the degree to which effective interventions can be transferred to other European countries will be assessed. Discussion Although it is sometimes assumed that some health promotion strategies may be particularly effective in higher socioeconomic groups, thereby increasing socioeconomic inequalities in health-related behaviour, there is little knowledge about differential effects of health promotion across socioeconomic groups. Synthesizing stratified analyses of a number of interventions conducted in the general adolescent population may offer an efficient guidance for the development of strategies and interventions to prevent

  13. Descriptive epidemiology of Kaposi sarcoma in Europe. Report from the RARECARE project.

    PubMed

    Stiller, C A; Trama, A; Brewster, D H; Verne, J; Bouchardy, C; Navarro, C; Chirlaque, M D; Marcos-Gragera, R; Visser, O; Serraino, D; Weiderpass, E; Dei Tos, A P; Ascoli, V

    2014-12-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a virus-related malignancy which most frequently arises in skin, though visceral sites can also be involved. Infection with Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV or HHV-8) is required for development of KS. Nowadays, most cases worldwide occur in persons who are immunosuppressed, usually because of HIV infection or as a result of therapy to combat rejection of a transplanted organ, but classic Kaposi sarcoma is predominantly a disease of the elderly without apparent immunosuppression. We analyzed 2667 KS incident cases diagnosed during 1995-2002 and registered by 75 population-based European cancer registries contributing to the RARECARE project. Total crude and age-standardized incidence rate was 0.3 per 100,000 per year with an estimated 1642 new cases per year in the EU27 countries. Age-standardized incidence rate was 0.8 per 100,000 in Southern Europe but below 0.3 per 100,000 in all other regions. The elevated rate in southern Europe was attributable to a combination of classic Kaposi sarcoma in some Mediterranean countries and the relatively high incidence of AIDS in several countries. Five-year relative survival for 2000-2002 by the period method was 75%. More than 10,000 persons were estimated to be alive in Europe at the beginning of 2008 with a past diagnosis of KS. The aetiological link with suppressed immunity means that many people alive following diagnosis of KS suffer comorbidity from a pre-existing condition. While KS is a rare cancer, it has a relatively good prognosis and so the number of people affected by it is quite large. Thus it provides a notable example of the importance of networking in diagnosis, therapy and research for rare cancers. PMID:25454979

  14. Cross-border care and healthcare quality improvement in Europe: the MARQuIS research project

    PubMed Central

    Suñol, R; Garel, P; Jacquerye, A

    2009-01-01

    Citizens are increasingly crossing borders within the European Union (EU). Europeans have always been free to travel to receive care abroad, but if they wished to benefit from their statutory social protection scheme, they were subject to their local or national legislation on social protection. This changed in 1991 with the European Court of Justice defining healthcare as a service, starting a debate on the right balance between different principles in European treaties: movement of persons, goods and services, versus the responsibility of member states to organise their healthcare systems. Simultaneously, cross-border cooperation has developed between member states. In this context, patient mobility has become a relevant issue on the EU’s agenda. The EU funded a number of Scientific Support to Policies (SSP) activities within the Sixth Framework Programme, to provide the evidence needed by EU policy makers to deal with issues that European citizens face due to enhanced mobility in Europe. One SSP project “Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies” (MARQuIS), focused on cross-border care. It aimed to assess the value of different quality strategies, and to provide information needed when: (1) countries contract care for patients moving across borders; and (2) individual hospitals review the design of their quality strategies. This article describes the European context related to healthcare, and its implications for cross-border healthcare in Europe. The background information demonstrates a need for further research and development in this area. PMID:19188459

  15. Cross-border care and healthcare quality improvement in Europe: the MARQuIS research project.

    PubMed

    Suñol, R; Garel, P; Jacquerye, A

    2009-02-01

    Citizens are increasingly crossing borders within the European Union (EU). Europeans have always been free to travel to receive care abroad, but if they wished to benefit from their statutory social protection scheme, they were subject to their local or national legislation on social protection. This changed in 1991 with the European Court of Justice defining healthcare as a service, starting a debate on the right balance between different principles in European treaties: movement of persons, goods and services, versus the responsibility of member states to organise their healthcare systems. Simultaneously, cross-border cooperation has developed between member states. In this context, patient mobility has become a relevant issue on the EU's agenda. The EU funded a number of Scientific Support to Policies (SSP) activities within the Sixth Framework Programme, to provide the evidence needed by EU policy makers to deal with issues that European citizens face due to enhanced mobility in Europe. One SSP project "Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies" (MARQuIS), focused on cross-border care. It aimed to assess the value of different quality strategies, and to provide information needed when: (1) countries contract care for patients moving across borders; and (2) individual hospitals review the design of their quality strategies. This article describes the European context related to healthcare, and its implications for cross-border healthcare in Europe. The background information demonstrates a need for further research and development in this area. PMID:19188459

  16. The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) Project: Design and First Results

    PubMed Central

    Kovess, Viviane; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Koç, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background : The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) project aims to build up a set of indicators to collect and monitor children's mental health in an efficient and comparable methodology across the EU countries. It concerns primary schools children aged 6 to 11 years a range where few data are available whereas school interventions are promising. Methods : Three informants were used: parents, teachers and children. In selecting instruments language, instruments were selected according to the easiness to translate them: SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) for parents and teachers and DI (Dominic Interactive). A two-step procedure was used: schools randomization then six children by class in each grade. Results : 9084 children from seven countries (Italy, Netherlands, Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Turkey) completed the Dominic Interactive in their own language. 6563 teachers and 6031 parents completed their questionnaire, and a total of 5574 interviews have been completed by the 3 informants. The participation rate of the children with parents in the participating schools was about 66.4%. As expected teachers report more externalised problems and less internalised problems than parents. Children report more internalised problems than parents and teachers. Boys have consistently more externalised problems than girls and this is the reverse for internalised problems. Combining the diverse informants and impairment levels children with problems requiring some sort of mental health care were about 9.9%: 76% did not see any mental health professional: 78.7% In Eastern countries 63.1% in Western Europe. PMID:25834631

  17. Future flood risk in Europe under high-end climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc; Bianchi, Alessandra; Burek, Peter; Dottori, Francesco; Forzieri, Giovanni; Roudier, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Every year, new record-breaking hydrological extremes affect our society, fueling the debate between climate change and natural climate variability. A new generation of climate projections for the present century has recently become available, based on the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) adopted by the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. A number of COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiments (CORDEX) were set up to provide high-resolution climatic scenarios over different areas of the world, where the European branch is referred to as EURO-CORDEX. In this work, an ensemble of EURO-CORDEX RCP 8.5 scenarios is used as input to a distributed hydrological model to assess the projected changes in flood hazard and flood risk in Europe through the current century. Statistical robustness is sought with the use of ensemble projections, through data aggregation over time (i.e., 30-year time slices) and space (i.e., country and river basin level), with the goal of detecting statistically significant trends over time and with regard to extreme events. A consistent method is proposed to evaluate the agreement of ensemble projections. Changes in the magnitude of average and extreme precipitation and streamflow are investigated through statistical tools and extreme value distribution fitting. A dedicated analysis on peaks over threshold is performed to evaluate changes in the frequency of extreme discharge peaks. The hazard component driven by the climate scenarios is then combined with exposure maps obtained from high resolution flood hazard maps and with vulnerability information, to estimate the overall flood risk in Europe under high-end climate projections. This work brings a number of novelties to address issues pointed out in previous flood risk assessments at continental scale: 1) flood hazard maps are derived by a 2D hydraulic model rather than through simplified approaches; 2) the frequency of extreme peak discharges is assessed more consistently through

  18. Advanced reprocessing developments in Europe contribution of European projects ACSEPT and ACTINET-I3

    SciTech Connect

    Bourg, S.; Poinssot, C.; Geist, A.; Cassayre, L.; Rhodes, C.; Ekberg, C.

    2012-07-01

    Nuclear energy has more than ever to demonstrate that it can contribute safely and on a sustainable way to answer the international increase in energy needs. Actually, in addition to an increased safety of the reactors themselves, its acceptance is still closely associated to our capability to reduce the lifetime of the nuclear waste, to manage them safely and to propose options for a better use of the natural resources. Spent fuel reprocessing can help to reach these objectives. But this cannot be achieved only by optimizing industrial processes through engineering studies. It is of a primary importance to increase our fundamental knowledge in actinide sciences in order to build the future of nuclear energy on reliable and scientifically-founded results, and therefore meet the needs of the future fuel cycles in terms of fabrication and performance of fuels, reprocessing and waste management. At the European level, both the collaborative project ACSEPT and the Integrated Infrastructure Initiative ACTINET-I3 work together to improve our knowledge in actinides chemistry and therefore develop advanced separation processes. These tools are complementary and work in close connection on some specific issues such as the understanding of the selectivity of extracting organic ligands. By offering trans-national access to the main nuclear research facility in Europe, ACTINET-I3 aims at increasing the knowledge in actinide sciences by gathering all the expertise available in European nuclear research institutes or university and giving them the opportunity to come and work in hot-labs (ITU, Atalante...) or beamlines (ESFR, ANKA, PSI) ACSEPT is focused on the development of advanced separation processes, both aqueous and pyrochemical. Head-end steps, fuel re-fabrication, solvent treatment, waste management are also taken into account. In aqueous process development, the SANEX and innovative SANEX flowsheets demonstration were successfully achieved. Chemical systems were

  19. Biogeophysical effects of afforestation on temperature and precipitation extremes - case studies for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galos, B.; Sieck, K.; Rechid, D.; Haensler, A.; Teichmann, C.; Kindermann, G.; Matyas, Cs.; Jacob, D.

    2012-04-01

    Europe is the only continent with a significant increase of forest cover in recent times. In the last two decades the annual area of natural forestation and forest planting amounted to an average of 0.78 million hectares/year[1]. As large-scale forest cover changes influence regional atmospheric circulation, regional-scale sensitivity studies have been carried out to investigate the climatic effects of forest cover change for Europe. Applying REMO (regional climate model at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg), the projected temperature and precipitation tendencies have been analyzed for summer, based on the results of the A2 IPCC-SRES emission scenario simulation. For the end of the 21st century it has been investigated, whether the potential forest cover change would reduce or enhance the effects of emission change. The magnitude of the biogeophysical feedbacks of afforestation on temperature and precipitation means has been determined relative to the magnitude of the climate change signal. Based on the simulation results a significant climate change mitigating effects of forest cover increase can be expected in northern Germany, Poland and Ukraine, which is 15-20 % of the climate change signal for temperature and more than 50 % for precipitation. The analysis of the impacts on temperature and precipitation extremes is focusing on regional differences within Europe, based on the following research questions: · Does the increased forest cover induce any changes in temperature and precipitation extremes and in the climate variability? · How big are the land cover change feedbacks compared to the projected climate change signal? · What are the differences by bioclimatic regions, which regions show the largest effect on the simulated climate through forest cover increase? Results may help to identify regions, where forest cover increase has the most favourable effect and should be supported to reduce the projected climate change. Data provide an

  20. Past and future regional drought in Europe: corroborating global hydrological models and projecting drought characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, S.; Williamson, J.; Hannaford, J.; Prudhomme, C.; Goodsell, G.

    2011-12-01

    Recent drought events in Europe have caused significant environmental and socio-economic impacts, and water resource managers are increasingly concerned with how hydrological drought characteristics are set to evolve in future under changing climatic conditions. Global hydrological models (GHMs) enable the projection of future runoff, but before such projections can be used with confidence, there is a need to assess how well models perform in reproducing historical droughts. This study presents an intercomparison of eight GHMs, validated against observed data, in terms of their ability to reproduce regional drought characteristics in Europe. The suite of models is then used to examine how drought characteristics may evolve under future climate change scenarios and the uncertainty associated with the simulations. In order to facilitate the validation, a Regional Deficiency Index (RDI) is used to compare regional drought characteristics derived from GHMs against observations. Drought 'catalogues' have been derived for 23 homogeneous European regions from 0.5° gridded total runoff outputs of eight GHMs (JULES, WaterGAP, MPI-HM, HTessel, H08, LPJml, Orchidee, and GWAVA) driven by WATCH Forcing Data (WFD). These catalogues, covering the period 1963-2000 on a daily time step, have been corroborated against drought catalogues produced by a previous study derived from observed daily streamflow data from >500 catchments across Europe, for the same 23 regions and across an identical period. The observed catalogues provide a benchmark to assess the extent to which GHMs are able to reproduce historical drought characteristics. Model performance in reproducing observed historical drought characteristics varies significantly between GHMs, regions, and drought characteristics considered. Nevertheless, there are many instances in which some of the GHMs generally perform well in reproducing regional drought duration, spatial coherence, onset and termination, as well as 'drought

  1. Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe: The ARISE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, E.; Bittner, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Ceranna, L.; Charlton-Perez, A. J.; Ripepe, M.; Evers, L.; Kvaerna, T.; Lastovicka, J.; Eliasson, L.; Crosby, N. B.; Blanc-Benon, P.; Le Pichon, A.; Marchetti, E.; Pilger, C.; Keckhut, P.; Schmidt, C.; Lee, C.; Smets, P.

    2013-12-01

    ARISE proposes to design a new infrastructure that integrates different station networks in order to provide a new "3D" image of the atmospheric dynamics from the ground up to the mesosphere with unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. These networks are: - the International infrasound network developed for the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This system is unique by its quality for infrasound and atmospheric wave observations, - the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes (NDACC) which uses Lidar to measure stratospheric dynamics, - the Network for the Detection of Mesopause Changes (NDMC), dedicated to airglow layer measurements in the mesosphere, and additional complementary stations and satellite data. The infrastructure extends across Europe and outlying regions, including polar and equatorial regions. The measurements will be used to improve the parameterization of gravity waves in the stratosphere to better resolve climate models. The project also concerns civil applications related to monitoring of natural hazards as volcanoes. The presentation will highlight the first results obtained in the frame of the project.

  2. Effect of climate data on simulated carbon and nitrogen balances for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanke, Jan Hendrik; Lindeskog, Mats; Lindström, Johan; Lehsten, Veiko

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we systematically assess the spatial variability in carbon and nitrogen balance simulations related to the choice of global circulation models (GCMs), representative concentration pathways (RCPs), spatial resolutions, and the downscaling methods used as calculated with LPJ-GUESS. We employed a complete factorial design and performed 24 simulations for Europe with different climate input data sets and different combinations of these four factors. Our results reveal that the variability in simulated output in Europe is moderate with 35.6%-93.5% of the total variability being common among all combinations of factors. The spatial resolution is the most important factor among the examined factors, explaining 1.5%-10.7% of the total variability followed by GCMs (0.3%-7.6%), RCPs (0%-6.3%), and downscaling methods (0.1%-4.6%). The higher-order interactions effect that captures nonlinear relations between the factors and random effects is pronounced and accounts for 1.6%-45.8% to the total variability. The most distinct hot spots of variability include the mountain ranges in North Scandinavia and the Alps, and the Iberian Peninsula. Based on our findings, we advise to conduct the application of models such as LPJ-GUESS at a reasonably high spatial resolution which is supported by the model structure. There is no notable gain in simulations of ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks and fluxes from using regionally downscaled climate in preference to bias-corrected, bilinearly interpolated CMIP5 projections.

  3. Review of EuCARD project on accelerator infrastructure in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of big infrastructural and research programs (like pan-European Framework Programs) and individual projects realized inside these programs in Europe is to structure the European Research Area - ERA in this way as to be competitive with the leaders of the world. One of this projects in EuCARD (European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development) with the aim to structure and modernize accelerator, (including accelerators for big free electron laser machines) research infrastructure. This article presents the periodic development of EuCARD which took place between the annual meeting, April 2012 in Warsaw and SC meeting in Uppsala, December 2012. The background of all these efforts are achievements of the LHC machine and associated detectors in the race for new physics. The LHC machine works in the regime of p-p, Pb-p, Pb-Pb (protons and lead ions). Recently, a discovery by the LHC of Higgs like boson, has started vivid debates on the further potential of this machine and the future. The periodic EuCARD conference, workshop and meetings concern building of the research infrastructure, including in this advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such systems like: measurement - control networks of large geometrical extent, multichannel systems for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution. The aim of the discussion is not only summarize the current status but make plans and prepare practically to building new infrastructures. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. Accelerator technology is intensely developed in all developed nations and regions of the world. The EuCARD project contains a lot of subjects related directly and indirectly to photon

  4. A north-south divide in Europe: how projected changes in water quality differ depending on climate and land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Andrew; Skeffington, Richard; Couture, Raoul; Erlandsson, Martin; Groot, Simon; Halliday, Sarah; Harezlak, Valesca; Hejzlar, Joseph; Jackson-Blake, Leah; Lepistö, Ahti; Papastergiadou, Eva; Riera, Joan; Rankinen, Katri; Trolle, Dennis; Whitehead, Paul; Dunn, Sarah; Bucak, Tuba

    2016-04-01

    The key results from the application of catchment-scale biophysical models to eight river-systems across Europe to assess the effects of projected environmental change (change in climate, land use, nitrogen deposition and water use) on water quantity and quality will be presented. Together the eight sites represent a sample of key climate and land management types, and those aspects related to the Water Framework Directive were modelled: river flow, river and lake nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, and lake chlorophyll-a. The baseline period was 1981-2010 and the scenario period, 2031-2060. The robustness and uncertainty of the models was assessed. Long-term trends and seasonal variations in all the major modelled variables were simulated well in the baseline period. Dynamic models however typically produced results with lower variance than the observations. The predicted effects on water flows differed between northern and southern sites. In the north and mid-latitudes, the increased evaporation was balanced to some extent by increased precipitation, leading to relatively small effects on flows, though seasonal effects may still be important. In the south the increased temperatures and lower precipitation act to reduce water flows considerably. In general, the projected effects of climate change on nutrient concentrations were rather small. The effects of credible land use changes on nutrient concentrations were larger. However, there were exceptions and there were considerable differences in the response between sites dependent on the mixture of nutrient sources (agriculture versus wastewater). Modelled ecological changes were not generally proportional to the changes in nutrients.

  5. Promoting harmonization of BME education in Europe: the CRH-BME Tempus project.

    PubMed

    Pallikarakis, Nicolas; Bliznakov, Zhivko; Miklavcic, Damijan; Jarm, Tomaz; Magjarevic, Ratko; Lackovic, Igor; Pecchia, Leandro; Stagni, Rita; Jobaggy, Akos; Barbenel, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineers should be prepared to adapt to existing or forecasted needs. There is a strong pressure on education, training and life long learning programs to continuously adapt their objectives in order to face new requirements and challenges. The main objective of the TEMPUS IV, CRH-BME project is to update existing curricula in the field of Biomedical Engineering (BME) in order to meet recent and future developments in the area, address new emerging inter-disciplinary domains that appear as a result of the R&D progress and respond to the BME job market demands. The first step is to extensively review the curricula in the BME education field. In this paper, a proposal for a generic curriculum in the BME education is presented, in order to meet recent and future developments and respond to the demands of the BME job market. Adoption of the core program structure will facilitate harmonization of studies as well as student and staff exchange across Europe, thus promoting the European Higher Education Area. PMID:22255833

  6. Adaptation of vulnerable regional agricultural systems in Europe to climate change - results from the ADAGIO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eitzinger, J.; Kubu, G.; Alexandrov, V.; Utset, A.; Mihailovic, D. T.; Lalic, B.; Trnka, M.; Zalud, Z.; Semeradova, D.; Ventrella, D.; Anastasiou, D. P.; Medany, M.; Altaher, S.; Olejnik, J.; Lesny, J.; Nemeshko, N.; Nikolaev, M.; Simota, C.; Cojocaru, G.

    2009-10-01

    During 2007-2009 the ADAGIO project (http://www.adagio-eu.org) is carried out to evaluate regional adaptation options in agriculture in most vulnerable European regions (mediterranean, central and eastern European regions). In this context a bottom-up approach is used beside the top-down approach of using scientific studies, involving regional experts and farmers in the evaluation of potential regional vulnerabilities and adaptation options. Preliminary results of the regional studies and gathered feedback from experts and farmers show in general that (increasing) drought and heat are the main factors having impact on agricultural vulnerability not only in the Mediterranean region, but also in the Central and southern Eastern European regions. Another important aspect is that the increasing risk of pest and diseases may play a more important role for agricultural vulnerability than assumed before, however, till now this field is only rarely investigated in Europe. Although dominating risks such as increasing drought and heat are similar in most regions, the vulnerabilities in the different regions are very much influenced by characteristics of the dominating agroecosystems and prevailing socio-economic conditions. This will be even be more significant for potential adaptation measures at the different levels, which have to reflect the regional conditions.

  7. Major risk from rapid, large-volume landslides in Europe (EU Project RUNOUT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2003-08-01

    Project RUNOUT has investigated methods for reducing the risk from large-volume landslides in Europe, especially those involving rapid rates of emplacement. Using field data from five test sites (Bad Goisern and Köfels in Austria, Tessina and Vajont in Italy, and the Barranco de Tirajana in Gran Canaria, Spain), the studies have developed (1) techniques for applying geomorphological investigations and optical remote sensing to map landslides and their evolution; (2) analytical, numerical, and cellular automata models for the emplacement of sturzstroms and debris flows; (3) a brittle-failure model for forecasting catastrophic slope failure; (4) new strategies for integrating large-area Global Positioning System (GPS) arrays with local geodetic monitoring networks; (5) methods for raising public awareness of landslide hazards; and (6) Geographic Information System (GIS)-based databases for the test areas. The results highlight the importance of multidisciplinary studies of landslide hazards, combining subjects as diverse as geology and geomorphology, remote sensing, geodesy, fluid dynamics, and social profiling. They have also identified key goals for an improved understanding of the physical processes that govern landslide collapse and runout, as well as for designing strategies for raising public awareness of landslide hazards and for implementing appropriate land management policies for reducing landslide risk.

  8. Inter-comparison of statistical downscaling methods for projection of extreme precipitation in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunyer, M. A.; Hundecha, Y.; Lawrence, D.; Madsen, H.; Willems, P.; Martinkova, M.; Vormoor, K.; Bürger, G.; Hanel, M.; Kriaučiūnienė, J.; Loukas, A.; Osuch, M.; Yücel, I.

    2015-04-01

    Information on extreme precipitation for future climate is needed to assess the changes in the frequency and intensity of flooding. The primary source of information in climate change impact studies is climate model projections. However, due to the coarse resolution and biases of these models, they cannot be directly used in hydrological models. Hence, statistical downscaling is necessary to address climate change impacts at the catchment scale. This study compares eight statistical downscaling methods (SDMs) often used in climate change impact studies. Four methods are based on change factors (CFs), three are bias correction (BC) methods, and one is a perfect prognosis method. The eight methods are used to downscale precipitation output from 15 regional climate models (RCMs) from the ENSEMBLES project for 11 catchments in Europe. The overall results point to an increase in extreme precipitation in most catchments in both winter and summer. For individual catchments, the downscaled time series tend to agree on the direction of the change but differ in the magnitude. Differences between the SDMs vary between the catchments and depend on the season analysed. Similarly, general conclusions cannot be drawn regarding the differences between CFs and BC methods. The performance of the BC methods during the control period also depends on the catchment, but in most cases they represent an improvement compared to RCM outputs. Analysis of the variance in the ensemble of RCMs and SDMs indicates that at least 30% and up to approximately half of the total variance is derived from the SDMs. This study illustrates the large variability in the expected changes in extreme precipitation and highlights the need for considering an ensemble of both SDMs and climate models. Recommendations are provided for the selection of the most suitable SDMs to include in the analysis.

  9. Inter-comparison of statistical downscaling methods for projection of extreme precipitation in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunyer, M. A.; Hundecha, Y.; Lawrence, D.; Madsen, H.; Willems, P.; Martinkova, M.; Vormoor, K.; Bürger, G.; Hanel, M.; Kriaučiūnienė, J.; Loukas, A.; Osuch, M.; Yücel, I.

    2014-06-01

    Information on extreme precipitation for future climate is needed to assess the changes in the frequency and intensity of flooding. The primary source of information in climate change impact studies is climate model projections. However, due to the coarse resolution and biases of these models, they cannot be directly used in hydrological models. Hence, statistical downscaling is necessary to address climate change impacts at the catchment scale. This study compares eight statistical downscaling methods often used in climate change impact studies. Four methods are based on change factors, three are bias correction methods, and one is a perfect prognosis method. The eight methods are used to downscale precipitation output from fifteen regional climate models (RCMs) from the ENSEMBLES project for eleven catchments in Europe. The overall results point to an increase in extreme precipitation in most catchments in both winter and summer. For individual catchments, the downscaled time series tend to agree on the direction of the change but differ in the magnitude. Differences between the statistical downscaling methods vary between the catchments and depend on the season analysed. Similarly, general conclusions cannot be drawn regarding the differences between change factor and bias correction methods. The performance of the bias correction methods during the control period also depends on the catchment, but in most cases they represent an improvement compared to RCM outputs. Analysis of the variance in the ensemble of RCMs and statistical downscaling methods indicates that up to half of the total variance is derived from the statistical downscaling methods. This study illustrates the large variability in the expected changes in extreme precipitation and highlights the need of considering an ensemble of both statistical downscaling methods and climate models.

  10. A case study of the radiative effect of aerosols over Europe: EUCAARI-LONGREX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteve, Anna R.; Highwood, Eleanor J.; Ryder, Claire L.

    2016-06-01

    The radiative effect of anthropogenic aerosols over Europe during the 2008 European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions Long Range Experiment (EUCAARI-LONGREX) campaign has been calculated using measurements collected by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft and radiative transfer modelling. The aircraft sampled anthropogenically perturbed air masses across north-western Europe under anticyclonic conditions with aerosol optical depths ranging from 0.047 to 0.357. For one specially designed "radiative closure" flight, simulated irradiances have been compared to radiation measurements for a case of aged European aerosol in order to explore the validity of model assumptions and the degree of radiative closure that can be attained given the spatial and temporal variability of the observations and their measurement uncertainties. Secondly, the diurnally averaged aerosol radiative effect throughout EUCAARI-LONGREX has been calculated. The surface radiative effect ranged between -3.9 and -22.8 W m-2 (mean -11 ± 5 W m-2), whilst top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) values were between -2.1 and -12.0 W m-2 (mean -5 ± 3 W m-2). We have quantified the uncertainties in our calculations due to the way in which aerosols and other parameters are represented in a radiative transfer model. The largest uncertainty in the aerosol radiative effect at both the surface and the TOA comes from the spectral resolution of the information used in the radiative transfer model (˜ 17 %) and the aerosol description (composition and size distribution) used in the Mie calculations of the aerosol optical properties included in the radiative transfer model (˜ 7 %). The aerosol radiative effect at the TOA is also highly sensitive to the surface albedo (˜ 12 %).

  11. Radiation Effects: Core Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicello, John F.

    1999-01-01

    The risks to personnel in space from the naturally occurring radiations are generally considered to be one of the most serious limitations to human space missions, as noted in two recent reports of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. The Core Project of the Radiation Effects Team for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute is the consequences of radiations in space in order to develop countermeasure, both physical and pharmaceutical, to reduce the risks of cancer and other diseases associated with such exposures. During interplanetary missions, personnel in space will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays, including high-energy protons and energetic ions with atomic masses of iron or higher. In addition, solar events will produce radiation fields of high intensity for short but irregular durations. The level of intensity of these radiations is considerably higher than that on Earth's surface, and the biological risks to astronauts is consequently increased, including increased risks of carcinogenesis and other diseases. This group is examining the risk of cancers resulting from low-dose, low-dose rate exposures of model systems to photons, protons, and iron by using ground-based accelerators which are capable of producing beams of protons, iron, and other heavy ions at energies comparable to those encountered in space. They have begun the first series of experiments using a 1-GeV iron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and 250-MeV protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center's proton synchrotron facility. As part of these studies, this group will be investigating the potential for the pharmaceutical, Tamoxifen, to reduce the risk of breast cancer in astronauts exposed to the level of doses and particle types expected in space. Theoretical studies are being carried out in a collaboration between scientists at NASA's Johnson Space Center and Johns Hopkins University in parallel with the experimental program have provided

  12. Metrology for Radiological Early Warning Networks in Europe ("METROERM")-A Joint European Metrology Research Project.

