These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Effect of Soviet cancellation of petrochemical plant projects on east and west Europe and Malaysia  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union has scaled down plans to build four petrochemical projects, each worth more than US $1 billion, over the next five years because it is giving priority to the re-equipment of plants. The project to build a polyvinyl plant on the shores of Lake Baikal in Siberia has been cancelled. Another scheme to build a nylon plant at Kursk has been delayed, but might still be resurrected during the present five-year plan (1986-1990). The two projects still going ahead, or which British companies are bidding, are a polyolefin plant in the north Caucasus and a polyester plant in the Urals. Despite the investment priority given by the Soviet leadership to high technology and re-equipment, diplomats in Moscow do not expect a surge of orders for Western companies. They say there are two reasons for this; Moscow wants to rely as much as possible on imports of machinery from Eastern Europe, notably East Germany and Czechoslovakia, in return for its exports of oil and gas. Senior officials say that where they cannot obtain high technology from West because of restrictive legislation they will not be prepared to accept less efficient equipment. The level of Soviet imports from hard currency supplies will be limited by the fall in Soviet exports revenues. These have been hit by a decline of some four per cent in oil exports last year and the drop in the world oil price. The Soviet Union needs to keep its customers for gas which has given increased leverage to consumers such as West Germany, Italy and France in the award of contracts. This was exemplified by the visit of Mme. Edith Cresson, the French Foreign Trade Minister, to Moscow to discuss increasing trade. Paris wants the Soviet Union to redress the adverse trade balance with France with amounted to 4.5 billion francs (L 410 million) in the first 11 months of last year.

Cockburn, P.

1985-02-01

2

Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific aims, work plan, and organization of the Middle Atmosphere Program winter in northern Europe (MAP/WINE) are described. Proposed contributions to the MAP/WINE program from various countries are enumerated. Specific atmospheric parameters to be examined are listed along with the corresponding measurement technique.

Vonzahn, U.

1982-01-01

3

The ELISE II Project: A Digital Image Library for Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the progress made under the ELISE II electronic image library project from a technical standpoint. The ELISE II project is a European-wide initiative that aims to provide a comprehensive electronic image library service for Europe. It is funded under the European Commission, DG XIII-E, Telematics for Libraries Initiative. The…

Strunz, Bob; Waters, Mairead

4

Projected changes in clear-sky erythemal and vitamin D effective UV doses for Europe over the period 2006 to 2100.  

PubMed

The benefits and the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure have been well discussed. Most studies show concern for the solar overexposure in the tropics and low latitude sites and its scarcity at higher latitudes. Both cases are of concern, the first for diseases such as skin cancer and the second for the lack of vitamin D production in the skin. In this study, we evaluate the influence of climate change scenarios on the total ozone content (TOC) and typical aerosol properties, such as the optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA), over Europe. From these parameters, we estimate the erythemal and the vitamin D effective UVR doses from 2006 to 2100. Our results indicate a small reduction of the UVR daily doses caused by the ozone layer recovery and partially compensated by an AOD diminution through this century. The attenuation will be larger at high latitudes, during the springtime and for more polluted scenarios during this century. However, this diminution should not be sufficient to provide a protection condition for erythema. On the other hand, at higher latitudes, it possibly contributes to a relevant increase in the exposure time necessary for the synthesis of vitamin D, mainly during autumn and spring seasons. PMID:23549360

Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Haeffelin, Martial; Bekki, Slimane; Saiag, Philippe; Badosa, Jordi; Jégou, Fabrice; Pazmiño, Andrea; Mahé, Emmanuel

2013-06-01

5

Human mercury exposure and effects in Europe.  

PubMed

The effects of human exposure to mercury (Hg) and its compounds in Europe have been the focus of numerous studies that differed in their design, including recruiting different population groups at different levels of exposure and using different protocols and recruitment strategies. The objective of the present study was to review current studies of Hg exposure in Europe, taking into account the potential routes of Hg exposure, actual Hg exposure levels assessed by different biomarkers, and the effects of Hg to Europeans. All published studies from 2000 onward were reviewed, and exposure and effects studies were compared with known Hg levels in environmental compartments by mapping the various population groups studied and taking into account known sources of Hg. A study of the spatial distribution trends confirmed that the highest exposure levels to Hg, mostly as methylmercury (MeHg), are found in coastal populations, which consume more fish than inland populations. Fewer studies addressed exposure to elemental Hg through inhalation of Hg in air and inorganic Hg in food, particularly in highly contaminated areas. Overall, at the currently low exposure levels of Hg prevalently found in Europe, further studies are needed to confirm the risk to European populations, taking into consideration exposure to various Hg compounds and mixtures of stressors with similar end-points, nutritional status, and a detailed understanding of Hg in fish present in European markets. PMID:24375779

Višnjevec, Ana Miklav?i?; Kocman, David; Horvat, Milena

2014-06-01

6

Specifics of entry-level IT project managers in Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In IT outsourcing efficient collaboration between the customer on the one hand and the project manager of the IT vendor company on the other hand is a critical factor for success. Often customers from Western Europe or United States try building collaboration with IT vendors in Eastern Europe without taking into account specifics of the project managers' mentality and cultural

Oleg Ridchenko

2009-01-01

7

Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, the need to protect people and property, the reality for society in Europe to live with hazard and risk and the need to manage risk were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). It started on 1 May 2009 and will go on for 3 years, ending on 30 April 2012. There project involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://www.safeland-fp7.eu/ . SafeLand is an ongoing project, which results will be finalized in 2012. This lecture summarizes the SafeLand's activities and achievements until November 2011. The main results achieved so far include: - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots by an objective, GIS-based analysis for Europe. The results show clearly where landslides pose the largest hazard in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional climate model simulations over Europe (from the EU FP6 project ENSEMBLES) at a spatial resolution of 25 x 25 km have been used to perform an extreme value analysis for trends in heavy precipitation events. In winter a general trend towards more heavy precipitation events across all analyzed regional climate model simulations is found. For summer, a slight increase of heavy precipitation in Northern Europe and a general decrease in southern Europe is found in all regional climate model simulations. - The prototype of a web-based "toolbox" of innovative and technically appropriate prevention and mitigation measures was developed. The toolbox does a preliminary assessment and ranking of up to 60 structural and non-structural landslide risk mitigation options. - Development of an empirical model for assessing the changes in landslide frequency (hazard) as a function of changes in the demography and population density. - Case histories and "hotspots" of European Land¬slides have been collected and documented. Data for 41 potential case study sites have been compiled and summarized. These comprise 39 sites in Europe located in Italy, France, Norway, Switzerland, Austria, Andorra, and Romania; as well as one site in Canada and one in India. Almost every type of landslide and every type of movement is represented in these sites. - Research on stakeholder workshops and participatory processes to involve the population exposed to landslide risk in the decision-making process for choosing the most appropriate risk mitigation measure(s).

Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B. G.; SafeLand Research Consortium

2011-12-01

8

Project DAFNE - Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are currently developing a new ICDP project 'Drillling Active Faults in Northern Europe' (DAFNE) which aims at investigating, via scientific drilling, the tectonic and structural characteristics of postglacial (PG) faults in northern Fennoscandia, including their hydrogeology and associated deep biosphere [1, 2]. During the last stages of the Weichselian glaciation (ca. 9,000 - 15,000 years B.P.), reduced ice load and glacially affected stress field resulted in active faulting in Fennoscandia with fault scarps up to 160 km long and 30 m high. These postglacial (PG) faults are usually SE dipping, SW-NE oriented thrusts, and represent reactivated, pre-existing crustal discontinuities. Postglacial faulting indicates that the glacio-isostatic compensation is not only a gradual viscoelastic phenomenon, but includes also unexpected violent earthquakes, suggestively larger than other known earthquakes in stable continental regions. The research is anticipated to advance science in neotectonics, hydrogeology and deep biosphere studies, and provide important information for nuclear waste and CO2 disposal, petroleum exploration on the Norwegian continental shelf and studies of mineral resources in PG fault areas. We expect that multidisciplinary research applying shallow and deep drilling of postglacial faults would provide significant scientific results through generating new data and models, namely: (1) Understanding PG fault genesis and controls of their locations; (2) Deep structure and depth extent of PG faults; (3) Textural, mineralogical and physical alteration of rocks in the PG faults; (4) State of stress and estimates of paleostress of PG faults; (5) Hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and hydraulic properties of PG faults; (6) Dating of tectonic reactivation(s) and temporal evolution of tectonic systems hosting PG faults; (7) Existence/non-existence of deep biosphere in PG faults; (8) Data useful for planning radioactive waste disposal in crystalline bedrock; (9) Data on rock stress changes in the periphery of the inland ice; (10) Stress pattern along the Norwegian continental margin in relation to the bending spreading ridge and Plio-Pleistocene erosion, uplift and sedimentation with implications for fluid migration and sealing properties of petroleum reservoirs. (11) Data useful in predicting future seismic activity in areas of current deglaciation due to ongoing climatic warming.

Kukkonen, I. T.; Ask, M. S. V.; Olesen, O.

2012-04-01

9

Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to protect people and property with a changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, and the reality for societies in Europe to live with the risk associated with natural hazards, were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). The project started on 1 May 2009 and will end on 30 April 2012. It involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://safeland-fp7.eu/. Main results achieved in SafeLand include: - Various guidelines related to landslide triggering processes and run-out modelling. - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides, and development of an empirical model for assessing the changes in landslide frequency (hazard) as a function of changes in the demography and population density. - Guideline for landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment and zoning. - New methodologies for physical and societal vulnerability assessment. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots for Europe. The results show clearly where areas with the largest landslide risk are located in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional and local climate model simulations over selected regions of Europe at spatial resolutions of 10x10 km and 2.8x2.8 km. These simulations were used to perform an extreme value analysis for trends in heavy precipitation events, and subsequent effects on landslide hazard and risk trends. - Guidelines for use of remote sensing techniques, monitoring and early warning systems. - Development of a prototype web-based "toolbox" of innovative and technically appropriate prevention and mitigation measures. The toolbox does a preliminary assessment and ranking of up to 60 structural and non-structural landslide risk mitigation options. - Case histories and "hotspots" of European Land¬slides have been collected and documented. Data for close to fifty potential case study sites have been compiled and summarized. Most of the case study sites are located in Europe (Italy, France, Norway, Switzerland, Austria, Andorra, and Romania); but they also include one site in Canada and one in India. Almost every type of landslide and every type of movement is represented in these sites. - Research on stakeholder workshops and participatory processes to involve the population exposed to landslide risk in the decision-making process for choosing the most appropriate risk mitigation measure(s).

Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B.

2012-04-01

10

Monitoring Electricity Consumption in the Tertiary Sector- A Project within the Intelligent Energy Europe Program  

E-print Network

in the EU" (www.odyssee-indicators.org; www.mure2.com). The project is co-ordinated by ADEME and carried out by energy efficiency agencies or their representatives in the 27 countries in Europe plus Norway and Croatia. ODYSSEE relies on a comprehensive... in all 12 EU-countries (plus Norway) involved in the project. The EU-funded programme ?Intelligent Energy Europe? co-finances European projects for the promotion of energy efficiency and the use of renewable energies. It covers implementation...

Plesser, S.; Fisch, M. N.; Gruber, E.; Schlomann, B.

11

Winter in Northern Europe (WINE). The project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE): Introduction and outlook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) comprised a multinational study of the structure, dynamics and composition of the middle atmosphere in winter at high latitudes. Coordinated field measurements were performed during the winter 1983 to 1984 by a large number of ground-based, air-borne, rocket-borne and satellite-borne instruments. Many of the individual experiments were performed in the European sector of the high latitude and polar atmosphere. Studies of the stratosphere, were, in addition, expanded to hemispheric scales by the use of data obtained from remotely sensing satellites. Beyond its direct scientific results, which are reviewed, MAP/WINE has stimulated quite a number of follow-on experiments and projects which address the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere at high and polar latitudes.

Vonzahn, U.

1989-01-01

12

Future scenarios for viticultural zoning in Europe: ensemble projections and uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimum climate conditions for grapevine growth are limited geographically and may be further challenged by a changing climate. Due to the importance of the winemaking sector in Europe, the assessment of future scenarios for European viticulture is of foremost relevance. A 16-member ensemble of model transient experiments (generated by the ENSEMBLES project) under a greenhouse gas emission scenario and for two future periods (2011-2040 and 2041-2070) is used in assessing climate change projections for six viticultural zoning indices. After model data calibration/validation using an observational gridded daily dataset, changes in their ensemble means and inter-annual variability are discussed, also taking into account the model uncertainties. Over southern Europe, the projected warming combined with severe dryness in the growing season is expected to have detrimental impacts on the grapevine development and wine quality, requiring measures to cope with heat and water stress. Furthermore, the expected warming and the maintenance of moderately wet growing seasons over most of the central European winemaking regions may require a selection of new grapevine varieties, as well as an enhancement of pest/disease control. New winemaking regions may arise over northern Europe and high altitude areas, when considering climatic factors only. An enhanced inter-annual variability is also projected over most of Europe. All these future changes pose new challenges for the European winemaking sector.

Fraga, H.; Malheiro, A. C.; Moutinho-Pereira, J.; Santos, J. A.

2013-11-01

13

Future scenarios for viticultural zoning in Europe: ensemble projections and uncertainties.  

PubMed

Optimum climate conditions for grapevine growth are limited geographically and may be further challenged by a changing climate. Due to the importance of the winemaking sector in Europe, the assessment of future scenarios for European viticulture is of foremost relevance. A 16-member ensemble of model transient experiments (generated by the ENSEMBLES project) under a greenhouse gas emission scenario and for two future periods (2011-2040 and 2041-2070) is used in assessing climate change projections for six viticultural zoning indices. After model data calibration/validation using an observational gridded daily dataset, changes in their ensemble means and inter-annual variability are discussed, also taking into account the model uncertainties. Over southern Europe, the projected warming combined with severe dryness in the growing season is expected to have detrimental impacts on the grapevine development and wine quality, requiring measures to cope with heat and water stress. Furthermore, the expected warming and the maintenance of moderately wet growing seasons over most of the central European winemaking regions may require a selection of new grapevine varieties, as well as an enhancement of pest/disease control. New winemaking regions may arise over northern Europe and high altitude areas, when considering climatic factors only. An enhanced inter-annual variability is also projected over most of Europe. All these future changes pose new challenges for the European winemaking sector. PMID:23306774

Fraga, H; Malheiro, A C; Moutinho-Pereira, J; Santos, J A

2013-11-01

14

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: Europe Albers Equal Area  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 ´Projection: Europe Albers Equal Area 0 500 Kilometers Amount of phosphorus fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell computed by fusing global maps of harvested areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use

Columbia University

15

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: Europe Albers Equal Area  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 ´Projection: Europe Albers Equal Area 0 500 Kilometers Amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell computed by fusing global maps of harvested areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use

Columbia University

16

Modelling the effects of past and future climate on the risk of bluetongue emergence in Europe  

PubMed Central

Vector-borne diseases are among those most sensitive to climate because the ecology of vectors and the development rate of pathogens within them are highly dependent on environmental conditions. Bluetongue (BT), a recently emerged arboviral disease of ruminants in Europe, is often cited as an illustration of climate's impact on disease emergence, although no study has yet tested this association. Here, we develop a framework to quantitatively evaluate the effects of climate on BT's emergence in Europe by integrating high-resolution climate observations and model simulations within a mechanistic model of BT transmission risk. We demonstrate that a climate-driven model explains, in both space and time, many aspects of BT's recent emergence and spread, including the 2006 BT outbreak in northwest Europe which occurred in the year of highest projected risk since at least 1960. Furthermore, the model provides mechanistic insight into BT's emergence, suggesting that the drivers of emergence across Europe differ between the South and the North. Driven by simulated future climate from an ensemble of 11 regional climate models, the model projects increase in the future risk of BT emergence across most of Europe with uncertainty in rate but not in trend. The framework described here is adaptable and applicable to other diseases, where the link between climate and disease transmission risk can be quantified, permitting the evaluation of scale and uncertainty in climate change's impact on the future of such diseases. PMID:21697167

Guis, Helene; Caminade, Cyril; Calvete, Carlos; Morse, Andrew P.; Tran, Annelise; Baylis, Matthew

2012-01-01

17

Prospects for nuclear deterrence in a changing Europe. Student project report  

SciTech Connect

The present study project consists of two parts. The first concerns the changes in the politico-strategic situation which occurred in recent times in Europe. It tries to explain how the nuclear strategy is closely linked to historic evolution. Since the situation is changed, it is necessary to rethink the role of nuclear weapons. The second part - after a appraisal of the still remarkable Soviet nuclear threat and after examination of recent changes in NATO nuclear strategy - is focused on future prospects for nuclear deterrance in Europe. Among various solutions (from securing both theater and global deterrance only through strategic nuclear deterrance; and basing deterrance in Europe on French and British national nuclear deterrance; to establishing demilitarized areas), the author favors a so-called essential deterrence, which has as its principal elements: (1) rely, in the foreseeable future, on U.S. nuclear weapons in Europe; (2) significantly reduce the amount of nuclear weapons in Europe; (3) use, as theater nuclear weapons, only those systems with longer ranges that can be launched by air or sea platforms; (4) give these theater weapons a political deterrence role instead of a military warfighting role as in the past.

Ghiotto, V.

1991-04-01

18

Nutrition and diet for healthy lifestyles in Europe: the 'Eurodiet' Project.  

PubMed

The aims of this project are to formulate a strategy and action plan for developing and implementing European dietary guidelines. The project is supported by DGV/F/3 and was initiated in October 1998. The work plan has entailed the formation of Working Parties composed of prominent experts from the member states to prepare consensus documents on the state of the art in Europe and the added value of European population-based guidelines. These groups are addressing 4 inter-linked components of the project: (1) evaluation of the role of diet and lifestyles in health & disease patterns in Europe; (2) the feasibility of developing an EU-wide framework for food-based dietary guidelines; (3) public health nutrition strategies for implementing FBDGs and for enhancing physically active lifestyles in Europe and (4) an evaluation of policy, trade, economic and technological aspects to improving nutritional status and lifestyles in the EU. Stakeholders from the spectrum of interests involved are invited to assess and debate the science and policy implications of these documents, which will be presented at a European Conference in May 2000. Recommendations in the form of a practical, evidence based policy document will be presented to the European Commission, the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament. PMID:10610068

Kafatos, A; Codrington, C A

1999-09-01

19

Statistical analysis describes urban heat island effect in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The urban heat island effect—in which urban areas are warmer than the surrounding rural areas—has been known for many decades. However, many previous studies have focused on individual cities or on a limited numbers of cities. To gain a broader regional perspective, Zhou et al. performed a statistical analysis of the urban heat island effect for all cities in Europe using land cover data and remotely sensed land surface temperature data.

Balcerak, Ernie

2014-02-01

20

Employment and Occupations in Europe in the 1980s. Effects of Technical and Economic Changes on the Employment Situation. Project No. 1 of the CCC: "Preparation for Life." Preparation for Working Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is an attempt to forecast for 1990 the following: (1) employment structures in the member countries of the Council of Europe for all three major sectors of the economy; and (2) employment structures in the Council of Europe for the nine major sectors of the manufacturing industry (food, textiles, leather and clothing, wood and…

Cacace, Nicole

21

Identifying Critical Nutrient Intake in Groups at Risk of Poverty in Europe: The CHANCE Project Approach  

PubMed Central

The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project’s objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe. PMID:24699195

Nikolic, Marina; Glibetic, Maria; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Milesevic, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

2014-01-01

22

Effects of large-scale distribution of wind energy in and around Europe  

E-print Network

Effects of large-scale distribution of wind energy in and around Europe Gregor Giebel Niels Gylling energy in Europe? · Distribution of wind energy all over Europe leads to smoothing of the wind power energy can easily supply up to ~20% of the European demand. At this stage, · Less than 13% of the wind

23

Oceanography Vol.22, No.460 AbstrAct. The European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA) is Europe's  

E-print Network

Oceanography Vol.22, No.460 AbstrAct. The European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA) is Europe 1974 1982 1990 Year Frequency(%) european project on Ocean Acidification (epOcA) ObJectiVes, pr of ocean acidification are perfectly foresee- able, the potential responses of organisms and ecosystems

Fortunat, Joos

24

The Cosmetics Europe strategy for animal-free genotoxicity testing: project status up-date.  

PubMed

The Cosmetics Europe (formerly COLIPA) Genotoxicity Task Force has driven and funded three projects to help address the high rate of misleading positives in in vitro genotoxicity tests: The completed "False Positives" project optimized current mammalian cell assays and showed that the predictive capacity of the in vitro micronucleus assay was improved dramatically by selecting more relevant cells and more sensitive toxicity measures. The on-going "3D skin model" project has been developed and is now validating the use of human reconstructed skin (RS) models in combination with the micronucleus (MN) and Comet assays. These models better reflect the in use conditions of dermally applied products, such as cosmetics. Both assays have demonstrated good inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility and are entering validation stages. The completed "Metabolism" project investigated enzyme capacities of human skin and RS models. The RS models were shown to have comparable metabolic capacity to native human skin, confirming their usefulness for testing of compounds with dermal exposure. The program has already helped to improve the initial test battery predictivity and the RS projects have provided sound support for their use as a follow-up test in the assessment of the genotoxic hazard of cosmetic ingredients in the absence of in vivo data. PMID:23811264

Pfuhler, S; Fautz, R; Ouedraogo, G; Latil, A; Kenny, J; Moore, C; Diembeck, W; Hewitt, N J; Reisinger, K; Barroso, J

2014-02-01

25

Inventory of veterinary syndromic surveillance initiatives in Europe (Triple-S project): current situation and perspectives.  

PubMed

Within the current context that favours the emergence of new diseases, syndromic surveillance (SyS) appears increasingly more relevant tool for the early detection of unexpected health events. The Triple-S project (Syndromic Surveillance Systems in Europe), co-financed by the European Commission, was launched in September 2010 for a three year period to promote both human and animal health SyS in European countries. Objectives of the project included performing an inventory of current and planned European animal health SyS systems and promoting knowledge transfer between SyS experts. This study presents and discusses the results of the Triple-S inventory of European veterinary SyS initiatives. European SyS systems were identified through an active process based on a questionnaire sent to animal health experts involved in SyS in Europe. Results were analyzed through a descriptive analysis and a multiple factor analysis (MFA) in order to establish a typology of the European SyS initiatives. Twenty seven European SyS systems were identified from twelve countries, at different levels of development, from project phase to active systems. Results of this inventory showed a real interest of European countries for SyS but also highlighted the novelty of this field. This survey highlighted the diversity of SyS systems in Europe in terms of objectives, population targeted, data providers, indicators monitored. For most SyS initiatives, statistical analysis of surveillance results was identified as a limitation in using the data. MFA results distinguished two types of systems. The first one belonged to the private sector, focused on companion animals and had reached a higher degree of achievement. The second one was based on mandatory collected data, targeted livestock species and is still in an early project phase. The exchange of knowledge between human and animal health sectors was considered useful to enhance SyS. In the same way that SyS is complementary to traditional surveillance, synergies between human and animal health SyS could be an added value, most notably to enhance timeliness, sensitivity and help interpreting non-specific signals. PMID:23835313

Dupuy, Céline; Bronner, Anne; Watson, Eamon; Wuyckhuise-Sjouke, Linda; Reist, Martin; Fouillet, Anne; Calavas, Didier; Hendrikx, Pascal; Perrin, Jean-Baptiste

2013-09-01

26

Solar effects on circulation types over Europe: an analysis based on a large number of classifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, effects of the 11-year solar cycle on various aspects of tropospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere in winter have been recognized. One of our previous studies showed a significant solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types from the Hess-Brezowsky catalogue. Here, we use a large collection of varied classifications of circulation patterns, defined over central Europe, assembled within the COST733 Action "Harmonization and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions" to detect the solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types. The advantage of this multi-classification approach is that peculiarities or biases present in any single classification (catalogue) that might influence the detected solar signal are eliminated once a large ensemble of classifications is used. We divide winter months (December to March) into three groups according to the mean monthly solar activity, quantified by the solar 10.7 cm flux. The three groups correspond to the minima of the 11-year solar cycle, a moderate solar activity, and solar maxima. Within each group, frequencies of occurrence of individual circulation types are calculated. Differences in the occurrence of individual classes between solar activity groups indicate the presence of a solar activity effect on atmospheric circulation over Europe. Statistical significance of these differences is estimated by a block resampling method. An enhanced frequency under solar minima and a reduced frequency under solar maxima are observed almost exclusively for the types with easterly flow over central Europe. On the other hand, a reduced frequency under solar minima and an enhanced frequency under solar maxima are found for the types with westerly flow over central Europe. The research is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805, and by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic, contract OC115.

Huth, R.; Cahynová, M.; Kyselý, J.

2010-09-01

27

How many dementia cases in France and Europe? Alternative projections and scenarios 2010-2050  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study is to estimate the number of dementia cases expected to occur in France and Europe over the next few decades, until 2050. Methodology Our estimates are based on a model using the European incidence data for dementia by age and sex, the relative mortality risks related to dementia stratified by age classes and the projections of mortality coefficients in the French and European general population. Results In France, in 2010, the number of dementia cases should reach 754,000, i.e. 1.2% of the general population or 2.8% of the active population. By 2050 this number should be multiplied by 2.4, i.e. 1,813,000 cases, which will be 2.6% of the total population and 6.2% of the active population. In Europe this number could reach more than 6 millions in 2010 and 14 millions in 2050. The sensitivity analysis performed on French data show that our projections are robust to the use of alternative data for incidence and relative mortality risk (variation of 5.5% and 6.5%), but very sensitive to hypotheses of evolution of mortality (variation of ?22 to 29%). Conclusions The approach used in our study, integrating both the dementia incidence and the mortality in the calculations, allowed us to refine the projections and stress the great sensitivity of the demographic hypotheses forecasts on the evolution of life expectancy. The likely increase is particularly important and confirms that French and European health systems must take this into account when making future plans. PMID:19796284

Mura, Thibault; Dartigues, Jean-Francois; Berr, Claudine

2010-01-01

28

Variability of Shortwave and Longwave Radiation over Europe as Derived from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation is the major source of energy for the earth-atmosphere system. The absorbed shortwave radiation is re-emitted as infrared radiation (longwave radiation) by the system. Fluctuations of the levels of both radiations are responsible for the changes of energy budget at the Earth's surface. The variability of the solar and earth radiation may originate from the variability of astronomical parameters, the sun's activity and natural or anthropogenic processes. In this study, the variability of both the solar radiation at the earth's surface and the emitted longwave radiation is studied. The dataset includes down-welling shortwave and up-welling longwave radiation for the area of Europe and was obtained from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). The data cover the time period from 1984 to 2006 with a spatial analysis of 280 km2 and a temporal analysis of 3 hours. During the examined time period many of the anthropogenic processes, like energy needs, car technology, biomass burning and industrial activity, have been modified in Europe. This study includes the analysis of short and long-term radiation variations caused by natural and anthropogenic factors and also attempts to quantify the alterations on the radiation levels.

Georgia, Alexandri; Charikleia, Meleti; Kleareti, Tourpali; Dimitris, Balis

2010-01-01

29

Advanced reprocessing developments in Europe contribution of European projects ACSEPT and ACTINET-I3  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear energy has more than ever to demonstrate that it can contribute safely and on a sustainable way to answer the international increase in energy needs. Actually, in addition to an increased safety of the reactors themselves, its acceptance is still closely associated to our capability to reduce the lifetime of the nuclear waste, to manage them safely and to propose options for a better use of the natural resources. Spent fuel reprocessing can help to reach these objectives. But this cannot be achieved only by optimizing industrial processes through engineering studies. It is of a primary importance to increase our fundamental knowledge in actinide sciences in order to build the future of nuclear energy on reliable and scientifically-founded results, and therefore meet the needs of the future fuel cycles in terms of fabrication and performance of fuels, reprocessing and waste management. At the European level, both the collaborative project ACSEPT and the Integrated Infrastructure Initiative ACTINET-I3 work together to improve our knowledge in actinides chemistry and therefore develop advanced separation processes. These tools are complementary and work in close connection on some specific issues such as the understanding of the selectivity of extracting organic ligands. By offering trans-national access to the main nuclear research facility in Europe, ACTINET-I3 aims at increasing the knowledge in actinide sciences by gathering all the expertise available in European nuclear research institutes or university and giving them the opportunity to come and work in hot-labs (ITU, Atalante...) or beamlines (ESFR, ANKA, PSI) ACSEPT is focused on the development of advanced separation processes, both aqueous and pyrochemical. Head-end steps, fuel re-fabrication, solvent treatment, waste management are also taken into account. In aqueous process development, the SANEX and innovative SANEX flowsheets demonstration were successfully achieved. Chemical systems were selected for GANEX and a hot-test under finalization thanks to an important collaboration between European teams. In pyrometallurgy, studies on actinide back-extraction from aluminium and exhaustive electrolysis allowed the validation of two flowsheets developed from more then 10 years in Europe. In addition, efforts were made to increase collaborations, mutualize and homogenise procedures and share good practices. A training and education program including seminars, workshops, brainstorming meeting but also student exchanges and support to post-doctorate fellowships was a key point for maintaining and increasing a high expertise level in actinide separation sciences in Europe. The second ACSEPT International workshop, organised as a specific session of the next Atalante 2012 International Conference, will conclude the ACSEPT project. (authors)

Bourg, S.; Poinssot, C. [CEA DEN, Nuclear Energy Div., RadioChemistry and Processes Dept., F-30207Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Geist, A. [KIT-INE (Germany); Cassayre, L. [CIEMAT (Spain); Rhodes, C. [NNL-UK (United Kingdom); Ekberg, C. [CHALMERS (Sweden)

2012-07-01

30

Future projection of drought conditions in Europe: A comprehensive study using the ENSEMBLES regional climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought is a natural recurrent phenomenon which occurs in a variety of different temporal and spatial scales and significantly affects natural and socio-economic systems. Under the aspect of the human induced climate change it is of high interest to decision makers how drought conditions might change at regional scale in order to map out adequate mitigation and adaption strategies. For this study, the most recent regional climate scenarios for Europe with a horizontal resolution of approximately 25 km are used (provided by the EU FP6 Integrated Project ENSEMBLES - http://ensembles-eu.org/). Based on seasonal temperature and precipitation climate change signals, eight scenarios out of the entire ensemble are selected in order to span a large fraction of the uncertainty range. These eight scenarios are analysed in more detail. A quantile mapping approach based on the E-OBS observational dataset is applied to daily temperature and precipitation to reduce model errors before investigating drought conditions in nine European sub regions. Two commonly used drought indices are calculated as drought indicators - the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) which is solely based on precipitation and the self calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) which is additionally based on temperature and available water capacity of the soil. The SPI is calculated for various time scales, accounting for different drought types, and the scPDSI is calculated on monthly basis. Both indices are calibrated in the past (1951 - 2000) and then applied to the future scenarios (2021 - 2050) according to the concept of relative drought indices. The temporal and spatial characteristics of projected future drought conditions are analysed with focus on moderately and extremely dry and wet conditions and the uncertainty in the projections. Finally, first results will be presented. Acknowledgement: "The ENSEMBLES data used in this work was funded by the EU FP6 Integrated Project ENSEMBLES (Contract number 505539) whose support is gratefully acknowledged."

Heinrich, Georg; Gobiet, Andreas

2010-05-01

31

Geokinematics of Central Europe: New insights from the CERGOP-2/Environment Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central European Geodynamics Project CERGOP-2, funded by the European Union from 2003 to 2006 under the 5th Framework Programme, benefited from repeated measurements of the coordinates of epoch and permanent GPS stations of the Central European GPS Reference Network (CEGRN), starting in 1994. Here we report on the results of the systematic processing of available data up to 2005. The analysis has yielded velocities for some 60 sites, covering a variety of Central European tectonic provinces, from the Adria Indenter to the Tauern Window, the Dinarides, the Pannonian Basin, the Vrancea Seismic Zone and the Carpathian Mountains. The estimated velocities define kinematical patterns which outline, with varying spatial resolution depending on the station density and history, the present-day surface kinematics in Central Europe. Horizontal velocities are analyzed after removal from the ITRF2000 estimated velocities of a rigid rotation accounting for the mean motion of Europe: a ˜2.3 mm/year north-south oriented convergence rate between Adria and the Southern Alps that can be considered to be the present-day velocity of the Adria Indenter relative to the European Foreland. An eastward extrusion zone initiates at the Tauern Window. The lateral eastward flow towards the Pannonian Basin exhibits a gentle gradient from 1 to 1.5 mm/year immediately east of the Tauern Window to zero in the Pannonian Basin. This kinematic continuity implies that the Pannonian plate fragment recently suggested by seismic data does not require a specific Eulerian pole. On the southeastern boundary of the Adria microplate, we report a velocity drop from 4 to 4.5 mm/year motion near Matera to ˜1 mm/year north of the Dinarides, in the southwestern part of the Pannonian Basin. A positive velocity gradient as one moves south from West Ukraine across Rumania and Bulgaria is estimated to be 2 mm/year on a scale of 600-800 km, as if the crust were dragged by the counterclockwise rotation along the North Anatolian Fault Zone. This regime apparently does not interfere with the Vrancea Seismic Zone: earthquakes there are sufficiently deep (>100 km) that the brittle deformation at depth can be considered as decoupled from the creep at the surface. We conclude that models of the Quaternary tectonics of Central and Eastern Europe should not neglect the long wavelength, nearly aseismic deformation affecting the upper crust in the Romanian and Bulgarian regions.

Caporali, A.; Aichhorn, C.; Becker, M.; Fejes, I.; Gerhatova, L.; Ghitau, D.; Grenerczy, G.; Hefty, J.; Krauss, S.; Medak, D.; Milev, G.; Mojzes, M.; Mulic, M.; Nardo, A.; Pesec, P.; Rus, T.; Simek, J.; Sledzinski, J.; Solaric, M.; Stangl, G.; Vespe, F.; Virag, G.; Vodopivec, F.; Zablotskyi, F.

2008-05-01

32

Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe: The ARISE Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARISE proposes to design a new infrastructure that integrates different station networks in order to provide a new "3D" image of the atmospheric dynamics from the ground up to the mesosphere with unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. These networks are: - the International infrasound network developed for the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This system is unique by its quality for infrasound and atmospheric wave observations, - the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes (NDACC) which uses Lidar to measure stratospheric dynamics, - the Network for the Detection of Mesopause Changes (NDMC), dedicated to airglow layer measurements in the mesosphere, and additional complementary stations and satellite data. The infrastructure extends across Europe and outlying regions, including polar and equatorial regions. The measurements will be used to improve the parameterization of gravity waves in the stratosphere to better resolve climate models. The project also concerns civil applications related to monitoring of natural hazards as volcanoes. The presentation will highlight the first results obtained in the frame of the project.

Blanc, E.; Bittner, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Ceranna, L.; Charlton-Perez, A. J.; Ripepe, M.; Evers, L.; Kvaerna, T.; Lastovicka, J.; Eliasson, L.; Crosby, N. B.; Blanc-Benon, P.; Le Pichon, A.; Marchetti, E.; Pilger, C.; Keckhut, P.; Schmidt, C.; Lee, C.; Smets, P.

2013-12-01

33

Biogeophysical effects of afforestation on temperature and precipitation extremes - case studies for Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Europe is the only continent with a significant increase of forest cover in recent times. In the last two decades the annual area of natural forestation and forest planting amounted to an average of 0.78 million hectares/year[1]. As large-scale forest cover changes influence regional atmospheric circulation, regional-scale sensitivity studies have been carried out to investigate the climatic effects of forest cover change for Europe. Applying REMO (regional climate model at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg), the projected temperature and precipitation tendencies have been analyzed for summer, based on the results of the A2 IPCC-SRES emission scenario simulation. For the end of the 21st century it has been investigated, whether the potential forest cover change would reduce or enhance the effects of emission change. The magnitude of the biogeophysical feedbacks of afforestation on temperature and precipitation means has been determined relative to the magnitude of the climate change signal. Based on the simulation results a significant climate change mitigating effects of forest cover increase can be expected in northern Germany, Poland and Ukraine, which is 15-20 % of the climate change signal for temperature and more than 50 % for precipitation. The analysis of the impacts on temperature and precipitation extremes is focusing on regional differences within Europe, based on the following research questions: · Does the increased forest cover induce any changes in temperature and precipitation extremes and in the climate variability? · How big are the land cover change feedbacks compared to the projected climate change signal? · What are the differences by bioclimatic regions, which regions show the largest effect on the simulated climate through forest cover increase? Results may help to identify regions, where forest cover increase has the most favourable effect and should be supported to reduce the projected climate change. Data provide an important basis of the future adaptation strategies and land use policy. Keywords: forest cover, afforestation, climatic extremes, biogeophysical feedbacks, regional climate modelling [1]Data of FAO, 2010. (China reports also a significant statistical increase of forest cover but its real extent is questionable)

Galos, B.; Sieck, K.; Rechid, D.; Haensler, A.; Teichmann, C.; Kindermann, G.; Matyas, Cs.; Jacob, D.

2012-04-01

34

Evaluation of Climate Change projections to assess the potential water budget in Central Europe considering climate model uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uncertainties embedded in the estimation of future climate are large and only partly quantifiable. Nonetheless, adaptation to climate change requires robust information about possible regional changes. For the hydrological impact assessment dynamical or statistical downscaled global climate scenarios serve as boundary condition. Though different Global Climate Models use similar basic physical equations, they produce results, which may vary even for the same emission scenario. In order to pursue probable climate change scenarios on regional scale, as much of the uncertainty as possible should be taken into account. An evaluation of warming scenario effects on the potential water availability in Central Europe was undertaken in order to provide first-cut estimates of regional impacts. Larger-scale studies of hydro-climatical impacts can evaluate possible future changes and identify regional sensitivities. A useful index measuring changes in the potential water budget is the Climatic Water Balance (CWB = precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration). To provide an overview of the future hydrological development in Central Europe the CWB was chosen to serve as indicator for the extent of water yield in the area and to identify inter-seasonal changes in the potential water availability. As it is difficult to evaluate the credibility of individual climate projections, multi-model probabilistic approaches are preferable when assessing uncertainty in climate change impacts. The multi-model ensemble climate projections from the ENSEMBLES Project allowed the authors to quantify the uncertainty deriving from climate model data. Earth system models of different European institutes were combined to produce sets of climate simulations with several models, which have been developed quasi-independently. For this study 14 different RCM/GCM-combinations all using the SRES A1B emission scenario have been used to evaluate the Climatic Water Balance on a 25km spatial resolution. The results serve to quantify the range of predictive uncertainty and to allocate robust trends. After estimating the climatic forcing data uncertainty the findings will be integrated in the hydrological modeling process. As further step Climate Change impacts on characteristic biodiversity (key species) shall be derived by applying ecologically meaningful indicators.

Stagl, J. C.; Hattermann, F. F.

2012-04-01

35

Inter-comparison of statistical downscaling methods for projection of extreme precipitation in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on extreme precipitation for future climate is needed to assess the changes in the frequency and intensity of flooding. The primary source of information in climate change impact studies is climate model projections. However, due to the coarse resolution and biases of these models, they cannot be directly used in hydrological models. Hence, statistical downscaling is necessary to address climate change impacts at the catchment scale. This study compares eight statistical downscaling methods often used in climate change impact studies. Four methods are based on change factors, three are bias correction methods, and one is a perfect prognosis method. The eight methods are used to downscale precipitation output from fifteen regional climate models (RCMs) from the ENSEMBLES project for eleven catchments in Europe. The overall results point to an increase in extreme precipitation in most catchments in both winter and summer. For individual catchments, the downscaled time series tend to agree on the direction of the change but differ in the magnitude. Differences between the statistical downscaling methods vary between the catchments and depend on the season analysed. Similarly, general conclusions cannot be drawn regarding the differences between change factor and bias correction methods. The performance of the bias correction methods during the control period also depends on the catchment, but in most cases they represent an improvement compared to RCM outputs. Analysis of the variance in the ensemble of RCMs and statistical downscaling methods indicates that up to half of the total variance is derived from the statistical downscaling methods. This study illustrates the large variability in the expected changes in extreme precipitation and highlights the need of considering an ensemble of both statistical downscaling methods and climate models.

Sunyer, M. A.; Hundecha, Y.; Lawrence, D.; Madsen, H.; Willems, P.; Martinkova, M.; Vormoor, K.; Bürger, G.; Hanel, M.; Kriau?i?nien?, J.; Loukas, A.; Osuch, M.; Yücel, I.

2014-06-01

36

The radiative effect of aerosols over Europe during the EUCAARI-LONGREX campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosols affect the Earth's climate both directly, through the scattering and absorption of radiation, and indirectly, via changes to cloud microphysics and properties. The resultant change in net radiation (radiative forcing) is still characterized by a great uncertainty, both at regional and global scales, due to the variability of the optical properties and the spatial - temporal distribution of the aerosols. Here, we calculate the radiative effect of anthropogenic aerosols over Europe using the data collected by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft during the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions Long Range Experiment (EUCAARI-LONGREX). The EUCAARI-LONGREX campaign consisted of 15 flights over central Europe or off the UK coast (47 - 57° N and 12° W - 22° E) during May 2008, designed to map the aerosol concentrations and properties over Europe, with a particular focus on observing long range transport of aerosol properties, as well as changes in those properties. The instrumentation aboard the FAAM BAe-146 aircraft allowed the measurement of the chemical composition, microphysical, optical and hygroscopic properties of the atmospheric aerosols, as well as the upwelling and downwelling radiation. We have also quantified here the uncertainties in our calculations due to the variability of aerosol concentration and properties and the way in which they are represented in models. For our calculations of the direct aerosol radiative effect, we use the composition and microphysical measurements together with the Edwards and Slingo radiative transfer model to estimate irradiances from 0.2 to 10 ?m. Vertical profiles of temperature, aerosol, water vapour and ozone are taken from the aircraft measurements. The modelled irradiances have been compared to the radiation data from flight b374 of the FAAM BAe-146 aircraft in order to evaluate the validity of model assumptions and the degree of 'radiative closure' that can be achieved in a case of aged European aerosol. Our results provide a description of the radiative effect of aerosols of different ages over Europe which could be later employed to assess the sensitivity of climate response to the representation of aerosols in climate models.

Esteve, Anna R.; Highwood, Ellie; Morgan, William T.; Coe, Hugh; Brown, Phil; Szpek, Kate; Martínez-Lozano, J. Antonio

2014-05-01

37

Radiation Effects: Core Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The risks to personnel in space from the naturally occurring radiations are generally considered to be one of the most serious limitations to human space missions, as noted in two recent reports of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. The Core Project of the Radiation Effects Team for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute is the consequences of radiations in space in order to develop countermeasure, both physical and pharmaceutical, to reduce the risks of cancer and other diseases associated with such exposures. During interplanetary missions, personnel in space will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays, including high-energy protons and energetic ions with atomic masses of iron or higher. In addition, solar events will produce radiation fields of high intensity for short but irregular durations. The level of intensity of these radiations is considerably higher than that on Earth's surface, and the biological risks to astronauts is consequently increased, including increased risks of carcinogenesis and other diseases. This group is examining the risk of cancers resulting from low-dose, low-dose rate exposures of model systems to photons, protons, and iron by using ground-based accelerators which are capable of producing beams of protons, iron, and other heavy ions at energies comparable to those encountered in space. They have begun the first series of experiments using a 1-GeV iron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and 250-MeV protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center's proton synchrotron facility. As part of these studies, this group will be investigating the potential for the pharmaceutical, Tamoxifen, to reduce the risk of breast cancer in astronauts exposed to the level of doses and particle types expected in space. Theoretical studies are being carried out in a collaboration between scientists at NASA's Johnson Space Center and Johns Hopkins University in parallel with the experimental program have provided methods and predictions which are being used to assess the levels of risks to be encountered and to evaluate appropriate strategies for countermeasures. Although the work in this project is primarily directed toward problems associated with space travel, the problem of protracted exposures to low-levels of radiation is one of national interest in our energy and defense programs, and the results may suggest new paradigms for addressing such risks.

Dicello, John F.

1999-01-01

38

Europe's rendezvousp Arturo Russo  

E-print Network

Europe's rendezvousp with Titan Arturo Russo University of Palermo #12;Horizon 20002000 #12;Voyager 1 N vember 1980November 1980 #12;TitanTitan Rhea Tethys Enceladus Dione #12;Project Cassini November projects" L Woltijer (SSAC chair)L. Woltijer (SSAC chair) #12;Reactions in EuropeReactions in Europe

39

The effect of divorce laws on divorce rates in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes a panel of 18 European countries spanning from 1950 to 2003 to examine the extent to which the legal reforms leading to “easier divorce” that took place during the second half of the 20th century have contributed to the increase in divorce rates across Europe. We use a quasi-experimental set-up and exploit the different timing of the

Libertad González Luna; Tarja K. Viitanen

2006-01-01

40

Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP): a collaborative research project of the TopoEurope initiative of ESF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With elevations of several kilometers, low local relief and pronounced relief contrasts with surrounding regions, orogenic plateaus are first-order tectonic and topographic features of several Cenozoic mountain belts. The morphologic characteristics of plateaus may result from efficient tectonic uplift of mountain ranges that successively incorporate foreland domains into intermontane sedimentary environments. This process may ultimately lead to leeward aridification and a reduction of erosional power and inability of the fluvial network to keep pace with uplift. The combination of tectonic uplift and the decreasing ability of the fluvial system to keep pace with the tectonic processes causes a transition from externally to internally drained basins that eventually become overfilled and coalesce, causing low local relief at high elevations in the orogen interior. Although many studies are being carried out on the Tibetan and Puna-Altiplano plateaus, very little attention has been devoted to the development of the smaller Central Anatolia Plateau (CAP). With its low local relief located at high elevations and with an arid interior compared to deeply incised, humid flanks, the CAP fulfills all characteristics of orogenic plateaus. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanisms controlling the topographic development of this region and to quantify the competing tectonic, geomorphic and climatic processes, we have developed a multidisciplinary project (VAMP) under the umbrella of the TopoEurope initiative of ESF. Our project integrates 11 research institutions from 7 countries. We study a ~400-km-wide strip from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean that includes CAP and its flanks, the offshore basins and Cyprus. The semi-arid CAP interior has a subdued topography at elevations of ~1500m. The plateau interior comprises internally drained sedimentary basins that have helped reduce the refielf contrasts between individual ranges and intervening depressions. Infilling by Miocene to Quaternary continental sediments has created low local relief, where large shallow lakes occur. However, several basins have been captured by headward erosion and major rivers (Göksu River in the S and K?z?l?rmak River in the N) now expose basin-fill sediments and drain large areas of the CAP and form deeply incised gorges along the northern and southern margins, respectively. Miocene marine sediments, locally up to 2 km thick and deposited in a basin stretching, at least, from Antalya to Adana unconformably overlie rocks of the Taurus orogen in S Turkey. Northward, these units grade into a partly preserved erosional surface. To the south, correlative Miocene marine sediments are found in the Cilicia offshore basin and in the N Cyprus thrust-belt. These sediments provide a topographic datum for the beginning of plateau development. In addition these units provide information on the behavior of the Anatolian crust during subsidence. The end of marine sedimentation (~Tortonian) provides a maximum age for the onset of CAP uplift. Thereafter, uplift was coeval with, and tectonically linked to subsidence in the offshore basins. Interestingly, other important events occurred at this time as well. This includes the Messinian salinity crisis and the onset of fragmentation of the Tethyan slab. In our study, an interdisciplinary approach with a wide range of temporal and spatial scales of is adopted to (1) better constrain the kinematics of plateau (de)formation; (2) the timing of associated climatic changes; (3) to quantify patterns of sediment routing and deposition; and to (4) reconstruct the (deep) geometry of Anatolia and surrounding sedimentary basins. We furthermore assess the importance of crustal shortening, magmatic underplating and possible lithospheric segmentation and delamination with respect to plateau uplift and analyze the nature of the interactions between tectonic forcing and changing climate. We will perform structural, geomorphological and sedimentological studies and will apply low-T geochronology, cosmogenic exposure dating of geomor

Strecker, M.; Bertotti, G.; Echtler, H.; Ciner, A.; Dirik, E. Aydar (4), K.; Rojay, B.; Mulch, A.; Ková?ová, M.; Govers, R.; Gliozzi, E.; Simpson, G.; Aksu, A.

