Sample records for europe projects effects

  1. Effect of Soviet cancellation of petrochemical plant projects on east and west Europe and Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, P.

    1985-02-01

    The Soviet Union has scaled down plans to build four petrochemical projects, each worth more than US $1 billion, over the next five years because it is giving priority to the re-equipment of plants. The project to build a polyvinyl plant on the shores of Lake Baikal in Siberia has been cancelled. Another scheme to build a nylon plant at Kursk has been delayed, but might still be resurrected during the present five-year plan (1986-1990). The two projects still going ahead, or which British companies are bidding, are a polyolefin plant in the north Caucasus and a polyester plant in the Urals. Despite the investment priority given by the Soviet leadership to high technology and re-equipment, diplomats in Moscow do not expect a surge of orders for Western companies. They say there are two reasons for this; Moscow wants to rely as much as possible on imports of machinery from Eastern Europe, notably East Germany and Czechoslovakia, in return for its exports of oil and gas. Senior officials say that where they cannot obtain high technology from West because of restrictive legislation they will not be prepared to accept less efficient equipment. The level of Soviet imports from hard currency supplies will be limited by the fall in Soviet exports revenues. These have been hit by a decline of some four per cent in oil exports last year and the drop in the world oil price. The Soviet Union needs to keep its customers for gas which has given increased leverage to consumers such as West Germany, Italy and France in the award of contracts. This was exemplified by the visit of Mme. Edith Cresson, the French Foreign Trade Minister, to Moscow to discuss increasing trade. Paris wants the Soviet Union to redress the adverse trade balance with France with amounted to 4.5 billion francs (L 410 million) in the first 11 months of last year.

  2. Improving Environmental Projections in Nonboreal Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Ivanov, Sergiy; Gutman, Garik; Simmer, Clemens

    2009-02-01

    Regional Aspects of Climate-Terrestrial-Hydrologic Interactions in Non-boreal Eastern Europe; Odessa, Ukraine, 23-28 August 2008; Ecosystems in Eastern Europe, in particular environments such as grasslands and semiarid regions, have undergone significant changes during the entire twentieth century due to warming climate and socioeconomic impacts. As a result, the biome boundaries between forests and steppes and between steppes and semideserts have become increasingly volatile, with dramatic changes in phenology and land fertility. Compounding these problems is a dense rural population engaging in intense land use, a population that suffers socioeconomic hardships resulting from recent and still unsettled political changes. Such political problems combined with a lack of local funds have limited the amount of observational data collected in Eastern Europe, leaving climate modelers unable to validate regional climate projections.

  3. Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. Methods/Design This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating coherent messages to consumers in Europe. Discussion The FoodRisC project offers a unique approach to the investigation of food risk/benefit communication. The effective spread of food risk/benefit information will assist initiatives aimed at reducing the burden of food-related illness and disease, reducing the economic impact of food crises and ensuring that confidence in safe and nutritious food is fostered and maintained in Europe. PMID:21569458

  4. Ensemble projections of future streamflow droughts in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forzieri, G.; Feyen, L.; Rojas, R.; Flörke, M.; Wimmer, F.; Bianchi, A.

    2013-08-01

    There is growing concern in Europe about the possible rise in the severity and frequency of extreme drought events as a manifestation of global change. In order to plan suitable adaptation strategies it is important for decision makers to know how drought conditions will develop at regional scales. This paper therefore addresses the issue of future developments in streamflow drought characteristics across Europe. Through off-line coupling of a hydrological model with an ensemble of bias-corrected climate simulations (IPCC SRES A1B) and a water use scenario (Economy First), long term (1961-2100) ensemble streamflow simulations are generated that account for changes in climate, and the uncertainty therein, and in water consumption. Using extreme value analysis we derive minimum flow and deficit indices and evaluate how the magnitude and severity of low flow conditions may evolve throughout the 21st century. This analysis shows that streamflow droughts will become more severe and persistent in many parts of Europe due to climate change, except for northern and northeastern parts of Europe. Especially southern regions will face strong reductions in low flows. Future water use will aggravate the situation by 10-30% in Southern Europe, whereas in some sub-regions in Western, Central and Eastern Europe a positive climate signal may be reversed due to intensive water use. The multi-model ensemble projections of more frequent and severe streamflow droughts in the south and decreasing drought hazard in the north are highly significant, while the projected changes are more dissonant in a transition zone in between.

  5. How many dementia cases in France and Europe? Alternative projections and scenarios 2010-2050

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    How many dementia cases in France and Europe? Alternative projections and scenarios 2010:Claudine.berr@inserm.fr Running title: Future numbers of dementia cases Key words: dementia; forecast; projection; burden; Europe: The objective of this study is to estimate the number of dementia cases expected to occur in France and Europe

  6. Projected changes in clear-sky erythemal and vitamin D effective UV doses for Europe over the period 2006 to 2100.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Haeffelin, Martial; Bekki, Slimane; Saiag, Philippe; Badosa, Jordi; Jégou, Fabrice; Pazmiño, Andrea; Mahé, Emmanuel

    2013-06-01

    The benefits and the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure have been well discussed. Most studies show concern for the solar overexposure in the tropics and low latitude sites and its scarcity at higher latitudes. Both cases are of concern, the first for diseases such as skin cancer and the second for the lack of vitamin D production in the skin. In this study, we evaluate the influence of climate change scenarios on the total ozone content (TOC) and typical aerosol properties, such as the optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA), over Europe. From these parameters, we estimate the erythemal and the vitamin D effective UVR doses from 2006 to 2100. Our results indicate a small reduction of the UVR daily doses caused by the ozone layer recovery and partially compensated by an AOD diminution through this century. The attenuation will be larger at high latitudes, during the springtime and for more polluted scenarios during this century. However, this diminution should not be sufficient to provide a protection condition for erythema. On the other hand, at higher latitudes, it possibly contributes to a relevant increase in the exposure time necessary for the synthesis of vitamin D, mainly during autumn and spring seasons. PMID:23549360

  7. Effects of climate change on landslide hazard in Europe (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Solheim, A.

    2009-12-01

    Landslides represent a major threat to human life, property and constructed facilities, infrastructure and natural environment in most mountainous and hilly regions of the world. As a consequence of climatic changes and potential global warming, an increase of landslide activity is expected in some parts of the world in the future. This will be due to increased extreme rainfall events, changes of hydrological cycles, meteorological events followed by sea storms causing coastal erosion and melting of snow and of frozen soils in the high mountains. During the past century, Europe experienced many fatalities and significant economic losses due to landslides. Since in many parts of Europe landslides are the most serious natural hazard, several recent European research projects are looking into the effects of climate change on the risk associated with landslides. Examples are the recently initiated SafeLand project, which looks into this problem across the continent, and GeoExtreme, which focused on Norway. The ongoing project SafeLand (www.safeland-fp7.eu) is a large, integrating project financed by the European Commission. It involves close to 30 organizations from 13 countries in Europe, and it looks into the effects of global change (mainly changes in demography and climate change) on the pattern of landslide risk in Europe. The SafeLand objectives are to (1) provide policy-makers, public administrators, researchers, scientists, educators and other stakeholders with improved harmonized framework and methodology for the assessment and quantification of landslide risk in Europe's regions; (2) evaluate the changes in risk pattern caused by climate change, human activity and policy changes; and (3) provide guidelines for choosing the most appropriate risk management strategies, including risk mitigation and prevention measures. To assess the changes in the landslide risk pattern in Norway over the next 50 years, the four-year integrated research project GeoExtreme (www.geoextreme.no) was executed. Different modules of the project established the database of landslide and avalanche events in Norway, investigated the coupling between climatic parameters and the occurrence of avalanches and landslides, developed regional, down-scaled climate scenarios for the next 50 years, and simulated a picture of possible future geohazards risk in Norway. The socioeconomic implications of geohazards in Norway, both in the past, and under the predicted future climate scenarios were also studied in the project. The latter study considered the costs related to damage by natural disasters and mitigation measures, ability to learn by experience, changes in preparedness, and impact of policy decisions. The main conclusion of the GeoExtreme project was that in a country with large climatic variation like Norway, the effects of climate change on the geohazard situation will vary significantly from location to location. Over a short time interval of 50 years, the largest increase in the direct socio-economic costs will most likely be in the transport sector. However, better adaptation to the present climate and geohazard problems would also require large investments, and this would in fact be the most important step in preparing for the expected changes during the next 50 years.

  8. Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B. G.; SafeLand Research Consortium

    2011-12-01

    The changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, the need to protect people and property, the reality for society in Europe to live with hazard and risk and the need to manage risk were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). It started on 1 May 2009 and will go on for 3 years, ending on 30 April 2012. There project involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://www.safeland-fp7.eu/ . SafeLand is an ongoing project, which results will be finalized in 2012. This lecture summarizes the SafeLand's activities and achievements until November 2011. The main results achieved so far include: - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots by an objective, GIS-based analysis for Europe. The results show clearly where landslides pose the largest hazard in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional climate model simulations over Europe (from the EU FP6 project ENSEMBLES) at a spatial resolution of 25 x 25 km have been used to perform an extreme value analysis for trends in heavy precipitation events. In winter a general trend towards more heavy precipitation events across all analyzed regional climate model simulations is found. For summer, a slight increase of heavy precipitation in Northern Europe and a general decrease in southern Europe is found in all regional climate model simulations. - The prototype of a web-based "toolbox" of innovative and technically appropriate prevention and mitigation measures was developed. The toolbox does a preliminary assessment and ranking of up to 60 structural and non-structural landslide risk mitigation options. - Development of an empirical model for assessing the changes in landslide frequency (hazard) as a function of changes in the demography and population density. - Case histories and "hotspots" of European Land¬slides have been collected and documented. Data for 41 potential case study sites have been compiled and summarized. These comprise 39 sites in Europe located in Italy, France, Norway, Switzerland, Austria, Andorra, and Romania; as well as one site in Canada and one in India. Almost every type of landslide and every type of movement is represented in these sites. - Research on stakeholder workshops and participatory processes to involve the population exposed to landslide risk in the decision-making process for choosing the most appropriate risk mitigation measure(s).

  9. Atmospheric dynamics InfraStructure in Europe: The ARISE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Elisabeth

    2013-04-01

    ARISE proposes to design a new infrastructure that integrates different station networks in order to provide a new "3D" image of the atmospheric dynamics from the ground up to the mesosphere with unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. The implied networks are: - the International infrasound network developed for the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This system is unique by its quality for infrasound and atmospheric wave observations, - the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes (NDACC) which uses Lidar to measure stratospheric dynamics, - the Network for the Detection of Mesopause Changes (NDMC), dedicated to airglow layer measurements in the mesosphere, and additional complementary stations and satellite data. The infrastructure extends across Europe and outlying regions, including polar and equatorial regions. The measurements will be used to improve the parameterization of gravity waves in the stratosphere to better resolve climate models. Such description is crucial to estimate the impact of stratospheric climate forcing on the troposphere. In the long term, data will be used for monitoring changes in the occurrence of extreme events and trends in the middle atmosphere climate. The project impact also concerns civil applications related to monitoring of natural hazards as volcanoes. The presentation will focus on the first results obtained using three technologies during specific events as stratospheric warming, volcanic eruptions and severe weather. The benefits of using the three technologies will be discussed.

  10. The SAFER-Project and Seismic Early Warning in Europe (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschau, J.; Gasparini, P.

    2009-12-01

    SAFER (Seismic EArly Warning For EuRope) is the first large scale scientific project in Europe on earthquake early warning. It is funded by the European Commission in the context of Framework Program 6 under the theme Sustainable Development, Global Change and Ecosystems. Its general objective is to develop knowledge and tools for increasing the capability of effective earthquake early warning in Europe and to implement and test these tools in selected European cities. The SAFER project was carried out between 2006 and 2009 by a consortium formed by 20 institutes from 11 European and Mediterranean countries (Germany, Italy, Greece, Romania, Switzerland, Norway, France, the Netherlands, Iceland, Turkey and Egypt) and one each from Japan, Taiwan and USA. Five major earthquake prone cities were chosen as test areas: Athens, Bucharest, Cairo, Istanbul and Naples. The combined population of these cities is about 40 million inhabitants and all have experienced severe earthquakes in recent years. SAFER is strongly multi-disciplinary, calling upon expertise in seismology, structural and geotechnical engineering, informatics and statistics. Some of the specific problems addressed are related to - the rapid determination of earthquake size, complex earthquake features, and damage potential; - the implementation of a fully probabilistic framework for applications of earthquake early warning based on cost-benefit analysis; - the development of a new generation of early warning systems being decentralised and people-centred, and - the implementation of the real-time “shake map”-technology in large European cities. The presentation will review the major scientific findings, comment on the improvements of the earthquake early warning capabilities achieved by SAFER in the five test cities, and present some ideas for the future development of earthquake early warning in Europe.

  11. Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B.

    2012-04-01

    The need to protect people and property with a changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, and the reality for societies in Europe to live with the risk associated with natural hazards, were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). The project started on 1 May 2009 and will end on 30 April 2012. It involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://safeland-fp7.eu/. Main results achieved in SafeLand include: - Various guidelines related to landslide triggering processes and run-out modelling. - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides, and development of an empirical model for assessing the changes in landslide frequency (hazard) as a function of changes in the demography and population density. - Guideline for landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment and zoning. - New methodologies for physical and societal vulnerability assessment. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots for Europe. The results show clearly where areas with the largest landslide risk are located in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional and local climate model simulations over selected regions of Europe at spatial resolutions of 10x10 km and 2.8x2.8 km. These simulations were used to perform an extreme value analysis for trends in heavy precipitation events, and subsequent effects on landslide hazard and risk trends. - Guidelines for use of remote sensing techniques, monitoring and early warning systems. - Development of a prototype web-based "toolbox" of innovative and technically appropriate prevention and mitigation measures. The toolbox does a preliminary assessment and ranking of up to 60 structural and non-structural landslide risk mitigation options. - Case histories and "hotspots" of European Land¬slides have been collected and documented. Data for close to fifty potential case study sites have been compiled and summarized. Most of the case study sites are located in Europe (Italy, France, Norway, Switzerland, Austria, Andorra, and Romania); but they also include one site in Canada and one in India. Almost every type of landslide and every type of movement is represented in these sites. - Research on stakeholder workshops and participatory processes to involve the population exposed to landslide risk in the decision-making process for choosing the most appropriate risk mitigation measure(s).

  12. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE). The project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE): Introduction and outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1989-01-01

    The project Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) comprised a multinational study of the structure, dynamics and composition of the middle atmosphere in winter at high latitudes. Coordinated field measurements were performed during the winter 1983 to 1984 by a large number of ground-based, air-borne, rocket-borne and satellite-borne instruments. Many of the individual experiments were performed in the European sector of the high latitude and polar atmosphere. Studies of the stratosphere, were, in addition, expanded to hemispheric scales by the use of data obtained from remotely sensing satellites. Beyond its direct scientific results, which are reviewed, MAP/WINE has stimulated quite a number of follow-on experiments and projects which address the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere at high and polar latitudes.

  13. Critical levels for ozone effects on vegetation in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fuhrer; L. Skärby; M. R. Ashmore

    1997-01-01

    The evidence of detrimental effects of ozone on vegetation in Europe, and the need to develop international control policies to reduce ozone exposures which are based on the effects of the pollutant, has led to attempts to define so-called critical levels of ozone above which adverse effects on trees, crops and natural vegetation may occur. This review is a critical

  14. Modelling the effects of past and future climate on the risk of bluetongue emergence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Guis, Helene; Caminade, Cyril; Calvete, Carlos; Morse, Andrew P; Tran, Annelise; Baylis, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    Vector-borne diseases are among those most sensitive to climate because the ecology of vectors and the development rate of pathogens within them are highly dependent on environmental conditions. Bluetongue (BT), a recently emerged arboviral disease of ruminants in Europe, is often cited as an illustration of climate's impact on disease emergence, although no study has yet tested this association. Here, we develop a framework to quantitatively evaluate the effects of climate on BT's emergence in Europe by integrating high-resolution climate observations and model simulations within a mechanistic model of BT transmission risk. We demonstrate that a climate-driven model explains, in both space and time, many aspects of BT's recent emergence and spread, including the 2006 BT outbreak in northwest Europe which occurred in the year of highest projected risk since at least 1960. Furthermore, the model provides mechanistic insight into BT's emergence, suggesting that the drivers of emergence across Europe differ between the South and the North. Driven by simulated future climate from an ensemble of 11 regional climate models, the model projects increase in the future risk of BT emergence across most of Europe with uncertainty in rate but not in trend. The framework described here is adaptable and applicable to other diseases, where the link between climate and disease transmission risk can be quantified, permitting the evaluation of scale and uncertainty in climate change's impact on the future of such diseases. PMID:21697167

  15. Projections of heat waves with high impact on human health in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amengual, A.; Homar, V.; Romero, R.; Brooks, H. E.; Ramis, C.; Gordaliza, M.; Alonso, S.