    PubMed

    Neumaier, Stefan; Dombrowski, Harald; Kessler, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, all European countries have installed automatic dosimetry network stations as well as air sampling systems for the monitoring of airborne radioactivity. In Europe, at present, almost 5,000 stations measure dose rate values in nearly real time. In addition, a few hundred air samplers are operated. Most of them need extended accumulation times with no real-time capability. National dose rate data are provided to the European Commission (EC) via the EUropean Radiological Data Exchange Platform (EURDEP). In case of a nuclear emergency with transboundary implications, the EC may issue momentous recommendations to EU member states based on the radiological data collected by EURDEP. These recommendations may affect millions of people and could have severe economic and sociological consequences. Therefore, the reliability of the EURDEP data is of key importance. Unfortunately, the dose rate and activity concentration data are not harmonized between the different networks. Therefore, within the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), 16 European institutions formed the consortium MetroERM with the aim to improve the metrological foundation of measurements and to introduce a pan-European harmonization for the collation and evaluation of radiological data in early warning network systems. In addition, a new generation of detector systems based on spectrometers capable of providing both reliable dose rate values as well as nuclide specific information in real time are in development. The MetroERM project and its first results will be presented and discussed in this article. PMID:27356052

  13. First Steps toward Harmonized Human Biomonitoring in Europe: Demonstration Project to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale

    PubMed Central

    Den Hond, Elly; Govarts, Eva; Willems, Hanny; Smolders, Roel; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Seiwert, Margarete; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M.; Schindler, Birgit K.; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Bloemen, Louis; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Joas, Anke; Joas, Reinhard; Biot, Pierre; Aerts, Dominique; Koppen, Gudrun; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Krskova, Andrea; Maly, Marek; Mørck, Thit A.; Rudnai, Peter; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Mulcahy, Maurice; Mannion, Rory; Gutleb, Arno C.; Fischer, Marc E.; Ligocka, Danuta; Jakubowski, Marek; Reis, M. Fátima; Namorado, Sónia; Gurzau, Anca Elena; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Halzlova, Katarina; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; López, Ana; Lopez, Estrella; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background For Europe as a whole, data on internal exposure to environmental chemicals do not yet exist. Characterization of the internal individual chemical environment is expected to enhance understanding of the environmental threats to health. Objectives We developed and applied a harmonized protocol to collect comparable human biomonitoring data all over Europe. Methods In 17 European countries, we measured mercury in hair and cotinine, phthalate metabolites, and cadmium in urine of 1,844 children (5–11 years of age) and their mothers. Specimens were collected over a 5-month period in 2011–2012. We obtained information on personal characteristics, environment, and lifestyle. We used the resulting database to compare concentrations of exposure biomarkers within Europe, to identify determinants of exposure, and to compare exposure biomarkers with health-based guidelines. Results Biomarker concentrations showed a wide variability in the European population. However, levels in children and mothers were highly correlated. Most biomarker concentrations were below the health-based guidance values. Conclusions We have taken the first steps to assess personal chemical exposures in Europe as a whole. Key success factors were the harmonized protocol development, intensive training and capacity building for field work, chemical analysis and communication, as well as stringent quality control programs for chemical and data analysis. Our project demonstrates the feasibility of a Europe-wide human biomonitoring framework to support the decision-making process of environmental measures to protect public health. Citation Den Hond E, Govarts E, Willems H, Smolders R, Casteleyn L, Kolossa-Gehring M, Schwedler G, Seiwert M, Fiddicke U, Castaño A, Esteban M, Angerer J, Koch HM, Schindler BK, Sepai O, Exley K, Bloemen L, Horvat M, Knudsen LE, Joas A, Joas R, Biot P, Aerts D, Koppen G, Katsonouri A, Hadjipanayis A, Krskova A, Maly M, Mørck TA, Rudnai P, Kozepesy S, Mulcahy M

  14. Comparing MOOC Adoption Strategies in Europe: Results from the HOME Project Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Darco; Schuwer, Robert; Teixeira, Antonio; Aydin, Cengiz Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Much of the literature and the academic discussion about institutional strategic planning of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) has been centred on the U.S. context. Literature on MOOCs in Europe is still developing and just recently some empirical studies were conducted. However, these studies are not comparable, and it is hard to learn about…

  15. Modelling eWork in Europe: Estimates, Models and Forecasts from the EMERGENCE Project. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, P.; Huws, U.

    A study combined results of a survey of employers in 18 European countries to establish the extent to which they are currently using eWork with European official statistics to develop models, estimates, and forecasts of the numbers of eWorkers in Europe. These four types of "individual" eWork were identified: telehomeworking; multilocational eWork…

  16. Enabling the Use of Research Evidence within Educational Policymaking in Europe: Lessons from the EIPEE Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripney, Janice; Kenny, Caroline; Gough, David

    2014-01-01

    Despite a political climate demanding evidence-informed decision making in education both within individual countries and at the international level, empirically grounded European research in this field is scarce. This paper reports on a European Commission-funded study that sought to identify and analyze different initiatives across Europe aimed…

  17. The Climate and Landscape of the Middle Part of the Weichselian Glaciation in Europe: The Stage 3 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    2002-01-01

    Oxygen isotope stage 3 (OIS 3) was a mild interval between the two cold maxima of the last (Weichselian) glaciation marked by climate changes oscillating on a 100-1000 yr time scale between near-interglacial and peak-glacial conditions. During OIS 3, modern humans entered Europe, and somewhat later their Neanderthal predecessors became extinct. Our understanding of this momentous event depends on an answer to the question, Did the unstable environmental conditions of the time play a significant role in early human history? The Stage 3 Project is an interdisciplinary study with two main goals: (1) to describe with existing data and to simulate the climates and landscapes of typical warm and cold phases between 45,000 and 30,000 yr ago and (2) to compare the results with the spatial and temporal distribution of human beings in this context. This paper introduces the Stage 3 Project and provides background to a set of papers on the climate and landscape aspects of the Project that will appear in Quaternary Research and to studies of their relevance to the Early Upper Paleolithic of Europe to appear in journals yet to be determined.

  18. Europe and US to Collaborate on the Design and Development of a Giant Radio Telescope Project in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    High Goals for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Representatives from the U.S. and Europe signed an agreement today in Washington to continue collaboration on the first phase of a giant new telescope project. The telescope will image the Universe with unprecedented sensitivity and sharpness at millimeter wavelengths (between the radio and infrared spectral regions). It will be a major step for astronomy, making it possible to study the origins of galaxies, stars and planets. This project is a prime example of a truly global project, an essential development in view of the ever-increasing complexity and cost of front-line astronomical facilities. The U.S. side of the project is run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) , operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The European side of the project is a collaboration between the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) , the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) , the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy (NFRA) and Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie (NOVA) , and the United Kingdom Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC). The Europe-U.S. agreement signed today may be formally extended in the very near future to include Japan, following an already existing tripartite declaration of intent. Dr. Robert Eisenstein, NSF's Assistant Director Mathematical and Physical Sciences, called the project "a path-breaking international partnership that will open far-reaching opportunities for astronomical observations. This array would enable astronomers to explore the detailed processes through which the stars and planets form and give us a vastly improved understanding of the formation of the first galaxies in the very early universe." Eisenstein welcomed the collaboration with Europe and Japan's interest in becoming a major partner. Speaking on behalf of

  19. Case study for the assessment of the biogeophysical effects of a potential afforestation in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A regional-scale sensitivity study has been carried out to investigate the climatic effects of forest cover change in Europe. Applying REMO (regional climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology), the projected temperature and precipitation tendencies have been analysed for summer, based on the results of the A2 IPCC-SRES emission scenario simulation. For the end of the 21st century it has been studied, whether the assumed forest cover increase could reduce the effects of the greenhouse gas concentration change. Results Based on the simulation results, biogeophysical effects of the hypothetic potential afforestation may lead to cooler and moister conditions during summer in most parts of the temperate zone. The largest relative effects of forest cover increase can be expected in northern Germany, Poland and Ukraine, which is 15–20% of the climate change signal for temperature and more than 50% for precipitation. In northern Germany and France, potential afforestation may enhance the effects of emission change, resulting in more severe heavy precipitation events. The probability of dry days and warm temperature extremes would decrease. Conclusions Large contiguous forest blocks can have distinctive biogeophysical effect on the climate on regional and local scale. In certain regions of the temperate zone, climate change signal due to greenhouse gas emission can be reduced by afforestation due to the dominant evaporative cooling effect during summer. Results of this case study with a hypothetical land cover change can contribute to the assessment of the role of forests in adapting to climate change. Thus they can build an important basis of the future forest policy. PMID:23369380

  20. Declines in stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates in Europe between 2004 and 2010: results from the Euro-Peristat project

    PubMed Central

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Mortensen, Laust; Cuttini, Marina; Lack, Nicholas; Nijhuis, Jan; Haidinger, Gerald; Blondel, Béatrice; Hindori-Mohangoo, Ashna D

    2016-01-01

    Background Stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates declined in Europe between 2004 and 2010. We hypothesised that declines might be greater for countries with higher mortality in 2004 and disproportionally affect very preterm infants at highest risk. Methods Data about live births, stillbirths and neonatal deaths by gestational age (GA) were collected using a common protocol by the Euro-Peristat project in 2004 and 2010. We analysed stillbirths at ≥28 weeks GA in 22 countries and live births ≥24 weeks GA for neonatal mortality in 18 countries. Per cent changes over time were assessed by calculating risk ratios (RR) for stillbirth, neonatal mortality and preterm birth rates in 2010 vs 2004. We used meta-analysis techniques to derive pooled RR using random-effects models overall, by GA subgroups and by mortality level in 2004. Results Between 2004 and 2010, stillbirths declined by 17% (95% CI 10% to 23%), with a range from 1% to 39% by country. Neonatal mortality declined by 29% (95% CI 23% to 35%) with a range from 9% to 67%. Preterm birth rates did not change: 0% (95% CI −3% to 3%). Mortality declines were of a similar magnitude at all GA; mortality levels in 2004 were not associated with RRs. Conclusions Stillbirths and neonatal deaths declined at all gestational ages in countries with both high and low levels of mortality in 2004. These results raise questions about how low-mortality countries achieve continued declines and highlight the importance of improving care across the GA spectrum. PMID:26719590

  1. Quantifying nitrogen fluxes and their influence on the greenhouse gas balance - recent findings of the NitroEurope Integrated Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, S.; Sutton, M. A.; Nemitz, E.; Beier, C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Cellier, P.; de Vries, W.; Erisman, J.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Bleeker, A.; Nitroeurope Ip Consortium

    2010-12-01

    The generation of reactive nitrogen (Nr) by human activities to stimulate agricultural productivity and the unintended formation of Nr in combustion processes both have major impacts on the global environment. Effects of excess Nr include the deterioration of air quality, water quality, soil quality and a decline in biodiversity. One of the most controversial impacts of nitrogen, however, is on the greenhouse gas balance. While recent papers have highlighted a possible benefit of nitrogen in enhancing rates of carbon sequestration, there remain many trade-offs between nitrogen and greenhouse gas exchange. The result is that the net effect of Nr on the global radiative balance has yet to be fully quantified. To better understand these relationships requires intense measurement and modelling of Nr fluxes at various temporal and spatial scales in order to make the link between different nitrogen forms and their fate in the environment. It is essential to measure fluxes for a wide range of ecosystems considering the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of the Nr components and greenhouse gases, as well as the fixation of di-nitrogen and its creation by denitrification. Long-term observations are needed for representative ecosystems, together with results from experiments addressing the responses of the key nitrogen and greenhouse gas fluxes to different global change drivers. The NitroEurope Integrated Project (in short NEU IP), funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission, has developed and applied a strategy for quantifying these different terms on multiple scales. With the project nearing completion, this presentation reports selected preliminary findings. It highlights the first estimates of Nr inputs and net green-house gas exchange for a series of 13 flux ‘supersites’, complemented by the emerging results of Nr concentrations and related N inputs at a network of 58 ‘inferential sites’, which extend the European representativity of the

  2. Acute Effects of Ambient Particulate Matter on Mortality in Europe and North America: Results from the APHENA Study

    PubMed Central

    Samoli, Evangelia; Peng, Roger; Ramsay, Tim; Pipikou, Marina; Touloumi, Giota; Dominici, Francesca; Burnett, Rick; Cohen, Aaron; Krewski, Daniel; Samet, Jon; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2008-01-01

    Background The APHENA (Air Pollution and Health: A Combined European and North American Approach) study is a collaborative analysis of multicity time-series data on the effect of air pollution on population health, bringing together data from the European APHEA (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach) and U.S. NMMAPS (National Morbidity, Mortality and Air Pollution Study) projects, along with Canadian data. Objectives The main objective of APHENA was to assess the coherence of the findings of the multicity studies carried out in Europe and North America, when analyzed with a common protocol, and to explore sources of possible heterogeneity. We present APHENA results on the effects of particulate matter (PM) ≤ 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) on the daily number of deaths for all ages and for those < 75 and ≥ 75 years of age. We explored the impact of potential environmental and socioeconomic factors that may modify this association. Methods In the first stage of a two-stage analysis, we used Poisson regression models, with natural and penalized splines, to adjust for seasonality, with various degrees of freedom. In the second stage, we used meta-regression approaches to combine time-series results across cites and to assess effect modification by selected ecologic covariates. Results Air pollution risk estimates were relatively robust to different modeling approaches. Risk estimates from Europe and United States were similar, but those from Canada were substantially higher. The combined effect of PM10 on all-cause mortality across all ages for cities with daily air pollution data ranged from 0.2% to 0.6% for a 10-μg/m3 increase in ambient PM10 concentration. Effect modification by other pollutants and climatic variables differed in Europe and the United States. In both of these regions, a higher proportion of older people and higher unemployment were associated with increased air pollution risk. Conclusions Estimates of the increased mortality

  3. Europe`s blistering pace

    SciTech Connect

    Gipe, P.

    1995-11-01

    Europe now exceeds North America in every measure of wind development: total wind generation, total installed capacity, annual sales, and annual growth rate. The 450 MW of new installations in Europe last year rivaled the peak of California`s great wind rush when nearly 400 MW were installed in 1985. European manufacturers are building more than 12 MW of new wind turbines per week. The current burst of activity in the Netherlands will come to a halt at the end of 1996 when capital subsidies expire. New projects will then depend solely on a recently negotiated buyback rate and low-interest loans from tax-free investments.

  4. Comparing emission inventories and model-ready emission datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliot, George; Pierce, Thomas; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Schaap, Martijn; Moran, Michael; Nopmongcol, Uarporn

    2012-06-01

    This paper highlights the similarities and differences in how emission inventories and datasets were developed and processed across North America and Europe for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project and then characterizes the emissions for the two domains. We focus specifically on the creation of “model-ready” gridded emission datasets for 2006 across the two continental study domains. The practice of creating and processing the two inventories is discussed with a focus on emission factors, spatial allocation, temporal variability, speciation of PM and VOCs, and the mechanics of distributing the data and supporting emission algorithms to the modeling community. The spatial and temporal distribution on common scales is compared for the pollutants of primary concern: NOx, VOCs, SO2, PM2.5, CO, and NH3. Because of differences of population distribution, emissions across North America tend to be more heterogeneous in spatial coverage than in Europe. The temporal patterns in the estimated emissions are largely the result of assumptions used to characterize human activity, with the exception of “natural” emissions, which are modulated by meteorological variability, and emissions from large electric generating units in the U.S., which have the benefit of continuous emission monitors that provide hourly resolved profiles. Emission estimates in both study domains are challenged by several important but poorly characterized emission source sectors, notably road dust, agricultural operations, biomass burning, and road transport. Finally, this paper provides insight on the strengths and weaknesses of emission inventory preparation practices on both continents. One important outcome of this comparison of 2006 emissions between Europe and North America is the greater understanding provided into how the emission estimates developed for the AQMEII project impact regional air quality model performance.

  5. Climatic suitability of Aedes albopictus in Europe referring to climate change projections: comparison of mechanistic and correlative niche modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D; Thomas, S M; Neteler, M; Tjaden, N B; Beierkuhnlein, C

    2014-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is capable of transmitting a broad range of viruses to humans. Since its introduction at the end of the 20th century, it has become well established in large parts of southern Europe. As future expansion as a result of climate change can be expected, determining the current and projected future climatic suitability of this invasive mosquito in Europe is of interest. Several studies have tried to detect the potential habitats for this species, but differing data sources and modelling approaches must be considered when interpreting the findings. Here, various modelling methodologies are compared with special emphasis on model set-up and study design. Basic approaches and model algorithms for the projection of spatio-temporal trends within the 21st century differ substantially. Applied methods range from mechanistic models (e.g. overlay of climatic constraints based on geographic information systems or rather process-based approaches) to correlative niche models. We conclude that spatial characteristics such as introduction gateways and dispersal pathways need to be considered. Laboratory experiments addressing the climatic constraints of the mosquito are required for improved modelling results. However, the main source of uncertainty remains the insufficient knowledge about the species' ability to adapt to novel environments. PMID:24556349

  6. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973

  7. The effect of plate stresses and shallow mantle temperatures on tectonics of northwestern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, S.; Loohuis, J. J. P.; Wortel, M. J. R.; Govers, R.

    2000-12-01

    Northwestern Europe is tectonically more active, in terms of seismicity, vertical motions and volcanism, than would be expected from its location far from any plate boundaries. In the context of the Netherlands Earth System Dynamics Initiative, we investigated the implications of two recent modeling efforts, of Eurasian plate forces and European mantle structure, for our understanding of the dynamics of these intraplate tectonics. We find that: (1) a simple balance between ridge push and collision forces along the southern European boundary does not seem sufficient to explain the observed direction of maximum horizontal compression in northwestern Europe. Our stress model, which imposes dynamical equilibrium on the full Eurasian plate, predicts that collision forces along the African-European boundary are relatively weak and have only a minor effect on the stress field in northwestern Europe; (2) seismic velocity anomalies in the shallow mantle imply 100-300°C variations in temperature under northwestern Europe. This regional mantle structure probably plays a significant role in the high level of intraplate tectonic activity and the regional variations in stress and tectonic style. For most tectonically active areas in Europe, observed surface heat flow anomalies coincide with anomalies in mantle velocity. Low velocity anomalies under northwestern Europe coincide with areas of recent volcanism and uplift, but are offset from the regions of maximum surface heat flow. This suggests that the thermal regime of the central European lithosphere is not in a steady state, probably due to changing mantle conditions. The effect of strong variations in lithospheric strength, predicted from the modeled thermal gradients in the shallow mantle, and of dynamic stresses induced by proposed active mantle upwellings may account for (some of) the differences between the observed and modeled stress field and will be investigated in future stress models.

  8. Quantifying nitrogen fluxes and their influence on the greenhouse gas balance - recent findings of the NitroEurope Integrated Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, M. A.; Nemitz, E.; Reis, S.; Beier, C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Cellier, P.; Cotrufo, M.; Erisman, J.; Skiba, U.; de Vries, W.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Bleeker, A.; Calanca, P. S.; Dalgaard, T.; Dragosits, U.; Duyzer, J.; Gundersen, P.; Hensen, A.; Kros, H.; Leip, A.; Olesen, J.; Phillips, G. J.; Rees, R. M.; Smith, P.; Soussana, J.; Tang, S.; Theobald, M. R.; Winiwarter, W.; van Oijen, M.; Vesala, T.

    2009-12-01

    The human-driven production of reactive nitrogen to stimulate agricultural productivity and its unintended formation in combustion processes both have major impacts on the global environment. Effects of excess reactive nitrogen include reductions in air quality, water quality, soil quality and biodiversity. One of the most controversial impacts of nitrogen, however, is on the greenhouse gas balance. While recent papers have highlighted a possible benefit of nitrogen in enhancing rates of carbon sequestration, there remain many trade-offs between nitrogen and greenhouse gas exchange. The result is that the net effect of reactive nitrogen on the global radiative balance is currently far from clear. To better quantity these relationships requires measurement data and modelling that make the link between different nitrogen forms and their fate in the environment. It is essential to measure fluxes for a wide range of ecosystems considering the biosphere-atmosphere exchange each of the reactive nitrogen components and greenhouse gases, as well as the fixation and denitrification of di-nitrogen. Long term observations are needed for representative ecosystems, together with results from experiments addressing the responses of the key nitrogen and greenhouse gas fluxes to different global change drivers. The NitroEurope Integrated Project of the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission European has developed a strategy to quantifying these different terms on multiple scales. This presentation reports some of the emerging results. It highlights the first estimates of net greenhouse gas exchange for a series of 13 flux ‘supersites’, complemented by the emerging results of reactive nitrogen concentrations a large network of 58 ‘inferential sites’, which are being used to estimate nitrogen inputs. In addition to these, new low cost methods to measure nitrogen fluxes will be reported, which are being tested at the ‘supersites’ and a network of regional

  9. Cost-effectiveness of pre-participation screening of athletes with ECG in Europe and Algeria.

    PubMed

    Assanelli, Deodato; Levaggi, Rosella; Carré, François; Sharma, Sanjay; Deligiannis, Asterios; Mellwig, Klaus Peter; Tahmi, Mohamed; Vinetti, Giovanni; Aliverti, Paola

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ECG in combination with family and personal history and physical examination in order to detect cardiovascular diseases that might cause sudden death in athletes. The study was conducted on a cohort of 6,634, mainly young professional and recreational athletes, 1,071 from Algeria and 5,563 from Europe (France, Germany and Greece). Each athlete underwent medical history, physical examination, and resting 12-lead ECG. 293 athletes (4.4 %), 149 in Europe (2.7 %) and 144 in Algeria (13.4 %) required further tests, and 56 were diagnosed with cardiovascular disease and thus disqualified. The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) was calculated as the ratio between the cost of screening and the number of statistical life-years saved by the intervention. The estimated reduced risk of death deriving from treatment or disqualification resulted in the saving of 79.1 statistical life-years in Europe and 136.3 in Algeria. CER of screening was 4,071 purchasing-power-parity-adjusted US dollars ($PPP) in Europe and 582 $PPP in Algeria. The results of this study strongly support the utilisation of 12-lead ECG in the pre-participation screening of young athletes, especially in countries where secondary preventive care is not highly developed. PMID:25164412

  10. Sulphur dioxide emissions in Europe 1880 1991 and their effect on sulphur concentrations and depositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylona, Sophia

    1996-11-01

    A historical emission inventory for sulphur dioxide has been compiled for Europe covering the period 1880 1991. The estimated emissions have been used as input to the sulphur module of the EMEP/MSC-W acid deposition model. The aim was to show the way and the extent to which the historical development of anthropogenic sulphur dioxide emissions alone has affected the concentration and deposition fields of oxidised sulphur in Europe. Although acknowledged, effects exerted by the meteorological variability and the changing oxidising capacity of the atmosphere over the years have not been taken into consideration. Long-term emission estimates reveal that combustion of coal was the dominant emission source before World War II in all countries and combustion of liquid fuels thereafter in most. Releases from industrial processes were relatively small. National sulphur dioxide emissions peaked mainly in the 1960s and 1970s, whilst emission control measures resulted in gradual reductions in most countries in the 1980s. In Europe as a whole, coal combustion remained the major emission source throughout the century. Total anthropogenic releases increased by a factor of 10 between the 1880 s and 1970s when they peaked at approximately 55 million tonnes of sulphur dioxide, followed by a 30% decline in the 1980s. Uncertainties in national emission estimates due to uncertain sulphur contents in fossil fuels are within ± 30% for 22 out of 28 countries and ± 45% for the rest. The location of emission sources in Europe has shown over the years a progressive detachment from the coalfields towards a widespread distribution, accompanied in the last decades by considerable emission reductions over north-western and parts of central Europe and substantial increases in the south and south-east. Modelled air concentrations and depositions reflect to a great extent the emission pattern, revealing two- to six-fold increases between the 1880 s and 1970s. Maximum sulphur loadings are confined

  11. Priorities for mental health research in Europe: A survey among national stakeholders' associations within the ROAMER project

    PubMed Central

    Fiorillo, Andrea; Luciano, Mario; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Sampogna, Gaia; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Maj, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Within the ROAMER project, funded by the European Commission, a survey was conducted with national associations/organizations of psychiatrists, other mental health professionals, users and/or carers, and psychiatric trainees in the 27 countries of the European Union, aiming to explore their views about priorities for mental health research in Europe. One hundred and eight associations/organizations returned the questionnaire. The five most frequently selected research priorities were early detection and management of mental disorders, quality of mental health services, prevention of mental disorders, rehabilitation and social inclusion, and new medications for mental disorders. All these areas, except the last one, were among the top ten research priorities according to all categories of stakeholders, along with stigma and discrimination. These results seem to support the recent argument that some rebalancing in favor of psychosocial and health service studies may be needed in psychiatric research. PMID:23737426

  12. Priorities for mental health research in Europe: A survey among national stakeholders' associations within the ROAMER project.

    PubMed

    Fiorillo, Andrea; Luciano, Mario; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Sampogna, Gaia; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Maj, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Within the ROAMER project, funded by the European Commission, a survey was conducted with national associations/organizations of psychiatrists, other mental health professionals, users and/or carers, and psychiatric trainees in the 27 countries of the European Union, aiming to explore their views about priorities for mental health research in Europe. One hundred and eight associations/organizations returned the questionnaire. The five most frequently selected research priorities were early detection and management of mental disorders, quality of mental health services, prevention of mental disorders, rehabilitation and social inclusion, and new medications for mental disorders. All these areas, except the last one, were among the top ten research priorities according to all categories of stakeholders, along with stigma and discrimination. These results seem to support the recent argument that some rebalancing in favor of psychosocial and health service studies may be needed in psychiatric research. PMID:23737426

  13. Short-term Associations between Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and Hospitalizations in Southern Europe: Results from the MED-PARTICLES Project

    PubMed Central

    Samoli, Evangelia; Alessandrini, Ester; Cadum, Ennio; Ostro, Bart; Berti, Giovanna; Faustini, Annunziata; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Linares, Cristina; Pascal, Mathilde; Randi, Giorgia; Ranzi, Andrea; Stivanello, Elisa; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the short-term effects of fine and coarse particles on morbidity in Europe is scarce and inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to estimate the association between daily concentrations of fine and coarse particles with hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in eight Southern European cities, within the MED-PARTICLES project. Methods: City-specific Poisson models were fitted to estimate associations of daily concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), ≤ 10 μm (PM10), and their difference (PM2.5–10) with daily counts of emergency hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. We derived pooled estimates from random-effects meta-analysis and evaluated the robustness of results to co-pollutant exposure adjustment and model specification. Pooled concentration–response curves were estimated using a meta-smoothing approach. Results: We found significant associations between all PM fractions and cardiovascular admissions. Increases of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5, 6.3 μg/m3 in PM2.5–10, and 14.4 μg/m3 in PM10 (lag 0–1 days) were associated with increases in cardiovascular admissions of 0.51% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.90%), 0.46% (95% CI: 0.10, 0.82%), and 0.53% (95% CI: 0.06, 1.00%), respectively. Stronger associations were estimated for respiratory hospitalizations, ranging from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.21, 2.11%) for PM10 to 1.36% (95% CI: 0.23, 2.49) for PM2.5 (lag 0–5 days). Conclusions: PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 were positively associated with cardiovascular and respiratory admissions in eight Mediterranean cities. Information on the short-term effects of different PM fractions on morbidity in Southern Europe will be useful to inform European policies on air quality standards. Citation: Stafoggia M, Samoli E, Alessandrini E, Cadum E, Ostro B, Berti G, Faustini A, Jacquemin B, Linares C, Pascal M, Randi G, Ranzi A, Stivanello E, Forastiere F, the MED-PARTICLES Study Group. 2013. Short

  14. Factorization of air pollutant emissions: projections versus observed trends in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rafaj, Peter; Amann, Markus; Siri, José G

    2014-10-01

    This paper revisits the emission scenarios of the European Commission's 2005 Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution (TSAP) in light of today's knowledge. We review assumptions made in the past on the main drivers of emission changes, i.e., demographic trends, economic growth, changes in the energy intensity of GDP, fuel-switching, and application of dedicated emission control measures. Our analysis shows that for most of these drivers, actual trends have not matched initial expectations. Observed ammonia and sulfur emissions in European Union in 2010 were 10% to 20% lower than projected, while emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter exceeded estimates by 8% to 15%. In general, a higher efficiency of dedicated emission controls compensated for a lower-than-expected decline in total energy consumption as well as a delay in the phase-out of coal. For 2020, updated projections anticipate lower sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions than those under the 2005 baseline, whereby the degree to which these emissions are lower depends on what assumptions are made for emission controls and new vehicle standards. Projected levels of particulates are about 10% higher, while smaller differences emerge for other pollutants. New emission projections suggest that environmental targets established by the TSAP for the protection of human health, eutrophication and forest acidification will not be met without additional measures. PMID:25058894

  15. Transatlantic Student Exchange between Canada and Europe: Experiences from the CEIHPAL Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherriff, Nigel Stuart; Jeffery, Amanda; Davies, John Kenneth; Hills, Marcia; Carroll, Simon; Jackson, Suzanne; Krupa, Gene; Goepel, Eberhard; Hofmeister, Arnd; Tountas, Yannis; Attorp, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    International student mobility amongst and between countries has become increasingly common and forms a central feature of the global higher education system. This paper examines the key learning experiences relating to the student mobility component of the Canadian-European Initiative for Health Promotion Advanced Learning (CEIHPAL) project.…

  16. Comenius Project: Are e-Learning Collaborations of High School Students across Europe in Maths Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonovits, Reinhard; McElroy, Jim; O'Loughlin, James; Townsend, Colin

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of the project is to allow for the collaboration of high school students of different European countries on small, selected maths topics. This involves the use of technology, student mobility and English language competency. Benefits are also expected to accrue to teachers of mathematics by providing the opportunity to work with…

  17. A Community-University Exchange Project Modeled after Europe's Science Shops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Elizabeth; Ross, J. Ashleigh

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a pilot project of the Morgridge Center for Public Service at the University of Wisconsin-Madison for a new structure for community-based learning and research. It is based on the European-derived science shop model for democratizing campus-community partnerships using shared values of mutual respect and validation of…

  18. The impact of headache in Europe: principal results of the Eurolight project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background European data, at least from Western Europe, are relatively good on migraine prevalence but less sound for tension-type headache (TTH) and medication-overuse headache (MOH). Evidence on impact of headache disorders is very limited. Eurolight was a data-gathering exercise primarily to inform health policy in the European Union (EU). This manuscript reports personal impact. Methods The study was cross-sectional with modified cluster sampling. Surveys were conducted by structured questionnaire, including diagnostic questions based on ICHD-II and various measures of impact, and are reported from Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Spain and United Kingdom. Different methods of sampling were used in each. The full methodology is described elsewhere. Results Questionnaires were analysed from 8,271 participants (58% female, mean age 43.4 y). Participation-rates, where calculable, varied from 10.6% to 58.8%. Moderate interest-bias was detected. Unadjusted lifetime prevalence of any headache was 91.3%. Gender-adjusted 1-year prevalences were: any headache 78.6%; migraine 35.3%; TTH 38.2%, headache on ≥15 d/mo 7.2%; probable MOH 3.1%. Personal impact was high, and included ictal symptom burden, interictal burden, cumulative burden and impact on others (partners and children). There was a general gradient of probable MOH > migraine > TTH, and most measures indicated higher impact among females. Lost useful time was substantial: 17.7% of males and 28.0% of females with migraine lost >10% of days; 44.7% of males and 53.7% of females with probable MOH lost >20%. Conclusions The common headache disorders have very high personal impact in the EU, with important implications for health policy. PMID:24884549

  19. Analysis of the Emission Inventories and Model-Ready Emission Datasets of Europe and North America for Phase 2 of the AQMEII Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the development of the emission inventories and emission processing for Europe (EU) and North America (NA) in the second phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project. The main purpose of the second phase of the AQMEII...