2009-04-01

41

Enabling the Use of Research Evidence within Educational Policymaking in Europe: Lessons from the EIPEE Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a political climate demanding evidence-informed decision making in education both within individual countries and at the international level, empirically grounded European research in this field is scarce. This paper reports on a European Commission-funded study that sought to identify and analyze different initiatives across Europe aimed…

Tripney, Janice; Kenny, Caroline; Gough, David

2014-01-01

42

Europe and US to Collaborate on the Design and Development of a Giant Radio Telescope Project in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Goals for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Representatives from the U.S. and Europe signed an agreement today in Washington to continue collaboration on the first phase of a giant new telescope project. The telescope will image the Universe with unprecedented sensitivity and sharpness at millimeter wavelengths (between the radio and infrared spectral regions). It will be a major step for astronomy, making it possible to study the origins of galaxies, stars and planets. This project is a prime example of a truly global project, an essential development in view of the ever-increasing complexity and cost of front-line astronomical facilities. The U.S. side of the project is run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) , operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The European side of the project is a collaboration between the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) , the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) , the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy (NFRA) and Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie (NOVA) , and the United Kingdom Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC). The Europe-U.S. agreement signed today may be formally extended in the very near future to include Japan, following an already existing tripartite declaration of intent. Dr. Robert Eisenstein, NSF's Assistant Director Mathematical and Physical Sciences, called the project "a path-breaking international partnership that will open far-reaching opportunities for astronomical observations. This array would enable astronomers to explore the detailed processes through which the stars and planets form and give us a vastly improved understanding of the formation of the first galaxies in the very early universe." Eisenstein welcomed the collaboration with Europe and Japan's interest in becoming a major partner. Speaking on behalf of the European Signatories, Prof. Riccardo Giacconi, Director General of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , one of the signatories to the new astronomy project, described the new project as "absolutely fantastic and farsighted - a major ground-based astronomical observatory for the 21st century. It will open up a key region of the electromagnetic spectrum to study the very early universe and the interstellar clouds where the stars and planets are born". The new telescope will be located in the Atacama desert of northern Chile, and has been given the name ALMA, for "Atacama Large Millimeter Array". This land has been given in concession to CONICYT (The Chilean National Commission for Science and Technology) last year by the "Ministerio de Bienes Nacionales" (Ministry of National Assets). It has also been declared a national reserve for science by President Frei because of its unique capabilities for astronomical research. ALMA will be a revolutionary telescope, operating at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths and comprised of an array of individual antennas each 12 meters in diameter that work together to make precision images of astronomical objects. The goal of the ALMA Project is an array of 64 antennas that can be positioned as needed over an area 10 km in diameter so as to give the array a zoom-lens capability. Dr. Paul Vanden Bout, Director of the U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory , emphasized the technical capabilities needed for the array: "The ALMA Project involves development of a variety of fundamental technologies including amplification of faint cosmic signals using superconducting receivers and ultrafast digital data processing, technologies that will enhance many related areas of scientific research". This MOU commits the Signatories to collaborate in a three-year Design and Development Phase 1 for a joint project. In the U.S., an amount of US $26 million has been approved for this phase, and in Europe, DM 28 million (15 million EURO). Two prototype 12-meter antennas will be cons

1999-06-01

43

Systemic lupus erythematosus in Europe at the change of the millennium: lessons from the "Euro-Lupus Project".  

PubMed

The "Euro-Lupus Cohort" is composed by 1000 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that have been followed prospectively since 1991. These patients have been gathered by a European consortium--the "Euro-Lupus Project Group". This consortium was originated as part of the network promoted by the "European Working Party on SLE", a working group created in 1990 in order to promote research in Europe on the different problems related to this disease. The "Euro-Lupus Cohort" provides an updated information on the SLE morbidity and mortality characteristics in the present decade as well as defines several clinical and immunological prognostic factors. PMID:16483917

Cervera, Ricard; Abarca-Costalago, M; Abramovicz, D; Allegri, F; Annunziata, P; Aydintug, A O; Bacarelli, M R; Bellisai, F; Bernardino, I; Biernat-Kaluza, E; Blockmans, D; Boki, K; Bracci, L; Campanella, V; Camps, M T; Carcassi, C; Cattaneo, R; Cauli, A; Cervera, R; Chwalinska-Sadowska, H; Contu, L; Cosyns, J P; Danieli, M G; DCruz, D; Depresseux, G; Direskeneli, H; Domènech, I; Espinosa, G; Fernández-Nebro, A; Ferrara, G B; Font, J; Frutos, M A; Galeazzi, M; Garcìa-Carrasco, M; García Iglesias, M F; García-Tobaruela, A; George, J; Gil, A; González-Santos, P; Grana, M; Gül, A; Haga, H J; de Haro-Liger, M; Houssiau, F; Hughes, G R V; Ingelmo, M; Jedryka-Góral, A; Khamashta, M A; Lavilla, P; Levi, Y; López-Dulpa, M; López-Soto, A; Maldykowa, H; Marcolongo, R; Mathieu, A; Morozzi, G; Nicolopoulou, N; Papasteriades, C; Passiu, G; Perelló, I; Petera, P; Petrovic, R; Piette, J C; Pintado, V; de Pita, O; Popovic, R; Pucci, G; Puddu, P; de Ramón, E; Ramos-Casals, M; Rodríguez-Andreu, J; Ruiz-Irastorza, G; Sanchez-Lora, J; Sanna, G; Scorza, R; Sebastiani, G D; Sherer, Y; Shoenfeld, Y; Simpatico, A; Sinico, R A; Smolen, J; Tincani, A; Tokgöz, G; Urbano-Márquez, A; Vasconcelos, C; Vázquez, J J; Veronesi, J; Vianna, J; Vivancos, J

2006-03-01

44

Impact of headache in Europe: a review for the Eurolight project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent health economic survey in Europe has suggested that migraine is the costliest among the neurological disorders. According\\u000a to many studies, migraine and other disorders lead to widespread suffering, reduction of quality of life, and marked impairment\\u000a of participation, both in work and social activities. The present literature survey was made in order to summarize what is\\u000a known on

Lars Jacob Stovner; Colette Andrée

2008-01-01

45

Assessing river flood risk and adaptation in Europe—review of projections for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood damages have exhibited a rapid upward trend, both globally and in Europe, faster than population and economic growth.\\u000a Hence, vigorous attempts of attribution of changes have been made. Flood risk and vulnerability tend to change over many areas,\\u000a due to a range of climatic and nonclimatic impacts whose relative importance is site-specific. Flooding is a complex phenomenon\\u000a and there

Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz; Nicola Lugeri; Rutger Dankers; Yukiko Hirabayashi; Petra Döll; Iwona Pi?skwar; Tomasz Dysarz; Stefan Hochrainer; Piotr Matczak

2010-01-01

46

Quantifying nitrogen fluxes and their influence on the greenhouse gas balance - recent findings of the NitroEurope Integrated Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human-driven production of reactive nitrogen to stimulate agricultural productivity and its unintended formation in combustion processes both have major impacts on the global environment. Effects of excess reactive nitrogen include reductions in air quality, water quality, soil quality and biodiversity. One of the most controversial impacts of nitrogen, however, is on the greenhouse gas balance. While recent papers have highlighted a possible benefit of nitrogen in enhancing rates of carbon sequestration, there remain many trade-offs between nitrogen and greenhouse gas exchange. The result is that the net effect of reactive nitrogen on the global radiative balance is currently far from clear. To better quantity these relationships requires measurement data and modelling that make the link between different nitrogen forms and their fate in the environment. It is essential to measure fluxes for a wide range of ecosystems considering the biosphere-atmosphere exchange each of the reactive nitrogen components and greenhouse gases, as well as the fixation and denitrification of di-nitrogen. Long term observations are needed for representative ecosystems, together with results from experiments addressing the responses of the key nitrogen and greenhouse gas fluxes to different global change drivers. The NitroEurope Integrated Project of the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission European has developed a strategy to quantifying these different terms on multiple scales. This presentation reports some of the emerging results. It highlights the first estimates of net greenhouse gas exchange for a series of 13 flux ‘supersites’, complemented by the emerging results of reactive nitrogen concentrations a large network of 58 ‘inferential sites’, which are being used to estimate nitrogen inputs. In addition to these, new low cost methods to measure nitrogen fluxes will be reported, which are being tested at the ‘supersites’ and a network of regional sites, which extend the European representativity of the results. Results from this 3-tier flux network will be complemented by emerging findings from an extensive Manipulation Network, and by modelling at plot, landscape and European scales. Finally the paper will illustrate how nitrogen mitigation techniques are being considered at the European scale, including an estimation of the scale of costs involved in simultaneously mitigating nitrous oxide, ammonia and nitrate losses.

Sutton, M. A.; Nemitz, E.; Reis, S.; Beier, C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Cellier, P.; Cotrufo, M.; Erisman, J.; Skiba, U.; de Vries, W.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Bleeker, A.; Calanca, P. S.; Dalgaard, T.; Dragosits, U.; Duyzer, J.; Gundersen, P.; Hensen, A.; Kros, H.; Leip, A.; Olesen, J.; Phillips, G. J.; Rees, R. M.; Smith, P.; Soussana, J.; Tang, S.; Theobald, M. R.; Winiwarter, W.; van Oijen, M.; Vesala, T.

2009-12-01

47

Women and Training in Europe. Fifty Projects which Challenge Our Traditions. A Compendium of Good Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of descriptions of 50 projects that were selected as examples of good practice in providing relevant initial and continuing vocational training to women throughout the European Community regardless of their legal status, employment status, and geographic location. The projects are grouped under six key words (motivation,…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

48

Nutritional status and lifestyles of adolescents from a public health perspective. The HELENA Project—Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HELENA Project—Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence—is a European, collaborative research project financed by the EU Sixth Framework Programme in the area of nutrition-related\\u000a adolescent health. The basic objective of the HELENA project is to obtain reliable and comparable data from a random sample\\u000a of European adolescents (boys and girls aged 13–16 years) on a broad battery of

S. De Henauw; F. Gottrand; I. De Bourdeaudhuij; M. Gonzalez-Gross; C. Leclercq; A. Kafatos; D. Molnar; A. Marcos; M. Castillo; J. Dallongeville; C. C. Gilbert; P. Bergman; K. Widhalm; Y. Manios; C. Breidenassel; M. Kersting; L. A. Moreno

2007-01-01

49

Cost-effective emission abatement in europe considering interrelations in agriculture.  

PubMed

Agriculture is an important source of ammonia (NH3), which contributes to acidification and eutrophication, as well as emissions of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). Controlling emissions of one of these pollutants through application of technical measures might have an impact (either beneficial or adverse) on emissions of the others. These side effects are usually ignored in policy making. This study analyses cost-effectiveness of measures to reduce acidification and eutrophication as well as agricultural emissions of N2O and CH4 in Europe, taking into account interrelations between abatement of NH3, N2O, and CH4 in agriculture. The model used is based on the RAINS (Regional Air pollution INformation and Simulation) model for air pollution in Europe, which includes emissions, abatement options, and atmospheric source-receptor relationships for pollutants contributing to acidification and eutrophication. We used an optimisation model that is largely based on the RAINS model but that also includes emissions of N2O and CH4 from agriculture and technical measures to reduce these emissions. For abatement options for agricultural emissions we estimated side effects on other emissions. The model determines abatement strategies to meet restrictions on emission and/or deposition levels at the least cost. Cost-effective strategies to reduce acidification and eutrophication in Europe were analysed. We found that NH3 abatement may cause an increase in N2O emissions. If total agricultural N2O and CH4 emissions in Europe were not allowed to increase, cost-effective allocation of emission reductions over countries in Europe changed considerably. PMID:12805885

Brink, C; van Ierland, E; Hordijk, L; Kroeze, C

2001-10-30

50

Short-term Associations between Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and Hospitalizations in Southern Europe: Results from the MED-PARTICLES Project  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence on the short-term effects of fine and coarse particles on morbidity in Europe is scarce and inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to estimate the association between daily concentrations of fine and coarse particles with hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in eight Southern European cities, within the MED-PARTICLES project. Methods: City-specific Poisson models were fitted to estimate associations of daily concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), ? 10 ?m (PM10), and their difference (PM2.5–10) with daily counts of emergency hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. We derived pooled estimates from random-effects meta-analysis and evaluated the robustness of results to co-pollutant exposure adjustment and model specification. Pooled concentration–response curves were estimated using a meta-smoothing approach. Results: We found significant associations between all PM fractions and cardiovascular admissions. Increases of 10 ?g/m3 in PM2.5, 6.3 ?g/m3 in PM2.5–10, and 14.4 ?g/m3 in PM10 (lag 0–1 days) were associated with increases in cardiovascular admissions of 0.51% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.90%), 0.46% (95% CI: 0.10, 0.82%), and 0.53% (95% CI: 0.06, 1.00%), respectively. Stronger associations were estimated for respiratory hospitalizations, ranging from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.21, 2.11%) for PM10 to 1.36% (95% CI: 0.23, 2.49) for PM2.5 (lag 0–5 days). Conclusions: PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 were positively associated with cardiovascular and respiratory admissions in eight Mediterranean cities. Information on the short-term effects of different PM fractions on morbidity in Southern Europe will be useful to inform European policies on air quality standards. Citation: Stafoggia M, Samoli E, Alessandrini E, Cadum E, Ostro B, Berti G, Faustini A, Jacquemin B, Linares C, Pascal M, Randi G, Ranzi A, Stivanello E, Forastiere F, the MED-PARTICLES Study Group. 2013. Short-term associations between fine and coarse particulate matter and hospitalizations in Southern Europe: results from the MED-PARTICLES project. Environ Health Perspect 121:1026–1033; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206151 PMID:23777832

Samoli, Evangelia; Alessandrini, Ester; Cadum, Ennio; Ostro, Bart; Berti, Giovanna; Faustini, Annunziata; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Linares, Cristina; Pascal, Mathilde; Randi, Giorgia; Ranzi, Andrea; Stivanello, Elisa; Forastiere, Francesco

2013-01-01

51

New international long-term ecological research on air pollution effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests, Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and

Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Ovidiu Badea; Ion Barbu; Peter Fleischer; Witold Fr?czek; Vladimir Gancz; Barbara Godzik; Krystyna Grodzi?ska; Wojciech Grodzki; David Karnosky; Milan Koren; Marek Krywult; Zbigniew Krzan; Roman Longauer; Blanka Mankovska; William J. Manning; Michael McManus; Robert C. Musselman; Julius Novotny; Flaviu Popescu; Daniela Postelnicu; Wies?aw Prus-G?owacki; Pawe? Skawi?ski; Stefan Skiba; Robert Szaro; Stefan Tamas; Cristian Vasile

2003-01-01

52

A Community-University Exchange Project Modeled after Europe's Science Shops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a pilot project of the Morgridge Center for Public Service at the University of Wisconsin-Madison for a new structure for community-based learning and research. It is based on the European-derived science shop model for democratizing campus-community partnerships using shared values of mutual respect and validation of…

Tryon, Elizabeth; Ross, J. Ashleigh

2012-01-01

53

Comenius Project: Are e-Learning Collaborations of High School Students across Europe in Maths Possible?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overall aim of the project is to allow for the collaboration of high school students of different European countries on small, selected maths topics. This involves the use of technology, student mobility and English language competency. Benefits are also expected to accrue to teachers of mathematics by providing the opportunity to work with…

Simonovits, Reinhard; McElroy, Jim; O'Loughlin, James; Townsend, Colin

2013-01-01

54

Dirofilarial infections in Europe.  

PubMed

Nematodes of the genus Dirofilaria are currently considered emerging agents of parasitic zoonoses in Europe. Climatic changes and an increase in the movement of reservoirs (mostly infected dogs) have caused an increase in the geographical range of these parasites from the traditionally endemic/hyperendemic southern regions, and the risk for human infection has increased. In the last several years, forecast models have predicted that current summer temperatures are sufficient to facilitate extrinsic incubation of Dirofilaria in many areas of Europe. The global warming projected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggests that warm summers suitable for Dirofilaria transmission in Europe will be the rule in the future decades, and if the actual trend of temperature increase continues, filarial infection should spread into previously infection-free areas. Dirofilaria repens is currently the filarial species that is most commonly reported as spreading from southern to northern areas. This article reviews the zoonotic aspects, effects of climate, and other global drivers on Dirofilaria infections in Europe and the possible implications on the transmission and control of these mosquito-borne nematodes. PMID:21417922

Genchi, Claudio; Kramer, Laura H; Rivasi, Francesco

2011-10-01

55

The prediction and management of aquatic nitrogen pollution across Europe: an introduction to the Integrated Nitrogen in European Catchments project (INCA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess nitrogen in soils, fresh water, estuarine and marine systems contributes to nutrient enrichment in key ecosystems throughout Europe, often leading to detrimental environmental impacts, such as soil acidification or the eutrophication of water bodies. The Integrated Nitrogen model for European Catchments (INCA) project aims to develop a generic version of the Integrated Nitrogen in Catchments (INCA) model to simulate

A. J. Wade; P. G. Whitehead; L. C. M. O’Shea

2002-01-01

56

Coordination of research on internal dosimetry in Europe: the CONRAD project.  

PubMed

The EUropean RAdiation DOSimetry Group (EURADOS) initiated in 2005 the CONRAD Project, a Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry funded by the European Commission (EC), within the 6th Framework Programme (FP). The main purpose of CONRAD is to generate a European Network in the field of Radiation Dosimetry and to promote both research activities and dissemination of knowledge. The objective of CONRAD Work Package 5 (WP5) is the coordination of research on assessment and evaluation of internal exposures. Nineteen institutes from 14 countries participate in this action. Some of the activities to be developed are continuations of former European projects supported by the EC in the 5th FP (OMINEX and IDEAS). Other tasks are linked with ICRP activities, and there are new actions never considered before. A collaboration is established with CONRAD Work Package 4, dealing with Computational Dosimetry, to organise an intercomparison on Monte Carlo modelling for in vivo measurements of (241)Am deposited in a knee phantom. Preliminary results associated with CONRAD WP5 tasks are presented here. PMID:17686965

Lopez, M A; Etherington, G; Castellani, C M; Franck, D; Hurtgen, C; Marsh, J W; Nosske, D; Doerfel, H; Andrasi, A; Bailey, M; Balashazy, I; Battisti, P; Bérard, P; Berkowski, V; Birchall, A; Blanchardon, E; Bonchuk, Y; de Carlan, L; Cantone, M C; Challeton-de Vathaire, C; Cruz-Suarez, R; Davis, K; Dorrian, D; Giussani, A; Le Guen, B; Hodgson, A; Jourdain, J R; Koukouliou, V; Luciani, A; Malatova, I; Molokanov, A; Moraleda, M; Muikku, M; Oeh, U; Puncher, M; Rahola, T; Ratia, H; Stradling, N

2007-01-01

57

Status of the Next European Dipole (NED) Activity of the Collaborated Accelerator Research in Europe (CARE) Project  

E-print Network

Plans for LHC upgrade and for the final focalization of linear colliders call for large aperture and/or high-performance dipole and quadrupole magnets that may be beyond the reach of conventional NbTi magnet technology. The Next European Dipole (NED) activity was launched on January 1st, 2004 to promote the development of high-performance, Nb3Sn wires in collaboration with European industry (aiming at a non-copper critical current density of 1500 A/mm2 at 4.2 K and 15 T) and to assess the suitability of Nb3Sn technology to the next generation of accelerator magnets (aiming at an aperture of 88 mm and a conductor peak field of 15 T). It is integrated within the Collaborated Accelerator Research in Europe (CARE) project, involves seven collaborators, and is partly funded by the European Union. We present here an overview of the NED activity and we report on the status of the various work packages it encompasses.

Devred, Arnaud; Baynham, D Elwyn; Boutboul, T; Canfer, S; Chorowski, M; den Ouden, A; Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Fessia, P; Fydrych, J; Félice, H; Greco, Michela; Greenhalgh, J; Leroy, D; Loveridge, P W; Michel, F; Oberli, L R; Pedrini, D; Polinski, J; Previtali, V; Quettier, L; Rifflet, J M; Rochford, J; Rondeaux, F; Sanz, S; Sgobba, Stefano; Sorbi, M; Toral-Fernandez, F; Van Weelderen, R; Vincent-Viry, O; Volpini, G; Védrine, P; 10.1109/TASC.2005.849506

2005-01-01

58

Usaid eastern Europe regional energy efficiency project. Oil and gas systems component. Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In response to a request from the Government of Romania (GoR) USAID performed a study to design and develop a petroleum sector restructuring strategy. The goals of the strategy were to improve the operational efficiency, managerial effectiveness, financial viability of companies and to encourage significantly increased levels of private-sector investment in the upstream petroleum sector.

NONE

1995-05-15

59

Jet fuel property changes and their effect on producibility and cost in the U.S., Canada, and Europe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of changes in properties and blending stocks on the refinery output and cost of jet fuel in the U.S., Canada, and Europe were determined. Computerized refinery models that minimize production costs and incorporated a 1981 cost structure and supply/demand projections to the year 2010 were used. Except in the West U.S., no changes in jet fuel properties were required to meet all projected demands, even allowing for deteriorating crude qualities and changes in competing product demand. In the West U.S., property changes or the use of cracked blendstocks were projected to be required after 1990 to meet expected demand. Generally, relaxation of aromatics and freezing point, or the use of cracked stocks produced similar results, i.e., jet fuel output could be increased by up to a factor of three or its production cost lowered by up to $10/cu m. High quality hydrocracked stocks are now used on a limited basis to produce jet fuel. The conversion of U.S. and NATO military forces from wide-cut to kerosene-based jet fuel is addressed. This conversion resulted in increased costs of several hundred million dollars annually. These costs can be reduced by relaxing kerosene jet fuel properties, using cracked stocks and/or considering the greater volumetric energy content of kerosene jet fuel.

Varga, G. M., Jr.; Avella, A. J., Jr.; Cunningham, A. R.; Featherston, C. D.; Gorgol, J. F.; Graf, A. J.; Lieberman, M.; Oliver, G. A.

1985-01-01

60

Assessing projected changes in heat waves over Northern Europe using two regional climate models at 8-km resolution.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As temperatures in Northern Europe increase due to climate change the occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves is likely to change. A higher occurrence rate of heat waves can have serious health consequences, in particular for the elderly, but also for very young children and the infirm. Not only the occurrence rate of heat waves, but also changes in the duration of individual heat waves, is of importance. It is therefore of relevance to investigate how the occurrence of heat waves is likely to increase in the future, to allow for adaptation. We have looked at the projected changes in the occurrence rate of heat waves in a part of northern Europe including southern Scandinavia, the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, according to two different greenhouse gas emission scenarios: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. In this study we have chosen to use the Danish Meteorological Institutes definition, in which a high temperature event is classified as a heat wave if the average of the maximum temperature of a period of at least 3 consecutive days exceeds 28°C. To estimate the change in the occurrence rate of heat waves we have used two different GCM-RCM combinations, NorESM-WRF (BCCR) and EC-EARTH-HIRHAM5 (DMI). Both regional models have down-scaled the global models to a resolution of about 8 km, and hourly values of several parameters including temperature, precipitation and wind have been stored. We compare the climate model data from three different time slices, 1981-2010 run with historical greenhouse gas concentrations, 2021-2050 (RPC4.5 and RCP 8.5) and 2071-2100 (RPC4.5 and RCP 8.5), to see the time evolution in the occurrence rate of heat waves for the two RCP scenarios. Our results indicate that the occurrence rate of heat waves in this region will increase as a consequence of global warming, and that individual heat waves will tend to last longer.

Fox Maule, Cathrine; Christensen, Ole B.; Mayer, Stephanie; Thejll, Peter

2013-04-01

61

Effects of climate variability and extreme events on components of the carbon balance in Europe during 1961-2100  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional climate models project a change in the annual and seasonal mean of meteorological variables in Europe until the end of the century, e. g. mean air temperature is predicted to dramatically increase until 2100. At the same time, the shape of the probability distribution of meteorological variables will change, leading to an altered variability of meteorological variables and frequency of extreme events. Today, the isolated effects of changing variance versus changing mean of meteorological drivers on ecosystem processes, such as gross primary production, autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration, evapotranspiration, mortality and disturbances have not been quantified at a continental or global scale. We contribute to such quantification from a theoretical, mechanistic modelling point of view by artificial modelling experiments using state-of-the-art generic (LPJmL, ORCHIDEE, JSBACH, CLM) and sectorial (BASFOR, DailyDayCent, PASIM) ecosystem models that has been performed in the EU FP7 project CARBO-Extreme. Using a control climate data set (CNTL) based on the WATCH forcing data and bias-corrected ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data, factorial model experiments with transient/constant climate and atmospheric [CO2] concentration have been performed.Then, these factorial experiments were repeated using a climate dataset in which climate variables hold the same long-term seasonal and annual mean but show much reduced short-term variability ("reduced variability"). Analysis of the resulting carbon and water balance estimations for Europe during 1961-2100 enabled disentangling direct effects of temperature or radiation variability from effects of general climate variability and effects of a trend in mean climate conditions on ecosystem functions. Generally, reduced variability in short-wave radiation increased the annual gross primary production due to the concave shape of the light response curve of photosynthesis. Therefore, net primary production is also increasing with reduced variability. At the same time, reduced temperature variability reduces respiration components because the mean of two respiration rates at extreme high and low temperature is lower than the respiration rate at the mean temperature due to the convex shape of the respiration response to temperature. However, effects are varying over the continent along different climatic zones and ecosystem types. In addition, combined effects of variability of all meteorological variables, and in particular precipitation variability effects lead to more diverse net effects on the European carbon and water balance. These experiments help to understand the impact of climatic variability on ecosystem responses.

Beer, Christian; Carvalhais, Nuno; Ciais, Philippe; Balkovic, Juraj; Davin, Edouard; Kato, Tomomichi; Kuhnert, Matthias; Lardy, Romain; Laperche, Sylvain; Martin, Raphaël; van Oijen, Marcel; Rammig, Anja; Rolinski, Susanne; Seneviratne, Sonia; Smith, Pete; Thonicke, Kirsten; van der Velde, Marijn; Vieli, Barla; Viovy, Nicolas; Reichstein, Markus

2013-04-01

62

Projections of Climate Change over Non-boreal East Europe During First Half of Twenty-First Century According to Results of a Transient RCM Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change trends over the southern east-Europe are evaluated according to results of a climate simulation experiment\\u000a with the ICTP RegCM3 regional climate model driven from the lateral boundaries by results of ECHAM5\\/MPI-OM1 transient climate\\u000a simulation from 1960 to 2060 (SRES A1B emission scenario after 2001). The trends projected include — precipitation: winter\\u000a and spring — rise over the central

Shimon O. Krichak; Pinhas Alpert; Pavel Kunin

63

Linking climate and air quality over Europe: effects of meteorology on PM2.5 concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of various meteorological parameters such as temperature, wind speed, absolute humidity, precipitation and mixing height on PM2.5 concentrations over Europe were examined using a three-dimensional chemical transport model, PMCAMx-2008. Our simulations covered three periods, representative of different seasons (summer, winter, and fall). PM2.5 appears to be more sensitive to temperature changes compared to the other meteorological parameters in all seasons. PM2.5 generally decreases as temperature increases, although the predicted changes vary significantly in space and time, ranging from -700 ng m-3 K-1 (-8% K-1) to 300 ng m-3 K-1 (7% K-1). The predicted decreases of PM2.5 are mainly due to evaporation of ammonium nitrate, while the higher biogenic emissions and the accelerated gas-phase reaction rates increase the production of organic aerosol (OA) and sulfate, having the opposite effect on PM2.5. The predicted responses of PM2.5 to absolute humidity are also quite variable, ranging from -130 ng m-3 %-1 (-1.6% %-1) to 160 ng m-3 %-1 (1.6% %-1) dominated mainly by changes in inorganic PM2.5 species. An increase in absolute humidity favors the partitioning of nitrate to the aerosol phase and increases the average PM2.5 during summer and fall. Decreases in sulfate and sea salt levels govern the average PM2.5 response to humidity during winter. A decrease of wind speed (keeping the emissions constant) increases all PM2.5 species (on average 40 ng m-3 %-1) due to changes in dispersion and dry deposition. The wind speed effects on sea salt emissions are significant for PM2.5 concentrations over water and in coastal areas. Increases in precipitation have a negative effect on PM2.5 (decreases up to 110 ng m-3 %-1) in all periods due to increases in wet deposition of PM2.5 species and their gas precursors. Changes in mixing height have the smallest effects (up to 35 ng m-3 %-1) on PM2.5 . Regarding the relative importance of each of the meteorological parameters in a changed future climate, the projected changes in precipitation are expected to have the largest impact on PM2.5 levels during all periods (changes up to 2 ?g m-3 in the fall). The expected effects in future PM2.5 levels due to wind speed changes are similar in all seasons and quite close to those resulting from future precipitation changes (up to 1.4 ?g m-3). The expected increases in absolute humidity in the future can lead to large changes in PM2.5 levels (increases up to 2 ?g m-3) mainly in the fall due to changes in particulate nitrate levels. Despite the high sensitivity of PM2.5 levels to temperature, the small expected increases of temperature in the future will lead to modest PM2.5 changes and will not dominate the overall change.

Megaritis, A. G.; Fountoukis, C.; Charalampidis, P. E.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S. N.

2014-09-01

64

The Virtual Earthquake and seismology Research Community e-science environment in Europe (VERCE): a European Research Infrastructure project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of science in seismology is changing - new discoveries will emerge from statistical analysis and modeling (inversion, assimilation) of large amounts of data generated from dense observational and monitoring networks and from large-scale wave propagation simulations. In many cases our ability to acquire observational and synthetic data outpaces today our ability to process and analyze them. Addressing these challenges requires a new and holistic approach with important augmented societal applications in seismic hazard assessment and monitoring, and exploration geophysics. VERCE is a four-year FP7-INFRASTRUCTURE project, with a consortium of ten partners from seismology and computer science, and contributes to the e-science infrastructure of the European Plate Observatory System (EPOS), the ESFRI initiative of the solid Earth community in Europe. We report here the progress of VERCE toward a service-oriented architecture and a platform of services and tools - integrating European computing and data infrastructures with the distributed seismological data archives - in support for data-intensive analysis and modeling applications. Two prototype applications were selected within VERCE: a data-intensive analysis application based on seismic-noise correlation; and a data-intensive HPC wave simulation application. Both applications consist of multiple phases where ingestion interleaves with data processing and analysis, generating highly parallel and asynchronous data workflows together with massively parallel data access. VERCE efforts are devoted in particular to providing efficient scalable and transparent distributed data management and data transfer services, together with execution models that enable data processing and analysis computation to overlap with data transfer and I/O operations, thereby achieving high throughput under heavy asynchronous access to data. We discuss the current progress of VERCE in enabling the application prototypes, and in developing a scientific gateway that will provide them as a service to the seismology community. We will also discuss elements of the next phase plan and implementation roadmap.

Vilotte, J.; Atkinson, M.; Van Eck, T.; Bossu, R.; Michelini, A.; Igel, H.; Rietbrock, A.; Frank, A.; Schwichtenberg, H.; Erbacci, G.

2013-12-01

65

Economics of chronic diseases protocol: cost-effectiveness modelling and the future burden of non-communicable disease in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of chronic disease is caused by risk factors which are mostly preventable. Effective interventions to reduce these risks are known and proven to be applicable to a variety of settings. Chronic disease is generally developed long before the fatal outcome, meaning that a lot of people spend a number of years in poor health. Effective prevention measures can prolong lives of individuals and significantly improve their quality of life. However, the methods to measure cost-effectiveness are a subject to much debate. The Economics of Chronic Diseases project aims to establish the best possible methods of measuring cost-effectiveness as well as develop micro-simulation models apt at projecting future burden of chronic diseases, their costs and potential savings after implementation of cost-effective interventions. Method This research project will involve eight European countries: Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Lithuania, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom (UK). A literature review will be conducted to identify scientific articles which critically review the methods of cost-effectiveness. Contact will be made health economists to inform and enrich this review. This evidence will be used as a springboard for discussion at a meeting with key European stakeholders and experts with the aim of reaching a consensus on recommendations for cost-effectiveness methodology. Epidemiological data for coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be collected along with data on time trends in three major risk factors related to these diseases, specifically tobacco consumption, blood pressure and body mass index. Economic and epidemiological micro-simulation models will be developed to asses the future distributions of risks, disease outcomes, healthcare costs and the cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in Europe. Discussion This work will help to establish the best methods of measuring cost-effectiveness of health interventions as well as test a variety of scenarios to reduce the risk factors associated with selected chronic diseases. The modelling projections could be used to inform decisions and policies that will implement the best course of action to curb the rising incidence of chronic diseases. PMID:24886110

2014-01-01

66

Using Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) to Resolve the Major Construction Project Delay Causes in Saudi Arabia  

E-print Network

Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) has gained attention in the United States and Europe as an effective delivery method for construction projects. The aim of this research paper is to determine the major causes of delay in projects in Saudi Arabia...

Alkhalid, Khalid Abdullah

2011-12-16

67

Exploring the Gap for Effective Extension of Professional Active Life in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extending Professional Active Life (ePAL [2]) of elder people in Europe is affected by a number of factors in the market and society, which have the potential to either positively and negatively influence it. Current practices indicate that the European society, while started to act on this subject, is still slow to recognize the rationale behind and importance of fully supporting the extension of active professional life of seniors. Similarly, the capacity of the service sector to fully support the involvement of seniors in economical activities is at present limited, given the huge number of these seniors in different countries who need to be mobilized. This paper seeks to highlight the identified gaps related to effective mechanisms by which Europe can support its willing senior professionals to remain active. The study on gap identification addresses relevant technological, social, and organizational factors and external influences which have the potential to impact successful future life of elderly population. It also presents the methodology that is applied in our study to identify and analyze the gaps between the current practices in this area, the so-called baseline [2], and the desired future for this area as inspired in the ePAL vision [1] addressed in other research.

Leonard, Will; Afsarmanesh, Hamideh; Msanjila, Simon S.; Playfoot, Jim

68

Scheduling projects with multiskill learning effect.  

PubMed

We investigate the project scheduling problem with multiskill learning effect. A new model is proposed to deal with the problem, where both autonomous and induced learning are considered. In order to obtain the optimal solution, a genetic algorithm with specific encoding and decoding schemes is introduced. A numerical example is used to illustrate the proposed model. The computational results show that the learning effect cannot be neglected in project scheduling. By means of determining the level of induced learning, the project manager can balance the project makespan with total cost. PMID:24683355

Zha, Hong; Zhang, Lianying

2014-01-01

69

Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.  

PubMed

We studied the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) region. The cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 vaccination of 12 year-old girls was calculated for 28 countries, under the assumption that vaccination prevents 70% of all cervical cancer cases and that cervical cancer and all-cause mortality rates are stable without vaccination. At three-dose vaccination costs of I$ 100 per vaccinated girl (currency 2005 international dollars), HPV16/18 vaccination was very cost-effective in 25 out of 28 countries using the country's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as cost-effectiveness threshold (criterion by World Health Organization). A three-dose vaccination cost of I$ 100 is within the current range of vaccine costs in European immunization programs, and therefore our results indicate that HPV vaccination may be good value for money. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening combined with vaccination, we calibrated a published simulation model to HPV genotype data collected in Slovenia, Poland, and Georgia. The screening interval was varied at 3, 6, and 10 years starting at age 25 or 30 and ending at age 60. In Slovenia and Poland, combined vaccination and 10-yearly HPV (DNA) screening (vaccination coverage 70%, screening coverage per round 70%) was very cost-effective when the cost of three-dose vaccination was I$ 100 per vaccinated girl. More intensive screening was very cost-effective when the screening coverage per round was 30% or 50%. In Georgia, 10-yearly Pap screening was very cost-effective in unvaccinated women. Vaccination combined with 10-yearly HPV screening was likely to be cost-effective if the three-dose vaccination cost was I$ 50 per vaccinated girl. To conclude, cervical cancer prevention strategies utilizing both HPV16/18 vaccination and HPV screening are very cost-effective in countries with sufficient resources. In low-resource settings, low vaccine pricing is essential for strategies of combined vaccination and screening to be cost-effective. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24332299

Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

2013-12-31

70

Operational Model Evaluation for Particulate Matter in Europe and North America in the Context of the AQMEII Project  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten state-of-the-science regional air quality (AQ) modeling systems have been applied to continental scale domains in North America and Europe for full-year simulations of 2006 in the context of Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII), whose main goals are ...

71

Review of recent studies from central and eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to {open_quotes}traditional{close_quotes} air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review focuses on epidemiologic evidence regarding health effects of poor air quality in Central and Eastern Europe. It appears that short-term high levels of air pollutants (primarily particulates and SO{sub 2}) may increase mortality in sensitive parts of the population. Associations were also seen between air pollution levels and prevalence of respiratory diseases as well as lung function disturbances in adults and children. One study indicated that urban air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer. Several investigations pointed to strong interactions between risk factors. The poor scientific standard of the studies often makes it difficult to evaluate the findings. Several steps should be taken to develop environmental epidemiology in Central and Eastern Europe, including international collaboration in research projects and training. 30 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

Jedrychowski, W. [Univ. Medical School, Cracow (Poland)

1995-03-01

72

Review of recent studies from central and Eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to "traditional" air pollutants.  

PubMed Central

The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review focuses on epidemiologic evidence regarding health effects of poor air quality in Central and Eastern Europe. It appears that short-term high levels of air pollutants (primarily particulates and SO2) may increase mortality in sensitive parts of the population. Associations were also seen between air pollution levels and prevalence of respiratory diseases as well as lung function disturbances in adults and children. One study indicated that urban air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer. Several investigations pointed to strong interactions between risk factors. The poor scientific standard of the studies often makes it difficult to evaluate the findings. Several steps should be taken to develop environmental epidemiology in Central and Eastern Europe, including international collaboration in research projects and training. PMID:7614938

Jedrychowski, W

1995-01-01

73

Detection of the Effect of Changing Land Use on Warm Extremes in Europe and North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human health is adversely affected by extreme temperatures and events like heatwaves are often accompanied by mortality increases. It is therefore essential to understand how extremes respond in a climate forced by anthropogenic forcings. We combine information about changes in warm day extremes during 1950- 2005 from observations and the Hadley Centre HadGEM1 general circulation model (GCM) to carry out an optimal detection analysis. We investigate the effect of changing land use in Europe and North America, where the impact on warm day extremes is the opposite. We find that the loss of trees in both regions since 1850 can explain the bulk of the observed change and propose a mechanism for the perhaps counterintuitive cooling over the Southeast United States (SE US).

Christidis, N.; Hegerl, G. C.; Stott, P. A.; Betts, R. A.

2009-05-01

74

Particle number projection with effective forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The particle-number projection method is formulated for density-dependent forces and in particular for the finite-range Gogny force. Detailed formula for the projected energy and its gradient are provided. The problems arising from the neglection of any exchange term, which may lead to divergences, are thoroughly discussed and the possible inaccuracies estimated. Numerical results for the projection after variation method are shown for the nucleus 164Er and for the projection before variation approach for the nuclei 48,50Cr. We also confirm the Coulomb antipairing effect found in mean-field theories.

Anguiano, M.; Egido, J. L.; Robledo, L. M.

2001-12-01

75

Project Title: Prisoner Counselling Effectiveness  

E-print Network

to be evaluated. Based on a review of literature surrounding designing self- assessment survey methods, a review methods and applications of survey methods to evaluate a programmes effectiveness (comparison across review on applications of survey methods to evaluate a programme's effectiveness 12 March ­ 5 April

Hickman, Mark

76

Health effects of air pollution in southern Europe: are there interacting factors?  

PubMed Central

Recent results suggest that adverse health effects of air pollution exist at levels of pollutants around or even below air quality standards set by national and international institutions. Furthermore, there are indications that air pollution effects on health may be partly determined by specific mixtures of air pollutants and may be altered by other environmental, behavioral, and social patterns. Southern European countries share some common characteristics in terms of climate, geography, and life activity patterns. Results from studies undertaken in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain investigating short- and long-term air pollution health effects are presented and their consistency demonstrated. These results provide adequate evidence that health effects--particularly short-term--of the currently measured urban air pollution levels exist. However, information available so far does not allow an assessment of regional differences in the health effects of air pollution as far as the Mediterranean region of Europe is concerned. It is suggested that the interaction between the traditional pollution (mainly characterized by high levels of black smoke and SO2) and photochemical pollution must be investigated in this area, as well as the possible interaction between air pollution and high temperature and other meteorologic factors. In addition, measurements of individual exposure to different pollutants, affected by the pollutant's levels in specific micro-environments and the individual's time-activity pattern, must be undertaken for a better understanding of the air pollution-health link. Finally, the importance of the reported air pollution health effects in terms of public health must be addressed more closely. PMID:7614942

Katsouyanni, K

1995-01-01

77

Examining effective and ineffective transformational project leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Aims to examine effective and ineffective leader behaviors from direct participant observations in several cases of a large multiyear cross-industry international research project to prove the hypothesis that effective team performance management requires strong transformational leadership. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Transformational and charismatic leadership theories are briefly discussed from management science to explain how their principles can apply to and

Kenneth David Strang

2005-01-01

78

Higher education and unemployment in Europe: an analysis of the academic subject and national effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of an academic degree and field of study on short and longterm unemployment across Europe (EU15).\\u000a Labour Force Survey (LFS) data on over half a million individuals are utilised for that purpose. The harmonized LFS classification\\u000a of level of education and field of study overcomes past problems of comparability across Europe. The study analyses (1)

Imanol Núñez; Ilias Livanos

2010-01-01

79

Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project: cross-national comparison of smoking prevalence in 18 European countries.  

PubMed

Limited data on smoking prevalence allowing valid between-country comparison are available in Europe. The aim of this study is to provide data on smoking prevalence and its determinants in 18 European countries. In 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project, we conducted a face-to-face survey on smoking in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden) on a total of 18 056 participants, representative for each country of the population aged 15 years or older. Overall, 27.2% of the participants were current smokers (30.6% of men and 24.1% of women). Smoking prevalence was highest in Bulgaria (40.9%) and Greece (38.9%) and lowest in Italy (22.0%) and Sweden (16.3%). Smoking prevalence ranged between 15.7% (Sweden) and 44.3% (Bulgaria) for men and between 11.6% (Albania) and 38.1% (Ireland) for women. Multivariate analysis showed a significant inverse trend between smoking prevalence and the level of education in both sexes. Male-to-female smoking prevalence ratios ranged from 0.85 in Spain to 3.47 in Albania and current-to-ex prevalence ratios ranged from 0.68 in Sweden to 4.28 in Albania. There are considerable differences across Europe in smoking prevalence, and male-to-female and current-to-ex smoking prevalence ratios. Eastern European countries, lower income countries and those with less advanced tobacco control policies have less favourable smoking patterns and are at an earlier stage of the tobacco epidemic. PMID:24441832

Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo; Chaloupka, Frank J; Colombo, Paolo; Currie, Laura; Fernandez, Esteve; Fischbacher, Colin; Gilmore, Anna; Godfrey, Fiona; Joossens, Luk; Leon, Maria E; Levy, David T; Nguyen, Lien; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Ross, Hana; Townsend, Joy; Clancy, Luke

2014-05-01

80

The effect of spatial and temporal correlations in the evaluation of flood risk in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk models as developed for the insurance sector tend to have two distinct features that set them apart from many other model applications. Firstly, the insurance sector has an interest in large-scale models (viz., country scale and larger), so that flood risk across their entire portfolio, which is often geographically dispersed over a large area, can be consistently assessed. Secondly, it's also relevant to the insurance sector to model spatio-temporal correlations of the drivers of flood loss correctly across the entire domain, in order to not over- or underestimate the financial consequences of flood events. As flood risk can conceptually be regarded as the result of the combined effects of intense local precipitation (triggering local "pluvial" flood events), and high river discharge (driving large-scale "fluvial" floods), there is a need to model both these variables in such a way that the statistics at any one location as well as the correlations in space and time are aptly described. In this work, additionally to giving an overview of the European Flood Model that is currently being developed at RMS, we describe the development and the analysis of a coherent, continent-wide set of stochastic model forcings and their effect on large-scale flood modelling. Our results show that by applying the model we are able to simulate input forcings such that the statistics compare favourably with those of observations. Moreover, by providing these forcings to our hydrological model, we are able to adequately reflect the corresponding hydrological response in terms of discharge. Furthermore we discuss the application of this model for flood risk evaluation across Europe, specifically by interpretation of some key model results, such as spatial and temporal correlations of precipitation and discharge for various aggregation periods and evaluation windows (e.g., precipitation and discharge maxima over a month, and their correlations in both space and time), as well as effects of seasonality on precipitation and discharge regimes.

Tsaknias, Dimosthenis; Assteerawatt, Anongnart; Azemar, Frederic; Ghosh, Sourima; Hilberts, Arno; Nicótina, Ludovico; Tillmanns, Stephan

2013-04-01

81

The PASTURE project: EU support for the improvement of knowledge about risk factors and preventive factors for atopy in Europe.  

PubMed

Since January 2002, the European Commission is funding a large project, 'Protection against Allergy--Study in Rural Environments' (PASTURE; contract no. QLK4-2001-00250), under the Fifth Framework Program in the field of epidemiology of allergic diseases. The aim of this paper was to describe the background and design as well as the aims of the project. Asthma and allergic disorders are a major public health problem in many Western countries. The aetiology of asthma and allergic disease remains poorly understood despite considerable research. Epidemiology has the potential to add greatly to the understanding by elucidating the risk factors for asthma and allergic disease and thereby suggesting productive avenues for research into causation and prevention. Several risk factors for the development of asthma and atopic disease in children such as passive smoke exposure during pregnancy and infancy, low birth weight or high body mass index later in life have been described. Furthermore, there is consistent evidence that the prevalence of atopy increases with higher socio-economic status. Levels of air pollution such as ozone, NO2, SO2 and particles are likely to provoke acute exacerbations of pre-existent respiratory disease. Their role in the inception of asthma and allergies remains to be clarified. Allergen exposure has been linked to the development of atopic sensitization to that particular allergen in children as well as in adults with occupational exposures. Exposure to house dust mite or cat allergen is, however, unlikely to contribute to the development of childhood asthma. In turn, pet keeping in the first year of life, particularly, dog keeping, has been inversely related to the development of wheeze and atopic illnesses. Several prospective birth cohort studies found a decreased prevalence of atopic disease in children having daily contact to pets, in particular to cats and dogs, during early infancy. The protective effect might be attributable to allergen or other exposures associated with pet ownership, but may also in part be because of the removal of pets in families with sensitized or symptomatic children or in families with a positive history for atopy at the time the child was born. PMID:16512801

von Mutius, E; Schmid, S

2006-04-01

82

"Urban heat island" effect on tree growth at several cities of Northern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated growth of larches being planted at several cities of Northern Europe: St. Petersburg (59°57'N, 30°19'E), Rovaniemi (66°30'N, 25°44'E), Apatity (67°34'N, 33°23'E). The data were collected at several sites inside of each city, and at one site in the rural area outside of each cities (about 50 km apart). Totally we studied 10 series. The longest chronology was about 190 years (in St. Petersburg). However, the most others were not very long (about 50 - 70 years). Firstly, it was shown that tree-rings of planted (not typical) larch trees don't reflect the influence of external (solar) factors in contrast with natural species. That is it could not be possible to detect some warming for the 1930-1960 period and some cooling later on. This effect was observed for both series inside the cities and outside of them. Secondly, it was revealed that for both northern cities (Apatity and Rovaniemi) variability of tree-ring indexes was more pronounced in series collected inside of them. Another situation was found for St. Petersburg. Growth of larch trees was stable inside of this megapolis. The preliminary interpretation of the results obtained seems to be connected to different influence of "urban heat island" effect on planted trees inside and outside of the cities for megapolis and relatively small towns. This work is financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 09-04-98801), by the Program of the Russian Academy and by the Regional Scientific Program of Murmansk region.