    2014-08-01

    Climate change will result in more intense, more frequent and longer lasting heat waves. The most hazardous conditions emerge when extreme daytime temperatures combine with warm night-time temperatures, high humidities and light winds for several consecutive days. Here, we assess present and future heat wave impacts on human health in Europe. Present daily physiologically equivalent temperatures (PET) are derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. PET allows to specifically focus on heat-related risks on humans. Regarding projections, a suite of high-resolution regional climate models - run under SRES A1B scenario - has been used. A quantile-quantile adjustment is applied to the daily simulated PET to correct biases in individual model climatologies and a multimodel ensemble strategy is adopted to encompass model errors. Two types of heat waves differently impacting human health - strong and extreme stress - are defined according to specified thresholds of thermal stress and duration. Heat wave number, frequency, duration and amplitude are derived for each type. Results reveal relatively strong correlations between the spatial distribution of strong and extreme heat wave amplitudes and mortality excess for the 2003 European summer. Projections suggest a steady increase and a northward extent of heat wave attributes in Europe. Strong stress heat wave frequencies could increase more than 40 days, lasting over 20 days more by 2075-2094. Amplitudes might augment up to 7 °C per heat wave day. Important increases in extreme stress heat wave attributes are also expected: up to 40 days in frequency, 30 days in duration and 4 °C in amplitude. We believe that with this information at hand policy makers and stakeholders on vulnerable populations to heat stress can respond more effectively to the future challenges imposed by climate warming.

  16. The Eurolight project: the impact of primary headache disorders in Europe. Description of methods.

    PubMed

    Andrée, C; Stovner, L J; Steiner, T J; Barré, J; Katsarava, Z; Lainez, J M; Lanteri-Minet, M; Mick, G; Rastenyte, D; Ruiz de la Torre, E; Tassorelli, C; Vriezen, P; Lampl, C

    2011-10-01

    The Eurolight project is the first at European Union level to assess the impact of headache disorders, and also the first of its scale performed by collaboration between professional and lay organizations and individuals. Here are reported the methods developed for it. The project took the form of surveys, by structured questionnaire, conducted in ten countries of Europe which together represented 60% of the adult population of the European Union. In Lithuania, the survey was population-based. Elsewhere, truly population-based studies were impractical for reasons of cost, and various compromises were developed. Closest to being population-based were the surveys in Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain. In Austria, France and UK, samples were taken from health-care settings. In addition in the Netherlands, Spain and Ireland, samples were drawn from members of national headache patient organizations and their relatives. Independent double data-entry was performed prior to analysis. Returned questionnaires from 9,269 respondents showed a moderate female bias (58%); of respondents from patients' organizations (n = 992), 61% were female. Mean age of all respondents was 44 years; samples from patients' organizations were slightly older (mean 47 years). The different sampling methods worked with differing degrees of effectiveness, as evidenced by the responder-rates, which varied from 10.8 to 90.7%. In the more population-based surveys, responder-rates varied from 11.3 to 58.8%. We conclude that the methodology, although with differences born of necessity in the ten countries, was sound overall, and will provide robust data on the public ill-health that results from headache in Europe. PMID:21660430

  17. Obesity and other health determinants across Europe: The EURALIM Project

    PubMed Central

    Beer-Borst, S; Morabia, A; Hercberg, S; Vitek, O; Bernstein, M; Galan, P; Galasso, R; Giampaoli, S; Houterman, S; McCrum, E; Panico, S; Pannozzo, F; Preziosi, P; Ribas, L; Serra-Majem, L; Verschuren, W; Yarnell, J; Northridge, M

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—EURALIM (EURope ALIMentation), a European collaborative study, aimed to determine and describe the extent to which European data on risk factor distributions from different populations could be pooled and harmonised in a common database for international comparisons.?SETTING—Seven independent population-based surveys from six European countries (France, Italy, Northern Ireland/United Kingdom, Spain, Switzerland, the Netherlands). ?METHODS—Data for 18 381 women and 12 908 men aged 40-59 were pooled in a common database. Central statistical analyses on major cardiovascular risk factors were conducted with careful consideration of methodological issues, including differences in study designs, data assessment tools, and analytic techniques used.?MAIN RESULTS—Because of the detected variability among methods used, direct comparisons of risk factor distributions and prevalences between studies were problematic. None the less, comparisons of within population contrasts by sex, age group, and other health determinants were considered to be meaningful and apt, as illustrated here for obesity. Results were targeted and disseminated to both the general public and public health professionals and framed in the context of a European information campaign.?CONCLUSIONS—International and national comparisons between existing locally run studies are feasible and useful, but harmonisation methods need improvement. Development of an international risk factor surveillance programme based on decentralised data collection is warranted. In the meantime, risk factor contrasts across populations can be used as a basis for targeting needed public health intervention programmes.???Keywords: comparative study; obesity; risk factor surveillance PMID:10818117

  18. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: Europe Albers Equal Area

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 ´Projection: Europe Albers Equal Area 0 500 Kilometers Amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell computed by fusing global maps of harvested areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use

  19. Future scenarios for viticultural zoning in Europe: ensemble projections and uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Fraga, H; Malheiro, A C; Moutinho-Pereira, J; Santos, J A

    2013-11-01

    Optimum climate conditions for grapevine growth are limited geographically and may be further challenged by a changing climate. Due to the importance of the winemaking sector in Europe, the assessment of future scenarios for European viticulture is of foremost relevance. A 16-member ensemble of model transient experiments (generated by the ENSEMBLES project) under a greenhouse gas emission scenario and for two future periods (2011-2040 and 2041-2070) is used in assessing climate change projections for six viticultural zoning indices. After model data calibration/validation using an observational gridded daily dataset, changes in their ensemble means and inter-annual variability are discussed, also taking into account the model uncertainties. Over southern Europe, the projected warming combined with severe dryness in the growing season is expected to have detrimental impacts on the grapevine development and wine quality, requiring measures to cope with heat and water stress. Furthermore, the expected warming and the maintenance of moderately wet growing seasons over most of the central European winemaking regions may require a selection of new grapevine varieties, as well as an enhancement of pest/disease control. New winemaking regions may arise over northern Europe and high altitude areas, when considering climatic factors only. An enhanced inter-annual variability is also projected over most of Europe. All these future changes pose new challenges for the European winemaking sector. PMID:23306774

  20. Leaving the Academic Towers: The Council of Europe and the Education for Democratic Citizenship Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Keith

    2003-01-01

    The Council of Europe's Education for Democratic Citizenship Project created "Sites of Citizenship" in 12 countries. These grassroots initiatives attempted to involve individuals in creating democratic culture. Preliminary evaluation indicated that informal and nonformal learning at these sites was a challenging but innovative feature. (Contains…

  1. An Infrastructure Project for Climate Research in Europe OASIS3 User Guide

    E-print Network

    PRISM An Infrastructure Project for Climate Research in Europe OASIS3 User Guide prism 2-5 Edited by: S. Valcke, CERFACS PRISM­Support Initiative Report No 3 CERFACS TR/CMGC/06/73 September 2006 #12? Assistence can be obtained as listed below. PRISM documentations can be downloaded from the WWW PRISM web

  2. Projections of heat waves with high impact on human health in Europe

    E-print Network

    Romero, Romu

    Projections of heat waves with high impact on human health in Europe A. Amengual1, V. Homar1, R will result in more intense, more frequent and longer lasting heat waves. The most hazardous conditions emerge and light winds for several consecutive days. Here, we assess present and future heat wave impacts on human

  3. Strategies for Reforming Initial Vocational Education and Training in Europe. Final Report of the Project. Leonardo da Vinci/Transnational Pilot Projects: Multiplier Effect, Strand III.3.a. Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking (1997-2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenstrom, Marja-Leena, Ed.; Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    This document contains 24 papers examining strategies for reforming initial vocational education and training (VET) in Europe. The following papers are included: "Reassessing VET Reform Strategies in a New Context: Implementation of the SPES-NET (Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking) Project" (Marja-Leena…

  4. Trends in the mortality effects of hot spells in central Europe: adaptation to climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysely, J.; Plavcova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Europe has recently been affected by several long-lasting and severe heat waves, particularly in July-August 2003 (western Europe), June-July 2006 (central Europe), July 2007 (southeastern Europe) and July 2010 (western Russia). The heat waves influenced many sectors of human activities, with enormous socio-economic and environmental impacts. With estimated death tolls exceeding 50,000, the 2003 and 2010 heat waves were the worst natural disasters in Europe over the last 50 years, yielding an example of how seriously may also high-income societies be affected by climate change. The present study examines temporal changes in mortality associated with spells of large positive temperature anomalies (hot spells) in the population of the Czech Republic (around 10 million inhabitants, central Europe). Declining trends in the mortality impacts since 1986 are found, in spite of rising temperature trends. The findings remain unchanged if possible confounding effects of within-season acclimatization to heat and the mortality displacement effect are taken into account, and they are similar for all-cause mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Recent positive socio-economic development, following the collapse of communism in central and eastern Europe in 1989, and better public awareness of heat-related risks are likely the primary causes of the declining vulnerability in the examined population (Kyselý and Plavcová, 2012). The results are also consistent with those reported for other developed regions of the world (the US, western Europe, Australia) and suggest that climate change may have relatively little influence on heat-related deaths, since changes in other factors that affect vulnerability of the population are dominant instead of temperature trends. It is essential to better understand the observed non-stationarity of the temperature-mortality relationship and the role of adaptation and its limits, both physiological and technological, and to address associated uncertainties in studies dealing with climate change projections of temperature-related mortality. However, it is also obvious that impacts of major and unprecented heat waves such as the 2003 heat wave in western Europe and the 2010 heat wave in Russia may far exceed estimates extrapolated from the observed relationships between thermal environment and human morbidity and mortality, and ';broke' the observed (positive) changes in time. Reference: Kyselý J., Plavcová E., 2012: Declining impacts of hot spells on mortality in the Czech Republic, 1986-2009: adaptation to climate change? Climatic Change 113: 437-453, doi 10.1007/s10584-011-0358-4.

  5. Employment and Occupations in Europe in the 1980s. Effects of Technical and Economic Changes on the Employment Situation. Project No. 1 of the CCC: "Preparation for Life." Preparation for Working Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacace, Nicole

    This paper is an attempt to forecast for 1990 the following: (1) employment structures in the member countries of the Council of Europe for all three major sectors of the economy; and (2) employment structures in the Council of Europe for the nine major sectors of the manufacturing industry (food, textiles, leather and clothing, wood and…

  6. Projection of climatic suitability for Aedes albopictus Skuse (Culicidae) in Europe under climate change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Dominik; Thomas, Stephanie Margarete; Niemitz, Franziska; Reineking, Björn; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2011-07-01

    During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus ( Ae. albopictus) has rapidly spread around the globe. The spread of this species raises serious public health concerns. Here, we model the present distribution and the future climatic suitability of Europe for this vector in the face of climate change. In order to achieve the most realistic current prediction and future projection, we compare the performance of four different modelling approaches, differentiated by the selection of climate variables (based on expert knowledge vs. statistical criteria) and by the geographical range of presence records (native range vs. global range). First, models of the native and global range were built with MaxEnt and were either based on (1) statistically selected climatic input variables or (2) input variables selected with expert knowledge from the literature. Native models show high model performance (AUC: 0.91-0.94) for the native range, but do not predict the European distribution well (AUC: 0.70-0.72). Models based on the global distribution of the species, however, were able to identify all regions where Ae. albopictus is currently established, including Europe (AUC: 0.89-0.91). In a second step, the modelled bioclimatic envelope of the global range was projected to future climatic conditions in Europe using two emission scenarios implemented in the regional climate model COSMO-CLM for three time periods 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100. For both global-driven models, the results indicate that climatically suitable areas for the establishment of Ae. albopictus will increase in western and central Europe already in 2011-2040 and with a temporal delay in eastern Europe. On the other hand, a decline in climatically suitable areas in southern Europe is pronounced in the Expert knowledge based model. Our projections appear unaffected by non-analogue climate, as this is not detected by Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis. The generated risk maps can aid in identifying suitable habitats for Ae. albopictus and hence support monitoring and control activities to avoid disease vector establishment.

  7. Effects of large-scale distribution of wind energy in and around Europe

    E-print Network

    Effects of large-scale distribution of wind energy in and around Europe Gregor Giebel Niels Gylling energy in Europe? · Distribution of wind energy all over Europe leads to smoothing of the wind power energy can easily supply up to ~20% of the European demand. At this stage, · Less than 13% of the wind

  8. Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Paul

    Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America on surface ozone in Europe and North America by using a 5-year (1993­1997) simulation with the GEOS emissions from North America. North American influence on surface ozone in Europe is particularly strong

  9. Oceanography Vol.22, No.460 AbstrAct. The European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA) is Europe's

    E-print Network

    Fortunat, Joos

    Oceanography Vol.22, No.460 AbstrAct. The European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA) is Europe acidification. More than 100 scientists from 27 institutes and nine countries bring their expertise 1974 1982 1990 Year Frequency(%) european project on Ocean Acidification (epOcA) ObJectiVes, pr

  10. Probabilistic Projection of Climatic and Agroclimatic Characteristics for Sites in Europe and U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Trnka, M.; Balek, J.; Zalud, Z.

    2010-12-01

    One of the possible approaches (employed also in this contribution) to downscale the low-resolution output from Global Climate Model (GCM) into spatial and temporal scales required by impact models consists in using the stochastic weather generator (WG), whose parameters are modified according to the GCM-based climate change scenario. In the first part, we present a methodology for probabilistic climate change impact assessment based on daily and monthly outputs from multiple GCMs and two step stochastic weather generator M&Rfi. In the second part, we apply this methodology for assessing the impacts on selected climatic and agroclimatic characteristics in Europe and U.S.A. Methodology: to account for the changes in variability on various time scales, the daily WG (dWG) is coupled to the monthly WG (mWG). Parameters of dWG and mWG are derived from the observed series and then modified according to the GCM based climate change scenarios. To obtain more comprehensive scenarios, we merge information from GCM outputs at two temporal resolutions: monthly (benefiting from the length of the available output series) and daily (benefiting from the finer temporal resolution allowing to determine changes in climatic characteristics not derivable from the monthly series). The monthly GCM data (1961-2100) are used to derive changes in means, and standard deviations and intermonthly variability of monthly averages of temperature, precipitation and solar radiation. The daily GCM series (1961-1990 and 2081-2100) are used to derive changes in interdiurnal weather variability, daily temperature range and probability of precipitation occurrence. The climate change scenarios for a given future period, emission scenario and climate sensitivity are then defined by the pattern scaling method, in which the standardised changes (related to 1K rise in global mean temperature) derived from the GCM outputs are multiplied by the change in global mean temperature projected by simple climate model MAGICC. The experiment will (i) show impact of the climate change on selected climatic and agroclimatic characteristics in multiple European and US stations, and (ii) demonstrate effect of merging information extracted from monthly and daily GCM series (effect of changes in characteristics derived from the daily data will be assessed). The probabilistic impact assessment will be based on comparison of probability distribution functions of the climatic and agroclimatic characteristics derived from present vs. future climate synthetic weather series and assuming scenarios derived from multiple GCMs (IPCC-AR4 database). The climatic characteristics will include extreme precipitation and temperature characteristics and characteristics of wet/dry/hot/cold spells. The agroclimatic characteristics will include characteristics related to vegetation period (temperature sums over 5 and 10°C, sum of effective global solar radiation, number of effective growing days, number of days with low evapotranspiration) and the date of last frost day. Acknowledgements: The study is supported by the GAAV Grant Agency (project IAA300420806), Minstry of Education (KONTAKT project ME10128) and National Agency for Agric. Research (QI91C054).