  20. Seasonal Changes in Vitamin D-Effective UVB Availability in Europe and Associations with Population Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Colette M; Kazantzidis, Andreas; Ryan, Mary J; Barber, Niamh; Sempos, Christopher T; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Jorde, Rolf; Grimnes, Guri; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances; Kiely, Mairead; Webb, Ann R; Cashman, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D status is common in Europe. The major source of vitamin D in humans is ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced dermal synthesis of cholecalciferol, whereas food sources are believed to play a lesser role. Our objectives were to assess UVB availability (Jm(-2)) across several European locations ranging from 35° N to 69° N, and compare these UVB data with representative population serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) data from Ireland (51-54° N), Iceland (64° N) and Norway (69° N), as exemplars. Vitamin D-effective UVB availability was modelled for nine European countries/regions using a validated UV irradiance model. Standardized serum 25(OH)D data was accessed from the EC-funded ODIN project. The results showed that UVB availability decreased with increasing latitude (from 35° N to 69° N), while all locations exhibited significant seasonal variation in UVB. The UVB data suggested that the duration of vitamin D winters ranged from none (at 35° N) to eight months (at 69° N). The large seasonal fluctuations in serum 25(OH)D in Irish adults was much dampened in Norwegian and Icelandic adults, despite considerably lower UVB availability at these northern latitudes but with much higher vitamin D intakes. In conclusion, increasing the vitamin D intake can ameliorate the impact of low UVB availability on serum 25(OH)D status in Europe. PMID:27589793

  1. Effects of a Total Solar Eclipse on the Mesoscale Atmospheric Circulation over Europe - A Model Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, P.; Hense, A.

    On August the 11th, 1999 Central Europe saw a spectacular astronomical event, a total solar eclipse. We present a model study concerning the meteorological effects of this eclipse in central Europe using the state-of-the-art limited area forecast model Deutschland-Modell DM from the German Weather Service DWD. Under typical summer radiation conditions very strong anomalies in the surface energy flux and temperature in screen height are simulated. The main temperature signal in the lower troposphere is delayed by about one hour with respect to the surface. Furthermore it is connected with a well defined dynamical signal which is reminiscent to a large scale land - sea circulation. The event could be used as a test case for mesoscale atmospheric models.

  2. Adaptation response surfaces from an ensemble of wheat projections under climate change in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Ferrise, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    preliminary ARSs show some adaptation options allow recover up to ca. 2000 kg/ha. Compared to the historical yields recorded at Lleida province (2550 kg/ha in 1981-2010) our results indicate that adaptation is feasible and may help to reduce detrimental effects of CC. Our analysis evaluates if the explored adaptations fulfill the biophysical requirements to become a practical adaptive solution. This study exemplifies how adaptation options and their impacts can be analyzed, evaluated and communicated in a context of high regional uncertainty for current and future conditions and for short to long-term perspective. This work was funded by MACSUR project within FACCE-JPI. References Abeledo, L.G., R. Savin and G.A. Slafer (2008). European Journal of Agronomy 28:541-550. Cartelle, J., A. Pedró, R. Savin, G.A. Slafer (2006) European Journal of Agronomy 25:365-371. Pirttioja, N., T. Carter, S. Fronzek, M. Bindi, H. Hoffmann, T. Palosuo, M. Ruiz-Ramos, F. Tao, M. Acutis, S. Asseng, P. Baranowski, B. Basso, P. Bodin, S. Buis, D. Cammarano, P. Deligios, M.-F. Destain, B. Dumont, R. Ewert, R. Ferrise, L. François, T. Gaiser, P. Hlavinka, I. Jacquemin, K.C. Kersebaum, C. Kollas, J. Krzyszczak, I.J. Lorite, J. Minet, M.I. Minguez, M. Montesino, M. Moriondo, C. Müller, C. Nendel, I. Öztürk, A. Perego, A. Rodríguez, A.C. Ruane, F. Ruget, M. Sanna, M.A. Semenov, C. Slawinski, P. Stratonovitch, I. Supit, K. Waha, E. Wang, L. Wu, Z. Zhao, and R.P. Rötter, 2015: A crop model ensemble analysis of temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect using impact response surfaces. Clim. Res., 65, 87-105, doi:10.3354/cr01322. IRS2 TEAM: Alfredo Rodríguez(1), Ignacio J. Lorite(3), Fulu Tao(4), Nina Pirttioja(5), Stefan Fronzek(5), Taru Palosuo(4), Timothy R. Carter(5), Marco Bindi(2), Jukka G Höhn(4), Kurt Christian Kersebaum(6), Miroslav Trnka(7,8), Holger Hoffmann(9), Piotr Baranowski(10), Samuel Buis(11), Davide Cammarano(12), Yi Chen(13,4), Paola Deligios

  3. Adaptation response surfaces from an ensemble of wheat projections under climate change in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Ferrise, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    preliminary ARSs show some adaptation options allow recover up to ca. 2000 kg/ha. Compared to the historical yields recorded at Lleida province (2550 kg/ha in 1981-2010) our results indicate that adaptation is feasible and may help to reduce detrimental effects of CC. Our analysis evaluates if the explored adaptations fulfill the biophysical requirements to become a practical adaptive solution. This study exemplifies how adaptation options and their impacts can be analyzed, evaluated and communicated in a context of high regional uncertainty for current and future conditions and for short to long-term perspective. This work was funded by MACSUR project within FACCE-JPI. References Abeledo, L.G., R. Savin and G.A. Slafer (2008). European Journal of Agronomy 28:541-550. Cartelle, J., A. Pedró, R. Savin, G.A. Slafer (2006) European Journal of Agronomy 25:365-371. Pirttioja, N., T. Carter, S. Fronzek, M. Bindi, H. Hoffmann, T. Palosuo, M. Ruiz-Ramos, F. Tao, M. Acutis, S. Asseng, P. Baranowski, B. Basso, P. Bodin, S. Buis, D. Cammarano, P. Deligios, M.-F. Destain, B. Dumont, R. Ewert, R. Ferrise, L. François, T. Gaiser, P. Hlavinka, I. Jacquemin, K.C. Kersebaum, C. Kollas, J. Krzyszczak, I.J. Lorite, J. Minet, M.I. Minguez, M. Montesino, M. Moriondo, C. Müller, C. Nendel, I. Öztürk, A. Perego, A. Rodríguez, A.C. Ruane, F. Ruget, M. Sanna, M.A. Semenov, C. Slawinski, P. Stratonovitch, I. Supit, K. Waha, E. Wang, L. Wu, Z. Zhao, and R.P. Rötter, 2015: A crop model ensemble analysis of temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect using impact response surfaces. Clim. Res., 65, 87-105, doi:10.3354/cr01322. IRS2 TEAM: Alfredo Rodríguez(1), Ignacio J. Lorite(3), Fulu Tao(4), Nina Pirttioja(5), Stefan Fronzek(5), Taru Palosuo(4), Timothy R. Carter(5), Marco Bindi(2), Jukka G Höhn(4), Kurt Christian Kersebaum(6), Miroslav Trnka(7,8), Holger Hoffmann(9), Piotr Baranowski(10), Samuel Buis(11), Davide Cammarano(12), Yi Chen(13,4), Paola Deligios

  4. Optimizing charge breeding techniques for ISOL facilities in Europe: Conclusions from the EMILIE project.

    PubMed

    Delahaye, P; Galatà, A; Angot, J; Cam, J F; Traykov, E; Ban, G; Celona, L; Choinski, J; Gmaj, P; Jardin, P; Koivisto, H; Kolhinen, V; Lamy, T; Maunoury, L; Patti, G; Thuillier, T; Tarvainen, O; Vondrasek, R; Wenander, F

    2016-02-01

    The present paper summarizes the results obtained from the past few years in the framework of the Enhanced Multi-Ionization of short-Lived Isotopes for Eurisol (EMILIE) project. The EMILIE project aims at improving the charge breeding techniques with both Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) and Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBISs) for European Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities. Within EMILIE, an original technique for debunching the beam from EBIS charge breeders is being developed, for making an optimal use of the capabilities of CW post-accelerators of the future facilities. Such a debunching technique should eventually resolve duty cycle and time structure issues which presently complicate the data-acquisition of experiments. The results of the first tests of this technique are reported here. In comparison with charge breeding with an EBIS, the ECRIS technique had lower performance in efficiency and attainable charge state for metallic ion beams and also suffered from issues related to beam contamination. In recent years, improvements have been made which significantly reduce the differences between the two techniques, making ECRIS charge breeding more attractive especially for CW machines producing intense beams. Upgraded versions of the Phoenix charge breeder, originally developed by LPSC, will be used at SPES and GANIL/SPIRAL. These two charge breeders have benefited from studies undertaken within EMILIE, which are also briefly summarized here. PMID:26932063

  5. Optimizing charge breeding techniques for ISOL facilities in Europe: Conclusions from the EMILIE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahaye, P.; Galatà, A.; Angot, J.; Cam, J. F.; Traykov, E.; Ban, G.; Celona, L.; Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P.; Jardin, P.; Koivisto, H.; Kolhinen, V.; Lamy, T.; Maunoury, L.; Patti, G.; Thuillier, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Vondrasek, R.; Wenander, F.

    2016-02-01

    The present paper summarizes the results obtained from the past few years in the framework of the Enhanced Multi-Ionization of short-Lived Isotopes for Eurisol (EMILIE) project. The EMILIE project aims at improving the charge breeding techniques with both Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) and Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBISs) for European Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities. Within EMILIE, an original technique for debunching the beam from EBIS charge breeders is being developed, for making an optimal use of the capabilities of CW post-accelerators of the future facilities. Such a debunching technique should eventually resolve duty cycle and time structure issues which presently complicate the data-acquisition of experiments. The results of the first tests of this technique are reported here. In comparison with charge breeding with an EBIS, the ECRIS technique had lower performance in efficiency and attainable charge state for metallic ion beams and also suffered from issues related to beam contamination. In recent years, improvements have been made which significantly reduce the differences between the two techniques, making ECRIS charge breeding more attractive especially for CW machines producing intense beams. Upgraded versions of the Phoenix charge breeder, originally developed by LPSC, will be used at SPES and GANIL/SPIRAL. These two charge breeders have benefited from studies undertaken within EMILIE, which are also briefly summarized here.

  6. Jet fuel property changes and their effect on producibility and cost in the U.S., Canada, and Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varga, G. M., Jr.; Avella, A. J., Jr.; Cunningham, A. R.; Featherston, C. D.; Gorgol, J. F.; Graf, A. J.; Lieberman, M.; Oliver, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of changes in properties and blending stocks on the refinery output and cost of jet fuel in the U.S., Canada, and Europe were determined. Computerized refinery models that minimize production costs and incorporated a 1981 cost structure and supply/demand projections to the year 2010 were used. Except in the West U.S., no changes in jet fuel properties were required to meet all projected demands, even allowing for deteriorating crude qualities and changes in competing product demand. In the West U.S., property changes or the use of cracked blendstocks were projected to be required after 1990 to meet expected demand. Generally, relaxation of aromatics and freezing point, or the use of cracked stocks produced similar results, i.e., jet fuel output could be increased by up to a factor of three or its production cost lowered by up to $10/cu m. High quality hydrocracked stocks are now used on a limited basis to produce jet fuel. The conversion of U.S. and NATO military forces from wide-cut to kerosene-based jet fuel is addressed. This conversion resulted in increased costs of several hundred million dollars annually. These costs can be reduced by relaxing kerosene jet fuel properties, using cracked stocks and/or considering the greater volumetric energy content of kerosene jet fuel.

  7. Effects of climate variability and extreme events on components of the carbon balance in Europe during 1961-2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Christian; Carvalhais, Nuno; Ciais, Philippe; Balkovic, Juraj; Davin, Edouard; Kato, Tomomichi; Kuhnert, Matthias; Lardy, Romain; Laperche, Sylvain; Martin, Raphaël; van Oijen, Marcel; Rammig, Anja; Rolinski, Susanne; Seneviratne, Sonia; Smith, Pete; Thonicke, Kirsten; van der Velde, Marijn; Vieli, Barla; Viovy, Nicolas; Reichstein, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Regional climate models project a change in the annual and seasonal mean of meteorological variables in Europe until the end of the century, e. g. mean air temperature is predicted to dramatically increase until 2100. At the same time, the shape of the probability distribution of meteorological variables will change, leading to an altered variability of meteorological variables and frequency of extreme events. Today, the isolated effects of changing variance versus changing mean of meteorological drivers on ecosystem processes, such as gross primary production, autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration, evapotranspiration, mortality and disturbances have not been quantified at a continental or global scale. We contribute to such quantification from a theoretical, mechanistic modelling point of view by artificial modelling experiments using state-of-the-art generic (LPJmL, ORCHIDEE, JSBACH, CLM) and sectorial (BASFOR, DailyDayCent, PASIM) ecosystem models that has been performed in the EU FP7 project CARBO-Extreme. Using a control climate data set (CNTL) based on the WATCH forcing data and bias-corrected ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data, factorial model experiments with transient/constant climate and atmospheric [CO2] concentration have been performed.Then, these factorial experiments were repeated using a climate dataset in which climate variables hold the same long-term seasonal and annual mean but show much reduced short-term variability ("reduced variability"). Analysis of the resulting carbon and water balance estimations for Europe during 1961-2100 enabled disentangling direct effects of temperature or radiation variability from effects of general climate variability and effects of a trend in mean climate conditions on ecosystem functions. Generally, reduced variability in short-wave radiation increased the annual gross primary production due to the concave shape of the light response curve of photosynthesis. Therefore, net primary production is also

  8. Advection from the North Atlantic as the Forcing of Winter Greenhouse Effect Over Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, Jay; Angell, J.; Atlas, Robert; Bungato, D.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Susskind, J.; Wu, M.-L. C.

    2001-01-01

    In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface skin temperature are observed over central Europe: we observe a difference of 9.8 K comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996 for the region 50-60 degrees N; 5-35 degrees E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index I(sub na), the average of the ocean-surface wind speed over the eastern North Atlantic when the direction is from the southwest (when the wind is from another direction, it counts as a zero speed to the average). Average Ina for February 1990 was 10.6 in s(exp -1), but for February 1996 I(sub na) was only 2.4 m s(exp -1). A large value of I(sub na) means a strong southwesterly flow which brings warm and moist air into Europe at low level, producing a steeper tropospheric lapse rate. Strong ascending motions result, which we observe in February 1990 at 700 mb. The near-surface moisture rises to higher (and cooler) levels, producing clouds and precipitation. Total preciptable water and cloud-cover fraction have larger values in February 1990 than in 1996. The difference in the greenhouse effect between these two scenarios can be translated into a virtual irradiating source of 2.6 W m(exp -2) above the February 1990 atmosphere, which, as an order of magnitude estimate, contributes to the warming of the surface by 2.6 K. If we accept this estimate as numerically pertinent, the direct effect stands as 7.2 K (9.8 K - 2.6 K), and therefore its greenhouse-effect reinforcement is by 36%. This constitutes a substantial positive feedback to the direct effect, which is the inflow of warm air to the low troposphere over Europe.

  9. Future snowfall in western and central Europe projected with a high-resolution regional climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vries, Hylke; Lenderink, Geert; Meijgaard, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Snowfall frequency and intensity are influenced strongly by climate change. Here we separate the basic frequency change resulting from a gradually warming climate, from the intensity changes, by focusing on snowfall on days where the mean temperature is below freezing (Hellmann days). Using an ensemble of simulations, obtained with the high-resolution regional climate model KNMI-RACMO2 driven by the EC-EARTH global climate model and RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 forcing scenarios, we show that in addition to the strong decrease in the number of Hellmann days, also a substantial reduction in the mean Hellmann-day snowfall can be expected over large parts of western and central Europe. Moreover, seasonal snowfall extremes display trends that are comparable or even larger. Projected intensity reductions are locally as large as -30% per degree warming, thus being in sharp contrast to mean winter precipitation, which increases in most future climate scenarios. Exceptions are the high Alps and parts of Scandinavia, which may see an increase of up to +10% per degree warming.

  10. Teenagers and young adults with cancer in Europe: from national programmes to a European integrated coordinated project.

    PubMed

    Stark, D; Bielack, S; Brugieres, L; Dirksen, U; Duarte, X; Dunn, S; Erdelyi, D J; Grew, T; Hjorth, L; Jazbec, J; Kabickova, E; Konsoulova, A; Kowalczyk, J R; Lassaletta, A; Laurence, V; Lewis, I; Monrabal, A; Morgan, S; Mountzios, G; Olsen, P R; Renard, M; Saeter, G; van der Graaf, W T; Ferrari, A

    2016-05-01

    Over 14 000 patients aged 15-24 are estimated to be diagnosed with cancer in the European Union (EU) each year. Teenagers and young adults (TYA) often fall down gaps between children's and adults cancer services. The specific challenges of providing optimal care to them are described, but we present a summary of recent progress. Progress to overcome these challenges is happening at different rates across Europe. We summarise the European national projects in this field but more recently we have seen the beginnings of European coordination. Within the EU 7th Funding Programme (FP7) European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents programme (ENCCA), a specific European Network for Teenagers and Young Adults with Cancer has held a series of scientific meetings, including professionals, patients and caregivers. This group has proposed unanswered research questions and agreed key features of a high-quality service that can improve outcomes for TYA with cancer, including the primacy of collaboration between adult and paediatric services to eliminate the gap in the management of TYA with cancer. PMID:26239724

  11. The New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe (MATRIX) Project - An overview of its major findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Kevin; Zschau, Jochen; Gasparini, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Recent major natural disasters, such as the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, tsunami and subsequent Fukushima nuclear accident, have raised awareness of the frequent and potentially far-reaching interconnections between natural hazards. Such interactions occur at the hazard level, where an initial hazard may trigger other events (e.g., an earthquake triggering a tsunami) or several events may occur concurrently (or nearly so), e.g., severe weather around the same time as an earthquake. Interactions also occur at the vulnerability level, where the initial event may make the affected community more susceptible to the negative consequences of another event (e.g., an earthquake weakens buildings, which are then damaged further by windstorms). There is also a temporal element involved, where changes in exposure may alter the total risk to a given area. In short, there is the likelihood that the total risk estimated when considering multiple hazard and risks and their interactions is greater than the sum of their individual parts. It is with these issues in mind that the European Commission, under their FP7 program, supported the New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe or MATRIX project (10.2010 to 12.2013). MATRIX set out to tackle multiple natural hazards (i.e., those of concern to Europe, namely earthquakes, landslides, volcanos, tsunamis, wild fires, storms and fluvial and coastal flooding) and risks within a common theoretical framework. The MATRIX work plan proceeded from an assessment of single-type risk methodologies (including how uncertainties should be treated), cascade effects within a multi-hazard environment, time-dependent vulnerability, decision making and support for multi-hazard mitigation and adaption, and an assessment of how the multi-hazard and risk viewpoint may be integrated into current decision making and risk mitigation programs, considering the existing single-hazard and risk focus. Three test sites were considered during the

  12. Linking climate and air quality over Europe: effects of meteorology on PM2.5 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megaritis, A. G.; Fountoukis, C.; Charalampidis, P. E.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S. N.

    2014-09-01

    The effects of various meteorological parameters such as temperature, wind speed, absolute humidity, precipitation and mixing height on PM2.5 concentrations over Europe were examined using a three-dimensional chemical transport model, PMCAMx-2008. Our simulations covered three periods, representative of different seasons (summer, winter, and fall). PM2.5 appears to be more sensitive to temperature changes compared to the other meteorological parameters in all seasons. PM2.5 generally decreases as temperature increases, although the predicted changes vary significantly in space and time, ranging from -700 ng m-3 K-1 (-8% K-1) to 300 ng m-3 K-1 (7% K-1). The predicted decreases of PM2.5 are mainly due to evaporation of ammonium nitrate, while the higher biogenic emissions and the accelerated gas-phase reaction rates increase the production of organic aerosol (OA) and sulfate, having the opposite effect on PM2.5. The predicted responses of PM2.5 to absolute humidity are also quite variable, ranging from -130 ng m-3 %-1 (-1.6% %-1) to 160 ng m-3 %-1 (1.6% %-1) dominated mainly by changes in inorganic PM2.5 species. An increase in absolute humidity favors the partitioning of nitrate to the aerosol phase and increases the average PM2.5 during summer and fall. Decreases in sulfate and sea salt levels govern the average PM2.5 response to humidity during winter. A decrease of wind speed (keeping the emissions constant) increases all PM2.5 species (on average 40 ng m-3 %-1) due to changes in dispersion and dry deposition. The wind speed effects on sea salt emissions are significant for PM2.5 concentrations over water and in coastal areas. Increases in precipitation have a negative effect on PM2.5 (decreases up to 110 ng m-3 %-1) in all periods due to increases in wet deposition of PM2.5 species and their gas precursors. Changes in mixing height have the smallest effects (up to 35 ng m-3 %-1) on PM2.5 . Regarding the relative importance of each of the meteorological

  13. Linking climate and air quality over Europe: effects of meteorology on PM2.5 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megaritis, A. G.; Fountoukis, C.; Charalampidis, P. E.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S. N.

    2014-04-01

    The effects of various meteorological parameters such as temperature, wind speed, absolute humidity, precipitation and mixing height on PM2.5 concentrations over Europe were examined using a three-dimensional chemical transport model, PMCAMx-2008. Our simulations covered three periods, representative of different seasons (summer, winter, and fall). PM2.5 appears to be more sensitive to temperature changes compared to the other meteorological parameters in all seasons. PM2.5 generally decreases as temperature increases, although the predicted changes vary significantly in space and time, ranging from -700 ng m-3 K-1 (-8% K-1) to 300 ng m-3 K-1 (7% K-1). The predicted decreases of PM2.5 are mainly due to evaporation of ammonium nitrate, while the higher biogenic emissions and the accelerated gas-phase reaction rates increase the production of organic aerosol (OA) and sulfate, having the opposite effect on PM2.5. The predicted responses of PM2.5 to absolute humidity are also quite variable, ranging from -130 ng m-3%-1 (-1.6% %-1) to 160 ng m-3 %-1 (1.6% %-1) dominated mainly by changes in inorganic PM2.5 species. An increase in absolute humidity favors the partitioning of nitrate to the aerosol phase and increases the average PM2.5 during summer and fall. Decreases in sulfate and sea salt levels govern the average PM2.5 response to humidity during winter. A decrease of wind speed (keeping constant the emissions) increases all PM2.5 species (on average 40 ng m-3 %-1) due to changes in dispersion and dry deposition. The wind speed effects on sea salt emissions are significant for PM2.5 concentrations over water and in coastal areas. Increases in precipitation have a negative effect on PM2.5 (decreases up to 110 ng m-3 %-1) in all periods due to increases in wet deposition of PM2.5 species and their gas precursors. Changes in mixing height have the smallest effects (up to 35 ng m-3 %-1) on PM2.5. Regarding the relative importance of each of the meteorological parameters

  14. Assessing projected changes in heat waves over Northern Europe using two regional climate models at 8-km resolution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox Maule, Cathrine; Christensen, Ole B.; Mayer, Stephanie; Thejll, Peter

    2013-04-01

    As temperatures in Northern Europe increase due to climate change the occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves is likely to change. A higher occurrence rate of heat waves can have serious health consequences, in particular for the elderly, but also for very young children and the infirm. Not only the occurrence rate of heat waves, but also changes in the duration of individual heat waves, is of importance. It is therefore of relevance to investigate how the occurrence of heat waves is likely to increase in the future, to allow for adaptation. We have looked at the projected changes in the occurrence rate of heat waves in a part of northern Europe including southern Scandinavia, the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, according to two different greenhouse gas emission scenarios: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. In this study we have chosen to use the Danish Meteorological Institutes definition, in which a high temperature event is classified as a heat wave if the average of the maximum temperature of a period of at least 3 consecutive days exceeds 28°C. To estimate the change in the occurrence rate of heat waves we have used two different GCM-RCM combinations, NorESM-WRF (BCCR) and EC-EARTH-HIRHAM5 (DMI). Both regional models have down-scaled the global models to a resolution of about 8 km, and hourly values of several parameters including temperature, precipitation and wind have been stored. We compare the climate model data from three different time slices, 1981-2010 run with historical greenhouse gas concentrations, 2021-2050 (RPC4.5 and RCP 8.5) and 2071-2100 (RPC4.5 and RCP 8.5), to see the time evolution in the occurrence rate of heat waves for the two RCP scenarios. Our results indicate that the occurrence rate of heat waves in this region will increase as a consequence of global warming, and that individual heat waves will tend to last longer.

  15. Anthropogenic Deforestation and its Effect on the Carbon Cycle of Europe Over the Past Three Millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, J. O.; Krumhardt, K. M.