Shumilov, O. I.; Kasatkina, E. A.; Timonen, M.; Herva, H.; Kirtsideli, I.; Kanatjev, A. G.

2010-05-01

83

Climatic effects in Central Europe on the frequency of medical treatments of dairy cows.  

PubMed

In the present study, the relationship between the temperature-humidity index (THI) and the incidence of medical treatments in lactating dairy cows in Lower Saxony, Germany, was investigated. Records of all veterinary-treated cases over 2 years (2003 and 2005) from eight Holstein-Friesian dairy herds raised in loose-housing systems (55 to 170 cows per herd) were evaluated. After exclusion of management-dependent and climate-independent cases, a total of 5547 treatments were analyzed. Treatments were clustered into the following groups: metabolism, fertility, udder and foot/leg. Meteorological data were compiled from the nearest weather station (average distance ± s.d. 39 ± 13 km). Hourly temperatures and relative humidity values were used to calculate the THI, which was divided into classes. Out of the total number of treatments, 37.4%, 32.9%, 21.6% and 8.1% belonged to metabolism, udder, fertility and foot/leg, respectively. Data were analyzed with a mixed model that included THI class, season and year as fixed effects and farm as random effect. In general, incidences were neither affected by the year (P > 0.05) and season (P > 0.05) nor by THI classes (P > 0.05). In tendency, incidences of metabolic treatments increased with increasing THI and incidences of udder treatments increased with decreasing THI. In conclusion, indications of moderate heat stress during summer months in Central Europe were found in the present study, although THI and season did not affect the different disease complexes significantly. PMID:23034127

Sanker, C; Lambertz, C; Gauly, M

2013-02-01

84

Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study investigates effects of wildfire emissions on air quality in Europe during an intense fire season that occurred in summer 2003. A meso-scale chemistry transport model CHIMERE is used, together with ground based and satellite aerosol optical measurements, to assess the dispersion of fire emissions and to quantify the associated radiative effects. The model has been improved to take into account the MODIS daily smoke emission inventory as well as the injection altitude of smoke particles. The simulated aerosol optical properties are inputted into a radiative transfer model to estimate (off-line) the effects of smoke particles on photolysis rates and atmospheric radiative forcing. We have found that wildfires generated comparable amounts of primary aerosol pollutants (220 kTons of PM2.5, fine particles) to anthropogenic sources during August 2003, and caused significant changes in aerosol optical properties not only close to the fire source regions, but also over a large part of Europe as a result of the long-range transport of smoke. Including these emissions into the model significantly improved its performance in simulating observed aerosol concentrations and optical properties. Quantitative comparison with MODIS and POLDER data during the major fire event (3-8 August) showed the ability of the model to reproduce high aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over Northern Europe caused by the advection of the smoke plume from the Portugal source region. Statistical analyses of model simulations showed a better agreement with observed AOT data at AERONET ground stations and suggest that wildfire emissions are responsible for a 30% enhancement in mean AOT values during the heat-wave episode. The implications for air quality over a large part of Europe are significant during this episode. First, directly, the modeled wildfire emissions caused an increase in average PM10 ground concentrations from 20 to 200%. The largest enhancement in PM10 concentrations stayed however confined within a 200 km area around the fire source locations and reached up to 40 ? g/m3. Second, indirectly, the presence of elevated smoke layers over Europe significantly altered atmospheric radiative properties: the model results imply a 10 to 30% decrease in photolysis rates and an increase in atmospheric radiative forcing of 10-35 Wm-2 during the period of strong fire influence throughout a large part of Europe. These results suggest that sporadic wildfire events may have significant effects on regional photochemistry and atmospheric stability, and need to be considered in current chemistry-transport models.

Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Bohn, B.; Massie, S.; Menut, L.; Wiedinmyer, C.

2007-04-01

85

Climate condition in the Central Europe during the Weichselian Ice Sheet according to the Educational Global Climate Modeling Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expansion and retreat of the ice sheet is controlled by climate changes, and from the other hand, a huge ice mass influences on the climate in the regional scale. This mechanism is commonly known as the fact but often without making reconstruction by using climatological modeling. The purpose of our study is to reconstruct the climate condition during the Weichselian Ice Sheet in the Central Europe, especially for Poland and surrounded countries. The Global Climate Model (GCM) is made for predicting climate, but simplified version can be useful for reconstructing paleoclimate. Hence, the simple initial conditions and surface data proposed by the Educational version of the GCM was applied. In our study we used a simplified version of the GCM to calculate main climate characteristics within the time limits c. 21 000 BP - 18 000 BP, which has been previously invented on Columbia University. The model is constructed on grid with a horizontal resolution 8° latitude by 10° longitude and was establish for modeling most of weather conditions based on available paleoclimate data. It is possible to estimate the probable climate condition along the southern ice sheets margin on the basis of output from the GCM and GIS modeling techniques. Above the ice mass occurs local high pressure area, which seriously interfered on atmospheric circulation. Whereas the low pressure systems in the southern part of continent may caused permanent barometric situation, which stimulates wind directions as well as the precipitable water available in the mass of air. The climate on the east-south border of ice margin was colder and drier than on the west-south region, where it was more ocean-reliable and gentle with higher temperatures. The differences in temperature between the western and eastern part of the Central Europe reached few centigrade. Against a background of the mean paleoclimatic situation in the Central Europe there is coming out a question about the particular paleoclimate condition in Poland. In this area occurred a huge ice-lobe, distinct in the geomorphology, during the Weichselian Ice Sheet. Authors try to define the role of such a big ice-barrier on the climate changes at the foreland, between the western and eastern side. It is necessary to consider the ice cap thickness in the lobe estimated from separately prepared in GIS software (GRASS) 3D ice-sheet surface elevation model, together with the climatic data from the GCM for regional situation. The results of modeling are also related to available abiotic parameters for Poland. Finally, it is suggested that the ice-lobe was high enough barrier to cause the differences in temperature distribution due to limitation of delivery the warm Atlantic air masses to the eastern region. It has also significant impact on local wind field, especially in transition areas.

Szuman, Izabela; Czernecki, Bartosz

2010-05-01

86

The development of a common risk assessment methodology for local authorities in southeast Europe focusing on climate change related hazards - first results from the SEERISK project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is expected to influence the magnitude and frequency of a number of natural hazards in the future and hence, change the spatial patterns of risk and vulnerability. Local authorities, emergency planners and other decision makers are in need of tools that enable the assessment of the risks associated with the natural hazards. This research is embedded in the EU-funded SEERISK project ("Joint disaster management risk assessment and preparedness for the Danube macro-region"). The principle aim of this project is to improve coherence and consistency among risk assessments undertaken by the partner countries in national, regional and local level. The project focuses on bringing decision makers from southeast Europe together and it attempts the development of a common methodology for risk assessment of climate change related hazards that will be applied in various pilot areas in the partner countries (Hungary, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Bosnia Herzegovina and Romania). The common methodology takes into consideration the lack of data in most of the cases and it offers alternatives for the risk assessment but also for the data collection following future events. The common methodology is presented here in the form of methodological steps for four different natural hazards, namely, floods, droughts, heat waves and extreme wind. The proposed methodology is in line with the EC Guidelines for Risk assessment and mapping and will be implemented in the near future in respective regions.

Papathoma-Koehle, Maria; Promper, Catrin; Glade, Thomas

2013-04-01

87

The prediction and management of aquatic nitrogen pollution across Europe: an introduction to the INCA project Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(3), 299313 (2002) EGS  

E-print Network

The prediction and management of aquatic nitrogen pollution across Europe: an introduction and management of aquatic nitrogen pollution across Europe: an introduction to the Integrated Nitrogen: fertiliser inputs, atmospheric deposition and sewage discharges. Superimposed on these anthropogenic inputs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

CNBC Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CNBC EuropeEBN Interactive is the web site of the European Business News (EBN) channel. The site posts the latest business news from all over Europe. Visitors can also listen to EBN's live broadcast of European news or specific programs. The Markets section provides continuous updates of European stock markets and daily market reports for each stock exchange. The Features section holds a collection of video clips from EBN programs such as "The Big Game," "Automotive," and "Your Money," among others.

1998-01-01

89

Effect-based assessment of passive air samples from four countries in Eastern Europe.  

PubMed

Although passive sampling has been previously used for the monitoring of volatile and semi-volatile contaminants in air, there are limited data on the use of this technique coupled with bioassays based on specific biological responses. Biological responses including those mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) receptor as well as (anti-)estrogenicity and (anti-)androgenicity of samples from four Eastern European countries (Lithuania, Slovakia, Romania, and Serbia) were determined. To address the potential differences of specific toxic potencies of pollutant mixtures in ambient air in Eastern Europe, each country was characterized by a single more remote location that served to determine regional background conditions and one location in more urbanized and industrialized locations, which were defined as "impacted" areas. Besides samples from Lithuania, a significant gradient in concentrations of AhR-mediated potency from background and impacted localities was observed. Greatest potencies were measured in samples from impacted locations in Romania and Slovakia. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that were quantified accounted for 3-33 % of the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents determined by use of the bioassay. No significant estrogenic potency was detected but anti-estrogenic effects were produced by air from two background locations (Lithuania, Slovakia) and three impacted locations (Lithuania, Romania, and Serbia). Anti-androgenic potency was observed in all samples. The greatest anti-estrogenic potency was observed at the background location in Slovakia. Anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic potencies of studied air samples were probably associated with compounds that are not routinely monitored. The study documents suitability of passive air sampling for the assessment of specific toxic potencies of ambient air pollutants. PMID:24532343

Érseková, Anita; Hilscherová, Klára; Klánová, Jana; Giesy, John P; Novák, Ji?í

2014-06-01

90

Differences in spatiotemporal variations of atmospheric PAH levels between North America and Europe: data from two air monitoring projects.  

PubMed

Atmospheric concentrations of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at five sites for almost two decades near the North American Great Lakes, as part of the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN), and at three remote sites around Europe, as part of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The primary objectives were to reveal the spatial distributions, long-term temporal trends, and seasonal variations of atmospheric PAH concentrations and to investigate potential differences between these two regions. Atmospheric PAH concentrations at the urban sites in Chicago and Cleveland near Great Lakes were about 20 times (depending on PAH congener and sampling site) greater than those at the rural sites except for Košetice in the Czech Republic. Atmospheric PAH concentrations at Košetice, also a rural site, were about one-third of those at Chicago and Cleveland, but 10 times higher than those at other rural sites (Sturgeon Point, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Eagle Harbor, Aspvreten, and Spitsbergen). Significant long-term decreasing trends of all these PAH atmospheric concentrations were observed at Chicago and Cleveland. For the other sites, either less significant or no long-term decreasing trends were observed. Clear seasonality was observed at Sturgeon Point, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Košetice, and Spitsbergen, with the highest PAH concentrations observed in mid-January. PMID:24365715

Liu, Liang-Ying; Kuku?ka, Petr; Venier, Marta; Salamova, Amina; Klánová, Jana; Hites, Ronald A

2014-03-01

91

Workforce development and effective evaluation of projects.  

PubMed

The success of a project or programme is typically determined in relation to outputs. However, there is a commitment among UK public services to spending public funds efficiently and on activities that provide the greatest benefit to society. Skills for Health recognised the need for a tool to manage the complex process of evaluating project benefits. An integrated evaluation framework was developed to help practitioners identify, describe, measure and evaluate the benefits of workforce development projects. Practitioners tested the framework on projects within three NHS trusts and provided valuable feedback to support its development. The prospective approach taken to identify benefits and collect baseline data to support evaluation was positively received and the clarity and completeness of the framework, as well as the relevance of the questions, were commended. Users reported that the framework was difficult to complete; an online version could be developed, which might help to improve usability. Effective implementation of this approach will depend on the quality and usability of the framework, the willingness of organisations to implement it, and the presence or establishment of an effective change management culture. PMID:25039638

Dickerson, Claire; Green, Tess; Blass, Eddie

92

Labor market effects of immigration in the United States and Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of immigrants on the income of various groups of resident workers in the United States and Europe. Our approach features the use of a production technology incorporating education, experience, and unskilled labor as inputs. This contrasts with the assumption used in earlier studies that native-born and immigrant labor are distinct inputs into production. We find

Ira N. Gang; Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz

1994-01-01

93

The Citizen's Effect: 25 Features about the Europe for Citizens Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public forums and shared spaces in which citizens can debate and deliberate have always constituted essential elements of a democratic society. Today, the Europe for Citizens Programme serves to create a modern European agora. Launched in 2007, the programme supports initiatives that bring people together in international and intercultural…

Reding, Viviane

2012-01-01

94

The effect of plate stresses and shallow mantle temperatures on tectonics of northwestern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northwestern Europe is tectonically more active, in terms of seismicity, vertical motions and volcanism, than would be expected from its location far from any plate boundaries. In the context of the Netherlands Earth System Dynamics Initiative, we investigated the implications of two recent modeling efforts, of Eurasian plate forces and European mantle structure, for our understanding of the dynamics of

S. Goes; J. J. P. Loohuis; M. J. R. Wortel; R. Govers

2000-01-01

95

Europe's Economic and Monetary Union: The Effects of Integration on Income Distribution & Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with the fanfare and anticipation created around the establishment of Europe's Economic and Monetary Union and its new currency came a new chapter in history for each of the 12 participating E.U. countries and over 300 million inhabitants agreeing to join an economic system towards further integration that, once combined, would roughly rival the share of global economic output

Chris S. Neamonitis

96

The Effects of Socio-Political Changes in Eastern Europe on Military Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reunification of Germany, democratic changes in Eastern European countries, and new government policies of the Soviet Union will lead to the reduction of U.S. troops in West Germany. As a Department of Defense contractor providing associate degrees to soldiers in Europe, Central Texas College (CTC) will be severely affected by the troop…

Ostertag, Vesna

97

Demand for movies in Europe and the effects of multiplex diffusion: a panel approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

After three decades of decreasing admissions, cinema attendance in Europe showed a significant rise during the nineties despite the competition of several audiovisual media. This growth in ticket sales must be compared with the declining share of exhibition in total film revenues. In this period exhibition started to be for movies the first window of a complex multi release strategy

Orietta DESSY; Marco GAMBARO

2008-01-01

98

Detection of explosive as an indicator of landmines: BIOSENS project methodology and field tests in Southeast Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IST-2000-25348-BIOSENS project carried out a number of studies to assess the use of explosive detection technology for humanitarian demining. This paper presents sampling/collection technology developed, test methodology and results including comparisons with dogs and soil sampling. Findings are presented in terms of the detection of explosive from mines in the environment and demining.

Crabbe, Stephen; Eng, Lars; Gardhagen, Peter; Berg, Anders

2005-06-01

99

Oceanography Vol.22, No.4190 AbstrAct. The European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA) is Europe's  

E-print Network

Oceanography Vol.22, No.4190 AbstrAct. The European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA favorable to their dissolution. Whereas the chemical consequences of ocean acidification are perfectly of ocean acidification research, attention has often been devoted to the behavior of calcifying organisms

Rodgers, Keith

100

Masculinities in Organizational Cultures in Engineering Education in Europe: Results of the European Union Project WomEng  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes elements of engineering organizational cultures and structures in higher engineering education from the European project WomEng. Hypotheses, based on state of the art, refer to: women friendly presentation, attractiveness of interdisciplinary teaching methods, single sex education, perceptions of minority status, feelings of…

Sagebiel, F.; Dahmen, J.

2006-01-01

101

Effective promotion of healthy nutrition and physical activity in Europe requires skilled and competent people; European Master's Programme in Public Health Nutrition.  

PubMed

Scientists in basic research and epidemiology deliver messages to policy makers. Effective population based strategies then require people trained and competent in the discipline of Public Health Nutrition (PHN). Since 1997, a European Master's Programme in PHN has been undergoing planning and implementation with the aid of funding from the European Commission (DGV). PHN is used as a broad term covering Nutrition and Physical Activity as well as Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. The partners in this project are academic departments from 17 countries. The students will undertake core modules and electives for a year and a half, followed by a research project for six months. In order to set up formalised procedures for the evaluation of the quality assurance of individual modules from across Europe, a quality assurance system has been set up. The academic year 1999-2000 will allow an opportunity for Universities and Institutes to start new modules, to develop other modules, assess the movement of students between modules, tackle funding issues and allow further marketing of the programme. Future activities include strengthening of the European Network for Public Health Nutrition (ENPHN), the establishment of a consortium with universities, the co-ordination of programme activities with other European Master's Programmes in Public Health, and the incorporation of new Member States from Eastern Europe. We can look forward to a new brand of professionals, who are truly European in their training, but who also have an integrated view of nutrition and physical activity, health promotion and disease prevention and who are prepared for policy making, action planning, implementation and evaluation. PMID:10610087

Yngve, A; Sjöström, M; Warm, D; Margetts, B; Rodrigo, C P; Nissinen, A

1999-09-01

102

Effective speckle reduction in laser projection displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two alternative methods for effectively reducing the speckle noise in laser based rear and front projection displays are studied and demonstrated. Firstly, widening of the laser emission spectrum to nearly 4nm by tailoring the structures of 640nm band AlGaInP/GaInP based edge emitting broad-area red laser diode arrays, realized a reduction of speckle contrast from 20% to an acceptable level of 5%. Designing the power/wavelength distribution of the multiple emitters to achieve a flat top profile for the total spectrum plays an important role in maximizing the speckle reduction effect. This approach could easily be adapted to laser diodes arrays of other materials or wavelengths. Secondly, relative oscillation movement within the screen layers can also reduce the speckle contrast to the acceptable level of 5%. The moving layer material and the oscillation period has been studied and optimized to maximize the reduction level for both rear and front projection configurations. The two speckle reduction techniques were evaluated on a front projector utilizing a red laser assisted UHP lamp hybrid light source, and showed significant enhancement in view ability by the suppression of speckle. Combining the two techniques lead to further reduction in speckle and scintillation noise to a supreme level of 2%, enabling a practical solution for wide color gamut and high efficiency laser projection displays.

Furukawa, Akio; Ohse, Norihiro; Sato, Yoshifumi; Imanishi, Daisuke; Wakabayashi, Kazuya; Ito, Satoshi; Tamamura, Koshi; Hirata, Shoji

2008-02-01

103

The treatment effect of borders on trade. The great war and the disintegration of Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impact of changes in national border demarcation on economic integration. It treats the national\\u000a breakups in Central Europe due to WWI as a natural experiment. The set-up allows to control for selection bias when estimating\\u000a the impact of national borders on trade. A gravity model of trade is used to analyze goods-specific trade among Central European

Hans Christian Heinemeyer

2007-01-01

104

Quantifying the potential macroeconomic effects of the Europe 2020 strategy: stylised scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary for non-specialistsAn essential part of the Europe 2020 strategy consists of reforms with a medium- to long-term horizon that focus on promoting the sustainability of public finances and enhancing potential growth. Building on structural reform simulations with the DSGE model QUEST III, this paper presents several stylised scenarios combining fiscal consolidation efforts with differentiated progress in implementing structural reforms

Alexandr Hobza; Gilles Mourre

2010-01-01

105

Employment Effects of Foreign Direct Investment in Central and Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper starts with a discussion of the development of the number of manufacturing sector jobs in the framework of economic transformation and industrial restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe. Over the past decade, domestically-owned manufacturing companies reduced the number employed while foreign-owned enterprises expanded that number. Job losses due to FDI have resulted from restructuring of privatized state-owned companies.

Ingo Geishecker; Gabor Hunya

2005-01-01

106

The effects of drug market regulation on pharmaceutical prices in Europe: overview and evidence from the market of ACE inhibitors  

PubMed Central

This study provides an overview of policy measures targeting pharmaceutical expenditure in Europe and analyses their impact on originator pharmaceutical prices. Panel data methods are used to examine the market of ACE Inhibitors in six European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom) over period 1991-2006. We find that although some measures are effective in reducing originator prices, others appear to have an insignificant effect. Results suggest that supply side measures such as mandatory generic substitution, regressive pharmacy mark-ups and claw-backs are effective in reducing pharmaceuticals prices. Results are not as strong for demand side measures. Profit controls and the use of cost-effectiveness analysis appear to have a negative effect on prices, while results on reference pricing are inconclusive. Findings also indicate that, although originator prices are not immediately affected by generic entry, they may be influenced by changes in generic prices post patent expiry. PMID:22828053

2011-01-01

107

International Weather-Radar Networking in Western Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few years there has been considerable activity in Western Europe aimed at establishing national radar networks. Concurrent with this work, several bilateral agreements to exchange weather-radar data across national boundaries have been established. Effective international cooperation was stimulated by the European Economic Community (EEC) sponsored COST Project 72 and this has led to the setting up of

C. G. Collier; C. A. Fair; D. H. Newsome

1988-01-01

108

Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study investigates effects of wildfire emissions on air quality in Europe during an intense fire season that occurred in summer 2003. A meso-scale chemistry transport model CHIMERE is used, together with ground based and satellite aerosol optical measurements, to assess the dispersion of fire emissions and to quantify the associated radiative effects. The model has been improved to take into account a MODIS-derived daily smoke emission inventory as well as the injection altitude of smoke particles. The simulated aerosol optical properties are put into a radiative transfer model to estimate (off-line) the effects of smoke particles on photolysis rates and atmospheric radiative forcing. We have found that the simulated wildfires generated comparable amounts of primary aerosol pollutants (130 kTons of PM2.5, fine particles) to anthropogenic sources during August 2003, and caused significant changes in aerosol optical properties not only close to the fire source regions, but also over a large part of Europe as a result of the long-range transport of the smoke. Including these emissions into the model significantly improved its performance in simulating observed aerosol concentrations and optical properties. Quantitative comparison with MODIS and POLDER data during the major fire event (3-8 August 2003) showed the ability of the model to reproduce high aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over Northern Europe caused by the advection of the smoke plume from the Portugal source region. Although there was a fairly good spatial agreement with satellite data (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.4 to 0.9), the temporal variability of AOT data at specific AERONET locations was not well captured by the model. Statistical analyses of model-simulated AOT data at AERONET ground stations showed a significant decrease in the model biases suggesting that wildfire emissions are responsible for a 30% enhancement in mean AOT values during the heat-wave episode. The implications for air quality over a large part of Europe are significant during this episode. First, directly, the modeled wildfire emissions caused an increase in average PM2.5 ground concentrations from 20 to 200%. The largest enhancement in PM2.5 concentrations stayed, however, confined within a 200 km area around the fire source locations and reached up to 40 ?g/m³. Second, indirectly, the presence of elevated smoke layers over Europe significantly altered atmospheric radiative properties: the model results imply a 10 to 30% decrease in photolysis rates and an increase in atmospheric radiative forcing of 10-35 W m-2 during the period of strong fire influence throughout a large part of Europe. These results suggest that sporadic wildfire events may have significant effects on regional photochemistry and atmospheric stability, and need to be considered in current chemistry-transport models.

Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Bohn, B.; Massie, S.; Menut, L.; Wiedinmyer, C.

2007-08-01

109

The SAFE project: 'plant food allergies: field to table strategies for reducing their incidence in Europe' an EC-funded study.  

PubMed

The true prevalence of food allergy as an IgE mediated reaction is still under discussion. Using apple as a model allergen source a multidisciplinary consortium worked together at developing various strategies for reducing the incidence of fruit allergies in an EC-funded project. Patient allergen profiles were established using in vitro and in vivo tests with respect to geographic area and mild or severe symptoms. Apple allergens (Mal d 1-Mal d 4) were characterised, variants identified, cloned and sequenced. These individual allergens were used to increase the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis. Furthermore, they provided better prognosis of disease severity. RT-PCR and ELISA were developed for determining the allergen specific mRNA and expressed allergenic protein in a large number of apple cultivars. Similarly, changes in allergen characteristics from harvest through storage to processing and the impact of agronomic practices were investigated. Allergen genes were mapped on a molecular linkage map of apple. The biological function of Mal d 1 was studied using the RNA interference strategy. Finally, consumer attitudes in Northern, Central and Southern Europe were gauged on the acceptability of low allergen cultivars or a GMO and its impact on product quality. PMID:15727573

Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K

2005-04-01

110

Solar and geomagnetic effects on the frequency of atmospheric circulation types over Europe: an analysis based on a large number of classifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, effects of the 11-year solar cycle on various aspects of tropospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere in winter have been recognized. One of our previous studies showed a significant solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types from the Hess-Brezowsky catalogue. Here, we use a large collection of varied classifications of circulation patterns, assembled within the COST733 Action "Harmonization and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions" to detect the solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types. The collection contains both objective and subjective classifications. The advantage of this multi-classification approach is that peculiarities or biases of any single classification (catalogue) that might influence the detected solar signal vanish once a large ensemble of classifications is used. We divide winter months (December to March) into three groups according to the mean monthly solar activity, quantified by the F10.7 flux. The three groups correspond to the minima of the 11-year solar cycle, a moderate solar activity, and solar maxima. Within each group, frequencies of occurrence of individual circulation types are calculated. Differences in the occurrence of individual classes between solar activity groups indicate the presence of a solar activity effect on atmospheric circulation over Europe. Statistical significance of these differences is estimated by a block resampling method. The research is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805, and by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic, contract OC115.

Huth, Radan; Cahynová, Monika; Kyselý, Jan

2010-05-01

111

Positive health effects of the natural outdoor environment in typical populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE): a study programme protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Growing evidence suggests that close contact with nature brings benefits to human health and well-being, but the proposed mechanisms are still not well understood and the associations with health remain uncertain. The Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor environment in Typical Populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE) project investigates the interconnections between natural outdoor environments and better human health and well-being. Aims and methods The PHENOTYPE project explores the proposed underlying mechanisms at work (stress reduction/restorative function, physical activity, social interaction, exposure to environmental hazards) and examines the associations with health outcomes for different population groups. It implements conventional and new innovative high-tech methods to characterise the natural environment in terms of quality and quantity. Preventive as well as therapeutic effects of contact with the natural environment are being covered. PHENOTYPE further addresses implications for land-use planning and green space management. The main innovative part of the study is the evaluation of possible short-term and long-term associations of green space and health and the possible underlying mechanisms in four different countries (each with quite a different type of green space and a different use), using the same methodology, in one research programme. This type of holistic approach has not been undertaken before. Furthermore there are technological innovations such as the use of remote sensing and smartphones in the assessment of green space. Conclusions The project will produce a more robust evidence base on links between exposure to natural outdoor environment and human health and well-being, in addition to a better integration of human health needs into land-use planning and green space management in rural as well as urban areas. PMID:24740979

Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Anto, Josep Maria; Basagana, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Danileviciute, Asta; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Garcia, Judith; Jerrett, Michael; Jones, Marc; Julvez, Jordi; van Kempen, Elise; van Kamp, Irene; Maas, Jolanda; Seto, Edmund; Smith, Graham; Triguero, Margarita; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Wright, John; Zufferey, Joris; van den Hazel, Peter Jan; Lawrence, Roderick; Grazuleviciene, Regina

2014-01-01

112

Thematic Network E4: An Effective Tool to Improve EE in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among all TN projects approved and running under SOCRATES II, E4 offers the widest perspective over all Engineering/Technology education fields covering relevant and transversal issues, which are definitely not branch specific. The paper first introduces the general aim of the project, underlining the meaning of the European Dimension of EE…

Borri, Claudio; Maffioli, Francesco

2003-01-01

113

Quality assessment of expert answers to lay questions about cystic fibrosis from various language zones in Europe: the ECORN-CF project  

PubMed Central

Background The European Centres of Reference Network for Cystic Fibrosis (ECORN-CF) established an Internet forum which provides the opportunity for CF patients and other interested people to ask experts questions about CF in their mother language. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a detailed quality assessment tool to analyze quality of expert answers, 2) evaluate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this tool, and 3) explore changes in the quality of expert answers over the time frame of the project. Methods The quality assessment tool was developed by an expert panel. Five experts within the ECORN-CF project used the quality assessment tool to analyze the quality of 108 expert answers published on ECORN-CF from six language zones. 25 expert answers were scored at two time points, one year apart. Quality of answers was also assessed at an early and later period of the project. Individual rater scores and group mean scores were analyzed for each expert answer. Results A scoring system and training manual were developed analyzing two quality categories of answers: content and formal quality. For content quality, the grades based on group mean scores for all raters showed substantial agreement between two time points, however this was not the case for the grades based on individual rater scores. For formal quality the grades based on group mean scores showed only slight agreement between two time points and there was also poor agreement between time points for the individual grades. The inter-rater agreement for content quality was fair (mean kappa value 0.232 ± 0.036, p < 0.001) while only slight agreement was observed for the grades of the formal quality (mean kappa value 0.105 ± 0.024, p < 0.001). The quality of expert answers was rated high (four language zones) or satisfactory (two language zones) and did not change over time. Conclusions The quality assessment tool described in this study was feasible and reliable when content quality was assessed by a group of raters. Within ECORN-CF, the tool will help ensure that CF patients all over Europe have equal possibility of access to high quality expert advice on their illness. PMID:22309508

2012-01-01

114

Prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle intervention in primary health care setting in Poland: Diabetes in Europe Prevention using Lifestyle, physical Activity and Nutritional intervention (DE-PLAN) project  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo find out whether diabetes prevention via a lifestyle intervention programme is feasible in a primary healthcare setting in Poland.MethodsThe intervention (Diabetes in Europe: Prevention using Lifestyle, physical Activity and Nutritional intervention; DE-PLAN project) was completed by 175 middle-aged, slightly obese participants in nine primary healthcare centres in Krakow, Poland. The inclusion criterion was diabetes risk (Finnish Diabetes Risk score

Aleksandra Gilis-Januszewska; Zbigniew Szybinski; Katarzyna Kissimova-Skarbek; Beata Piwonska-Solska; Dorota Pach; Roman Topor-Madry; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Jaana Lindström; Markku Peltonen; Peter Eh Schwarz; Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk

2011-01-01

115

Application of circulation classifications from the COST733 collection to the detection of solar and geomagnetic effects on tropospheric circulation over Europe in winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies of circulation classifications are biased by the fact that they are based on a single classification only; that is, their results are affected by the properties of a particular classification to an unknown extent. A large number of circulation classifications produced and collected in the COST733 database allows such a bias to be removed. As an example, we examine effects of solar activity variations on the frequency of circulation types, making use of more than sixty objective classifications for each of 12 domains, defined over Europe. To determine the solar effects, winter months (December to March) are divided into three classes according to the mean monthly solar activity, within which the frequencies of occurrence of circulation types are calculated. Circulation types coming from any classification with significant differences in frequency between high and low solar activity are identified. Current results generally confirm results of a previous study based on a single classification only (subjective Hess-Brezowsky) that (a) westerly types are more frequent under high than low solar activity; (b) northerly types are more frequent under low than high activity, and (iii) easterly and anticyclonic types are more frequent under low than moderate solar activity; the opposite holds for cyclonic types. The research is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic under contract OC115 and the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805.

Huth, Radan; Cahynová, Monika; Kyselý, Jan

2010-05-01

116

Learning about Teaching: Initial Findings from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project. Policy Brief. MET Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to test new approaches to recognizing effective teaching. The project's goal is to help build fair and reliable systems for teacher observation and feedback to help teachers improve and administrators make better personnel decisions. With…

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

2010-01-01

117

Phenylketonuria mutations in Europe.  

PubMed

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is heterogeneous. More than 400 different mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene have been identified. In a systematic review of the molecular genetics of PKU in Europe we identified 29 mutations that may be regarded as prevalent in European populations. Comprehensive regional data for these mutations were collated from all available studies. The spectrum of mutations found in individual regions results from a combination of factors including founder effect, range expansion and migration, genetic drift, and probably heterozygote advantage. Common mutations include R408W on a haplotype 2 background in Eastern Europe, IVS10-11G>A in the Mediterranean, IVS12+1G>A in Denmark and England, Y414C in Scandinavia, I65T in Western Europe, and R408W on haplotype 1 in the British Isles. Molecular data from mild hyperphenylalaninemia (MHP) patients are available from a number of countries, but it is currently not possible to calculate relative allele frequencies. The available data on PAH mutations are useful for the understanding of both the clinical features and the population genetics of PAH deficiency in Europe. PMID:12655544

Zschocke, Johannes

2003-04-01

118

Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond  

PubMed Central

With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

Breda, Joao Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnacao, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

2014-01-01

119

Eighth USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2009) Effects of Fuel Prices and Slot Controls on Air  

E-print Network

1 Eighth USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2009) Effects of Fuel Prices and Slot Controls on Air Transportation Performance at New York Airports John Ferguson@gmu.edu; lsherry@gmu.edu; akara@gmu.edu; gcaldero@gmu.edu Center for Air Transportation Systems Research, George

120

Racist Extremism in Central and Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based in part on the results of a unique, comparative research project, the aim of this article is threefold: (1) to provide a comparative summary of racist extremism in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE); (2) to compare the situation of racist extremism in CEE to that in Western Europe; and (3) to come to some further insights about racist extremism

Cas Mudde

2005-01-01

121

BIOMASS GASIFICATION: IMPLEMENTATION AND RESEARCH IN EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern technology presently available for gasifying biomass is reviewed. The major demonstration projects and commercial plants are identified. The emphasis is on the larger units (?5MWt), potentially suitable for electricity production in Western Europe. Important development items are identified and the ongoing research in Europe is briefly summarized.

A. A. C. M. BEENACKERS

1992-01-01

122

Communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care in Europe: the case for improvement. The rationale for the RESTORE FP 7 project.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to substantiate the importance of research about barriers and levers to the implementation of supports for cross-cultural communication in primary care settings in Europe. After an overview of migrant health issues, with the focus on communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care and the importance of language barriers, we highlight the fact that there are serious problems in routine practice that persist over time and across different European settings. Language and cultural barriers hamper communication in consultations between doctors and migrants, with a range of negative effects including poorer compliance and a greater propensity to access emergency services. It is well established that there is a need for skilled interpreters and for professionals who are culturally competent to address this problem. A range of professional guidelines and training initiatives exist that support the communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care. However, these are commonly not implemented in daily practice. It is as yet unknown why professionals do not accept or implement these guidelines and interventions, or under what circumstances they would do so. A new study involving six European countries, RESTORE (REsearch into implementation STrategies to support patients of different ORigins and language background in a variety of European primary care settings), aims to address these gaps in knowledge. It uses a unique combination of a contemporary social theory, normalisation process theory (NPT) and participatory learning and action (PLA) research. This should enhance understanding of the levers and barriers to implementation, as well as providing stakeholders, with the opportunity to generate creative solutions to problems experienced with the implementation of such interventions. PMID:23601205

van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Burns, Nicola; O'Donnell, Catherine; Mair, Frances; Spiegel, Wolfgang; Lionis, Christos; Dowrick, Chris; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; de Brun, Tomas; MacFarlane, Anne

2014-04-01

123

Dry Deposition Monitoring in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1993 and 1999 two EU funded projects wereexecuted aimed at (i) the development of drydeposition monitoring methods for core sites andlarge scale application, (ii) the installation andrunning of three core sites in Europe and (iii) the improvement and validation of models used forregional application. This article provides anoverview of the development of depositionmonitoring stations and the main results of

J. W. Erisman; A. Hensen; D. Fowler; C. R. Flechard; A. Grüner; G. Spindler; J. H. Duyzer; H. Weststrate; F. Römer; A. W. Vonk; H. v. Jaarsveld

2001-01-01

124

The Effects of IFRS 7 Adoption on Bank Disclosure in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the endorsement of IFRS 7, which became effective in 2007, the European regulation of bank disclosures has substantially changed. Using a sample of 171 banks from 28 European countries, I analyze the effect of the standard's first-time adoption on disclosure quality. I find that disclosure quality has generally increased both in financial statements and in risk reports but that

Jannis Bischof

2009-01-01

125

Impact of biogenic emissions on ozone and fine particles over Europe: Assessing the effect of temperature increase and the role of anthropogenic NOx emissions reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of biogenic emissions on ozone and PM2.5 levels over Europe is assessed for July 2006 using the CMAQ modeling system. Biogenic emissions are simulated to increase the daily maximum 8 hour ozone (Max8hrO3) mixing ratios and to decrease PM2.5 average concentrations over Europe. Since climate change will lead to higher temperatures increasing subsequently biogenic emissions, sensitivity analysis to temperature is performed. Higher temperatures suggest an average increase in Max8hrO3 mixing ratios over Europe by about 3% and an average decrease in PM2.5 concentrations by about 6%, related to a temperature increase by 3 K degrees. Temperature increases are simulated, also, to increase the organic part of PM2.5 and to decrease the inorganic one on average over Europe. In order to examine if abatement measures for anthropogenic emissions could offset ozone increases in a warmer environment and their effect on PM2.5 concentrations, simulation with a domain wide reduction of anthropogenic NOx emissions by 10% is performed. This is estimated to reduce Max8hrO3 mixing ratios on average over Europe, however, in VOCs limited areas there is an increase. The reduction in anthropogenic NOx emissions is simulated to reduce PM2.5 concentrations on average over Europe enhancing the reduction simulated in a warmer environment but further modifying PM2.5 component concentrations. This work was supported by the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) 2007-2013 grand No 09SYN-31-667.

Tagaris, Efthimios; Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni P.; Gounaris, Nikos; Andronopoulos, Spyros; Vlachogiannis, Diamando

2014-05-01

126

North America Europe Central &  

E-print Network

1 North America Western Europe Central & Eastern Europe Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & Central Asia Asia Pacific Africa Population (100 millions) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 North America Western Europe Central & Eastern Europe Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & Central Asia Asia Pacific Africa

Johnson, Matthew

127

Making Democratic Citizens: The Effects of Migration Experience on Political Attitudes in Central and Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the effects of migration experience on political attitudes in Central and Eastern European countries. The rationale for this quest is the hypothesis that contact with democratic contexts translates into democratic political attitudes, for which evidence is so far inconclusive. In this article, we are interested to see whether migrants returning from Western countries display different political attitudes

Romana Careja; Patrick Emmenegger

2012-01-01

128

Secondary Transfer Effects of Intergroup Contact: A Cross-National Comparison in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines so-called secondary transfer effects of intergroup contact, a phenomenon whereby positive intergroup contact experiences can influence attitudes not only toward encountered (primary) outgroups but also toward other (secondary) outgroups that were not initially involved in the intergroup encounter. The current study relies on…

Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Kupper, Beate; Zick, Andreas; Wagner, Ulrich

2012-01-01

129

Substantial and reversible brain gray matter reduction but no acute brain lesions in ultramarathon runners: experience from the TransEurope-FootRace Project  

PubMed Central

Background During the extremely challenging 4,487 km ultramarathon TransEurope-FootRace 2009, runners showed considerable reduction of body weight. The effects of this endurance run on brain volume changes but also possible formation of brain edema or new lesions were explored by repeated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Methods A total of 15 runners signed an informed consent to participate in this study of planned brain scans before, twice during, and about 8 months after the race. Because of dropouts, global gray matter volume analysis could only be performed in ten runners covering three timepoints, and in seven runners who also had a follow-up scan. Scanning was performed on three identical 1.5 T Siemens MAGNETOM Avanto scanners, two of them located at our university. The third MRI scanner with identical sequence parameters was a mobile MRI unit escorting the runners. Volumetric 3D datasets were acquired using a magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE) sequence. Additionally, diffusion-weighted (DWI) and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging was performed. Results Average global gray matter volume as well as body weight significantly decreased by 6% during the race. After 8 months, gray matter volume returned to baseline as well as body weight. No new brain lesions were detected by DWI or FLAIR imaging. Conclusions Physiological brain volume reduction during aging is less than 0.2% per year. Therefore a volume reduction of about 6% during the 2 months of extreme running appears to be substantial. The reconstitution in global volume measures after 8 months shows the process to be reversible. As possible mechanisms we discuss loss of protein, hypercortisolism and hyponatremia to account for both substantiality and reversibility of gray matter volume reductions. Reversible brain volume reduction during an ultramarathon suggests that extreme running might serve as a model to investigate possible mechanisms of transient brain volume changes. However, despite massive metabolic load, we found no new lesions in trained athletes participating in a multistage ultramarathon. See related commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/171 PMID:23259507

2012-01-01

130

Local and regional effects of large scale atmospheric circulation patterns on winter wind power output in Western Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies (Brayshaw, 2009, Garcia-Bustamante, 2010, Garcia-Bustamante, 2013) have drawn attention to the sensitivity of wind speed distributions and likely wind energy power output in Western Europe to changes in low-frequency, large scale atmospheric circulation patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Wind speed variations and directional shifts as a function of the NAO state can be larger or smaller depending on the North Atlantic region that is considered. Wind speeds in Ireland and the UK for example are approximately 20 % higher during NAO + phases, and up to 30 % lower during NAO - phases relative to the long-term (30 year) climatological means. By contrast, in southern Europe, wind speeds are 15 % lower than average during NAO + phases and 15 % higher than average during NAO - phases. Crucially however, some regions such as Brittany in N.W. France have been identified in which there is negligible variability in wind speeds as a function of the NAO phase, as observed in the ERA-Interim 0.5 degree gridded reanalysis database. However, the magnitude of these effects on wind conditions is temporally and spatially non-stationary. As described by Comas-Bru and McDermott (2013) for temperature and precipitation, such non-stationarity is caused by the influence of two other patterns, the East Atlantic pattern, (EA), and the Scandinavian pattern, (SCA), which modulate the position of the NAO dipole. This phenomenon has also implications for wind speeds and directions, which has been assessed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and the indices obtained from the PC analysis of sea level pressure over the Atlantic region. In order to study the implications for power production, the interaction of the NAO and the other teleconnection patterns with local topography was also analysed, as well as how these interactions ultimately translate into wind power output. The objective is to have a better defined relationship between wind speed and power output at a local level and a tool that wind farm developers could use to inform site selection. A particular priority was to assess how the potential wind power outputs over a 25-30 year windfarm lifetime in less windy, but resource-stable regions, compare with those from windier but more variable sites.

Zubiate, Laura; McDermott, Frank; Sweeney, Conor; O'Malley, Mark

2014-05-01

131

Health Effects of High Radon Environments in Central Europe: Another Test for the LNT Hypothesis?  

PubMed

Among the various "natural laboratories" of high natural or technical enhanced natural radiation environments in the world such as Kerala (India), Brazil, Ramsar (Iran), etc., the areas in and around the Central European Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge) in the southern parts of former East Germany, but also including parts of Thuringia, northern Bohemia (now Czech Republic), and northeastern Bavaria, are still relatively little known internationally.Although this area played a central role in the history of radioactivity and radiation effects on humans over centuries, most of the valuable earlier results have not been published in English or quotable according to the current rules in the scientific literature and therefore are not generally known internationally. During the years 1945 to 1989, this area was one of the world's most important uranium mining areas, providing the former Soviet Union with 300,000 tons of uranium for its military programs. Most data related to health effects of radon and other carcinogenic agents on miners and residents became available only during the years after German reunification. Many of the studies are still unpublished, or more or less internal reports.By now, substantial studies have been performed on the previously unavailable data about the miners and the population, providing valuable insights that are, to a large degree, in disagreement with the opinion of various international bodies assuming an increase of lung cancer risk in the order of 10% for each 100 Bq/m(3) (or doubling for 1000 Bq/m(3)), even for small residential radon concentrations. At the same time, other studies focusing on never-smokers show little or no effects of residential radon exposures. Experiments in medical clinics using radon on a large scale as a therapeutic against various rheumatic and arthritic disease demonstrated in randomized double-blind studies the effectiveness of such treatments.The main purpose of this review is to critically examine, including some historical references, recent results primarily in three areas, namely the possible effects of the inhalation of very high radon concentrations on miners; the effect of increased residential radon concentrations on the population; and the therapeutic use of radon. With many of the results still evolving and/or under intense discussion among the experts, more evidence is emerging that radon, which has been inhaled at extremely high concentrations in the multimillion Bq/m(3) range by many of older miners (however, with substantial confounders, and large uncertainties in retrospective dosimetry), was perhaps an important but not the dominating factor for an increase in lung cancer rates. Other factors such as smoking, inhalation of quartz and mineral dust, arsenic, nitrous gases, etc. are likely to be more serious contributors to increased miner lung cancer rates. An extrapolation of miner data to indoor radon situations is not feasible.Concerning indoor radon studies, the by far dominating effect of smoking on the lung cancer incidence makes the results of some studies, apparently showing a positive dose-response relationship, questionable. According to recent studies in several countries, there are no, or beneficial, residential radon effects below about 600 to 1000 Bq/m(3) (the extensive studies in the U.S., in particular by B. Cohen, and the discussions about these data, will not be part of this review, because they have already been discussed in detail in the U.S. literature). As a cause of lung cancer, radon seems to rank - behind active and passive smoking, and probably also air pollution in densely populated and/or industrial areas (diesel exhaust soot, etc.) - as a minor contributor in cases of extremely high residential radon levels, combined with heavy smoking of the residents.As demonstrated in an increasing number of randomized double-blind clinical studies for various painful inflammatory joint diseases such as rheumatism, arthritic problems, and Morbus Bechterew, radon treatments are beneficial, with the positive effect lasting until

Becker, Klaus

2003-01-01

132

Ion Beam Therapy in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, seven facilities in Europe treat deep-seated tumors with particle beams, six with proton beams and one with carbon ions. Three of these facilities are in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Dubna, Russia. Other facilities include the TSL Uppsala, Sweden, CPO Orsay, France, and PSI Villigen, Switzerland, all for proton therapy, and GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, which utilizes carbon ions only. But only two of these facilities irradiate with scanned ion beams: the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI), Villigen (protons) and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt. These two facilities are experimental units within physics laboratories and have developed the technique of intensity-modulated beam scanning in order to produce irradiation conforming to a 3-D target. There are three proton centers presently under construction in Munich, Essen and Orsay, and the proton facility at PSI has added a superconducting accelerator connected to an isocentric gantry in order to become independent of the accelerator shared with the physics research program. The excellent clinical results using carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) in Chiba and GSI have triggered the construction of four new heavy-ion therapy projects (carbon ions and protons), located in Heidelberg, Pavia, Marburg and Kiel. The projects in Heidelberg and Pavia will begin patient treatment in 2009, and the Marburg and Kiel projects will begin in 2010 and 2011, respectively. These centers use different accelerator designs but have the same kind of treatment planning system and use the same approach for the calculation of the biological effectiveness of the carbon ions as developed at GSI [1]. There are many other planned projects in the works. Do not replace the word "abstract," but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your "Enter" key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style sample before you begin working on your paper.

Kraft, Gerhard

2009-03-01

133

Effects of Projected Transient Changes in Climate on Tennessee Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines transient effects of projected climate change on the structure and species composition of forests in Tennessee. The climate change scenarios for 2030 and 2080 were provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) from three General Circulation Models (GCMs) that simulate the range of potential climate conditions for the state. The precipitation and temperature projections from

Virginia H Dale; M Lynn Tharp; Karen O. Lannom; Donald G. Hodges

2010-01-01

134

A framework for improving the effectiveness of distributed project teams  

E-print Network

Introduction: The focus of this work is on improving the effectiveness of distributed project teams - adopting a widely accepted definition of team as described in "Virtual Teams" as: "A team is a collection of individuals ...

Cherbonneau, Gregg

2005-01-01

135

Resolution effects on regional climate model simulations of seasonal precipitation over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze a set of nine regional climate model simulations for the period 1961-2000 performed at 25 and 50 km horizontal grid spacing over a European domain in order to determine the effects of horizontal resolution on the simulation of precipitation. All of the models represent the seasonal mean spatial patterns and amount of precipitation fairly well. Most models exhibit a tendency to over-predict precipitation, resulting in a domain-average total bias for the ensemble mean of about 20% in winter (DJF) and less than 10% in summer (JJA) at both resolutions, although this bias could be artificially enhanced by the lack of a gauge correction in the observations. A majority of the models show increased precipitation at 25 km relative to 50 km over the oceans and inland seas in DJF, JJA, and ANN (annual average), although the response is strongest during JJA. The ratio of convective precipitation to total precipitation decreases over land for most models at 25 km. In addition, there is an increase in interannual variability in many of the models at 25 km grid spacing. Comparison with gridded observations indicates that a majority of models show improved skill in simulating both the spatial pattern and temporal evolution of precipitation at 25 km compared to 50 km during the summer months, but not in winter or on an annual mean basis. Model skill at higher resolution in simulating the spatial and temporal character of seasonal precipitation is found especially for Great Britain. This geographic dependence of the increased skill suggests that observed data of sufficient density are necessary to capture fine-scale climate signals. As climate models increase their horizontal resolution, it is thus a key priority to produce high quality fine scale observations for model evaluation.