  11. Identifying critical nutrient intake in groups at risk of poverty in Europe: the CHANCE project approach.

    PubMed

    Nikoli?, Marina; Glibeti?, Maria; Gurinovi?, Mirjana; Mileševi?, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project's objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe. PMID:24699195

  12. Analyses of climate and extreme indices in Central and Eastern Europe within the CECILIA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, M.; Boberg, F.; Christensen, O. B.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Stepanek, P.; Wp4 Members, Cecilia

    2009-04-01

    The EU-project CECILIA (Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and VulnerabiLIty Assessment) aims at delivering a climate change impacts and vulnerability assessment in targeted areas of Central and Eastern Europe. This region appears particularly vulnerable with regard to future changes in extremes (Christensen and Christensen 2003, Schär et al. 2004), likely due to regional specificities such as highly varying topography and continentality, and due to changes in soil moisture content (Seneviratne et al. 2006). In the project, emphasis is given to applications of regional climate modeling studies at a resolution of 10 km for local impact studies in key sectors of the region. The project includes the analysis of extreme weather events in present day and future climate in the target region. For this purpose, an extensive list of precipitation and temperature indices was defined. Observational data used for the indices calculation comes from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset project (ECA&D, Klein Tank et al. 2002), from the ENSEMBLES gridded observations (E-Obs, Haylock et al. 2008), and from station data of the local partners in Central and Eastern Europe. Moreover, the same indices were calculated consistently for a selection of pre-existing RCM datasets (PRUDENCE, ENSEMBLES), and for the CECILIA driving models. Later on, the 10 km high-resolution climate simulations from CECILIA will be included in the analysis. Here we focus on the analysis of a selection of temperature indices, and on the validation of the model-derived indices with the observations. Generally, the spatial agreement between the models and the observations is very good for mean, maximum and minimum temperature (both in terms of the spatial variability and the spatial correlation). The spread between the models is larger for the daily temperature range, with most models showing larger spatial variability compared to the observations. When it comes to heat and cold wave indices, the models perform relatively well for the mean heat and cold wave occurrence, although the spread between the models is large. The results are worse for the percentile-based heat and cold wave durations. In these cases, the spatial correlations between the models and E-Obs decrease to around zero, with some models even showing negative correlations. References: Christensen, J. H., and O. B. Christensen (2003). Severe Summer Flooding in Europe. Nature, 421, 805-806. Haylock, M. R., N. Hofstra, A. M. G. Klein Tank, E. J. Klok, P. D. Jones, and M. New (2008). A European daily high-resolution gridded dataset of surface temperature and precipitation for 1950-2006. J. Geophys. Res., 113(D20119):doi:10.1029/2008JD010201. Klein Tank, A. M. G., et al. (2002). Daily dataset of 20th-century surface air temperature and precipitation series for the European Climate Assessment. Int. J. Climatol., 22, 1441-1453. Schär, C., P. L. Vidale, D. Luthi, C. Frei, C. Haberli, M. A. Liniger, and C. Appenzeller (2004). The role of increasing temperature variability in European summer heat waves. Nature, 427, 332-336. Seneviratne, S. I., D. Lüthi, M. Litschi, and C. Schär (2006). Land-atmosphere coupling and climate change in Europe. Nature, 443, 205-209.

  13. Descriptive epidemiology of Kaposi sarcoma in Europe. Report from the RARECARE project.

    PubMed

    Stiller, C A; Trama, A; Brewster, D H; Verne, J; Bouchardy, C; Navarro, C; Chirlaque, M D; Marcos-Gragera, R; Visser, O; Serraino, D; Weiderpass, E; Dei Tos, A P; Ascoli, V

    2014-12-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a virus-related malignancy which most frequently arises in skin, though visceral sites can also be involved. Infection with Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV or HHV-8) is required for development of KS. Nowadays, most cases worldwide occur in persons who are immunosuppressed, usually because of HIV infection or as a result of therapy to combat rejection of a transplanted organ, but classic Kaposi sarcoma is predominantly a disease of the elderly without apparent immunosuppression. We analyzed 2667 KS incident cases diagnosed during 1995-2002 and registered by 75 population-based European cancer registries contributing to the RARECARE project. Total crude and age-standardized incidence rate was 0.3 per 100,000 per year with an estimated 1642 new cases per year in the EU27 countries. Age-standardized incidence rate was 0.8 per 100,000 in Southern Europe but below 0.3 per 100,000 in all other regions. The elevated rate in southern Europe was attributable to a combination of classic Kaposi sarcoma in some Mediterranean countries and the relatively high incidence of AIDS in several countries. Five-year relative survival for 2000-2002 by the period method was 75%. More than 10,000 persons were estimated to be alive in Europe at the beginning of 2008 with a past diagnosis of KS. The aetiological link with suppressed immunity means that many people alive following diagnosis of KS suffer comorbidity from a pre-existing condition. While KS is a rare cancer, it has a relatively good prognosis and so the number of people affected by it is quite large. Thus it provides a notable example of the importance of networking in diagnosis, therapy and research for rare cancers. PMID:25454979

  14. The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) Project: Design and First Results

    PubMed Central

    Kovess, Viviane; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Koç, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background : The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) project aims to build up a set of indicators to collect and monitor children's mental health in an efficient and comparable methodology across the EU countries. It concerns primary schools children aged 6 to 11 years a range where few data are available whereas school interventions are promising. Methods : Three informants were used: parents, teachers and children. In selecting instruments language, instruments were selected according to the easiness to translate them: SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) for parents and teachers and DI (Dominic Interactive). A two-step procedure was used: schools randomization then six children by class in each grade. Results : 9084 children from seven countries (Italy, Netherlands, Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Turkey) completed the Dominic Interactive in their own language. 6563 teachers and 6031 parents completed their questionnaire, and a total of 5574 interviews have been completed by the 3 informants. The participation rate of the children with parents in the participating schools was about 66.4%. As expected teachers report more externalised problems and less internalised problems than parents. Children report more internalised problems than parents and teachers. Boys have consistently more externalised problems than girls and this is the reverse for internalised problems. Combining the diverse informants and impairment levels children with problems requiring some sort of mental health care were about 9.9%: 76% did not see any mental health professional: 78.7% In Eastern countries 63.1% in Western Europe.

  15. Advanced reprocessing developments in Europe contribution of European projects ACSEPT and ACTINET-I3

    SciTech Connect

    Bourg, S.; Poinssot, C. [CEA DEN, Nuclear Energy Div., RadioChemistry and Processes Dept., F-30207Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Geist, A. [KIT-INE (Germany); Cassayre, L. [CIEMAT (Spain); Rhodes, C. [NNL-UK (United Kingdom); Ekberg, C. [CHALMERS (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Nuclear energy has more than ever to demonstrate that it can contribute safely and on a sustainable way to answer the international increase in energy needs. Actually, in addition to an increased safety of the reactors themselves, its acceptance is still closely associated to our capability to reduce the lifetime of the nuclear waste, to manage them safely and to propose options for a better use of the natural resources. Spent fuel reprocessing can help to reach these objectives. But this cannot be achieved only by optimizing industrial processes through engineering studies. It is of a primary importance to increase our fundamental knowledge in actinide sciences in order to build the future of nuclear energy on reliable and scientifically-founded results, and therefore meet the needs of the future fuel cycles in terms of fabrication and performance of fuels, reprocessing and waste management. At the European level, both the collaborative project ACSEPT and the Integrated Infrastructure Initiative ACTINET-I3 work together to improve our knowledge in actinides chemistry and therefore develop advanced separation processes. These tools are complementary and work in close connection on some specific issues such as the understanding of the selectivity of extracting organic ligands. By offering trans-national access to the main nuclear research facility in Europe, ACTINET-I3 aims at increasing the knowledge in actinide sciences by gathering all the expertise available in European nuclear research institutes or university and giving them the opportunity to come and work in hot-labs (ITU, Atalante...) or beamlines (ESFR, ANKA, PSI) ACSEPT is focused on the development of advanced separation processes, both aqueous and pyrochemical. Head-end steps, fuel re-fabrication, solvent treatment, waste management are also taken into account. In aqueous process development, the SANEX and innovative SANEX flowsheets demonstration were successfully achieved. Chemical systems were selected for GANEX and a hot-test under finalization thanks to an important collaboration between European teams. In pyrometallurgy, studies on actinide back-extraction from aluminium and exhaustive electrolysis allowed the validation of two flowsheets developed from more then 10 years in Europe. In addition, efforts were made to increase collaborations, mutualize and homogenise procedures and share good practices. A training and education program including seminars, workshops, brainstorming meeting but also student exchanges and support to post-doctorate fellowships was a key point for maintaining and increasing a high expertise level in actinide separation sciences in Europe. The second ACSEPT International workshop, organised as a specific session of the next Atalante 2012 International Conference, will conclude the ACSEPT project. (authors)

  16. Project INTEGRATE - a common methodological approach to understand integrated health care in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cash-Gibson, Lucinda; Rosenmoller, Magdalene

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of case studies in health services research has proven to be an excellent methodology for gaining in-depth understanding of the organisation and delivery of health care. This is particularly relevant when looking at the complexity of integrated healthcare programmes, where multifaceted interactions occur at the different levels of care and often without a clear link between the interventions (new and/or existing) and their impact on outcomes (in terms of patients health, both patient and professional satisfaction and cost-effectiveness). Still, integrated care is seen as a core strategy in the sustainability of health and care provision in most societies in Europe and beyond. More specifically, at present, there is neither clear evidence on transferable factors of integrated care success nor a method for determining how to establish these specific success factors. The drawback of case methodology in this case, however, is that the in-depth results or lessons generated are usually highly context-specific and thus brings the challenge of transferability of findings to other settings, as different health care systems and different indications are often not comparable. Project INTEGRATE, a European Commission-funded project, has been designed to overcome these problems; it looks into four chronic conditions in different European settings, under a common methodology framework (taking a mixed-methods approach) to try to overcome the issue of context specificity and limited transferability. The common methodological framework described in this paper seeks to bring together the different case study findings in a way that key lessons may be derived and transferred between countries, contexts and patient-groups, where integrated care is delivered in order to provide insight into generalisability and build on existing evidence in this field. Methodology To compare the different integrated care experiences, a mixed-methods approach has been adopted with the creation of a common methodological framework (including data collection tools and case study template report) to be used by the case studies for their analyses. Methods of analysis The four case studies attempt to compare health care services before and after the ‘integration’ of care, while triangulating the findings using quantitative and qualitative data, and provide an in-depth description of the organisation and delivery of care, and the impact on outcomes. The common framework aims to allow for the extraction of key transferable learning from the cases, taking into account context-dependency. Conclusion The application and evaluation of the common methodological approach aim to distill and identify important elements for successful integrated care, in order to strengthen the evidence base for integrated care (by facilitating cross-context comparisons), increase the transferability of findings from highly context-specific to other settings and lead to concrete and practical policy and operational recommendations. PMID:25550690

  17. The range of regional climate change projections in central Europe: How to deal with the spread of climate model results?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Rechid; D. Jacob; R. Podzun

    2010-01-01

    The regional climate change projections for central Europe in the 21st century show a large spread of simulated temperature and precipitation trends due to natural variability and modelling uncertainties. The questions are how to extract robust climate change signals and how to transfer the range of possible temperature and precipitation trends to climate change impact studies and adaptation strategies? Within

  18. Comparative study of Regional Urban Growth (RUG) model projections for new EU members in central Europe and the Baltic States 

    E-print Network

    Langner, Pawel

    2009-11-26

    Urban modelling and land-cover changes are well discussed in literature and are in a focal point of many researches. Regional urban growth (RUG) model for central Europe and the Baltic States projects land-cover changes and their volume...

  19. Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe: The ARISE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, E.; Bittner, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Ceranna, L.; Charlton-Perez, A. J.; Ripepe, M.; Evers, L.; Kvaerna, T.; Lastovicka, J.; Eliasson, L.; Crosby, N. B.; Blanc-Benon, P.; Le Pichon, A.; Marchetti, E.; Pilger, C.; Keckhut, P.; Schmidt, C.; Lee, C.; Smets, P.

    2013-12-01

    ARISE proposes to design a new infrastructure that integrates different station networks in order to provide a new "3D" image of the atmospheric dynamics from the ground up to the mesosphere with unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. These networks are: - the International infrasound network developed for the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This system is unique by its quality for infrasound and atmospheric wave observations, - the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes (NDACC) which uses Lidar to measure stratospheric dynamics, - the Network for the Detection of Mesopause Changes (NDMC), dedicated to airglow layer measurements in the mesosphere, and additional complementary stations and satellite data. The infrastructure extends across Europe and outlying regions, including polar and equatorial regions. The measurements will be used to improve the parameterization of gravity waves in the stratosphere to better resolve climate models. The project also concerns civil applications related to monitoring of natural hazards as volcanoes. The presentation will highlight the first results obtained in the frame of the project.

  20. Review of EuCARD project on accelerator infrastructure in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of big infrastructural and research programs (like pan-European Framework Programs) and individual projects realized inside these programs in Europe is to structure the European Research Area - ERA in this way as to be competitive with the leaders of the world. One of this projects in EuCARD (European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development) with the aim to structure and modernize accelerator, (including accelerators for big free electron laser machines) research infrastructure. This article presents the periodic development of EuCARD which took place between the annual meeting, April 2012 in Warsaw and SC meeting in Uppsala, December 2012. The background of all these efforts are achievements of the LHC machine and associated detectors in the race for new physics. The LHC machine works in the regime of p-p, Pb-p, Pb-Pb (protons and lead ions). Recently, a discovery by the LHC of Higgs like boson, has started vivid debates on the further potential of this machine and the future. The periodic EuCARD conference, workshop and meetings concern building of the research infrastructure, including in this advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such systems like: measurement - control networks of large geometrical extent, multichannel systems for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution. The aim of the discussion is not only summarize the current status but make plans and prepare practically to building new infrastructures. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. Accelerator technology is intensely developed in all developed nations and regions of the world. The EuCARD project contains a lot of subjects related directly and indirectly to photon physics and photonics, as well as optoelectronics, electronics and integration of these with large research infrastructure.

  1. Projected Changes in Northern Europe Storm and Precipitation Characteristics: Uncertainty and the Implications for Climate Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolowski, S.; Mesquita, M.; Keay, K.

    2012-04-01

    Future changes in storm characteristics and storm tracks over the eastern North Atlantic may have profound implications for energy providers, coastal communities and water resources availability across the European sector. Shifts in the storm tracks and the amount and intensity of precipitation are of particular concern to local/ municipal governments as they contemplate climate change adaptation/ mitigation strategies. Communicating the latest science to these end users is a two-pronged problem. On one prong the scientific community still has some way to go before fully understanding the physical mechanisms driving projected changes at local to regional scales and their associated uncertainties (which can be quite large). On the other prong planners require up-to-date, reliable information at just these scales as they seek to make decisions, which will resonate for decades. The present study investigates projected changes to storms and precipitation over Northern Europe and decomposes the sources of uncertainty surrounding these changes. Strategies for communicating these changes and uncertainties with planners are also discussed. The city of Bergen, which is a participant in the ECLISE project, is employed as a case study for how complex and often counterintuitive climate information can be made useful for end users. Some large-scale, robust changes in storm track statistics have been identified in the ensemble mean climate change response. However, there are often widely varying responses between models and little analysis on the role intra-model variability. A focus on the multi model ensemble mean response is useful in that it isolates externally forced (i.e. climate change) aspects of future variability. However, this approach underestimates the influence of internal variability (weather-related "noise") and its contribution to total uncertainty. Recent research suggests that internal variability can make a large contribution to overall uncertainty with clear implications for future prediction efforts. The present study investigates projected regional changes to seasonal storm characteristics and precipitation over the eastern North Atlantic and Northern Europe using a high-resolution, stretched grid, AGCM (ARPEGE). An extra-tropical cyclone-tracking algorithm is applied to simulations for present (1980-1999) and future (2020-2060) periods and NCEP reanalysis data (1980-1999). Two present day simulations are carried out: one with spectral nudging toward the large-scale circulation (Nudged) and one without (Free). Four future realizations are run that differ only in their SST specifications, which are taken from four A1B AOGCM simulations from different modeling groups. Storm track statistics are computed for all months with winter (DJF) and summer (JJA) shown. Future changes are evaluated by subtracting the 20th century seasonal mean of the Free run from the ensemble mean of the (2041-2060) 21st century runs. The multiple future realizations allow for the decomposition of total future variability into parts due to forced and internal variability. Despite the dominance of internal variability in the seasonal storm response, robust precipitation signals are identified. These results suggest that, in these simulations at least, the changes in the precipitation come mainly from the thermodynamic rather than the dynamic response of the atmosphere to global warming.

  2. First Steps toward Harmonized Human Biomonitoring in Europe: Demonstration Project to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale

    PubMed Central

    Den Hond, Elly; Govarts, Eva; Willems, Hanny; Smolders, Roel; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Seiwert, Margarete; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M.; Schindler, Birgit K.; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Bloemen, Louis; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Joas, Anke; Joas, Reinhard; Biot, Pierre; Aerts, Dominique; Koppen, Gudrun; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Krskova, Andrea; Maly, Marek; Mørck, Thit A.; Rudnai, Peter; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Mulcahy, Maurice; Mannion, Rory; Gutleb, Arno C.; Fischer, Marc E.; Ligocka, Danuta; Jakubowski, Marek; Reis, M. Fátima; Namorado, Sónia; Gurzau, Anca Elena; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Halzlova, Katarina; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; López, Ana; Lopez, Estrella; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background For Europe as a whole, data on internal exposure to environmental chemicals do not yet exist. Characterization of the internal individual chemical environment is expected to enhance understanding of the environmental threats to health. Objectives We developed and applied a harmonized protocol to collect comparable human biomonitoring data all over Europe. Methods In 17 European countries, we measured mercury in hair and cotinine, phthalate metabolites, and cadmium in urine of 1,844 children (5–11 years of age) and their mothers. Specimens were collected over a 5-month period in 2011–2012. We obtained information on personal characteristics, environment, and lifestyle. We used the resulting database to compare concentrations of exposure biomarkers within Europe, to identify determinants of exposure, and to compare exposure biomarkers with health-based guidelines. Results Biomarker concentrations showed a wide variability in the European population. However, levels in children and mothers were highly correlated. Most biomarker concentrations were below the health-based guidance values. Conclusions We have taken the first steps to assess personal chemical exposures in Europe as a whole. Key success factors were the harmonized protocol development, intensive training and capacity building for field work, chemical analysis and communication, as well as stringent quality control programs for chemical and data analysis. Our project demonstrates the feasibility of a Europe-wide human biomonitoring framework to support the decision-making process of environmental measures to protect public health. Citation Den Hond E, Govarts E, Willems H, Smolders R, Casteleyn L, Kolossa-Gehring M, Schwedler G, Seiwert M, Fiddicke U, Castaño A, Esteban M, Angerer J, Koch HM, Schindler BK, Sepai O, Exley K, Bloemen L, Horvat M, Knudsen LE, Joas A, Joas R, Biot P, Aerts D, Koppen G, Katsonouri A, Hadjipanayis A, Krskova A, Maly M, Mørck TA, Rudnai P, Kozepesy S, Mulcahy M, Mannion R, Gutleb AC, Fischer ME, Ligocka D, Jakubowski M, Reis MF, Namorado S, Gurzau AE, Lupsa IR, Halzlova K, Jajcaj M, Mazej D, Snoj Tratnik J, López A, Lopez E, Berglund M, Larsson K, Lehmann A, Crettaz P, Schoeters G. 2015. First steps toward harmonized human biomonitoring in Europe: demonstration project to perform human biomonitoring on a European scale. Environ Health Perspect 123:255–263;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408616 PMID:25493439

  3. Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP): a collaborative research project of the TopoEurope initiative of ESF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecker, M.; Bertotti, G.; Echtler, H.; Ciner, A.; Dirik, E. Aydar (4), K.; Rojay, B.; Mulch, A.; Ková?ová, M.; Govers, R.; Gliozzi, E.; Simpson, G.; Aksu, A.