    2008-12-01

    Over the past three millennia, both climate and anthropogenic land use and land cover change (LULUC) have substantially affected the European landscape. Anthropogenic deforestation for agriculture and pasture has been the most significant of these land cover changes, though climate variability itself may have had an impact on European ecosystems. In this study we attempt to quantify the influence of both LULUC and climate change on the carbon cycle of Europe during preindustrial time, and speculate on the ramifications for global atmospheric composition and biogeochemical feedbacks to the climate system. To quantify the effect of millennial-scale climate change and LULUC on the carbon cycle over the past three millennia, we assembled spatially explicit datasets of these quantities and ran a dynamic global vegetation model (LPJ-DGVM) in a number of experiments and sensitivity tests on a high-resolution grid for Europe. Climate data needed to run LPJ were synthesized from gridded datasets of mean monthly temperature and precipitation based on multiproxy climate reconstructions. Though it is certain that many European countries were substantially deforested before 1850, no coherent data set of the progression of deforestation that occurred during preindustrial time was available to us. We have therefore created a 10km, annually resolved gridded time series of European LULUC for the past three millennia by digitizing and synthesizing a database of population history for Europe and finding a relationship between population density, land quality for agricultural and pastoral activities, and anthropogenic deforestation. With these input data, we ran a series of experiments and sensitivity tests with LPJ to simulate the effect that changes in climate, LULUC and length- of-run (starting the run at 1700, 1850 or 1900) have on European carbon storage and its trajectory at year 2000. Climate variability in Europe over the past three millennia years caused modest reductions in

  16. Economics of chronic diseases protocol: cost-effectiveness modelling and the future burden of non-communicable disease in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of chronic disease is caused by risk factors which are mostly preventable. Effective interventions to reduce these risks are known and proven to be applicable to a variety of settings. Chronic disease is generally developed long before the fatal outcome, meaning that a lot of people spend a number of years in poor health. Effective prevention measures can prolong lives of individuals and significantly improve their quality of life. However, the methods to measure cost-effectiveness are a subject to much debate. The Economics of Chronic Diseases project aims to establish the best possible methods of measuring cost-effectiveness as well as develop micro-simulation models apt at projecting future burden of chronic diseases, their costs and potential savings after implementation of cost-effective interventions. Method This research project will involve eight European countries: Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Lithuania, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom (UK). A literature review will be conducted to identify scientific articles which critically review the methods of cost-effectiveness. Contact will be made health economists to inform and enrich this review. This evidence will be used as a springboard for discussion at a meeting with key European stakeholders and experts with the aim of reaching a consensus on recommendations for cost-effectiveness methodology. Epidemiological data for coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be collected along with data on time trends in three major risk factors related to these diseases, specifically tobacco consumption, blood pressure and body mass index. Economic and epidemiological micro-simulation models will be developed to asses the future distributions of risks, disease outcomes, healthcare costs and the cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in Europe. Discussion This work will

  17. Response of Urban Systems to Climate Change in Europe: Heat Stress Exposure and the Effect on Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart; Grommen, Mart

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heavy rain- and windstorms, floods, drought, heat waves, etc. The summer 2003 European heat wave was the hottest summer on record in Europe over the past centuries leading to health crises in several countries like France and caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. The main risks induced by global climate change in urbanised areas are considered to be overheating and resulting health effects, increased exposure to flood events, increased damage losses from extreme weather conditions but also shortages in the provision of life-sustaining services. Moreover, the cities themselves create specific or inherent risks and urban adaptation is often very demanding. As most of Europe's inhabitants live in cities, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of climate variability on urban areas and their populations. The present study focusses on the identification of heat stress variables related to human health and the extraction of this information by processing daily temperature statistics of local urban climate simulations over multiple timeframes of 20 years and three different European cities based on recent, near future and far future global climate predictions. The analyses have been conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (Belgium), Berlin (Germany) and Almada (Portugal) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. Apart from the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect), additional heat stress parameters such as the average number of heat wave days together with their duration and intensities have been covered during this research. In a

  18. Complementarity effects on tree growth are contingent on tree size and climatic conditions across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal-González, Jaime; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Ratcliffe, Sophia; Calatayud, Joaquín; Kändler, Gerald; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Dahlgren, Jonas; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Neglecting tree size and stand structure dynamics might bias the interpretation of the diversity-productivity relationship in forests. Here we show evidence that complementarity is contingent on tree size across large-scale climatic gradients in Europe. We compiled growth data of the 14 most dominant tree species in 32,628 permanent plots covering boreal, temperate and Mediterranean forest biomes. Niche complementarity is expected to result in significant growth increments of trees surrounded by a larger proportion of functionally dissimilar neighbours. Functional dissimilarity at the tree level was assessed using four functional types: i.e. broad-leaved deciduous, broad-leaved evergreen, needle-leaved deciduous and needle-leaved evergreen. Using Linear Mixed Models we show that, complementarity effects depend on tree size along an energy availability gradient across Europe. Specifically: (i) complementarity effects at low and intermediate positions of the gradient (coldest-temperate areas) were stronger for small than for large trees; (ii) in contrast, at the upper end of the gradient (warmer regions), complementarity is more widespread in larger than smaller trees, which in turn showed negative growth responses to increased functional dissimilarity. Our findings suggest that the outcome of species mixing on stand productivity might critically depend on individual size distribution structure along gradients of environmental variation. PMID:27571971

  19. Complementarity effects on tree growth are contingent on tree size and climatic conditions across Europe.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-González, Jaime; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Ratcliffe, Sophia; Calatayud, Joaquín; Kändler, Gerald; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Dahlgren, Jonas; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Neglecting tree size and stand structure dynamics might bias the interpretation of the diversity-productivity relationship in forests. Here we show evidence that complementarity is contingent on tree size across large-scale climatic gradients in Europe. We compiled growth data of the 14 most dominant tree species in 32,628 permanent plots covering boreal, temperate and Mediterranean forest biomes. Niche complementarity is expected to result in significant growth increments of trees surrounded by a larger proportion of functionally dissimilar neighbours. Functional dissimilarity at the tree level was assessed using four functional types: i.e. broad-leaved deciduous, broad-leaved evergreen, needle-leaved deciduous and needle-leaved evergreen. Using Linear Mixed Models we show that, complementarity effects depend on tree size along an energy availability gradient across Europe. Specifically: (i) complementarity effects at low and intermediate positions of the gradient (coldest-temperate areas) were stronger for small than for large trees; (ii) in contrast, at the upper end of the gradient (warmer regions), complementarity is more widespread in larger than smaller trees, which in turn showed negative growth responses to increased functional dissimilarity. Our findings suggest that the outcome of species mixing on stand productivity might critically depend on individual size distribution structure along gradients of environmental variation. PMID:27571971

  20. Forest transitions in Eastern Europe and their effects on carbon budgets.

    PubMed

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Kaplan, Jed O; Prishchepov, Alexander V; Rylsky, Ilya; Chaskovskyy, Oleh; Tikunov, Vladimir S; Müller, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Forests often rebound from deforestation following industrialization and urbanization, but for many regions our understanding of where and when forest transitions happened, and how they affected carbon budgets remains poor. One such region is Eastern Europe, where political and socio-economic conditions changed drastically over the last three centuries, but forest trends have not yet been analyzed in detail. We present a new assessment of historical forest change in the European part of the former Soviet Union and the legacies of these changes on contemporary carbon stocks. To reconstruct forest area, we homogenized statistics at the provincial level for ad 1700-2010 to identify forest transition years and forest trends. We contrast our reconstruction with the KK11 and HYDE 3.1 land change scenarios, and use all three datasets to drive the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model to calculate carbon stock dynamics. Our results revealed that forest transitions in Eastern Europe occurred predominantly in the early 20th century, substantially later than in Western Europe. We also found marked geographic variation in forest transitions, with some areas characterized by relatively stable or continuously declining forest area. Our data suggest extensive deforestation in European Russia already prior to ad 1700, and even greater deforestation in the 18th and 19th centuries than in the KK11 and HYDE scenarios. Based on our reconstruction, cumulative carbon emissions from deforestation were greater before 1700 (60 Pg C) than thereafter (29 Pg C). Summed over our entire study area, forest transitions led to a modest uptake in carbon over recent decades, with our dataset showing the smallest effect (<5.5 Pg C) and a more heterogeneous pattern of source and sink regions. This suggests substantial sequestration potential in regrowing forests of the region, a trend that may be amplified through ongoing land abandonment, climate change, and CO2 fertilization. PMID:25691481

  1. The Virtual Earthquake and seismology Research Community e-science environment in Europe (VERCE): a European Research Infrastructure project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilotte, J.; Atkinson, M.; Van Eck, T.; Bossu, R.; Michelini, A.; Igel, H.; Rietbrock, A.; Frank, A.; Schwichtenberg, H.; Erbacci, G.

    2013-12-01

    The nature of science in seismology is changing - new discoveries will emerge from statistical analysis and modeling (inversion, assimilation) of large amounts of data generated from dense observational and monitoring networks and from large-scale wave propagation simulations. In many cases our ability to acquire observational and synthetic data outpaces today our ability to process and analyze them. Addressing these challenges requires a new and holistic approach with important augmented societal applications in seismic hazard assessment and monitoring, and exploration geophysics. VERCE is a four-year FP7-INFRASTRUCTURE project, with a consortium of ten partners from seismology and computer science, and contributes to the e-science infrastructure of the European Plate Observatory System (EPOS), the ESFRI initiative of the solid Earth community in Europe. We report here the progress of VERCE toward a service-oriented architecture and a platform of services and tools - integrating European computing and data infrastructures with the distributed seismological data archives - in support for data-intensive analysis and modeling applications. Two prototype applications were selected within VERCE: a data-intensive analysis application based on seismic-noise correlation; and a data-intensive HPC wave simulation application. Both applications consist of multiple phases where ingestion interleaves with data processing and analysis, generating highly parallel and asynchronous data workflows together with massively parallel data access. VERCE efforts are devoted in particular to providing efficient scalable and transparent distributed data management and data transfer services, together with execution models that enable data processing and analysis computation to overlap with data transfer and I/O operations, thereby achieving high throughput under heavy asynchronous access to data. We discuss the current progress of VERCE in enabling the application prototypes, and in

  2. Exploring the Gap for Effective Extension of Professional Active Life in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Will; Afsarmanesh, Hamideh; Msanjila, Simon S.; Playfoot, Jim

    Extending Professional Active Life (ePAL [2]) of elder people in Europe is affected by a number of factors in the market and society, which have the potential to either positively and negatively influence it. Current practices indicate that the European society, while started to act on this subject, is still slow to recognize the rationale behind and importance of fully supporting the extension of active professional life of seniors. Similarly, the capacity of the service sector to fully support the involvement of seniors in economical activities is at present limited, given the huge number of these seniors in different countries who need to be mobilized. This paper seeks to highlight the identified gaps related to effective mechanisms by which Europe can support its willing senior professionals to remain active. The study on gap identification addresses relevant technological, social, and organizational factors and external influences which have the potential to impact successful future life of elderly population. It also presents the methodology that is applied in our study to identify and analyze the gaps between the current practices in this area, the so-called baseline [2], and the desired future for this area as inspired in the ePAL vision [1] addressed in other research.

  3. Hazardous wastes in eastern and central Europe: technology and health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, D O; Cikrt, M; Suk, W A

    1999-01-01

    Issues of hazardous waste management are major concerns in the countries of eastern and central Europe. A National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences-supported conference was held in Prague, Czech Republic, as a part of a continuing effort to provide information and promote discussion among the countries of eastern and central Europe on issues related to hazardous wastes. The focus was on incineration as a means of disposal of hazardous wastes, with discussions on both engineering methods for safe incineration, and possible human health effects from incineration by-products. Representatives from government agencies, academic institutions, and local industries from 14 countries in the region participated along with a few U.S. and western European experts in this field. A series of 12 country reports documented national issues relating to the environment, with a focus on use of incineration for hazardous waste disposal. A particularly valuable contribution was made by junior scientists from the region, who described results of environmental issues in their countries. PMID:10090701

  4. Diversifying forest communities may change Lyme disease risk: extra dimension to the dilution effect in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ruyts, Sanne C; Ampoorter, Evy; Coipan, Elena C; Baeten, Lander; Heylen, Dieter; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik; Verheyen, Kris

    2016-09-01

    Lyme disease is caused by bacteria of the Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies complex and transmitted by Ixodid ticks. In North America only one pathogenic genospecies occurs, in Europe there are several. According to the dilution effect hypothesis (DEH), formulated in North America, nymphal infection prevalence (NIP) decreases with increasing host diversity since host species differ in transmission potential. We analysed Borrelia infection in nymphs from 94 forest stands in Belgium, which are part of a diversification gradient with a supposedly related increasing host diversity: from pine stands without to oak stands with a shrub layer. We expected changing tree species and forest structure to increase host diversity and decrease NIP. In contrast with the DEH, NIP did not differ between different forest types. Genospecies diversity however, and presumably also host diversity, was higher in oak than in pine stands. Infected nymphs tended to harbour Borrelia afzelii infection more often in pine stands while Borrelia garinii and Borrelia burgdorferi ss. infection appeared to be more prevalent in oak stands. This has important health consequences, since the latter two cause more severe disease manifestations. We show that the DEH must be nuanced for Europe and should consider the response of multiple pathogenic genospecies. PMID:27173094

  5. Effect of Environmental Factors on Germination and Emergence of Invasive Rumex confertus in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kołodziejek, Jeremi; Patykowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Rumex confertus is a biennial species native to Eastern Europe and Asia, where it thrives on meadow-steppes and glades in forest-steppe. This species has increased its range rapidly within central Europe, yet its biology is not well understood, which has led to poorly timed management. Effects of temperature, light, sodium chloride (NaCl), hydrogen ion concentration (pH), potassium nitrate (KNO3), and polyethylene glycol 6000 on seed germination were examined. Seedling emergence was examined for seeds sown at different depths in sand-filled pots. Seeds of R. confertus were nondormant at maturity. The germination percentage and rate of germination were significantly higher in light than in darkness. Secondary dormancy was induced in these seeds by 12 weeks of dark incubation at 4°C. The seeds of R. confertus undergo a seasonal dormancy cycle with deep dormancy in winter and early spring and a low level of dormancy in early autumn. Germination decreased as soil salinity increased. NO3− increased the percentage and rate of germination in the studied species. Decrease in seedling emergence from the seeds buried at >0.5 cm may be due to deficiency of light. From our experiments, we conclude that the weed R. confertus normally becomes established in vegetation gaps or due to disturbance of the uppermost soil layer during the growing season through the germination of seeds originating from a long-lived seed bank. PMID:26229977

  6. Effects of climate change and seed dispersal on airborne ragweed pollen loads in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Liu, Li; Solmon, Fabien; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Essl, Franz; Chuine, Isabelle; Colette, Augustin; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Schaffhauser, Alice; Storkey, Jonathan; Thibaudon, Michel; Epstein, Michelle M.

    2015-08-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an invasive alien species in Europe producing pollen that causes severe allergic disease in susceptible individuals. Ragweed plants could further invade European land with climate and land-use changes. However, airborne pollen evolution depends not only on plant invasion, but also on pollen production, release and atmospheric dispersion changes. To predict the effect of climate and land-use changes on airborne pollen concentrations, we used two comprehensive modelling frameworks accounting for all these factors under high-end and moderate climate and land-use change scenarios. We estimate that by 2050 airborne ragweed pollen concentrations will be about 4 times higher than they are now, with a range of uncertainty from 2 to 12 largely depending on the seed dispersal rate assumptions. About a third of the airborne pollen increase is due to on-going seed dispersal, irrespective of climate change. The remaining two-thirds are related to climate and land-use changes that will extend ragweed habitat suitability in northern and eastern Europe and increase pollen production in established ragweed areas owing to increasing CO2. Therefore, climate change and ragweed seed dispersal in current and future suitable areas will increase airborne pollen concentrations, which may consequently heighten the incidence and prevalence of ragweed allergy.

  7. The effect of moving cold fronts over Central Europe to the variability of the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potuznikova, Katerina; Koucka Knizova, Petra; Boska, Josef; Sindelarova, Tereza; Mosna, Zbysek

    2015-04-01

    Cold fronts represent well known source of atmospheric waves, (especially short and medium scale AGW - acoustic gravity waves), that are able to propagate up to the ionospheric heights. In our study we focus on the effects of the transitions of cold front over the region of Central Europe on the variations of the ionosphere. We concentrate on periods of low solar and geomagnetic activity. Neutral atmosphere data are compared with the wave-like oscillations in the E and F layer. Our tropospheric data comprise synoptic maps on of 500 hPa and 850 hPa geopotential heights. Within ionospheric data we search for variability that is linked to the tropospheric disturbances. The ionospheric parameters (electron concentration and corresponding height) we analyse by the wavelet transform method. The Modern HF digisonde DPS-4 D (Digisonde Portable Sounder), which is in operation at the Pruhonice observatory (49.59 N; 14.33 E) of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Prague (IAP) since 2004, represents an excellent source of the ionospheric data for Central Europe. Pruhonice digisonde usually operates in standard mode - one ionogram and electron density profie N(h) each 15 minutes. Besides that, data from several european stations of the digisonde world network (data from Juliusruhe, Chilton, Brusel, Roma and Tortosa digisonde stations) are included in the study.

  8. Iberia versus Europe - Effects of continental break-up and round-up on hydrocarbon habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Bourrouilh, R.; Zolnai, G.

    1988-08-01

    Based on the continuity of foldbelts and the positions of intermountain continental nuclei and transcontinental megashears, a close Pangea fit is proposed for the central and north Atlantic borderlands. The Variscan arch segment missing between Brittany and Galicia in the Gulf of Gascony (Biscaye) can tentatively be identified with the Flemish Cap block off Newfoundland. At the same time the northwest African-Gondwana border (central Morocco) was located some 800 km farther to the west-northwest, as compared to its present position in southwestern Europe (Iberia). During the opening of the central and northern segments of the Atlantic Ocean (Jurassic and Cretaceous) and during the closure of the western Mediterranean basin, i.e., the thrust of Africa toward southern Europe (Tertiary), the European continental mass underwent deformation in the transtensive and transpressive modes, which reactivated parts of its inherited structural network. The trailing south European continental margin was partially dismembered into loosely bound continental blocks, to be assembled again during the subsequent Alpine orogenic cycle. These events can be compared with processes known in the northernmost and western segments of the North American continent. Mechanisms are proposed for the formation and deformation of inter- and intraplate basins by way of moderate shifts (wrenching) and slight rotations, the direction of which changed during the Mesozoic-Tertiary according to the global stress field. The above evolution and mechanisms had multiple and decisive effects on hydrocarbon generation, habitat, and accumulation.

  9. Effect of Environmental Factors on Germination and Emergence of Invasive Rumex confertus in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Kołodziejek, Jeremi; Patykowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Rumex confertus is a biennial species native to Eastern Europe and Asia, where it thrives on meadow-steppes and glades in forest-steppe. This species has increased its range rapidly within central Europe, yet its biology is not well understood, which has led to poorly timed management. Effects of temperature, light, sodium chloride (NaCl), hydrogen ion concentration (pH), potassium nitrate (KNO3), and polyethylene glycol 6000 on seed germination were examined. Seedling emergence was examined for seeds sown at different depths in sand-filled pots. Seeds of R. confertus were nondormant at maturity. The germination percentage and rate of germination were significantly higher in light than in darkness. Secondary dormancy was induced in these seeds by 12 weeks of dark incubation at 4°C. The seeds of R. confertus undergo a seasonal dormancy cycle with deep dormancy in winter and early spring and a low level of dormancy in early autumn. Germination decreased as soil salinity increased. NO3(-) increased the percentage and rate of germination in the studied species. Decrease in seedling emergence from the seeds buried at >0.5 cm may be due to deficiency of light. From our experiments, we conclude that the weed R. confertus normally becomes established in vegetation gaps or due to disturbance of the uppermost soil layer during the growing season through the germination of seeds originating from a long-lived seed bank. PMID:26229977

  10. Advection from the North Atlantic as the Forcing of Winter Greenhouse Effect Over Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Angell, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Shubert, S.; Starr, David OC.; Susskind, J.; Wu, M.-L. C.

    2002-01-01

    In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface temperature are observed over central Europe. Comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996, a satellite-retrieved surface (skin) temperature difference of 9.8 K is observed for the region 50-60 degrees N; 5-35 degrees E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index I(sub na), the average of the ocean-surface wind speed over the eastern North Atlantic when the direction is from the southwest (when the wind is from another direction, it counts as a zero speed to the average). Average I(sub na) for February 1990 was 10.6 m/s, but for February 1996 I(sub na) was only 2.4 m/s. A large value of I(sub na) means a strong southwesterly flow which brings warm and moist air into central Europe at low level, producing a steeper tropospheric lapse rate. Strong ascending motions at 700 mb are observed in association with the occurrence of enhanced warm, moist advection from the ocean in February 1990 producing clouds and precipitation. Total precipitable water and cloud-cover fraction have larger values in February 1990 than in 1996. The difference in the greenhouse effect between these two scenarios, this reduction in heat loss to space, can be translated into a virtual radiative heating of 2.6 W/square m above the February 1990 surface/atmosphere system, which contributes to a warming of the surface on the order of 2.6 K. Accepting this estimate as quantitatively meaningful, we evaluate the direct effect, the rise in the surface temperature in Europe as a result of maritime-air inflow, as 7.2 K (9.8 K-2.6 K). Thus, fractional reinforcement by the greenhouse effect is 2.6/7.2, or 36%, a substantial positive feedback.

  11. Collective effective dose in Europe from X-ray and nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Bly, R; Jahnen, A; Järvinen, H; Olerud, H; Vassileva, J; Vogiatzi, S

    2015-07-01

    Population doses from radiodiagnostic (X-ray and nuclear medicine) procedures in Europe were estimated based on data collected from 36 European countries. For X-ray procedures in EU and EFTA countries (except Liechtenstein) the collective effective dose is 547,500 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 605,000 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.05 mSv per caput. For nuclear medicine procedures in EU countries and EFTA (except Liechtenstein) countries the collective effective dose is 30,700 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 31,100 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.05 mSv per caput. PMID:25848115

  12. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

    2013-12-31

    We studied the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) region. The cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 vaccination of 12 year-old girls was calculated for 28 countries, under the assumption that vaccination prevents 70% of all cervical cancer cases and that cervical cancer and all-cause mortality rates are stable without vaccination. At three-dose vaccination costs of I$ 100 per vaccinated girl (currency 2005 international dollars), HPV16/18 vaccination was very cost-effective in 25 out of 28 countries using the country's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as cost-effectiveness threshold (criterion by World Health Organization). A three-dose vaccination cost of I$ 100 is within the current range of vaccine costs in European immunization programs, and therefore our results indicate that HPV vaccination may be good value for money. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening combined with vaccination, we calibrated a published simulation model to HPV genotype data collected in Slovenia, Poland, and Georgia. The screening interval was varied at 3, 6, and 10 years starting at age 25 or 30 and ending at age 60. In Slovenia and Poland, combined vaccination and 10-yearly HPV (DNA) screening (vaccination coverage 70%, screening coverage per round 70%) was very cost-effective when the cost of three-dose vaccination was I$ 100 per vaccinated girl. More intensive screening was very cost-effective when the screening coverage per round was 30% or 50%. In Georgia, 10-yearly Pap screening was very cost-effective in unvaccinated women. Vaccination combined with 10-yearly HPV screening was likely to be cost-effective if the three-dose vaccination cost was I$ 50 per vaccinated girl. To conclude, cervical cancer prevention strategies utilizing both HPV16/18 vaccination and HPV screening are very cost-effective in countries with sufficient resources. In low

  13. Review of recent studies from central and eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to {open_quotes}traditional{close_quotes} air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Jedrychowski, W.

    1995-03-01

    The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review focuses on epidemiologic evidence regarding health effects of poor air quality in Central and Eastern Europe. It appears that short-term high levels of air pollutants (primarily particulates and SO{sub 2}) may increase mortality in sensitive parts of the population. Associations were also seen between air pollution levels and prevalence of respiratory diseases as well as lung function disturbances in adults and children. One study indicated that urban air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer. Several investigations pointed to strong interactions between risk factors. The poor scientific standard of the studies often makes it difficult to evaluate the findings. Several steps should be taken to develop environmental epidemiology in Central and Eastern Europe, including international collaboration in research projects and training. 30 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  14. Effect of climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, Jordan L.; Prather, Michael J.; Josse, Beatrice; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Zeng, Guang; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The effect of future climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and East Asia is evaluated using present-day (2000s) and future (2100s) hourly surface ozone simulated by four global models. Future climate follows RCP8.5, while methane and anthropogenic ozone precursors are fixed at year 2000 levels. Climate change shifts the seasonal surface ozone peak to earlier in the year and increases the amplitude of the annual cycle. Increases in mean summertime and high-percentile ozone are generally found in polluted environments, while decreases are found in clean environments. We propose that climate change augments the efficiency of precursor emissions to generate surface ozone in polluted regions, thus reducing precursor export to neighboring downwind locations. Even with constant biogenic emissions, climate change causes the largest ozone increases at high percentiles. In most cases, air quality extreme episodes become larger and contain higher ozone levels relative to the rest of the distribution.

  15. Assessing the effect of agricultural land abandonment on bird communities in southern-eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Zakkak, Sylvia; Radovic, Andreja; Nikolov, Stoyan C; Shumka, Spase; Kakalis, Lefteris; Kati, Vassiliki

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural land abandonment is recognized as a major environmental threat in Europe, being particularly pronounced in south-eastern Europe, where knowledge on its effects is limited. Taking the Balkan Peninsula as a case study, we investigated agricultural abandonment impact on passerine communities at regional level. We set up a standard methodology for site selection (70 sites) and data collection, along a well-defined forest-encroachment gradient that reflects land abandonment in four countries: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia and Greece. Regardless the different socio-economic and political histories in the Balkans that led to diverse land abandonment patterns in space and time, rural abandonment had a consistent negative effect on bird communities, while regional-level analysis revealed patterns that were hidden at local level. The general trends were an increase of forest-dwelling bird species at the expense of farmland birds, the decline of overall bird species richness, as well as the decline of Species of European Conservation Concern (SPECs) richness and abundance. Many farmland bird species declined with land abandonment, whereas few forest species benefited from the process. In conclusion, our results support CAP towards hampering rural land abandonment and preserving semi-open rural mosaics in remote upland areas, using a suite of management measures carefully tailored to local needs. The maintenance of traditional rural landscapes should be prioritized in the Balkans, through the timely identification of HNV farmland that is most prone to abandonment. We also suggest that coordinated transnational research is needed, for a better assessment of conservation options in remote rural landscapes at European scale, including the enhancement of wild grazers' populations as an alternative in areas where traditional land management is rather unlikely to be re-established. PMID:26379254

  16. Operational Model Evaluation for Particulate Matter in Europe and North America in the Context of the AQMEII Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten state-of-the-science regional air quality (AQ) modeling systems have been applied to continental scale domains in North America and Europe for full-year simulations of 2006 in the context of Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII), whose main goals are ...

  17. Assessing the Risk of Ecosystem Disruption in Europe using a Dynamic Vegetation Model driven by CMIP5 Regional Climatic Projections from EURO-CORDEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dury, Marie; François, Louis; Hambuckers, Alain; Henrot, Alexandra; Jacquemin, Ingrid; Munhoven, Guy

    2016-04-01

    While the combination of warmer and drier mean climatic conditions can have severe impacts on ecosystems, extreme events like droughts or heat waves that break the gradual climate change can have more long-term consequences on ecosystem composition, functioning and carbon storage. Hence, it is essential to assess the changes in climate variability and the changes in frequency of extreme events projected for the future. Ecosystems could not be in a condition to adapt to these new conditions and might be disrupted. Here, the process-based dynamic vegetation model CARAIB DVM was used to evaluate and analyze how future climate and extreme events will affect European ecosystems. To quantify the uncertainties in the climatic projections and in their potential impacts on ecosystems, the vegetation model was driven with the outputs of different regional climatic models (RCMs), nested in CMIP5 GCM projections for the EURO-CORDEX project: ALADIN53 (Météo-France/CNRM), RACMO22E (KNMI), RCA4 (SMHI) and REMO2009 (MPI-CSC) RCMs. These climatic projections are at a high spatial resolution (0.11-degree, ˜12 km). CARAIB simulations were performed across Europe over the historical period 1951-2005 and the future period 2006-2100 under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. We simulated a set of 99 individual species (47 herbs, 12 shrubs and 40 trees) representing the major European ecosystem flora. First, we analyzed the climatic variability simulated by the climatic models over the historical period and compared it with the observed climatic variability. None of these climatic models can reproduce accurately the present natural climatic variability. Then, to assess the risk of ecosystem disruption in the future and to identify the vulnerable areas in Europe, we created an index combining several CARAIB outputs: runoff, mean NPP, soil turnover, burned area, appearance and disappearance of species. We evaluated the severity of change projected for these variables (period 2070

  18. Communicating Conservation Effects Assessment Project Results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a unique effort to quantify the environmental benefits of conservation practices at watershed scales and nationally. Such a large-scale project cannot be accomplished without the cooperation and communication of a wide range of experts and stakeh...

  19. Common summertime total cloud cover and aerosol optical depth weekly variabilities over Europe: Sign of the aerosol indirect effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulias, A. K.; Kourtidis, K. A.; Alexandri, G.; Rapsomanikis, S.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the summer total cloud cover (TCC) weekly cycle over Europe is investigated using MODIS and ISCCP satellite data in conjunction with aerosol optical depth (AOD) MODIS data. Spatial weekly patterns are examined at a 1° × 1° (MODIS) and 250 × 250 km2 (ISCCP) resolution. Despite the noise in the TCC weekly cycle patterns, their large-scale features show similarities with the AOD550 patterns. Regions with a positive (higher values during midweek) weekly cycle appear over Central Europe, while a strong negative (higher values during weekend) weekly plume appears over the Iberian Peninsula and the North-Eastern Europe. The TCC weekly variability exhibits a very good agreement with the AOD550 weekly variability over Central, South-Western Europe and North-Eastern Europe and a moderate agreement for Central Mediterranean. The MODIS derived TCC weekly variability shows reasonable agreement with the independent ISCCP observations, thus supporting the credibility of the results. TCC and AOD550 correlations exhibit a strong slope for the total of the 6 regions investigated in this work with the slopes being higher for regions with common TCC-AOD550 weekly variabilities. The slope is much stronger for AOD550 values less than 0.2 for Central and South-Western Europe, in line with previous studies around the world. Possible scenarios that could explain the common weekly variability of aerosols and cloud cover through the aerosol indirect effects are discussed here also taking into account the weekly variability appearing in ECA&D E-OBS rainfall data.

  20. Assessing the Risk of Ecosystem Disruption in Europe using a Dynamic Vegetation Model driven by CMIP5 Regional Climatic Projections from EURO-CORDEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dury, M.; Hambuckers, A.; Henrot, A.; Jacquemin, I.; Munhoven, G.; Francois, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    While the combination of warmer and drier mean climatic conditions can have severe impacts on ecosystems, extreme events like droughts or heat waves that break the gradual climate change can have more long-term consequences on ecosystem composition, functioning and carbon storage. Hence, it is essential to assess the changes in climatic variability and the changes in frequency of extreme events projected for the future. Ecosystems could not be in a condition to adapt to these new conditions and might be disrupted. Here, the process-based dynamic vegetation model CARAIB DVM was used to evaluate and analyze how future climate and extreme events will affect European ecosystems. To quantify the uncertainties in the climatic projections and in their potential impacts on ecosystems, the vegetation model was driven with the outputs of different regional climatic models (RCMs), nested in CMIP5 GCM projections for the EURO-CORDEX project. We used the ALADIN version 5.3 (Météo-France/CNRM) and other EURO-CORDEX RCMs. These climatic projections are at a high spatial resolution (0.11-degree, ~12 km). CARAIB simulations were performed across Europe over the historical period 1951-2005 and the future period 2006-2100 under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. We simulated a set of 99 individual species (47 herbs, 12 shrubs and 40 trees) representing the major European ecosystem flora. First, we analyzed the climatic variability simulated by the climatic models over the historical period and compared it with the observed climatic variability. None of these climatic models can reproduce accurately the present natural climatic variability. Then, to assess the risk of ecosystem disruption in the future and to identify the vulnerable areas in Europe, we created an index combining several CARAIB outputs: runoff, mean NPP, soil turnover, burned area, appearance and disappearance of species. We evaluated the severity of change projected for these variables (period 2071-2100) relative

  1. Climate change effects on Chikungunya transmission in Europe: geospatial analysis of vector’s climatic suitability and virus’ temperature requirements

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chikungunya was, from the European perspective, considered to be a travel-related tropical mosquito-borne disease prior to the first European outbreak in Northern Italy in 2007. This was followed by cases of autochthonous transmission reported in South-eastern France in 2010. Both events occurred after the introduction, establishment and expansion of the Chikungunya-competent and highly invasive disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) in Europe. In order to assess whether these outbreaks are indicative of the beginning of a trend or one-off events, there is a need to further examine the factors driving the potential transmission of Chikungunya in Europe. The climatic suitability, both now and in the future, is an essential starting point for such an analysis. Methods The climatic suitability for Chikungunya outbreaks was determined by using bioclimatic factors that influence, both vector and, pathogen. Climatic suitability for the European distribution of the vector Aedes albopictus was based upon previous correlative environmental niche models. Climatic risk classes were derived by combining climatic suitability for the vector with known temperature requirements for pathogen transmission, obtained from outbreak regions. In addition, the longest potential intra-annual season for Chikungunya transmission was estimated for regions with expected vector occurrences. In order to analyse spatio-temporal trends for risk exposure and season of transmission in Europe, climate change impacts are projected for three time-frames (2011–2040, 2041–2070 and 2071–2100) and two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). These climatic projections are based on regional climate model COSMO-CLM, which builds on the global model ECHAM5. Results European areas with current and future climatic suitability of Chikungunya transmission are identified. An increase in risk is projected for Western Europe (e

  2. Europe`s electric future

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Though the market is developing, independent power producers see strong potential in Europe`s power industry. In Europe`s electricity future, some envision a cohesive marketplace. This market would be characterized by consistent regulations; transparent pricing regimes open access to transmission services; competitive procurement processes; and unbundled generation, transmission and distribution services. This new market structure would mark a change for private power developers, who in the past have faced barriers to development of independent power facilities in many European countries. Progress toward competition is already evident.