Rauscher, Sara A.; Coppola, Erika; Piani, Claudio; Giorgi, Filippo

2010-09-01

136

Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. A Secondary Education for Europe Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph, published as part of the project "A Secondary Education for Europe," makes no claim to deal with all the questions relating to minorities, from either the legal point of view of that of international action. The paper does not aim to suggest recommendations on a theme which has concerned the Council of Europe for years. The…

Foucher, Michel

137

Energy Balance Related Behaviour: Personal, Home- and Friend-Related Factors among Schoolchildren in Europe Studied in the ENERGY-Project  

PubMed Central

Objective To design interventions that target energy balance-related behaviours, knowledge of primary schoolchildren's perceptions regarding soft drink intake, fruit juice intake, breakfast consumption, TV viewing and physical activity (PA) is essential. The current study describes personal beliefs and attitudes, home- and friend-related variables regarding these behaviours across Europe. Design Cross-sectional study in which personal, family and friend -related variables were assessed by validated questionnaires, and dichotomized as favourable versus unfavourable answers. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate proportions of children giving unfavourable answers and test between-country differences. Setting A survey in eight European countries. Subjects A total of 7903 10–12 year old primary schoolchildren. Results A majority of the children reported unfavourable attitudes, preferences and subjective norms regarding soft drink, fruit juice intake and TV viewing accompanied with high availability and accessibility at home. Few children reported unfavourable attitudes and preferences regarding breakfast consumption and PA. Many children reported unfavourable health beliefs regarding breakfast consumption and TV viewing. Substantial differences between countries were observed, especially for variables regarding soft drink intake, breakfast consumption and TV viewing. Conclusion The surveyed children demonstrated favourable attitudes to some healthy behaviours (PA, breakfast intake) as well as to some unhealthy behaviours (soft drink consumption, TV viewing). Additionally, many children across Europe have personal beliefs and are exposed to social environments that are not supportive to engagement in healthy behaviours. Moreover, the large differences in personal, family and friend-related variables across Europe argue for implementing different strategies in the different European countries. PMID:25372490

te Velde, Saskia J.; Singh, Amika; Chinapaw, Mai; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Natasa; Kovacs, Eva; Bere, Elling; Vik, Froydis N.; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Manios, Yannis; Moreno, Luis; Brug, Johannes

2014-01-01

138

An Overview on Coronary Heart Disease (A Comparative Evaluation of Turkey and Europe) and Cost-effectiveness of Diagnostic Strategies  

PubMed Central

Objective: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death for men and women in Turkey as it is in Europe and US. The prevalence of the disease is 3.8% in Turkey and 200,000 patients are added to the pool of CHD annually Because of genetic predisposition and high proportions of physical inactivity, smoking habit, and obesity, CHD is encountered in earlier ages in our country So, the economic burden of the disease is expected to be relatively high, but the amount of health expenditure is not always parallel to the prevalence of a disease in the community. This article was written to overview CHD statistics to make a comparison between Turkey and some European countries and to investigate the value of myocardial perfusion scan (MPS) as a gatekeeper in diagnosing CHD before invasive coronary angiography (ICA). The consequences were evaluated for Turkey In diagnosis; noninvasive testing gains importance in connection with the new approaches in treatment strategies, because a direct ICA strategy results in higher rates of revascularization without improvement in clinical outcomes. A "gatekeeper" is needed to select the patients who are not required to undergo angiography. MPS with its proved power in diagnosis and predicting prognosis, provides a cost-effective solution, and is accepted in some extensive analyses as a "gatekeeper" particularly in intermediate and high risk patients and in patients with known CHD. In conclusion, MPS may provide an optimal solution better than the ongoing situation in Turkey as well, when it is approved as a "gatekeeper in an algorithm before ICA. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487016

Tasc?, Cengiz; Ozcelik, Nihat

2011-01-01

139

Pollen-inferred quantitative reconstructions of Holocene land-cover in NW Europe for the evaluation of past climate-vegetation feedbacks - The Swedish LANDCLIM project and the NordForsk LANDCLIM network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable predictive models are needed to describe potential future climate changes and their impacts. Land surface-atmosphere feedbacks and their impacts on climate are a current priority in the climate modelling community, but reliable records of long-term land use and vegetation change required for model evaluation are limited. Palaeoecological and palaeo-climatic data provide a unique record of the past changes in vegetation, land use and climate on time scales relevant to vegetation processes and global change projections. The application of a new technique (the REVEALS model (Sugita 2007) to landscape reconstruction using fossil pollen data makes robust comparisons with vegetation model output possible . The model corrects for biases caused by e.g. inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and dispersal. Our results show that pollen percentages, a traditional indicator of land cover changes, generally underestimate the unforested areas and certain broad-leaved trees such as Corylus and Tilia, while they often overestimate Betula and Pinus (see Cui et al. BG 6.2). Climate models use simplified land-surface classifications (plant functional types (PFTs)), such as grass (i.e. open land), deciduous trees, and conifers. Therefore, the observed large discrepancies in past land cover between the REVEALS estimates and pollen percentages are expected to influence model outcomes of the Holocene regional climate in NW Europe. The LANDCLIM project and research network (sponsored by the Swedish [VR] and Nordic [NordForsk] Research Councils) aim to quantify human-induced changes in regional vegetation/land-cover in NW Europe during the Holocene, and to evaluate the effects of these changes on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. We use the REVEALS model, theoretically derived and empirically tested, to estimate the percentage cover of taxa and groups of taxa (PFTs) from fossil pollen data for selected time windows of the Holocene, at a spatial resolution of ca. 1o x 1o. The REVEALS estimates of the past cover of PFTs will be 1) compared with the outputs of the LPJ-GUESS (10 PFTs), a widely-used dynamic vegetation model and 2) used as an alternative to the LPJ-GUESS-simulated vegetation (3 PFTs) to run for the past the regional climate model RCA3 developed at the Rossby Centre, Norrköping, Sweden. The study will evaluate and further refine these models (RCA3 and LPJ-GUESS) using a data-model comparison approach that incorporates new syntheses of palaeoclimatic data as well. It will lead to new assessments of the possible effect of various factors on climate, such as deforestations and afforestations, and changes in vegetation composition and spatial patterns of land cover/land use. Refined climate models and empirical land-cover reconstructions will shed new light on controversial hypotheses of past climate change and human impacts, such as the "Ruddiman hypothesis". First maps of REVEALS estimates of plant functional types (PFTs) are now available for Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Estonia, Poland, Germany, The Czech Republic, Switzerland and Britain (see Mazier et al. C1.21 and Trondman et al. C1.22). Correlation tests show that the REVEALS estimates are robust in terms of ranking of the PFTs' abundance (see Mazier et al, C1.21). The LANDCLIM project and network are a contribution to the IGBP-PAGES-Focus 4 PHAROS programme on human impact on environmental changes in the past. The following LANDCLIM members are acknowledged for providing pollen records, for help with pollen databases, and for providing results to the project: Mihkel Kangur and Tiiu Koff (Univ. Tallinn, Tallinn); Erik Kjellström (SMHI, Norrköping), Anna Broström, Lena Barnekow and Thomas Persson (GeoBiosphere Science Centre, Lund University); Anneli Poska (Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University); Thomas Giesecke (Albrecht-von-Haller-Institute for Plant Sciences, University of Göttingen), Anne Bjune and John Birks (Dept. of Biology, University of Bergen); Pim van der Knaap (Institute of Plant Sciences, Univ

Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Sugita, Shinya; Rundgren, Mats; Smith, Benjamin; Mazier, Florence; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Fyfe, Ralph; Kokfelt, Ulla; Nielsen, Anne-Birgitte; Strandberg, Gustav

2010-05-01

140

Time trend and age-period-cohort effect on kidney cancer mortality in Europe, 1981–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The incorporation of diagnostic and therapeutic improvements, as well as the different smoking patterns, may have had an influence on the observed variability in renal cancer mortality across Europe. This study examined time trends in kidney cancer mortality in fourteen European countries during the last two decades of the 20th century. METHODS: Kidney cancer deaths and population estimates for

Napoleón Pérez-Farinós; Gonzalo López-Abente; Roberto Pastor-Barriuso

2006-01-01

141

The projected effect of scaling up midwifery.  

PubMed

We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate deaths averted if midwifery was scaled up in 78 countries classified into three tertiles using the Human Development Index (HDI). We selected interventions in LiST to encompass the scope of midwifery practice, including prepregnancy, antenatal, labour, birth, and post-partum care, and family planning. Modest (10%), substantial (25%), or universal (95%) scale-up scenarios from present baseline levels were all found to reduce maternal deaths, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths by 2025 in all countries tested. With universal coverage of midwifery interventions for maternal and newborn health, excluding family planning, for the countries with the lowest HDI, 61% of all maternal, fetal, and neonatal deaths could be prevented. Family planning alone could prevent 57% of all deaths because of reduced fertility and fewer pregnancies. Midwifery with both family planning and interventions for maternal and newborn health could avert a total of 83% of all maternal deaths, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths. The inclusion of specialist care in the scenarios resulted in an increased number of deaths being prevented, meaning that midwifery care has the greatest effect when provided within a functional health system with effective referral and transfer mechanisms to specialist care. PMID:24965814

Homer, Caroline S E; Friberg, Ingrid K; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; ten Hoope-Bender, Petra; Sandall, Jane; Speciale, Anna Maria; Bartlett, Linda A

2014-09-20

142

Decline in tropospheric NO2 and the effects of the 2008-09 economic crisis observed by OMI over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a trend analysis of tropospheric NO2 for the time period of 2004-2010. Necessary for monitoring pollution abatement strategies, NO2 trends analyses are often based on surface networks, which suffer from high NO2 biases and spatial representativity issues inherent to the standard monitoring method (thermal reduction of NO2 followed by reaction with ozone and chemiluminescence). Space based NO2 trends are unbiased and self-consistent, but over Europe they have not been as obvious as those observed over North America and East Asia. In this work we exploit the daily NO2 column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in order to isolate long-term (timescales greater than one year) variability in NO2 over Europe without imposing a parametric fit to the data. In general, we find between 2005 and 2008, 1-5% per year declines in NO2 concentration in many polluted regions (e.g. Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Spain), but also 1-5% per year increases over the English Channel and the southern North Sea (a major shipping channel), as well as the United Kingdom, northern France and Eastern Europe. In 2009, NO2 almost exclusively decreased over Europe at a rate of 5-10% per year, coinciding with the abrupt decrease in industrial production and construction prompted by the global economic crisis. By 2010, in many areas the NO2 rate of change returned to pre-2009 levels suggesting economic recovery. We employ a simple fitting model to separate the forcing by meteorological variability, which can influence apparent NO2 trends, from that of NOx emissions. We calculate 1-3% per year NOx emissions reduction rates over most of Europe and an additional 15-30% per year decrease in NOx emissions during the economic crisis time period.

Castellanos, P.; Boersma, F. F.

2011-12-01

143

Project EASE: The Effect of a Family Literacy Project on Kindergarten Students' Early Literacy Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates effectiveness of the Project Early Access to Success in Education, which includes parent education sessions on assisting their children's developing literacy abilities, at-school parent/child activities, and at-home book-mediated activities. Finds improvement in language skills, with a strong impact on the children who scored low at…

Jordan, Gail E.; Snow, Catherine E.; Porche, Michelle V.

2000-01-01

144

Binge drinking in Europe.  

PubMed

Binge drinking is a pattern of heavy drinking which is observed all over Europe. The term Binge drinking implies a lot of different meanings to different people. The most popular definition used for this term is five or more 'standard drinks' in a single occasion. Binge drinking is different from intoxication, although this kind of heavy alcohol consumption can be lead to intoxication. This condition is manifested by different signs, for example slurred speech. Binge drinking is very common among the European population. In 2006 some 80 million Europeans aged 15 plus reported this kind of alcohol consumption patterns. European surveys showed that there is an increase of binge drinking across Europe amongst young people (15-16 years) old since 1995. The consequences of binge drinking contain acute and chronic effects, which are caused by long term alcohol use. The individual risks are brain damage, suicide, sexually transmitted diseases, etc. It has also an impact on harm to others than the drinkers. This includes violence and crime, accidents, etc. Each year in the European Union 2000 homicides are related to heavy drinking. There a lot of effective measures to reduce binge drinking. Strong evidence is shown by drink-driving laws, tax, reduced access to and availability of alcohol, brief interventions such as physician advice and advertising controls. PMID:18173097

Farke, Walter; Anderson, Peter

2007-01-01

145

Impact of biogenic emissions on ozone and fine particles over Europe: Comparing effects of temperature increase and a potential anthropogenic NOx emissions abatement strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of biogenic emissions on ozone and PM2.5 levels over Europe is assessed using CMAQ. Biogenic emissions are predicted to increase Max8hrO3 mixing ratios by 5.7% and to decrease PM2.5 concentrations by 1.9%, increasing PM2.5_OC by 13.6% and decreasing PM2.5_SO4, PM2.5_NO3 and PM2.5_NH4 by 5.6%, 3.7% and 5.6%, respectively, on average over Europe due to their interactions with anthropogenic emissions. A suite of perturbations in temperature is imposed individually on the base case conditions in order to determine the sensitivities to air temperature changes. Temperature increases of 1, 2 or 3° K suggest an average increase in Max8hrO3 mixing ratios of 0.9%, 1.8% or 2.9%, respectively, and an average decrease in daily average PM2.5 concentrations of 2.5%, 4.2% and 5.8%, respectively, increasing PM2.5_OC and decreasing PM2.5_SO4, PM2.5_NO3 and PM2.5_NH4 component concentrations on average over Europe. In order to examine if abatement measures for anthropogenic emissions could offset ozone increases in higher temperatures and their effect on PM2.5 concentrations, a simulation with a domain wide reduction in anthropogenic NOx emissions of 10% is performed. This is estimated to reduce Max8hrO3 mixing ratios by 1.3% on average over Europe. However, NOx reduction is estimated to increase Max8hrO3 in VOCs limited areas. The reduction in anthropogenic NOx emissions is predicted to reduce PM2.5 concentrations by 1.0% enhancing the reduction simulated, here, with temperature increase but further modifying PM2.5 component concentrations.

Tagaris, E.; Sotiropoulou, R. E. P.; Gounaris, N.; Andronopoulos, S.; Vlachogiannis, D.

2014-12-01

146

Efficacy of hand rubs with a low alcohol concentration listed as effective by a national hospital hygiene society in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background Some national hospital hygiene societies in Europe such as the French society for hospital hygiene (SFHH) have positive lists of disinfectants. Few hand disinfectants with a rather low concentration of ethanol are listed by one society as effective for hygienic hand disinfection with 3 mL in 30 s including a virucidal activity in 30 s or 60 s, but published data allow having doubts. We have therefore evaluated the efficacy of three commonly used hand disinfectants according to EN 1500 and EN 14476. Methods Products 1 (Aniosgel 85 NPC) and 2 (Aniosrub 85 NPC) were based on 70% ethanol, product 3 (ClinoGel derma+) on 60% ethanol and 15% isopropanol (all w/w). They were tested in 3 laboratories according to EN 1500. Three mL were applied for 30 s and compared to the reference treatment of 2 × 3 mL applications of isopropanol 60% (v/v), on hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli. Each laboratory used a cross-over design against the reference alcohol with 15 or 20 volunteers. The virucidal activity of the products was evaluated (EN 14476) in one laboratory against adenovirus and poliovirus in different concentrations (80%, 90%, 97%), with different organic loads (none; clean conditions; phosphate-buffered saline) for up to 3 min. Results Product 1 revealed a mean log10-reduction of 3.87 ± 0.79 (laboratory 1) and 4.38 ± 0.87 (laboratory 2) which was significantly lower compared to the reference procedure (4.62 ± 0.89 and 5.00 ± 0.87). In laboratory 3 product 1 was inferior to the reference disinfection (4.06 ± 0.86 versus 4.99 ± 0.90). Product 2 revealed similar results. Product 3 fulfilled the requirements in one laboratory but failed in the two other. None of the three products was able to reduce viral infectivity of both adenovirus and poliovirus by 4 log10 steps in 3 min according to EN 14476. Conclusions Efficacy data mentioned in a positive list published by a society for hospital hygiene should still be regarded with caution if they quite obviously contradict published data on the same or similar products. PMID:23759059

2013-01-01

147

Enhancement of the aerosol direct radiative effect by semi-volatile aerosol components: airborne measurements in North-Western Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A case study of atmospheric aerosol measurements exploring the impact of the vertical distribution of aerosol chemical composition upon the radiative budget in North-Western Europe is presented. Sub-micron aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) on both an airborne platform and a ground-based site at Cabauw in the Netherlands. The examined period in May 2008 was characterised by enhanced pollution loadings in North-Western Europe and was dominated by ammonium nitrate and Organic Matter (OM). Both ammonium nitrate and OM were observed to increase with altitude in the atmospheric boundary layer. This is primarily attributed to partitioning of semi-volatile gas phase species to the particle phase at reduced temperature and enhanced relative humidity. Increased ammonium nitrate concentrations in particular were found to strongly increase the ambient scattering potential of the aerosol burden, which was a consequence of the large amount of associated water as well as the enhanced mass. During particularly polluted conditions, increases in aerosol optical depth of 50-100% were estimated to occur due to the observed increase in secondary aerosol mass and associated water uptake. Furthermore, the single scattering albedo was also shown to increase with height in the boundary layer. These enhancements combined to increase the negative direct aerosol radiative forcing by close to a factor of two at the median percentile level. Such increases have major ramifications for regional climate predictions as semi-volatile components are often not included in aerosol models. The results presented here provide an ideal opportunity to test regional and global representations of both the aerosol vertical distribution and subsequent impacts in North-Western Europe. North-Western Europe can be viewed as an analogue for the possible future air quality over other polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere, where substantial reductions in sulphur dioxide emissions have yet to occur. Anticipated reductions in sulphur dioxide in polluted regions will result in an increase in the availability of ammonia to form ammonium nitrate as opposed to ammonium sulphate. This will be most important where intensive agricultural practises occur. Our observations over North-Western Europe, a region where sulphur dioxide emissions have already been reduced, indicate that failure to include the semi-volatile behaviour of ammonium nitrate will result in significant errors in predicted aerosol direct radiative forcing. Such errors will be particularly significant on regional scales.

Morgan, W. T.; Allan, J. D.; Bower, K. N.; Esselborn, M.; Harris, B.; Henzing, J. S.; Highwood, E. J.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; McMeeking, G. R.; Mensah, A. A.; Northway, M. J.; Osborne, S.; Williams, P. I.; Krejci, R.; Coe, H.

2010-04-01

148

Enhancement of the aerosol direct radiative effect by semi-volatile aerosol components: airborne measurements in North-Western Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A case study of atmospheric aerosol measurements exploring the impact of the vertical distribution of aerosol chemical composition upon the radiative budget in North-Western Europe is presented. Sub-micron aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) on both an airborne platform and a ground-based site at Cabauw in the Netherlands. The examined period in May 2008 was characterised by enhanced pollution loadings in North-Western Europe and was dominated by ammonium nitrate and Organic Matter (OM). Both ammonium nitrate and OM were observed to increase with altitude in the atmospheric boundary layer. This is primarily attributed to partitioning of semi-volatile gas phase species to the particle phase at reduced temperature and enhanced relative humidity. Increased ammonium nitrate concentrations in particular were found to strongly increase the ambient scattering potential of the aerosol burden, which was a consequence of the large amount of associated water as well as the enhanced mass. During particularly polluted conditions, increases in aerosol optical depth of 50-100% were estimated to occur due to the observed increase in secondary aerosol mass and associated water uptake. Furthermore, the single scattering albedo was also shown to increase with height in the boundary layer. These enhancements combined to increase the negative direct aerosol radiative forcing by close to a factor of two at the median percentile level. Such increases have major ramifications for regional climate predictions as semi-volatile components are often not included in aerosol models. The results presented here provide an ideal opportunity to test regional and global representations of both the aerosol vertical distribution and subsequent impacts in North-Western Europe. North-Western Europe can be viewed as an analogue for the possible future air quality over other polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere, where substantial reductions in sulphur dioxide emissions have yet to occur. Anticipated reductions in sulphur dioxide in polluted regions will result in an increase in the availability of ammonia to form ammonium nitrate as opposed to ammonium sulphate. This will be most important where intensive agricultural practises occur. Our observations over North-Western Europe, a region where sulphur dioxide emissions have already been reduced, indicate that failure to include the semi-volatile behaviour of ammonium nitrate will result in significant errors in predicted aerosol direct radiative forcing. Such errors will be particularly significant on regional scales.

Morgan, W. T.; Allan, J. D.; Bower, K. N.; Esselborn, M.; Harris, B.; Henzing, J. S.; Highwood, E. J.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; McMeeking, G. R.; Mensah, A. A.; Northway, M. J.; Osborne, S.; Williams, P. I.; Krejci, R.; Coe, H.

2010-09-01

149

Effects of Projected Transient Changes in Climate on Tennessee Forests  

SciTech Connect

This study examines transient effects of projected climate change on the structure and species composition of forests in Tennessee. The climate change scenarios for 2030 and 2080 were provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) from three General Circulation Models (GCMs) that simulate the range of potential climate conditions for the state. The precipitation and temperature projections from the three GCMs for 2030 and 2080 were related to changes in the ecoregions by using the monthly record of temperature and precipitation from 1980 to 1997 for each 1 km cell across the state as aggregated into the five ecological provinces. Temperatures are projected to increase in all ecological provinces in all months for all three GCMs for both 2030 and 2080. Precipitation patterns are more complex with one model projecting wetter summers and two models projecting drier summers. The forest ecosystem model LINKAGES was used to simulate conditions in forest stands for the five ecological provinces of Tennessee from 1989 to 2300. These model runs suggest there will be a change in tree diversity and species composition in all ecological provinces with the greatest changes occurring in the Southern Mixed Forest province. Most projections show a decline in total tree biomass followed by recovery as species replacement occurs in stands. The changes in forest biomass and composition, as simulated in this study, are likely to have implications on forest economy, tourism, understory conditions, wildlife habitat, mast provisioning, and other services provided by forest systems.

Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Tharp, M Lynn [ORNL; Lannom, Karen O. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hodges, Donald G. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2010-01-01

150

The Effect of Test Selection on Title I Project Impact.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An alternative is proposed to the legally required uniform procedures and criteria for reporting the results of Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I projects. It is suggested that Congress is unlikely to respond to nationwide impact data on the effectiveness of Title I even when such data are available. It is further proposed that the RMC…

Jaeger, Richard M.

151

Performance Projections for Ballistic Graphene Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors  

E-print Network

Performance Projections for Ballistic Graphene Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors Gengchiau Liang performance potential of ballistic carbon nanoribbon MOSFETs is examined. We calculate the bandstructure of a nano-ribbon MOSFET using a semiclassical, ballistic model. We find that semiconducting ribbons a few

152

Child and adolescent mental health: infrastructure, policies and practices in England: the CAMHEE project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union-supported Child and Adolescent Mental Health in an Enlarged Europe (CAMHEE) project aimed to provide an overview of the challenges, current practice and guidelines for developing effective mental health promotion and mental illness prevention policy and practice across Europe. As part of this work, an analysis was undertaken of the situation in England, making use of a bespoke

Rachel Jenkins; Howard Meltzer; Brian Jacobs; David McDaid

2010-01-01

153

Peatland-GHG emissions in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managed peatlands are hot spots for CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. GHG which have been not fully integrated in past European climate projects. Peatlands contribute to European GHG emissions 10 times more per unit area than other terrestrial ecosystems. Peatland management and exploration by drainage, agricultural use and peat extraction turned pristine peatland GHG sinks into sources. Emissions can reach more than 40 t CO2equiv. ha-1 a-1 in intensively managed peatlands. On the other hand, the restoration of degraded peatlands does normally reduce these emissions significantly towards climate neutral levels, once the restoration work is done wisely. But in some cases the net climate effect do not decrease significantly depending on hydrological regimes, fertilization status of the peatlands, climate and vegetation type. In many European countries with significant peatland cover nationally funded projects were set up to investigate peatland GHG fluxes and their drivers. These scattered data and knowledge are currently being brought together under the coverage of the GHG-Europe project (Grant agreement no.: 244122) within a new synthesis to develop the relevant EF, identify the drivers and develop upscaling options for GHG-emissions. The talk will: (1) show a first cut of new Emission Factors for peatlands in Europe and compare these with IPCC-default values. (2) discuss the developed sensible response functions for GHG-fluxes against natural and anthropogenic drivers such as land use intensity, land management with drainage and climate variability. (3) show case studies from Germany show the applicability of response functions for upscaling of GHG-balances. (4) An outlook is given to the future European peatland GHG-Balance.

Droesler, Matthias

2013-04-01

154

Climate and Dirofilaria infection in Europe.  

PubMed

Climatic changes, together with an increase in the movement of cats and dogs across Europe, have caused an increase in the geographical range of several vector borne parasites like Dirofilaria, and in the risk of infection for animals and humans. The present paper reviews the effects of climate and other global drivers on Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens infections in Europe and the possible implications on the transmission and control of these mosquito-borne nematodes. In the last several years, growing degree day (GDD)-based forecast models, which use wide or local scale temperature data, have been developed to predict the occurrence and seasonality of Dirofilaria in different parts of the world. All these models are based on the fact that: there is a threshold of 14 degrees C below which Dirofilaria development will not proceed; and there is a requirement of 130 GDD for larvae to reach infectivity and a maximum life expectancy of 30 days for a vector mosquito. The output of these models predicts that the summer temperatures (with peaks in July) are sufficient to facilitate extrinsic incubation of Dirofilaria even at high latitudes. The global warming projected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggests that warm summers suitable for Dirofilaria transmission in Europe will be the rule in the future decades and if the actual trend of temperature increase continues, filarial infection should spread into previously infection-free areas. These factors not only favour incubation of Dirofilaria, but also impact on mosquito species. Recent findings have also demonstrated that Aedes albopictus is now considered to be an important, competent vector of Dirofilaria infections. This mosquito species could spread from southern to northern European countries in the near future, changing the epidemiological patterns of dirofilariosis both in humans and animals. PMID:19398159

Genchi, Claudio; Rinaldi, Laura; Mortarino, Michele; Genchi, Marco; Cringoli, Giuseppe

2009-08-26

155

The Contribution of Local Experiments and Negotiation Processes to Field-Level Learning in Emerging (Niche) Technologies: Meta-Analysis of 27 New Energy Projects in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how local experiments and negotiation processes contribute to social and field-level learning. The analysis is framed within the niche development literature, which offers a framework for analyzing the relation between projects in local contexts and the transfer of local experiences into generally applicable rules. The…

Raven, Rob P. J. M.; Heiskanen, Eva; Lovio, Raimo; Hodson, Mike; Brohmann, Bettina

2008-01-01

156

JPRS Report, East Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: East Europe, Party Activities, Socialist Party, Freedom Fighters, Education, Youth Training, Historian, Death Penalty, Peace Making Duties, Socialism, Communism, Economics, Restructuring, Catastrophic Condition, Computer Production, edit...

1988-01-01

157

Project Copernicus: Cooperation Programme in Europe on Nature and Industry through Coordinated University Study. Round Table. Unesco-Standing Conference of Rectors, Presidents, and Vice Chancellors of the European Universities (CRE) (Catania, Sicily, April 5-8, 1989). Number 32. Papers on Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Project COPERNICUS (Cooperation Programme in Europe for Research on Nature and Industry through Coordinated University Studies) Round Table report considers efforts to identify priorities and objectives of the new alliance between the higher education community, industry, and international organizations in addressing today's environmental…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

158

Heat-related respiratory hospital admissions in Europe in a changing climate: a health impact assessment  

PubMed Central

Objectives Respiratory diseases are ranked second in Europe in terms of mortality, prevalence and costs. Studies have shown that extreme heat has a large impact on mortality and morbidity, with a large relative increase for respiratory diseases. Expected increases in mean temperature and the number of extreme heat events over the coming decades due to climate change raise questions about the possible health impacts. We assess the number of heat-related respiratory hospital admissions in a future with a different climate. Design A Europe-wide health impact assessment. Setting An assessment for each of the EU27 countries. Methods Heat-related hospital admissions under a changing climate are projected using multicity epidemiological exposure–response relationships applied to gridded population data and country-specific baseline respiratory hospital admission rates. Times-series of temperatures are simulated with a regional climate model based on four global climate models, under two greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Results Between a reference period (1981–2010) and a future period (2021–2050), the total number of respiratory hospital admissions attributed to heat is projected to be larger in southern Europe, with three times more heat attributed respiratory hospital admissions in the future period. The smallest change was estimated in Eastern Europe with about a twofold increase. For all of Europe, the number of heat-related respiratory hospital admissions is projected to be 26?000 annually in the future period compared with 11?000 in the reference period. Conclusions The results suggest that the projected effects of climate change on temperature and the number of extreme heat events could substantially influence respiratory morbidity across Europe. PMID:23355662

Astrom, Christofer; Orru, Hans; Rocklov, Joacim; Strandberg, Gustav; Ebi, Kristie L; Forsberg, Bertil

2013-01-01

159

Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe  

SciTech Connect

Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Planning and Strategic Business Development Div.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Glicken, J. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S. [Columbia Environmental Services, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States)

1997-05-01

160

Western Europe's America Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses Europe's anti-Americanism stance. He observes that Europe's aversion to America has become greater, louder, and more determined, and that it has unified Western Europeans more than any other political emotion (with the exception of a common hostility toward Israel). The author contends that the many disastrous…

Markovits, Andrei S.

2007-01-01

161

Europe's leaky borders  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews how Europe's erratic export policies have lead to critical technology and material slipping across national borders. Implications of these [open quotes]leaks[close quotes] for proliferation outside of Europe are addressed. Past acquisitions by foreign countries of Western European nuclear material is reviewed. Plans for improvements in security and nonproliferation are discussed.

Mueller, H. (Peace Research Inst., Frankfurt (Germany))

1993-06-01

162

OneGeology-Europe Plus Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geological Surveys of the European countries hold valuable resources of geological data but, to discover, understand and use this data efficiently, a good level of standardization is essential. The OneGeology-Europe project had the aim of making geological maps at a scale 1:1M from Europe discoverable and accessible, available under a common data license and described by multilingual metainformation. A harmonized specification for basic geological map data was developed so that significant progress towards harmonizing the datasets was achieved. Responsibility for the management of the OneGeology-Europe portal has been taken by EuroGeoSurveys and provided by CGS and BRGM. Of the 34 members of EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), only 20 participated in the OneGeology-Europe project (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Spain, United Kingdom), so the European area was not completely covered. At the 33rd General Meeting and Directors Workshop in 2012 it was therefore decided to establish a successor initiative OneGeology Europe Plus (1G-E+) with the purpose of extending the coverage by geological maps at a scale of 1:1 M to all the EGS member countries (including Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Iceland, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine) and also, if possible, to the other European countries (Belorussia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Faeroe Islands, Kosovo, Latvia, Macedonia, Moldavia, Montenegro, Serbia). In order to achieve the desired result, it has been necessary for the new GSOs who intend to supply the additional 1G-E standardized services to carry out the work using their own staff and resources. The technical guidance and other support have been provided by the 1G-E+ Technical Support Team, funded from the internal budgets of their respective surveys. The team is coordinated by the Czech Geological Survey (CGS) working with the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), the British Geological Survey (BGS), the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the Geological Survey of Slovenia (GeoZS). The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (TNO) decided to provide financial support for the initiative. The Technical Support Team has been providing the technical advice required to enable the inclusion of geological maps from new countries in the 1G-E Portal using the standards developed and accepted for 1G-E. Cookbooks, on-line help and a helpdesk are provided during the work. A technical workshop was organized at which all the technical steps required to reach the target solution were presented and discussed. All newcomers must agree the existing common license that was created for downloading the 1G-E data. It should be emphasized that the results will be displayed as part of the 1G-E project and metadata/portal infrastructures. The process is still ongoing because the harmonization work for most of the countries involved has been a demanding process. Some countries are facing difficulties because of the lack of expert personnel or insufficient resources of data. Despite some problems, the 1G-E+ initiative and the work involved has contributed to effective networking and technical cooperation between the GSOs across the wider European region.

Capova, Dana; Kondrova, Lucie

2014-05-01

163

Physical and economic consequences of climate change in Europe  

PubMed Central

Quantitative estimates of the economic damages of climate change usually are based on aggregate relationships linking average temperature change to loss in gross domestic product (GDP). However, there is a clear need for further detail in the regional and sectoral dimensions of impact assessments to design and prioritize adaptation strategies. New developments in regional climate modeling and physical-impact modeling in Europe allow a better exploration of those dimensions. This article quantifies the potential consequences of climate change in Europe in four market impact categories (agriculture, river floods, coastal areas, and tourism) and one nonmarket impact (human health). The methodology integrates a set of coherent, high-resolution climate change projections and physical models into an economic modeling framework. We find that if the climate of the 2080s were to occur today, the annual loss in household welfare in the European Union (EU) resulting from the four market impacts would range between 0.2–1%. If the welfare loss is assumed to be constant over time, climate change may halve the EU's annual welfare growth. Scenarios with warmer temperatures and a higher rise in sea level result in more severe economic damage. However, the results show that there are large variations across European regions. Southern Europe, the British Isles, and Central Europe North appear most sensitive to climate change. Northern Europe, on the other hand, is the only region with net economic benefits, driven mainly by the positive effects on agriculture. Coastal systems, agriculture, and river flooding are the most important of the four market impacts assessed. PMID:21282624

Ciscar, Juan-Carlos; Iglesias, Ana; Feyen, Luc; Szabo, Laszlo; Van Regemorter, Denise; Amelung, Bas; Nicholls, Robert; Watkiss, Paul; Christensen, Ole B.; Dankers, Rutger; Garrote, Luis; Goodess, Clare M.; Hunt, Alistair; Moreno, Alvaro; Richards, Julie; Soria, Antonio

2011-01-01

164

Physical and economic consequences of climate change in Europe.  

PubMed

Quantitative estimates of the economic damages of climate change usually are based on aggregate relationships linking average temperature change to loss in gross domestic product (GDP). However, there is a clear need for further detail in the regional and sectoral dimensions of impact assessments to design and prioritize adaptation strategies. New developments in regional climate modeling and physical-impact modeling in Europe allow a better exploration of those dimensions. This article quantifies the potential consequences of climate change in Europe in four market impact categories (agriculture, river floods, coastal areas, and tourism) and one nonmarket impact (human health). The methodology integrates a set of coherent, high-resolution climate change projections and physical models into an economic modeling framework. We find that if the climate of the 2080s were to occur today, the annual loss in household welfare in the European Union (EU) resulting from the four market impacts would range between 0.2-1%. If the welfare loss is assumed to be constant over time, climate change may halve the EU's annual welfare growth. Scenarios with warmer temperatures and a higher rise in sea level result in more severe economic damage. However, the results show that there are large variations across European regions. Southern Europe, the British Isles, and Central Europe North appear most sensitive to climate change. Northern Europe, on the other hand, is the only region with net economic benefits, driven mainly by the positive effects on agriculture. Coastal systems, agriculture, and river flooding are the most important of the four market impacts assessed. PMID:21282624

Ciscar, Juan-Carlos; Iglesias, Ana; Feyen, Luc; Szabó, László; Van Regemorter, Denise; Amelung, Bas; Nicholls, Robert; Watkiss, Paul; Christensen, Ole B; Dankers, Rutger; Garrote, Luis; Goodess, Clare M; Hunt, Alistair; Moreno, Alvaro; Richards, Julie; Soria, Antonio

2011-02-15

165

Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first part of the presentation is devoted to the consequences of the severe accident in the 1986 Chernobyl NPP. It lead to a substantial radioactive contaminated of large parts of Europe and thus raised the awareness for off-site nuclear accident consequences. Spatial patterns of the (transient) contamination of the air and (persistent) contamination of the ground were studied by both measurements and model simulations. For a variety of reasons, ground contamination measurements have variability at a range of spatial scales. Results will be reviewed and discussed. Model simulations, including inverse modelling, have shown that the standard source term as defined in the ATMES study (1990) needs to be updated. Sensitive measurements of airborne activities still reveal the presence of low levels of airborne radiocaesium over the northern hemisphere which stems from resuspension. Over time scales of months and years, the distribution of radionuclides in the Earth system is constantly changing, for example relocated within plants, between plants and soil, in the soil, and into water bodies. Motivated by the permanent risk of transboundary impacts from potential major nuclear accidents, the multidisciplinary project flexRISK (see http://flexRISK.boku.ac.at) has been carried out from 2009 to 2012 in Austria to quantify such risks and hazards. An overview of methods and results of flexRISK is given as a second part of the presentation. For each of the 228 NPPs, severe accidents were identified together with relevant inventories, release fractions, and release frequencies. Then, Europe-wide dispersion and dose calculations were performed for 2788 cases, using the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. Maps of single-case results as well as various aggregated risk parameters were produced. It was found that substantial consequences (intervention measures) are possible for distances up to 500-1000 km, and occur more frequently for a distance range up to 100-300 km, which is in agreement with Chernobyl experiences. However, emergency planning presently is still often focussing on too small areas. In reality, almost all of Europe should be prepared for nuclear disaster. The project investigated also the effect of a simple phase-out scenario. A regional phase-out policy is effective for reducing or even eliminating high damage in the respective regions. It should also be mentioned that risk distribution depends strongly on accident frequency, but this parameter is highly uncertain. The work in flexRISK was funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund (KLI.EN).

Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

2013-04-01

166

EWork in Southern Europe. IES Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of the EMERGENCE project to measure and map employment relocation in a global economy in the new communications environment, this report on eWork in southern Europe (SE) combines results of a European employer survey, case studies, and data from other sources. Chapter 1 analyzes national and sector dimensions. Chapter 2 studies eWork practice…

Altieri, G.; Birindelli, L.; Bracaglia, P.; Tartaglione, C.; Albarracin, D.; Vaquero, J.; Fissamber, V.

167

Air Pollution Deaths in Europe 2020  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses air pollution mortality in Europe by projecting future incomes and the associated air pollution until 2020. A gravity model for transboundary emissions is introduced to investigate the role of emission trade between countries. Important determinants of air pollution deaths, such as urbanization and technical progress in medicine are evaluated. The results show that in spite of considerable

Ulla Lehmijoki; Elena Rovenskaya

168

I-MOVE Multi-Centre Case Control Study 2010-11: Overall and Stratified Estimates of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background In the third season of I-MOVE (Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe), we undertook a multicentre case-control study based on sentinel practitioner surveillance networks in eight European Union (EU) member states to estimate 2010/11 influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically-attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza. Methods Using systematic sampling, practitioners swabbed ILI/ARI patients within seven days of symptom onset. We compared influenza-positive to influenza laboratory-negative patients among those meeting the EU ILI case definition. A valid vaccination corresponded to > 14 days between receiving a dose of vaccine and symptom onset. We used multiple imputation with chained equations to estimate missing values. Using logistic regression with study as fixed effect we calculated influenza VE adjusting for potential confounders. We estimated influenza VE overall, by influenza type, age group and among the target group for vaccination. Results We included 2019 cases and 2391 controls in the analysis. Adjusted VE was 52% (95% CI 30-67) overall (N?=?4410), 55% (95% CI 29-72) against A(H1N1) and 50% (95% CI 14-71) against influenza B. Adjusted VE against all influenza subtypes was 66% (95% CI 15-86), 41% (95% CI -3-66) and 60% (95% CI 17-81) among those aged 0-14, 15-59 and ?60 respectively. Among target groups for vaccination (N?=?1004), VE was 56% (95% CI 34-71) overall, 59% (95% CI 32-75) against A(H1N1) and 63% (95% CI 31-81) against influenza B. Conclusions Results suggest moderate protection from 2010-11 trivalent influenza vaccines against medically-attended ILI laboratory-confirmed as influenza across Europe. Adjusted and stratified influenza VE estimates are possible with the large sample size of this multi-centre case-control. I-MOVE shows how a network can provide precise summary VE measures across Europe. PMID:22110695

Kissling, Esther; Valenciano, Marta; Cohen, Jean Marie; Oroszi, Beatrix; Barret, Anne-Sophie; Rizzo, Caterina; Stefanoff, Pawel; Nunes, Baltazar; Pitigoi, Daniela; Larrauri, Amparo; Daviaud, Isabelle; Horvath, Judit Krisztina; O'Donnell, Joan; Seyler, Thomas; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona Anna; Pechirra, Pedro; Ivanciuc, Alina Elena; Jimenez-Jorge, Silvia; Savulescu, Camelia; Ciancio, Bruno Christian; Moren, Alain

2011-01-01

169

Living in Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weblogs on just about every topic imaginable (including a few which no one would have imagined) are now available. And, after some time spent living in the shadows of traditional formats such as television and mainstream periodicals, they have garnered the attention of major media programs. One of the more interesting weblog sites out there is Living in Europe, which consists of a cooperative of bloggers and writers who contribute essays, photographs, personal diaries, and news items from Europe. The perspectives section of the site offers some commentaries on the expansion of the European Union and a diary of a foreigner living in Turkey. The photos section features contributions from various parts of Europe, including some musings and photos from Catalonia and Bristol. Visitors who develop a penchant for the site may sign up to help with the administration of the site, or just offer their own commentaries on life in Europe.

170

Impact of extreme events on the carbon cycle of cropland in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme weather events will increase in frequency in future and will affect the carbon cycle. To get a better understanding of these impacts the CarboExtreme project investigates these effects on different land uses. As part of this project the study presented here focuses on droughts and heat waves and their impact on cropland in Europe. Net primary production (NPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) are simulated for 1901-2100; results from two periods (1971-2000 and 2071-2100) are presented here. The simulation results of 2003 are used as a reference for a "dry" year, based on several publications that describe a spatially wide-spread drought in Central Europe for this year. The simulations are performed with the process-based model DailyDayCent. Beside the impact of weather conditions, the carbon cycle of croplands is strongly affected by management (e.g. crop rotation, tillage, fertilizer), which is difficult to simulate or predict. To consider these effects, data from the NitroEurope project are aggregated to the spatial and temporal scale of CarboExtreme. Additionally, two approaches are taken to isolate the impact of the climate from the impact of management: First, crop (wheat) and management are assumed to be constant over time (not in space); second, varying crop rotations are considered, with variable management practice. The results show the impact of droughts on the European level, as well as general effects of climate change on NPP and NEE. The simulation results for wheat show the highest values of NPP in Central Europe and low values in the South-West and the North of Europe for the control period 1971-2000. This distribution is similar for the second period (2071-2100), but increased (up to 100 gC per square meter). The comparison with the "dry" year 2003 shows a strong decrease of the productivity in Central Europe, but small impacts in the East, North and South-West of Europe. The pattern for NEEs is similar and shows the croplands as a small source of carbon (except Northern Europe), which increases in the second period (2071-2100).

Kuhnert, Matthias; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Smith, Pete

2013-04-01

171

A New Tool for Effective and Efficient Project Management  

SciTech Connect

Organizations routinely handle thousands of projects per year, and it is difficult to manage all these projects concurrently. Too often, projects do not get the attention they need when they need it. Management inattention can lead to late projects or projects with less than desirable content and/or deliverables. This paper discusses the application of Visual Project Management (VPM) as a method to track and manage projects. The VPM approach proved to be a powerful management tool without the overhead and restrictions of traditional management methods.

Willett, Jesse A.

2011-12-01

172

Optical Effects at projection measurements for Terahertz tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical effects like refraction, diffraction and edge effects have an influence on Terahertz measurements. They can result in image artifacts which makes it difficult to detect and resolve material defects inside the samples. We used a geometrical optical ray tracing approach to analyze the optical effects at Terahertz projection measurements which can be used to perform 2D or 3D THz images. We measured rectangular and cylindrical samples made of PEEK (Polyetheretherketon), POM (Polyoxymethylen), and PMMA (Polymethylmethacrylat) and compared the results to simulations that are realized with the software ZEMAX. We were able to simulate the measured Fresnel refraction and transmission behavior for rectangular cuboids with a length of 25 mm and cylinders with diameter of 25 mm. We showed the influence of diffraction and edge effects at samples with different sizes made of PMMA. Thus, the optical effect of refraction was significant and observable for cylinders with diameters greater than 1.5 mm and holes with diameter greater than 2.5 mm.

Brahm, A.; Wilms, A.; Tymoshchuk, M.; Grossmann, C.; Notni, G.; Tünnermann, A.

2014-10-01

173

Climate-change effects on extreme precipitation in central Europe: uncertainties of scenarios based on regional climate models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations as well as most climate model simulations are generally in accord with the hypothesis that the hydrologic cycle\\u000a should intensify and become highly volatile with the greenhouse-gas-induced climate change, although uncertainties of these\\u000a projections as well as the spatial and seasonal variability of the changes are much larger than for temperature extremes.\\u000a In this study, we examine scenarios of

Jan Kyselý; Romana Beranová

2009-01-01

174

The potential of fuelwood to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project FEEDS (Fuelwood in Europe for Environment and Development Strategies) has been carried out to analyze possibilities of increasing fuelwood use for five selected European countries in the year 2020, considering environmental, technical and socio-economic aspects. In this paper the effects of increased use of fuelwood on emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2, CH4 and N2O, are

H. Schwaiger; B. Schlamadinger

1998-01-01

175

How secular is Europe?  

PubMed

A large body of literature has developed, yielding evidence that religion in general and Churches and Church leaders in particular have lost their once dominant position in contemporary Europe. Evidence is often cited in declining levels of church attendance. Whether Europe should also be qualified as secularized in terms of religious beliefs remains unclear. In this paper we investigate the degree to which European people are secular, focusing not only on religious practices, but also on beliefs. We argue that trajectories of religious change occur all over Europe, but not at similar speeds. We formulate hypotheses regarding the differences in the degree to which individuals and societies are secularized. Data from the recent European Values Study surveys are used to empirically test these hypotheses concerning patterns of variation in religious beliefs and practices. The findings provide evidence in favour of secularization theories and in contradiction to rational choice theories. In Europe, religious pluralism produces not higher levels, but lower levels of religiosity. The findings also reveal that religious denomination as well as cultural and socio-economic heritages are important factors in explaining the patchwork pattern in levels of religiosity and religious participation in contemporary Europe. PMID:16759195

Halman, Loek; Draulans, Veerle

2006-06-01

176

Short term effects of air pollution on health: a European approach using epidemiologic time series data: the APHEA protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Results from several studies over the past five years have shown that the current levels of pollutants in Europe and North America have adverse short term effects on health. The APHEA project aims to quantifying these in Europe, using standardised methodology. The project protocol and analytical methodology are presented here. DESIGN: Daily time series data were gathered

K Katsouyanni; J Schwartz; C Spix; G Touloumi; D Zmirou; A Zanobetti; B Wojtyniak; J M Vonk; A Tobias; A Pönkä; S Medina; L Bachárová; H R Anderson

1996-01-01

177

USE OF PROJECT PARTNERING IN CONSTRUCTION Examining the Effect of Project Integration and Target Pricing in Three Pilot Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a trend in organizing the building process with stronger focus on better integration of the different actors and use of new procurement methods. Our experiences started with the research project \\

OLA LÆDRE; TORE I. HAUGEN

178

Diabetes in Europe: an update.  