    2009-04-01

    With elevations of several kilometers, low local relief and pronounced relief contrasts with surrounding regions, orogenic plateaus are first-order tectonic and topographic features of several Cenozoic mountain belts. The morphologic characteristics of plateaus may result from efficient tectonic uplift of mountain ranges that successively incorporate foreland domains into intermontane sedimentary environments. This process may ultimately lead to leeward aridification and a reduction of erosional power and inability of the fluvial network to keep pace with uplift. The combination of tectonic uplift and the decreasing ability of the fluvial system to keep pace with the tectonic processes causes a transition from externally to internally drained basins that eventually become overfilled and coalesce, causing low local relief at high elevations in the orogen interior. Although many studies are being carried out on the Tibetan and Puna-Altiplano plateaus, very little attention has been devoted to the development of the smaller Central Anatolia Plateau (CAP). With its low local relief located at high elevations and with an arid interior compared to deeply incised, humid flanks, the CAP fulfills all characteristics of orogenic plateaus. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanisms controlling the topographic development of this region and to quantify the competing tectonic, geomorphic and climatic processes, we have developed a multidisciplinary project (VAMP) under the umbrella of the TopoEurope initiative of ESF. Our project integrates 11 research institutions from 7 countries. We study a ~400-km-wide strip from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean that includes CAP and its flanks, the offshore basins and Cyprus. The semi-arid CAP interior has a subdued topography at elevations of ~1500m. The plateau interior comprises internally drained sedimentary basins that have helped reduce the refielf contrasts between individual ranges and intervening depressions. Infilling by Miocene to Quaternary continental sediments has created low local relief, where large shallow lakes occur. However, several basins have been captured by headward erosion and major rivers (Göksu River in the S and K?z?l?rmak River in the N) now expose basin-fill sediments and drain large areas of the CAP and form deeply incised gorges along the northern and southern margins, respectively. Miocene marine sediments, locally up to 2 km thick and deposited in a basin stretching, at least, from Antalya to Adana unconformably overlie rocks of the Taurus orogen in S Turkey. Northward, these units grade into a partly preserved erosional surface. To the south, correlative Miocene marine sediments are found in the Cilicia offshore basin and in the N Cyprus thrust-belt. These sediments provide a topographic datum for the beginning of plateau development. In addition these units provide information on the behavior of the Anatolian crust during subsidence. The end of marine sedimentation (~Tortonian) provides a maximum age for the onset of CAP uplift. Thereafter, uplift was coeval with, and tectonically linked to subsidence in the offshore basins. Interestingly, other important events occurred at this time as well. This includes the Messinian salinity crisis and the onset of fragmentation of the Tethyan slab. In our study, an interdisciplinary approach with a wide range of temporal and spatial scales of is adopted to (1) better constrain the kinematics of plateau (de)formation; (2) the timing of associated climatic changes; (3) to quantify patterns of sediment routing and deposition; and to (4) reconstruct the (deep) geometry of Anatolia and surrounding sedimentary basins. We furthermore assess the importance of crustal shortening, magmatic underplating and possible lithospheric segmentation and delamination with respect to plateau uplift and analyze the nature of the interactions between tectonic forcing and changing climate. We will perform structural, geomorphological and sedimentological studies and will apply low-T geochronology, cosmogenic exposure dating of geomor

  4. Project EARTH-13-TM1: Understanding CO2 emissions from Europe's restless caldera-forming volcanoes

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    (Italy) and Santorini (Greece), Europe hosts 2 major caldera-forming volcanic systems capable (~15 ka BP) at Campi Flegrei and the Minoan (~1600 BC) at Santorini. Since then both systems have to the degassing CO2 at both Campi Flegrei and Santorini (Chiodini et al., 2011) and at systems

  5. Eur J Neurol . Author manuscript How many dementia cases in France and Europe? Alternative projections

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Eur J Neurol . Author manuscript Page /1 9 How many dementia cases in France and Europe Background The objective of this study is to estimate the number of dementia cases expected to occur using the European incidence data for dementia by age and sex, the relative mortality risks related

  6. Enabling the Use of Research Evidence within Educational Policymaking in Europe: Lessons from the EIPEE Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripney, Janice; Kenny, Caroline; Gough, David

    2014-01-01

    Despite a political climate demanding evidence-informed decision making in education both within individual countries and at the international level, empirically grounded European research in this field is scarce. This paper reports on a European Commission-funded study that sought to identify and analyze different initiatives across Europe aimed…

  7. Europe and US to Collaborate on the Design and Development of a Giant Radio Telescope Project in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    High Goals for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Representatives from the U.S. and Europe signed an agreement today in Washington to continue collaboration on the first phase of a giant new telescope project. The telescope will image the Universe with unprecedented sensitivity and sharpness at millimeter wavelengths (between the radio and infrared spectral regions). It will be a major step for astronomy, making it possible to study the origins of galaxies, stars and planets. This project is a prime example of a truly global project, an essential development in view of the ever-increasing complexity and cost of front-line astronomical facilities. The U.S. side of the project is run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) , operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The European side of the project is a collaboration between the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) , the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) , the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy (NFRA) and Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie (NOVA) , and the United Kingdom Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC). The Europe-U.S. agreement signed today may be formally extended in the very near future to include Japan, following an already existing tripartite declaration of intent. Dr. Robert Eisenstein, NSF's Assistant Director Mathematical and Physical Sciences, called the project "a path-breaking international partnership that will open far-reaching opportunities for astronomical observations. This array would enable astronomers to explore the detailed processes through which the stars and planets form and give us a vastly improved understanding of the formation of the first galaxies in the very early universe." Eisenstein welcomed the collaboration with Europe and Japan's interest in becoming a major partner. Speaking on behalf of the European Signatories, Prof. Riccardo Giacconi, Director General of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , one of the signatories to the new astronomy project, described the new project as "absolutely fantastic and farsighted - a major ground-based astronomical observatory for the 21st century. It will open up a key region of the electromagnetic spectrum to study the very early universe and the interstellar clouds where the stars and planets are born". The new telescope will be located in the Atacama desert of northern Chile, and has been given the name ALMA, for "Atacama Large Millimeter Array". This land has been given in concession to CONICYT (The Chilean National Commission for Science and Technology) last year by the "Ministerio de Bienes Nacionales" (Ministry of National Assets). It has also been declared a national reserve for science by President Frei because of its unique capabilities for astronomical research. ALMA will be a revolutionary telescope, operating at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths and comprised of an array of individual antennas each 12 meters in diameter that work together to make precision images of astronomical objects. The goal of the ALMA Project is an array of 64 antennas that can be positioned as needed over an area 10 km in diameter so as to give the array a zoom-lens capability. Dr. Paul Vanden Bout, Director of the U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory , emphasized the technical capabilities needed for the array: "The ALMA Project involves development of a variety of fundamental technologies including amplification of faint cosmic signals using superconducting receivers and ultrafast digital data processing, technologies that will enhance many related areas of scientific research". This MOU commits the Signatories to collaborate in a three-year Design and Development Phase 1 for a joint project. In the U.S., an amount of US $26 million has been approved for this phase, and in Europe, DM 28 million (15 million EURO). Two prototype 12-meter antennas will be cons

  8. Systemic lupus erythematosus in Europe at the change of the millennium: lessons from the "Euro-Lupus Project".

    PubMed

    Cervera, Ricard; Abarca-Costalago, M; Abramovicz, D; Allegri, F; Annunziata, P; Aydintug, A O; Bacarelli, M R; Bellisai, F; Bernardino, I; Biernat-Kaluza, E; Blockmans, D; Boki, K; Bracci, L; Campanella, V; Camps, M T; Carcassi, C; Cattaneo, R; Cauli, A; Cervera, R; Chwalinska-Sadowska, H; Contu, L; Cosyns, J P; Danieli, M G; DCruz, D; Depresseux, G; Direskeneli, H; Domènech, I; Espinosa, G; Fernández-Nebro, A; Ferrara, G B; Font, J; Frutos, M A; Galeazzi, M; Garcìa-Carrasco, M; García Iglesias, M F; García-Tobaruela, A; George, J; Gil, A; González-Santos, P; Grana, M; Gül, A; Haga, H J; de Haro-Liger, M; Houssiau, F; Hughes, G R V; Ingelmo, M; Jedryka-Góral, A; Khamashta, M A; Lavilla, P; Levi, Y; López-Dulpa, M; López-Soto, A; Maldykowa, H; Marcolongo, R; Mathieu, A; Morozzi, G; Nicolopoulou, N; Papasteriades, C; Passiu, G; Perelló, I; Petera, P; Petrovic, R; Piette, J C; Pintado, V; de Pita, O; Popovic, R; Pucci, G; Puddu, P; de Ramón, E; Ramos-Casals, M; Rodríguez-Andreu, J; Ruiz-Irastorza, G; Sanchez-Lora, J; Sanna, G; Scorza, R; Sebastiani, G D; Sherer, Y; Shoenfeld, Y; Simpatico, A; Sinico, R A; Smolen, J; Tincani, A; Tokgöz, G; Urbano-Márquez, A; Vasconcelos, C; Vázquez, J J; Veronesi, J; Vianna, J; Vivancos, J

    2006-03-01

    The "Euro-Lupus Cohort" is composed by 1000 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that have been followed prospectively since 1991. These patients have been gathered by a European consortium--the "Euro-Lupus Project Group". This consortium was originated as part of the network promoted by the "European Working Party on SLE", a working group created in 1990 in order to promote research in Europe on the different problems related to this disease. The "Euro-Lupus Cohort" provides an updated information on the SLE morbidity and mortality characteristics in the present decade as well as defines several clinical and immunological prognostic factors. PMID:16483917

  9. Quantifying nitrogen fluxes and their influence on the greenhouse gas balance - recent findings of the NitroEurope Integrated Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, S.; Sutton, M. A.; Nemitz, E.; Beier, C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Cellier, P.; de Vries, W.; Erisman, J.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Bleeker, A.; Nitroeurope Ip Consortium

    2010-12-01

    The generation of reactive nitrogen (Nr) by human activities to stimulate agricultural productivity and the unintended formation of Nr in combustion processes both have major impacts on the global environment. Effects of excess Nr include the deterioration of air quality, water quality, soil quality and a decline in biodiversity. One of the most controversial impacts of nitrogen, however, is on the greenhouse gas balance. While recent papers have highlighted a possible benefit of nitrogen in enhancing rates of carbon sequestration, there remain many trade-offs between nitrogen and greenhouse gas exchange. The result is that the net effect of Nr on the global radiative balance has yet to be fully quantified. To better understand these relationships requires intense measurement and modelling of Nr fluxes at various temporal and spatial scales in order to make the link between different nitrogen forms and their fate in the environment. It is essential to measure fluxes for a wide range of ecosystems considering the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of the Nr components and greenhouse gases, as well as the fixation of di-nitrogen and its creation by denitrification. Long-term observations are needed for representative ecosystems, together with results from experiments addressing the responses of the key nitrogen and greenhouse gas fluxes to different global change drivers. The NitroEurope Integrated Project (in short NEU IP), funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission, has developed and applied a strategy for quantifying these different terms on multiple scales. With the project nearing completion, this presentation reports selected preliminary findings. It highlights the first estimates of Nr inputs and net green-house gas exchange for a series of 13 flux ‘supersites’, complemented by the emerging results of Nr concentrations and related N inputs at a network of 58 ‘inferential sites’, which extend the European representativity of the results. In addition, new low cost methods to measure nitrogen fluxes will be reported, which have been extensively tested at those sites. Results from this 3-tier flux network are underpinned by emerging findings from an extensive network of manipulation sites. A combination of modelling at plot, landscape and European scales is used to upscale the results. Finally the talk will illustrate how nitrogen mitigation techniques are being considered at the European scale, including an estimation of the scale of costs involved in simultaneously mitigating nitrous oxide, ammonia and nitrate losses.

  10. Acute Effects of Ambient Particulate Matter on Mortality in Europe and North America: Results from the APHENA Study

    PubMed Central

    Samoli, Evangelia; Peng, Roger; Ramsay, Tim; Pipikou, Marina; Touloumi, Giota; Dominici, Francesca; Burnett, Rick; Cohen, Aaron; Krewski, Daniel; Samet, Jon; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2008-01-01

    Background The APHENA (Air Pollution and Health: A Combined European and North American Approach) study is a collaborative analysis of multicity time-series data on the effect of air pollution on population health, bringing together data from the European APHEA (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach) and U.S. NMMAPS (National Morbidity, Mortality and Air Pollution Study) projects, along with Canadian data. Objectives The main objective of APHENA was to assess the coherence of the findings of the multicity studies carried out in Europe and North America, when analyzed with a common protocol, and to explore sources of possible heterogeneity. We present APHENA results on the effects of particulate matter (PM) ? 10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) on the daily number of deaths for all ages and for those < 75 and ? 75 years of age. We explored the impact of potential environmental and socioeconomic factors that may modify this association. Methods In the first stage of a two-stage analysis, we used Poisson regression models, with natural and penalized splines, to adjust for seasonality, with various degrees of freedom. In the second stage, we used meta-regression approaches to combine time-series results across cites and to assess effect modification by selected ecologic covariates. Results Air pollution risk estimates were relatively robust to different modeling approaches. Risk estimates from Europe and United States were similar, but those from Canada were substantially higher. The combined effect of PM10 on all-cause mortality across all ages for cities with daily air pollution data ranged from 0.2% to 0.6% for a 10-?g/m3 increase in ambient PM10 concentration. Effect modification by other pollutants and climatic variables differed in Europe and the United States. In both of these regions, a higher proportion of older people and higher unemployment were associated with increased air pollution risk. Conclusions Estimates of the increased mortality associated with PM air pollution based on the APHENA study were generally comparable with results of previous reports. Overall, risk estimates were similar in Europe and in the United States but higher in Canada. However, PM10 effect modification patterns were somewhat different in Europe and the United States. PMID:19057700

  11. The efficiency effects of a single market for financial services in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen N. Berger

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the potential efficiency effects of a single market for financial services in Europe. The topics covered include universal banking, the merger and acquisition process itself, cross-border ownership and management of financial institutions, and the effects of consolidation of financial institutions on the supply of relationship lending services to informationally opaque small businesses. The research reviewed here suggests

  12. Impact of headache in Europe: a review for the Eurolight project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Jacob Stovner; Colette Andrée

    2008-01-01

    A recent health economic survey in Europe has suggested that migraine is the costliest among the neurological disorders. According\\u000a to many studies, migraine and other disorders lead to widespread suffering, reduction of quality of life, and marked impairment\\u000a of participation, both in work and social activities. The present literature survey was made in order to summarize what is\\u000a known on

  13. Summer Heat Waves in Western Europe, Their Past Change and Future Projections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Della-Marta; M. Beniston

    Summer heat waves and extremely hot temperatures are a serious threat to society, the environment and the economy of Europe.\\u000a In this chapter we present an overview of selected recent literature which looks specifically at European heat waves and extreme\\u000a temperature events, their past change and expected future change from 1880 to 2100. Della-Marta et al. (2007b) show that over

  14. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: Europe Albers Equal Area

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Amount of phosphorus fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell for each crop. Europe Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Publication Date: 1/24/2011 Copyright 2011-and-manure Kg/ha of Phosphorus Fertilizer applied per grid cell: 0 0.1 -2 2.1 -5 5.1 -10 10.1 -2020.1 -4040

  15. Assessing river flood risk and adaptation in Europe—review of projections for the future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz; Nicola Lugeri; Rutger Dankers; Yukiko Hirabayashi; Petra Döll; Iwona Pi?skwar; Tomasz Dysarz; Stefan Hochrainer; Piotr Matczak

    2010-01-01

    Flood damages have exhibited a rapid upward trend, both globally and in Europe, faster than population and economic growth.\\u000a Hence, vigorous attempts of attribution of changes have been made. Flood risk and vulnerability tend to change over many areas,\\u000a due to a range of climatic and nonclimatic impacts whose relative importance is site-specific. Flooding is a complex phenomenon\\u000a and there

  16. Comparing emission inventories and model-ready emission datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliot, George; Pierce, Thomas; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Schaap, Martijn; Moran, Michael; Nopmongcol, Uarporn

    2012-06-01

    This paper highlights the similarities and differences in how emission inventories and datasets were developed and processed across North America and Europe for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project and then characterizes the emissions for the two domains. We focus specifically on the creation of “model-ready” gridded emission datasets for 2006 across the two continental study domains. The practice of creating and processing the two inventories is discussed with a focus on emission factors, spatial allocation, temporal variability, speciation of PM and VOCs, and the mechanics of distributing the data and supporting emission algorithms to the modeling community. The spatial and temporal distribution on common scales is compared for the pollutants of primary concern: NOx, VOCs, SO2, PM2.5, CO, and NH3. Because of differences of population distribution, emissions across North America tend to be more heterogeneous in spatial coverage than in Europe. The temporal patterns in the estimated emissions are largely the result of assumptions used to characterize human activity, with the exception of “natural” emissions, which are modulated by meteorological variability, and emissions from large electric generating units in the U.S., which have the benefit of continuous emission monitors that provide hourly resolved profiles. Emission estimates in both study domains are challenged by several important but poorly characterized emission source sectors, notably road dust, agricultural operations, biomass burning, and road transport. Finally, this paper provides insight on the strengths and weaknesses of emission inventory preparation practices on both continents. One important outcome of this comparison of 2006 emissions between Europe and North America is the greater understanding provided into how the emission estimates developed for the AQMEII project impact regional air quality model performance.