  3. "Urban heat island" effect on tree growth at several cities of Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumilov, O. I.; Kasatkina, E. A.; Timonen, M.; Herva, H.; Kirtsideli, I.; Kanatjev, A. G.

    2010-05-01

    We investigated growth of larches being planted at several cities of Northern Europe: St. Petersburg (59°57'N, 30°19'E), Rovaniemi (66°30'N, 25°44'E), Apatity (67°34'N, 33°23'E). The data were collected at several sites inside of each city, and at one site in the rural area outside of each cities (about 50 km apart). Totally we studied 10 series. The longest chronology was about 190 years (in St. Petersburg). However, the most others were not very long (about 50 - 70 years). Firstly, it was shown that tree-rings of planted (not typical) larch trees don't reflect the influence of external (solar) factors in contrast with natural species. That is it could not be possible to detect some warming for the 1930-1960 period and some cooling later on. This effect was observed for both series inside the cities and outside of them. Secondly, it was revealed that for both northern cities (Apatity and Rovaniemi) variability of tree-ring indexes was more pronounced in series collected inside of them. Another situation was found for St. Petersburg. Growth of larch trees was stable inside of this megapolis. The preliminary interpretation of the results obtained seems to be connected to different influence of "urban heat island" effect on planted trees inside and outside of the cities for megapolis and relatively small towns. This work is financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 09-04-98801), by the Program of the Russian Academy and by the Regional Scientific Program of Murmansk region.

  4. Climatic effects in Central Europe on the frequency of medical treatments of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sanker, C; Lambertz, C; Gauly, M

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, the relationship between the temperature-humidity index (THI) and the incidence of medical treatments in lactating dairy cows in Lower Saxony, Germany, was investigated. Records of all veterinary-treated cases over 2 years (2003 and 2005) from eight Holstein-Friesian dairy herds raised in loose-housing systems (55 to 170 cows per herd) were evaluated. After exclusion of management-dependent and climate-independent cases, a total of 5547 treatments were analyzed. Treatments were clustered into the following groups: metabolism, fertility, udder and foot/leg. Meteorological data were compiled from the nearest weather station (average distance ± s.d. 39 ± 13 km). Hourly temperatures and relative humidity values were used to calculate the THI, which was divided into classes. Out of the total number of treatments, 37.4%, 32.9%, 21.6% and 8.1% belonged to metabolism, udder, fertility and foot/leg, respectively. Data were analyzed with a mixed model that included THI class, season and year as fixed effects and farm as random effect. In general, incidences were neither affected by the year (P > 0.05) and season (P > 0.05) nor by THI classes (P > 0.05). In tendency, incidences of metabolic treatments increased with increasing THI and incidences of udder treatments increased with decreasing THI. In conclusion, indications of moderate heat stress during summer months in Central Europe were found in the present study, although THI and season did not affect the different disease complexes significantly. PMID:23034127

  5. New international long-term ecological research on air pollution effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Badea, Ovidiu; Barbu, Ion; Fleischer, Peter; Fraczek, Witold; Gancz, Vladimir; Godzik, Barbara; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Grodzki, Wojciech; Karnosky, David; Koren, Milan; Krywult, Marek; Krzan, Zbigniew; Longauer, Roman; Mankovska, Blanka; Manning, William J; McManus, Michael; Musselman, Robert C; Novotny, Julius; Popescu, Flaviu; Postelnicu, Daniela; Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław; Skawiński, Paweł; Skiba, Stefan; Szaro, Robert; Tamas, Stefan; Vasile, Cristian

    2003-06-01

    An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and other ecosystems caused by air pollution in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania and in the Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians on the Polish-Slovak border. Both of these important mountain ranges have the status of national parks and are Man & the Biosphere Reserves. In the Retezat Mountains, the primary research objective was to evaluate how air pollution may affect forest health and biodiversity. The main research objective in the Tatra Mountains was to evaluate responses of natural and managed Norway spruce forests to air pollution and other stresses. Ambient concentrations of ozone (O(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) as well as forest health and biodiversity changes were monitored on densely distributed research sites. Initial monitoring of pollutants indicated low levels of O(3), SO(2), and NO(x) in the Retezat Mountains, while elevated levels of O(3) and high deposition of atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have characterized the Tatra Mountains. In the Retezat Mountains, air pollution seems to have little effect on forest health; however, there was concern that over a long time, even low levels of pollution may affect biodiversity of this important ecosystem. In contrast, severe decline of Norway spruce has been observed in the Tatra Mountains. Although bark beetle seems to be the immediate cause of that decline, long-term elevated levels of atmospheric N and S depositions and elevated O(3) could predispose trees to insect attacks and other stresses. European and US scientists studied pollution deposition, soil and

  6. Quantifying Nitrogen Fluxes and Their Influence on the Greenhouse gas Balance- Research Strategy and new Findings From the NitroEurope Integrated Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, M.; Nemitz, E.; Reis, S.; Beier, C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Cellier, P.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Erisman, J. W.; Skiba, U. M.; de Vries, W.; Zechmeister-Baltenstern, S.; Bleeker, A.; Calanca, P.; Dalgaard, T.; Dragosits, U.; Duyzer, J. H.; Gundersen, P.; Hensen, A.; Kros, H.; Leip, A.; Obersteiner, M.; Olesen, J. E.; Phillips, G.; Rees, R. M.; Smith, P. E.; Soussana, J.; Tang, Y.; Theobald, M. R.; van Amstel, A.; van Oijen, M.; Bakker, M.; Vesala, T.

    2008-12-01

    The human-driven production of reactive nitrogen to stimulate agricultural productivity and its unintended formation in combustion processes both have major impacts on the global environment. Effects of excess reactive nitrogen include reductions in air quality, water quality, soil quality and biodiversity. One of the most controversial impacts of nitrogen, however, is on the greenhouse gas balance. While recent papers have highlighted a possible benefit of nitrogen in enhancing rates of carbon sequestration, there remain many trade-offs between nitrogen and greenhouse gas exchange. The result is that the net effect of reactive nitrogen on the global radiative balance is currently far from clear. To better quantity these relationships requires measurement data and modelling that make the link between different nitrogen forms and their fate in the environment. It is essential to measure fluxes for a wide range of ecosystems considering the biosphere-atmosphere exchange each of the reactive nitrogen components and greenhouse gases, as well as the fixation and denitrification of di-nitrogen. Long term observations are needed for representative ecosystems, together with results from experiments addressing the responses of the key nitrogen and greenhouse gas fluxes to different global change drivers. The NitroEurope Integrated Project of the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission European has developed a strategy to quantifying these different terms on multiple scales. This paper presents the experimental approach including a) a 3-tier flux network, combining process level measurements and new method development with low-cost measurements at many sites, b) a network of manipulation experiments with different global change drivers, c) a network of contrasting European landscapes for analysis of land- use and land management interactions assessing the multiple nitrogen fluxes within and between air, land and water. The paper illustrates the new datasets

  7. Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project: cross-national comparison of smoking prevalence in 18 European countries.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo; Chaloupka, Frank J; Colombo, Paolo; Currie, Laura; Fernandez, Esteve; Fischbacher, Colin; Gilmore, Anna; Godfrey, Fiona; Joossens, Luk; Leon, Maria E; Levy, David T; Nguyen, Lien; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Ross, Hana; Townsend, Joy; Clancy, Luke

    2014-05-01

    Limited data on smoking prevalence allowing valid between-country comparison are available in Europe. The aim of this study is to provide data on smoking prevalence and its determinants in 18 European countries. In 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project, we conducted a face-to-face survey on smoking in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden) on a total of 18 056 participants, representative for each country of the population aged 15 years or older. Overall, 27.2% of the participants were current smokers (30.6% of men and 24.1% of women). Smoking prevalence was highest in Bulgaria (40.9%) and Greece (38.9%) and lowest in Italy (22.0%) and Sweden (16.3%). Smoking prevalence ranged between 15.7% (Sweden) and 44.3% (Bulgaria) for men and between 11.6% (Albania) and 38.1% (Ireland) for women. Multivariate analysis showed a significant inverse trend between smoking prevalence and the level of education in both sexes. Male-to-female smoking prevalence ratios ranged from 0.85 in Spain to 3.47 in Albania and current-to-ex prevalence ratios ranged from 0.68 in Sweden to 4.28 in Albania. There are considerable differences across Europe in smoking prevalence, and male-to-female and current-to-ex smoking prevalence ratios. Eastern European countries, lower income countries and those with less advanced tobacco control policies have less favourable smoking patterns and are at an earlier stage of the tobacco epidemic. PMID:24441832

  8. The school nutrition environment and its association with soft drink intakes in seven countries across Europe--the ENERGY project.

    PubMed

    Lien, Nanna; van Stralen, Maartje M; Androutsos, Odysseas; Bere, Elling; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; van Lippevelde, Wendy; Manios, Yannis; Te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2014-11-01

    The school is an important setting for promoting healthy eating especially at the transition from childhood to adolescence. This study contributes to the literature by describing practices within physical, political and sociocultural aspects of the school nutrition environment in seven countries across Europe based on questionnaires to the school management, and exploring their associations with soft drink consumption reported on questionnaires by 10-12 year olds. Several of the commonly self-reported practices could be supportive of a healthy diet (time to eat, access to water, restriction on marketing), but some practices were underutilized (i.e. discussion with stakeholders, healthy foods at events). Only a few associations of practices with the pupils׳ soft drink consumption were found. PMID:25190681

  9. The Effects of Socio-Political Changes in Eastern Europe on Military Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostertag, Vesna

    Reunification of Germany, democratic changes in Eastern European countries, and new government policies of the Soviet Union will lead to the reduction of U.S. troops in West Germany. As a Department of Defense contractor providing associate degrees to soldiers in Europe, Central Texas College (CTC) will be severely affected by the troop…

  10. The Citizen's Effect: 25 Features about the Europe for Citizens Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reding, Viviane

    2012-01-01

    Public forums and shared spaces in which citizens can debate and deliberate have always constituted essential elements of a democratic society. Today, the Europe for Citizens Programme serves to create a modern European agora. Launched in 2007, the programme supports initiatives that bring people together in international and intercultural…

  11. Malczyce, Poland: a multifaceted community action project in eastern Europe in a time of rapid economic change.

    PubMed

    Moskalewicz, J; Swiatktewicz, G

    2000-01-01

    The major focus of this paper is the sustainability of a one-year demonstration project on drug misuse prevention, which was implemented in a local community affected by acute economic crisis and high unemployment. The project was initiated by the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, and supported by the European Commission. The primary goal of the project was to demonstrate that community-based prevention is possible and feasible within the context of current transitions in Poland. Its major outcome was a community prevention package consisting of a number of booklets and videos to assist other communities in their prevention efforts. Experiences from this study suggest that factors contributing to the sustainability of a community prevention project can be identified and emphasized through simple analysis of community surveys, as well as focus group discussion. PMID:10677883

  12. Climate condition in the Central Europe during the Weichselian Ice Sheet according to the Educational Global Climate Modeling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szuman, Izabela; Czernecki, Bartosz

    2010-05-01

    The expansion and retreat of the ice sheet is controlled by climate changes, and from the other hand, a huge ice mass influences on the climate in the regional scale. This mechanism is commonly known as the fact but often without making reconstruction by using climatological modeling. The purpose of our study is to reconstruct the climate condition during the Weichselian Ice Sheet in the Central Europe, especially for Poland and surrounded countries. The Global Climate Model (GCM) is made for predicting climate, but simplified version can be useful for reconstructing paleoclimate. Hence, the simple initial conditions and surface data proposed by the Educational version of the GCM was applied. In our study we used a simplified version of the GCM to calculate main climate characteristics within the time limits c. 21 000 BP - 18 000 BP, which has been previously invented on Columbia University. The model is constructed on grid with a horizontal resolution 8° latitude by 10° longitude and was establish for modeling most of weather conditions based on available paleoclimate data. It is possible to estimate the probable climate condition along the southern ice sheets margin on the basis of output from the GCM and GIS modeling techniques. Above the ice mass occurs local high pressure area, which seriously interfered on atmospheric circulation. Whereas the low pressure systems in the southern part of continent may caused permanent barometric situation, which stimulates wind directions as well as the precipitable water available in the mass of air. The climate on the east-south border of ice margin was colder and drier than on the west-south region, where it was more ocean-reliable and gentle with higher temperatures. The differences in temperature between the western and eastern part of the Central Europe reached few centigrade. Against a background of the mean paleoclimatic situation in the Central Europe there is coming out a question about the particular paleoclimate

  13. The development of a common risk assessment methodology for local authorities in southeast Europe focusing on climate change related hazards - first results from the SEERISK project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathoma-Koehle, Maria; Promper, Catrin; Glade, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is expected to influence the magnitude and frequency of a number of natural hazards in the future and hence, change the spatial patterns of risk and vulnerability. Local authorities, emergency planners and other decision makers are in need of tools that enable the assessment of the risks associated with the natural hazards. This research is embedded in the EU-funded SEERISK project ("Joint disaster management risk assessment and preparedness for the Danube macro-region"). The principle aim of this project is to improve coherence and consistency among risk assessments undertaken by the partner countries in national, regional and local level. The project focuses on bringing decision makers from southeast Europe together and it attempts the development of a common methodology for risk assessment of climate change related hazards that will be applied in various pilot areas in the partner countries (Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Bosnia Herzegovina and Romania). The common methodology takes into consideration the lack of data in most of the cases and it offers alternatives for the risk assessment but also for the data collection following future events. The common methodology is presented here in the form of methodological steps for four different natural hazards, namely, floods, droughts, heat waves and extreme wind. The proposed methodology is in line with the EC Guidelines for Risk assessment and mapping and will be implemented in the near future in respective regions.

  14. The New Faces of Europe. Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucher, Michel

    This monograph, published as part of the project "A Secondary Education for Europe," offers some basic data on the contemporary human geography of the European continent, with a focus on central and eastern Europe. The document first describes civic issues in the teaching of geography and cartography of the new Europe. The basic pedagogical intent…

  15. Differences in spatiotemporal variations of atmospheric PAH levels between North America and Europe: data from two air monitoring projects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Kukučka, Petr; Venier, Marta; Salamova, Amina; Klánová, Jana; Hites, Ronald A

    2014-03-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at five sites for almost two decades near the North American Great Lakes, as part of the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN), and at three remote sites around Europe, as part of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The primary objectives were to reveal the spatial distributions, long-term temporal trends, and seasonal variations of atmospheric PAH concentrations and to investigate potential differences between these two regions. Atmospheric PAH concentrations at the urban sites in Chicago and Cleveland near Great Lakes were about 20 times (depending on PAH congener and sampling site) greater than those at the rural sites except for Košetice in the Czech Republic. Atmospheric PAH concentrations at Košetice, also a rural site, were about one-third of those at Chicago and Cleveland, but 10 times higher than those at other rural sites (Sturgeon Point, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Eagle Harbor, Aspvreten, and Spitsbergen). Significant long-term decreasing trends of all these PAH atmospheric concentrations were observed at Chicago and Cleveland. For the other sites, either less significant or no long-term decreasing trends were observed. Clear seasonality was observed at Sturgeon Point, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Košetice, and Spitsbergen, with the highest PAH concentrations observed in mid-January. PMID:24365715

  16. Health Effects of High Radon Environments in Central Europe: Another Test for the LNT Hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Becker, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Bechterew, radon treatments are beneficial, with the positive effect lasting until at least 6 months after the normally 3-week treatment by inhalation or bathes. Studies on the mechanism of these effects are progressing. In other cases of extensive use of radon treatment for a wide spectrum of various diseases, for example, in the former Soviet Union, the positive results are not so well established. However, according to a century of radon treatment experience (after millenniums of unknown radon therapy), in particular in Germany and Austria, the positive medical effects for some diseases far exceed any potential detrimental health effects.The total amount of available data in this field is too large to be covered in a brief review. Therefore, less known - in particular recent - work from Central Europe has been analyzed in an attempt to summarize new developments and trends. This includes cost/benefit aspects of radon reduction programs. As a test case for the LNT (linear non-threshold) hypothesis and possible biopositive effects of low radiation exposures, the data support a nonlinear human response to low and medium-level radon exposures. PMID:19330110

  17. Masculinities in Organizational Cultures in Engineering Education in Europe: Results of the European Union Project WomEng

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagebiel, F.; Dahmen, J.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes elements of engineering organizational cultures and structures in higher engineering education from the European project WomEng. Hypotheses, based on state of the art, refer to: women friendly presentation, attractiveness of interdisciplinary teaching methods, single sex education, perceptions of minority status, feelings of…

  18. Detection of explosive as an indicator of landmines: BIOSENS project methodology and field tests in Southeast Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabbe, Stephen; Eng, Lars; Gardhagen, Peter; Berg, Anders

    2005-06-01

    The IST-2000-25348-BIOSENS project carried out a number of studies to assess the use of explosive detection technology for humanitarian demining. This paper presents sampling/collection technology developed, test methodology and results including comparisons with dogs and soil sampling. Findings are presented in terms of the detection of explosive from mines in the environment and demining.

  19. The role of PIXE in the AIRUSE project "testing and development of air quality mitigation measures in Southern Europe"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Calzolai, G.; Giannoni, M.; Nava, S.; Udisti, R.; Severi, M.; Querol, X.; Amato, F.; Alves, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2015-11-01

    The European AIRUSE LIFE+ project aims at testing existing and future mitigation measures and developing new strategies for the improvement of air quality in Southern European countries. The project involves public and private institutions of Spain, UK, Portugal, Italy and Greece. PM10 and PM2.5 daily samplings have been scheduled for one year (from January 2013) in four urban sites, Barcelona (Spain), Porto (Portugal), Athens (Greece), and Florence (Italy). The daily data set gives an overall representative picture of the PM composition in these urban sites. The project includes also samplings with hourly resolution for limited periods. Hourly samples give an easier identification of the different aerosol sources due to the capability of tracking rapid changes as the ones occurring in many particulate emissions as well as in atmospheric transport and dilution processes. The role of PIXE technique within the project has been described in this paper. The comparison of data obtained by different techniques (e.g. PIXE, IC and ICP) assured a quality assurance control on the huge quantity of data obtained in the project. PIXE data together with those obtained by other analytical techniques have been used to reconstruct the average aerosol chemical composition and in Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis to determine the aerosol sources and their impact on PM10 and PM2.5 mass. In particular the high sensitivity of PIXE for all the crustal elements (including Si which is not easily detected by ICP) allows the direct determination of the Saharan dust contribution. Finally, the 1-h resolution data, which can be obtained only by PIXE, confirmed and reinforced the identification of the aerosol sources obtained by the daily concentrations.

  20. Methods for the drug effectiveness review project.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Marian S; Jonas, Daniel E; Gartlehner, Gerald; Little, Alison; Peterson, Kim; Carson, Susan; Gibson, Mark; Helfand, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Drug Effectiveness Review Project was initiated in 2003 in response to dramatic increases in the cost of pharmaceuticals, which lessened the purchasing power of state Medicaid budgets. A collaborative group of state Medicaid agencies and other organizations formed to commission high-quality comparative effectiveness reviews to inform evidence-based decisions about drugs that would be available to Medicaid recipients. The Project is coordinated by the Center for Evidence-based Policy (CEbP) at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU), and the systematic reviews are undertaken by the Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) at OHSU and at the University of North Carolina. The reviews adhere to high standards for comparative effectiveness reviews. Because the investigators have direct, regular communication with policy-makers, the reports have direct impact on policy and decision-making, unlike many systematic reviews. The Project was an innovator of methods to involve stakeholders and continues to develop its methods in conducting reviews that are highly relevant to policy-makers. The methods used for selecting topics, developing key questions, searching, determining eligibility of studies, assessing study quality, conducting qualitative and quantitative syntheses, rating the strength of evidence, and summarizing findings are described. In addition, our on-going interactions with the policy-makers that use the reports are described. PMID:22970848

  1. Europe Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Gilbert T.

    1993-01-01

    A recent succession of landmark events have rendered world history textbooks out of date. Educators need to answer students' questions about the changes of the past few years and provide some context as to the causes of change. Lists a number of selected resources for information on eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. (MLF)

  2. Immigrants' health in Europe: a cross-classified multilevel approach to examine origin country, destination country, and community effects.

    PubMed

    Huijts, Tim; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined origin, destination, and community effects on first- and second-generation immigrants' health in Europe. We used information from the European Social Surveys (2002–2008) on 19,210 immigrants from 123 countries of origin, living in 31 European countries. Cross-classified multilevel regression analyses reveal that political suppression in the origin country and living in countries with large numbers of immigrant peers have a detrimental influence on immigrants' health. Originating from predominantly Islamic countries and good average health among natives in the destination country appear to be beneficial. Additionally, the results point toward health selection mechanisms into migration. PMID:22803186

  3. The effects of drug market regulation on pharmaceutical prices in Europe: overview and evidence from the market of ACE inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an overview of policy measures targeting pharmaceutical expenditure in Europe and analyses their impact on originator pharmaceutical prices. Panel data methods are used to examine the market of ACE Inhibitors in six European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom) over period 1991-2006. We find that although some measures are effective in reducing originator prices, others appear to have an insignificant effect. Results suggest that supply side measures such as mandatory generic substitution, regressive pharmacy mark-ups and claw-backs are effective in reducing pharmaceuticals prices. Results are not as strong for demand side measures. Profit controls and the use of cost-effectiveness analysis appear to have a negative effect on prices, while results on reference pricing are inconclusive. Findings also indicate that, although originator prices are not immediately affected by generic entry, they may be influenced by changes in generic prices post patent expiry. PMID:22828053

  4. Effective wavelength calibration for moire fringe projection

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, Daryl; Davies, Angela; Farahi, Faramarz

    2006-12-01

    The fringe patterns seen when using moire instruments are similar to the patterns seen in traditional interferometry but differ in the spacing between consecutive fringes. In traditional interferometry, the spacing is constant and related to the wavelength of the source. In moire fringe projection, the spacing (the effective wavelength) may not be constant over the field of view and the spacing depends on the system geometry. In these cases, using a constant effective wavelength over the field of view causes inaccurate surface height measurements. We examine the calibration process of the moirefringe projection measurement, which takes this varying wavelength into account to produce a pixel-by-pixel wavelength map. The wavelength calibration procedure is to move the object in the out-of-plane direction a known distance until every pixel intensity value goes through at least one cycle. A sinusoidal function is then fit to the data to extract the effective wavelength pixel by pixel, yielding an effective wavelength map. A calibrated step height was used to validate the effective wavelength map with results within 1% of the nominal value of the step height. The error sources that contributed to the uncertainty in determining the height of the artifact are also investigated.

  5. Benzo(a)pyrene in Europe: Ambient air concentrations, population exposure and health effects.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, C B B; Horálek, J; de Leeuw, F; Couvidat, F

    2016-07-01

    This study estimated current benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentration levels, population exposure and potential health impacts of exposure to ambient air BaP in Europe. These estimates were done by combining the best available information from observations and chemical transport models through the use of spatial interpolation methods. Results show large exceedances of the European target value for BaP in 2012 over large areas, particularly in central-eastern Europe. Results also show large uncertainties in the concentration estimates in regions with a few or no measurement stations. The estimation of the population exposure to BaP concentrations and its health impacts was limited to 60% of the European population, covering only the modelled areas which met the data quality requirement for modelling of BaP concentrations set by the European directive 2004/107/EC. The population exposure estimate shows that 20% of the European population is exposed to BaP background ambient concentrations above the EU target value and only 7% live in areas with concentrations under the estimated acceptable risk level of 0.12 ng m(-3). This exposure leads to an estimated 370 lung cancer incidences per year, for the 60% of the European population included in the estimation. Emissions of BaP have increased in the last decade with the increase in emissions from household combustion of biomass. At the same time, climate mitigation policies are promoting the use of biomass burning for domestic heating. The current study shows that there is a need for more BaP measurements in areas of low measurement density, particularly where high concentrations are expected, e.g. in Romania, Bulgaria, and other Balkan states. Furthermore, this study shows that the health risk posed by PAH exposure calls for better coordination between air quality and climate mitigation policies in Europe. PMID:27140679

  6. The Effects of Group Longevity on Project Communication and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Ralph

    1982-01-01

    Research on 50 project groups in a large corporation's research and development facility examined the effect of group longevity and project characteristics on internal and external communication and project performance. Results indicate that projects became increasingly isolated, adversely affecting technical performance the longer project members…

  7. Climate modelling and near future solar power assessment in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, Marco; Vignati, Elisabetta; Huld, Thomas; Monforti-Ferrario, Fabio; Wilson, Julian; Dosio, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    In this work the near future (2030-2050) solar power in Europe is assessed using numerical experiments. The photovoltaic energy is computed on the basis of the solar radiation and air temperature simulated by regional climate models run in the framework of the FP6-ENSEMBLES project. The multi-model simulation of the climate evolution over Europe is performed at a 25 km resolution using the IPCC A1B scenario, and the period 1961-2050 is analyzed. The A1B scenario assumes a world of very rapid economic growth, with a global population peak in mid-century. Preliminary results show a general increase of near-surface air temperature, accompanied by an increase (reduction) of the solar radiation in Southern (Northern) Europe, with significant positive effects on the photovoltaic energy availability over Western Europe.

  8. Solar and geomagnetic effects on the frequency of atmospheric circulation types over Europe: an analysis based on a large number of classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Radan; Cahynová, Monika; Kyselý, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Recently, effects of the 11-year solar cycle on various aspects of tropospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere in winter have been recognized. One of our previous studies showed a significant solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types from the Hess-Brezowsky catalogue. Here, we use a large collection of varied classifications of circulation patterns, assembled within the COST733 Action "Harmonization and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions" to detect the solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types. The collection contains both objective and subjective classifications. The advantage of this multi-classification approach is that peculiarities or biases of any single classification (catalogue) that might influence the detected solar signal vanish once a large ensemble of classifications is used. We divide winter months (December to March) into three groups according to the mean monthly solar activity, quantified by the F10.7 flux. The three groups correspond to the minima of the 11-year solar cycle, a moderate solar activity, and solar maxima. Within each group, frequencies of occurrence of individual circulation types are calculated. Differences in the occurrence of individual classes between solar activity groups indicate the presence of a solar activity effect on atmospheric circulation over Europe. Statistical significance of these differences is estimated by a block resampling method. The research is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805, and by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic, contract OC115.

  9. Time trend and age-period-cohort effect on kidney cancer mortality in Europe, 1981–2000

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Background The incorporation of diagnostic and therapeutic improvements, as well as the different smoking patterns, may have had an influence on the observed variability in renal cancer mortality across Europe. This study examined time trends in kidney cancer mortality in fourteen European countries during the last two decades of the 20th century. Methods Kidney cancer deaths and population estimates for each country during the period 1981–2000 were drawn from the World Health Organization Mortality Database. Age- and period-adjusted mortality rates, as well as annual percentage changes in age-adjusted mortality rates, were calculated for each country and geographical region. Log-linear Poisson models were also fitted to study the effect of age, death period, and birth cohort on kidney cancer mortality rates within each country. Results For men, the overall standardized kidney cancer mortality rates in the eastern, western, and northern European countries were 20, 25, and 53% higher than those for the southern European countries, respectively. However, age-adjusted mortality rates showed a significant annual decrease of -0.7% in the north of Europe, a moderate rise of 0.7% in the west, and substantial increases of 1.4% in the south and 2.0% in the east. This trend was similar among women, but with lower mortality rates. Age-period-cohort models showed three different birth-cohort patterns for both men and women: a decrease in mortality trend for those generations born after 1920 in the Nordic countries, a similar but lagged decline for cohorts born after 1930 in western and southern European countries, and a continuous increase throughout all birth cohorts in eastern Europe. Similar but more heterogeneous regional patterns were observed for period effects. Conclusion Kidney cancer mortality trends in Europe showed a clear north-south pattern, with high rates on a downward trend in the north, intermediate rates on a more marked rising trend in the east than in the

  10. Europe plans quantum technology flagship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The European Commission (EC) looks set to fund a €1bn flagship programme in quantum technologies starting in 2018. Similar to the EC's 10-year €1bn graphene flagship that began in 2013, the project was initiated by a group of researchers from across Europe in a “quantum manifesto” that was published in March and presented at the Quantum Europe 2016 conference in Amsterdam last month.