PubMed

Diabetes is among the leading causes of death in the IDF Europe Region (EUR), continues to increase in prevalence with diabetic macro- and microvascular complications resulting in increased disability and enormous healthcare costs. In 2013, the number of people with diabetes is estimated to be 56 million in EUR with an overall estimated prevalence of 8.5%. However, estimates of diabetes prevalence in 2013 vary widely in the 56 diverse countries in EUR from 2.4% in Moldova to 14.9% in Turkey. Trends in diabetes prevalence also vary between countries with stable prevalence since 2002 for many countries but a doubling of diabetes prevalence in Turkey. For 2035, a further increase of nearly 10 million people with diabetes is projected for the EUR. Prevalence of type 1 has also increased over the past 20 years in EUR and there was estimated to be 129,350 cases in children aged 0-14 years in 2013. Registries provide valid information on incidence of type 1 diabetes with more complete data available for children than for adults. There are large differences in distribution of risk factors for diabetes at the population level in EUR. Modifiable risk factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, smoking behaviour (including secondhand smoking), environmental pollutants, psychosocial factors and socioeconomic deprivation could be tackled to reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Europe. In addition, diabetes management is a major challenge to health services in the European countries. Improved networking practices of health professionals and other stakeholders in combination with empowerment of people with diabetes and continuous quality monitoring need to be further developed in Europe. PMID:24300019

Tamayo, T; Rosenbauer, J; Wild, S H; Spijkerman, A M W; Baan, C; Forouhi, N G; Herder, C; Rathmann, W

2014-02-01

179

Feasibility and Effectiveness of Indicator Condition-Guided Testing for HIV: Results from HIDES I (HIV Indicator Diseases across Europe Study)  

PubMed Central

Improved methods for targeting HIV testing among patients most likely to be infected are required; HIDES I aimed to define the methodology of a European wide study of HIV prevalence in individuals presenting with one of eight indicator conditions/diseases (ID); sexually transmitted infection, lymphoma, cervical or anal cancer/dysplasia, herpes zoster, hepatitis B/C, mononucleosis-like illness, unexplained leukocytopenia/thrombocytopenia and seborrheic dermatitis/exanthema, and to identify those with an HIV prevalence of >0.1%, a level determined to be cost effective. A staff questionnaire was performed. From October 2009– February 2011, individuals, not known to be HIV positive, presenting with one of the ID were offered an HIV test; additional information was collected on previous HIV testing behaviour and recent medical history. A total of 3588 individuals from 16 centres were included. Sixty-six tested positive for HIV, giving an HIV prevalence of 1.8% [95% CI: 1.42–2.34]; all eight ID exceeded 0.1% prevalence. Of those testing HIV positive, 83% were male, 58% identified as MSM and 9% were injecting drug users. Twenty percent reported previously having potentially HIV-related symptoms and 52% had previously tested HIV negative (median time since last test: 1.58 years); which together with the median CD4 count at diagnosis (400 cell/uL) adds weight to this strategy being effective in diagnosing HIV at an earlier stage. A positive test was more likely for non-white individuals, MSM, injecting drug users and those testing in non-Northern regions. HIDES I describes an effective strategy to detect undiagnosed HIV infection. All eight ID fulfilled the >0.1% criterion for cost effectiveness. All individuals presenting to any health care setting with one of these ID should be strongly recommended an HIV test. A strategy is being developed in collaboration with ECDC and WHO Europe to guide the implementation of this novel public health initiative across Europe. PMID:23341910

Sullivan, Ann K.; Raben, Dorthe; Reekie, Joanne; Rayment, Michael; Mocroft, Amanda; Esser, Stefan; Leon, Agathe; Begovac, Josip; Brinkman, Kees; Zangerle, Robert; Grzeszczuk, Anna; Vassilenko, Anna; Hadziosmanovic, Vesna; Krasnov, Maksym; Sonnerborg, Anders; Clumeck, Nathan; Gatell, Jose; Gazzard, Brian; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Rockstroh, Jurgen; Lundgren, Jens D.

2013-01-01

180

Effective noise reduction and equalization in projection domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CT image quality is affected by various artifacts including noise. Among these artifacts of different causes, noisy data due to photon starvation should be contained in early processing stage to better mitigate other artifacts as they can cause severe streaks and noise in reconstructed CT image. For low dose imaging, it is critical to use effective processing method to handle the photon starved data in order to obtain required image quality with desired resolution, texture, low contrast detectability. In this paper, two promising projection domain noise reduction methods are proposed. They are derived from (1) the noise model that connects the noise behaviors in count and attenuation; (2) predicted noise reduction from a finite impulse response (FIR) filter; (3) two pre-determined noise reduction requirements (noise equalization and electronic noise suppression). Both methods showed significant streaks and noise reduction in tested cases while reasonably maintaining the resolution of the images.

Yang, Zhi; Zamyatin, Alexander A.; Nakanishi, Satoru

2014-03-01

181

Doctoring in Eastern Europe  

PubMed Central

Health care in Eastern Europe has not achieved world standards nor the goals of planners of socialist societies. With luck, perseverance, bribes or good connections, it is possible to obtain good medical and surgical care in Eastern Europe for a major illness. Primary and even secondary care usually are substandard, however, and often completely unacceptable to most Western foreigners. The reasons for this are complex but mainly rooted in different attitudes of health workers towards their patients, poor physical plants, poor salary structures, inadequate advancement opportunities for health care workers, poor social status and professional recognition for nurses and almost complete isolation of the average primary care doctor from hospital medicine. PMID:6659504

Wilde, Henry

1983-01-01

182

A Reflection on the Effects of the 985 Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China's 985 Project, which came after the 211 Project, is a key program of the Chinese government to create world-class universities and high-level research universities. The central government invested a total of RMB32.9 billion in special funds for phase I (1999-2001) and phase II (2004-2007) of the project, assisting thirty-nine universities.…

Ying, Cheng

2011-01-01

183

Education and Ethnic Prejudice in Europe: Explanations for Cross-National Variances in the Educational Effect on Ethnic Prejudice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied cross-national variances in the effect of education on ethnic prejudice using data from11 European countries with a total sample of 11,904 adults. Findings show that a country's democratic tradition and degree of religious heterogeneity are important for the strength of an educational effect on ethnic prejudice, while ethnic composition…

Hello, Evelyn; Scheepers, Peer; Gijsberts, Merove

2002-01-01

184

The Role of FDI in Eastern Europe and New Independent States: New Channels for the Spillover Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policymakers around the world introduce special policies aimed at attracting foreign direct investments (FDI). They motivate their decision by the spillover effect, which FDI have on domestic companies. Empirical literature so far has failed to find any robust evidence of this effect. In this paper, we make an attempt to explain this finding. Using data from Poland, Romania, Russia, and

Irina Tytell; Ksenia Yudaeva

2005-01-01

185

Effective Monitoring and Control of Outsourced Software Development Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our study of four outsourcing projects we discover mechanisms to support managerial decision making during software development processes. We report on Customer Office, a framework used in practice that facilitates reasoning about projects by highlighting information paths and making co-ordination issues explicit. The results suggest a key role of modularisation and standardisation to assist in value creation, by facilitating information flow and keeping the overview of the project. The practical implications of our findings are guidelines for managing outsourcing projects such as to have a modularised view of the project based on knowledge domains and to standardise co-ordination operations.

Ponisio, Laura; Vruggink, Peter

186

The effects of the Colorado River project on longshore sediment transport at Matagorda Peninsula, Texas  

E-print Network

is performed within this study to determine the effectiveness of the project at preserving an open, navigable channel while preventing accelerated shoreline erosion. Evaluation is done through inspection of project impacts to longshore sediment transport...

Heilman, Daniel Jon

2012-06-07

187

New Races of Puccinia striiformis Found in Europe Reveal Race Specificity of Long-Term Effective Adult Plant Resistance in Wheat.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Resistance to Puccinia striiformis was examined in nine wheat recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between 'Camp Rémy' (resistant parent) and 'Récital' (susceptible parent) using an isolate of a strain common to the northwestern European population before 2011 (old) and two additional isolates, one representing an aggressive and high-temperature-adapted strain (PstS2) and another representing a virulence phenotype new to Europe since 2011 (new). The RILs carried different combinations of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to P. striiformis. Under greenhouse conditions, the three isolates gave highly contrasting results for infection type, latent period, lesion length, and diseased leaf area. The PstS2 isolate revealed Yr genes and QTL which conferred complete resistance in adult plants. Six QTL had additive effects against the old isolate whereas the effects of these QTL were significantly lower for the new isolate. Furthermore, the new isolate revealed previously undetected resistance in the susceptible parent. Disease severity under field conditions agreed with greenhouse results, except for Camp Rémy being fully resistant to the new isolate and for two RILs being susceptible in the field. These results stress the need of maintaining high genetic diversity for disease resistance in wheat and of using pathogen isolates of diverse origin in studies of host resistance genetics. PMID:24624957

Sørensen, Chris K; Hovmøller, Mogens S; Leconte, Marc; Dedryver, Françoise; de Vallavieille-Pope, Claude

2014-10-01

188

EUROPE'S GEOSTATIONARY METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES  

E-print Network

MISSIONS MFG MISSION MSG MISSION MTG IMAGING MISSION MTG I MTG SOUNDING MISSION MTG S * MSG 4/METEOSAT 11 MTG S 1 MTG S 2 METEOSAT 9 MSG 3/METEOSAT 10 MSG 4/METEOSAT 11* METEOSAT FIRST GENERATION METEOSAT services over Europe and Africa, are now exclusively provided by Meteosat Second Generation (MSG

Stoffelen, Ad

189

Eastern Europe scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Russian situation is key to Eastern Europe if present trends continue. Its strategy for the establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle was conceived decades ago when the former USSR still existed. It was based on the fuel recycle with attention given to the requirements of the military. The former Warsaw Pact Countries (WPC) were not meant to have independent

Hafele

1996-01-01

190

Radical Islam in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europe now faces three related but different challenges: how to respond, in a time when “native” European populations are shrinking, to the growing presence of Muslim minorities; how to avoid having its relationships with its Muslim communities controlled by Islamists who seek to replace Western civilization with Islamic government based on sharia law; and what to do generally about this

Leslie S. Lebl

2010-01-01

191

Financial Patenting in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We take a first look at financial patents at the European Patent Office (EPO). As is the case at the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the number of financial patents in Europe has increased significantly in parallel with significant changes in payment and financial systems. Scholars have argued that financial patents, like other business methods patents, have low value

Bronwyn H. Hall; Grid Thoma; Salvatore Torrisi

2009-01-01

192

Financial patenting in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We take a first look at financial patents at the European Patent Office (EPO). As is the case at the United States Patent and Trademark Office, the number of financial patents in Europe has increased significantly in parallel with significant changes in payment and financial systems. Scholars have argued that financial patents, like other business methods patents, have low value

Bronwyn H. Hall; Grid Thoma; Salvatore Torrisi

2010-01-01

193

Acid rain in Europe and the United States: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the evolution of science and policies to control acid rain in Europe and the United States over the past several decades. Acid rain gained prominence in the late 1960s because of its perceived effects on ecosystem integrity. Extensive research efforts in both Europe and the United States, however, have concluded that the effects of acid rain—at least

Fredric C. Menz; Hans M. Seip

2004-01-01

194

Bias in effect size of systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility loci across Europe: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Introduction We aimed to investigate whether the effect size of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk alleles varies across European subpopulations. Methods European SLE patients (n = 1,742) and ethnically matched healthy controls (n = 2,101) were recruited at 17 centres from 10 different countries. Only individuals with self-reported ancestry from the country of origin were included. In addition, participants were genotyped for top ancestry informative markers and for 25 SLE associated SNPs. The results were used to compare effect sizes between the Central Eureopan and Southern European subgroups. Results Twenty of the 25 SNPs showed independent association with SLE, These SNPs showed a significant bias to larger effect sizes in the Southern subgroup, with 15/20 showing this trend (P = 0.019) and a larger mean odds ratio of the 20 SNPs (1.46 vs. 1.34, P = 0.02) as well as a larger difference in the number of risk alleles (2.06 vs. 1.63, P = 0.027) between SLE patients and controls than for Central Europeans. This bias was reflected in a very significant difference in the cumulative genetic risk score (4.31 vs. 3.48, P = 1.8 × 10-32). Effect size bias was accompanied by a lower number of SLE risk alleles in the Southern subjects, both patients and controls, the difference being more marked between the controls (P = 1.1 × 10-8) than between the Southern and Central European patients (P = 0.016). Seven of these SNPs showed significant allele frequency clines. Conclusion Our findings showed a bias to larger effect sizes of SLE loci in the Southern Europeans relative to the Central Europeans together with clines of SLE risk allele frequencies. These results indicate the need to study risk allele clines and the implications of the polygenic model of inheritance in SLE. PMID:22541939

2012-01-01

195

Halecki Revisited: Europe’s Conflicting Cultures of Remembrance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the early 1950s, the Vienna-born U.S.–Polish historian Oskar Halecki developed a model of “the limits and divisions of\\u000a European history” from antiquity to the Cold War. Using cultural and religious criteria, he identified four historical mesoregions:\\u000a Western Europe, West Central Europe, East Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Post-1989–1991 cultures of remembrance, too,\\u000a reveal a Europe of four mesoregions, ones

Stefan Troebst

196

Geographic and ethnic distributions of the more frequent cystic fibrosis mutations in Europe show that a founder effect is apparent for several mutant alleles.  

PubMed

Examination of the European geographic patterns of the 10 relatively most frequent cystic fibrosis mutations, other than the DF508 one, shows that a founder effect is apparent for a number of them. The most evident examples are for the W1282X mutation in Jews, with a probable Asian origin, and the G551D and R117H mutations in Celts. Geographic distributions indicate that the main focus of the 621 + 1 G-->T and DI507 mutations is probably located in Wales. Also, the R1162X mutation probably originates from a circumscribed north Italian region. The N1303K mutation has a wide range in Europe with a clear preponderance in southern countries. Even the relatively common G542X and 1717.1 G-->A mutations have a local preponderance in Spain and Sicily and in northern Italy, respectively. Likelihood estimates for recurrent mutation and identity by descent strongly support the hypothesis of recurrence for the (mainly German) mutation R553X. PMID:7649531

Lucotte, G; Hazout, S

1995-08-01

197

Charge effect in point projection images of carbon fibres  

PubMed

Nanometre-sized carbon fibres across holes have been observed in a lensless point projection field-emission microscope operating between 100 and 300 eV. At sufficiently high magnification fringe patterns appear; with the help of simulations we show that they are strongly dependent on the charge density of the fibres. These patterns are characterized by an odd number of fringes with a central fringe that becomes very bright as the charge increases. Average diameter and linear charge density have been obtained with remarkable precision from analysis of fringes. Charge distribution from the middle to the edge of fibres has been investigated as well as narrowings at localized places on the fringe pattern. From these two examples, the limits of the models used for the simulations and those of the data acquisition system are discussed. Finally, this work emphasizes the fact that the fringe pattern masks the actual form of the fibre and that it is necessary to take account of the charge effect to interpret this diffraction pattern. PMID:10971800

Prigent; Morin

2000-09-01

198

Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ˜273?800 km2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus-Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and biodiversity, and for increasing agricultural production on previously cultivated lands.

Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Müller, Daniel

2012-06-01

199

Working with Teachers to Develop Fair and Reliable Measures of Effective Teaching. MET Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to develop and test multiple measures of teacher effectiveness. The goal of the MET project is to improve the quality of information about teaching effectiveness available to education professionals within states and districts--information…

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

2010-01-01

200

Explaining the Muslim employment gap in Western Europe: Individual-level effects and ethno-religious penalties.  

PubMed

It is well-documented that Muslims experience economic disadvantages in Western European labor markets. However, few studies comprehensively test individual-level explanations for the Muslim employment gap. Using data from the European Social Survey, this research note briefly examines the role of individual-level differences between Muslims and non-Muslims in mediating employment differences. Results reveal that human capital, migration background, religiosity, cultural values, and perceptions of discrimination jointly account for about 40% of the employment variance between Muslims and non-Muslims. Model specifications for first- and second-generation Muslim immigrants reveal a similar pattern, with migration background and perceived discrimination being of key relevance in mediating employment difference. While individual-level effects are indeed relevant, unexplained variance suggests that symbolic boundaries against Islam may still translate into tangible ethno-religious penalties. PMID:25432613

Connor, Phillip; Koenig, Matthias

2015-01-01

201

Joint implementation for cost-effective carbon dioxide emission-reductions: An analysis of options in eastern Europe  

SciTech Connect

The costs of greenhouse gas emission-reductions vary among countries depending on emission levels, technologies used, past emission-reduction achievements, path of economic development, fuel mix, and initial endowment of hydrocarbon resources. The criterion of cost-effectiveness therefore suggests that the ways should be found to encourage emission reductions in the countries where the required costs of reduction of additional unit of emissions are the lowest. These countries usually face crucial capital constraints and have other development priorities than investing in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Developed countries could invest their resources in the former Soviet Union and the east European countries to achieve the same level of reduction of greenhouse gases with lower costs than they could in their own countries.

Krutilla, K.; Dolsak, N.

1996-12-31

202

Mapping Europe's Seismic Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the rift that cuts through the heart of Iceland to the complex tectonic convergence that causes frequent and often deadly earthquakes in Italy, Greece, and Turkey to the volcanic tremors that rattle the Mediterranean, seismic activity is a prevalent and often life-threatening reality across Europe. Any attempt to mitigate the seismic risk faced by society requires an accurate estimate of the seismic hazard.

Giardini, Domenico; Wössner, Jochen; Danciu, Laurentiu

2014-07-01

203

Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects ANN DENISE FISSEKIS  

E-print Network

Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects By ANN DENISE FISSEKIS B.......................................................................6 Chapter III. Climate Change................................................................11 models...........................................................20 Climate change data

Lund, Jay R.

204

HIV in Europe.  

PubMed

In 2011, the estimated number of people living with HIV in Europe and Central Asia was 2.3 million. This is more than twice the 2001 figure. At the same time, approximately 50% of the infected people may not know their HIV status. The Europe/Central Asia region is one of only two regions in which HIV infections continue to increase. The estimated prevalence rate in the west and center of the region, however, has remained stable at 0.2%. The HIV epidemics in Eastern Europe and Central Asia are typically driven by unsafe drug injection and by onward transmission to the sexual partners of people who inject drugs. In the western part of the region, the epidemic remains concentrated among men who have sex with men and migrants from countries with generalized epidemics. Means of preventing and fighting HIV should, first and foremost, be directed to those parts of the population that are most exposed to the risk of the infection. Proceeding from the data presented, recommendations are given for ways of decreasing HIV prevalence in the region, such as promoting dialogue and awareness among multistakeholders, including policy makers, donors, and population groups most exposed to the infection. PMID:24559564

Põder, Airi; Haldre, Madli

2014-01-01

205

BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE IN EUROPE.  

PubMed

European biomedical research is now in full resurgence, 19 years after the devastation of the World War II. The more advanced countries of Western Europe are gradually approaching a position of economic self-sufficiency with respect to research. However, certain problems persist. Lingering nationalism and language differences continue to inhibit Europe from finding its full strength as a scientific community. Educational reforms, manpower planning, and scientific support still lag far behind the technologic recovery of science. International pooling of scientific interests and activities, so necesary for the smaller countries, has been slow to develop. The bonds between American and European biomedical science are extraordinarily strong and healthy, the result of the huge flow of young Europeans to America and of American scientists to Europe for training. These training exchanges have done much more than extend technologic competence. The two communities, one European, the other American, have different attitudes and atmospheres for research, which complement and strengthen each other. The benefits which lie in collaborative research and training among laboratories of the two communities are becoming more and more apparent and no doubt will lead to new levels of creativity and productivity in biomedical research. PMID:14190239

GRANT, R P; HUTTRER, C P; METZNER, C G

1964-10-23

206

Cocaine Use in Europe – A Multi-Centre Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increase in the use of cocaine and crack in several parts of Europe has raised the question whether this trend is similar to that of the USA in the 1980s. However, research in the field of cocaine use in Europe has been only sporadic. Therefore, a European multi-centre and multi-modal project was designed to study specific aspects of cocaine

Christian Haasen; Michael Prinzleve; Heike Zurhold; Juergen Rehm; Franziska Güttinger; Gabriele Fischer; Reinhold Jagsch; Börje Olsson; Mats Ekendahl; Annette Verster; Antonella Camposeragna; Anne-Marie Pezous; Michael Gossop; Victoria Manning; Gemma Cox; Niamh Ryder; Jozsef Gerevich; Erika Bacskai; Miguel Casas; Josep Lluis Matali; Michael Krausz

2004-01-01

207

Developing an effective diving program for a hydro maintenance project  

SciTech Connect

A trash problem at the Fort Randall hydropower project threatened to affect operations and cause potential machinery damage. When traditional approaches to clean away the trash were judged unfeasible, US Army Corps of Engineers managers developed a combined mechanical cleanup and underwater diving program. A contractor successfully removed 500 tons of debris at a cost of about $302,000. The dive plan and problems experienced during the project are detailed in the article.

Stasch, E. [Corps of Engineers, Pierre, SD (United States)

1997-08-01

208

Migrant Culture in a Changing Society: Multicultural Europe by the Year 2000. Colloquy (Strasbourg, France, January 18-20, 1983). The CDCC's Project No. 7: "The Education and Cultural Development of Migrants."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 3-day colloquy was held to discuss educational and cultural problems with a view to what European society might be like in the year 2000. Participants divided into three working groups, each focusing on one of three major themes: multicultural Europe in 2000, the role of the school in a changing society, and migrant culture and its educational…

Rey, Micheline

209

For Better or Worse: Contemporary Social, Cultural and Economic Changes in Europe and Their Significance for Cultural and Educational Policies. The CDCC's Project No. 7: "The Education and Cultural Development of Migrants."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary demographic, economic, political, and social changes in Europe are influencing cultural and educational processes. International migration, internal migration from rural to urban centers, emergence of the welfare state, professionalization of society, technological advancement, and changes in occupational structure and the situation…

Lithman, Yngve Georg

210

E-Science and Grids in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After defining what is meant by the term 'e-Science', this talk will survey the activity on e-Science and Grids in Europe. The two largest initiatives in Europe are the European Commission's portfolio of Grid projects and the UK e-Science program. The EU under its R Framework Program are funding nearly twenty Grid projects in a wide variety of application areas. These projects are in varying stages of maturity and this talk will focus on a subset that have most significant progress. These include the EU DataGrid project led by CERN and two projects - EuroGrid and Grip - that evolved from the German national Unicore project. A summary of the other EU Grid projects will be included. The UK e-Science initiative is a 180M program entirely focused on e-Science applications requiring resource sharing, a virtual organization and a Grid infrastructure. The UK program is unique for three reasons: (1) the program covers all areas of science and engineering; (2) all of the funding is devoted to Grid application and middleware development and not to funding major hardware platforms; and (3) there is an explicit connection with industry to produce robust and secure industrial-strength versions of Grid middleware that could be used in business-critical applications. A part of the funding, around 50M, but requiring an additional 'matching' $30M from industry in collaborative projects, forms the UK e-Science 'Core Program'. It is the responsibility of the Core Program to identify and support a set of generic middleware requirements that have emerged from a requirements analysis of the e-Science application projects. This has led to a much more data-centric vision for 'the Grid' in the UK in which access to HPC facilities forms only one element. More important for the UK projects are issues such as enabling access and federation of scientific data held in files, relational databases and other archives. Automatic annotation of data generated by high throughput experiments with XML-based metadata is seen as a key step towards developing higher-level Grid services for information retrieval and knowledge discovery. The talk will conclude with a survey of other Grid initiatives across Europe and look at possible future European projects.

Hey, Tony

2002-08-01

211

Imaging space weather over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the introduction of the first all-sky imaging system for low-light-level optical observations of the disturbed ionosphere over mid-latitude Europe. Using 6300 Å auroral emissions that come from the 200-400 km altitude range, we demonstrate that sub-visual optical patterns spanning the European continent can be obtained from a single site in Italy. Pilot observations during the 26-27 September 2011 geomagnetic storm show that the diffuse aurora's low latitude boundary can be used to find where the poleward wall of the ionospheric trough is located. This relates directly to regions of radiowave disruptions caused by the precipitation of energetic particles from the magnetospheric plasma sheet that move to lower latitudes during space weather events. Images of stable auroral red (SAR) arcs can be used to track the magnetospheric ring current and plasmapause location, a second region of radiowave interference. Comparisons with ground-based and satellite observations of the ionosphere during the same storm demonstrate how ASI images reveal the lowest energy components of magnetospheric input to the ionosphere-thermosphere system. Such observations can be used, potentially, for both now-casting of storm effects spanning Europe, and for retrospective validation of existing models of space weather impacts at sub-auroral locations.

Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Wroten, Joei; Mendillo, Michael; Martinis, Carlos; Barbieri, Cesare; Umbriaco, Gabriele; Mitchell, Cathryn; Kinrade, Joe; Materassi, Massimo; Ciraolo, Luigi; Hairston, Marc

2013-02-01

212

Estimating the impact of wintry weather on transportation in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wintry weather conditions have high impact on transportation. Sub-zero temperatures combined to snowfall result in traffic jams and increased accident rate. Dense snowfall causes poor grip between the road surface and tires and reduces the visibility, thus increasing the risk for severe pile-ups on highways. Low temperature and snowfall have a strong negative impact also on railway traffic and aviation, as experienced in Europe during winter 2009/10. Many big airfields in Central Europe were closed during several days and thousands of people had to spend the night at the airport or in the hotels nearby. The estimated total costs from a single major snowfall event can climb up to 1.3 billion pounds (1.5 billion euro), as happened in UK on 1-2 February 2009. By investigating the effect of hazardous winter weather conditions on different transport modes the worst situations can be identified and impact thresholds for different weather parameters and their combination can be assessed. In this study we estimate the impact thresholds for snowfall, wind gust and temperature as well as for their combination, the blizzard. This work is based on an impact review collected from literature and media reports as well as on local studies concerning the link between snowfall and traffic accidents for example. From the study on six winters it appears for example that a snowfall of 10 cm/24 h resulted in a double car accident rate on average in southern Finland. Such situations can be regarded as high impact cases (peak days of traffic accidents). It is estimated that climate change and global warming will decrease the average yearly number of wintry days in Europe. Even the northern part will probably have a shorter period of snow cover during the coming decades. However, the variability between different winters will remain and cold air outbreaks with even heavy snowfall can occasionally occur also during mild winters. Several studies have shown that the more uncommon some hazardous event is, the more disruptive it can be to the society. This study, where we assess the impact thresholds for different weather parameters, will give guidelines for calculating the probabilities of hazardous wintry events in Europe at present and in the future. This study is associated with the EU/FP7 project EWENT. The objective of the project is to study the impacts of hazardous weather on European transportation system by taking into account the changing climate.

Juga, I.; Rauhala, J.; Vajda, A.

2010-09-01

213

Community sports projects and effective community empowerment: a case study in Rochdale  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can community empowerment be most effectively achieved through the use of sport? In a case study of a bespoke voluntary sector project, an action research approach revealed insights into effective community empowerment. Although focused on a comparatively small project within a provincial UK town, the issues addressed and lessons learned can be generalised and transferred much more universally to

Janine Partington; Mick Totten

2012-01-01

214

Adria/Europe collision effects  

SciTech Connect

In the Senonian, the Adriatic promontory of the African plate lay between two transform faults which joined the north-vergent Alpine-Carpathian front with the south-vergent Apenninic and Hellenic fronts. In the late Eocene it collided with the European continent. The head of the promontory was crushed by compression in the Oligocene and lengthened in a west-east direction. This initiated formation of the West Alpine and West Carpathian arcs. A bay of thin European crust in the area now occupied by the Carpathians facilitated a more pronounced advance of the eastern arc. A wedge-shaped body with the Bakony Mountains in its rigid core was pressed out from the Alpine region. The eastern Alps and the West Carpathians as well as the Southern Alps and the middle Pannonian units suffered sinistral and dextral shear, respectively, which resulted in their lengthening and zonality. In the early-middle Miocene in the Adriatic promontory was broken up. Its northern part suffered counterclockwise rotation in connection with the opening of the Ligurian Sea while the southern part only shifted relative to Africa. Rotation of the northern microplate forced the Dinaric-Hellenic arc to change its shape from convex to concave, and the intra-Carpathian units advanced toward the northeast and rotated toward each other. This completed the Carpathian arc and initiated subsidence in the Pannonian basin. Since the late Miocene the Adriatic promontory has acted again as a part of Africa with a maximum 60-km shift toward the west, caused by the escaping Turkish microplate.

Balla, Z.

1988-08-01

215

Europe's nuclear power experiment  

SciTech Connect

The OECD (Dragon) Project was a joint venture of 12 European countries set up to study the development of high temperature reactor technology and whose programme included the construction of a demonstration high temperature helium cooled reactor and its eventual operation. The Project, which spanned 17 years, was widely regarded as an extremely successful excercise in international collaboration in nuclear technology. This specially commissioned work describes the international background to the launching of the Project, providing an unbiased appraisal of the industrial, technical, administrative and political aspects of the Project's development and the problems encountered, and an evaluation of the Project's significance in the general, context of nuclear power development.

Shaw, E.N.

1983-01-01

216

Central Europe Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, a service of the European Internet Network, brings English-language news and background to users each weekday. Central Europe Online covers the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The site offers current headlines (along with the time that they were most recently updated), business news, travel information, and links to local media. New stories are drawn primarily from Reuters. An archive holds back issues. Users who want to stay current on issues affecting these regions will benefit from the professional approach this site brings to coverage.

1995-01-01

217

The Effects of Mobility: The Rights of the Child in Europe. Report of the Conference (Athens, Greece, April 14-16, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The European Forum for Child Welfare (EFCW) is committed to promoting the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the Convention's views underpin and influence the work program of the EFCW. The 1994 EFCW Conference concentrated on articles within the Convention whereby mobility within Europe may have a…

Williams, Sarah, Ed.

218

Developing Instructional Technology Products Using Effective Project Management Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Delivering a successful instructional technology (IT) product depends on more than just having an extremely creative instructional solution or following an instructional systems design (ISD) model. Proper planning, direction, and execution of the project are require, as well. We present a model of management that encompasses the ISD process. Five…

Allen, Stephanie; Hardin, Paul C.

2008-01-01

219

Eastern Europe scenario  

SciTech Connect

The Russian situation is key to Eastern Europe if present trends continue. Its strategy for the establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle was conceived decades ago when the former USSR still existed. It was based on the fuel recycle with attention given to the requirements of the military. The former Warsaw Pact Countries (WPC) were not meant to have independent fuel cycles, and their irradiated fuel elements were scheduled to go back to Russian territory. In 1976 a fuel cycle center was built at Mayak/Chelyabinsk, centered on the RT-1 plant with a nominal capacity of 400 tonnes/yr plant for the reprocessing of spent fuel from VVER-440 reactors, fast reactors (BN-350 and BN-600) icebreaker and submarine transport units, research reactors, and other power units. The plan provided for the reprocessing of spent fuel from the WPC all having VVER-440 reactors. All together, 3000 tonnes of spent fuel have been processed there. Nuclear waste went to vitrification. A new reprocessing facility is under construction in the neighborhood of Krasnoyarsk 26, the RT-2 plant. It is scheduled to operate after 2005, and its design capacity is 1500 tonne/yr. A storage for 6000 tonnes of spent fuel from VVER-1000 reactors is in operation since 1985. A second mixed-oxide plant for VVER-1000 reactors is under consideration. Now, there are no fuel cycle facilities in the newly independent countries. The fuel cycle problems in Eastern Europe and Russia are discussed.

Hafele, W. [Research Center Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

1996-12-31

220

Adjoint tomography of Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use spectral-element and adjoint methods to iteratively resolve crustal and upper mantle heterogeneity in Europe, using 159 earthquakes, with magnitudes from 5 to 6.5, and data from 338 stations. Crustal model EPcrust1.0 (Molinari& Morelli, 2010) combined with mantle model S362ANI (Kustowski et al. 2008) comprise the initial 3D model M00. Before the iterative inversion, earthquake source parameters (i.e, centroid moment tensor and location), are recalculated using 3D Green's functions and Fréchet derivatives. Since we concentrate on upper mantle structures, involving significant anisotropy in the asthenosphere, transversely isotropic (frequency-dependent) traveltime sensitivity kernels are employed in the inversion. Long-period surface waves (25 s -- 150 s) and short-period body waves (15 s -- 40 s) are combined to constrain shallow and deep structures simultaneously. With each iteration, higher frequency signals are incorporated in the inversion. Statistical assessments of traveltime anomalies and logarithmic waveform differences enable us to validate the inverted sources and structural parameters. Our current model, M15, shows numerous interesting features, for instance, slabs underneath the Hellenic, Vrancea and Calabria arcs, a slab detachment underneath the Central Apennines, mantle upwelling associated with the Eifel hotspot in Northern German, slow wavespeed structures in several back-arc basins, e.g., the Ponnonian basin and the Tyrrhenian sea, and a sharp transition of the Teisseyre-Tornquist suture zone between central Europe and the East European platform.

Zhu, H.; Bozdag, E.; Peter, D. B.; Tromp, J.

2011-12-01

221

The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

2013-12-01

222

An efficient energy future: Prospects for Europe and North America  

SciTech Connect

Industrial countries will have to use energy more efficiently in the years to come to manage a wide range of energy and economic problems. The Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, the United States and Western Europe are analyzed in this book to show the potential for energy conservation up to the year 2000. Seventeen eastern and western countries are studied in detail to show what energy savings are possible with conservation measures that are widely available today. The study makes detailed energy demand projections largely based on physical activity and technology. Energy per ton of steel, for instance, is forecast along with the total tonnage of steel produced. Two views of the energy future are taken. They both rely on the same economic and activity forecasts. One shows energy needs to the end of the century with current average technology. It shows that energy demand will rise steeply if past trends continue. The other view is of an efficient energy future. It reveals how much energy could be saved using only the most efficient technology that is commercially available now. International comparisons explain how different countries use energy much more efficiently than others today. Current best technology provides a vast array of demonstrably effective conservation measures for countries to choose from.

Not Available

1983-01-01

223

Projecting the climatic effects of increasing carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the current knowns, unknowns, and uncertainties regarding the projected climate changes that might occur as a result of an increasing atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. Further, the volume describes what research is required to estimate the magnitude and rate of a CO/sub 2/-induced clamate change with regional and seasonal resolution. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

MacCracken, M C; Luther, F M [eds.

1985-12-01

224

Five Claims about Effective Propagation From the TUES Project, "Increasing the Impact of TUES Projects through Effective  

E-print Network

development programs benefit from interventions that last a full semester, year, or more [6]. 2. Developing awareness of an innovation is only the first stage in adoption decisions. TUES project teams face decisions about which communication channels to select for their dissemination plans. Mass market channels

Henderson, Charles

225

AOD and trace gases retrieved with satellite over Europe during the Pegasos campaigns 2012-2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite retrievals have been used in the Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS) EU project to provide a general context of the three field campaigns involve in the project: the Benelux area and the Po Valley in the spring and summer 2012 respectively and in central Finland during the spring 2013. In this work we present the regional gradients of the AOD base on MODIS retrievals, NO2 and O3 retrieved with OMI and CO retrieved with AIRS to understand and analyze the regional effects of the different gases and aerosol concentrations as well as the transportation of the different pollutants. During the field campaign in Hyytiälä a forest fires plume was transported from Southeast Europe, to detect this, besides the already mention parameters the Aerosol Absorbing Index (AAI) from OMI was also used. The results show the largest concentration of NO2 over the Benelux area during the three campaigns. The lowest concentrations for all parameters were registered during the spring campaign in 2013. The CO concentration does not show a large variability over Europe, but an increase of the concentration was clear during the days where the plume of the forest was detected over central Finland. The AOD shows the Po Valley and the Benelux area like hot spots over Europe.

Rodríguez, Edith; Kolmonen, Pekka; Virtanen, Timo; Sogacheva, Larisa; Maija Sundström, Anu; de Leeuw, Gerrit

2014-05-01

226

Dust radiative effect over Europe, Mediterranean, Sahara and Middle East from a radiative transfer model using BSC-DREAM8b aerosol optical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arid regions of Saharan desert and Middle East are the world's major dust sources. However, dust particles from these areas are transported to nearby regions, through favourable synoptic conditions, even reaching remote locations in Europe or in the Arctic. This transport is very important in numerous aspects. One of its most important effects is on the radiation budget, and more specifically on solar radiation, through the aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE). Previous studies have shown that this effect is great under dust load conditions. Therefore, it is very important to simulate dust transport processes and associated radiative effects. The simulation of dust production, transport and removal is done by numerical models, which however have their own limitations as to the consideration of physical and dynamical processes as well as their initial conditions. On the other hand, the computation of dust DRE is ideally done with radiative transfer models (RTMs), which however imply uncertainties associated with the input aerosol optical properties. The most important aerosol optical properties used in RTMs and climate models are aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (AP). The main target of the present study is to reduce the uncertainties of dust DRE by using a detailed spectral RTM and an acknowledged regional and meso-scale model describing the distribution of dust. The combined use of these tools is applied to the region covering the deserts of Sahara, Arabian Peninsula and Middle East, and the neighbouring Mediterranean basin and European continent (extending from 15°N to 60°N and from 21°W to 54°E). The computations are performed on a monthly mean basis, refer to the 11-year period 2000-2010, and quantify the effects of dust on the reflected solar radiation at the top of atmosphere (DRETOA), on the absorbed solar radiation within the atmosphere (DREatmab), and on the downwelling and absorbed solar radiation at the surface (DREsurf and DREsurfnet, respectively). The RTM takes into account all physical parameters of the Earth-Atmosphere system that interact with solar radiation, namely ozone, carbon dioxide, methane, water vapour, clouds (low, middle, high), aerosol and atmospheric molecules (Rayleigh scattering) as well as surface reflection. Emphasis is given to aerosol optical properties (AOD, SSA and AP) which are all obtained from the dust regional BSC-DREAM8b model. Detailed analysis is undertaken of the modelled aerosol properties, and the spatial and temporal (seasonal and year by year) variation of these properties and of the model DREs are thoroughly investigated. In addition, the computed DREs are inter-compared with corresponding ones obtained with the same RTM using aerosol data from satellites (e.g. MODIS) or other datasets (e.g. Global Aerosol DataSet, GADS and Hamburg Aerosol Climatology, HAC).

Papadimas, Christos; Gkikas, Antonis; Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Matsoukas, Christos; Kazadzis, Stelios; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, Jose; Vardavas, Ilias

2013-04-01

227

Central Europe Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new weekly online journal from Central and East European New Media Initiative (CEENMI) offers news and analysis of events in politics, society, and culture across the region. With over 45 contributors from 17 countries, the journal provides a surprising amount of coverage each week. In addition to regular columns and weekly news summaries, the journal contains several in-depth articles and special feature pieces, including a number of resources (such as articles, film and book reviews, and related links) grouped around a weekly theme. The journal also offers a weekly list of Central and East European cultural events in the UK, links to related stories from other online news sources, and an archive. Users can read the Central Europe Review at the site or receive free weekly summaries via email.

228

Ideologies of Jihad in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores ideological fault lines among Sunni Muslim militants (jihadists) in Europe since the mid-1990s. It argues there have been disputes among the militants about whether to prioritize local struggles or Al Qaeda's global war, and about the legitimacy of launching terrorist attacks in European states offering political asylum to Muslims. It concludes that Europe's militants have become more

Petter Nesser

2011-01-01

229

Resonance effects of longitudinal HOMS in Project X linac  

SciTech Connect

Results of analysis of losses due to excitation of longitudinal high order modes (HOMs) in the accelerating RF system of the CW proton linac of the Project X facility are presented. The necessity of HOM dampers in the superconducting (SC) cavities of the linac is discussed. Project X is a multi-MW proton source which is under development at Fermilab. The facility is based on a 3 GeV CW linac. The main fraction of H{sup -} beam from the linac is split into three parts for Mu2e experiment, kaon experiments, and another which is not yet decided. The layout of the linac is shown in Figure 1. It includes three sections based on 325 MHz single-spoke cavities, and a low-energy and a high-energy sections of 650 MHz elliptical cavities with geometrical beta of 0.61 and 0.9, respectively. The linac provides a beam with an average current of 1 mA and time structure (shown in Figure 2) devised to satisfy specific requirements of the experiments. Each bunch contains 9 {center_dot} 10{sup 7} H{sup -} ions. The bunch sequence frequency for the Mu2e experiment is 162.5 MHz with a total pulse duration of 100 ns and pulse repetition rate of 1 MHz. The bunch sequence frequency for Kaon and other experiments is 27.08 MHz. Figure 3 shows the idealized beam current spectrum, which contains harmonics of multiplies of 27.08 MHz and harmonics of multiplies of 1 MHz. The 5-cell 650 MHz cavities for Project X are currently under development. A critical design decision is to define the necessity of HOM dampers for these types of cavities.

Yakovlev, V.; Vostrikov, A.; Gonin, I.; Khabiboulline, T.; Lunin, A.; Solyak, N.; Saini, a.; Sukhanov, A.; /Fermilab

2011-03-01

230

Risk of sexually transmitted infections and violence among indoor-working female sex workers in London: the effect of migration from Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo examine risk factors associated with HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and experience of physical and sexual violence among sex workers in London, with a particular focus on differences in risk between migrants from Eastern Europe (EE) or the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and UK-born sex workers.MethodsThe authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of sex workers born in the UK,

Lucy Platt; Pippa Grenfell; Chris Bonell; Sarah Creighton; Kaye Wellings; John Parry; Tim Rhodes

2011-01-01

231

Building a hospital information system: design considerations based on results from a Europe-wide vendor selection process.  

PubMed Central

A number of research and development projects in the U.S. and in Europe have shown that novel technologies can open significant perspectives for hospital information systems (HIS). The selection of software products for a HIS, however, is still nontrivial. Generalist vendors promise a broad scope of functionality and integration, while specialist vendors promise elaborated and highly adapted functionality. In 1997, the university hospital Marburg, a 1,250 bed teaching hospital, decided to introduce a new large-scale HIS. The objectives of the project included support of clinical workflows, cost effectiveness and a maximum standard of medical care. In 1997/98 a formal Europe-wide vendor contest was performed. 15 vendors, including several from the U.S., participated. Systems were checked against the hospital's objectives, functionality, and technological criteria. One of the results of both technology and market assessment was the identification of fundamental technological and design aspects strongly influencing functionality and flexibility. PMID:10566477

Kuhn, K. A.; Lenz, R.; Blaser, R.

1999-01-01

232

Collaborative inquiry project-based learning: Effects on reading ability and interests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The academic performance of students has been shown to be associated with reading ability. Inquiry learning can potentially enhance the reading abilities and interests of students. This study verified this proposition by examining the effects of an inquiry approach to group projects on the reading abilities of primary school students. Using a case study design, an inquiry project-based learning (PBL)

Samuel Kai Wah Chu; Shek Kam Tse; Elizabeth Ka Yee Loh; Ken Chow

2011-01-01

233

Creating a Ripple Effect: Incorporating Multimedia-Assisted Project-Based Learning in Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the effects of multimedia-assisted, project-based learning in teacher education. We conducted pre- and post-surveys to investigate how the experience of developing multimedia projects influenced preservice teachers' knowledge and self-efficacy in (a) technology, (b) subject matter, and (c) teaching. Forty-two preservice…

Seo, Kay Kyeongju; Templeton, Rosalyn; Pellegrino, Debra

2008-01-01

234

2-D Numerical Simulation of Flooding Effects Caused by South-to-North Water Transfer Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the General Channel designed for the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China has to cross many rivers and streams flowing from west to east, there are potentially serious effects additional flooding on the western side of the project alignment. Therefore, a 2-D numerical model for forecasting basin flood disasters was established and verified using historical flood data. The model

Dong-po SUN; Hai XUE; Peng-tao WANG; Rui-li LU; Xiao-long LIAO

2008-01-01

235

Project-Based Learning in Primary Schools: Effects on Pupils' Learning and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses upon the effectiveness of project-based learning on primary school pupils regarding their content knowledge and attitudes towards self-efficacy, task value, group work, teaching methods applied and peers from diverse ethnic backgrounds. A cross-curricular project was implemented within the curriculum area of environmental…

Kaldi, Stavroula; Filippatou, Diamanto; Govaris, Christos

2011-01-01

236

The Effect of Web-Based Project Applications on Students' Attitudes towards Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students perform intensive web-based applications during their education. One of these is project-based application. In this study, the effect of web based project applications on students' attitudes towards chemistry has been investigated. 42 students attending Hacettepe University, Faculty of Education, and Department of Chemistry Education have…

Morgil, Inci; Gungor Seyhan, Hatice; Ural Alsan, Evrim; Temel, Senar

2008-01-01

237

Project SUCCESS' effects on the substance use of alternative high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project SUCCESS is a selective and indicated substance use prevention program that targets high risk students in secondary school settings. We evaluated the effects of Project SUCCESS on adolescents' substance use immediately following program implementation, and again one year later. Two successive cohorts of alternative high schools were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group, yielding seven schools per

Heddy Kovach Clark; Chris L. Ringwalt; Sean Hanley; Stephen R. Shamblen; Robert L. Flewelling; Mary C. Hano

2010-01-01

238

The prehistoric and preindustrial deforestation of Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans have transformed Europe's landscapes since the establishment of the first agricultural societies in the mid-Holocene. The most important anthropogenic alteration of the natural environment was the clearing of forests to establish cropland and pasture, and the exploitation of forests for fuel wood and construction materials. While the archaeological and paleoecological record documents the time history of anthropogenic deforestation at numerous individual sites, to study the effect that prehistoric and preindustrial deforestation had on continental-scale carbon and water cycles we require spatially explicit maps of changing forest cover through time. Previous attempts to map preindustrial anthropogenic land use and land cover change addressed only the recent past, or relied on simplistic extrapolations of present day land use patterns to past conditions. In this study we created a very high resolution, annually resolved time series of anthropogenic deforestation in Europe over the past three millennia by 1) digitizing and synthesizing a database of population history for Europe and surrounding areas, 2) developing a model to simulate anthropogenic deforestation based on population density that handles technological progress, and 3) applying the database and model to a gridded dataset of land suitability for agriculture and pasture to simulate spatial and temporal trends in anthropogenic deforestation. Our model results provide reasonable estimations of deforestation in Europe when compared to historical accounts. We simulate extensive European deforestation at 1000 BC, implying that past attempts to quantify anthropogenic perturbation of the Holocene carbon cycle may have greatly underestimated early human impact on the climate system.

Kaplan, Jed O.; Krumhardt, Kristen M.; Zimmermann, Niklaus

2009-12-01

239

Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common Ragweed) is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. This study is realised within the framework of the ATOPICA project (https://www.atopica.eu/) which is designed to provide first steps in tools and estimations of the fate of allergies in Europe due to changes in climate, land use and air quality. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. Models have been developed or adapted for simulating the phenology (PMP phonological modelling platform), inter-annual production (ORCHIDEE vegetation model), release and airborne processes (CHIMERE chemical transport model) of ragweed pollen. Airborne pollens follow processes similar to air quality pollutants in CHIMERE with some adaptations. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations (2000 - 2012) driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, 20-year long historical simulations (1986 - 2005) are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe. The spatial distribution is well captured with correlation equal to 0.7, but the daily variability of pollen counts remains to be improved with correlations varying between 0.1 and 0.75. The model chain captures reasonably well the inter-annual variability of pollen yearly mean concentrations, correlations, even not statistically significant due to the short length of time series, are positive for about 80% of sites. The main uncertainty in ambrosia pollen modelling is linked to the uncertainty in the plant density distribution. Preliminary results of the impact of environmental changes on pollen concentrations in the future will also be shown.

Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Colette, Augustin

2014-05-01

240

Financial crisis, austerity, and health in Europe.  

PubMed

The financial crisis in Europe has posed major threats and opportunities to health. We trace the origins of the economic crisis in Europe and the responses of governments, examine the effect on health systems, and review the effects of previous economic downturns on health to predict the likely consequences for the present. We then compare our predictions with available evidence for the effects of the crisis on health. Whereas immediate rises in suicides and falls in road traffic deaths were anticipated, other consequences, such as HIV outbreaks, were not, and are better understood as products of state retrenchment. Greece, Spain, and Portugal adopted strict fiscal austerity; their economies continue to recede and strain on their health-care systems is growing. Suicides and outbreaks of infectious diseases are becoming more common in these countries, and budget cuts have restricted access to health care. By contrast, Iceland rejected austerity through a popular vote, and the financial crisis seems to have had few or no discernible effects on health. Although there are many potentially confounding differences between countries, our analysis suggests that, although recessions pose risks to health, the interaction of fiscal austerity with economic shocks and weak social protection is what ultimately seems to escalate health and social crises in Europe. Policy decisions about how to respond to economic crises have pronounced and unintended effects on public health, yet public health voices have remained largely silent during the economic crisis. PMID:23541059

Karanikolos, Marina; Mladovsky, Philipa; Cylus, Jonathan; Thomson, Sarah; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

2013-04-13

241

Significance and effect of ecological rehabilitation project in inland river basins in northwest China.  