  17. Climatic suitability of Aedes albopictus in Europe referring to climate change projections: comparison of mechanistic and correlative niche modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D; Thomas, S M; Neteler, M; Tjaden, N B; Beierkuhnlein, C

    2014-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is capable of transmitting a broad range of viruses to humans. Since its introduction at the end of the 20th century, it has become well established in large parts of southern Europe. As future expansion as a result of climate change can be expected, determining the current and projected future climatic suitability of this invasive mosquito in Europe is of interest. Several studies have tried to detect the potential habitats for this species, but differing data sources and modelling approaches must be considered when interpreting the findings. Here, various modelling methodologies are compared with special emphasis on model set-up and study design. Basic approaches and model algorithms for the projection of spatio-temporal trends within the 21st century differ substantially. Applied methods range from mechanistic models (e.g. overlay of climatic constraints based on geographic information systems or rather process-based approaches) to correlative niche models. We conclude that spatial characteristics such as introduction gateways and dispersal pathways need to be considered. Laboratory experiments addressing the climatic constraints of the mosquito are required for improved modelling results. However, the main source of uncertainty remains the insufficient knowledge about the species' ability to adapt to novel environments. PMID:24556349

  18. The History of European Health Project: a history of health in Europe from the late Paleolithic era to the present.

    PubMed

    Steckel, Richard H; Larsen, Clark S; Sciulli, Paul W; Walker, Philip L

    2009-01-01

    The United States National Science Foundation has recently funded a large collaborative project on "A History of Health in Europe from the Late Paleolithic Era to the Present," whose goal is to measure and analyzes the evolution of skeletal health by combining data from human remains with information gathered from sources in archaeology, climate history, geography, and history. The goal of this international collaborative project is to create a series of database that will allow researchers to reinterpret the history of human health in Europe from the late Paleolithic era to the early twentieth century. During this period, human health and welfare were transformed enormously by the transition from foraging to farming; the rise of cities and complex forms of social and political organization; European colonization; and industrialization. With a trans-Atlantic network of collaborators, we will undertake large-scale comparative studies of the causes and health consequences of these and other dramatic changes in arrangements for work, living, and human interaction. PMID:20063662

  19. SHORT REPORT Open Access Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SHORT REPORT Open Access Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing: The main long-term purpose of the GERIE study is to improve the health of elderly who permanently reside of housing and social integration) or in nursing homes (quality of healthcare and manage- ment

  20. THE EFFECTS OF DREISSENA POLYMORPHA (PALLAS) INVASION ON AQUATIC COMMUNITIES IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALEXANDER Y. KARATAYEV

    1997-01-01

    Dreissena polymorpha has been invading fresh waterbodies of eastern and western Europe since the beginning of the 19th century and is still invading. A long history of monitoring and experimental studies conducted in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) has provided us with an understanding of the effects of zebra mussels on waterbodies they invade. However, this work has not been

  1. Returns to education in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludger Wößmann

    2003-01-01

    Research teams from 15 European countries, including some of Europe's leading labor-market economists, have recently completed an EU-funded research project yielding empirical estimates of the effect of education on wages in different European labor markets. Readers approaching the book in which this collaboration culminated might be interested in two kinds of questions: First, what is the return to education in

  2. Short-term Associations between Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and Hospitalizations in Southern Europe: Results from the MED-PARTICLES Project

    PubMed Central

    Samoli, Evangelia; Alessandrini, Ester; Cadum, Ennio; Ostro, Bart; Berti, Giovanna; Faustini, Annunziata; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Linares, Cristina; Pascal, Mathilde; Randi, Giorgia; Ranzi, Andrea; Stivanello, Elisa; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the short-term effects of fine and coarse particles on morbidity in Europe is scarce and inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to estimate the association between daily concentrations of fine and coarse particles with hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in eight Southern European cities, within the MED-PARTICLES project. Methods: City-specific Poisson models were fitted to estimate associations of daily concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), ? 10 ?m (PM10), and their difference (PM2.5–10) with daily counts of emergency hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. We derived pooled estimates from random-effects meta-analysis and evaluated the robustness of results to co-pollutant exposure adjustment and model specification. Pooled concentration–response curves were estimated using a meta-smoothing approach. Results: We found significant associations between all PM fractions and cardiovascular admissions. Increases of 10 ?g/m3 in PM2.5, 6.3 ?g/m3 in PM2.5–10, and 14.4 ?g/m3 in PM10 (lag 0–1 days) were associated with increases in cardiovascular admissions of 0.51% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.90%), 0.46% (95% CI: 0.10, 0.82%), and 0.53% (95% CI: 0.06, 1.00%), respectively. Stronger associations were estimated for respiratory hospitalizations, ranging from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.21, 2.11%) for PM10 to 1.36% (95% CI: 0.23, 2.49) for PM2.5 (lag 0–5 days). Conclusions: PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 were positively associated with cardiovascular and respiratory admissions in eight Mediterranean cities. Information on the short-term effects of different PM fractions on morbidity in Southern Europe will be useful to inform European policies on air quality standards. Citation: Stafoggia M, Samoli E, Alessandrini E, Cadum E, Ostro B, Berti G, Faustini A, Jacquemin B, Linares C, Pascal M, Randi G, Ranzi A, Stivanello E, Forastiere F, the MED-PARTICLES Study Group. 2013. Short-term associations between fine and coarse particulate matter and hospitalizations in Southern Europe: results from the MED-PARTICLES project. Environ Health Perspect 121:1026–1033; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206151 PMID:23777832

  3. Economic effects of multi-project management

    E-print Network

    Dominguez, Eric Anthony, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis discusses various approaches to project management. In particular, it focuses on the effects of functional and project coordination when inter-project interactions exist. Various organizational structures and ...

  4. Sharing knowledge to advance healthcare policies in Europe for people living with dementia and their carers: the ALCOVE project

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease and other related dementias are public health priorities in the European Union due to their prevalence, cost and profound impact on society. Because of these pressing implications, the European Union decided to create a Joint Action to share knowledge about dementia and health policy in order to preserve the health, quality of life, autonomy and dignity of people living with dementia and their carers in Europe. Methods ALCOVE is a European Community-funded Joint Action coordinated by the HAS (French National Authority for Health) with a 24-month duration. The project’s life cycle has been divided into the following four steps: (1) collection of existing information, (2) analysis of existing information and making comparisons across Member States, (3) identifying Evidence, Needs, and Priorities, (4) drafting recommendations and disseminating them. Results 19 countries are participating in the ALCOVE initiative. The project will publish its final findings in 2013. The project’s objectives, participants, method, on-going procedures and work plans are already available on the ALCOVE website: http://www.alcove-project.eu/. Preliminary results show that recommendations will need to focus on clinical and epidemiological data collection, diagnostic system assessment, outstanding approaches for treating behavioural disorders, limiting antipsychotic use, and competence assessment in this vulnerable population. Conclusions The European Member States involved are mobilized to share best health policy practices in order to tackle the challenge of dementia’s threat on European health and social systems and to improve the quality of life and care for individuals and their family carers. PMID:22958544

  5. Earnings management within Europe: the effects of member state audit environment, audit firm quality and international capital markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Maijoor; Ann Vanstraelen

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies earnings management in a European context. More specifically, the effects of three factors on earnings management within Europe are studied: member state audit environment, audit firm quality and presence in international capital markets. The national audit environments within Europe vary strongly in terms of independence rules and auditor liability. Hence, it can be expected that the restrictions

  6. Observed and simulated impacts of the summer NAO in Europe: implications for projected drying in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bladé, Ileana; Liebmann, Brant; Fortuny, Didac; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan

    2012-08-01

    Climate models predict substantial summer precipitation reductions in Europe and the Mediterranean region in the twenty-first century, but the extent to which these models correctly represent the mechanisms of summertime precipitation in this region is uncertain. Here an analysis is conducted to compare the observed and simulated impacts of the dominant large-scale driver of summer rainfall variability in Europe and the Mediterranean, the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO). The SNAO is defined as the leading mode of July-August sea level pressure variability in the North Atlantic sector. Although the SNAO is weaker and confined to northern latitudes compared to its winter counterpart, with a southern lobe located over the UK, it significantly affects precipitation in the Mediterranean, particularly Italy and the Balkans (correlations of up to 0.6). During high SNAO summers, when strong anticyclonic conditions and suppressed precipitation prevail over the UK, the Mediterranean region instead is anomalously wet. This enhanced precipitation is related to the presence of a strong upper-level trough over the Balkans—part of a hemispheric pattern of anomalies that develops in association with the SNAO—that leads to mid-level cooling and increased potential instability. Neither this downstream extension nor the surface influence of the SNAO is captured in the two CMIP3 models examined (HadCM3 and GFDL-CM2.1), with weak or non-existent correlations between the SNAO and Mediterranean precipitation. Because these models also predict a strong upward SNAO trend in the future, the error in their representation of the SNAO surface signature impacts the projected precipitation trends. In particular, the attendant increase in precipitation that, based on observations, should occur in the Mediterranean and offset some of the non-SNAO related drying does not occur. Furthermore, the fact that neither the observed SNAO nor summer precipitation in Europe/Mediterranean region exhibits any significant trend so far (for either the full century or the recent half of the record) does not increase our confidence in these model projections.

  7. The range of regional climate change projections in central Europe: How to deal with the spread of climate model results?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechid, D.; Jacob, D.; Podzun, R.

    2010-09-01

    The regional climate change projections for central Europe in the 21st century show a large spread of simulated temperature and precipitation trends due to natural variability and modelling uncertainties. The questions are how to extract robust climate change signals and how to transfer the range of possible temperature and precipitation trends to climate change impact studies and adaptation strategies? Within the BMBF funded research priority "KLIMZUG - Managing Climate Change in the Regions of the Future", innovative strategies for adaptation to climate change are developed. The funding activity particularly stresses the regional aspect since the global problem climate change must be tackled by measures at regional and local level. The focus of the joint project "KLIMZUG-NORD - Strategic Approaches to Climate Change Adaptation in the Hamburg Metropolitan Region" is to establish an interdisciplinary network between the research, administrative and economic sectors in this region. The regional climate change information is provided by the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology as input for climate change impact assessments. The cross-sectional task "climate change" is to prepare consistent regional climate data and to advise on its reasonable use. The project benefits from the results of the ENSEMBLES EU project, in which an extensive set of regional climate change simulations at 50 km horizontal resolution were performed for 1950 to 2100. For impact studies, higher horizontal resolutions are required. With the regional climate model REMO, three global climate change scenarios from ECHAM5-MPIOM were downscaled to 50 km with three ensemble members each. In a second step, some members were further downscaled to 10 km for central Europe. For the global and regional simulations, the trends were analysed and indicate a strong internal climate variability, which further increases the range of climate change simulation results. This all recommends the application of 1. several RCMs to consider the uncertainty of downscaling methods, 2. different ensemble members of a certain climate change scenario to consider internal climate variability, 3. different global climate change scenarios to consider the influence of greenhouse gas emissions. The spread of climate change information needs to be transported into impact assessments in order to develop flexible adaptation strategies.

  8. The relative age effect in youth soccer across Europe.

    PubMed

    Helsen, Werner F; van Winckel, Jan; Williams, A Mark

    2005-06-01

    The potential asymmetries in the birth-date distributions of youth soccer players across ten European countries (2175 age citations) were considered. First, we examined the birth-dates of players representing national youth teams in international competitions. Second, the birth-dates of players representing professional club teams in international youth tournaments were analysed. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to assess differences between observed and expected birth-date distributions. Regression analyses were employed to examine the relationship between month of birth and number of players in the different samples. The results showed an over-representation of players born in the first quarter of the selection year (from January to March) for all the national youth selections at the under-15 (U-15), U-16, U-17 and U-18 age categories, as well as for the UEFA U-16 tournaments and Meridian Cup. Players with a greater relative age are more likely to be identified as "talented" because of the likely physical advantages they have over their "younger" peers. Some options for reducing the relative age effect are offered. PMID:16195011

  9. Clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing effects based on multi-site AERONET observations over Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gonzi; O. Dubovik; D. Baumgartner; E. Putz

    2007-01-01

    Summary  One of the great unknowns in climate research is the contribution of aerosols to climate forcing and climate perturbation.\\u000a In this study, retrievals from AERONET are used to estimate the direct clear-sky aerosol top-of-atmosphere and surface radiative\\u000a forcing effects for 12 multi-site observing stations in Europe. The radiative transfer code sdisort in the libRadtran environment is applied to accomplish these

  10. Comenius Project: Are e-Learning Collaborations of High School Students across Europe in Maths Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonovits, Reinhard; McElroy, Jim; O'Loughlin, James; Townsend, Colin

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of the project is to allow for the collaboration of high school students of different European countries on small, selected maths topics. This involves the use of technology, student mobility and English language competency. Benefits are also expected to accrue to teachers of mathematics by providing the opportunity to work with…

  11. Transatlantic Student Exchange between Canada and Europe: Experiences from the CEIHPAL Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherriff, Nigel Stuart; Jeffery, Amanda; Davies, John Kenneth; Hills, Marcia; Carroll, Simon; Jackson, Suzanne; Krupa, Gene; Goepel, Eberhard; Hofmeister, Arnd; Tountas, Yannis; Attorp, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    International student mobility amongst and between countries has become increasingly common and forms a central feature of the global higher education system. This paper examines the key learning experiences relating to the student mobility component of the Canadian-European Initiative for Health Promotion Advanced Learning (CEIHPAL) project.…

  12. Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe: The ARISE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, E.; Bittner, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Ceranna, L.; Charlton-Perez, A.; Ripepe, M.; Evers, L.; Kvaerna, T.; Lastovicka, J.; Eliasson, L.; Crosby, N.; Blanc-Benon, P.; Bernonville, S.; Le Pichon, A.; Keckhut, P.; Marchetti, E.; Wust, S.; Brachet, N.; Heinrich, P.; Pilger, C.

    2012-04-01

    ARISE proposes to design a new infrastructure that integrates different station networks in order to provide a new "3D" image of the atmospheric dynamics from the ground up to the mesosphere with unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. The implied networks are: -the International infrasound network developed for the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This system is unique by its quality for infrasound and atmospheric wave observations, -the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes (NDACC) which uses Lidar to measure stratospheric dynamics, -the Network for the Detection of Mesopause Changes (NDMC), dedicated to airglow layer measurements in the mesosphere, and additional complementary stations and satellite data. The infrastructure extends across Europe and outlying regions, including polar and equatorial regions. Atmospheric waves play a key role in atmospheric mixing and global circulation in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Planetary waves can lead to sudden stratospheric warming while gravity waves generate predictable tropical oscillations of mean wind, which can lead to enhanced predictability of climate. Parameterization of gravity waves is needed for accurate simulation of mean climate and variability, but parameters are uncertain due to lack of long-term high-resolution observations. ARISE expected benefits would be a better description of the atmosphere, leading to an improved accuracy in short and medium range weather forecasts. The measurements will be used to improve the parameterization of gravity waves in the stratosphere to better resolve climate models. Such description is crucial to estimate the impact of stratospheric climate forcing on the troposphere. In the long term, data will be used for monitoring changes in the occurrence of extreme events and trends in the middle atmosphere climate. The benefits also include civil applications related to monitoring of natural hazards as volcanoes.