  11. The financial crisis and the expected effects on vaccinations in Europe: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Maltezou, Helena C; Lionis, Christos

    2015-07-01

    Starting in 2008 several European countries experienced a financial crisis. Historically, diseases whose prevention and treatment depend highly on the continuity of healthcare re-emerge during political and financial crises. Evidence suggests that the current financial crisis has had an impact on the health and welfare of Europeans and that population health status and morbidity as well as mortality patterns may change in the coming years. At the same time decisions about expenditure for health services may impact the ability of public health providers to respond. It is expected that the current crisis will further exacerbate socioeconomic and health inequalities and novel vulnerable groups will emerge in addition to existing ones. We review the available evidence and discuss how the current crisis may have an impact on vaccine-preventable diseases and influence vaccination coverage rates in Europe. PMID:25739315

  12. Positive health effects of the natural outdoor environment in typical populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE): a study programme protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Antó, Josep Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Danileviciute, Asta; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Garcia, Judith; Jerrett, Michael; Jones, Marc; Julvez, Jordi; van Kempen, Elise; van Kamp, Irene; Maas, Jolanda; Seto, Edmund; Smith, Graham; Triguero, Margarita; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Wright, John; Zufferey, Joris; van den Hazel, Peter Jan; Lawrence, Roderick; Grazuleviciene, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Growing evidence suggests that close contact with nature brings benefits to human health and well-being, but the proposed mechanisms are still not well understood and the associations with health remain uncertain. The Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor environment in Typical Populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE) project investigates the interconnections between natural outdoor environments and better human health and well-being. Aims and methods The PHENOTYPE project explores the proposed underlying mechanisms at work (stress reduction/restorative function, physical activity, social interaction, exposure to environmental hazards) and examines the associations with health outcomes for different population groups. It implements conventional and new innovative high-tech methods to characterise the natural environment in terms of quality and quantity. Preventive as well as therapeutic effects of contact with the natural environment are being covered. PHENOTYPE further addresses implications for land-use planning and green space management. The main innovative part of the study is the evaluation of possible short-term and long-term associations of green space and health and the possible underlying mechanisms in four different countries (each with quite a different type of green space and a different use), using the same methodology, in one research programme. This type of holistic approach has not been undertaken before. Furthermore there are technological innovations such as the use of remote sensing and smartphones in the assessment of green space. Conclusions The project will produce a more robust evidence base on links between exposure to natural outdoor environment and human health and well-being, in addition to a better integration of human health needs into land-use planning and green space management in rural as well as urban areas. PMID:24740979

  13. The groundwater buffering effect on heat waves and precipitation: coupled groundwater-atmosphere simulations over Europe and North America with a WRF-LEAFHYDRO system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Gómez, Breogán; Regueiro-Sanfiz, Sabela; Georgescu, Matei

    2016-04-01

    We present coupled atmosphere-hydrology simulations with the WRF regional climate model and the LEAFHYDRO LSM, including groundwater dynamics. Simulations are carried out for the coupled system for the growing season (February to October) over Europe at 2.5km resolution over land and 20km over the atmosphere. Initial conditions for the land surface, groundwater and rivers are from 10 year off-line simulations, performed continuously over the same domain and period, forced by atmospheric data from the Earth2Observe FP7 project. We show that the presence of a shallow water table over portions of the European continent enhances evapotranspiration in dry periods under increasing atmospheric demand. The impact of the coupling between groundwater and the soil vegetation system on land surface fluxes results in decreases in air temperature and an increase in low level mixing ratios, which under certain convective regimes induces more precipitation. We illustrate for the heat wave of 2003 that models that do not include this groundwater buffering effect may enhance significantly the intensity of such temperature extreme cases. The effect on precipitation is mostly seen over inland areas where warm season convection is important. We show with results of additional simulations over North America, where summer convection over the interior of the continent is very relevant, that the effect of groundwater-enhanced evapotranspiration may have a sizeable impact on climate at the global scale.

  14. Effects of land-use and climate on Holocene vegetation composition in northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquer, Laurent; Gaillard, Marie-José; Sugita, Shinya; Poska, Anneli; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Mazier, Florence; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Fyfe, Ralph; Jönsson, Anna Maria

    2016-04-01

    Prior to the advent of agriculture, broad-scale vegetation patterns in Europe were controlled primarily by climate. Early agriculture can be detected in palaeovegetation records, but the relative extent to which past regional vegetation was climatically or anthropogenically-forced is of current scientific interest. Using comparisons of transformed pollen data, climate-model data, dynamic vegetation model simulations and anthropogenic land-cover change data, this study aims to estimate the relative impacts of human activities and climate on the Holocene vegetation composition of northern Europe at a subcontinental scale. The REVEALS model was used for pollen-based quantitative reconstruction of vegetation (RV). Climate variables from ECHAM and the extent of human deforestation from KK10 were used as explanatory variables to evaluate their respective impacts on RV. Indices of vegetation-composition changes based on RV and climate-induced vegetation simulated by the LPJ-GUESS model (LPJG) were used to assess the relative importance of climate and anthropogenic impacts. The results show that climate is the major predictor of Holocene vegetation changes until 5000 years ago. The similarity in rate of change and turnover between RV and LPJG decreases after this time. Changes in RV explained by climate and KK10 vary for the last 2000 years; the similarity in rate of change, turnover, and evenness between RV and LPJG decreases to the present. The main conclusions provide important insights on Neolithic forest clearances that affected regional vegetation from 6700 years ago, although climate (temperature and precipitation) still was a major driver of vegetation change (explains 37% of the variation) at the subcontinental scale. Land use became more important around 5000-4000 years ago, while the influence of climate decreased (explains 28% of the variation). Land-use affects all indices of vegetation compositional change during the last 2000 years; the influence of climate

  15. Application of circulation classifications from the COST733 collection to the detection of solar and geomagnetic effects on tropospheric circulation over Europe in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Radan; Cahynová, Monika; Kyselý, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Many studies of circulation classifications are biased by the fact that they are based on a single classification only; that is, their results are affected by the properties of a particular classification to an unknown extent. A large number of circulation classifications produced and collected in the COST733 database allows such a bias to be removed. As an example, we examine effects of solar activity variations on the frequency of circulation types, making use of more than sixty objective classifications for each of 12 domains, defined over Europe. To determine the solar effects, winter months (December to March) are divided into three classes according to the mean monthly solar activity, within which the frequencies of occurrence of circulation types are calculated. Circulation types coming from any classification with significant differences in frequency between high and low solar activity are identified. Current results generally confirm results of a previous study based on a single classification only (subjective Hess-Brezowsky) that (a) westerly types are more frequent under high than low solar activity; (b) northerly types are more frequent under low than high activity, and (iii) easterly and anticyclonic types are more frequent under low than moderate solar activity; the opposite holds for cyclonic types. The research is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic under contract OC115 and the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805.

  16. Application of mixed-effects models to study the country-specific outpatient antibiotic use in Europe: a tutorial on longitudinal data analysis.

    PubMed

    Minalu, Girma; Aerts, Marc; Coenen, Samuel; Versporten, Ann; Muller, Arno; Adriaenssens, Niels; Beutels, Philippe; Molenberghs, Geert; Goossens, Herman; Hens, Niel

    2011-12-01

    Resistance to antibiotics is a major public health problem and antibiotic use is being increasingly recognized as the main selective pressure driving this resistance. Yearly and quarterly data on outpatient antibiotic use were collected by the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) project for the period 1997-2009 from 33 and 27 European countries, respectively, and expressed in defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day. Since repeated measures were taken for the countries, correlation has to be taken into account when analysing the data. This paper illustrates the application of mixed-effects models to the study of country-specific outpatient antibiotic use in Europe. Mixed models are useful in a wide variety of disciplines in the biomedical, physical and social sciences. In this application for outpatient antibiotic use, the linear mixed model is extended to a non-linear mixed model, allowing analysis of seasonal variation on top of a global trend, with country-specific effects for global mean use and amplitude, and trends over time in use and in amplitude. PMID:22096069

  17. Supergranule Superrotation Identified as a Projection Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, D. H.; Williams, P. E.; Cuntz, M.

    2005-01-01

    Previous measurements of the rotation rate of the supergranule Doppler velocity pattern revealed surprising characteristics: (1) the pattern rotates faster than the plasma at the surface and, at each latitude, it rotates faster than the plasma at any level below the surface (superrotation), (2) larger cells rotate more rapidly than smaller cells, and (3) faster rotation rates are found when using cross-correlation techniques with larger time-lags between Doppler images. We simulate the supergranulation velocity pattern using a spectrum for the cellular flows that matches the observed spectrum but we keep the pattern unchanged and rotating rigidly. Our simulation shows that the superrotation and its dependence upon cell size can be largely reproduced by projection effects on the line-of-sight Doppler velocity signal. The remaining variation in rotation rate with cell size can be attributed to cells smaller than supergranules extending through shallower layers which have slower rotation rates.

  18. NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, W. Randy, III; Anderson, Bruce E.; Connors, V. S.; Wey, C. C.; Sanders, T.; Winstead, E. L.; Pui, C.; Chen, Da-ren; Hagen, D. E.; Whitefield, P.

    2001-01-01

    During August 1-14, 1999, NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) convened a workshop at the NASA Langley Research Center to try to determine why such a wide variation in aerosol emissions indices and chemical and physical properties has been reported by various independent AEAP-supported research teams trying to characterize the exhaust emissions of subsonic commercial aircraft. This workshop was divided into two phases, a laboratory phase and a field phase. The laboratory phase consisted of supplying known particle number densities (concentrations) and particle size distributions to a common manifold for the participating research teams to sample and analyze. The field phase was conducted on an aircraft run-up pad. Participating teams actually sampled aircraft exhaust generated by a Langley T-38 Talon aircraft at 1 and 9 m behind the engine at engine powers ranging from 48 to 100 percent. Results from the laboratory phase of this intercomparison workshop are reported in this paper.

  19. Effect of a Frontal System on Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Distribution over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, R. M.; Lewis, A. C.; Lewis, A. C.; McQuaid, J. B.; Barjat, H.; Dewey, K.; Kent, J.

    2001-12-01

    The distribution of C2-C7 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) has been determined during periods of convective and frontal activity over central Europe. High frequency whole air sampling was carried out on board the UK Meteorological Office C-130 Hercules aircraft during the EXPORT campaign, August 2000 (European eXport of Precursors and Ozone by long-Range Transport). The distribution of NMHC during and after the passage of a WCB (Warm Conveyor Belt) associated with a cold front was investigated. Advection was shown to have occurred over several days but embedded convection within the WCB caused rapid uplift of reactive carbon from the boundary layer to the mid-troposphere. Post-WCB, elevated levels of NMHC in the free troposphere due to convective mixing were observed. High mixing ratios of NMHC were found at altitudes of up to 5 km ( propene, t = 5.28 hours, 13.8pptV). The observations indicate that uplift of reactive NMHC during frontal passage may significantly perturb partitioning and abundance of inorganic and organic peroxy radicals and lifetime of hydroxyl radical (OH). The net production rate of ozone (N(O3)) within the WCB was calculated using the photostationary state expression (PSS), showing net ozone production in the free troposphere.

  20. Withdrawal of growth-promoting antibiotics in Europe and its effects in relation to human health.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ian

    2007-08-01

    The glycopeptide avoparcin, bacitracin, the macrolides spiramycin and tylosin, and the streptogramin virginiamycin were withdrawn as growth promoters in the European Union between 1995 and 1999 on the basis of the Precautionary Principle. Relevant resistance thereupon diminished among enterococci (the indicator organisms) isolated from animal and human faeces. However, animal enterococci were shown to differ from those that caused human infections, although their resistance genes were sometimes indistinguishable and thus probably have a common origin. Before the ban, human clinical isolates of enterococci resistant to vancomycin or teicoplanin were uncommon in many, but not all, parts of Europe and resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin in the case of Enterococcus faecium was very rare. After the ban, these resistances increased in prevalence almost universally, to the detriment of human health. Campylobacters, normally susceptible to macrolides, increased in prevalence before and after the ban. Analyses suggest that the added risk to human health from resistance among enterococci and campylobacters selected by growth promoter use is small, whilst the benefit to human health from their use, hitherto largely ignored, might more than counterbalance this. PMID:17467959

  1. Quality assessment of expert answers to lay questions about cystic fibrosis from various language zones in Europe: the ECORN-CF project

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The European Centres of Reference Network for Cystic Fibrosis (ECORN-CF) established an Internet forum which provides the opportunity for CF patients and other interested people to ask experts questions about CF in their mother language. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a detailed quality assessment tool to analyze quality of expert answers, 2) evaluate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this tool, and 3) explore changes in the quality of expert answers over the time frame of the project. Methods The quality assessment tool was developed by an expert panel. Five experts within the ECORN-CF project used the quality assessment tool to analyze the quality of 108 expert answers published on ECORN-CF from six language zones. 25 expert answers were scored at two time points, one year apart. Quality of answers was also assessed at an early and later period of the project. Individual rater scores and group mean scores were analyzed for each expert answer. Results A scoring system and training manual were developed analyzing two quality categories of answers: content and formal quality. For content quality, the grades based on group mean scores for all raters showed substantial agreement between two time points, however this was not the case for the grades based on individual rater scores. For formal quality the grades based on group mean scores showed only slight agreement between two time points and there was also poor agreement between time points for the individual grades. The inter-rater agreement for content quality was fair (mean kappa value 0.232 ± 0.036, p < 0.001) while only slight agreement was observed for the grades of the formal quality (mean kappa value 0.105 ± 0.024, p < 0.001). The quality of expert answers was rated high (four language zones) or satisfactory (two language zones) and did not change over time. Conclusions The quality assessment tool described in this study was feasible and reliable when content quality was

  2. Analysis of the emission inventories and model-ready emission datasets of Europe and North America for phase 2 of the AQMEII project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliot, George; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Kuenen, Jeroen; Zhang, Junhua; Moran, Michael D.; Makar, Paul A.

    2015-08-01

    This paper highlights the development of the emission inventories and emission processing for Europe (EU) and North America (NA) in the second phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project. The main purpose of the second phase of the AQMEII project is to understand the importance of coupled meteorological-chemical models in our understanding of the feedback of chemistry on the meteorology. A second purpose of the second phase of the AQMEII project is to explore the differences between EU and NA in a dynamic evaluation of two modeling years (2006 and 2010). The first phase of AQMEII also considered the modeling year 2006. Comparing the two AQMEII phases, for the EU domain, there were substantial decreases in CO (-19%), NH3 (-11%), and SO2 (-12%) emissions between the phase 2 and phase 1 emissions used for 2006. For the NA domain, there were decreases in CO (-10%), non-methane hydrocarbons (-5%), PM2.5 (-8%), PM10 (-18%), SO2 (-12%), with an increase of 4% in NOx. For the 2010 modeling year, 2009 emissions were used as a proxy for 2010 emissions in the EU domain. Between 2006 and 2009, considerable emission reductions were achieved for 17 EU countries, Norway and Switzerland as well as EU-Non-Member States, for all emitted species aside from NH3, which remained almost stable. Non-EU countries showed little change in emissions levels, though this may be a result of poor data quality. Shipping emissions decreased for PM and SO2 due to Sulfur Emission Control Areas on the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, while increasing for other species. Overall for the EU domain between 2006 and 2009, estimated NOx emissions decreased by 10%, SO2 by 18%, CO by 12%, PM2.5 by 5%, PM10 by 6%, NMVOC by 11%, and NH3 by 1%. Between the 2006 and 2010 modeling years, estimated US NOx emissions decreased by 17%, SO2 by 29%, CO by 21%, PM2.5 by 12%, PM10 by 7%, NMHC by 4% and NH3 by 2% while Canadian and Mexican emissions were assumed to remain constant

  3. Reforming Upper Secondary Education in Europe. The Leonardo da Vinci Project Post-16 Strategies. Surveys of Strategies for Post-16 Education To Improve the Parity of Esteem for Initial Vocational Education in Eight European Educational Systems. Theory into Practice 92. Institute for Educational Research Publication Series B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers on the Leonardo da Vinci project: "Looking for Post-16 Education Strategies for Parity of Esteem in Europe" (Lasonen); "Improving Parity of Esteem as a Policy Goal" (Makinen, Volanen); "Alternative Strategies for Parity of Esteem between General/Academic and Vocational Education in Europe" (Kamarainen);…

  4. Learning about Teaching: Initial Findings from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project. Research Paper. MET Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to test new approaches to measuring effective teaching. The goal of the MET project is to improve the quality of information about teaching effectiveness available to education professionals within states and districts--information that…

  5. Global warming increases the frequency of river floods in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfieri, L.; Burek, P.; Feyen, L.; Forzieri, G.

    2015-05-01

    EURO-CORDEX (Coordinated Downscaling Experiment over Europe), a new generation of downscaled climate projections, has become available for climate change impact studies in Europe. New opportunities arise in the investigation of potential effects of a warmer world on meteorological and hydrological extremes at regional scales. In this work, an ensemble of EURO-CORDEX RCP8.5 scenarios is used to drive a distributed hydrological model and assess the projected changes in flood hazard in Europe through the current century. Changes in magnitude and frequency of extreme streamflow events are investigated by statistical distribution fitting and peak over threshold analysis. A consistent method is proposed to evaluate the agreement of ensemble projections. Results indicate that the change in frequency of discharge extremes is likely to have a larger impact on the overall flood hazard as compared to the change in their magnitude. On average, in Europe, flood peaks with return periods above 100 years are projected to double in frequency within 3 decades.

  6. The effect of abrupt climate changes and climate background conditions in Southern Europe during the last glacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Gregor; Martin-Puertas, Celia; Brauer, Achim; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    The last glacial period is characterized by abrupt and large temperature shifts in Greenland and the North Atlantic realm. Pollen and sediment data from Lago Grande di Monticchio (MON) have demonstrated a clear imprint of these fluctuations operating at millennial time-scales. Interestingly, basic mean environmental condition changes with respect to temperature and precipitation occurred during MIS4, separating warm and dry conditions during MIS5 from relatively cold and humid conditions within MIS3. This general climate background shift is superposed by distinct millennial-scale variability at MON. Using a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model applying boundary conditions at 32 ka BP and pre-industrial conditions as a surrogate for MIS3 and MIS5, we have simulated and analysed characteristic changes in Southern Europe during the last glacial. We find that changes in the mean state at MON are mainly related to a partial shift of the North Atlantic deep water (NADW) convection sites from the Nordic Seas to South of Iceland, the presence of the Fennoscandian ice sheet and lower greenhouse gas concentrations. These background characteristics provide the basis for enhanced zonal moisture transport from the eastern North Atlantic to Middle and Southern Europe. Furthermore, simulations of abrupt climate change scenarios show that a deactivation of the convection sites South of Iceland during MIS3 leads to cooler and dryer conditions at MON. Such temperature and precipitation changes are thought to provide a counter-acting effect on woody vegetation and associated pollen signals at MON. This is in contrast to the impact of abrupt climate perturbation scenarios during MIS5, where no significant precipitation changes are detected. Hence, the simulated changes and underlying mechanisms are largely consistent with the recorded proxy evidence with respect to both, mean state and millennial-scale changes.

  7. Anthropogenic climate change affects meteorological drought risk in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2016-04-01

    Drought constitutes a significant natural hazard in Europe, impacting societies and ecosystems across the continent. Climate model simulations with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations project increased drought risk in southern Europe, and on the other hand decreased drought risk in the north. Observed changes in water balance components and drought indicators resemble the projected pattern. However, assessments of possible causes of the reported regional changes have so far been inconclusive. Here we investigate whether anthropogenic emissions have altered past and present meteorological (precipitation) drought risk. For doing so we first estimate the magnitude of 20 year return period drought years that would occur without anthropogenic effects on the climate. Subsequently we quantify to which degree the occurrence probability, i.e. the risk, of these years has changed if anthropogenic climate change is accounted for. Both an observational and a climate model-based assessment suggest that it is >95% likely that human emissions have increased the probability of drought years in the Mediterranean, whereas it is >95% likely that the probability of dry years has decreased in northern Europe. In central Europe the evidence is inconclusive. The results highlight that anthropogenic climate change has already increased drought risk in southern Europe, stressing the need to develop efficient mitigation measures.

  8. Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

  9. Postglacial hillslope development in paraglacial tributary catchments (ESF-NFR SedyMONT-Norway Project, SedyMONT, Topo-Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laute, Katja; Beylich, Achim A.; Hansen, Louise; Vatne, Geir

    2010-05-01

    Topography and landforms of different spatial scales are generated by different operating processes and are characterized by different variables, evolved over different time periods. Changes in climate affect Earth surface systems and shapes Earth surface processes around the world and seem to have major impacts on sediment dynamics, especially in cold climate environments. Understanding climate and landform development from a Holocene to contemporary time perspective can contribute to document change of the Earth surface systems as well as to detect responsible processes for climatic and topographic change. Analyzing postglacial hillslope development and studying sediment transport within two small deglaciated, subarctic valley systems in Western Norway will improve the understanding of the complex response of mountain landscape formation. The innovative approach of this PhD research project is the combination of knowledge on Holocene process rates with data on subrecent to contemporary sedimentary fluxes, -budgets and process rates using different advanced methods and techniques. The PhD project is part of the NFR funded SedyMONT-Norway Project within the ESF EUROCORES TOPO-EUROPE SedyMONT (Timescales of sediment dynamics, climate and topographic change in mountain landscapes) Programme. Research is carried out within the Erdalen and Bødalen catchments of the Nordfjord valley-fjord system (inner Nordfjord, Western Norway). Both valleys can be described as steep U-shaped and glacier-fed tributary valleys. The runoff regime is complex with a high variability of discharge over the year. Instrumentation in both catchments includes an automatic weather station as well as five stationary stations for continuous and year-round monitoring of runoff, fluvial suspended sediment and solute transport. The main aims of the PhD project are to analyse (i) the spatial distribution of hillslopes, their contemporary structure, controls and current process rates, (ii) the

  10. BSEP/CSEP Reading Evaluation: A Study of the Effectiveness of the U.S. Army Europe's Basic Skills/Career Skills Job-Specific Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippi, Jorie W.

    To measure the effectiveness of the Basic Skills Education Program (BSEP) reading curriculum--eight reading skill modules employing military job-specific reading materials and used by the U.S. Army in Europe (USAREUR)--and to provide information for improving it, a study examined 183 soldiers from 38 European posts who were enrolled in the BSEP…

  11. Designing and Fostering Effective Online Group Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherling, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    Collaborative learning is a hallmark of adult education and a popular instructional strategy. For over a decade, as an educator of adult learners, the author has integrated group work into courses. Group projects require the contribution and evaluation from all group members and often reflect a collective grade at the end of the project. However,…

  12. Learning about Teaching: Initial Findings from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project. Policy Brief. MET Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to test new approaches to recognizing effective teaching. The project's goal is to help build fair and reliable systems for teacher observation and feedback to help teachers improve and administrators make better personnel decisions.…

  13. The STAIRRS project, work package 1: a cost-effectiveness analysis of railway noise reduction on a European scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oertli, J.

    2003-10-01

    Noise control is a major economic factor for the railways as national and European Union environmental legislation is being enacted. In an effort to determine optimal strategies on a European level, the EU fifth framework programme has co-financed the Strategies and Tools to Assess and Implement noise Reducing measures for Railway Systems (STAIRRS) project. Work package 1 developed the necessary software to undertake large-scale cost-effectiveness analyses. The acoustically relevant geographic, traffic and track data were collected for 11 000 km of lines in seven European countries. Standard cost-benefit methodologies were adapted to fit the requirements of the project. An extrapolation mechanism allowed studies on Europe as a whole and, in an approximate manner, also on individual countries. Major conclusions are that the highest cost-effectiveness can be achieved by combining measures; freight rolling stock has a high cost-effectiveness on its own as well as in combination with other measures, especially when combined with track measures; noise barriers, in particular high ones, have a low cost-effectiveness. The conclusions for Europe as a whole are also true for individual countries. The STAIRRS project co-ordinator is the European Rail Research Institute, the work package leader is the Swiss Federal Railways with the participation of AEAT Technology (NL), German Railways, French Railways, PSI-Akustik (A), the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and the Free University of Brussels.

  14. Communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care in Europe: the case for improvement. The rationale for the RESTORE FP 7 project.

    PubMed

    van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Burns, Nicola; O'Donnell, Catherine; Mair, Frances; Spiegel, Wolfgang; Lionis, Christos; Dowrick, Chris; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; de Brun, Tomas; MacFarlane, Anne

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to substantiate the importance of research about barriers and levers to the implementation of supports for cross-cultural communication in primary care settings in Europe. After an overview of migrant health issues, with the focus on communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care and the importance of language barriers, we highlight the fact that there are serious problems in routine practice that persist over time and across different European settings. Language and cultural barriers hamper communication in consultations between doctors and migrants, with a range of negative effects including poorer compliance and a greater propensity to access emergency services. It is well established that there is a need for skilled interpreters and for professionals who are culturally competent to address this problem. A range of professional guidelines and training initiatives exist that support the communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care. However, these are commonly not implemented in daily practice. It is as yet unknown why professionals do not accept or implement these guidelines and interventions, or under what circumstances they would do so. A new study involving six European countries, RESTORE (REsearch into implementation STrategies to support patients of different ORigins and language background in a variety of European primary care settings), aims to address these gaps in knowledge. It uses a unique combination of a contemporary social theory, normalisation process theory (NPT) and participatory learning and action (PLA) research. This should enhance understanding of the levers and barriers to implementation, as well as providing stakeholders, with the opportunity to generate creative solutions to problems experienced with the implementation of such interventions. PMID:23601205

  15. A Meta-Analysis on the Effectiveness of Bilingual Programs in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reljic, Gabrijela; Ferring, Dieter; Martin, Romain

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of bilingual programs for promoting academic achievement of language minority children in the United States has been examined in six meta-analyses. The present meta-analytic study investigates this topic for the first time in the European context. Thorough literature searches uncovered 101 European studies, with only 7 meeting…

  16. Investigation of comparative effectiveness research in Asia, Europe, and North America

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Isha; Rarus, Rachel; Tan, Xi; Lee, EK; Guy, Jason; Ahmad, Akram; Chang, Jongwha

    2015-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is an important branch of pharmacoeconomics that systematically studies and evaluates the cost-effectiveness of medical interventions. CER plays instrumental roles in guiding government public health policy programs and insurance. Countries throughout the world use different methods of CER to help make medical decisions based on providing optimal therapy at a reduced cost. Expenses to the healthcare system continue to rise, and CER is one-way in which expenses could be curbed in the future by applying cost-effectiveness evidence to clinical decisions. China, India, South Korea, and the United Kingdom are of essential focus because these country's economies and health care expenses continue to expand. The structures and use of CER are diverse throughout these countries, and each is of prime importance. By conducting this thorough comparison of CER in different nations, strategies and organizational setups from different countries can be applied to help guide public health and medical decision-making in order to continue to expand the establishment and role of CER programs. The patient-centered medical home has been created to help reduce costs in the primary care sector and to help improve the effectiveness of therapy. Barriers to CER are also important as many stakeholders need to be able to work together to provide the best CER evidence. The advancement of CER in multiple countries throughout the world provides a possible way of reducing costs to the healthcare system in an age of expanding expenses. PMID:26729947

  17. Investigation of comparative effectiveness research in Asia, Europe, and North America.

    PubMed

    Patel, Isha; Rarus, Rachel; Tan, Xi; Lee, E K; Guy, Jason; Ahmad, Akram; Chang, Jongwha

    2015-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is an important branch of pharmacoeconomics that systematically studies and evaluates the cost-effectiveness of medical interventions. CER plays instrumental roles in guiding government public health policy programs and insurance. Countries throughout the world use different methods of CER to help make medical decisions based on providing optimal therapy at a reduced cost. Expenses to the healthcare system continue to rise, and CER is one-way in which expenses could be curbed in the future by applying cost-effectiveness evidence to clinical decisions. China, India, South Korea, and the United Kingdom are of essential focus because these country's economies and health care expenses continue to expand. The structures and use of CER are diverse throughout these countries, and each is of prime importance. By conducting this thorough comparison of CER in different nations, strategies and organizational setups from different countries can be applied to help guide public health and medical decision-making in order to continue to expand the establishment and role of CER programs. The patient-centered medical home has been created to help reduce costs in the primary care sector and to help improve the effectiveness of therapy. Barriers to CER are also important as many stakeholders need to be able to work together to provide the best CER evidence. The advancement of CER in multiple countries throughout the world provides a possible way of reducing costs to the healthcare system in an age of expanding expenses. PMID:26729947

  18. Secondary Transfer Effects of Intergroup Contact: A Cross-National Comparison in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Kupper, Beate; Zick, Andreas; Wagner, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    This article examines so-called secondary transfer effects of intergroup contact, a phenomenon whereby positive intergroup contact experiences can influence attitudes not only toward encountered (primary) outgroups but also toward other (secondary) outgroups that were not initially involved in the intergroup encounter. The current study relies on…

  19. [Radiotherapy in Europe].

    PubMed

    Verheij, M; Slotman, B J

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy plays an important part in the curing of cancer patients and is an effective treatment for tumour-related symptoms. However, in many countries the level of access to this treatment modality is unacceptably low due to shortage of infrastructure, modern apparatus and trained staff. In Europe it is mainly the Eastern European countries that are behind in the provision of and accessibility to radiotherapy. Worldwide investment to narrow the gap would put an end to these undesirable differences. In addition, these investments would deliver economic benefits, especially in low-to-middle income countries. In this article, on the basis of a number of recently published reports, we discuss the differences that exist in the geographical spread of radiotherapy departments and the availability of apparatus within Europe. In conclusion we also take a short look at the Dutch situation. PMID:27334085

  20. Agricultural impacts: Europe's diminishing bread basket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, Holger

    2014-07-01

    Global demand for wheat is projected to increase significantly with continuing population growth. Currently, Europe reliably produces about 29% of global wheat supply. However, this might be under threat from climate change if adaptive measures are not taken now.