PubMed

The Ecological Water Transfer and Rehabilitation Project in the arid inland area of northwest China is an important measure in restoring a deteriorated ecosystem. However, the sustainability of the project is affected by many socio-economic factors. This article examines the attitudes of the local populace toward the project, its impact on the livelihood of the people, and the positive effects of water-efficient agricultural practices in Ejina County. Related data were collected through questionnaire surveys and group discussions. The results identified three critical issues that may influence the sustainability of the project in the study area. The first issue relates to the impact of the project on the livelihood of local herdsmen. The potential for the sustainability of the project is compromised because the livelihood of the herdsmen greatly depends on the compensation awarded by the project. The second issue is that the project did not raise the water resource utilization ratio, which may undermine its final purpose. Finally, the compensation provided by the project considers losses in agriculture, but neglects the externalities and public benefit of eco-water. Thus, appropriate compensation mechanisms should be established and adopted according to local economic, environmental, and social conditions. Some recommendations for improving the sustainability of the project are provided based on the results of this study. PMID:23716005

Wang, Yu; Feng, Qi; Chen, Lijuan; Yu, Tengfei

2013-07-01

242

Significance and Effect of Ecological Rehabilitation Project in Inland River Basins in Northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ecological Water Transfer and Rehabilitation Project in the arid inland area of northwest China is an important measure in restoring a deteriorated ecosystem. However, the sustainability of the project is affected by many socio-economic factors. This article examines the attitudes of the local populace toward the project, its impact on the livelihood of the people, and the positive effects of water-efficient agricultural practices in Ejina County. Related data were collected through questionnaire surveys and group discussions. The results identified three critical issues that may influence the sustainability of the project in the study area. The first issue relates to the impact of the project on the livelihood of local herdsmen. The potential for the sustainability of the project is compromised because the livelihood of the herdsmen greatly depends on the compensation awarded by the project. The second issue is that the project did not raise the water resource utilization ratio, which may undermine its final purpose. Finally, the compensation provided by the project considers losses in agriculture, but neglects the externalities and public benefit of eco-water. Thus, appropriate compensation mechanisms should be established and adopted according to local economic, environmental, and social conditions. Some recommendations for improving the sustainability of the project are provided based on the results of this study.

Wang, Yu; Feng, Qi; Chen, Lijuan; Yu, Tengfei

2013-07-01

243

Future scenarios for viticultural bioclimatic indices in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Winemaking has a predominant economic, social and environmental relevance in several European countries. Studies addressing the influence of climate variability and change in viticulture are particularly pertinent, as climate is one of the main conditioning factors of this activity. In this context, bioclimatic indices are a useful zoning tool, allowing the description of the suitability of a particular region for wine production. In this study, we compute climatic indices (concerning to thermal and hydrological conditions) for Europe, characterize regions with different viticultural aptitude, and assess possible variations in these regions under a future climate conditions using a state-of-the-art regional climate model. The indices are calculated from climatic variables (mostly daily maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation) obtained from the NCEP reanalysis dataset. Then, the same indices are calculated for present and future climate conditions using data from the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (Consortium for Small Scale Modelling - Climate Limited-area Modelling). Maps of theses indices for recent-past periods (1961-2008) and for the SRES A1B scenario are considered in order to identify significant changes in their patterns. Results show that climate change is projected to have a significant negative impact in wine quality by increased dryness and cumulative thermal effects during growing seasons in Southern European regions (e.g. Portugal, Spain and Italy). These changes represent an important constraint to grapevine growth and development, making crucial adaptation/mitigation strategies to be adopted. On the other hand, regions of western and central Europe (e.g. southern Britain, northern France and Germany) will benefit from this scenario both in wine quality, and in new potential areas for viticulture. This approach provides a macro-characterization of European areas where grapevines may preferentially grow, as well as their projected changes under human-induced forcing. As such, it can be a useful tool for viticultural zoning in a changing climate.

Santos, João.; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Fraga, Helder; Pinto, Joaquim G.

2010-05-01

244

Using Open Plan with integrated Xbase applications for effective project management solutions  

SciTech Connect

Open Plan`s open architecture allows the user many advantages that are not available from other project management software. One of these advantages is its ability to interface with various database management systems, thereby allowing the user to develop a project management system tailored to their specific needs. This open architecture offers maximum flexability to the user to personalize reports, screens, data structures, and develop customized management systems. Using Xbase, applications can be developed for every facet of a complete project management system including baseline development, performance measurement, reporting, and analysis. These applications can range from simple routines such as user-defined status worksheets, milestone logs and other reports, to complex cost,and schedule control systems. The combined power of Xbase and Open Plan can be used to produce effective project management solutions. Customized applications are easily obtainable allowing the user to gather information more timely and efficiently, produce customized reports, and analyze project management information more effectively.

Freier, K.D.; Hirschi, E.J.

1994-04-01

245

Iron deficiency in Europe.  

PubMed

In Europe, iron deficiency is considered to be one of the main nutritional deficiency disorders affecting large fractions of the population, particularly such physiological groups as children, menstruating women and pregnant women. Some factors such as type of contraception in women, blood donation or minor pathological blood loss (haemorrhoids, gynaecological bleeding...) considerably increase the difficulty of covering iron needs. Moreover, women, especially adolescents consuming low-energy diets, vegetarians and vegans are at high risk of iron deficiency. Although there is no evidence that an absence of iron stores has any adverse consequences, it does indicate that iron nutrition is borderline, since any further reduction in body iron is associated with a decrease in the level of functional compounds such as haemoglobin. The prevalence of iron-deficient anaemia has slightly decreased in infants and menstruating women. Some positive factors may have contributed to reducing the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia in some groups of population: the use of iron-fortified formulas and iron-fortified cereals; the use of oral contraceptives and increased enrichment of iron in several countries; and the use of iron supplements during pregnancy in some European countries. It is possible to prevent and control iron deficiency by counseling individuals and families about sound iron nutrition during infancy and beyond, and about iron supplementation during pregnancy, by screening persons on the basis of their risk for iron deficiency, and by treating and following up persons with presumptive iron deficiency. This may help to reduce manifestations of iron deficiency and thus improve public health. Evidence linking iron status with risk of cardiovascular disease or cancer is unconvincing and does not justify changes in food fortification or medical practice, particularly because the benefits of assuring adequate iron intake during growth and development are well established. But stronger evidence is needed before rejecting the hypothesis that greater iron stores increase the incidence of CVD or cancer. At present, currently available data do not support radical changes in dietary recommendations. They include all means for increasing the content of dietary factors enhancing iron absorption or reducing the content of factors inhibiting iron absorption. Increased knowledge and increased information about factors may be important tools in the prevention of iron deficiency in Europe. PMID:11683548

Hercberg, S; Preziosi, P; Galan, P

2001-04-01

246

Horizon 2020 support by the Enterprise Europe Network in Berlin-Brandenburg  

E-print Network

Horizon 2020 support by the Enterprise Europe Network in Berlin-Brandenburg #12;Enterprise Europe / projects (Horizon 2020 etc.) 3. To connect industry and science of different regions, we help to identify.een-bb.de H2020-Service for Berlin-Brandenburg (II) #12;15.05.14 9 Horizon 2020 ­ cooperation service ü

Potsdam, Universität

247

THE PREV AIR SYSTEM, AN OPERATIONAL SYSTEM FOR LARGE SCALE AIR QUALITY FORECASTS OVER EUROPE; APPLICATIONS  

E-print Network

THE PREV AIR SYSTEM, AN OPERATIONAL SYSTEM FOR LARGE SCALE AIR QUALITY FORECASTS OVER EUROPE air quality forecasts over Europe. This is the visible part of a wider collaborative project, in the framework of negotiations on trans-boundary air pollution". (2) Providing large scale national air quality

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

248

Performance projections for ballistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance limits of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) are examined theoretically by extending a one-dimensional treatment used for silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Compared to ballistic MOSFETs, ballistic CNTFETs show similar I-V characteristics but the channel conductance is quantized. For low-voltage, digital applications, the CNTFET with a planar gate geometry provides an on-current that is comparable to that expected

Jing Guo; Mark Lundstrom; Supriyo Datta

2002-01-01

249

QUANTIFYING OBSERVATIONAL PROJECTION EFFECTS USING MOLECULAR CLOUD SIMULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The physical properties of molecular clouds are often measured using spectral-line observations, which provide the only probes of the clouds' velocity structure. It is hard, though, to assess whether and to what extent intensity features in position-position-velocity (PPV) space correspond to 'real' density structures in position-position-position (PPP) space. In this paper, we create synthetic molecular cloud spectral-line maps of simulated molecular clouds, and present a new technique for measuring the reality of individual PPV structures. Using a dendrogram algorithm, we identify hierarchical structures in both PPP and PPV space. Our procedure projects density structures identified in PPP space into corresponding intensity structures in PPV space and then measures the geometric overlap of the projected structures with structures identified from the synthetic observation. The fractional overlap between a PPP and PPV structure quantifies how well the synthetic observation recovers information about the three-dimensional structure. Applying this machinery to a set of synthetic observations of CO isotopes, we measure how well spectral-line measurements recover mass, size, velocity dispersion, and virial parameter for a simulated star-forming region. By disabling various steps of our analysis, we investigate how much opacity, chemistry, and gravity affect measurements of physical properties extracted from PPV cubes. For the simulations used here, which offer a decent, but not perfect, match to the properties of a star-forming region like Perseus, our results suggest that superposition induces a ?40% uncertainty in masses, sizes, and velocity dispersions derived from {sup 13}CO (J = 1-0). As would be expected, superposition and confusion is worst in regions where the filling factor of emitting material is large. The virial parameter is most affected by superposition, such that estimates of the virial parameter derived from PPV and PPP information typically disagree by a factor of ?2. This uncertainty makes it particularly difficult to judge whether gravitational or kinetic energy dominate a given region, since the majority of virial parameter measurements fall within a factor of two of the equipartition level ? ? 2.

Beaumont, Christopher N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Offner, Stella S.R. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Shetty, Rahul; Glover, Simon C. O. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Goodman, Alyssa A., E-mail: beaumont@ifa.hawaii.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-11-10

250

Radiative Enhancement Effects on Flame Spread (REEFS) Project Studied "Green House" Effects on Fire Spread  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Radiative Enhancement Effects on Flame Spread (REEFS) project, slated for flight aboard the International Space Station, reached a major milestone by holding its Science Concept Review this year. REEFS is led by principal investigator Paul Ronney from the University of Southern California in conjunction with a project team from the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study is focusing on flame spread over flat solid fuel beds to improve our understanding of more complex fires, such as those found in manned spacecraft and terrestrial buildings. The investigation has direct implications for fire safety, both for space and Earth applications, and extends previous work with emphasis on the atmospheres and flow environments likely to be present in fires that might occur in microgravity. These atmospheres will contain radiatively active gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) from combustion products, and likely gaseous fuels such as carbon monoxide (CO) from incomplete combustion of solid fuel, as well as flows induced by ventilation currents. During tests in the 2.2-Second Drop Tower and KC-135 aircraft at Glenn, the principal investigator introduced the use of foam fuels for flame spread experiments over thermally thick fuels to obtain large spread rates in comparison to those of dense fuels such as PMMA. This enables meaningful results to be obtained even in the 2.2 s available in drop tower experiments.

Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Ronney, Paul

2003-01-01

251

Dental Education in Europe: The Challenges of Variety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds that dental education varies considerably across Europe, with differing traditions of stomatology and odontology. The European Union's Dental Directives are often poorly followed by individual schools, and differences will likely intensify as Eastern/Central European countries join. The DentEd Thematic Network Project, which aims to promote…

Scott, John

2003-01-01

252

Modelling the risk of ecosystem disruption in Europe with a dynamic vegetation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What will be the European ecosystem responses to future climate? With unprecedented speed and extent, the projected climate change might lead to a disruption of terrestrial plants functioning in many regions. In the framework of the EcoChange project, transient projections over the 1901-2100 period have been performed with a process-based dynamic vegetation model, CARAIB DVM (Dury et al., 2011, iForest 4: 82, 99). The vegetation model was driven by the outputs of four climate models under the SRES A1B scenario: the ARPEGE/Climate model and three regional climate models (KNMI-RACMO2, DMI-HIRHAM5 and HC-HadRM3Q0 RCMs) from the European Union project ENSEMBLES. DVMs are appropriate tools to apprehend potential climate change impacts on ecosystems and identify threatened regions over Europe. CARAIB outputs (soil moisture, runoff, net primary productivity, fire, etc.) were used to characterise the ecosystem evolution. To assess consequences on biodiversity, the evolution of 100 natural common European species (47 herbs, 12 shrubs and 41 trees) has been studied year-to-year over the 1901-2100 period. Under the combined effects of projected changes particularly in temperature and precipitations, CARAIB simulates important reductions in the annual soil water content. The species productivities vary strongly from year to year reaching during the driest years values much lower than present-day average productivities. According to CARAIB, a lot of species might go beyond their water tolerance very frequently, particularly after 2050, due to more intense summer droughts. In the northern part of Europe and in the Alps, with reduced temperature variability and positive soil water anomalies, NPP variability tends to decrease. Regions with more severe droughts might also be affected by an increase of the frequency and intensity of wildfires. With this background, the species distributions might be strongly modified at the end of the century. 15% of tree species and 30% of herb and shrub species (respectively 30% and 60% if the CO2 fertilization effect on species is not taken into account) might experience a loss of 30% or more of their current distribution. Proportions of new species appearance were also studied. Southern Europe might suffer important species extinction while the more suitable climate conditions in northern Europe might lead to a gain in species diversity.

Dury, M.; Hambuckers, A.; Warnant, P.; Jacquemin, I.; Thuiller, W.; François, L.

2012-04-01

253

Performance Limits Projection of Black Phosphorous Field-Effect Transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ballistic device performance of monolayer black phosphorous (BP) field-effect transistors (FET) is investigated in this work. Due to the anisotropic effect mass of the carriers, the ON-state current is dependent on the transport direction. The effective masses are lower in the "armchair" direction which provides higher drive current at the same biasing. The degree of anisotropy is higher for the holes, which improves the performance of p-type devices. The intrinsic delay of 20 nm BP FETs is in the range of 50 fs at ON-/OFF-current ratio of 4 orders. Monolayer BP FETs outperform both MoS$_2$ and Si FETs for both n- and p-type devices in terms of ballistic performance limits, due to highly anisotropic band structure.

Lam, Kai-Tak; Dong, Zhipeng; Guo, Jing

2014-09-01

254

Preservation Map of Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an effort to stimulate international information exchange, cooperative projects, and research, the European Commission on Preservation and Access (ECPA) has created an online directory of European organizations working in the preservation field. This directory is based on a survey conducted over the past year. For each of the twenty-five countries currently listed there is a section on national policy as it relates to preservation in libraries and archives, followed by background information on individual organizations, projects, and training courses. Background information includes contacts, email or web access if available, and a brief description of activities. Users can search the preservation map database by organization name, project focus, training availability, or by keyword.

255

Social-Emotional Effects of Day Care. Final Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the effects of group day care, family day care, and full parental care on such aspects of children's social-emotional adjustment as curiosity, attachment, self-concept, sex role, achievement motivation, impulse control, cooperation, and sharing. Initial differences between groups were controlled by matching on race, sex, number…

Lippman, Marcia Z.; Grote, Barbara H.

256

Measuring the Effects of a Peer Coaching Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a peer coaching study that was conducted in a large urban school district. Discussion focused on the training model and the means used to measure the effects of inservice training on teacher attitudes toward a writing process model. Using instruments from the Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM), the researcher evaluated the…

Hosack-Curlin, Karen

257

Escalation management: Forecasting the effects of inflation on building projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a review of the development and use of indices which purport to measure the effects of inflation upon the building industry, the paper focuses upon the problem of forecasting. Errors in published forecasts of building cost indices and tender price indices are noted and various possibilities for achieving more accurate forecasts are evaluated. The evaluations demonstrate that stochastic time

R. F. Fellows

1991-01-01

258

Understanding the Many Steps for Effective Collaborative Language Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New technologies are increasingly becoming a component of education, as computers are integrated into both students' lives and as a teacher's tool of management and teaching. At the same time, constructivist learning theories have had extensive effects at the level of learning paradigms and in prescribed education goals. Yet there are worrying…

Dooly, Melinda

2008-01-01

259

Direct and Indirect Benefits of an International Service-Learning Design Project: Educational Effects on Project Members and Their Peers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been well documented that international service-learning design projects in engineering provide many educational benefits to the students involved in these projects. This article addresses the question of whether or not the benefits gained from international service-learning design projects extend to those students who are not directly involved with these projects but are peers of those who are. To

Peter E. Johnson

260

TBNET - Collaborative research on tuberculosis in Europe  

PubMed Central

Networking is a key feature of scientific success. The Tuberculosis Network European Trialsgroup (TBNET) was founded in 2006 as a non-profit, non-governmental peer-initiated scientific organization to collaboratively address research priorities in the area of tuberculosis in Europe. Today, TBNET is the largest tuberculosis research organization in Europe with nearly 500 members from 22 EU countries and 49 countries worldwide (www.tb-net.org). Apart from small multicenter basic research studies, a particular strength of TBNET is the performance of large collaborative projects, pan-European multicenter studies and database projects. In recent years, research from TBNET has substantially contributed to the understanding of the management, risk and prognosis of patients with multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis and led to a better understanding of the clinical value of novel tests for the identification of adults and children with tuberculosis and latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2009, two branches of TBNET were founded to specifically address tuberculosis in the pediatric population (ptbnet) and non-tuberculous mycobacterial diseases (NTM-NET). In addition to the research activities, TBNET is developing expert consensus documents for clinical management and provides training and capacity building especially for members from Eastern European countries, where tuberculosis is still a prevalent health problem. PMID:24265908

Giehl, C.; Duarte, R.; Bothamley, G.; Gerlach, C.; Cirillo, D.M.; Wagner, D.; Kampmann, B.; Goletti, D.; Juers, T.; Sester, M.

2012-01-01

261

MUSE from Europe to the Chilean Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument, built for ESO (European Southern Observatory) and dedicated to the VLT (Very Large Telescope). This instrument is an innovative integral field spectrograph (1x1 arcmin2 Field of View), operating in the visible wavelength range, from 465 nm to 930 nm. The MUSE project is supported by a European consortium of 7 institutes. After the finalisation of its integration and test in Europe validated by its Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, the MUSE instrument has been partially dismounted and shipped to the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in Chile. From October 2013 till February 2014, it has then been reassembled, tested and finally installed on the telescope its final home. From there it will collect its first photons coming from the outer limit of the visible universe. To come to this achievement, many tasks had to be completed and challenges overcome. These last steps in the project life have certainly been ones of the most critical. Critical in terms of risk, of working conditions, of operational constrains, of schedule and finally critical in terms of outcome: The first light and the final performances of the instrument on the sky.

Caillier, P.; Accardo, Mateo; Adjali, L.; Anwand, H.; Bacon, R.; Boudon, D.; Capoani, L.; Daguisé, E.; Dupieux, M.; Dupuy, C.; François, M.; Glindemann, A.; Gojak, D.; Gonté, F.; Haddad, N.; Hansali, G.; Hahn, T.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, Kristof; Kosmalski, Johan; Laurent, F.; Larrieu, M.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Migniau, J. E.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Piqueras, L.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Rupprecht, G.; Streicher, O.; Stuik, R.; Valentin, H.; Vernet, J.; Weilbacher, P.; Zins, G.

2014-07-01

262

3-DTV research and development in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview on the state of the art of 3-DTV in Europe is given, and the new European Co- operation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST) project and its objectives are described. The paper starts with a report on 3-DTV broadcast transmissions in 1982 using the simple anaglyph technique, which in many European countries found enthusiastic public interest. Following that, in three international audio and video fairs in 1983, 1985, and 1987 in Berlin, presentations of a high-quality two-channel 3-DTV system using large screen projection, showing professionally produced demonstration programs, attracted about 50,000 visitors. Meanwhile, several 3-DTV activities for advertising, information, and special applications such as medical imaging are to be found. In the broadcast domain, research and development aim to transmit 3-DTV within a high-definition TV channel.

Sand, Ruediger

1991-08-01

263

Projection imaging of photon beams by the ?erenkov effect  

PubMed Central

Purpose: A novel technique for beam profiling of megavoltage photon beams was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced ?erenkov emission in water, as a potential surrogate for the imparted dose in irradiated media. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire 2D projection images of ?erenkov emission from a 4 × 4 cm2 6 MV linear accelerator (LINAC) x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 400 MU/min incident on a water tank with transparent walls. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the LINAC sync pulse to reduce background light artifacts, and the measurement quality was investigated by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and measurement repeatability as a function of delivered dose. Monte Carlo simulations were used to derive a calibration factor for differences between the optical images and deposited dose arising from the anisotropic angular dependence of ?erenkov emission. Finally, ?erenkov-based beam profiles were compared to a percent depth dose (PDD) and lateral dose profile at a depth of dmax from a reference dose distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system (TPS). Results: The signal to noise ratio was found to be 20 at a delivered dose of 66.6 cGy, and proportional to the square root of the delivered dose as expected from Poisson photon counting statistics. A 2.1% mean standard deviation and 5.6% maximum variation in successive measurements were observed, and the Monte Carlo derived calibration factor resulted in ?erenkov emission images which were directly correlated to deposited dose, with some spatial issues. The dose difference between the TPS and PDD predicted by ?erenkov measurements was within 20% in the buildup region with a distance to agreement (DTA) of 1.5–2 mm and ±3% at depths beyond dmax. In the lateral profile, the dose difference at the beam penumbra was within ±13% with a DTA of 0–2 mm, ±5% in the central beam region, and 2%–3% in the beam umbra. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of ?erenkov emission imaging to profile x-ray photon LINAC beams in water. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method. PMID:23298103

Glaser, Adam K.; Davis, Scott C.; McClatchy, David M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W.; Gladstone, David J.

2013-01-01

264

Headache yesterday in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background Surveys enquiring about burden of headache over a prior period of time (eg, 3 months) are subject to recall bias. To eliminate this as far as possible, we focused on presence and impact of headache on the preceding day (“headache yesterday”). Methods Adults (18-65 years) were surveyed from the general populations of Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, from a work-force population in Spain and from mostly non-headache patient populations of Austria, France and UK. A study of non-responders in some countries allowed detection of potential participation bias where initial participation rates were low. Results Participation rates varied between 11% and 59% (mean 27%). Non-responder studies suggested that, because of participation bias, headache prevalence might be overestimated in initial responders by up to 2% (absolute). Across all countries, 1,422 of 8,271 participants (15-17%, depending on correction for participation bias) had headache yesterday lasting on average for 6 hours. It was bad or very bad in 56% of cases and caused absence from work or school in 6%. Among those who worked despite headache, 20% reported productivity reduced by >50%. Social activities were lost by 24%. Women (21%) were more likely than men (12%) to have headache yesterday, but impact was similar in the two genders. Conclusions With recall biases avoided, our findings indicate that headache costs at least 0.7% of working capacity in Europe. This calculation takes into account that most of those who missed work could make up for this later, which, however, means that leisure and social activities are even more influenced by headache. PMID:24884765

2014-01-01

265

The PRISM project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union's PRISM infrastructure project (PRogram for Integrated earth System Modelling) aims at designing a flexible environment to easily assemble and run Earth System Models (http:\\/\\/prism.enes.org). Europe's widely distributed modelling expertise is both a strength and a challenge. Recognizing this, the PRISM project aims at developing an efficient shared modelling software infrastructure for climate scientists, providing them with an

E. Guilyardi

2003-01-01

266

Weakened thermohaline circulation will increase snow cover over Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A high resolution regional climate model nested into a global climate model was used to perform a Thermohaline Circulation (THC) slowdown experiment. Freshwater corresponding to one-sixth of the Greenland ice sheet melting over 100 years was introduced into the northern Atlantic. This reduced THC strength by half, changing atmospheric circulation and enhancing maritime climate influences over Europe. Implications of weakened thermohaline circulation's effects on specific locations in Europe are discussed.

Al., Jacob E.; Agu

267

Variation matters: epidemiological surveillance in Europe.  

PubMed

Communicable diseases do not respect national boundaries and are important challenges to health internationally. This article aims to support the improvement and integration of surveillance systems in Europe and beyond by drawing on research comparing national systems. Definitions and concepts of epidemiological surveillance are described as a continuous systematic process that observes and reflects the real situation in society not only within but also across political boundaries. Outbreaks that affect more than one country show that a systematic comparative analysis of surveillance systems in Europe can help improve disease control. National surveillance systems from six European Union countries and from a later comparison of twenty-six European countries are examined. An effective surveillance system can provide information for action and act as a monitoring body for health authorities. Nevertheless, many European surveillance systems still require improvement in the interests of public health. PMID:22899836

Reintjes, Ralf

2012-12-01

268

Using project performance to measure effectiveness of quality management system maintenance and practices in construction industry.  

PubMed

This paper proposed seven existing and new performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of quality management system (QMS) maintenance and practices in construction industry. This research is carried out with a questionnaire based on QMS variables which are extracted from literature review and project performance indicators which are established from project management's theory. Data collected was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings indicate that client satisfaction and time variance have positive and significant relationship with QMS while other project performance indicators do not show significant results. Further studies can use the same project performance indicators to study the effectiveness of QMS in different sampling area to improve the generalizability of the findings. PMID:24701182

Leong, Tiong Kung; Zakuan, Norhayati; Mat Saman, Muhamad Zameri; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Tan, Choy Soon

2014-01-01

269

Fundamental remote sensing science research program: The Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Effects Characterization Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Effects Characterization (SRAEC) Project was established within the NASA Fundamental Remote Sensing Science Research Program to improve our understanding of the fundamental relationships of energy interactions between the sensor and the surface target, including the effect of the atmosphere. The current studies are generalized into the following five subject areas: optical scene modeling, Earth-space radiative transfer, electromagnetic properties of surface materials, microwave scene modeling, and scatterometry studies. This report has been prepared to provide a brief overview of the SRAEC Project history and objectives and to report on the scientific findings and project accomplishments made by the nineteen principal investigators since the project's initiation just over three years ago. This annual summary report derives from the most recent annual principal investigators meeting held January 29 to 31, 1985.

Deering, D. W.

1985-01-01

270

Austerity and health in Europe.  

PubMed

Many European governments have abundantly cut down public expenditure on health during the financial crisis. Consequences of the financial downturn on health outcomes have begun to emerge. This recession has led to an increase in poor health status, raising rates of anxiety and depression among the economically vulnerable. In addition, the incidence of some communicable diseases along with the rate of suicide has increased significantly. The recession has also driven structural reforms, and affected the priority given to public policies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse how austerity impacts health in Europe and better understand the response of European health systems to the financial crisis. The current economic climate, while challenging, presents an opportunity for reforming and restructuring health promotion actions. More innovative approaches to health should be developed by health professionals and by those responsible for health management. In addition, scientists and experts in public health should promote evidence-based approaches to economic and public health recovery by analyzing the present economic downturn and previous crisis. However, it is governance and leadership that will mostly determine how well health systems are prepared to face the crisis and find ways to mitigate its effects. PMID:24176290

Quaglio, Gianluca; Karapiperis, Theodoros; Van Woensel, Lieve; Arnold, Elleke; McDaid, David

2013-11-01

271

Effectiveness of Four School Health Education Projects Upon Substance Use, Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of school health education projects on substance use, self-esteem, and stress. The subjects were 161 adolescents in fifth through eighth grades in four school health education projects funded through the Ohio Department of Health. Data collection included pretest\\/post test questionnaires on self-report use of tobacco products, alcohol, marijuana, and other

John A. Bonaguro; Michael Rhonehouse; Ellen W. Bonaguro

1988-01-01

272

The Effects of Project Success on Student Academic Performance: A Quasi-Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project SUCCESS (PS) is a substance use prevention program that targets indicated high school students. We used archival data to explore the program's effects on students' academic achievement and disciplinary problems. It is essential to demonstrate such effects, if prevention curricula are to survive in schools that face multiple competing…

Shamblen, Stephen R.; Ringwalt, Chris

2008-01-01

273

Semester in Environmental Science, Independent Project, 2011 Effects of warming on soil respiration  

E-print Network

Semester in Environmental Science, Independent Project, 2011 Effects of warming on soil respiration;Abstract Soil respiration plays a significant role on global carbon cycle as the primary path that releases focuses on the effects of warming on soil respiration on three different types of soil. Soil from Harvard

Vallino, Joseph J.

274

GEM-PEER Global GMPEs Project Guidance for Including Near-Fault Effects in Ground Motion  

E-print Network

of response spectra in the near-fault region. In addition to standard GMPE parameters such as earthquakeGEM-PEER Global GMPEs Project Guidance for Including Near-Fault Effects in Ground Motion Prediction for near- fault effects such as rupture directivity. A variety of models are available, however

Baker, Jack W.

275

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Project TRUST: An Elementary School-Based Victimization Prevention Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 1,269 elementary school children was conducted to test the effectiveness of Project TRUST (Teaching Reaching Using Students and Theater), a victimization prevention program. The program was found to be effective in increasing prevention knowledge and generating abuse disclosures without creating student anxiety. (CR)

Oldfield, Dick; And Others

1996-01-01

276

Rainfall-induced landslides in Europe: hotspots and thresholds (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution presents preliminary results of the European project SafeLand. SafeLand is a large-scale integrating collaborative research project on landslide risks in Europe, funded by the Seventh Framework Programme for research and technological development (FP7) of the European Commission. SafeLand was launched in May 2009 and will run for three years. The project team, which comprises 27 institutions from 12 European countries, is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) in Norway. SafeLand aims to develop and implement an integrated and comprehensive approach to help and guide decision-making in connection with mitigation of landslide risks. Quantifying the effects of global change (changes in demography and climate change) on evolution of landslide risk in Europe is one of the main goals of SafeLand. The methodologies are tested in selected hazard and risk "hotspots” in Europe, in turn improving knowledge, methodologies and integration strategies for the management of landslide risk. The present contribution is focused on two components of SafeLand: (1) the identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots and (2) the estimation and assessment of rainfall thresholds for triggering of landslides. Hotspots of landslide hazard and risk were identified by an objective GIS-based analysis. The results show clearly where landslide pose the largest hazard in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. In absolute numbers, Italy is the country with the highest amount of area and population exposed. Relative to absolute number of inhabitants and area, small alpine countries such as Lichtenstein and Montenegro score highest where as much as 40% of the population could be exposed. It is obvious that the type and quality of the input data are decisive for the quality of the results. Especially the estimation of extreme precipitation events needs improvement. These preliminary results are based only on one of three applied hazard models. The two other models are currently being evaluated. Empirical rainfall thresholds for landslide triggering have been estimated in selected locations in Italy, France, Switzerland and Norway. Six different empirical models were used. The datasets included landslide inventories as well as hourly or daily observations of precipitation. The types of events were predominantly soil slides and debris flows, a few rock slides and rock falls, and the acceleration of a slowly-moving landslide. The results indicate that the occurrence of soil slides and debris flows can be predicted using precipitation observations. On the other hand, empirical models based on rainfall characteristics fail to predict rock falls and rock slides, presumably due to the predominant influence of other triggering factors. Soil slides are controlled by a combination of antecedent precipitation for short and long periods (1-10 days and 1-5 months, respectively). Debris flows are controlled by short duration precipitation lasting less than 12 hours. Since the inventories contain events with uncertainty in time of occurrence (from a few hours to several days), an innovative procedure was implemented for the inclusion of this uncertainty in the estimation of thresholds.

Cepeda, J.; Jaedicke, C.; Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B.

2010-12-01

277

Life+ EnvEurope DEIMS - improving access to long-term ecosystem monitoring data in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term ecological (LTER) studies aim at detecting environmental changes and analysing its related drivers. In this respect LTER Europe provides a network of about 450 sites and platforms. However, data on various types of ecosystems and at a broad geographical scale is still not easily available. Managing data resulting from long-term observations is therefore one of the important tasks not only for an LTER site itself but also on the network level. Exchanging and sharing the information within a wider community is a crucial objective in the upcoming years. Due to the fragmented nature of long-term ecological research and monitoring (LTER) in Europe - and also on the global scale - information management has to face several challenges: distributed data sources, heterogeneous data models, heterogeneous data management solutions and the complex domain of ecosystem monitoring with regard to the resulting data. The Life+ EnvEurope project (2010-2013) provides a case study for a workflow using data from the distributed network of LTER-Europe sites. In order to enhance discovery, evaluation and access to data, the EnvEurope Drupal Ecological Information Management System (DEIMS) has been developed. This is based on the first official release of the Drupal metadata editor developed by US LTER. EnvEurope DEIMS consists of three main components: 1) Metadata editor: a web-based client interface to manage metadata of three information resource types - datasets, persons and research sites. A metadata model describing datasets based on Ecological Metadata Language (EML) was developed within the initial phase of the project. A crosswalk to the INSPIRE metadata model was implemented to convey to the currently on-going European activities. Person and research site metadata models defined within the LTER Europe were adapted for the project needs. The three metadata models are interconnected within the system in order to provide easy way to navigate the user among the related resources. 2) Discovery client: provides several search profiles for datasets, persons, research sites and external resources commonly used in the domain, e.g. Catalogue of Life , based on several search patterns ranging from simple full text search, glossary browsing to categorized faceted search. 3) Geo-Viewer: a map client that portrays boundaries and centroids of the research sites as Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Each layer provides a link to both Metadata editor and Discovery client in order to create or discover metadata describing the data collected within the individual research site. Sharing of the dataset metadata with DEIMS is ensured in two ways: XML export of individual metadata records according to the EML schema for inclusion in the international DataOne network, and periodic harvesting of metadata into GeoNetwork catalogue, thus providing catalogue service for web (CSW), which can be invoked by remote clients. The final version of DEIMS will be a pilot implementation for the information system of LTER-Europe, which should establish a common information management framework within the European ecosystem research domain and provide valuable environmental information to other European information infrastructures as SEIS, Copernicus and INSPIRE.

Kliment, Tomas; Peterseil, Johannes; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pugnetti, Alessandra; Blankman, David

2013-04-01

278

The HLA-net GENE[RATE] pipeline for effective HLA data analysis and its application to 145 population samples from Europe and neighbouring areas.  

PubMed

In this review, we present for the first time an integrated version of the Gene[rate] computer tools which have been developed during the last 5 years to analyse human leukocyte antigen (HLA) data in human populations, as well as the results of their application to a large dataset of 145 HLA-typed population samples from Europe and its two neighbouring areas, North Africa and West Asia, now forming part of the Gene[va] database. All these computer tools and genetic data are, from now, publicly available through a newly designed bioinformatics platform, HLA-net, here presented as a main achievement of the HLA-NET scientific programme. The Gene[rate] pipeline offers user-friendly computer tools to estimate allele and haplotype frequencies, to test Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), selective neutrality and linkage disequilibrium, to recode HLA data, to convert file formats, to display population frequencies of chosen alleles and haplotypes in selected geographic regions, and to perform genetic comparisons among chosen sets of population samples, including new data provided by the user. Both numerical and graphical outputs are generated, the latter being highly explicit and of publication quality. All these analyses can be performed on the pipeline after scrupulous validation of the population sample's characterisation and HLA typing reporting according to HLA-NET recommendations. The Gene[va] database offers direct access to the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1 and -DPB1 frequencies and summary statistics of 145 population samples having successfully passed these HLA-NET 'filters', and representing three European subregions (South-East, North-East and Central-West Europe) and two neighbouring areas (North Africa, as far as Sudan, and West Asia, as far as South India). The analysis of these data, summarized in this review, shows a substantial genetic variation at the regional level in this continental area. These results have main implications for population genetics, transplantation and epidemiological studies. PMID:24738646

Nunes, J M; Buhler, S; Roessli, D; Sanchez-Mazas, A

2014-05-01

279

Influence of projection effects on the observed differential rotation rate in the UV corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following previous investigations by Giordano and Mancuso [1] and Mancuso and Giordano [2,3] on the differential rotation of the solar corona as obtained through the analysis of the intensity time series of the O VI 1032 Å spectral line observed by the UVCS/SOHO telescope during solar cycle 23, we analysed the possible influence of projection effects of extended coronal structures on the observed differential rotation rate in the ultraviolet corona. Through a simple geometrical model, we found that, especially at higher latitudes, the differential rotation may be less rigid than observed, since features at higher latitudes could be actually linked to much lower coronal structures due to projection effects. At solar maximum, the latitudinal rigidity of the UV corona, with respect to the differential rotating photosphere, has thus to be considered as an upper limit of the possible rigidity. At solar minimum and near the equatorial region throughout the solar cycle, projection effects are negligible.

Mancuso, Salvatore; Giordano, Silvio

2013-05-01

280

SOLAR-PERIODIC FULL MOON EFFECT IN THE FOURMILAB RETROPSYCHOKINESIS PROJECT EXPERIMENT DATA: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radin and Rebman (1998) claimed evidence of psychokinesis effects in casino payout rates depending on lunar phases. They found the peak effect in the full-moon interval. This paper reports on an experimental data evaluation of 199,632 retroPK experiment trials, covering eight years. The hypothesis of a full moon effect is tested with the large database of the Fourmilab RetroPsychoKinesis Project.

Eckhard Etzold

281

The effect of a community-based cardiovascular disease prevention project in a Danish municipality.  

PubMed

A community-based project for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases was undertaken in 1989 in a rural Danish municipality (Slangerup) with about 8000 inhabitants. Project goals were to draw attention to project activities and improve smoking, eating and exercise behaviours. The intervention was planned using the social learning theory, a communication-behaviour change model and community organisation principle. The strategy used for intervention involved both mass communication and active involvement of the local population in group activities. The objectives of the intervention were assessed by data obtained from representative cross-section surveys in intervention and a control area at baseline (1989) and one year later. More respondents in the intervention (82%) than control (67%) area were aware of local health projects. Ten % reported that they stopped smoking within the last year, 39% ate less fat, and 28% did more exercise, with no differences between intervention and control area. Several explanations are proposed for the limited effect of the project on behaviours. One possible explanation is that the project almost ended up being a pure mass media campaign which may increase awareness, but, as experience shows, may have limited influence on adoption of new behaviour. The Danish population around 1990 is very well informed and educated in this field due to earlier nationwide interventions. No further behavioural effects are obtainable with mass media campaigns. PMID:8222768

Osler, M; Jespersen, N B

1993-09-01

282

Community wind power ownership schemes in Europe and their relevance to the United States  

SciTech Connect

With varying success, the United States and Europe have followed a more or less parallel path of policies to support wind development over the past twenty years. Feed-in laws and tax incentives first popularized in California in the early 1980s and greatly expanded upon in Europe during the 1990s are gradually giving way to market-based support mechanisms such as renewable portfolio standards, which are being implemented in one form or another in ten US states and at least three European nations. At the same time, electricity markets are being liberalized in both the US and Europe, and many electricity consumers are being given the choice to support the development of renewable energy through higher tariffs, both in traditionally regulated and newly competitive markets. One notable area in which wind development in Europe and United States has not evolved in common, however, is with respect to the level of community ownership of wind turbines or clusters. While community ownership of wind projects is unheard of in the United States, in Europe, local wind cooperatives or other participatory business schemes have been responsible for a large share of total wind development. In Denmark, for example, approximately 80% of all wind turbines are either individually or cooperatively owned, and a similar pattern holds in Germany, the world leader in installed wind capacity. Sweden also has a strong wind cooperative base, and the UK has recently made forays into community wind ownership. Why is it that wind development has evolved this way in Europe, but not in the United States? What incremental effect have community-owned wind schemes had on European wind development? Have community-owned wind schemes driven development in Europe, or are they merely a vehicle through which the fundamental driving institutions have been channeled? Is there value to having community wind ownership in the US? Is there reason to believe that such schemes would succeed in the US? If so, which model seems most appropriate, and what barriers--legal, regulatory, tax, market, or investment--stand in the way of implementing such a scheme? These are the questions this report seeks to address. The report begins with a discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of community wind ownership, as opposed to the large commercially-owned projects that have so far dominated US wind development. Next, four detailed case studies relate community-owned wind experience in Denmark, Sweden, the UK, Germany, focusing primarily on the different participatory models employed in each country. The report then categorizes the various models into three main groupings--community-led, developer-led, and investment funds--and draws general conclusions about the success of each category in Europe, and the conditions that dictate the effective use of one approach over another. Finally, the focus shifts to the US, where the report discusses the domestic barriers facing each model category, and identifies the category offering the most value with the fewest barriers to implementation. The report concludes with a high-level introduction to potential applications for community wind ownership within the United States.

Bolinger, Mark

2001-05-15

283

Effects of saw projection and seed roll density on the performance of a cottonseed linter  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF SAW PROJECTION AND SEED ROLL DENSITY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A COTTONSEED LINTER A Thesis By Charles G. Luedtke Submi 4t eel to the Braiiuat e School G f t il e Agricultural and Vechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of EASTER OF SCIENCE AUGUST lg56 IlaJ or; Mechanical Engineering L(BRARY A M C(ALLEGE OF TEXAS EFFECTS OF SAN PROJECTION AND SEED ROLL DENSITY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A COTTONSEED LINTER A Thesis Hy Charles G. Luedtke...

Luedtke, Charles G

2012-06-07

284

Extreme hydrometeorological events and climate change predictions in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field meteorological data collected in several European Commission projects (from 1974 to 2011) were re-analysed in the context of a perceived reduction in summer storms around the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The findings reveal some hitherto overlooked processes that raise questions about direct impacts on European hydrological cycles, e.g., extreme hydrometeorological events, and about the role of feedbacks on climate models and climate predictions. For instance, the summer storms are affected by land-use changes along the coasts and mountain slopes. Their loss triggers a chain of events that leads to an Accumulation Mode (AM) where water vapour and air pollutants (ozone) become stacked in layers, up to 4000(+) m, over the WMB. The AM cycle can last 3-5 consecutive days, and recur several times each month from mid May to late August. At the end of each cycle the accumulated water vapour can feed Vb track events and generate intense rainfall and summer floods in Central Europe. Venting out of the water vapour that should have precipitated within the WMB increases the salinity of the sea and affects the Atlantic-Mediterranean Salinity valve at Gibraltar. This, in turn, can alter the tracks of Atlantic Depressions and their frontal systems over Atlantic Europe. Another effect is the greenhouse heating by water vapour and photo-oxidants (e.g., O3) when layered over the Basin during the AM cycle. This increases the Sea Surface Temperature (SST), and the higher SST intensifies torrential rain events over the Mediterranean coasts in autumn. All these processes raise research questions that must be addressed to improve the meteorological forecasting of extreme events, as well as climate model predictions.

Millán, Millán M.

2014-10-01

285

Taking Europe To The Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first step in this ESA initiated programme is a unique project called 'Euromoon 2000' which is currently being studied by ESA engineers/ scientists and key European Space Industries. The project is intended to celebrate Europe's entry into the New Millennium; and to promote public awareness and interest in science, technology and space exploration. Euromoon 2000 has an innovative and ambitious implementation plan. This includes a 'partnership with industry' and a financing scheme based on raising part of the mission's budget from sponsorship through a dynamic public relations strategy and marketing programme. The mission begins in earnest with the small (approx. 100 kg) LunarSat orbiter satellite, to be designed and built by 50 young scientists and engineers from across Europe. Scheduled for launch in 2000 as a secondary payload on a European Ariane 5 rocket, it will then orbit the Moon, mapping the planned landing area in greater detail in preparation of the EuroMoon Lander in 2001. The Lander's 40 kg payload allocation will accommodate amongst others scientific instrumentation for in-situ investigation of the unique site. Elements of specific support to the publicity and fund-raising campaign will also be considered. The Lander will aim for the 'Peak of Eternal Light' on the rim of the 20 km-diameter, 3 km-deep Shackleton South Pole crater - a site uniquely suited for establishing a future outpost. This location enjoys almost continuous sunlight thus missions can rely on solar power instead of bulky batteries or costly and potentially hazardous nuclear power generation. As a consequence of the undulating South Pole terrain there are also permanently shadowed areas - amongst the coldest in the Solar System resulting in conditions highly favourable for the formation of frozen volatiles (as suggested by the Clementine mission in 1994). Earlier this year (7th January 1998), NASA launched its Lunar Prospector satellite which is currently performing polar lunar orbits surveying areas of the moon's surface rarely documented in previous missions. The data now being received back from Prospector strongly suggests the presence of the suspected volatiles (water ice?). Understandably the presence of billions-of-years-old frozen water in proximity to Euromoon's planned landing site would provide a tremendous boost for the implementation of the EuroMoon project now in its 10th month of study. The in-situ analysis of such rare substances will provide an invaluable scientific window back in time (the Moon is believed to have been formed over 3.5 billion years ago from elements of the earth's mantel). The water's constituent elements of hydrogen and oxygen have also the possibility of offering an essentially free supply of rocket propellant and oxygen for exploitation during future activities. EuroMoon is the only mission being studied that can investigate this ice in-situ, while the US satellite will remain in a orbit. The mission is particularly challenging because of the required landing precision (within 100 m2) in terrain varying between +6 km and -5 km in altitude. Achieving the required pinpoint touchdown capability would allow the future exploitation of other interesting sites. One such site is the 6 km-high Malapert Mountain, 120 km from the pole from which the Earth can always be seen thus allowing continuous communications with the home planet for any future outpost in the region. The 'Peak of Eternal Light' (described above) is in direct view of Malapert, the twin peaks offer the tantalising possibility of both of uninterrupted power and communications. Euromoon can be seen as be the initial step in founding the first extraterrestrial outpost, founding the infrastructure for a 'robotic village' controlled by a 'virtual community' of Earth-based operators using telescience. This would indeed mark the beginning of an expansion of the human domain beyond Earth without the risk or cost of manned space travel. This concept also forms an essential element of the fund-raising campaign which will create an exciting media opport

1998-03-01

286

Distortionary effects of a production-sharing fiscal system in a sequential modular offshore petroleum project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research examines the distortionary effects of a discovered and undeveloped sequential modular offshore project under five different designs for a production-sharing agreement (PSA). The model differs from previous research by looking at the effect of taxation from the perspective of a host government, where the objective is to maximize government utility over government revenue generated by the project and the non-pecuniary benefits to society. This research uses Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) theory, which is able to provide a good measure of the asset value accruing to various stakeholders in the project combined with the optimal decision rule for the development of the investment opportunity. Monte Carlo simulation was also applied to incorporate into the model the most important sources of risk associated with the project and to account for non-linearity in the cash flows. For a complete evaluation of how the fiscal system affects the project development, an investor's behavioral model was constructed, incorporating three operational decisions: investment timing, capacity size and early abandonment. The model considers four sources of uncertainty that affect the project value and the firm's optimal decision: the long run oil price and short-run deviations from that price, cost escalation and the reservoir recovery rate. The optimizations outcomes show that all fiscal systems evaluated produce distortion over the companies' optimal decisions, and companies adjust their choices to avoid taxation in different ways according to the fiscal system characteristics. Moreover, it is revealed that fiscal systems with tax provisions that try to capture additional project profits based on production profitability measures leads to stronger distortions in the project investment and output profile. It is also shown that a model based on a fixed percentage rate is the system that creates the least distortion. This is because companies will be subjected to the same government share of profit oil independently of any operational decision which they can make to change the production profile to evade taxation.