  13. School-based interventions promoting both physical activity and healthy eating in Europe: a systematic review within the HOPE project.

    PubMed

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Van Cauwenberghe, E; Spittaels, H; Oppert, J-M; Rostami, C; Brug, J; Van Lenthe, F; Lobstein, T; Maes, L

    2011-03-01

    It is the purpose of this study to systematically review the evidence of school-based interventions targeting dietary and physical activity behaviour in primary (6-12 years old) and secondary school (12-18 years old) children in Europe. Eleven studies (reported in 27 articles) met the inclusion criteria, six in primary school and five in secondary school children. Interventions were evaluated in terms of behavioural determinants, behaviour (diet and physical activity) and weight-related outcomes (body mass index [BMI] or other indicators of obesity). The results suggest that combining educational and environmental components that focus on both sides of the energy balance give better and more relevant effects. Furthermore, computer-tailored personalized education in the classroom showed better results than a generic classroom curriculum. Environmental interventions might include organized physical activities during breaks, or before and after school; improved availability of physical activity opportunities in and around the school environment; increased physical education lesson time; improved availability or accessibility of healthy food options; and restricted availability and accessibility of unhealthy food options. More high-quality studies are needed to assess obesity-related interventions in Europe. PMID:20122137

  14. Meteorology and photochemical air pollution in Southern Europe: Experimental results from EC research projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Artnano

    1996-01-01

    The MECAPIP project of EC has served to document the summer atmospheric circulations and the related air pollution dynamics over Spain and the Western Mediterranean. The first includes surface wind convergence over the Iberian peninsula, large-scale compensatory subsidence over the surrounding coastal areas, and the formation of re-circulatory cells as a result of the sea breezes combining with up-slope winds

  15. Jet fuel property changes and their effect on producibility and cost in the U.S., Canada, and Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varga, G. M., Jr.; Avella, A. J., Jr.; Cunningham, A. R.; Featherston, C. D.; Gorgol, J. F.; Graf, A. J.; Lieberman, M.; Oliver, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of changes in properties and blending stocks on the refinery output and cost of jet fuel in the U.S., Canada, and Europe were determined. Computerized refinery models that minimize production costs and incorporated a 1981 cost structure and supply/demand projections to the year 2010 were used. Except in the West U.S., no changes in jet fuel properties were required to meet all projected demands, even allowing for deteriorating crude qualities and changes in competing product demand. In the West U.S., property changes or the use of cracked blendstocks were projected to be required after 1990 to meet expected demand. Generally, relaxation of aromatics and freezing point, or the use of cracked stocks produced similar results, i.e., jet fuel output could be increased by up to a factor of three or its production cost lowered by up to $10/cu m. High quality hydrocracked stocks are now used on a limited basis to produce jet fuel. The conversion of U.S. and NATO military forces from wide-cut to kerosene-based jet fuel is addressed. This conversion resulted in increased costs of several hundred million dollars annually. These costs can be reduced by relaxing kerosene jet fuel properties, using cracked stocks and/or considering the greater volumetric energy content of kerosene jet fuel.

  16. The New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe (MATRIX) Project - An overview of its major findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Kevin; Zschau, Jochen; Gasparini, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Recent major natural disasters, such as the 2011 T?hoku earthquake, tsunami and subsequent Fukushima nuclear accident, have raised awareness of the frequent and potentially far-reaching interconnections between natural hazards. Such interactions occur at the hazard level, where an initial hazard may trigger other events (e.g., an earthquake triggering a tsunami) or several events may occur concurrently (or nearly so), e.g., severe weather around the same time as an earthquake. Interactions also occur at the vulnerability level, where the initial event may make the affected community more susceptible to the negative consequences of another event (e.g., an earthquake weakens buildings, which are then damaged further by windstorms). There is also a temporal element involved, where changes in exposure may alter the total risk to a given area. In short, there is the likelihood that the total risk estimated when considering multiple hazard and risks and their interactions is greater than the sum of their individual parts. It is with these issues in mind that the European Commission, under their FP7 program, supported the New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe or MATRIX project (10.2010 to 12.2013). MATRIX set out to tackle multiple natural hazards (i.e., those of concern to Europe, namely earthquakes, landslides, volcanos, tsunamis, wild fires, storms and fluvial and coastal flooding) and risks within a common theoretical framework. The MATRIX work plan proceeded from an assessment of single-type risk methodologies (including how uncertainties should be treated), cascade effects within a multi-hazard environment, time-dependent vulnerability, decision making and support for multi-hazard mitigation and adaption, and an assessment of how the multi-hazard and risk viewpoint may be integrated into current decision making and risk mitigation programs, considering the existing single-hazard and risk focus. Three test sites were considered during the project: Naples, Cologne, and the French West Indies. In addition, a software platform, the MATRIX-Common IT sYstem (MATRIX-CITY), was developed to allow the evaluation of characteristic multi-hazard and risk scenarios in comparison to single-type analyses. This presentation therefore outlines the more significant outcomes of the project, in particular those dealing with the harmonization of single-type hazards, cascade event analysis, time-dependent vulnerability changes and the response of the disaster management community to the MATRIX point of view.

  17. Advection from the North Atlantic as the Forcing of Winter Greenhouse Effect Over Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, Jay; Angell, J.; Atlas, Robert; Bungato, D.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Susskind, J.; Wu, M.-L. C.

    2001-01-01

    In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface skin temperature are observed over central Europe: we observe a difference of 9.8 K comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996 for the region 50-60 degrees N; 5-35 degrees E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index I(sub na), the average of the ocean-surface wind speed over the eastern North Atlantic when the direction is from the southwest (when the wind is from another direction, it counts as a zero speed to the average). Average Ina for February 1990 was 10.6 in s(exp -1), but for February 1996 I(sub na) was only 2.4 m s(exp -1). A large value of I(sub na) means a strong southwesterly flow which brings warm and moist air into Europe at low level, producing a steeper tropospheric lapse rate. Strong ascending motions result, which we observe in February 1990 at 700 mb. The near-surface moisture rises to higher (and cooler) levels, producing clouds and precipitation. Total preciptable water and cloud-cover fraction have larger values in February 1990 than in 1996. The difference in the greenhouse effect between these two scenarios can be translated into a virtual irradiating source of 2.6 W m(exp -2) above the February 1990 atmosphere, which, as an order of magnitude estimate, contributes to the warming of the surface by 2.6 K. If we accept this estimate as numerically pertinent, the direct effect stands as 7.2 K (9.8 K - 2.6 K), and therefore its greenhouse-effect reinforcement is by 36%. This constitutes a substantial positive feedback to the direct effect, which is the inflow of warm air to the low troposphere over Europe.

  18. Future snowfall in western and central Europe projected with a high-resolution regional climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vries, Hylke; Lenderink, Geert; Meijgaard, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Snowfall frequency and intensity are influenced strongly by climate change. Here we separate the basic frequency change resulting from a gradually warming climate, from the intensity changes, by focusing on snowfall on days where the mean temperature is below freezing (Hellmann days). Using an ensemble of simulations, obtained with the high-resolution regional climate model KNMI-RACMO2 driven by the EC-EARTH global climate model and RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 forcing scenarios, we show that in addition to the strong decrease in the number of Hellmann days, also a substantial reduction in the mean Hellmann-day snowfall can be expected over large parts of western and central Europe. Moreover, seasonal snowfall extremes display trends that are comparable or even larger. Projected intensity reductions are locally as large as -30% per degree warming, thus being in sharp contrast to mean winter precipitation, which increases in most future climate scenarios. Exceptions are the high Alps and parts of Scandinavia, which may see an increase of up to +10% per degree warming.

  19. Linking climate and air quality over Europe: effects of meteorology on PM2.5 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megaritis, A. G.; Fountoukis, C.; Charalampidis, P. E.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S. N.

    2014-09-01

    The effects of various meteorological parameters such as temperature, wind speed, absolute humidity, precipitation and mixing height on PM2.5 concentrations over Europe were examined using a three-dimensional chemical transport model, PMCAMx-2008. Our simulations covered three periods, representative of different seasons (summer, winter, and fall). PM2.5 appears to be more sensitive to temperature changes compared to the other meteorological parameters in all seasons. PM2.5 generally decreases as temperature increases, although the predicted changes vary significantly in space and time, ranging from -700 ng m-3 K-1 (-8% K-1) to 300 ng m-3 K-1 (7% K-1). The predicted decreases of PM2.5 are mainly due to evaporation of ammonium nitrate, while the higher biogenic emissions and the accelerated gas-phase reaction rates increase the production of organic aerosol (OA) and sulfate, having the opposite effect on PM2.5. The predicted responses of PM2.5 to absolute humidity are also quite variable, ranging from -130 ng m-3 %-1 (-1.6% %-1) to 160 ng m-3 %-1 (1.6% %-1) dominated mainly by changes in inorganic PM2.5 species. An increase in absolute humidity favors the partitioning of nitrate to the aerosol phase and increases the average PM2.5 during summer and fall. Decreases in sulfate and sea salt levels govern the average PM2.5 response to humidity during winter. A decrease of wind speed (keeping the emissions constant) increases all PM2.5 species (on average 40 ng m-3 %-1) due to changes in dispersion and dry deposition. The wind speed effects on sea salt emissions are significant for PM2.5 concentrations over water and in coastal areas. Increases in precipitation have a negative effect on PM2.5 (decreases up to 110 ng m-3 %-1) in all periods due to increases in wet deposition of PM2.5 species and their gas precursors. Changes in mixing height have the smallest effects (up to 35 ng m-3 %-1) on PM2.5 . Regarding the relative importance of each of the meteorological parameters in a changed future climate, the projected changes in precipitation are expected to have the largest impact on PM2.5 levels during all periods (changes up to 2 ?g m-3 in the fall). The expected effects in future PM2.5 levels due to wind speed changes are similar in all seasons and quite close to those resulting from future precipitation changes (up to 1.4 ?g m-3). The expected increases in absolute humidity in the future can lead to large changes in PM2.5 levels (increases up to 2 ?g m-3) mainly in the fall due to changes in particulate nitrate levels. Despite the high sensitivity of PM2.5 levels to temperature, the small expected increases of temperature in the future will lead to modest PM2.5 changes and will not dominate the overall change.

  20. Economics of chronic diseases protocol: cost-effectiveness modelling and the future burden of non-communicable disease in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of chronic disease is caused by risk factors which are mostly preventable. Effective interventions to reduce these risks are known and proven to be applicable to a variety of settings. Chronic disease is generally developed long before the fatal outcome, meaning that a lot of people spend a number of years in poor health. Effective prevention measures can prolong lives of individuals and significantly improve their quality of life. However, the methods to measure cost-effectiveness are a subject to much debate. The Economics of Chronic Diseases project aims to establish the best possible methods of measuring cost-effectiveness as well as develop micro-simulation models apt at projecting future burden of chronic diseases, their costs and potential savings after implementation of cost-effective interventions. Method This research project will involve eight European countries: Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Lithuania, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom (UK). A literature review will be conducted to identify scientific articles which critically review the methods of cost-effectiveness. Contact will be made health economists to inform and enrich this review. This evidence will be used as a springboard for discussion at a meeting with key European stakeholders and experts with the aim of reaching a consensus on recommendations for cost-effectiveness methodology. Epidemiological data for coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be collected along with data on time trends in three major risk factors related to these diseases, specifically tobacco consumption, blood pressure and body mass index. Economic and epidemiological micro-simulation models will be developed to asses the future distributions of risks, disease outcomes, healthcare costs and the cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in Europe. Discussion This work will help to establish the best methods of measuring cost-effectiveness of health interventions as well as test a variety of scenarios to reduce the risk factors associated with selected chronic diseases. The modelling projections could be used to inform decisions and policies that will implement the best course of action to curb the rising incidence of chronic diseases. PMID:24886110

  1. Improved appreciation of the functioning and importance of biological soil crusts in Europe: the Soil Crust International Project (SCIN).

    PubMed

    Büdel, Burkhard; Colesie, Claudia; Green, T G Allan; Grube, Martin; Lázaro Suau, Roberto; Loewen-Schneider, Katharina; Maier, Stefanie; Peer, Thomas; Pintado, Ana; Raggio, José; Ruprecht, Ulrike; Sancho, Leopoldo G; Schroeter, Burkhard; Türk, Roman; Weber, Bettina; Wedin, Mats; Westberg, Martin; Williams, Laura; Zheng, Lingjuan

    2014-01-01

    Here we report details of the European research initiative "Soil Crust International" (SCIN) focusing on the biodiversity of biological soil crusts (BSC, composed of bacteria, algae, lichens, and bryophytes) and on functional aspects in their specific environment. Known as the so-called "colored soil lichen community" (Bunte Erdflechtengesellschaft), these BSCs occur all over Europe, extending into subtropical and arid regions. Our goal is to study the uniqueness of these BSCs on the regional scale and investigate how this community can cope with large macroclimatic differences. One of the major aims of this project is to develop biodiversity conservation and sustainable management strategies for European BSCs. To achieve this, we established a latitudinal transect from the Great Alvar of Öland, Sweden in the north over Gössenheim, Central Germany and Hochtor in the Hohe Tauern National Park, Austria down to the badlands of Tabernas, Spain in the south. The transect stretches over 20° latitude and 2,300 m in altitude, including natural (Hochtor, Tabernas) and semi-natural sites that require maintenance such as by grazing activities (Öland, Gössenheim). At all four sites BSC coverage exceeded 30 % of the referring landscape, with the alpine site (Hochtor) reaching the highest cyanobacterial cover and the two semi-natural sites (Öland, Gössenheim) the highest bryophyte cover. Although BSCs of the four European sites share a common set of bacteria, algae (including cyanobacteria) lichens and bryophytes, first results indicate not only climate specific additions of species, but also genetic/phenotypic uniqueness of species between the four sites. While macroclimatic conditions are rather different, microclimatic conditions and partly soil properties seem fairly homogeneous between the four sites, with the exception of water availability. Continuous activity monitoring of photosystem II revealed the BSCs of the Spanish site as the least active in terms of photosynthetic active periods. PMID:24954978

  2. The Virtual Earthquake and seismology Research Community e-science environment in Europe (VERCE): a European Research Infrastructure project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilotte, J.; Atkinson, M.; Van Eck, T.; Bossu, R.; Michelini, A.; Igel, H.; Rietbrock, A.; Frank, A.; Schwichtenberg, H.; Erbacci, G.

    2013-12-01

    The nature of science in seismology is changing - new discoveries will emerge from statistical analysis and modeling (inversion, assimilation) of large amounts of data generated from dense observational and monitoring networks and from large-scale wave propagation simulations. In many cases our ability to acquire observational and synthetic data outpaces today our ability to process and analyze them. Addressing these challenges requires a new and holistic approach with important augmented societal applications in seismic hazard assessment and monitoring, and exploration geophysics. VERCE is a four-year FP7-INFRASTRUCTURE project, with a consortium of ten partners from seismology and computer science, and contributes to the e-science infrastructure of the European Plate Observatory System (EPOS), the ESFRI initiative of the solid Earth community in Europe. We report here the progress of VERCE toward a service-oriented architecture and a platform of services and tools - integrating European computing and data infrastructures with the distributed seismological data archives - in support for data-intensive analysis and modeling applications. Two prototype applications were selected within VERCE: a data-intensive analysis application based on seismic-noise correlation; and a data-intensive HPC wave simulation application. Both applications consist of multiple phases where ingestion interleaves with data processing and analysis, generating highly parallel and asynchronous data workflows together with massively parallel data access. VERCE efforts are devoted in particular to providing efficient scalable and transparent distributed data management and data transfer services, together with execution models that enable data processing and analysis computation to overlap with data transfer and I/O operations, thereby achieving high throughput under heavy asynchronous access to data. We discuss the current progress of VERCE in enabling the application prototypes, and in developing a scientific gateway that will provide them as a service to the seismology community. We will also discuss elements of the next phase plan and implementation roadmap.

  3. Review of recent studies from central and Eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to "traditional" air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Jedrychowski, W

    1995-01-01

    The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review focuses on epidemiologic evidence regarding health effects of poor air quality in Central and Eastern Europe. It appears that short-term high levels of air pollutants (primarily particulates and SO2) may increase mortality in sensitive parts of the population. Associations were also seen between air pollution levels and prevalence of respiratory diseases as well as lung function disturbances in adults and children. One study indicated that urban air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer. Several investigations pointed to strong interactions between risk factors. The poor scientific standard of the studies often makes it difficult to evaluate the findings. Several steps should be taken to develop environmental epidemiology in Central and Eastern Europe, including international collaboration in research projects and training. PMID:7614938

  4. Advection from the North Atlantic as the Forcing of Winter Greenhouse Effect Over Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Angell, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Shubert, S.; Starr, David OC.; Susskind, J.; Wu, M.-L. C.