  1. Effect of solar radio bursts on GNSS signal reception over Europe for the period 1999-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Bergeot, Nicolas; Marqué, Christophe; Aerts, Wim; Bruyninx, Carine

    2015-04-01

    Intense solar radio bursts (SRB) emitted at L-band frequencies can affect the carrier-to-noise C/N0 ratio of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals by increasing the background noise. Such space weather events can consequently decrease the quality of GNSS-based results especially for kinematic high-precision positioning. It is thus important to develop a method capable to detect such events in near real time on a wide area. For this purpose, the ROB-IONO software was adapted for analysing the effect of SRB on the dense EUREF Permanent GNSS Network (EPN). First, S1 and S2 raw data extracted from RINEX files were converted into the C/N0 unit (dB.Hz) taking into account manufacturer corrections. Then, the differences (ΔC/N0) between all these C/N0observables and their medians of the 7 previous satellite ground track repeat cycles, i.e. their normal quiet state, were computed. The mean of all these well-calibrated ΔC/N0values from different GNSS receivers and satellites offer at each epoch a reliable metric to detect and quantify the impact of a SRB. We investigated the degradation of GPS and GLONASS C/N0 on the entire EPN during 10 intense SRBs occurring at daylight over Europe between 1999 and 2013. The analysis shows that: (1) GPS and GLONASS ΔC/N0 agree at the 0.1±0.2dB.Hz level; (2) The standard deviation of the mean ΔC/N0of the EPN GNSS receivers is below 1dB.Hz 96% of the time, and below 0.6dB.Hz 76% of the time; (3) maximum ΔC/N0 degradation occurs at the epoch of maximum solar peak flux delivered by the solar ground observatories; (4) C/N0 degradation becomes larger with increasing solar zenithal angle. Consequently, the ROB-IONO software is capable to detect the degradation of GNSS signal reception over Europe due to SRBs. In addition, by taking advantage of the increasing number of EPN stations delivering C/N0 data since 2005, even less intense SRB events can now be detected. Finally, the developed method can be completely applied in near

  2. Local and regional effects of large scale atmospheric circulation patterns on winter wind power output in Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubiate, Laura; McDermott, Frank; Sweeney, Conor; O'Malley, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies (Brayshaw, 2009, Garcia-Bustamante, 2010, Garcia-Bustamante, 2013) have drawn attention to the sensitivity of wind speed distributions and likely wind energy power output in Western Europe to changes in low-frequency, large scale atmospheric circulation patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Wind speed variations and directional shifts as a function of the NAO state can be larger or smaller depending on the North Atlantic region that is considered. Wind speeds in Ireland and the UK for example are approximately 20 % higher during NAO + phases, and up to 30 % lower during NAO - phases relative to the long-term (30 year) climatological means. By contrast, in southern Europe, wind speeds are 15 % lower than average during NAO + phases and 15 % higher than average during NAO - phases. Crucially however, some regions such as Brittany in N.W. France have been identified in which there is negligible variability in wind speeds as a function of the NAO phase, as observed in the ERA-Interim 0.5 degree gridded reanalysis database. However, the magnitude of these effects on wind conditions is temporally and spatially non-stationary. As described by Comas-Bru and McDermott (2013) for temperature and precipitation, such non-stationarity is caused by the influence of two other patterns, the East Atlantic pattern, (EA), and the Scandinavian pattern, (SCA), which modulate the position of the NAO dipole. This phenomenon has also implications for wind speeds and directions, which has been assessed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and the indices obtained from the PC analysis of sea level pressure over the Atlantic region. In order to study the implications for power production, the interaction of the NAO and the other teleconnection patterns with local topography was also analysed, as well as how these interactions ultimately translate into wind power output. The objective is to have a better defined relationship between wind speed and power

  3. Health Effects of High Radon Environments in Central Europe: Another Test for the LNT Hypothesis?

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Among the various “natural laboratories” of high natural or technical enhanced natural radiation environments in the world such as Kerala (India), Brazil, Ramsar (Iran), etc., the areas in and around the Central European Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge) in the southern parts of former East Germany, but also including parts of Thuringia, northern Bohemia (now Czech Republic), and northeastern Bavaria, are still relatively little known internationally. Although this area played a central role in the history of radioactivity and radiation effects on humans over centuries, most of the valuable earlier results have not been published in English or quotable according to the current rules in the scientific literature and therefore are not generally known internationally. During the years 1945 to 1989, this area was one of the world’s most important uranium mining areas, providing the former Soviet Union with 300,000 tons of uranium for its military programs. Most data related to health effects of radon and other carcinogenic agents on miners and residents became available only during the years after German reunification. Many of the studies are still unpublished, or more or less internal reports. By now, substantial studies have been performed on the previously unavailable data about the miners and the population, providing valuable insights that are, to a large degree, in disagreement with the opinion of various international bodies assuming an increase of lung cancer risk in the order of 10% for each 100 Bq/m3 (or doubling for 1000 Bq/m3), even for small residential radon concentrations. At the same time, other studies focusing on never-smokers show little or no effects of residential radon exposures. Experiments in medical clinics using radon on a large scale as a therapeutic against various rheumatic and arthritic disease demonstrated in randomized double-blind studies the effectiveness of such treatments. The main purpose of this review is to critically examine

  4. The Economic Impact of Climate, CO2, and Tropospheric Ozone Effects on Crop Yields in China, the US, and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J. M.; Felzer, B. S.; Paltsev, S.; Melillo, J. M.; Prinn, R. G.; Wang, C.; Sokolov, A. P.; Wang, X.

    2004-12-01

    Multiple environmental changes that may occur over the next century will affect crop productivity. Some of these effects are likely to be positive (CO2 fertilization), some negative (tropospheric ozone damage), and some may be either positive or negative (temperature and precipitation). Climate effects may operate in either direction because the direction of change may differ across regions (more precipitation in some areas and less in others) and warming may increase growing season lengths in cold-limited growing areas while acting as a detriment to productivity in areas with already high temperatures. Previous work has shown the effects of these combined environmental changes on carbon sequestration in natural and managed systems, and valued these effects in terms of avoided costs of fossil fuel carbon abatement. The more direct and obvious economic effect, however, is the changes in crop yields implied by these vegetation effects. Here we use the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) to analyze the potential economic impact of changes in crop yields. For this work we have augmented the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model by further disaggregating the agricultural sector. This allows us to simulate economic effects of changes in yield (i.e. the productivity of cropland) on the regional economies of the world, including impacts on agricultural trade. The EPPA model includes multiple channels of market-based adaptation, including input substitution and trade. We are thus able to examine the extent to which market forces contribute toward adaptation and thus modify the initial yield effects. We examine multiple scenarios where tropospheric ozone precursors are controlled or not, and where greenhouse gas emissions are abated or not. This allows us to consider how these policies interact. We focus on China, the US, and Europe which are currently regions with high levels of tropospheric ozone damage. We find significant negative effects of

  5. Project 18: Effectively Influencing Political Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, John R.

    A program description of a social studies curriculum development project supported by an ESEA Title III Grant is presented in this paper. The course, designed for secondary students who will soon be voting, focuses on the importance of active involvement and citizenship responsibility for participation in the democratic process. The major…

  6. Effects of Sediment Loading in Northern Europe During the Last Glacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wal, W.; IJpelaar, M.

    2014-12-01

    Over the years the framework of GIA modelling has been subject to continuous improvements, e.g. the addition of time dependent coastal margins and rotational feedback. The latest addition to this framework is the incorporation of sediment as a time-varying surface load while accounting for sea-level variations associated with the sediment transport (Dalca et al., GJI 2013). The effects of sediment loading during a glacial cycle have not been extensively investigated even though it is known that large sediment transport took place, for example in the Barents Sea region and Fennoscandia. This study investigates the effect of sediment transport on relative sea level change and present-day rates of gravity and vertical deformation in those regions. While the ice sheet history during the last glacial period has been modelled extensively there are no full-scale models of paleo-erosion and -deposition rates for regions such as Fennoscandia. Here we create end-member paleo-sedimentary models by combining geological observations of continuous erosion and deposition and large scale failure events. These models, in combination with the ICE-5G ice sheet history, serve as an input for a GIA model for a spherically symmetric incompressible Earth with the full sea-level equation. The results from this model, i.e. (rates of) relative sea level change and crustal deformation, are obtained for different viscosity models fitting best with the local rheology of Fennoscandia. By comparing GPS measurements, GRACE observations and relative sea level records with these modelled predictions the effects of sedimentary isostasy in the Fennoscandian region are studied. The sediment load does not significantly affect the modelled relative sea level curves, nor vertical deformation rates at the location of GPS measurements. However, gravity rates over the Barents Sea region are influenced significantly

  7. Laser techniques in conservation in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimbeni, Renzo

    2005-06-01

    The state of the art of laser techniques employed in conservation of cultural heritage is continuously growing in Europe. Many research projects organised at the European level have contributed to this achievement, being complementary to the development carried out at national level. The COST Action G7 is playing its unique role since the year 2000 in promoting the experimentation, comparing the experiences and disseminating best practices. This role has been particularly effective for monitoring of the results of many short-term research projects completed along the G7 Action lifetime. After that several laser cleaning techniques have been followed and evaluated it appears now clear an evolution of the systems, a specialization of the cleaning task, the achievement of side-effect free procedures. The validation of these advanced cleaning techniques has been extensive and diffused in many European countries, especially for stone and metals. Laser-based diagnostics have also specialised their tasks toward material analysis, defects detection and multidimensional documentation. Laser and optical methods successfully monitor deterioration effects. In many European countries interdisciplinary networks are managing the experimentation of these techniques giving them a sound scientific approach, but also a technology transfer to end-users. So doing the appreciation for these techniques is growing in all the conservation institutions involved at national level, disseminating a positive evaluation about the benefits provided by laser techniques in conservation. Several laser systems became products for the activity of professional restorers and their increasing sales demonstrate a growing utilisation throughout all Europe.

  8. CO-operation development project for new treatment of steam generator's - impact on final disposal volumes and recycling in Northern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Wirendal, B.O.; Lindstrom, A.; Lindberg, M.; Hansson, T.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes a real case of cost effective volume reduction of a retired, full size SG removed from the Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant, Sweden. The project is described from the first step of fulfilling the demands from the authorities before treatment to the results of the treatment. The evaluations of the method is also included and compared to the other possibilities and the driving forces that work in favour of our method. The waste owners' strategy is also described in this paper. Finally is the method of treatment described as a principle as well as the results. Technical details as well as detailed results are given in Paper 7131 [ref 1]. (authors)

  9. Ion Beam Therapy in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Gerhard

    2009-03-01

    At present, seven facilities in Europe treat deep-seated tumors with particle beams, six with proton beams and one with carbon ions. Three of these facilities are in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Dubna, Russia. Other facilities include the TSL Uppsala, Sweden, CPO Orsay, France, and PSI Villigen, Switzerland, all for proton therapy, and GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, which utilizes carbon ions only. But only two of these facilities irradiate with scanned ion beams: the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI), Villigen (protons) and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt. These two facilities are experimental units within physics laboratories and have developed the technique of intensity-modulated beam scanning in order to produce irradiation conforming to a 3-D target. There are three proton centers presently under construction in Munich, Essen and Orsay, and the proton facility at PSI has added a superconducting accelerator connected to an isocentric gantry in order to become independent of the accelerator shared with the physics research program. The excellent clinical results using carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) in Chiba and GSI have triggered the construction of four new heavy-ion therapy projects (carbon ions and protons), located in Heidelberg, Pavia, Marburg and Kiel. The projects in Heidelberg and Pavia will begin patient treatment in 2009, and the Marburg and Kiel projects will begin in 2010 and 2011, respectively. These centers use different accelerator designs but have the same kind of treatment planning system and use the same approach for the calculation of the biological effectiveness of the carbon ions as developed at GSI [1]. There are many other planned projects in the works. Do not replace the word "abstract," but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your "Enter" key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style

  10. Do current cost-effectiveness analyses reflect the full value of childhood vaccination in Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Brüggenjürgen, Bernd; Lorrot, Mathie; Sheppard, Fiona R; Rémy, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluation of vaccination programs can be challenging and does not always fully capture the benefits provided. Reasons for this include the difficulties incurred in accurately capturing the health and economic impact of infectious diseases and how different diseases may interact with each other. Rotavirus infection, for example, peaks at a similar time than other infectious diseases, such as RSV and influenza, which can cause hospital overcrowding and disruption, and may pose a risk to more vulnerable children due to limited availability of isolation facilities. Another challenge, specific to evaluating childhood vaccination, is that QoL cannot be accurately measured in children due to a lack of validated instruments. Childhood diseases also incur a care giver burden, due to the need for parents to take time off work, and this is important to consider. Finally, for diseases such as RVGE, cost-effectiveness analyses in which longer time horizons are considered may not reflect the short-term benefits of vaccination. Further quantification of the economic impact of childhood diseases is thus required to fully highlight the true benefits of childhood vaccination that may be realized. Herein we explore the limitations of existing economic evaluations for childhood vaccination, and how economic analyses could be better adapted in future. PMID:25424934

  11. Possible future effects of large-scale algae cultivation for biofuels on coastal eutrophication in Europe.

    PubMed

    Blaas, Harry; Kroeze, Carolien

    2014-10-15

    Biodiesel is increasingly considered as an alternative for fossil diesel. Biodiesel can be produced from rapeseed, palm, sunflower, soybean and algae. In this study, the consequences of large-scale production of biodiesel from micro-algae for eutrophication in four large European seas are analysed. To this end, scenarios for the year 2050 are analysed, assuming that in the 27 countries of the European Union fossil diesel will be replaced by biodiesel from algae. Estimates are made for the required fertiliser inputs to algae parks, and how this may increase concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in coastal waters, potentially leading to eutrophication. The Global NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model has been used to estimate the transport of nitrogen and phosphorus to the European coastal waters. The results indicate that the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in the coastal waters may increase considerably in the future as a result of large-scale production of algae for the production of biodiesel, even in scenarios assuming effective waste water treatment and recycling of waste water in algae production. To ensure sustainable production of biodiesel from micro-algae, it is important to develop cultivation systems with low nutrient losses to the environment. PMID:25058933

  12. Requirement Changes and Project Success: The Moderating Effects of Agile Approaches in System Engineering Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maierhofer, Sabine; Stelzmann, Ernst; Kohlbacher, Markus; Fellner, Björn

    This paper reports the findings of an empirical study on the influence agile development methods exert on the success of projects. The goal is to determine whether agile methods are able to mitigate negative effects requirement changes have on the performance of Systems Engineering projects, i.e. projects where systems consisting of hard- and software are developed. Agile methods have been proven to successfully support development projects in the field of traditional software engineering, but with an ever expending market of integrated systems manufacturers their usability for those complex projects has yet to be examined. This study focuses on 16 specific agile practices and their ability to improve the success of complex hard- and software projects.

  13. A comparison of the cost-effectiveness of treatment of prolonged acute convulsive epileptic seizures in children across Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the majority of children and adolescents with epilepsy, optimal drug therapy adequately controls their condition. However, among the remaining patients who are still uncontrolled despite mono-, bi- or tri-therapy with chronic anti-epileptic treatment, a rescue medication is required. In Western Europe, the licensed medications available for first-line treatment of prolonged acute convulsive seizures (PACS) vary widely, and so comparators for clinical and economic evaluation are not consistent. No European guidelines currently exist for the treatment of PACS in children and adolescents and limited evidence is available for the effectiveness of treatments in the community setting. The authors present cost-effectiveness data for BUCCOLAM® (midazolam oromucosal solution) for the treatment of PACS in children and adolescents in the context of the treatment pathway in seven European countries in patients from 6 months to 18 years. For each country, the health economic model consisted of a decision tree, with decision nodes informed by clinical data and expert opinion obtained via a Delphi methodology. The events modelled are those associated with a patient experiencing a seizure in the community setting. The model assessed the likelihood of medication being administered successfully and of seizure cessation. The associated resource use was also modelled, and ambulance call-outs and hospitalisations were considered. The patient’s quality of life was estimated by clinicians, who completed a five-level EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire from the perspective of a child or adolescent suffering a seizure. Despite differences in current therapy, treatment patterns and healthcare costs in all countries assessed, BUCCOLAM was shown to be cost saving and offered increased health-related benefits for patients in the treatment of PACS compared with the current local standard of care. PMID:24949280

  14. Allelopathic effect of a native species on a major plant invader in Europe.

    PubMed

    Christina, Mathias; Rouifed, Soraya; Puijalon, Sara; Vallier, Félix; Meiffren, Guillaume; Bellvert, Floriant; Piola, Florence

    2015-04-01

    Biological invasions have become a major global issue in ecosystem conservation. As formalized in the "novel weapon hypothesis", the allelopathic abilities of species are actively involved in invasion success. Here, we assume that allelopathy can also increase the biotic resistance of native species against invasion. We tested this hypothesis by studying the impact of the native species Sambucus ebulus on the colonization of propagules of the invasive species Fallopiaxbohemica and the subsequent development of plants from these. Achenes and rhizome fragments from two natural populations were grown in a greenhouse experiment for 50 days. We used an experimental design that involved "donor" and "target" pots in order to separate resource competition from allelopathy. An allelopathic treatment effect was observed for plant growth but not for propagule establishment. Treatment affected, in particular, the growth of Fallopia plants originating from achenes, but there was less influence on plants originating from rhizomes. By day 50, shoot height had decreased by 27% for plants originating from rhizomes and by 38% for plants originating from achenes. The number of leaves for plants originating from achenes had only decreased by 20%. Leaf and above- and below-ground dry masses decreased with treatment by 40, 41 and 25% for plants originating from rhizomes and 70, 61 and 55% for plants originating from achenes, respectively. S. ebulus extracts were analysed using high-performance chromatography, and the choice of test molecules was narrowed down. Our results suggest native species use allelopathy as a biotic containment mechanism against the naturalization of invasive species. PMID:25740225

  15. Allelopathic effect of a native species on a major plant invader in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christina, Mathias; Rouifed, Soraya; Puijalon, Sara; Vallier, Félix; Meiffren, Guillaume; Bellvert, Floriant; Piola, Florence

    2015-04-01

    Biological invasions have become a major global issue in ecosystem conservation. As formalized in the "novel weapon hypothesis", the allelopathic abilities of species are actively involved in invasion success. Here, we assume that allelopathy can also increase the biotic resistance of native species against invasion. We tested this hypothesis by studying the impact of the native species Sambucus ebulus on the colonization of propagules of the invasive species Fallopia x bohemica and the subsequent development of plants from these. Achenes and rhizome fragments from two natural populations were grown in a greenhouse experiment for 50 days. We used an experimental design that involved "donor" and "target" pots in order to separate resource competition from allelopathy. An allelopathic treatment effect was observed for plant growth but not for propagule establishment. Treatment affected, in particular, the growth of Fallopia plants originating from achenes, but there was less influence on plants originating from rhizomes. By day 50, shoot height had decreased by 27 % for plants originating from rhizomes and by 38 % for plants originating from achenes. The number of leaves for plants originating from achenes had only decreased by 20 %. Leaf and above- and below-ground dry masses decreased with treatment by 40, 41 and 25 % for plants originating from rhizomes and 70, 61 and 55 % for plants originating from achenes, respectively. S. ebulus extracts were analysed using high-performance chromatography, and the choice of test molecules was narrowed down. Our results suggest native species use allelopathy as a biotic containment mechanism against the naturalization of invasive species.

  16. Adapting wheat in Europe for climate change

    PubMed Central

    Semenov, M.A.; Stratonovitch, P.; Alghabari, F.; Gooding, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing cereal yield is needed to meet the projected increased demand for world food supply of about 70% by 2050. Sirius, a process-based model for wheat, was used to estimate yield potential for wheat ideotypes optimized for future climatic projections for ten wheat growing areas of Europe. It was predicted that the detrimental effect of drought stress on yield would be decreased due to enhanced tailoring of phenology to future weather patterns, and due to genetic improvements in the response of photosynthesis and green leaf duration to water shortage. Yield advances could be made through extending maturation and thereby improve resource capture and partitioning. However the model predicted an increase in frequency of heat stress at meiosis and anthesis. Controlled environment experiments quantify the effects of heat and drought at booting and flowering on grain numbers and potential grain size. A current adaptation of wheat to areas of Europe with hotter and drier summers is a quicker maturation which helps to escape from excessive stress, but results in lower yields. To increase yield potential and to respond to climate change, increased tolerance to heat and drought stress should remain priorities for the genetic improvement of wheat. PMID:24882934

  17. Adapting wheat in Europe for climate change.

    PubMed

    Semenov, M A; Stratonovitch, P; Alghabari, F; Gooding, M J

    2014-05-01

    Increasing cereal yield is needed to meet the projected increased demand for world food supply of about 70% by 2050. Sirius, a process-based model for wheat, was used to estimate yield potential for wheat ideotypes optimized for future climatic projections for ten wheat growing areas of Europe. It was predicted that the detrimental effect of drought stress on yield would be decreased due to enhanced tailoring of phenology to future weather patterns, and due to genetic improvements in the response of photosynthesis and green leaf duration to water shortage. Yield advances could be made through extending maturation and thereby improve resource capture and partitioning. However the model predicted an increase in frequency of heat stress at meiosis and anthesis. Controlled environment experiments quantify the effects of heat and drought at booting and flowering on grain numbers and potential grain size. A current adaptation of wheat to areas of Europe with hotter and drier summers is a quicker maturation which helps to escape from excessive stress, but results in lower yields. To increase yield potential and to respond to climate change, increased tolerance to heat and drought stress should remain priorities for the genetic improvement of wheat. PMID:24882934

  18. Alcoholic Beverage Preference and Dietary Habits in Elderly across Europe: Analyses within the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) Project

    PubMed Central

    Sluik, Diewertje; Jankovic, Nicole; O’Doherty, Mark G.; Geelen, Anouk; Schöttker, Ben; Rolandsson, Olov; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Ferrieres, Jean; Bamia, Christina; Fransen, Heidi P.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Eriksson, Sture; Martínez, Begoña; Huerta, José María; Kromhout, Daan; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Kee, Frank; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The differential associations of beer, wine, and spirit consumption on cardiovascular risk found in observational studies may be confounded by diet. We described and compared dietary intake and diet quality according to alcoholic beverage preference in European elderly. Methods From the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES), seven European cohorts were included, i.e. four sub-cohorts from EPIC-Elderly, the SENECA Study, the Zutphen Elderly Study, and the Rotterdam Study. Harmonized data of 29,423 elderly participants from 14 European countries were analyzed. Baseline data on consumption of beer, wine, and spirits, and dietary intake were collected with questionnaires. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI). Intakes and scores across categories of alcoholic beverage preference (beer, wine, spirit, no preference, non-consumers) were adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic status, self-reported prevalent diseases, and lifestyle factors. Cohort-specific mean intakes and scores were calculated as well as weighted means combining all cohorts. Results In 5 of 7 cohorts, persons with a wine preference formed the largest group. After multivariate adjustment, persons with a wine preference tended to have a higher HDI score and intake of healthy foods in most cohorts, but differences were small. The weighted estimates of all cohorts combined revealed that non-consumers had the highest fruit and vegetable intake, followed by wine consumers. Non-consumers and persons with no specific preference had a higher HDI score, spirit consumers the lowest. However, overall diet quality as measured by HDI did not differ greatly across alcoholic beverage preference categories. Discussion This study using harmonized data from ~30,000 elderly from 14 European countries showed that, after multivariate adjustment, dietary habits and diet quality did not differ greatly according to alcoholic beverage

  19. PERMEABLE TREATMENT WALL EFFECTIVENESS MONITORING PROJECT, NEVADA STEWART MINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 39, Permeable Treatment Wall Effectiveness Monitoring Project, implemented and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. De...

  20. The Effect of Group Projects on Content-Related Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Donald R.

    2005-01-01

    Business schools often assign student group projects to enhance student learning of course content and to build teamwork skills. However, the characteristics of effective collaborative learning tasks, including group goals and individual accountability, are often not found in student group projects assigned in business classes. The current…

  1. Effective Teaching Methods--Project-based Learning in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holubova, Renata

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents results of the research of new effective teaching methods in physics and science. It is found out that it is necessary to educate pre-service teachers in approaches stressing the importance of the own activity of students, in competences how to create an interdisciplinary project. Project-based physics teaching and learning…

  2. Designing Effective Video Teletraining Instruction: The Florida Teletraining Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Barbara L.; Bramble, William J.

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of the Florida Teletraining Project, a project that used video teletraining to provide distance education courses to United States military personnel. Describes the instructional methods and strategies used and reports results of performance tests and reactions of students and instructional personnel. Findings indicate…

  3. Are we overestimating the effect of large-scale indices of climate variability in floods and droughts in Europe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães Nobre, Gabriela; Aerts, Jeroen; Ward, Philip J.

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale climate oscillation is known to influence local and regional climate, and has the potential to trigger flood and drought hazards. Therefore, atmospheric indices of climate oscillation such as ENSO, NAO and AO are often associated with an increase in the burden of natural disasters, and frequently fuel societal distress. Since climate variability is responsible for a great amount of variability in hydro- climatological events, it also influences the (medium term-) forecastability of local weather conditions and extreme events. This study will examine a range of a large-scale indices of climate variability during their neutral and informed phases (either positive and negative) aiming at answering the following research questions: Has climate oscillation increased the frequency of flood and drought disasters in Europe between 1980 and 2014? Are climate informed years linked to a higher number of hydrological and climatological extreme events? Is there a change in flood and drought impacts between different phases? For the analysis, different indices of climate oscillation (ENSO, NAO and AO) will be applied in order to verify whether there is predominant climate oscillation acting in both pan European floods and droughts , and their effect on flood damages and crop productivity, respectively. Using event specific disaster losses data, hydrological and climate information, and crop yield data, we expect to understand how large the influence is of large-scale indices of climate variability in natural hazards, and to perceive the harm or benefit of climate oscillation in the agricultural sector and the damages from floods to urban areas. Through the comprehension of the relationship between large scale climate variability and pan European flood damages and drought related agricultural impact, this study reflects on how this information could be potentially applied to improve flood and drought management by coupling such finds with seasonal forecasting of

  4. An Overview on Coronary Heart Disease (A Comparative Evaluation of Turkey and Europe) and Cost-effectiveness of Diagnostic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Taşçı, Cengiz; Özçelik, Nihat

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death for men and women in Turkey as it is in Europe and US. The prevalence of the disease is 3.8% in Turkey and 200,000 patients are added to the pool of CHD annually Because of genetic predisposition and high proportions of physical inactivity, smoking habit, and obesity, CHD is encountered in earlier ages in our country So, the economic burden of the disease is expected to be relatively high, but the amount of health expenditure is not always parallel to the prevalence of a disease in the community. This article was written to overview CHD statistics to make a comparison between Turkey and some European countries and to investigate the value of myocardial perfusion scan (MPS) as a gatekeeper in diagnosing CHD before invasive coronary angiography (ICA). The consequences were evaluated for Turkey In diagnosis; noninvasive testing gains importance in connection with the new approaches in treatment strategies, because a direct ICA strategy results in higher rates of revascularization without improvement in clinical outcomes. A "gatekeeper" is needed to select the patients who are not required to undergo angiography. MPS with its proved power in diagnosis and predicting prognosis, provides a cost-effective solution, and is accepted in some extensive analyses as a "gatekeeper" particularly in intermediate and high risk patients and in patients with known CHD. In conclusion, MPS may provide an optimal solution better than the ongoing situation in Turkey as well, when it is approved as a "gatekeeper in an algorithm before ICA. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487016

  5. Periodicity analysis of δ18O in precipitation over Central Europe: Time-frequency considerations of the isotopic 'temperature' effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamalikis, V.; Argiriou, A. A.; Dotsika, E.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the periodic patterns of the isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18O) for 22 stations located around Central Europe are investigated through sinusoidal models and wavelet analysis over a 23 years period (1980/01-2002/12). The seasonal distribution of δ18O follows the temporal variability of air temperature providing seasonal amplitudes ranging from 0.94‰ to 4.47‰; the monthly isotopic maximum is observed in July. The isotopic amplitude reflects the geographical dependencies of the isotopic composition of precipitation providing higher values when moving inland. In order to describe the dominant oscillation modes included in δ18O time series, the Morlet Continuous Wavelet Transform is evaluated. The main periodicity is represented at 12-months (annual periodicity) where the wavelet power is mainly concentrated. Stations (i.e. Cuxhaven, Trier, etc.) with limited seasonal isotopic effect provide sparse wavelet power areas at the annual periodicity mode explaining the fact that precipitation has a complex isotopic fingerprint that cannot be examined solely by the seasonality effect. Since temperature is the main contributor of the isotopic variability in mid-latitudes, the isotope-temperature effect is also investigated. The isotope-temperature slope ranges from 0.11‰/°C to 0.47‰/°C with steeper values observed at the southernmost stations of the study area. Bivariate wavelet analysis is applied in order to determine the correlation and the slope of the δ18O - temperature relationship over the time-frequency plane. High coherencies are detected at the annual periodicity mode. The time-frequency slope is calculated at the annual periodicity mode ranging from 0.45‰/°C to 0.83‰/°C with higher values at stations that show a more distinguishable seasonal isotopic behavior. Generally the slope fluctuates around a mean value but in certain cases (sites with low seasonal effect) abrupt slope changes are derived and the slope becomes

  6. BiodivERsA project VineDivers: Analysing interlinkages between soil biota and biodiversity-based ecosystem services in vineyards across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Winter, Silvia; Strauss, Peter; Querner, Pascal; Kriechbaum, Monika; Pachinger, Bärbel; Gómez, José A.; Campos, Mercedes; Landa, Blanca; Popescu, Daniela; Comsa, Maria; Iliescu, Maria; Tomoiaga, Liliana; Bunea, Claudiu-Ioan; Hoble, Adela; Marghitas, Liviu; Rusu, Teodor; Lora, Ángel; Guzmán, Gema; Bergmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Essential ecosystem services provided by viticultural landscapes result from diverse communities of above- and belowground organisms and their interactions. For centuries traditional viticulture was part of a multifunctional agricultural system including low-input grasslands and fruit trees resulting in a high functional biodiversity. However, in the last decades intensification and mechanisation of vineyard management caused a separation of production and conservation areas. As a result of management intensification including frequent tilling and/or use of pesticides several ecosystem services are affected leading to high rates of soil erosion, degradation of soil structure and fertility, contamination of groundwater and high levels of agricultural inputs. In this transdisciplinary BiodivERsA project we will examine to what extent differently intensive managed vineyards affect the activity and diversity of soil biota (e.g. earthworms, collembola, soil microorganisms) and how this feed back on aboveground biodiversity (e.g. weeds, pollinators). We will also investigate ecosystem services associated with soil faunal activity and biodiversity such as soil structure, the formation of stable soil aggregates, water infiltration, soil erosion as well as grape quality. These effects will become increasingly important as more extreme precipitation events are predicted with climate change. The socio-economic part of the project will investigate the role of diversely structured, species-rich viticultural landscapes as a cultural heritage providing aesthetic values for human well-being and recreation. The project objectives will be analysed at plot, field (vineyard) and landscape scales in vineyards located in Spain, France, Romania and Austria. A detailed engagement and dissemination plan for stakeholder at the different governance levels will accompany scientific research and will contribute to the implementation of best-practice recommendations for policy and farmers.