Neves de Campos, Thiago

287

The Effect of Personality Type on Team Performance in Engineering Materials Term Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most of long-term engineering class projects require teamwork. Often, conducting projects increase the quality of classroom life and facilitate student learning. Sometimes, team projects hinder student learning and create disharmony and dissatisfaction with classroom life. In many cases, the mixture of each individuals personality determines team dynamics. The Introduction to Engineering Materials course for junior level students encompasses a semester-long term project, which heavily requires teamwork. The term project should focus on a component of existing manufactured products and show why a particular material is used for a particular application. The experiments chosen should prove or disprove this. Each team will chose a topic, determine how to evaluate that topic, devise relevant experiments, evaluate the results of these experiments and formulate a conclusion. Finally, the students will present their results to the class at the end of the semester. The goal of this study is to see how the team performance can be affected by each individual students personality type in the term projects of the engineering material course. The personality test used in this study was the DISC test, which is the oldest, most validated, and reliable personality assessment tool. DISC stands for Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, and Conscientiousness, which are the four dimensions in the personality characteristics. For the term project, six teams were formulated. The instructor assigned four or five students to a team. Students with similar personality types were assigned to work with each other in three of the teams. The other three teams have students with well-mixed dimensions in their personality characteristics. This paper presents the effectiveness of using student personality on team building for the semester-long team projects. Overall student experience and lessons learned in organizing such a project are also discussed.

Jang, Jaesoon; Kim, David; Shin, Sung J.

2009-09-25

288

Patterns of Smoking Prevalence among the Elderly in Europe  

PubMed Central

Scant information is available on determinants of smoking prevalence in the vulnerable population of the elderly, particularly in Europe. Therefore, we analyzed smoking patterns among older adults (?65 years old), using data from a representative survey based on 3,071 elderly, conducted in 17 European countries in 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project. Overall smoking prevalence in 17 European countries was 11.5% (15.3% in men and 8.6% in women). An inverse relation with level of education was observed among men, while no specific pattern was evident among women. Smoking prevalence was highest in eastern/central Europe for men (20.3%) and northern Europe for women (13.1%). In both sexes combined, smokers were more frequent in countries with low implementation of tobacco control activities (14.9%). Anti-tobacco campaigns and smoking cessation interventions specifically targeted to the elderly are urgently needed in Europe. PMID:24048208

Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boccia, Stefania; Murisic, Bojana; Gallus, Silvano

2013-01-01

289

Volunteer effect and compromised randomization in the Mayo Project of screening for lung cancer.  

PubMed

It has been confirmed recently that the volunteer effect in lung cancer screening is characterized by higher lung cancer mortality risk in self-selected screening participants. The Mayo Lung Project, the most influential trial of screening for lung cancer ever completed, was conducted in nonvolunteer Mayo Clinic outpatients, with a peculiar study design that rendered the randomization vulnerable to the volunteer effect. Of all nonvolunteers randomized in the Mayo Lung Project, only those allocated in the screened group were asked consent to participate in the trial. The final Mayo Lung Project report stated that 655 randomized nonvolunteers refused screening and were excluded from the study, thus documenting violation of the rule that no selection should occur after randomization. The long-term follow-up of the Mayo Lung Project showed an enigmatic result which has never been explained: the lung cancer mortality was 13% higher in the screening intervention group than in the control group [4.4 (95% CI 3.9-4.9) vs. 3.9 (95% CI 3.5-4.4) per 1,000 person-years; P = 0.09]. Such overrepresented mortality is consistent with the volunteer effect and supports the concept that the Mayo Lung Project randomization was compromised by the post-randomization self-selection of participant nonvolunteers. PMID:20972608

Dominioni, Lorenzo; Poli, Albino; Mantovani, William; Rotolo, Nicola; Imperatori, Andrea

2011-01-01

290

Photovoltaic prospects in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economics of solar cells is reviewed with an eye to potential cost reductions in processing, and potential markets are explored. Current solar cell systems costs are noted to be on the road to achieving the U.S. DoE goals of $0.40/kWp by 1990. Continued progress will depend on technical developments in cheaper materials and processes, scaling up production, and the success of sales programs. Various consumer and professional markets are outlined, with a prediction that a 12 MWp deman will be reached as a steady state by 1995. Photovoltaic panels may conceivably replace conventional roofing materials, resulting in the projection that, if grid-supplied power continues to inflate in price, then all new European homes would be equipped with photovoltaics by the year 2000. Further, accomplishment of the cost goals could generate a 1 GWp/yr industrial market at the same time.

Starr, M. R.

291

[Emerging viral diseases in Europe].  

PubMed

Emergence of viral agents in Europe is influenced by various factors. Climatic changes influencing possible vectors, insufficient vaccination, and travel of man and goods are among the most important reasons to explain these changes. Fever and arthralgia are the leading symptoms in infection with Dengue, Sindbis, or Chikungunya virus. In contrast, tick-born encephalitis (TBE), Toscana, or West Nile virus infections mainly lead to meningo-encephalitis. In Europe, hemorrhagic fever is caused by Crimean Congo and Hanta virus. Protective vaccines are available for emerging viral agents like TBE, influenza and measles. PMID:22511281

Löbermann, M; Gürtler, L G; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Reisinger, E C

2012-04-01

292

HTR Fuel Development in Europe  

SciTech Connect

In the frame of the European Network HTR-TN and in the 5. EURATOM RTD Framework Programme (FP5) European programmes have been launched to consolidate advanced modular HTR technology in Europe. This paper gives an overall description and first results of this programme. The major tasks covered concern a complete recovery of the past experience on fuel irradiation behaviour in Europe, qualification of HTR fuel by irradiating of fuel elements in the HFR reactor, understanding of fuel behaviour with the development of a fuel particle code and finally a recover of the fuel fabrication capability. (authors)

Languille, Alain [CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance BP1 (France); Conrad, R. [CEC/JRC/IE Petten (Netherlands); Guillermier, P. [Framatome-ANP/ Lyon (France); Nabielek, H. [FZJ/Juelich (Germany); Bakker, K. [NRG/Petten (Netherlands); Abram, T. [BNFL UK (United Kingdom); Haas, D. [JRC/ITU/Karlsruhe (Germany)

2002-07-01

293

Ecstasy: Rolling Across Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Executive summary; Introduction; Production, Trafficking, and Abuse (Production, Historical Background, The Scheduling of MDMA, The Effects of Ecstasy, Trafficking, Global Trafficking, Trafficking Methods); Abuse; Seizures; Law enforcement initi...

2001-01-01

294

Impact of climate change on ozone-related mortality and morbidity in Europe.  

PubMed

Ozone is a highly oxidative pollutant formed from precursors in the presence of sunlight, associated with respiratory morbidity and mortality. All else being equal, concentrations of ground-level ozone are expected to increase due to climate change. Ozone-related health impacts under a changing climate are projected using emission scenarios, models and epidemiological data. European ozone concentrations are modelled with the model of atmospheric transport and chemistry (MATCH)-RCA3 (50×50 km). Projections from two climate models, ECHAM4 and HadCM3, are applied under greenhouse gas emission scenarios A2 and A1B, respectively. We applied a European-wide exposure-response function to gridded population data and country-specific baseline mortality and morbidity. Comparing the current situation (1990-2009) with the baseline period (1961-1990), the largest increase in ozone-associated mortality and morbidity due to climate change (4-5%) have occurred in Belgium, Ireland, the Netherlands and the UK. Comparing the baseline period and the future periods (2021-2050 and 2041-2060), much larger increases in ozone-related mortality and morbidity are projected for Belgium, France, Spain and Portugal, with the impact being stronger using the climate projection from ECHAM4 (A2). However, in Nordic and Baltic countries the same magnitude of decrease is projected. The current study suggests that projected effects of climate change on ozone concentrations could differentially influence mortality and morbidity across Europe. PMID:22743679

Orru, Hans; Andersson, Camilla; Ebi, Kristie L; Langner, Joakim; Aström, Christofer; Forsberg, Bertil

2013-02-01

295

Student Lead Nanosatellite Design/Build Projects: making a cost effective approach to Earth and Space Observational Science even more cost efficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advancement of technologies and the miniaturization of sensors and electrical/computational components satellites are also undergoing miniaturization. With lower manufacturing cost and a decreased design/build cycle (~2 years from start to launch), compared to conventional large scale satellites, nanosatellites have become a cost effective alternative for satellite Earth and Space Observations. The University of Alberta student nanosatellite (10x10x30cm; <4kg) design/build team, AlbertaSat-1, is a participant in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CSDC) implemented by the CSA and Geocentrix Ltd. in addition to 15 other Universities from across Canada. AlbertaSat-1 will be launched in early 2013, after a 2 year design/build process and environmental testing. AlbertaSat-1 will be an Earth Observation satellite monitoring GHG (CO2, H2O & CH4) concentrations over many regions of the earth with the use of a NIR spectrometer. Here we present the planning, design and future manufacturing of AlbertaSat-1 with a focus on budget and cost effective solutions. Since this is a student project, AlbertaSat-1 will incur certain benefits making them exempt from certain financial requirements and obtaining services and equipment at very low or no cost. The largest cost benefit of AlbertaSat-1 is the virtual elimination of labor costs by having a team consisting of only unpaid students. Labor costs of typical satellite missions can be a very costly component. The educational components of such projects offer more indirect benefits to effective development of this industry/discipline, nevertheless just as important, by developing skills and knowledge that can only be learned through realistic hands on design/build projects. Student lead projects and student design/build initiatives such as CSDC (among many others in the U.S. and Europe lead by NASA and ESA, respectively) will have a major impact on shaping the future of Space and Earth Observational Sciences. We will present the future implications of such student projects and initiatives for the development of research and engineering in Space and Earth Observational Sciences.

Bottoms, J.; Lange, B. A.; AlbertaSat

2011-12-01

296

A Process-Based Approach to Predicting the Effect of Climate Change on the Distribution of an Invasive Allergenic Plant in Europe  

PubMed Central

Ambrosia artemisiifolia is an invasive weed in Europe with highly allergenic pollen. Populations are currently well established and cause significant health problems in the French Rhône valley, Austria, Hungary and Croatia but transient or casual introduced populations are also found in more Northern and Eastern European countries. A process-based model of weed growth, competition and population dynamics was used to predict the future potential for range expansion of A.artemisiifolia under climate change scenarios. The model predicted a northward shift in the available climatic niche for populations to establish and persist, creating a risk of increased health problems in countries including the UK and Denmark. This was accompanied by an increase in relative pollen production at the northern edge of its range. The southern European limit for A.artemisiifolia was not expected to change; populations continued to be limited by drought stress in Spain and Southern Italy. The process-based approach to modelling the impact of climate change on plant populations has the advantage over correlative species distribution models of being able to capture interactions of climate, land use and plant competition at the local scale. However, for this potential to be fully realised, additional empirical data are required on competitive dynamics of A.artemisiifolia in different crops and ruderal plant communities and its capacity to adapt to local conditions. PMID:24533071

Storkey, Jonathan; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Chapman, Daniel S.; Vidotto, Francesco; Semenov, Mikhail A.

2014-01-01

297

A process-based approach to predicting the effect of climate change on the distribution of an invasive allergenic plant in Europe.  

PubMed

Ambrosia artemisiifolia is an invasive weed in Europe with highly allergenic pollen. Populations are currently well established and cause significant health problems in the French Rhône valley, Austria, Hungary and Croatia but transient or casual introduced populations are also found in more Northern and Eastern European countries. A process-based model of weed growth, competition and population dynamics was used to predict the future potential for range expansion of A.artemisiifolia under climate change scenarios. The model predicted a northward shift in the available climatic niche for populations to establish and persist, creating a risk of increased health problems in countries including the UK and Denmark. This was accompanied by an increase in relative pollen production at the northern edge of its range. The southern European limit for A.artemisiifolia was not expected to change; populations continued to be limited by drought stress in Spain and Southern Italy. The process-based approach to modelling the impact of climate change on plant populations has the advantage over correlative species distribution models of being able to capture interactions of climate, land use and plant competition at the local scale. However, for this potential to be fully realised, additional empirical data are required on competitive dynamics of A.artemisiifolia in different crops and ruderal plant communities and its capacity to adapt to local conditions. PMID:24533071

Storkey, Jonathan; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Chapman, Daniel S; Vidotto, Francesco; Semenov, Mikhail A

2014-01-01

298

Effects of offshore outsourcing of information technology work on client project management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – While strategic outsourcing decisions are crafted by senior executives, they are executed by middle managers and staff who may not share the vision or enthusiasm of their senior leadership team. The purpose of this paper is to provide a deep understanding of the effects of outsourcing on one of those stakeholder groups – the client project managers –

Mary C. Lacity; Joseph W. Rottman

2009-01-01

299

Secondary Schools Demonstration Project: Program Effects of School-Based Interventions on Antisocial Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the methodology and program effects of the Secondary Schools Demonstration Project (SSDP) conducted in four Ontario schools. The objective of the study was to evaluate the extent to which a universal program model of three interventions--cooperative learning; classroom management; and peer-helping approaches that included…

Wright, Robin; Offord, David; John, Lindsay; Duku, Eric; DeWit, David

2005-01-01

300

The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

2014-01-01

301

The "termination effect" in experiment G2 of the1 Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project2  

E-print Network

The "termination effect" in experiment G2 of the1 Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project2 have examined changes in climate which result from the sudden ter-5 mination of geoengineering after 50, as simulated7 by 11 different climate models in experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model8 Intercomparison

Robock, Alan

302

Project Title: Effects of Biosolid Land Application on Pathogens in Irrigation Return Flow  

E-print Network

Project Title: Effects of Biosolid Land Application on Pathogens in Irrigation Return Flow in irrigation return flow from fields applied with biosolids. The results of this study showed that during the first irrigation cycle, return flow becomes contaminated with E. Coli, while the return flow

Fay, Noah

303

3D Downtown Phoenix Modeling This project is to develop the efficient and effective method for  

E-print Network

3D Downtown Phoenix Modeling ABSTRACT This project is to develop the efficient and effective method for creating 3D city models that will be used with GIS (Geographical Information Systems) data in VR (Virtual Reality) environment. Here introduces the modeling process to create 3D city model from aerial photos

Hall, Sharon J.

304

The Effects of Community Service Learning Projects on L2 Learners' Cultural Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This small-scale study investigates the effects of community service learning (CSL) projects or a cultural presentation on the development of the cultural understanding of low- and high-intermediate L2 students. Fifty-two learners in four sections of two Spanish classes in Canada participated in the study. The participants also completed pre- and…

Zapata, Gabriela

2011-01-01

305

Fundamental remote sensing science research program. Part 1: Scene radiation and atmospheric effects characterization project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief articles summarizing the status of research in the scene radiation and atmospheric effect characterization (SRAEC) project are presented. Research conducted within the SRAEC program is focused on the development of empirical characterizations and mathematical process models which relate the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted from a scene to the biophysical parameters of interest.

Murphy, R. E.; Deering, D. W.

1984-01-01

306

Conflict Management, Negotiation, and Effective Communication: Essential Skills for Project Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: People with strong leadership skills can be more effective Project Managers (PM). Organizations are becoming flatter, culturally rich, geographically diverse, and intensely competitive. The possibilities for conflict are greater in such environments, and PM's must have sufficient competencies to lead in such situations. This paper will reflect on three complementary leadership competencies that are addressed in world wide competency

K. Hudson; T. Grisham; P. Srinivasan; N. Moussa

307

Effects of trkB knockout on topography and ocular segregation of uncrossed retinal projections  

PubMed Central

TrkB is an important receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and NT4, members of the neurotrophin family. TrkB signaling is crucial in many activity-dependent and activity-independent processes of neural development. Here, we investigate the role of trkB signaling in the development of two distinct, organizational features of retinal projections—the segregation of crossed and uncrossed retinal inputs along the “lines of projection” that represent a single point in the visual field and the “retinotopic” mapping of retinofugal axons within their cerebral targets. Using anterograde tracing, we obtained quantitative measures of the distribution of retinal projections in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral geniculate body (LGd) and superior colliculus (SC) of wild-type mice and mice homozygous for constitutive null mutation (knock-out) of the full-length trkB receptor (trkBFL?/?) . In trkBFL?/? mice, uncrossed retinal projections cluster normally but there is a topographic expansion in the distribution of these clusters across the SC. By contrast, the absence of trkB signaling has no significant effect on the segregation of crossed and uncrossed retinal projections along the lines of projection in LGd or SC. We conclude that the normal topographic organization of uncrossed retinal projections depends upon trkB signaling, whereas the segregation of crossed and uncrossed retinal projections is trkB-independent. We also found that in trkBFL?/? mice, neuronal number was reduced in the LGd and SC and in the caudate-putamen. Previous studies by ourselves and others have shown that the number of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is unchanged in trkBFL?/? mice. Together, these results demonstrate that there is no matching of the numbers of RGCs with neuronal numbers in the LGd or SC. PMID:19283373

Frost, Douglas O.

2009-01-01

308

Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe  

PubMed Central

We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

Suk, Jonathan E.

2011-01-01

309

Organic dairy farming in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic milk production has gained importance in Europe. The European Union introduced regulations to standardise organic production throughout all member countries. The market for organic products is constantly increasing and still has not reached market stability. The differential price of organic products could maintain farms in marginal environments. In many cases, the market is still encouraging as the limit seems

A. Rosati; A. Aumaitre

2004-01-01

310

Territorial Defense in Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

While technological advancement in weaponry was achieved against traditional war fighting, the failures of the U.S. in Vietnam and the Soviet's failures in Afghanistan indicated the relative impotence of such advancements in the face of indigenous territorial defense. This article explores strategic issues related to the defense of Central Europe against the Soviet Union. The author argues, the lessons of

Steven L. Canby

1980-01-01

311

Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

2010-01-01

312

American Dietitians Residing in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A twenty question survey addressing the areas of education, employment, and individual information was sent to the 121 members of the American European Dietetic Association (AEDA) residing in Europe. The purpose was to assess the proportion who were working and to examine their areas of practice and duties. Obstacles to employment were also investigated. A total of 58 responses was

M. Van Camp

1995-01-01

313

Economic effects of projected climate change on outdoor recreation in Tennessee.  

SciTech Connect

Climate change projections from three General Circulation Models were used to adjust the temperature and precipitation in 2030 and 2080 in each of five ecological provinces in Tennessee to estimate the direct economic effects of the projected changes on recreation using the Tourism Climatic Index. The indirect effects on recreation were evaluated qualitatively, based on current demand for the unique values associated with current conditions. The results of the direct impact evaluation reveal that climate change will have variable effects on recreational activities in Tennessee. The magnitude and direction of the effects vary by the recreational activity involved, patterns of precipitation and temperature regimes, and specific location in Tennessee. Recreational activities such as rock climbing, winter activities independent of snow, and whitewater boating are likely to benefit from projected climate changes due to increased temperatures in the winter months. Summer-based activities such as lake recreation and camping are likely to decline with increasing seasonal temperatures. The indirect effects of climate change on recreation are likely to have a larger effect than the direct impacts of climatic variables.

Hodges, Donald G. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Fogel, Jonah [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Lannom, Karen O. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tharp, M Lynn [ORNL

2010-01-01

314

Comparison between satellite wildfire databases in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For Europe, several databases of wildfires based on the satellite imagery are currently available and being used to conduct various studies and produce official reports. The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) burned area perimeters database comprises fires with burnt area greater than 1.0 ha occurred in the Europe countries during the 2000 - 2011 period. The MODIS Burned Area Product (MCD45A1) is a monthly global Level 3 gridded 500m product containing per-pixel burning, quality information, and tile-level metadata. The Burned Area Product was developed by the MODIS Fire Team at the University of Maryland and is available April 2000 onwards. Finally, for Portugal the National Forest Authority (AFN) discloses the national mapping of burned areas of the years 1990 to 2011, based on Landsat imagery which accounts for fires larger than 5.0 ha. This study main objectives are: (i) provide a comprehensive description of the datasets, its limitations and potential; (ii) do preliminary statistics on the data; and, (iii) to compare the MODIS and EFFIS satellite wildfires databases throughout/across the entire European territory, based on indicators such as the spatial location of the burned areas and the extent of area burned annually and complement the analysis for Portugal will the inclusion of database AFN. This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692, the project FLAIR (PTDC/AAC-AMB/104702/2008) and the EU 7th Framework Program through FUME (contract number 243888).

Amraoui, Malik; Pereira, Mário; DaCamara, Carlos

2013-04-01

315

Genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Europe: genotyping methods in forensic and epidemiologic investigations.  

PubMed

Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, a zoonosis relatively common throughout the world, can be used as an agent of bioterrorism. In naturally occurring outbreaks and in criminal release of this pathogen, a fast and accurate diagnosis is crucial to an effective response. Microbiological forensics and epidemiologic investigations increasingly rely on molecular markers, such as polymorphisms in DNA sequence, to obtain reliable information regarding the identification or source of a suspicious strain. Over the past decade, significant research efforts have been undertaken to develop genotyping methods with increased power to differentiate B. anthracis strains. A growing number of DNA signatures have been identified and used to survey B. anthracis diversity in nature, leading to rapid advances in our understanding of the global population of this pathogen. This article provides an overview of the different phylogenetic subgroups distributed across the world, with a particular focus on Europe. Updated information on the anthrax situation in Europe is reported. A brief description of some of the work in progress in the work package 5.1 of the AniBioThreat project is also presented, including (1) the development of a robust typing tool based on a suspension array technology and multiplexed single nucleotide polymorphisms scoring and (2) the typing of a collection of DNA from European isolates exchanged between the partners of the project. The know-how acquired will contribute to improving the EU's ability to react rapidly when the identity and real origin of a strain need to be established. PMID:23971802

Derzelle, Sylviane; Thierry, Simon

2013-09-01

316

Modeling of elemental carbon over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional EMEP model has been applied to calculate EC concentrations over Europe for the years 2002-2004 using a new EC emission inventory. The results are compared with measurements from the CARBOSOL and EMEP EC/OC campaigns. The model underestimates EC concentrations by 19% on average, and the spatial correlation is 0.80. For individual sites, the model bias varies from -79 to 77% and the average temporal correlation is 0.53, varying from 0.25 to 0.79. The model flattens the north-south EC gradient as it tends to overestimate EC for Nordic sites and underestimate EC for more southern sites. We have also studied the contributions of various processes to the model EC results. Using EC as a tracer of primary PM emissions from combustion sources we have made a preliminary evaluation of the anthropogenic EC (PM) emission. There are indications of a possible underestimation of EC emissions from traffic in some areas and both underestimation and overestimation of EC emissions from residential combustion for some European countries. The largest uncertainties probably lie in EC emissions from residential wood/fossil combustion and are associated with both emission factors and spatial and temporal variation. The need to develop accurate and time resolved wildfire emissions is emphasized. The effect of EC aging is shown be rather limited for most of Europe (1 to 4%). Changes in EC wet scavenging ratio have a noticeable effect on calculated EC (between 5 and 25% for most Europe and 30-40% in remote areas), but EC scavenging ratios are still poorly known.

Tsyro, S.; Simpson, D.; Tarrasón, L.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Pio, C.; Yttri, K. E.

2007-12-01

317

The Winds of Change: Higher Education Management Programmes in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amid the Bologna Process and as a direct effect of it, European higher education institutions have to rethink their core institutional policies in order to effectively deal with the increasing demands and needs of their "customers" and society at large. The higher education management programmes across Europe, with some specific needs and…

Pausits, Attila; Pellert, Ada

2009-01-01

318

Projected Land Cover Change Effects on East African Rainfall Under Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land cover/Land Use Change (LCLUC) and greenhouse gas concentrations (GHG) have both been shown to influence regional climate, albeit at different spatial scales. In east Africa, climate changes due to changing greenhouse gas concentrations are broadly projected to be warmer and wetter, while LCLUC is trending towards both agricultural intensification as well as agricultural expansion into savannas, causing complex climate impacts. This study seeks to identify locations likely to witness strong responses to future GHG, LCLUC, or their combined effects, and to better understand how hydrometeorological mechanisms might be altered by LCLUC in future scenarios. Here we present high-resolution decadal simulations from a regional climate model that compare the relative and combined effects of projected LCLUC and GHG. Our research shows that taken separately, these two climate forcings are expected to significantly alter precipitation patterns both temporally and spatially but in different ways. In combination, some regions exhibit responses dominated by either LCLUC or GHG effects, but certain regions show complex effects resulting from the combined influence of these two forcings. Perhaps most importantly, projected precipitation changes around major population areas are as strongly influenced by LCLUC as by GHG effects.

Moore, N.; Andresen, J.; Pijanowski, B. C.; Lofgren, B. M.

2011-12-01

319

Alien Birds, Amphibians and Reptiles of Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

DAISIE aims to integrate information on current invasions across Europe through an online freely available database of alien\\u000a species (www.europe-aliens. org, Shirley and Kark 2006). Overall, the DAISIE database includes 55 islands or countries in\\u000a Europe (including European Russia), Israel and the Macaronesian islands (hereby referred to as Europe). Patterns of alien\\u000a introductions, their impacts and management tools differ for

Salit Kark; Wojciech Solarz; François Chiron; Philippe Clergeau; Susan Shirley

320

Europe's space photovoltaics programme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current space PV (photovoltaic) technology development program of ESA is described. The program is closely coupled to the European space mission scenario for the next 10 year period and has as its main objective to make the most effective use of the limited resources available for technology in the present economical climate. This requires a well-balanced approach between concentration on very few options and keeping the competition alive if more than one promising technology exists. The paper describes ESA's main activities in the areas of solar array technology, solar cell technology, solar cell assembly technology, and special test and verification activities including the in-orbit demonstration of new technologies.

Bogus, Klaus P.

1994-01-01

321

Towards a single seismological service infrastructure in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last five year services and data providers, within the seismological community in Europe, focused their efforts in migrating the way of opening their archives towards a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). This process tries to follow pragmatically the technological trends and available solutions aiming at effectively improving all the data stewardship activities. These advancements are possible thanks to the cooperation and the follow-ups of several EC infrastructural projects that, by looking at general purpose techniques, combine their developments envisioning a multidisciplinary platform for the earth observation as the final common objective (EPOS, Earth Plate Observation System) One of the first results of this effort is the Earthquake Data Portal (http://www.seismicportal.eu), which provides a collection of tools to discover, visualize and access a variety of seismological data sets like seismic waveform, accelerometric data, earthquake catalogs and parameters. The Portal offers a cohesive distributed search environment, linking data search and access across multiple data providers through interactive web-services, map-based tools and diverse command-line clients. Our work continues under other EU FP7 projects. Here we will address initiatives in two of those projects. The NERA, (Network of European Research Infrastructures for Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation) project will implement a Common Services Architecture based on OGC services APIs, in order to provide Resource-Oriented common interfaces across the data access and processing services. This will improve interoperability between tools and across projects, enabling the development of higher-level applications that can uniformly access the data and processing services of all participants. This effort will be conducted jointly with the VERCE project (Virtual Earthquake and Seismology Research Community for Europe). VERCE aims to enable seismologists to exploit the wealth of seismic data within a data-intensive computation framework, which will be tailored to the specific needs of the community. It will provide a new interoperable infrastructure, as the computational backbone laying behind the publicly available interfaces. VERCE will have to face the challenges of implementing a service oriented architecture providing an efficient layer between the Data and the Grid infrastructures, coupling HPC data analysis and HPC data modeling applications through the execution of workflows and data sharing mechanism. Online registries of interoperable worklflow components, storage of intermediate results and data provenance are those aspects that are currently under investigations to make the VERCE facilities usable from a large scale of users, data and service providers. For such purposes the adoption of a Digital Object Architecture, to create online catalogs referencing and describing semantically all these distributed resources, such as datasets, computational processes and derivative products, is seen as one of the viable solution to monitor and steer the usage of the infrastructure, increasing its efficiency and the cooperation among the community.

Spinuso, A.; Trani, L.; Frobert, L.; Van Eck, T.

2012-04-01

322

Crustal movements in Europe observed with EUROPE and IVS-T2 VLBI networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The comparative analysis of the EUROPE and IVS-T2 geodetic VLBI sessions has been performed. The main purpose of both campaigns is to observe and accurately determine the VLBI station coordinates and their time evolution. In this analysis our interest is to understand the influence of network configuration on the estimated parameters and, also, how much the results of these two campaigns are consistent. We have used the VieVS software developing at Vienna University of Technology to analyze the EUROPE and IVS-T2 sessions of 2002-2009. We have analyzed the difference of crustal movements obtained with these two networks and the effect of network configuration and station selection. The EPN (EUREF permanent GNSS Network) and IGS (International GNSS Service) networks can be used to compare the results.

Zubko, N.; Poutanen, M.

2011-07-01

323

Important findings expected from Europe's largest seismic array  

Microsoft Academic Search

An international, interdisciplinary project, which 2 years ago deployed the largest dense seismic antenna ever in Europe, expects in the next 2 years to present important findings on the lithosphere and asthenosphere of a portion of the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). Final processing is currently under way of the data from the array of 120 seismographs along a 900-km-long by

Søren Gregersen; L. B. Pedersen; R. G. Roberts; H. Shomali; A. Berthelsen; H. Thybo; K. Mosegaard; T. Pedersen; P. Voss; R. Kind; G. Bock; J. Gossler; K. Wylegala; W. Rabbel; I. Woelbern; M. Budweg; H. Busche; M. Korn; S. Hock; A. Guterch; M. Grad; M. Wilde-Piorko; M. Zuchniak; J. Plomerova; J. Ansorge; E. Kissling; R. Arlitt; F. Waldhauser; P. Ziegler; U. Achauer; H. Pedersen; N. Cotte; H. Paulssen; E. R. Engdahl

1999-01-01

324

Recent trends of persistent organic pollutants in air in central Europe - Air monitoring in combination with air mass trajectory statistics as a tool to study the effectivity of regional chemical policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use air mass back trajectory analysis of persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels monitored at a regional background site, Košetice, Czech Republic, as a tool to study the effectiveness of emission reduction measures taken in the last decade in the region. The representativity of the chosen trajectory starting height for air sampling near ground was ensured by excluding trajectories starting at time of inversions lower than their starting height. As the relevant pollutant sources are exclusively located in the atmospheric boundary layer, trajectory segments above this layer were also excluded from the analysis. We used a linear time weight to account for the influence of dispersion and deposition on trace components abundances and to quantify the ground source loading, a continuous measure for the influence of surface emissions. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and two time periods, the years 1997-1999 and 2004-2006, were studied. The pollutant levels transported to Košetice decreased for all substances except HCB. Except for lindane seasonal emissions were insignificant. Increasing emissions of HCB were at least partly linked to the 2002 floods in the Danube basin. Major emissions of 1997-1999 which decreased significantly were in France (lindane), western Poland, Hungary and northern ex-Yugoslavia (technical HCH), and the Czech Republic (DDT). Emissions remaining in 2004-2006 include HCB and DDT in the northern Czech Republic, HCB and PCBs in Germany. Besides changes in emission strength meteorological factors influence the level of transported pollutant concentrations. The prevailing air flow pattern limits the geographic coverage of this analysis to central Europe and parts of western Europe. However, no POP monitoring stations exist in areas suitable for a possible extension of the study area.

Dvorská, A.; Lammel, G.; Holoubek, I.

325

Emissions of nitrogen-oxides from forests in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Green house gas emissions affected climatic conditions and got affected by the climate itself. This interaction plays a crucial role in the development of future climate and need to be investigated for a better understanding of the relevant processes. Therefore, some years ago the project NitroEurope started to investigate the impact of nitrogen compounds and nitrogen fluxes to the environment. As part of this project, our work focused on the simulation of nitrogen fluxes from forests of Europe for the period 1971 - 2030. The objective is to simulate nitrogen fluxes (N2O and NO) and their spatial distribution. The terrestrial biochemical model DailyDayCent is well suited for these simulations, because the model is complex enough to describe the important processes, but fast enough to simulate the processes for a large temporal and spatial resolution. The model was applied using a newly complied NitroEurope soil/ climate/land use database by arranging these input data to NitroEurope calculation units (NCU). For the model simulations different species and age classes are considered. Plant parameters are optimized to the biomass data of the EFISCEN data set and the soil parameters are derived by pedotransfer functions of the texture that based on a soil map (US Taxanomy). The simulation results are transferred to the corresponding NCUs and aggregated to get the N2O and NO emissions over Europe. This represents one of the first presentations of spatial data for nitrogen emissions from semi-natural areas at pan-European scale.

Kuhnert, M.; Yeluripati, J.; Parton, W. J.; Smith, P.

2012-04-01

326

Effect of acquisition parameters on digital breast tomosynthesis: Total angular range and number of projection views  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different acquisition parameters and to determine the optimal set of acquisition parameters of projection views (PVs) for the new developed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system. The DBT imaging parameters were optimized using 32 different acquisition sets with six angular ranges (±5°, ±10°, ±13°, ±17°, ±21°, and ±25°) and eight projection views (5, 11, 15, 21, 25, 31, 41, and 51 prjections). In addition to the contrastto-noise ratio (CNR), the artifact spread function (ASF) was used to quantify the in-focus plane artifacts along the z-direction in order to explore the relationship between the acquisition parameters and the image quality. A commercially, available breast-mimicking phantom was imaged to qualitatively verify our results. Our results show that a wide angular range improved the reconstructed image quality in the z-direction. If a large number of projections are acquired, then the electronic noise may dominate the CNR due to reduce the radiation dose per projection. Although increasing angular range was found to improve the vertical resolution, due to greater effective breast thickness, the image quality of microcalcifications in the in-focus plane was also found not to be improved by increasing the noise. Therefore, potential trade-offs of these physical imaging properties must be considered to optimize the acquisition configuration of a DBT system. Our results suggest possible directions for further improvements in DBT systems for high quality imaging.

Choi, Young-Wook; Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Ye-seul; Kim, Hee-Joung; Choi, Jae-Gu

2012-12-01

327

Randomised Double-Blind Comparison of Placebo and Active Drugs for Effects on Risks Associated with Blood Pressure Variability in the Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial  

PubMed Central

Background In the Systolic Hypertension in Europe trial (NCT02088450), we investigated whether systolic blood pressure variability determines prognosis over and beyond level. Methods Using a computerised random function and a double-blind design, we randomly allocated 4695 patients (?60 years) with isolated systolic hypertension (160–219/<95 mm Hg) to active treatment or matching placebo. Active treatment consisted of nitrendipine (10–40 mg/day) with possible addition of enalapril (5–20 mg/day) and/or hydrochlorothiazide (12.5–25.0 mg/day). We assessed whether on-treatment systolic blood pressure level (SBP), visit-to-visit variability independent of the mean (VIM) or within-visit variability (WVV) predicted total (n?=?286) or cardiovascular (n?=?150) mortality or cardiovascular (n?=?347), cerebrovascular (n?=?133) or cardiac (n?=?217) endpoints. Findings At 2 years, mean between-group differences were 10.5 mm Hg (p<0.0001) for SBP, 0.29 units (p?=?0.20) for VIM, and 0.07 mm Hg (p?=?0.47) for WVV. Active treatment reduced (p?0.048) cardiovascular (?28%), cerebrovascular (?40%) and cardiac (?24%) endpoints. In analyses dichotomised by the median, patients with low vs. high VIM had similar event rates (p?0.14). Low vs. high WVV was not associated with event rates (p?0.095), except for total and cardiovascular mortality on active treatment, which were higher with low WVV (p?0.0003). In multivariable-adjusted Cox models, SBP predicted all endpoints (p?0.0043), whereas VIM did not predict any (p?0.058). Except for an inverse association with total mortality (p?=?0.042), WVV was not predictive (p?0.15). Sensitivity analyses, from which we excluded blood pressure readings within 6 months after randomisation, 6 months prior to an event or both were confirmatory. Conclusions The double-blind placebo-controlled Syst-Eur trial demonstrated that blood-pressure lowering treatment reduces cardiovascular complications by decreasing level but not variability of SBP. Higher blood pressure level, but not higher variability, predicted risk. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02088450 PMID:25090617

Hara, Azusa; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Jacobs, Lotte; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A.

2014-01-01

328

Investigating organizational quality improvement systems, patient empowerment, organizational culture, professional involvement and the quality of care in European hospitals: the 'Deepening our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe (DUQuE)' project  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hospitals in European countries apply a wide range of quality improvement strategies. Knowledge of the effectiveness of these strategies, implemented as part of an overall hospital quality improvement system, is limited. METHODS\\/DESIGN: We propose to study the relationships among organisational quality improvement systems, patient empowerment, organisational culture, professionals' involvement with the quality of hospital care, including clinical effectiveness, patient

Oliver Groene; Niek Klazinga; Cordula Wagner; Onyebuchi A Arah; Andrew Thompson; Charles Bruneau; Rosa Suñol

2010-01-01

329

SMA-EUROPE workshop report: Opportunities and challenges in developing clinical trials for spinal muscular atrophy in Europe.  

PubMed

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common lethal recessive disease in childhood, and there is currently no effective treatment to halt disease progression. The translation of scientific advances into effective therapies is hampered by major roadblocks in clinical trials, including the complex regulatory environment in Europe, variations in standards of care, patient ascertainment and enrolment, a narrow therapeutic window and a lack of biomarkers of efficacy. In this context, SMA-Europe organized its first international workshop in July 2012 in Rome, gathering 34 scientists, clinicians and representatives of patient organizations to establish recommendations for improving clinical trials for SMAa. PMID:23514578

Kayadjanian, Nathalie; Burghes, Arthur; Finkel, Richard S; Mercuri, Eugenio; Rouault, Francoise; Schwersenz, Inge; Talbot, Kevin

2013-01-01

330

SMA-EUROPE workshop report: opportunities and challenges in developing clinical trials for spinal muscular atrophy in Europe  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common lethal recessive disease in childhood, and there is currently no effective treatment to halt disease progression. The translation of scientific advances into effective therapies is hampered by major roadblocks in clinical trials, including the complex regulatory environment in Europe, variations in standards of care, patient ascertainment and enrolment, a narrow therapeutic window and a lack of biomarkers of efficacy. In this context, SMA-Europe organized its first international workshop in July 2012 in Rome, gathering 34 scientists, clinicians and representatives of patient organizations to establish recommendations for improving clinical trials for SMAa. PMID:23514578

2013-01-01

331

The Effect of the BalloonSat Project on Middle and High School Students' Attitude toward Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study measured the effect of completing a BalloonSat project on student attitude toward science. Seven categories of student attitudes toward science were measured using the Test of Science Relate Attitudes survey (TOSRA). The research anticipated that the BalloonSat project would have similar effects on student attitudes as found in robotics…

Verhage, L. Paul

2012-01-01

332

Project SUCCESS' Effects on Substance Use-Related Attitudes and Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Alternative High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a randomized controlled effectiveness trial, we examined the effects of Project SUCCESS on a range of secondary outcomes, including the program's mediating variables. Project SUCCESS, which is based both on the Theory of Reasoned Action and on Cognitive Behavior Theory, is a school-based substance use prevention program that targets…

Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Hanley, Sean M.

2011-01-01

333

Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities: results from the APHEA project  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. As part of a European project (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach (APHEA)), we analysed data from the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, London, Milan, Paris and Rotterdam, using a standardized approach to data eligibility and statistical analysis. Relative risks for

H. R. Anderson; C. Spix; S. Medina; J. P. Schouten; J. Castellsague; G. Rossi; D. Zmirou; G. Touloumi; B. Wojtyniak; A. Ponka; L. Bacharova; J. Schwartz; K. Katsouyanni

1997-01-01

334

New times for migrants' health in Europe.  

PubMed

Patterns of migration can change greatly over time, with the size and composition of migrant populations reflecting both, current and historical patterns of migration flows. The recent economic crisis has caused a decrease on migration flows towards the most affected areas, as well as cut offs in health interventions addressed to migrants. The objective of this paper is to review available data about interventions on migrants' health in Europe, and to describe changes in migrant health policies across Europe after the economic crisis, that can have a negative effect in their health status. Although migrants have the right to health care under legal settlements issued by the EU, there is no a standard European approach to offer health care to migrants, since; policies in each EU Member State are developed according to specific migrant experience, political climate, and attitudes towards migration. Migrants use to face greater health problems and major health care access barriers, compared with their counterparts from the EU. Therefore, migrant health policies should focus in protects this vulnerable group, especially during economic hardship, taking into account economic and socio-demographic risk factors. There is an especial need for research in the cost-effectiveness of investing in the health care of the migrant population, demonstrating the benefit of such, even in the health of the European native population, and the need for constant intervention despite of resource constraints. PMID:25072789

Reyes-Uruena, J M; Noori, T; Pharris, A; Jansà, J M

2014-01-01

335

Genetic, geographic, and linguistic distances in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Genetic and taxonomic distances were computed for 3466 samples of human populations in Europe based on 97 allele frequencies and 10 cranial variables. Since the actual samples employed differed among the genetic systems studied, the genetic distances were computed separately for each system, as were matrices of geographic distances and of linguistic distances based on membership in the same language family of phylum. Significant matrix correlations between genetics and geography were found for the majority of systems; somewhat less frequent are significant correlations between genetics and language. The effects of the two factors can be separated by means of partial matrix correlations. These show significant values for both genetics and geography, language kept constant, and genetics and language, geography kept constant, with a tendency for the former to be higher. These findings demonstrate that speakers of different language families in Europe differ genetically and that this difference remains even after geographic differentiation is allowed for. The greater effect of geography than of language may be due to the several factors that bring about spatial differentiation in human populations.

Sokal, R.R.

1988-03-01

336

[Japanese encephalitis in Southern Europe].  

PubMed

In 2012, a fragment of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genome was isolated from a pool of Culex pipiens mosquitoes caught in 2010 and 2011 in Northern Italy. JEV has a broad geographical distribution in South and Southeast Asia and Oceania, and is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia in humans and also causes encephalitis in horses and fertility problems in pigs. However, recently isolated JEV genome fragments in mosquitoes in Italy could be an indication of repeated introduction of JEV, enzootic circulation of JEV or a related virus in Southern Europe. Until more information is available, Japanese encephalitis remains a travel-related infectious disease for travellers to JEV endemic and epidemic areas outside of Europe. PMID:25090898

Cleton, Natalie; Koopmans, Marion; Braks, Marieta; Van Maanen, Kees; Reusken, Chantal

2014-07-01

337

The knowledge economy of Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For regional development specialists and those concerned with local economies, the world of the so-called knowledge economy is tremendously important. Specifically, the knowledge economy is meant to be those segments of the economy that include financial and business services, health care, and education. In Europe, the subject is debated a great deal, and this latest 23-page report by The Work Foundation will no doubt add to that ongoing debate. In their report examining the knowledge economy in Europe (and its recent growth) they note that while the Continent continues to experience some growth in this sector of the economy, future growth may be hindered by a lack of significant investment in its knowledge base. The report also includes an extended definition of this notion of a knowledge economy for those who remain puzzled.

Brinkley, Ian; Lee, Neil

2006-01-01

338

H? Kinematics of Tidal Tails in Interacting Systems: Projection Effects and Dark Matter in TDGs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several interacting systems exhibit at the tip of their long tidal tails massive condensations of atomic hydrogen, which may be the progenitors of Tidal Dwarf Galaxies. Because, quite often, these tails are observed edge-on, projection effects have been claimed to account for the large HI column densities measured there. Here we show that determining the velocity field all along the tidal features, one may disentangle projection effects along the line of view from real bound structures. Due to its large field of view, high spectral and 2D spatial resolutions, Fabry-Perot observations of the ionized gas are well adapted to detect a kinematical signature of either streaming motions along a bent tidal tail or of infalling/rotating material associated with a forming TDG. Spectroscopic observations also allow to measure the dynamical masses of the TDGs that are already relaxed and check their dark matter content.

Amram, P.; Bournaud, F.; Duc, P.-A.

2004-06-01

339

MODIS Snow Cover over Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides data in 36 spectral bands, some of which are used in an algorithm to map global snow cover. The animation shows the dynamic behavior of the advance and retreat of continental snow cover over Europe for the winter of 2001-02 from MODIS-derived 8-day composite snow maps with a spatial resolution of about 5 km.

Starr, Cindy; Hall, Dorothy

2002-07-04

340

Bat rabies surveillance in Europe.  

PubMed

Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977-2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands, North Germany, Denmark, Poland and also in parts of France and Spain. Most EBLV-2 isolates originated from the United Kingdom (UK) and the Netherlands, and EBLV-2 was also detected in Germany, Finland and Switzerland. Thus far, only one isolate of BBLV was found in Germany. Published passive bat rabies surveillance comprised testing of 28 of the 52 different European bat species for rabies. EBLV-1 was isolated exclusively from Serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus and Eptesicus isabellinus), while EBLV-2 was detected in 14 Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) and 5 Pond bats (Myotis dasycneme). A virus from a single Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri) was characterized as BBLV. During active surveillance, only oral swabs from 2 Daubenton's bats (EBLV-2) and from several Eptesicus bats (EBLV-1) yielded virus positive RNA. Virus neutralizing antibodies against lyssaviruses were detected in various European bat species from different countries, and its value and implications are discussed. PMID:22963584

Schatz, J; Fooks, A R; McElhinney, L; Horton, D; Echevarria, J; Vázquez-Moron, S; Kooi, E A; Rasmussen, T B; Müller, T; Freuling, C M

2013-02-01

341

Benchmarking Electricity Liberalisation in Europe  

E-print Network

sources does the country’s electricity industry use? A country with a high proportion of hydro-electricity may not be exposed to fluctuations in the prices of fossil fuels, but is vulnerable to years with low precipitation. Historically, oil prices have... that the method of allocating inter- connector capacity is suitable for benchmarking. Since most countries in Europe have inter-connectors with several other countries, a possible summary statistic would be the proportion of their inter-connector capacity...

Green, Richard J; Lorenzoni, Arturo; Perez, Yannick; Pollitt, Michael G.

342

A Physics Teacher in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last summer, I had the good fortune of winning a fellowship to take a scientific tour of Europe.1 My goal was to learn more about the people whose work I have studied and taught throughout my professional career - scientists like Galileo, Newton, and Einstein, whose work has revealed the beauty, grandeur, and comprehensibility of the universe. Below, I list and describe some of the highlights of my trip. The four cities listed are among those commonly visited by tourists.

Nickell, Duane S.

2003-02-01

343

A History of Vocational Education and Training in Europe--From Divergence to Convergence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea of mounting a research project on "the history of vocational education and training in Europe" was launched at the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop) in January 2000. The main aim of this project is to reach a better understanding of the current structure of the various vocational education and training…

Wollschlager, Norbert; Guggenheim, Eric Fries

2004-01-01

344

What Can We Learn from 15,000 Teachers in Central Europe and Central Asia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the "Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking Project" which has now sent more than 70 volunteer teacher educators into 20 countries across Central Europe and Central Asia to help teachers to try out methods that foster active learning and critical thinking. Discusses support for the project, teaching strategies introduced, and the…

Temple, Charles

2000-01-01

345

Effects of a physical activity intervention on body image in university seniors: Project GRAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project GRAD (Graduate Ready for Activity Daily) was a randomized controlled study to teach university seniors behavioral\\u000a skills necessary for increasing and\\/or maintaining physical activity habits in preparation for the transition to working adult\\u000a roles after graduation. This study examines the secondary effects of this intervention on body image concerns among college-aged\\u000a men and women. Three hundred thirty-eight undergraduates (54%

Marion F. Zabinski; Karen J. Calfas; Christine A. Gehrman; Denise E. Wilfley; James F. Sallis

2001-01-01

346

The Effects of Community Service Learning Projects on L2 Learners' Cultural Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This small-scale study investigates the effects of community service learning (CSL) projects or a cultural presentation on the development of the cultural understanding of low- and high-intermediate L2 students. Fifty-two learners in four sections of two Spanish classes in Canada participated in the study. The participants also completed pre- and postquestionnaires which explored their attitudes towards the target language and

Gabriela Zapata

2011-01-01

347

The Effects of Community Service Learning Projects on L2 Learners' Cultural Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

:This small-scale study investigates the effects of community service learning (CSL) projects or a cultural presentation on the development of the cultural understanding of low- and high-intermediate L2 students. Fifty-two learners in four sections of two Spanish classes in Canada participated in the study. The participants also completed pre- and postquestionnaires which explored their attitudes towards the target language and

Gabriela Zapata

2011-01-01

348

Projected Clinical Benefits and Cost-effectiveness of a Human Papillomavirus 16\\/18 Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine may be commercially available in a few years. We explored the clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness of introducing an HPV16\\/18 vaccine in a population with an organized cervical cancer screening program. Methods: A computer-based model of the natural history of HPV and cervical cancer was used to project cancer incidence and mortality, life expect- ancy (adjusted

Sue J. Goldie; Michele Kohli; Daniel Grima; Milton C. Weinstein; Thomas C. Wright; F. Xavier Bosch; Eduardo Franco

349

Status of floriculture in Europe.  