    2002-01-01

    In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface temperature are observed over central Europe. Comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996, a satellite-retrieved surface (skin) temperature difference of 9.8 K is observed for the region 50-60 degrees N; 5-35 degrees E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index I(sub na), the average of the ocean-surface wind speed over the eastern North Atlantic when the direction is from the southwest (when the wind is from another direction, it counts as a zero speed to the average). Average I(sub na) for February 1990 was 10.6 m/s, but for February 1996 I(sub na) was only 2.4 m/s. A large value of I(sub na) means a strong southwesterly flow which brings warm and moist air into central Europe at low level, producing a steeper tropospheric lapse rate. Strong ascending motions at 700 mb are observed in association with the occurrence of enhanced warm, moist advection from the ocean in February 1990 producing clouds and precipitation. Total precipitable water and cloud-cover fraction have larger values in February 1990 than in 1996. The difference in the greenhouse effect between these two scenarios, this reduction in heat loss to space, can be translated into a virtual radiative heating of 2.6 W/square m above the February 1990 surface/atmosphere system, which contributes to a warming of the surface on the order of 2.6 K. Accepting this estimate as quantitatively meaningful, we evaluate the direct effect, the rise in the surface temperature in Europe as a result of maritime-air inflow, as 7.2 K (9.8 K-2.6 K). Thus, fractional reinforcement by the greenhouse effect is 2.6/7.2, or 36%, a substantial positive feedback.

  5. Procedures for Research on School Effectiveness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savard, William G.

    A unique feature of the Research on School Effectiveness Project (part of a larger program for school effectiveness initiated by the State of Alaska) is an intention to base the development of new standards for effective schooling upon documented research findings. First, a list of variables affecting some part of the educational community was…

  6. Operational Model Evaluation for Particulate Matter in Europe and North America in the Context of the AQMEII Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten state-of-the-science regional air quality (AQ) modeling systems have been applied to continental scale domains in North America and Europe for full-year simulations of 2006 in the context of Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII), whose main goals are ...

  7. Project Title: Prisoner Counselling Effectiveness

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    to be evaluated. Based on a review of literature surrounding designing self- assessment survey methods, a review methods and applications of survey methods to evaluate a programmes effectiveness (comparison across review on applications of survey methods to evaluate a programme's effectiveness 12 March ­ 5 April

  8. Mind the Gap: The Effectiveness of Incentives to boost Retirement Saving in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axel Börsch-Supan

    2004-01-01

    Pension reforms all across Europe have a common theme: to reduce the generosity of the pay-as-you-go public pension pillar threatened by population aging, and to build up new pillars by private saving through occupational and individual pension plans. The extent of such retirement saving varies a great deal across Europe. This variation reflects, among other factors, the differences in public

  9. Common summertime total cloud cover and aerosol optical depth weekly variabilities over Europe: Sign of the aerosol indirect effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulias, A. K.; Kourtidis, K. A.; Alexandri, G.; Rapsomanikis, S.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the summer total cloud cover (TCC) weekly cycle over Europe is investigated using MODIS and ISCCP satellite data in conjunction with aerosol optical depth (AOD) MODIS data. Spatial weekly patterns are examined at a 1° × 1° (MODIS) and 250 × 250 km2 (ISCCP) resolution. Despite the noise in the TCC weekly cycle patterns, their large-scale features show similarities with the AOD550 patterns. Regions with a positive (higher values during midweek) weekly cycle appear over Central Europe, while a strong negative (higher values during weekend) weekly plume appears over the Iberian Peninsula and the North-Eastern Europe. The TCC weekly variability exhibits a very good agreement with the AOD550 weekly variability over Central, South-Western Europe and North-Eastern Europe and a moderate agreement for Central Mediterranean. The MODIS derived TCC weekly variability shows reasonable agreement with the independent ISCCP observations, thus supporting the credibility of the results. TCC and AOD550 correlations exhibit a strong slope for the total of the 6 regions investigated in this work with the slopes being higher for regions with common TCC-AOD550 weekly variabilities. The slope is much stronger for AOD550 values less than 0.2 for Central and South-Western Europe, in line with previous studies around the world. Possible scenarios that could explain the common weekly variability of aerosols and cloud cover through the aerosol indirect effects are discussed here also taking into account the weekly variability appearing in ECA&D E-OBS rainfall data.

  10. Modeling of aerosol indirect effects with WRF/Chem over Europe

    E-print Network

    Curci, Gabriele

    Counters (CPC3010, CPC3025), a Cloud Condensation Nuclei Chamber (CCNC), a custom scanning mobility and cloud issued in frame European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions shows a bias of +15%. Predicted cloud droplet number concentration is overestimated and radius effective

  11. Satellite-derived trends in phenology over Europe: real trends or algorithmic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, A.; Mücher, S.

    2009-04-01

    Changes in the length of the growing season as a result of climate change, have raised many questions about the effects on plant and animal populations. Using Remote Sensing, analysis of Vegetation Index (VI) time-series can help to understand the behavior of plant phenology through the years. Large datasets of satellite images are available to study phenology changes but the interpretation of data to get information can be difficult and different approaches give different answers about changes in the phenological cycle over Europe. In this study 21 years of GIMMS NDVI data was analyzed using two approaches to derive indicators for start, end and length of growing season. Quality control procedures showed clear limitations in the applicability of the two approaches. While there was significant correlation between indicators derived from them, trends detected in start, end or length of growing season for the two approaches often do not agree. This leaves room for questions whether trends are real or due to algorithmic effects.

  12. Climate change effects on Chikungunya transmission in Europe: geospatial analysis of vector’s climatic suitability and virus’ temperature requirements

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chikungunya was, from the European perspective, considered to be a travel-related tropical mosquito-borne disease prior to the first European outbreak in Northern Italy in 2007. This was followed by cases of autochthonous transmission reported in South-eastern France in 2010. Both events occurred after the introduction, establishment and expansion of the Chikungunya-competent and highly invasive disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) in Europe. In order to assess whether these outbreaks are indicative of the beginning of a trend or one-off events, there is a need to further examine the factors driving the potential transmission of Chikungunya in Europe. The climatic suitability, both now and in the future, is an essential starting point for such an analysis. Methods The climatic suitability for Chikungunya outbreaks was determined by using bioclimatic factors that influence, both vector and, pathogen. Climatic suitability for the European distribution of the vector Aedes albopictus was based upon previous correlative environmental niche models. Climatic risk classes were derived by combining climatic suitability for the vector with known temperature requirements for pathogen transmission, obtained from outbreak regions. In addition, the longest potential intra-annual season for Chikungunya transmission was estimated for regions with expected vector occurrences. In order to analyse spatio-temporal trends for risk exposure and season of transmission in Europe, climate change impacts are projected for three time-frames (2011–2040, 2041–2070 and 2071–2100) and two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). These climatic projections are based on regional climate model COSMO-CLM, which builds on the global model ECHAM5. Results European areas with current and future climatic suitability of Chikungunya transmission are identified. An increase in risk is projected for Western Europe (e.g. France and Benelux-States) in the first half of the 21st century and from mid-century onwards for central parts of Europe (e.g. Germany). Interestingly, the southernmost parts of Europe do not generally provide suitable conditions in these projections. Nevertheless, many Mediterranean regions will persist to be climatically suitable for transmission. Overall, the highest risk of transmission by the end of the 21st century was projected for France, Northern Italy and the Pannonian Basin (East-Central Europe). This general tendency is depicted in both, the A1B and B1 climate change scenarios. Conclusion In order to guide preparedness for further outbreaks, it is crucial to anticipate risk as to identify areas where specific public health measures, such as surveillance and vector control, can be implemented. However, public health practitioners need to be aware that climate is only one factor driving the transmission of vector-borne disease. PMID:24219507

  13. Project ABLE: Academic Bridges to Learning Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenison, Mary Ellen

    This paper describes Project ABLE (Academic Bridges to Learning Effectiveness), a program of the Longview Community College in Kansas City, Missouri, to provide college students with learning disabilities or brain injuries with the skills needed to succeed in college and the workplace. Each student in the program takes a basic core of classes…

  14. Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project: cross-national comparison of smoking prevalence in 18 European countries.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo; Chaloupka, Frank J; Colombo, Paolo; Currie, Laura; Fernandez, Esteve; Fischbacher, Colin; Gilmore, Anna; Godfrey, Fiona; Joossens, Luk; Leon, Maria E; Levy, David T; Nguyen, Lien; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Ross, Hana; Townsend, Joy; Clancy, Luke

    2014-05-01

    Limited data on smoking prevalence allowing valid between-country comparison are available in Europe. The aim of this study is to provide data on smoking prevalence and its determinants in 18 European countries. In 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project, we conducted a face-to-face survey on smoking in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden) on a total of 18 056 participants, representative for each country of the population aged 15 years or older. Overall, 27.2% of the participants were current smokers (30.6% of men and 24.1% of women). Smoking prevalence was highest in Bulgaria (40.9%) and Greece (38.9%) and lowest in Italy (22.0%) and Sweden (16.3%). Smoking prevalence ranged between 15.7% (Sweden) and 44.3% (Bulgaria) for men and between 11.6% (Albania) and 38.1% (Ireland) for women. Multivariate analysis showed a significant inverse trend between smoking prevalence and the level of education in both sexes. Male-to-female smoking prevalence ratios ranged from 0.85 in Spain to 3.47 in Albania and current-to-ex prevalence ratios ranged from 0.68 in Sweden to 4.28 in Albania. There are considerable differences across Europe in smoking prevalence, and male-to-female and current-to-ex smoking prevalence ratios. Eastern European countries, lower income countries and those with less advanced tobacco control policies have less favourable smoking patterns and are at an earlier stage of the tobacco epidemic. PMID:24441832

  15. Europe Note Europe note number

    E-print Network

    Müller, Jens-Dominik

    1 Europe Note Europe note number: E/2012/05 Date 23 April 2012 Distribution Vice HE International Unit European Activity Survey of UK HEIs - Wales Introduction 1. This E-note reports the survey was collected from November 2011 to December 2011 using an online survey tool. Separate E-notes

  16. Europe Note Europe note number

    E-print Network

    Müller, Jens-Dominik

    Europe Note Europe note number: E/2012/04 Date 23 April 2012 Distribution Vice of the 2011 UK HE International Unit European Activity Survey of UK HEIs - Scotland Introduction 1. This E-note using an online survey tool. Separate E-notes have been developed with results for the UK as a whole

  17. Europe Note Europe note number

    E-print Network

    Müller, Jens-Dominik

    1 Europe Note Europe note number: E/2012/02 Date 23 April 2012 Distribution Vice HE International Unit European Activity Survey of UK HEIs - UK Introduction 1. This E-note informs UK to December 2011 using an online survey tool. Separate E-notes have been developed with results for England

  18. Europe Note Europe note number

    E-print Network

    Müller, Jens-Dominik

    1 Europe Note Europe note number: E/2012/03 Date 15 April 2012 Distribution Vice 1. This E-note reports on the outcomes for England and Northern Ireland of the UK HE International was collected from November 2011 to December 2011 using an online survey tool. Separate E-notes have been

  19. Projective invariance and the kinetic depth effect.

    PubMed

    Niall, K K

    1992-11-01

    Seven experiments test the assumption that, in the kinetic depth effect, observers have reliable and direct access to the equivalence of shapes in projective geometry. The assumption is implicit in 'inverse optics' approaches to visual form perception. Observers adjusted a comparison shape to match a standard shape; both standard and comparison were portrayed as in continuous rotation in space, using a graphics computer. The shapes were either plane quadrilaterals or solid prisms. The angular difference of the planes of the shapes was varied, as was the dot density of a texture in those planes. Departure from projective equivalence was measured in six studies by measuring the planar analogue of cross ratio, and in a seventh by measuring the cross ratio for points in space. Projective equivalence was not found to be perceived uniformly, except in one experiment that did not involve rotation in depth. Otherwise changes in orientation of up to 180 degrees about a single coordinate axis had no significant effect on matches in shape, while changes in orientation about more than one coordinate axis produced significant effects. The addition of texture and a change in rotation speed did not correct departures from projective equivalence. PMID:1481702

  20. The school nutrition environment and its association with soft drink intakes in seven countries across Europe--the ENERGY project.

    PubMed

    Lien, Nanna; van Stralen, Maartje M; Androutsos, Odysseas; Bere, Elling; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; van Lippevelde, Wendy; Manios, Yannis; Te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2014-11-01

    The school is an important setting for promoting healthy eating especially at the transition from childhood to adolescence. This study contributes to the literature by describing practices within physical, political and sociocultural aspects of the school nutrition environment in seven countries across Europe based on questionnaires to the school management, and exploring their associations with soft drink consumption reported on questionnaires by 10-12 year olds. Several of the commonly self-reported practices could be supportive of a healthy diet (time to eat, access to water, restriction on marketing), but some practices were underutilized (i.e. discussion with stakeholders, healthy foods at events). Only a few associations of practices with the pupils? soft drink consumption were found. PMID:25190681

  1. Characterization of Saharan dust properties transported towards Europe in the frame of the FENNEC project: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marnas, F.; Chazette, P.; Flamant, C.; Royer, P.; Sodemman, H.; Derimian, Y.

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the FENNEC experiment (6 to 30 June 2011) an effort has been dedicated to characterize Saharan dust plumes transported towards southern Europe. Hence, a multi instrumented field campaign has been conducted. Ground based nitrogen Raman LIDAR (GBNRL) has been deployed in southern Spain close to Marbella, simultaneously with airborne lidar (AL) performing measurements over both the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the western Africa (from 2 to 23 June). The GBNRL was equipped with co-polar and cross-polar channels to perform continuous measurements of the dust aerosols trapped in the troposphere. It was developed by LSCE with the support of the LEOSPHERE Company. The French FALCON 20 research aircraft operated by SAFIRE (Service des Avions Francais Instrumentés pour la Recherche en Environnement) carried the AL Leandre Nouvelle Generation (LNG) as well as a dropsonde releasing system and radiometers. A major, one week long, dust event has been sampled over Spain from 25 June to 1 July with high optical depth (>0.5 at 355nm) and particular depolarization ratios (15 to 25%). Backtrajectory studies suggest that the dust particles observed were from dust uplifts that occurred in Southern Morocco and Northern Mauritania. The event has been also documented 3 days before by the AL flying over Mauritania. AERONET sunphotometer measurements of aerosol properties, along the dust plume transport path appear to be coherent with both the lidar and the backtrajectory analysis. These analysis exhibit a likely major contribution from the Western Sahara sources to the Southern Europe. Such a contribution may impact the visibility and then the airtrafic, modify the tropospheric chemistry, and add nutrients to both the Mediterranean Sea and the continental surfaces. It can also affect the health of European populations. We will present strategy of the experiment and the case study built from measurements performed at the end of June.

  2. Workforce development and effective evaluation of projects.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Claire; Green, Tess; Blass, Eddie

    The success of a project or programme is typically determined in relation to outputs. However, there is a commitment among UK public services to spending public funds efficiently and on activities that provide the greatest benefit to society. Skills for Health recognised the need for a tool to manage the complex process of evaluating project benefits. An integrated evaluation framework was developed to help practitioners identify, describe, measure and evaluate the benefits of workforce development projects. Practitioners tested the framework on projects within three NHS trusts and provided valuable feedback to support its development. The prospective approach taken to identify benefits and collect baseline data to support evaluation was positively received and the clarity and completeness of the framework, as well as the relevance of the questions, were commended. Users reported that the framework was difficult to complete; an online version could be developed, which might help to improve usability. Effective implementation of this approach will depend on the quality and usability of the framework, the willingness of organisations to implement it, and the presence or establishment of an effective change management culture. PMID:25039638

  3. The Effects of Economic Factors in Determining the Transition Process in Europe and Central Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Lopez

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how economic determinants affect foreign direct investment into a sample of Western European and transition countries from 1990 to 2003. The observed differences in the flow of foreign investment into the transition countries, relative to those in Western Europe, provokes the question of whether this phenomenon was determined by the economic factors present in those countries. Using

  4. CNBC Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    CNBC EuropeEBN Interactive is the web site of the European Business News (EBN) channel. The site posts the latest business news from all over Europe. Visitors can also listen to EBN's live broadcast of European news or specific programs. The Markets section provides continuous updates of European stock markets and daily market reports for each stock exchange. The Features section holds a collection of video clips from EBN programs such as "The Big Game," "Automotive," and "Your Money," among others.