  7. Effect of pinhole shape on projection resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, L. C.; Moore, S. C.; Metzler, S. D.

    2016-03-01

    We are designing a dual-resolution pre-clinical SPECT system based on square-pinhole apertures for use in applications with a small field-of-view (FOV), such as cardiac imaging of mice. Square pinholes allow for increased sensitivity due to more efficient projection tiling on the detector compared to circular pinholes. Aperture fabrication techniques cannot produce a perfect square, giving the square pinholes some amount of roundedness at the corners. This work investigates how this roundedness affects the physical properties of projection images in terms of spatial resolution. Different pinhole full-acceptance angles and roundedness values were simulated. To facilitate a fair comparison, properties of the non-square pinholes were manipulated to yield pinholes with approximately the same sensitivity (to within 0.1%) and FOV (to within 0.5%) as those of the square pinholes, subsequently referred to as matched apertures. The aperture size (flat-to-flat edge length) of each non-square aperture was increased until its sensitivity was approximately equal to that of the square pinhole. Next, the full acceptance angle was increased until the FOV of each non-square aperture was approximately equivalent to that of the square pinhole. Sensitivity was calculated to include both the geometric and penetrative sensitivity of a point source, as well as the packing faction of the multi-pinhole collimator. Using the sensitivity-matched and FOV-matched apertures, spatial resolution was estimated. For the 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm, and 1 mm edge-length square apertures studied, the full-width at half-maximum widened as pinhole shape changed from square to circle, while full-width tenth-maximum showed little change. These results indicate that a perfect square pinhole shape is more desirable than a rounded-square pinhole with regard to spatial resolution when sensitivity and FOV-matched pinholes are compared.

  8. MOEM systems in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Patric R.; Parriaux, Olivier M.

    1997-04-01

    This is a brief summary of the talk given at Photonics West, San Jose, on 10 February 1997. The description made hereafter of the strategic problematics in Europe in the domain of microsystems results from a free and extensive reading of the literature made available by the EC programs in particular through EUROPRACTICE and NEXUS. What follows expresses personal views and does not reflect any official position. Most of the information material can be found in the mst news journal edited by VDI/VDE-IT. This talk was an attempt to extract the essentials of what is going on in European Microsystem Technologies (MST) from the numerous programs, projects schemes, and initiatives which have been announced, and to position the Opto-Electro-Mechanical Microsystem sin the MST framework.

  9. Effects of climate change and land management on soil organic carbon dynamics and carbon leaching in Northwestern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stergiadi, M.; van der Perk, M.; de Nijs, A. C. M.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change and land management practices are projected to significantly affect soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leaching from soils. In this modelling study, we adopted the Century model to simulate past (1906-2012), present, and future (2013-2100) SOC and DOC levels for sandy and loamy soils typical for Northwestern European conditions under three land use types (forest, grassland and arable land) and several future scenarios addressing climate change and land management change. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the Century model has been applied to assess the effects of climate change and land management on DOC concentrations and leaching rates, which, in combination with SOC, play a major role in metal transport through soil. The simulated current SOC levels were generally in line with the observed values for the different kinds of soil and land use types. The climate change scenarios result in a decrease in both SOC and DOC for the agricultural systems, whereas for the forest systems, SOC is projected to slightly increase and DOC to decrease. An analysis of the sole effects of changes in temperature and changes in precipitation showed that, for SOC, the temperature effect predominates over the precipitation effect, whereas for DOC, the precipitation effect is more prominent. A reduction in the application rates of fertilizers under the land management scenario leads to a decrease in the SOC stocks and the DOC leaching rates for the arable land systems, but has a negligible effect on SOC and DOC levels for the grassland systems. Our study demonstrated the ability of the Century model to simulate climate change and agricultural management effects on SOC dynamics and DOC leaching, providing a robust tool for the assessment of carbon sequestration and the implications for contaminant transport in soils.

  10. Effects of climate change and land management on soil organic carbon dynamics and carbon leaching in northwestern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stergiadi, Maria; van der Perk, Marcel; de Nijs, Ton C. M.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2016-03-01

    Climate change and land management practices are projected to significantly affect soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leaching from soils. In this modelling study, we adopted the Century model to simulate past (1906-2012), present, and future (2013-2100) SOC and DOC levels for sandy and loamy soils typical of northwestern European conditions under three land use types (forest, grassland, and arable land) and several future scenarios addressing climate change and land management change. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the Century model has been applied to assess the effects of climate change and land management on DOC concentrations and leaching rates, which, in combination with SOC, play a major role in metal transport through soil. The simulated current SOC levels were generally in line with the observed values for the different kinds of soil and land use types. The climate change scenarios result in a decrease in both SOC and DOC for the agricultural systems, whereas for the forest systems, SOC is projected to slightly increase and DOC to decrease. An analysis of the sole effects of changes in temperature and changes in precipitation showed that, for SOC, the temperature effect predominates over the precipitation effect, whereas for DOC the precipitation effect is more prominent. A reduction in the application rates of fertilisers under the land management scenario leads to a decrease in the SOC stocks and the DOC leaching rates for the arable land systems, but it has a negligible effect on SOC and DOC levels for the grassland systems. Our study demonstrated the ability of the Century model to simulate climate change and agricultural management effects on SOC dynamics and DOC leaching, providing a robust tool for the assessment of carbon sequestration and the implications for contaminant transport in soils.

  11. Decline in tropospheric NO2 and the effects of the 2008-09 economic crisis observed by OMI over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, P.; Boersma, F. F.

    2011-12-01

    We present a trend analysis of tropospheric NO2 for the time period of 2004-2010. Necessary for monitoring pollution abatement strategies, NO2 trends analyses are often based on surface networks, which suffer from high NO2 biases and spatial representativity issues inherent to the standard monitoring method (thermal reduction of NO2 followed by reaction with ozone and chemiluminescence). Space based NO2 trends are unbiased and self-consistent, but over Europe they have not been as obvious as those observed over North America and East Asia. In this work we exploit the daily NO2 column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in order to isolate long-term (timescales greater than one year) variability in NO2 over Europe without imposing a parametric fit to the data. In general, we find between 2005 and 2008, 1-5% per year declines in NO2 concentration in many polluted regions (e.g. Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Spain), but also 1-5% per year increases over the English Channel and the southern North Sea (a major shipping channel), as well as the United Kingdom, northern France and Eastern Europe. In 2009, NO2 almost exclusively decreased over Europe at a rate of 5-10% per year, coinciding with the abrupt decrease in industrial production and construction prompted by the global economic crisis. By 2010, in many areas the NO2 rate of change returned to pre-2009 levels suggesting economic recovery. We employ a simple fitting model to separate the forcing by meteorological variability, which can influence apparent NO2 trends, from that of NOx emissions. We calculate 1-3% per year NOx emissions reduction rates over most of Europe and an additional 15-30% per year decrease in NOx emissions during the economic crisis time period.

  12. Gas-phase evaluation of the online NMMB/BSC-CTM model over Europe for 2010 in the framework of the AQMEII-Phase2 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badia, A.; Jorba, O.

    2015-08-01

    The Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative Phase2 aims to intercompare online coupled regional-scale models over North America and Europe. The NMMB/BSC Chemical Transport Model (NMMB/BSC-CTM) is a fully online integrated system for meso- to global-scale applications under development at the Barcelona Supercomputing Center. The NMMB/BSC-CTM is applied to Europe for the year 2010 in the framework of the AQMEII-Phase2 intercomparison exercise. This paper presents a spatial, temporal and vertical evaluation of the gas-phase model results. This is the first time that the model has been evaluated on a regional scale over a whole annual cycle. The model is compared with available ground-based monitoring stations for relevant reactive gases, ozonesondes, and OMI and MOPITT satellite retrievals of NO2 and CO. A comparative analysis of the present results and several European model evaluations is also presented here. The seasonal cycle for O3, NO2, SO2 and CO is successfully reproduced by the model. The O3 daily mean and daily maximum correlations for the analysed period are r = 0.68 and r = 0.75, respectively. The OMI tropospheric NO2 column retrievals are well reproduced, capturing the most polluted areas over Europe throughout the whole year. Modelled SO2 and CO surface concentrations are generally underestimated, especially during the winter months. Two different vertical configurations of the model (24 and 48 vertical layers) are also analysed. Although model results are very similar, the simulation configured with 48 vertical layers provides better results regarding surface O3 concentrations during summer. Compared to previous model evaluations, the NMMB/BSC-CTM's performance corresponds to state-of-the-art regional air quality models.

  13. Energy Balance Related Behaviour: Personal, Home- and Friend-Related Factors among Schoolchildren in Europe Studied in the ENERGY-Project

    PubMed Central

    te Velde, Saskia J.; Singh, Amika; Chinapaw, Mai; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Natasa; Kovacs, Eva; Bere, Elling; Vik, Froydis N.; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Manios, Yannis; Moreno, Luis; Brug, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Objective To design interventions that target energy balance-related behaviours, knowledge of primary schoolchildren's perceptions regarding soft drink intake, fruit juice intake, breakfast consumption, TV viewing and physical activity (PA) is essential. The current study describes personal beliefs and attitudes, home- and friend-related variables regarding these behaviours across Europe. Design Cross-sectional study in which personal, family and friend -related variables were assessed by validated questionnaires, and dichotomized as favourable versus unfavourable answers. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate proportions of children giving unfavourable answers and test between-country differences. Setting A survey in eight European countries. Subjects A total of 7903 10–12 year old primary schoolchildren. Results A majority of the children reported unfavourable attitudes, preferences and subjective norms regarding soft drink, fruit juice intake and TV viewing accompanied with high availability and accessibility at home. Few children reported unfavourable attitudes and preferences regarding breakfast consumption and PA. Many children reported unfavourable health beliefs regarding breakfast consumption and TV viewing. Substantial differences between countries were observed, especially for variables regarding soft drink intake, breakfast consumption and TV viewing. Conclusion The surveyed children demonstrated favourable attitudes to some healthy behaviours (PA, breakfast intake) as well as to some unhealthy behaviours (soft drink consumption, TV viewing). Additionally, many children across Europe have personal beliefs and are exposed to social environments that are not supportive to engagement in healthy behaviours. Moreover, the large differences in personal, family and friend-related variables across Europe argue for implementing different strategies in the different European countries. PMID:25372490

  14. Artificial Retina Project: Electromagnetic and Thermal Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzi, Gianluca

    2014-08-29

    This award supported the investigation on electromagnetic and thermal effects associated with the artificial retina, designed in collaboration with national laboratories, universities, and private companies. Our work over the two years of support under this award has focused mainly on 1) Design of new telemetry coils for optimal power and data transfer between the implant and the external device while achieving a significant size reduction with respect to currently used coils; 2) feasibility study of the virtual electrode configuration 3) study the effect of pulse shape and duration on the stimulation efficacy.

  15. Europe's Second Demographic Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Kaa, Dirk J.

    1987-01-01

    By 1985, fertility rates in Europe were below the replacement level of 2.1 births per woman in all but Albania, Ireland, Malta, Poland, and Turkey, following a steady decline from a 1965 postwar peak well above 2.5 in Northern, Western, and Southern Europe and an erratic trend from a lower level in Eastern Europe. Natural decrease (fewer births…

  16. Indirect aerosol effect increases CMIP5 models projected Arctic warming

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chylek, Petr; Vogelsang, Timothy J.; Klett, James D.; Hengartner, Nicholas; Higdon, Dave; Lesins, Glen; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2016-02-20

    Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models’ projections of the 2014–2100 Arctic warming under radiative forcing from representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) vary from 0.9° to 6.7°C. Climate models with or without a full indirect aerosol effect are both equally successful in reproducing the observed (1900–2014) Arctic warming and its trends. However, the 2014–2100 Arctic warming and the warming trends projected by models that include a full indirect aerosol effect (denoted here as AA models) are significantly higher (mean projected Arctic warming is about 1.5°C higher) than those projected by models without a full indirect aerosolmore » effect (denoted here as NAA models). The suggestion is that, within models including full indirect aerosol effects, those projecting stronger future changes are not necessarily distinguishable historically because any stronger past warming may have been partially offset by stronger historical aerosol cooling. In conclusion, the CMIP5 models that include a full indirect aerosol effect follow an inverse radiative forcing to equilibrium climate sensitivity relationship, while models without it do not.« less

  17. Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE study) profile: objectives, study protocol and descriptive data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indoor air pollution (IAP) constitutes a major global public health problem requiring increasing efforts in research and policymaking that may have special significance for elderly that are likely to spend most of their day indoors and appear to be particularly susceptible to adverse effects of chemical pollutants and bio-contaminants. Yet, evidence existing on the effects of IAP in elderly is scanty. The Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE) study aimed to assess health effects of major indoor air pollutants and thermal conditions in elderly (> 70 years) living stably in nursing homes (NH) across Europe. Respiratory effects were particularly considered as airways and lung constitute the first target of air pollutants. Objectives We describe here the rationale and the methods of the GERIE Study. Methods 8 nursing homes were randomly selected in 7 European countries. Twenty individuals were randomly selected in each nursing home. Major indoor and outdoor air chemical pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, PM0.1, formaldehyde, NO2; O3, VOC, CO2) and bio-contaminants (moulds, allergens) were assessed objectively with standardized procedures. Major health status indicators were assessed through a standardized questionnaire, non-invasive clinical tests and blood and urine biomarkers as well as saliva for ADN. Results The GERIE study has given the opportunity to publish two reviews on respiratory health effects of indoor and outdoor air pollution in elderly. In addition it has provided the inventory of air quality and thermal conditions in 50 nursing homes across Europe and data on respiratory health status in 600 elderly aged 82 years in mean. Major future results will include the relationships between NH environment and health in elderly. Conclusions The main long-term purpose of the GERIE study is to improve the health of elderly who permanently reside in nursing homes or of those who are exposed to indoor air pollution

  18. Pollen-inferred quantitative reconstructions of Holocene land-cover in NW Europe for the evaluation of past climate-vegetation feedbacks - The Swedish LANDCLIM project and the NordForsk LANDCLIM network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Sugita, Shinya; Rundgren, Mats; Smith, Benjamin; Mazier, Florence; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Fyfe, Ralph; Kokfelt, Ulla; Nielsen, Anne-Birgitte; Strandberg, Gustav

    2010-05-01

    Reliable predictive models are needed to describe potential future climate changes and their impacts. Land surface-atmosphere feedbacks and their impacts on climate are a current priority in the climate modelling community, but reliable records of long-term land use and vegetation change required for model evaluation are limited. Palaeoecological and palaeo-climatic data provide a unique record of the past changes in vegetation, land use and climate on time scales relevant to vegetation processes and global change projections. The application of a new technique (the REVEALS model (Sugita 2007) to landscape reconstruction using fossil pollen data makes robust comparisons with vegetation model output possible . The model corrects for biases caused by e.g. inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and dispersal. Our results show that pollen percentages, a traditional indicator of land cover changes, generally underestimate the unforested areas and certain broad-leaved trees such as Corylus and Tilia, while they often overestimate Betula and Pinus (see Cui et al. BG 6.2). Climate models use simplified land-surface classifications (plant functional types (PFTs)), such as grass (i.e. open land), deciduous trees, and conifers. Therefore, the observed large discrepancies in past land cover between the REVEALS estimates and pollen percentages are expected to influence model outcomes of the Holocene regional climate in NW Europe. The LANDCLIM project and research network (sponsored by the Swedish [VR] and Nordic [NordForsk] Research Councils) aim to quantify human-induced changes in regional vegetation/land-cover in NW Europe during the Holocene, and to evaluate the effects of these changes on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. We use the REVEALS model, theoretically derived and empirically tested, to estimate the percentage cover of taxa and groups of taxa (PFTs) from fossil pollen data for selected time windows of the Holocene, at a spatial resolution

  19. Binge drinking in Europe.

    PubMed

    Farke, Walter; Anderson, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Binge drinking is a pattern of heavy drinking which is observed all over Europe. The term Binge drinking implies a lot of different meanings to different people. The most popular definition used for this term is five or more 'standard drinks' in a single occasion. Binge drinking is different from intoxication, although this kind of heavy alcohol consumption can be lead to intoxication. This condition is manifested by different signs, for example slurred speech. Binge drinking is very common among the European population. In 2006 some 80 million Europeans aged 15 plus reported this kind of alcohol consumption patterns. European surveys showed that there is an increase of binge drinking across Europe amongst young people (15-16 years) old since 1995. The consequences of binge drinking contain acute and chronic effects, which are caused by long term alcohol use. The individual risks are brain damage, suicide, sexually transmitted diseases, etc. It has also an impact on harm to others than the drinkers. This includes violence and crime, accidents, etc. Each year in the European Union 2000 homicides are related to heavy drinking. There a lot of effective measures to reduce binge drinking. Strong evidence is shown by drink-driving laws, tax, reduced access to and availability of alcohol, brief interventions such as physician advice and advertising controls. PMID:18173097

  20. How Do Aerosol Radiative Effects Influence Wind? a Sensitivity Study of the Aerosol Impact on the Spatially-Distributed Wind over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baro Esteban, R.; Lorente-Plazas, R.; Jerez, S.; Montavez, J. P.; Jimenez-guerrero, P.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect the Earth's climate through their radiative effects, being one of the most uncertain areas in climate modeling. Radiative effects depend mainly on the aerosol optical properties and can be divided into direct and semi-direct effect, produced by the scattering and absorption of radiation; and indirect effect, which influences the aerosols-cloud interactions. Aerosols are widely known to affect radiation, temperature, stability, clouds, and precipitation. However, scientific literature about their effects on wind is scarce. In this sense, the effects of aerosol particles on spatially-distributed winds over Europe are examined. The methodology carried out consists of two WRF-Chem simulations for Europe for the entire year 2010 differing only in the inclusion (or not) of aerosol radiative feedbacks. These simulations have been carried out under the umbrella of the second phase of the AQMEII (Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative, http://aqmeii.jrc.ec.europa.eu/). A Euro-CORDEX compliant domain at 0.22º and 23 km resolution has been used. The first simulation does not take into account any aerosol feedbacks (NFB) and the second simulation differs from the base case by the inclusion of direct and indirect radiative feedbacks (FB). Results show that the presence of aerosol generally reduces the wind over Europe. The absorption and scattering of solar radiation by the aerosol particles heat the air and cool the ground temperature leading to an atmospheric stability. This increases the atmospheric stability and decreases the turbulence, as consequence the vertical transfer of momentum diminishes and the surface winds are slower. In addition, the decrease of solar radiation to the ground weakens the thermal circulations, such as land-sea breezes which is more noticeable in the southern of Europe in summer. On the other hand, the indirect effect of the aerosols through their enhancement of clouds also favors a decline of winds

  1. The projected effect of scaling up midwifery.

    PubMed

    Homer, Caroline S E; Friberg, Ingrid K; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; ten Hoope-Bender, Petra; Sandall, Jane; Speciale, Anna Maria; Bartlett, Linda A

    2014-09-20

    We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate deaths averted if midwifery was scaled up in 78 countries classified into three tertiles using the Human Development Index (HDI). We selected interventions in LiST to encompass the scope of midwifery practice, including prepregnancy, antenatal, labour, birth, and post-partum care, and family planning. Modest (10%), substantial (25%), or universal (95%) scale-up scenarios from present baseline levels were all found to reduce maternal deaths, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths by 2025 in all countries tested. With universal coverage of midwifery interventions for maternal and newborn health, excluding family planning, for the countries with the lowest HDI, 61% of all maternal, fetal, and neonatal deaths could be prevented. Family planning alone could prevent 57% of all deaths because of reduced fertility and fewer pregnancies. Midwifery with both family planning and interventions for maternal and newborn health could avert a total of 83% of all maternal deaths, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths. The inclusion of specialist care in the scenarios resulted in an increased number of deaths being prevented, meaning that midwifery care has the greatest effect when provided within a functional health system with effective referral and transfer mechanisms to specialist care. PMID:24965814

  2. A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Myres, Natalie M; Rootsi, Siiri; Lin, Alice A; Järve, Mari; King, Roy J; Kutuev, Ildus; Cabrera, Vicente M; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Rudan, Pavao; Baldovic, Marian; Herrera, Rene J; Chiaroni, Jacques; Di Cristofaro, Julie; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of numerous branches within the core Y-chromosome haplogroup R-M207 support a West Asian origin of haplogroup R1b, its initial differentiation there followed by a rapid spread of one of its sub-clades carrying the M269 mutation to Europe. Here, we present phylogeographically resolved data for 2043 M269-derived Y-chromosomes from 118 West Asian and European populations assessed for the M412 SNP that largely separates the majority of Central and West European R1b lineages from those observed in Eastern Europe, the Circum-Uralic region, the Near East, the Caucasus and Pakistan. Within the M412 dichotomy, the major S116 sub-clade shows a frequency peak in the upper Danube basin and Paris area with declining frequency toward Italy, Iberia, Southern France and British Isles. Although this frequency pattern closely approximates the spread of the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), Neolithic culture, an advent leading to a number of pre-historic cultural developments during the past ≤10 thousand years, more complex pre-Neolithic scenarios remain possible for the L23(xM412) components in Southeast Europe and elsewhere. PMID:20736979

  3. Which specific causes of death are associated with short term exposure to fine and coarse particles in Southern Europe? Results from the MED-PARTICLES project.

    PubMed

    Samoli, Evangelia; Stafoggia, Massimo; Rodopoulou, Sophia; Ostro, Bart; Alessandrini, Ester; Basagaña, Xavier; Díaz, Julio; Faustini, Annunziata; Gandini, Martina; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Kelessis, Apostolos G; Le Tertre, Alain; Linares, Cristina; Ranzi, Andrea; Scarinzi, Cecilia; Katsouyanni, Klea; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the short-term effects of particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5μm (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10μm (PM2.5-10) and less than 10μm (PM10) on deaths from diabetes, cardiac and cerebrovascular causes, lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in 10 European Mediterranean metropolitan areas participating in the MED-PARTICLES project during 2001-2010. In the first stage of the analysis, data from each city were analyzed separately using Poisson regression models, whereas in the second stage, the city-specific air pollution estimates were combined to obtain overall estimates. We investigated the effects following immediate (lags 0-1), delayed (lags 2-5) and prolonged exposure (lags 0-5) and effect modification patterns by season. We evaluated the sensitivity of our results to co-pollutant exposures or city-specific model choice. We applied threshold models to investigate the pattern of selected associations. For a 10μg/m(3) increase in two days' PM2.5 exposure there was a 1.23% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): -1.63%, 4.17%) increase in diabetes deaths, while six days' exposure statistically significantly increased cardiac deaths by 1.33% (95% CI: 0.27, 2.40%), COPD deaths by 2.53% (95% CI: -0.01%, 5.14%) and LRTI deaths by 1.37% (95% CI: -1.94%, 4.78%). PM2.5 results were robust to co-pollutant adjustments and alternative modeling approaches. Stronger effects were observed in the warm season. Coarse particles displayed positive, even if not statistically significant, associations with mortality due to diabetes and cardiac causes that were more variable depending on exposure period, co-pollutant and seasonality adjustment. Our findings provide support for positive associations between PM2.5 and mortality due to diabetes, cardiac causes, COPD, and to a lesser degree to cerebrovascular causes, in the European Mediterranean region, which seem to drive the particles short-term health effects. PMID

  4. [Effect of comprehensive control project on schistosomiasis in Nanjian county].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ji-Mao; Wu, Jun-Sheng; Yang, Meng-Xian; Li, Dian; Jiao, Dian; Lian, Fu; Yang, Qing-Quan

    2011-04-01

    The comprehensive control project for schistosomiasis was implemented in Nanjian County from 2004 to 2008. After the implementation of the control project, the infection rates of population and livestock decreased by 94.39% and 83.29% in 2008, respectively, with both infection rates less than 1%, no acute schistosomiasis cases had been found since 2005. Snail areas decreased by 70.01%, no infected snails had been found since 2007. Through the implementation of the comprehensive control project, schistosomiasis had been effectively controlled in Nanjian County. PMID:22164604

  5. The drug effectiveness review project: an important step forward.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Mark; Santa, John

    2006-01-01

    Peter Neumann's paper on the Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP) is a constructive if incomplete point of departure for discussing the work done by the project and the use of that work by decision-makers in states and elsewhere. This Perspective attempts to establish the proper context for judging the DERP by comparing its product and processes with those commonly produced and used by industry and other parties. It also provides a direct response to the criticisms of the project noted by Neumann. PMID:16757487

  6. Persuasive Data Presentation for a Voluntary School Effectiveness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Thomas F., III

    In the Connecticut School Effectiveness Project, data are collected on seven characteristics of effective schooling: safe and orderly environment, clear school mission, instructional leadership, high expectations, opportunity to learn and time on task, frequent monitoring of student progress, and home-school relations. These data are collected…

  7. The Manhattan Project and its Effects on American Women Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Samuel

    2008-04-01

    There have been many detailed historical accounts of the Manhattan Project, but few have recognized the technical role women scientists and engineers crucially played in the Project's success. Despite their absence from these prominent accounts, recent studies have revealed that, in fact, women participated in every non-combat operation associated with the Manhattan Project. With such extensive participation of women and such a former lack of historical attention upon them, little analysis has been done on how the Manhattan Project might have influenced the prospectus of women scientists after the war. This talk has two aims: 1) to recount some of the technical and scientific contributions of women to the Manhattan Project, and 2) to examine what effects these contributions had on the women's careers as scientists. In other words, I intend offer a preliminary explanation of the extent to which the Manhattan Project acted both as a boon and as a detriment to American women scientists. And finally, I will address what this historical analysis could imply about the effects of current efforts to recruit women into science.

  8. Wake fields effects for the eRHIC project

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov A. V.; Belomestnykh, S.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.; Ptitsyn, V.

    2012-05-20

    An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) with a high peak electron bunch current is proposed for the Electron-Ion collider (eRHIC) project at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The present design is based on the multi-pass electron beam transport in existing tunnel of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). As a result of a high peak current and a very long beam transport, consideration of various collective beam dynamics effects becomes important. Here we summarize effects of the coherent synchrotron radiation, resistive wall, accelerating cavities and wall roughness on the resulting energy spread and energy loss for several scenarios of the eRHIC project.

  9. Can cars and trucks coexist peacefully on highways? Analyzing the effectiveness of road safety policies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Manzano, José I; Castro-Nuño, Mercedes; Fageda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    We examine the impact on the traffic accident rate of the interaction between trucks and cars on Europe's roads using a panel data set that covers the period 1999-2010. We find that rising motorization rates for trucks lead to higher traffic fatalities, while rising motorization rates for cars do not. Empirically, the model we build predicts the positive impact of stricter speed limit legislation for trucks in the reduction of road fatalities. These findings lend support to European strategies and aimed at promoting alternative modes of freight transport, including rail and maritime transport. PMID:25703350

  10. Peatland-GHG emissions in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droesler, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Managed peatlands are hot spots for CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. GHG which have been not fully integrated in past European climate projects. Peatlands contribute to European GHG emissions 10 times more per unit area than other terrestrial ecosystems. Peatland management and exploration by drainage, agricultural use and peat extraction turned pristine peatland GHG sinks into sources. Emissions can reach more than 40 t CO2equiv. ha-1 a-1 in intensively managed peatlands. On the other hand, the restoration of degraded peatlands does normally reduce these emissions significantly towards climate neutral levels, once the restoration work is done wisely. But in some cases the net climate effect do not decrease significantly depending on hydrological regimes, fertilization status of the peatlands, climate and vegetation type. In many European countries with significant peatland cover nationally funded projects were set up to investigate peatland GHG fluxes and their drivers. These scattered data and knowledge are currently being brought together under the coverage of the GHG-Europe project (Grant agreement no.: 244122) within a new synthesis to develop the relevant EF, identify the drivers and develop upscaling options for GHG-emissions. The talk will: (1) show a first cut of new Emission Factors for peatlands in Europe and compare these with IPCC-default values. (2) discuss the developed sensible response functions for GHG-fluxes against natural and anthropogenic drivers such as land use intensity, land management with drainage and climate variability. (3) show case studies from Germany show the applicability of response functions for upscaling of GHG-balances. (4) An outlook is given to the future European peatland GHG-Balance.