PubMed

Europe is traditionally the largest producer of floricultural products in the world with an estimated production value of over 12 billion euro in 2006. The Netherlands, Italy, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom and France are the main centres of production. More recently, a significant growth in production area was observed in Poland also. The Dutch auctions remain the world's largest trading system for flowers and plants. Looking at the intra-European trade, Belgium and Denmark are also major exporting countries. The consumption of floricultural products increased strongly within Europe during the last years. Especially, Eastern Europe has a big potential as a new market. In these countries, the demand for ornamentals will increase due to the rise of income and the level of prosperity. In spite of the positive developments in consumption and production, increasing energy costs, growing environmental concern and globalisation of production, trade and markets will form the major challenges European floricultural industry has to deal with in the near future. PMID:20099115

Van Huylenbroeck, Johan

2010-01-01

350

Report on the planning workshop on cost-effective ceramic machining. Ceramic Technology Project  

SciTech Connect

A workshop on ``Cost Effective Ceramic Machining`` (CECM) was held at Oak Ridge Associated Universities Pollard Auditorium, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, May 1991. The purpose of this workshop was to present a preliminary project plan for industry critique and to identify specific components and cost-reduction targets for a new project on Cost Effective Ceramic Machining. The CECM project is an extension of the work on the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Program sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Materials. The workshop consisted of fifteen invited papers, discussions, a survey of the attendee`s opinions, and a tour of the High Temperature Materials Laboratory at ORNL. The total number of registrants was sixty-seven, including thirty-three from industry or private sector organizations, seven from universities, three from industry groups, fourteen from DOE laboratories (including ORNL, Y-12, and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory), three from trade associations, and three from other government organizations. Forty- one survey forms, which critiqued the proposed project plan, were completed by attendees, and the results are presented in this report. Valves, cam roller followers, water pump seals, and diesel engine head plates were rated highest fro application of ceramic machining concepts to reduce cost. Coarse grinding, abrasives and wheel technology, and fine grinding were most highly rated as regards their impact on cost reduction. Specific cost-reduction targets for given parts varied greatly in the survey results and were not felt to be useful for the purposes for the CECM plan development. A range of individual comments were obtained and are listed in an appendix. As a result of the workshop and subsequent discussions, a modified project plan, different in certain aspects from the original CECM plan, has been developed.

Blau, P.J.

1991-11-01

351

Do participant, facilitator, or group factors moderate effectiveness of the Body Project? Implications for dissemination.  

PubMed

The Body Project is a dissonance-based selective eating disorder prevention program with a broad evidence-base. The study sought to determine if previous findings regarding participant moderators replicate in an effectiveness trial under more real-world conditions. This study also had the novel aim of examining facilitator characteristics and group-level variables as potential outcome predictors. These aims are critical for understanding when the intervention is most effective and for whom. Participants were 408 young women with body image concerns recruited from seven universities. Change in eating disorder symptoms at 1-year follow-up was the primary outcome. Intervention effects were significant for both participants who had low or high baseline symptom levels, but the effect size was approximately twice as large for participants with high initial symptom levels (d = 0.58 vs. 0.24). Intervention effects were not predicted by facilitator factors (education, age, BMI, sex) or by group size or attendance rate. This study demonstrates that participants with either low or high eating disorder symptoms will benefit from the intervention but if resources are limited, targeting those with elevated eating disorder symptoms may be sensible. Results also suggest that a wide variety of facilitators can effectively deliver the Body Project, which has encouraging implications for dissemination. PMID:25199580

Butryn, Meghan L; Rohde, Paul; Marti, C Nathan; Stice, Eric

2014-10-01

352

Accelerator science and technology in Europe 2008-2017  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

European Framework Research Projects have recently added a lot of meaning to the building process of the ERA - the European Research Area. Inside this, the accelerator technology plays an essential role. Accelerator technology includes large infrastructure and intelligent, modern instrumentation embracing mechatronics, electronics, photonics and ICT. During the realization of the European research and infrastructure project FP6 CARE 2004-2008 (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe), concerning the development of large accelerator infrastructure in Europe, it was decided that a scientific editorial series of peer-reviewed monographs from this research area will be published in close relation with the projects. It was a completely new and quite brave idea to combine a kind of a strictly research publisher with a transient project, lasting only four or five years. Till then nobody did something like that. The idea turned out to be a real success. The publications now known and valued in the accelerator world, as the (CERN-WUT) Editorial Series on Accelerator Science and Technology, is successfully continued in already the third European project EuCARD2 and has logistic guarantees, for the moment, till the 2017, when it will mature to its first decade. During the realization of the European projects EuCARD (European Coordination for Accelerator R&D 2009-2013 and TIARA (Test Infrastructure of Accelerator Research Area in Europe) there were published 18 volumes in this series. The ambitious plans for the nearest years is to publish, hopefully, a few tens of new volumes. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, published in the monographs of the European Framework Projects (FP) on accelerator technology. The succession of CARE, EuCARD and EuCARD Projects is evidently creating a new quality in the European Accelerator Research. It is consolidating the technical and research communities in a new way, completely different than the traditional ones, for example via the periodic topical conferences.

Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

2013-10-01

353

Seismological data networks and services in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seismic Data Portal (http://www.seismicportal.eu) provides a collection of tools to discover, visualize, and access a variety of seismological data sets, including earthquake parameters, broadband and accelerometric data, European tomography, and historical earthquake catalogs. The Portal was developed as part of the Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology project, which was funded under the 6th European Framework Programme to integrate data and service resources for the seismological community. The NERIES project brought together 25 participating institutions and organizations under 19 work packages to produce numerous scientific results through coordinated research, development, networking, and integration activities. The Seismic Data Portal provides a single point of access to the heterogeneous and distributed data sets developed or made available through the NERIES project. These tools operate in a coordinated manner to provide a cohesive distributed search environment, linking data search and access across multiple data providers. Through interactive, map-based tools, a researcher is able to build queries linking event parametric data with seismological broadband or accelerometric waveform data. The Portal architecture is based on a suite of standards and standard technologies, allowing interoperability between tools and the integration of new tools as they become available. The data tools are supported by web services running at their respective data centers. These web services provide the programmatic interface between the interactive, web-based tools, and the underlying data archives. Moreover they are in turn available to external applications, allowing direct programmatic queries to the data archives. Work on the Data Portal, access tools, and services architecture will continue under other EU funded projects. The NERA, Network of European Research Infrastructures for Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation project, funded under the 7th European Framework Program, will bring into the Data Portal new extensions to include new data sets and access tools from new partners in the Seismology and Earthquake Engineering communities. We will implement a Common Services Architecture based on OGC services APIs. This services layer API provides Resource-Oriented common interfaces across the data access and processing services to improve interoperability between tools and across projects, enabling the development of higher-level applications that can uniformly access the data and processing services of all participants. The effort for such extensions of the current Data Portal will be conducted jointly with another EU funded project VERCE - Virtual Earthquake and Seismology Research Community for Europe. VERCE aims to enable seismologists to exploit the wealth of seismic data within a data-intensive computation framework, which will be tailored to the specific needs of the community. It will provide a new interoperable infrastructure, as the computational backbone laying behind the publicly available interfaces.

Spinuso, A.; Kamb, L.; Trani, L.; Frobert, L.

2011-12-01

354

Assessment of the effectiveness of the advanced programmatic risk analysis and management model (apram) as a decision support tool for construction projects  

E-print Network

and implement measures that can mitigate the effects of project risks. Several risk analysis techniques have been developed over the years to enable construction project managers to make useful decisions that can improve the chances of project success...

Imbeah, William Kweku Ansah

2007-09-17

355

Ocean Monitoring Collaborations Between Europe and China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DRAGONESS Project Kickoff Meeting; Beijing, China, 11-12 October 2007; A coordinated, concerted action between Europe and China in ocean monitoring kicked off with its first meeting, held in Beijing. The project, named DRAGONESS (DRAGON in support of harmonizing European and Chinese marine monitoring for Environment and Security System), is funded by the European Union's (EU) Framework Programme for 3 years. Researchers from the two continents will establish an inventory of Chinese and European capacities in marine monitoring for environment and security in the framework of challenges identified within international programs such as Global Ocean Observing System, Global Earth Observing System of Systems, and Global Monitoring for Environment and Security. In particular, the DRAGONESS aims to (1) assess existing Chinese and European information products and services arising from integrated use of remote-sensing, in situ observations, models, and data assimilation methods; (2) identify monitoring gaps and barriers (e.g., restrictive data availability) and (3) stimulate exchange and initiation of a new European-Chinese partnership in Earth observation science and technology in support of global environmental monitoring.

Johannessen, Johnny A.; He, Ming-Xia; Hu, Chuanmin

2008-05-01

356

Inventory of pesticide emissions into the air in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creation of a reliable and comprehensive emission inventory of the pesticides used in Europe is a key step towards quantitatively assessing the link between actual pesticide exposure and adverse health effects. An inventory of pesticide emissions was generated at a 1 × 1 km grid, for the year 2000. The emission model comprises three components: estimates of active substance (AS) wind drift taking into account crop type, volatilization during pesticide application and volatilization from the crop canopy. Results show that atmospheric emission of pesticides varies significantly across Europe. Different pesticide families are emitted from different parts of Europe as a function of the main crop(s) cultivated, agro-climatic conditions and production intensity. The pesticide emission inventory methodology developed herein is a valuable tool for assessing air quality in rural and peri-urban Europe, furnishing the necessary input for atmospheric modelling at different scales. Its estimates have been tested using global sensitivity and Monte Carlo analysis for uncertainty assessment and they have been validated against national and local surveys in four European countries; the results demonstrate the robustness and reliability of the inventory. The latter may therefore be readily used for exposure and health risk assessment studies targeting farmers, applicators, but also bystanders and the general population in Europe.

Sarigiannis, D. A.; Kontoroupis, P.; Solomou, E. S.; Nikolaki, S.; Karabelas, A. J.

2013-08-01

357

Climate variability and outbreaks of infectious diseases in Europe  

PubMed Central

Several studies provide evidence of a link between vector-borne disease outbreaks and El Niño driven climate anomalies. Less investigated are the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we test its impact on outbreak occurrences of 13 infectious diseases over Europe during the last fifty years, controlling for potential bias due to increased surveillance and detection. NAO variation statistically influenced the outbreak occurrence of eleven of the infectious diseases. Seven diseases were associated with winter NAO positive phases in northern Europe, and therefore with above-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with the summer or spring NAO negative phases in northern Europe, and therefore with below-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with summer positive or negative NAO phases in southern Mediterranean countries. These findings suggest that there is potential for developing early warning systems, based on climatic variation information, for improved outbreak control and management. PMID:23639950

Morand, Serge; Owers, Katharine A.; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; McIntyre, K. Marie; Baylis, Matthew

2013-01-01

358

Climate variability and outbreaks of infectious diseases in Europe.  

PubMed

Several studies provide evidence of a link between vector-borne disease outbreaks and El Niño driven climate anomalies. Less investigated are the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we test its impact on outbreak occurrences of 13 infectious diseases over Europe during the last fifty years, controlling for potential bias due to increased surveillance and detection. NAO variation statistically influenced the outbreak occurrence of eleven of the infectious diseases. Seven diseases were associated with winter NAO positive phases in northern Europe, and therefore with above-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with the summer or spring NAO negative phases in northern Europe, and therefore with below-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with summer positive or negative NAO phases in southern Mediterranean countries. These findings suggest that there is potential for developing early warning systems, based on climatic variation information, for improved outbreak control and management. PMID:23639950

Morand, Serge; Owers, Katharine A; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; McIntyre, K Marie; Baylis, Matthew

2013-01-01

359

Trends and fluctuations in the dates of ice break-up of lakes and rivers in Northern Europe: the effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of an ice cover has important effects on the streamflow conditions as well as on the heat transfer between water bodies and the overlying atmosphere. This paper investigates the effects of climate variability on the termination of the ice season in the Baltic region. In particular, trends and fluctuations observed in the cryophenological records from this region are

JaeChan Yoo; Paolo D'Odorico

2002-01-01

360

[The new migratory deal in Southern Europe].  

PubMed

The author examines migration patterns in Southern Europe during the 1970s and early 1980s, noting particularly the reduction in migration northward from this region. It is noted that "departure potential remains sizable in certain areas of Portugal, Spain, Southern Italy, and most particularly, of Turkey and Yugoslavia. Transoceanic migrations have by no means ceased, as new flows of skilled labor have, since 1974, gone towards Arab states endowed with petrol (oil) revenues. And yet, the paramount fact is most surely the emergence and the proliferation in Greece, Spain, and (especially) in Italy, of basically clandestine (illegal) immigration. This movement is due to the convergence of several factors: economic and demographic disparities between northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, the sealing-off of borders in Northwestern Europe and the 'carry-over' effect upon nations of 'transit', the extent of the flow of refugees, and--most particularly--the appeal provided by the development, in these new employer countries, of an underground economy accompanied by the extension into industry of the practice of 'undeclared' work. And notwithstanding the series of rules lastly drawn up in Spain and in Greece, such forms of clandestine (unauthorized) migration appear highly likely--to say the least--to persist." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) PMID:12268205

Simon, G

1986-09-01

361

The last sunset on mainland Europe  

E-print Network

This paper documents the places in mainland Europe at which the sun sets latest, by Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), on any given day (distortion due to differences in local standard times is ignored). In contradiction to the na\\"ive assumption that the sun always sets latest at the westernmost point, the point of last sunset changes cyclically over the course of a year due to the changing orientation of the axis of the Earth with respect to the sun. Specifically, between the winter and summer solstices the last sunset shifts successively from Cabo de Sao Vicente (Portugal) to Cabo da Roca (Portugal) to Cabo Tourinan (Spain) to a site near Aglapsvik (Norway) to a location in the Norwegian municipality of Masoy south of Havoysund; and it shifts back again between the summer and winter solstices. There are two days in the year (April 24th and August 18th) on which the last sunset of mainland Europe (shared in those days effectively by Cabo Tourinan and the Aglapsvik area) coincides with the last sunset of main...

Mira, Jorge

2014-01-01

362

Using IT To Run IT Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

European education projects in which exploitation of Information Technology has been a means as well as a goal are described. (1) The Council of Europe has begun a series of workshops, number 7 of which was on using information and communication technologies in modern language teaching and learning in Europe. Themes for further development…

Kornum, Lis

363

Beyond Fortress Europe? How European Cooperation Strengthens Refugee Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often said that European cooperatio n on asylum has led to the development of 'Fortress Europe', as asylum policies have become more restrictive and asylum seekers find it increasingly difficult to reach European territory and benefit from effective protection. There can be little doubt that there have been restrictive as ylum policy trends in most, if not all,

Eiko Thielemann; Nadine El-Enany

2009-01-01

364

Emerging Issues for Natech Disaster Risk Management in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing concern about the potential effects of natural disaster?triggered technological (natech) disasters. The chlorine releases in the Czech Republic following the floods that swept across Europe in the summer of 2002 and the multiple hazardous materials releases triggered by the Turkey earthquake of August 1999 were examples which showed the potential danger of a natech disaster occurring near

Ana Maria Cruz; Laura J. Steinberg

2006-01-01

365

Mergers, acquisitions and control of telecommunications firms in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

New evidence is presented about 12 large acquisitions by telecommunications firms in Europe. The average effect on acquirers’ shareholder value is not significantly different from zero, which confirms a paradox found by previous studies: bidding firms’ shareholders do not benefit from takeovers. There is high dispersion in the results. This suggests that detailed studies may uncover important aspects of the

Francesc Trillas

2002-01-01

366

Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) high capacity power project are presented: (1) neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Frasca, Albert J.; Wieserman, William R.

1993-01-01

367

Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare-earth permanent magnets.

Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Frasca, Albert J.; Wieserman, William R.

1993-01-01

368

The effect of the BalloonSat project on middle and high school students' attitude toward science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study measured the effect of completing a BalloonSat project on student attitude toward science. Seven categories of student attitudes toward science were measured using the Test of Science Relate Attitudes survey (TOSRA). The research anticipated that the BalloonSat project would have similar effects on student attitudes as found in robotics projects, like FIRST. The researcher also investigated whether gender moderated the effects of the BalloonSat project. This study enrolled 138 students from three states and one Canadian province. Students were free to select membership in either the treatment group or the control group. Student attitude toward science was measured prior to the start of the study and at its completion. Mean scores for the control and treatment group were then compared using an analysis of covariance. The effect of the BalloonSat project only affected one attitude toward science, Leisure Interest in Science. The study did not find gender was a factor in the effects of the BalloonSat project. This study is the first study of the BalloonSat project on grade 7--10 students and provides some evidence that a BalloonSat project can impact middle and high school attitude toward science.

Verhage, L. Paul

369

Projections of atmospheric mercury levels and their effect on air quality in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The individual and combined effects of global climate change and emissions changes from 2000 to 2050 on atmospheric mercury levels in the United States are investigated by using the global climate-chemistry model, CAM-Chem, coupled with a mercury chemistry-physics mechanism (CAM-Chem/Hg). Three future pathways from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) are considered, with the A1FI, A1B and B1 scenarios representing the upper, middle and lower bounds of potential climate warming, respectively. The anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of mercury are projected from the energy use assumptions in the IPCC SRES report. Natural emissions from both land and ocean sources are projected by using dynamic schemes. TGM concentration increases are greater in the low latitudes than they are in the high latitudes, indicative of a larger meridional gradient than in the present day. In the A1FI scenario, TGM concentrations in 2050 are projected to increase by 2.1-4.0 ng m-3 for the eastern US and 1.4-3.0 ng m-3 for the western US. This spatial difference corresponds to potential increases in wet deposition of 10-14 ?g m-2 for the eastern US and 2-4 ?g m-2 for the western US. The increase in Hg(II) emissions tends to enhance wet deposition and hence increase the risk of higher mercury entering the hydrological cycle and ecosystem. In the B1 scenario, mercury concentrations in 2050 are similar to present level concentrations; this finding indicates that the domestic reduction in mercury emissions is essentially counteracted by the effects of climate warming and emissions increases in other regions. The sensitivity analyses show that changes in anthropogenic emissions contribute 32-53% of projected changes in mercury air concentration, while the independent contribution by climate change and its induced natural emissions change accounts for 47-68%.

Lei, H.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Liang, X.-Z.; Tao, Z.; Olsen, S.; Artz, R.; Ren, X.; Cohen, M.

2014-01-01

370

THE EFFECT OF PROJECTION ON DERIVED MASS-SIZE AND LINEWIDTH-SIZE RELATIONSHIPS  

SciTech Connect

Power-law mass-size and linewidth-size correlations, two of 'Larson's laws', are often studied to assess the dynamical state of clumps within molecular clouds. Using the result of a hydrodynamic simulation of a molecular cloud, we investigate how geometric projection may affect the derived Larson relationships. We find that large-scale structures in the column density map have similar masses and sizes to those in the three-dimensional simulation (position-position-position, PPP). Smaller scale clumps in the column density map are measured to be more massive than the PPP clumps, due to the projection of all emitting gas along lines of sight. Further, due to projection effects, structures in a synthetic spectral observation (position-position-velocity, PPV) may not necessarily correlate with physical structures in the simulation. In considering the turbulent velocities only, the linewidth-size relationship in the PPV cube is appreciably different from that measured from the simulation. Including thermal pressure in the simulated line widths imposes a minimum line width, which results in a better agreement in the slopes of the linewidth-size relationships, though there are still discrepancies in the offsets, as well as considerable scatter. Employing commonly used assumptions in a virial analysis, we find similarities in the computed virial parameters of the structures in the PPV and PPP cubes. However, due to the discrepancies in the linewidth-size and mass-size relationships in the PPP and PPV cubes, we caution that applying a virial analysis to observed clouds may be misleading due to geometric projection effects. We speculate that consideration of physical processes beyond kinetic and gravitational pressure would be required for accurately assessing whether complex clouds, such as those with highly filamentary structure, are bound.

Shetty, Rahul; Kauffmann, Jens; Goodman, Alyssa A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Collins, David C.; Norman, Michael L. [Laboratory for Computational Astrophysics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California San Diego, LaJolla, CA 92093 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik W., E-mail: rshetty@ita.uni-heidelberg.d [University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada)

2010-04-01

371

Summer Moisture Variability across Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Maps of monthly,self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (SC-PDSI) have been calculated for the period of 1901–2002 for Europe (35°–70°N, 10°W–60°E) with a spatial resolution of 0.5° 0.5°. The recently introduced,SC-PDSI is a convenient,means,of describing the spatial and temporal,variability of moisture,availability and is based,on the more,common,Palmer Drought,Severity Index. The SC-PDSI improves,upon,the PDSI by maintaining,consistent behavior,of the index over diverse climatological

G. van der Schrier; K. R. Briffa; P. D. Jones; T. J. Osborn

2006-01-01

372

Newborn screening in southeastern Europe.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to assess the current state of newborn screening (NBS) in the region of southeastern Europe, as an example of a developing region, focusing also on future plans. Responses were obtained from 11 countries. Phenylketonuria screening was not introduced in four of 11 countries, while congenital hypothyroidism screening was not introduced in three of them; extended NBS programs were non-existent. The primary challenges were identified. Implementation of NBS to developing countries worldwide should be considered as a priority. PMID:25174966

Groselj, Urh; Tansek, Mojca Zerjav; Smon, Andraz; Angelkova, Natalija; Anton, Dana; Baric, Ivo; Djordjevic, Maja; Grimci, Lindita; Ivanova, Maria; Kadam, Adil; Kotori, Vjosa Mulliqi; Maksic, Hajrija; Marginean, Oana; Margineanu, Otilia; Milijanovic, Olivera; Moldovanu, Florentina; Muresan, Mariana; Murko, Simona; Nanu, Michaela; Lampret, Barbka Repic; Samardzic, Mira; Sarnavka, Vladimir; Savov, Aleksei; Stojiljkovic, Maja; Suzic, Biljana; Tincheva, Radka; Tahirovic, Husref; Toromanovic, Alma; Usurelu, Natalia; Battelino, Tadej

2014-01-01

373

Direct/delayed response project: Predicting future long-term effects of acidic deposition on surface water chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1984 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, initiated a project to estimate potential future effects of acidic deposition on the chemistry of lakes and streams. This project, the Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP), has focused its attention on surface waters in regions of the eastern U.S. thought to be most vulnerable to effects of acidic deposition. The project hascombined regional surface water chemistrydata gathered by EPA's National Surface Water Survey with a unique regional watershed and soil survey under take n within the DDRP.The project is applying a variety of analyses, including the use of three independently derived watershed models of acidic deposition effects. This article describes the design of the DDRP and presents some of its preliminary products.

Church, M. Robbins

374

The Memory-Impairing Effects of Septal GABA Receptor Activation Involve GABAergic Septo-Hippocampal Projection Neurons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Septal infusions of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA)[subscript A] agonist muscimol impair memory, and the effect likely involves the hippocampus. GABA[subscript A] receptors are present on the perikarya of cholinergic and GABAergic septo-hippocampal (SH) projections. The current experiments determined whether GABAergic SH projections are…

Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Wheeler, Marina G.; Parent, Marise B.

2007-01-01

375

PREDICTING THE FUTURE LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF ACIDIC DEPOSITION ON SURFACE WATER CHEMISTRY: THE DIRECT/DELAYED RESPONSE PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1984 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program [NAPAP]) initiated a project to estimate potential future effects of acidic deposition on the chemistry of lakes and streams. his project (called the Direct/Delay...

376

Preferences for the sex-composition of children in Europe: A multilevel examination of its effect on progression to a third child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative research on the preferred sex of children in Western societies has generally focused on women only and ignored the role of gender equity and the need for children's economic support in old age. A multilevel analysis extends existing research by examining, for both men and women and across 24 European countries, the effect of the preferred sex-composition of offspring

Melinda Mills; Katia Begall

2010-01-01

377

Projecting climate effects on birds and reptiles of the Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We modeled the current and future breeding ranges of seven bird and five reptile species in the Southwestern United States with sets of landscape, biotic (plant), and climatic global circulation model (GCM) variables. For modeling purposes, we used PRISM data to characterize the climate of the Western United States between 1980 and 2009 (baseline for birds) and between 1940 and 2009 (baseline for reptiles). In contrast, we used a pre-selected set of GCMs that are known to be good predictors of southwestern climate (five individual and one ensemble GCM), for the A1B emission scenario, to characterize future climatic conditions in three time periods (2010–39; 2040–69; and, 2070–99). Our modeling approach relied on conceptual models for each target species to inform selection of candidate explanatory variables and to interpret the ecological meaning of developed probabilistic distribution models. We employed logistic regression and maximum entropy modeling techniques to create a set of probabilistic models for each target species. We considered climatic, landscape, and plant variables when developing and testing our probabilistic models. Climatic variables included the maximum and minimum mean monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation for three time periods. Landscape features included terrain ruggedness and insolation. We also considered plant species distributions as candidate explanatory variables where prior ecological knowledge implicated a strong association between a plant and animal species. Projected changes in range varied widely among species, from major losses to major gains. Breeding bird ranges exhibited greater expansions and contractions than did reptile species. We project range losses for Williamson’s sapsucker and pygmy nuthatch of a magnitude that could move these two species close to extinction within the next century. Although both species currently have a relatively limited distribution, they can be locally common, and neither are presently considered candidates for prospective endangerment. We project range losses of over 40 percent, from its current extent of occurrence, for the plateau striped whiptail, Arizona black rattlesnake, and common lesser earless lizard. Currently, these reptile species are thought to be common or at least locally abundant throughout their ranges. The total contribution of plants in each distribution model was very small, but models that contained at least one plant always outperformed models with only physical variables (climatic or landscape). The magnitude of change in projected range increased further into the future, especially when a plant was in the model. Among bird species, those that had the strongest association with a landscape feature during the breeding season, such as terrain ruggedness and insolation, exhibited the smallest contractions in projected breeding range in the future. In contrast, bird species that had weak associations with landscape features, but strong climatic associations, suffered the greatest breeding range contractions. Thus, landscape effects appeared to buffer some of the negative effects of climate change for some species. Among bird species, magnitude of change in projected breeding range was positively related to the annual average temperature of their baseline distribution, thus species with the warmest breeding ranges exhibited the greatest changes in future breeding ranges. This pattern was not evident for reptiles, but might exist if additional species were included in the model. Our results provide managers with a series of projected range maps that will enable scientists, concerned citizens, and wildlife managers to identify what the potential effects of climate change will be on bird and reptile distributions in the Western United States. We hope that our results can be used in proactive ways to mitigate some of the potential effects of climate change on selected species.

van Riper, Charles, III; Hatten, James R.; Giermakowski, J. Tomasz; Mattson, David; Holmes, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Nowak, Erika M.; Ironside, Kirsten; Peters, Michael; Heinrich, Paul; Cole, K.L.; Truettner, C.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

2014-01-01

378

Geodynamics of Central Europe Based On Observations of The GPS Euref Stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When azimuths of the horizontal movement vectors processed from GPS data mon- itored during several campaigns on regional networks situated in the Central Europe (the East Sudeten, the West Alps, the Trans-Alpen area) were compared, they dis- played remarkable changed in their values evaluated from two sequential campaigns with respect to next ones. As adopted, the GPS data processed of one campaign are ordinarily linked to a close EUREF station (or stations) to be joined to an Interna- tional Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Even though the interconnection to the ITRF, the vector azimuths for one site evaluated from different campaigns can still show changes. To eliminate this effect, available movements of the Central European EUREF stations were analysed with respect to geological structural units in that rela- tively coincident character of geodynamic movements are expected. Several "geody- namic" units were identified and delineated for an area of the Central Europe. Then, directions of the horizontal vector azimuths of network sites were incorporated into the unit scheme above mentioned. The paper will present data analysis of the EU- REF stations, the geodynamic unit scheme for the Central Europe and comparisons of geodynamic horizontal movements of the EUREF stations and the network sites. Fur- ther, an assessment of interrelated movements among the individual structural units was estimated. The geodynamic pattern of Central European unit movements brings more transparent understanding of mutual relations between EUREF stations and the regional GPS networks observations. The data analyse of GPS observations were sup- ported by the program of Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport 'Research Centre', No. LN00A005, and by the project of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, No. 205/01/0480.

Schenk, V.

379

Interactive effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation: in situ photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton from high mountain lakes of Southern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global change, together with human activities had resulted in increasing amounts of organic material (including nutrients) received by water bodies. This input further attenuates the penetration of solar radiation leading to the view that opaque lakes are more "protected" from solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than clear ones. Vertical mixing, however, complicates this view as cells are exposed to fluctuating radiation regimes, which effects have in general been neglected. Even more, the combined impacts of mixing, together with those of UVR and nutrients input are virtually unknown. In this study, we carried out in situ experiments in three high mountain lakes of Spain (Lake Enol in Asturias, and lakes Las Yeguas and La Caldera in Granada) to determine the combined effects of these three variables associated to global change on photosynthetic responses of natural phytoplankton communities. The experimentation consisted in all possible combinations of the following treatments: (a) solar radiation: UVR + PAR (280-700 nm) versus PAR alone (400-700 nm); (b) nutrient addition (phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)): ambient versus addition (P to reach to a final concentration of 30 ?g P l-1, and N to reach a N : P molar ratio of 31) and, (c) mixing: mixed (one rotation from surface to 3 m depth (speed of 1 m every 4 min, total of 10 cycles) versus static. Our findings suggest that under in situ nutrient conditions there is a synergistic effect between vertical mixing and UVR, increasing phytoplankton photosynthetic inhibition and EOC from opaque lakes as compared to algae that received constant mean irradiance within the epilimnion. The opposite occurs in clear lakes where antagonistic effects were determined, with mixing partially counteracting the negative effects of UVR. Nutrients input mimicking atmospheric pulses from Saharan dust, reversed this effect and clear lakes became more inhibited during mixing, while opaque lakes benefited from the fluctuating irradiance regime. These climate change-related nutrients input and increased mixing would not only affect photosynthesis and production of lakes, but might also further influence the microbial loop and trophic interactions via enhanced EOC under fluctuating UVR exposure.

Helbling, E. W.; Carrillo, P.; Medina-Sanchez, J. M.; Durán, C.; Herrera, G.; Villar-Argaiz, M.; Villafañe, V. E.

2012-07-01

380

Direct and indirect effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation on the bacterioplankton metabolism in high-mountain lakes from southern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a consequence of global change, modifications in the interaction among abiotic stressors on aquatic ecosystems have been predicted. Among other factors, UVR transparency, nutrient inputs and shallower epilimnetic layers could alter the trophic links in the microbial food web. Currently, there are some evidences of higher sensitiveness of aquatic microbial organisms to UVR in opaque lakes. Our aim was to assess the interactive direct and indirect effects of UVR (through the excretion of organic carbon - EOC - by algae), mixing regime and nutrient input on bacterial metabolism. We performed in situ short-term experiments under the following treatments: full sunlight (UVR + PAR, >280 nm) vs. UVR exclusion (PAR only, >400 nm); ambient vs. nutrient addition (phosphorus (P; 30 ?g PL-1) and nitrogen (N; up to final N : P molar ratio of 31)); and static vs. mixed regime. The experiments were conducted in three high-mountain lakes of Spain: Enol [LE], Las Yeguas [LY] and La Caldera [LC] which had contrasting UVR transparency characteristics (opaque (LE) vs. clear lakes (LY and LC)). Under ambient nutrient conditions and static regimes, UVR exerted a stimulatory effect on heterotrophic bacterial production (HBP) in the opaque lake but not in the clear ones. Under UVR, vertical mixing and nutrient addition HBP values were lower than under the static and ambient nutrient conditions, and the stimulatory effect that UVR exerted on HBP in the opaque lake disappeared. By contrast, vertical mixing and nutrient addition increased HBP values in the clear lakes, highlighting for a photoinhibitory effect of UVR on HBP. Mixed regime and nutrient addition resulted in negative effects of UVR on HBP more in the opaque than in the clear lakes. Moreover, in the opaque lake, bacterial respiration (BR) increased and EOC did not support the bacterial carbon demand (BCD). In contrast, bacterial metabolic costs did not increase in the clear lakes and the increased nutrient availability even led to higher HBP. Consequently, EOC satisfied BCD in the clear lakes, particularly in the clearest one [LC]. Our results suggest that the higher vulnerability of bacteria to the damaging effects of UVR may be particularly accentuated in the opaque lakes and further recognizes the relevance of light exposure history and biotic interactions on bacterioplankton metabolism when coping with fluctuating radiation and nutrient inputs.

Durán, C.; Medina-Sánchez, J. M.; Herrera, G.; Villar-Argaiz, M.; Villafañe, V. E.; Helbling, E. W.; Carrillo, P.

2014-05-01

381

Genetic Predictors of Adverse Radiotherapy Effects: The Gene-PARE project  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The development of adverse effects resulting from the radiotherapy of cancer limits the use of this treatment modality. The validation of a test capable of predicting which patients would be most likely to develop adverse responses to radiation treatment, based on the possession of specific genetic variants, would therefore be of value. The purpose of the Genetic Predictors of Adverse Radiotherapy Effects (Gene-PARE) project is to help achieve this goal. Methods and Materials: A continuously expanding biorepository has been created consisting of frozen lymphocytes and DNA isolated from patients treated with radiotherapy. In conjunction with this biorepository, a database is maintained with detailed clinical information pertaining to diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. The DNA samples are screened using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and the Surveyor nuclease assay for variants in ATM, TGFB1, XRCC1, XRCC3, SOD2, and hHR21. It is anticipated that additional genes that control the biologic response to radiation will be screened in future work. Results: Evidence has been obtained that possession of variants in genes, the products of which play a role in radiation response, is predictive for the development of adverse effects after radiotherapy. Conclusions: It is anticipated that the Gene-PARE project will yield information that will allow radiation oncologists to use genetic data to optimize treatment on an individual basis.

Ho, Alice Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Atencio, David P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Peters, Sheila [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Stock, Richard G.; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Green, Sheryl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Haffty, Bruce [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Drumea, Karen [Department of Oncology, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel); Leitzin, Larisa M.D. [Department of Oncology, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel); Kuten, Abraham [Department of Oncology, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, CRLC Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier (France); Ozsahin, Mahmut [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland); Overgaard, Jens; Andreassen, Christian N. [Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Trop, Cynthia S. [Department of Urology, Bronx VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Park, Janelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bronx VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Rosenstein, Barry S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)]|[Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York NY (United States)]|[Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)]|[Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail: barry.rosenstein@mssm.edu

2006-07-01

382

Extreme winds over Europe in the ENSEMBLES regional climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme winds cause vast amounts of damage every year and represent a major concern for numerous industries including construction, afforestation, wind energy and many others. Under a changing climate, the intensity and frequency of extreme events are expected to change, and accurate projections of these changes will be invaluable to decision makers and society as a whole. This work examines four regional climate model downscalings over Europe following the SRES A1B scenario from the "ENSEMBLE-based Predictions of Climate Changes and their Impacts" project (ENSEMBLES). It investigates the projected changes in the 50 yr return wind speeds and the associated uncertainties. This is accomplished by employing the peaks-over-threshold method with the use of the generalised Pareto distribution. The models show that, for much of Europe, the 50 yr return wind is projected to change by less than 2 m s-1, while the uncertainties associated with the statistical estimates are larger than this. In keeping with previous works in this field, the largest source of uncertainty is found to be the inter-model spread, with some locations showing differences in the 50 yr return wind of over 20 m s-1 between two different downscalings.

Outten, S. D.; Esau, I.

2013-05-01

383

Climate change effects on nitrogen loading from cultivated catchments in Europe: implications for nitrogen retention, ecological state of lakes and adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change might have profound effects on the nitrogen (N) dynamics in the cultivated landscape as well as on N transport\\u000a in streams and the eutrophication of lakes. N loading from land to streams is expected to increase in North European temperate\\u000a lakes due to higher winter rainfall and changes in cropping patterns. Scenario (IPCC, A2) analyses using a number

Erik Jeppesen; Brian Kronvang; Jørgen E. Olesen; Joachim Audet; Martin Søndergaard; Carl C. Hoffmann; Hans E. Andersen; Torben L. Lauridsen; Lone Liboriussen; Søren E. Larsen; Meryem Beklioglu; Mariana Meerhoff; Arda Özen; Korhan Özkan

2011-01-01

384

Interactive effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation: in situ photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton from high mountain lakes in Southern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global change, together with human activities, has resulted in increasing amounts of organic material (including nutrients) that water bodies receive. This input further attenuates the penetration of solar radiation, leading to the view that opaque lakes are more "protected" from solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than clear ones. Vertical mixing, however, complicates this view as cells are exposed to fluctuating radiation regimes, for which the effects have, in general, been neglected. Furthermore, the combined impacts of mixing, together with those of UVR and nutrient inputs are virtually unknown. In this study, we carried out complex in situ experiments in three high mountain lakes of Spain (Lake Enol in the National Park Picos de Europa, Asturias, and lakes Las Yeguas and La Caldera in the National Park Sierra Nevada, Granada), used as model ecosystems to evaluate the joint impact of these climate change variables. The main goal of this study was to address the question of how short-term pulses of nutrient inputs, together with vertical mixing and increased UVR fluxes modify the photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton. The experimentation consisted in all possible combinations of the following treatments: (a) solar radiation: UVR + PAR (280-700 nm) versus PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) alone (400-700 nm); (b) nutrient addition (phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)): ambient versus addition (P to reach to a final concentration of 30 ?g P L-1, and N to reach N:P molar ratio of 31); and (c) mixing: mixed (one rotation from surface to 3 m depth (speed of 1 m 4 min-1, total of 10 cycles)) versus static. Our findings suggest that under ambient nutrient conditions there is a synergistic effect between vertical mixing and UVR, increasing phytoplankton photosynthetic inhibition and excretion of organic carbon (EOC) from opaque lakes as compared to algae that received constant mean irradiance within the epilimnion. The opposite occurs in clear lakes where antagonistic effects were determined, with mixing partially counteracting the negative effects of UVR. Nutrient input, mimicking atmospheric pulses from Saharan dust, reversed this effect and clear lakes became more inhibited during mixing, while opaque lakes benefited from the fluctuating irradiance regime. These climate change related scenarios of nutrient input and increased mixing, would not only affect photosynthesis and production in lakes, but might also further influence the microbial loop and trophic interactions via enhanced EOC under fluctuating UVR exposure.

Helbling, E. W.; Carrillo, P.; Medina-Sánchez, J. M.; Durán, C.; Herrera, G.; Villar-Argaiz, M.; Villafañe, V. E.

2013-02-01

385

Success in large high-technology projects: What really works?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite a plethora of tools, technologies and management systems, successful execution of big science and engineering projects remains problematic. The sheer scale of globally funded projects such as the Large Hadron Collider and the Square Kilometre Array telescope means that lack of project success can impact both on national budgets, and collaborative reputations. In this paper, I explore data from contemporary literature alongside field research from several current high-technology projects in Europe and Australia, and reveal common `pressure points' that are shown to be key influencers of project control and success. I discuss the how mega-science projects sit between being merely complicated, and chaotic, and explain the importance of understanding multiple dimensions of project complexity. Project manager/leader traits are briefly discussed, including capability to govern and control such enterprises. Project structures are examined, including the challenge of collaborations. I show that early attention to building project resilience, curbing optimism, and risk alertness can help prepare large high-tech projects against threats, and why project managers need to understand aspects of `the silent power of time'. Mission assurance is advanced as a critical success function, alongside the deployment of task forces and new combinations of contingency plans. I argue for increased project control through industrial-style project reviews, and show how post-project reviews are an under-used, yet invaluable avenue of personal and organisational improvement. Lastly, I discuss the avoidance of project amnesia through effective capture of project knowledge, and transfer of lessons-learned to subsequent programs and projects.

Crosby, P.

2014-08-01

386

Sustainability Evaluation of the Grain for Green Project: From Local People's Responses to Ecological Effectiveness in Wolong Nature Reserve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines the sustainability of the Grain for Green Project in the Wolong Nature Reserve. Pertinent data were collected through a questionnaire survey and a spatial analysis of reforested lands. The study results identified four critical issues that may influence the sustainability of the project in the study area. The first issue is concerned with the project’s impacts on local sustenance. Because local grain consumption depends greatly on compensation awarded by the project, the potential for sustainability of the project is compromised. The second issue is that the project causes negative effects on local incomes in the Wolong Nature Reserve, which may undermine local economic prospects. The third issue is that the project failed to deliver suitable habitat for the giant panda, although two of the suitability requirements that deal with landform features were met. Lastly, the project neglects great differences among geographical areas in the country, providing the same compensation and length of compensation period to all participants. Appropriate compensation mechanisms should be established and adapted to local economic, environmental, and social conditions. In managing nature reserves and moving toward sustainability, ensuring all aspects of local socioeconomic and ecological/environmental issues are properly addressed is a real challenge. Based on our study, some recommendations for improving sustainability of the project are given.

Xu, Jian-Ying; Chen, Li-Ding; Lu, Yi-He; Fu, Bo-Jie

2007-07-01

387

Individual and community-level effects in the socioeconomic inequalities of AIDS-related mortality in an urban area of southern Europe  

PubMed Central

Objective To study socioeconomic inequalities in AIDS mortality in Barcelona, Spain, during the periods 1991–6 (before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)) and 1997–2001 (post?HAART) taking into account individual as well as community effects of socioeconomic level. Design Cross?sectional design. Setting Barcelona, Spain. Participants All residents aged ?20?years. All AIDS?related deaths occurring between 1991 and 2001 were studied. The individual variables analysed were age, sex, educational level, neighbourhood of residence and HIV transmission group. Male unemployment was used as the community?level indicator of neighbourhood deprivation. Multilevel Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate the relationship between AIDS mortality and the individual? and community?level variables. Results At the individual level, AIDS mortality relative risks (RR) were higher among intravenous drug users (IDUs) with lower educational level in both periods. For the younger population, the RR of AIDS?related mortality associated with having little education compared with having a primary education or more was 4.7 (95% CI 3.6 to 6.1) in men and 5.2 (95%CI 3.6 to 7.7) in women in the pre?HAART period, and 4.7 (95% CI 2.7 to 8.1) in men and 4.5 (95% CI 1.4 to 14.1) in women in the post?HAART period. At the community level, an area effect in AIDS mortality was found, which was more important in neighbourhoods having high deprivation in both periods, although the effect was most important in the post?HAART period. Conclusions This study has shown inequalities in AIDS mortality in terms of both individual variables and a community?level variable in the pre?HAART as well as in the post?HAART period. These socioeconomic inequalities of AIDS mortality must be considered when prevention and treatment strategies are implemented. PMID:17325402

Mari-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Garcia-Olalla, Patricia; Pasarin, M Isabel; Brugal, M Teresa; Cayla, Joan A; Borrell, Carme

2007-01-01

388

Indian cultural effects on user research methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern user research techniques such as Think Aloud usability testing were mainly designed and refined in Europe and North America. These techniques perform substantially differently in traditional Indian culture due to the participants' perception of social status differences between them and the moderator(s). Understanding and controlling these effects can make the difference between a successful research project and one that

Jack Beaton; Ripul Kumar

2010-01-01

389

A conceptual framework for the evaluation of cost-effectiveness of projects to reduce GHG emissions and sequester carbon  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes a conceptual framework for evaluating the cost of projects to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs). The evaluation of cost-effectiveness should account for both the timing of carbon emissions and the damage caused by the atmospheric stock of carbon. We develop a conceptual basis to estimate the cost-effectiveness of projects in terms of the cost of reducing atmospheric carbon (CRAC) and other GHGs. CRAC accounts for the economic discount rate, alternative functional forms of the shadow price, the residence period of carbon in the atmosphere, and the multiple monetary benefits of projects. The last item is of particular importance to the developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Norgaard, R.; Makundi, W.

1993-07-01

390

Effect of the ecological water conveyance project on environment in the Lower Tarim River, Xinjiang, China.  

PubMed

The dynamic response of groundwater level is examined in traverse and lengthways directions. Take the Yinsu section for an example, we have simulated groundwater levels before and after water-conveyance every time and calculated the incidence of groundwater on the both sides of the river. It is noted that the effect keeps growing with the water-delivery times increasing, from 570 m after the first times to 3,334 m after the eighth times. In addition, this paper involves the temporal response of the natural vegetation to water conveyance, vegetation coverage, planted-species number, dominant position and species diversity from 2002 to 2006. The findings indicate that the positive influence of ecological water conveyance project (EWCP) on the ecosystem in the Lower Tarim River is a long-term process. In this paper, we try to calculate water required for recovery of damaged ecosystem by using data available. This project is likely the base of research on water demand and the reference of measures for research on ecological water conveyance effect. PMID:18274873

Ye, Zhaoxia; Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Yan, Yan

2009-02-01

391

Quantification of mitigation potentials of agricultural practices for Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculture has a significant impact on climate, with a commonly estimated contribution of 9% of total greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Besides, agriculture is the main source of nitrous oxide and methane emissions to the atmosphere. On the other hand, there is a large potential for climate change mitigation in agriculture through carbon sequestration into soils. Within the framework of the PICCMAT project (Policy Incentives for Climate Change Mitigation Agricultural Techniques) we quantified the mitigation potential of 11 agricultural practices at regional level for the EU. The focus was on smaller-scale measures towards optimised land management that can be widely applied at individual farm level and which can have a positive climate change mitigating effect and be beneficial to soil conditions, e.g. cover crops and reduced tillage. The mitigation potentials were assessed with the MITERRA-Europe model, a deterministic and static N cycling model which calculates N emissions on an annual basis, using N emission factors and N leaching fractions. For the PICCMAT project the model was extended with a soil carbon module, to assess changes in soil organic carbon according to the IPCC Tier1 approach. The amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) is calculated by multiplying the soil reference carbon content, which depends on soil type and climate, by coefficients for land use, land management and input of organic matter. By adapting these coefficients changes in SOC as result of the measures were simulated. We considered both the extent of agricultural area across Europe on which a measure could realistically be applied (potential level of implementation), and the current level of implementation that has already been achieved . The results showed that zero tillage has the highest mitigation potential, followed by adding legumes, reduced tillage, residue management, rotation species, and catch crops. Optimising fertiliser application and fertiliser type are the measures with the largest positive effect on N2O emissions. Overall the results showed that the additional mitigation potential of each individual measure is limited, but taken together they have a significant mitigation potential of about 10 percent of the current GHG emissions from agriculture. Besides, most of the measures with high mitigation potentials are associated with no or low implementation costs. Although CH4 and N2O are the most important GHG emitted from agricultural activities, it is more difficult to mitigate these emissions than increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and thus compensate them through carbon sequestration. However, the effect on carbon is only temporary and sequestered SOC stocks can easily be lost again, while for N2O the emission reduction is permanent and non-saturating. Another important implication that follows from our results is the large regional difference with regard to mitigation potential and feasibility of implementation. Policy measures to support agricultural mitigation should therefore be adjusted to regional conditions.

Lesschen, J. P.; Kuikman, P. J.; Smith, P.; Schils, R. L.; Oudendag, D.

2009-04-01

392

Europe experienced a "warming hole" in autumn in the second half of the 20th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent global warming has not been ubiquitous - there might be seasons, regions, and time periods with clearly discernible zero or downward air temperature trends. Regions that are not warming or are even cooling - also known as "warming holes" - have been previously detected mainly in autumn in the second half of the 20th century in large parts of North America as well as in central and eastern Europe. In this study we use daily maximum and minimum temperature (TX and TN, respectively) and daily temperature range (DTR) at 136 stations from the ECA&D database in Europe and the Mediterranean in the period 1961-2000 to precisely locate their seasonal and sub-seasonal trends in space and within the course of the year, and to assess the effect of circulation changes on these observed trends. Linear trends are calculated for moving "seasons" of differing lengths (10, 20, 30, 60, and 90 days), each shifted by one day. Thus we obtain 365 values of "moving trends" for each station and each variant of season length. The day-to-day variability of these trends is greatest for short "seasons" of 10 and 20 days. Trends of the 90-day seasons are the most stable throughout the year and also bear the lowest trend magnitudes. Cluster analysis of the annual course of "moving trends" reveals relatively well-define