  5. Methods for the drug effectiveness review project.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Marian S; Jonas, Daniel E; Gartlehner, Gerald; Little, Alison; Peterson, Kim; Carson, Susan; Gibson, Mark; Helfand, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Drug Effectiveness Review Project was initiated in 2003 in response to dramatic increases in the cost of pharmaceuticals, which lessened the purchasing power of state Medicaid budgets. A collaborative group of state Medicaid agencies and other organizations formed to commission high-quality comparative effectiveness reviews to inform evidence-based decisions about drugs that would be available to Medicaid recipients. The Project is coordinated by the Center for Evidence-based Policy (CEbP) at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU), and the systematic reviews are undertaken by the Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) at OHSU and at the University of North Carolina. The reviews adhere to high standards for comparative effectiveness reviews. Because the investigators have direct, regular communication with policy-makers, the reports have direct impact on policy and decision-making, unlike many systematic reviews. The Project was an innovator of methods to involve stakeholders and continues to develop its methods in conducting reviews that are highly relevant to policy-makers. The methods used for selecting topics, developing key questions, searching, determining eligibility of studies, assessing study quality, conducting qualitative and quantitative syntheses, rating the strength of evidence, and summarizing findings are described. In addition, our on-going interactions with the policy-makers that use the reports are described. PMID:22970848

  6. Vertical cultural transmission effects on demic front propagation: Theory and application to the Neolithic transition in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Joaquim

    2011-05-01

    It is shown that Lotka-Volterra interaction terms are not appropriate to describe vertical cultural transmission. Appropriate interaction terms are derived and used to compute the effect of vertical cultural transmission on demic front propagation. They are also applied to a specific example, the Neolithic transition in Europe. In this example, it is found that the effect of vertical cultural transmission can be important (about 30%). On the other hand, simple models based on differential equations can lead to large errors (above 50%). Further physical, biophysical, and cross-disciplinary applications are outlined.

  7. Adult Education Research in the Countries in Transition. Adult Education Research Trends in the Former Socialist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic Region. Research Project Report. Studies and Researches 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelenc, Zoran

    This document presents results of an investigation into the state of the art of research on the education of adults in Central and Eastern European and Baltic countries. The first section discusses the background and implementation of the research. Section 2 is "Adult Education Research Trends in Central and Eastern Europe: Research Project

  8. [Long-term health effects of air pollution: results of the European project ESCAPE].

    PubMed

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Galassi, Claudia; Badaloni, Chiara; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution has been recently classified among the top ten risk factors for mortality worldwide. The evidence on the long-term effects of air pollutants is mounting, mostly from multi-centre American studies or longitudinal studies conducted in single European cohorts. Recently, the EU-funded project ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) involved more than 30 cohort studies with the aim of producing pooled estimates of the long-term health effects of ambient air pollution at European level. The project developed a standardized and flexible methodology to estimate chronic exposure to several air pollutants, applied such estimates to existing cohorts in Europe, and analyzed the exposure-response relationships with different health endpoints, including adverse pregnancy outcomes, respiratory diseases among children, cardio-respiratory diseases among adults, cause-specific mortality and lung cancer incidence. One of the most important results has been the detection of relevant health effects of particulate matter at concentrations below the current air quality limit values in Europe. PMID:25533231

  9. Effectiveness of design projects in teaching Telecommunications Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Beltran-Hernandez; V. Dolores-Calzadilla; V. Garcia-Garduno; M. Moctezuma-Flores; S. Perez-Garcia; S. Khotiaintsev

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effectiveness of design projects in teaching Telecommunications Engineering to undergraduate students. The projects consisted in designing and prototyping of relatively complex electronic or optoelectronic devices. The distinctive feature of these projects was their real-world interdisciplinary nature. We discuss the requirements for educationally effective projects and describe the technical and educational results that we achieved. The recommendations that

  10. Masculinities in Organizational Cultures in Engineering Education in Europe: Results of the European Union Project WomEng

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagebiel, F.; Dahmen, J.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes elements of engineering organizational cultures and structures in higher engineering education from the European project WomEng. Hypotheses, based on state of the art, refer to: women friendly presentation, attractiveness of interdisciplinary teaching methods, single sex education, perceptions of minority status, feelings of…

  11. Oceanography Vol.22, No.4190 AbstrAct. The European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA) is Europe's

    E-print Network

    Rodgers, Keith

    Oceanography Vol.22, No.4190 AbstrAct. The European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA acidification. More than 100 scientists from 27 institutes and nine countries bring their expertise Acidification (epOcA) ObJectiVes, prOducts, ANd scieNtiFic HiGHliGHts Oceanography Vol.22, No.4190

  12. Advection from the North Atlantic as the forcing of winter greenhouse effect over Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Otterman; J. Angell; R. Atlas; D. Bungato; S. Schubert; D. Starr; J. Susskind; M.-L. C. Wu

    2002-01-01

    In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface temperature are observed over central Europe. Comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996, a satellite-retrieved surface (skin) temperature difference of 9.8 K is observed for the region 50–60°N; 5–35°E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index Ina,

  13. Advection from the North Atlantic as the forcing of winter greenhouse effect over Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Otterman; J. Angell; R. Atlas; D. Bungato; S. Schubert; D. Starr; J. Susskind; M.-L. C. Wu

    2002-01-01

    In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface temperature are observed over central Europe. Comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996, a satellite-retrieved surface (skin) temperature difference of 9.8 K is observed for the region 50-60°N 5-35°E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index Ina,

  14. The effects of drug market regulation on pharmaceutical prices in Europe: overview and evidence from the market of ACE inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an overview of policy measures targeting pharmaceutical expenditure in Europe and analyses their impact on originator pharmaceutical prices. Panel data methods are used to examine the market of ACE Inhibitors in six European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom) over period 1991-2006. We find that although some measures are effective in reducing originator prices, others appear to have an insignificant effect. Results suggest that supply side measures such as mandatory generic substitution, regressive pharmacy mark-ups and claw-backs are effective in reducing pharmaceuticals prices. Results are not as strong for demand side measures. Profit controls and the use of cost-effectiveness analysis appear to have a negative effect on prices, while results on reference pricing are inconclusive. Findings also indicate that, although originator prices are not immediately affected by generic entry, they may be influenced by changes in generic prices post patent expiry. PMID:22828053

  15. Assessment of extreme precipitation over Northern Europe using WRF as a regional climate model within the RiskChange-project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, S.; Sobolowski, S.; Outten, S.

    2012-04-01

    It is likely that one of the most damaging impacts of climate change may be an increase in the frequency and/or intensity of extreme precipitation events. Understanding the patterns of these changes is crucial for the design and adaptation of critical infrastructure. However, the magnitude, location and timing of these changes are largely unknown at the local to regional scales that stakeholders most care about. Further, the physical mechanisms underlying extreme events at regional scales are not well understood and the range of uncertainty is high. The main objective of the RiskChange project is to establish a consistent scientifically based framework for risk-based design using state-of-the-art knowledge of future changes in climate extreme statistics. Within the project a major part is to dynamical downscale from global and regional climate model projections to local scales of applications which will provide a data basis for the assessment of future changes in climate extreme statistics. Associated with this task is the quantification of uncertainties in the projected future climate extremes and associated variables for extreme environmental load. Concretely, the Weather Research and Forecasting model WRF is used as a regional climate model to downscale global climate model data from the models NORESM (met.no/BCCR) and EC-Earth (DMI) to a horizontal grid of 8 km for the cities Copenhagen, Denmark and Oslo, Norway. Results from preliminary test runs are presented to evaluate the performance of the chosen WRF model set up; in particular, we focus on the choice of physical parameterizations. First results addressing the representation of extreme rainfall events and extreme winds in a 20-years hindcast of the ERA-interim (1989-2009) period are shown. RiskChange results will contribute to the development of planning and decision support tools for local and central authorities and form the basis for establishing design guidelines and associated tools for the industry.

  16. Leadership behaviors of effective project managers in construction project organizations in Texas

    E-print Network

    Haney, Harvey Joe

    1989-01-01

    A study involving twenty-six construction firms, which practice project management in Texas, examined whether thirteen leadership behaviors could be associated with effective project managers. The data indicated that supervisors and subordinates...

  17. The SAFE project: 'plant food allergies: field to table strategies for reducing their incidence in Europe' an EC-funded study.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K

    2005-04-01

    The true prevalence of food allergy as an IgE mediated reaction is still under discussion. Using apple as a model allergen source a multidisciplinary consortium worked together at developing various strategies for reducing the incidence of fruit allergies in an EC-funded project. Patient allergen profiles were established using in vitro and in vivo tests with respect to geographic area and mild or severe symptoms. Apple allergens (Mal d 1-Mal d 4) were characterised, variants identified, cloned and sequenced. These individual allergens were used to increase the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis. Furthermore, they provided better prognosis of disease severity. RT-PCR and ELISA were developed for determining the allergen specific mRNA and expressed allergenic protein in a large number of apple cultivars. Similarly, changes in allergen characteristics from harvest through storage to processing and the impact of agronomic practices were investigated. Allergen genes were mapped on a molecular linkage map of apple. The biological function of Mal d 1 was studied using the RNA interference strategy. Finally, consumer attitudes in Northern, Central and Southern Europe were gauged on the acceptability of low allergen cultivars or a GMO and its impact on product quality. PMID:15727573

  18. Satellite-delivered medical education and training for central Europe: a TEMPUS project. Trans-European Mobility Programme for University Students.

    PubMed

    Young, H L

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the experience gained in delivering continuing and postgraduate medical education by satellite to update medical teachers in Central Europe. An infrastructure of receiving sites was established in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary. The sites participated in regular, live interactive broadcasts on a range of medical education topics. Over three years a network of sites was established incrementally and a national coordinator identified for each country, who fed back from national coordinating committees to an overall steering body. In the final year a formal evaluation revealed high satisfaction levels and maintenance of activity during the grant period. The major problems related to a lack of telephone lines to facilitate interactivity, the timing of the programmes, and the need for training in medical English language. Video libraries were established, and the majority continued to be active at the end of the project grant. Material was incorporated into both undergraduate and postgraduate education. It is calculated that continuing professional development can be delivered at less than 18 ECU per participant per country. PMID:9375037

  19. Estimates of Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe, 2009–2010: Results of Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) Multicentre Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Valenciano, Marta; Kissling, Esther; Cohen, Jean-Marie; Oroszi, Beatrix; Barret, Anne-Sophie; Rizzo, Caterina; Nunes, Baltazar; Pitigoi, Daniela; Larrauri Cámara, Amparro; Mosnier, Anne; Horvath, Judith K.; O'Donnell, Joan; Bella, Antonino; Guiomar, Raquel; Lupulescu, Emilia; Savulescu, Camelia; Ciancio, Bruno C.; Kramarz, Piotr; Moren, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Background A multicentre case-control study based on sentinel practitioner surveillance networks from seven European countries was undertaken to estimate the effectiveness of 2009–2010 pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines against medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1). Methods and Findings Sentinel practitioners swabbed ILI patients using systematic sampling. We included in the study patients meeting the European ILI case definition with onset of symptoms >14 days after the start of national pandemic vaccination campaigns. We compared pH1N1 cases to influenza laboratory-negative controls. A valid vaccination corresponded to >14 days between receiving a dose of vaccine and symptom onset. We estimated pooled vaccine effectiveness (VE) as 1 minus the odds ratio with the study site as a fixed effect. Using logistic regression, we adjusted VE for potential confounding factors (age group, sex, month of onset, chronic diseases and related hospitalizations, smoking history, seasonal influenza vaccinations, practitioner visits in previous year). We conducted a complete case analysis excluding individuals with missing values and a multiple multivariate imputation to estimate missing values. The multivariate imputation (n?=?2902) adjusted pandemic VE (PIVE) estimates were 71.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 45.6–85.5) overall; 78.4% (95% CI 54.4–89.8) in patients <65 years; and 72.9% (95% CI 39.8–87.8) in individuals without chronic disease. The complete case (n?=?1,502) adjusted PIVE were 66.0% (95% CI 23.9–84.8), 71.3% (95% CI 29.1–88.4), and 70.2% (95% CI 19.4–89.0), respectively. The adjusted PIVE was 66.0% (95% CI ?69.9 to 93.2) if vaccinated 8–14 days before ILI onset. The adjusted 2009–2010 seasonal influenza VE was 9.9% (95% CI ?65.2 to 50.9). Conclusions Our results suggest good protection of the pandemic monovalent vaccine against medically attended pH1N1 and no effect of the 2009–2010 seasonal influenza vaccine. However, the late availability of the pandemic vaccine and subsequent limited coverage with this vaccine hampered our ability to study vaccine benefits during the outbreak period. Future studies should include estimation of the effectiveness of the new trivalent vaccine in the upcoming 2010–2011 season, when vaccination will occur before the influenza season starts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21379316

  20. Thematic Network E4: An Effective Tool to Improve EE in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borri, Claudio; Maffioli, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    Among all TN projects approved and running under SOCRATES II, E4 offers the widest perspective over all Engineering/Technology education fields covering relevant and transversal issues, which are definitely not branch specific. The paper first introduces the general aim of the project, underlining the meaning of the European Dimension of EE…

  1. Numerical quantization effects in KHILS projection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, David S.; Thompson, Rhoe A.; Goldsmith, George C.

    2002-07-01

    The Honeywell resistor arrays produce radiance outputs, which are observed to have a strong non-linear dependence on the voltage out of the digital-to-analog-converters (DACs). In order for the projection system to run in a radiometrically calibrated mode, the radiances in the image generator must be transformed with exactly the inverse of the resistor array response function before they are sent to the DACs. Representing the image values out of the image generator and the values into the DACs with quantized, digital values introduces errors in the radiance out of the resistor array. Given the functional form of the emitter array response and the number of bits used to represent the image values, these errors in the radiometric output due to the quantization effects can be calculated. This paper describes the calculations and presents results for WISP, MSSP, and the new extended range and standard range BRITE II arrays.

  2. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded ‘Project Star’ report

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report (‘Project Star’, PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Methods Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18?056). Findings Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. Conclusions PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and use of independent data. PMID:24335339

  3. Learning about Teaching: Initial Findings from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project. Research Paper. MET Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to test new approaches to measuring effective teaching. The goal of the MET project is to improve the quality of information about teaching effectiveness available to education professionals within states and districts--information that will…

  4. On the Effects of Projection on Morphology

    E-print Network

    Bárbara Pichardo; Enrique Vázquez-Semadeni; Adriana Gazol; Thierry Passot; Javier Ballesteros-Paredes

    1999-11-05

    We study the effects of projection of three-dimensional (3D) data onto the plane of the sky by means of numerical simulations of turbulence in the interstellar medium including the magnetic field, parameterized cooling and diffuse and stellar heating, self-gravity and rotation. We compare the physical-space density and velocity distributions with their representation in position-position-velocity (PPV) space (``channel maps''), noting that the latter can be interpreted in two ways: either as maps of the column density's spatial distribution (at a given line-of-sight (LOS) velocity), or as maps of the spatial distribution of a given value of the LOS velocity (weighted by density). This ambivalence appears related to the fact that the spatial and PPV representations of the data give significantly different views. First, the morphology in the channel maps more closely resembles that of the spatial distribution of the LOS velocity component than that of the density field, as measured by pixel-to-pixel correlations between images. Second, the channel maps contain more small-scale structure than 3D slices of the density and velocity fields, a fact evident both in subjective appearance and in the power spectra of the images. This effect may be due to a pseudo-random sampling (along the LOS) of the gas contributing to the structure in a channel map: the positions sampled along the LOS (chosen by their LOS velocity) may vary significantly from one position in the channel map to the next.

  5. Prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle intervention in primary health care setting in Poland: Diabetes in Europe Prevention using Lifestyle, physical Activity and Nutritional intervention (DE-PLAN) project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Gilis-Januszewska; Zbigniew Szybinski; Katarzyna Kissimova-Skarbek; Beata Piwonska-Solska; Dorota Pach; Roman Topor-Madry; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Jaana Lindström; Markku Peltonen; Peter Eh Schwarz; Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk

    2011-01-01

    AimTo find out whether diabetes prevention via a lifestyle intervention programme is feasible in a primary healthcare setting in Poland.MethodsThe intervention (Diabetes in Europe: Prevention using Lifestyle, physical Activity and Nutritional intervention; DE-PLAN project) was completed by 175 middle-aged, slightly obese participants in nine primary healthcare centres in Krakow, Poland. The inclusion criterion was diabetes risk (Finnish Diabetes Risk score

  6. Reforming Upper Secondary Education in Europe. The Leonardo da Vinci Project Post-16 Strategies. Surveys of Strategies for Post-16 Education To Improve the Parity of Esteem for Initial Vocational Education in Eight European Educational Systems. Theory into Practice 92. Institute for Educational Research Publication Series B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers on the Leonardo da Vinci project: "Looking for Post-16 Education Strategies for Parity of Esteem in Europe" (Lasonen); "Improving Parity of Esteem as a Policy Goal" (Makinen, Volanen); "Alternative Strategies for Parity of Esteem between General/Academic and Vocational Education in Europe" (Kamarainen);…

  7. Effects of Climate Change on Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gray, J. S.; Dautel, H.; Estrada-Peña, A.; Kahl, O.; Lindgren, E.

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in Europe and there is speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vector biology and disease transmission. Data on the vector tick Ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change may also be partly responsible for the change in distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus. Increased winter activity of I. ricinus is probably due to warmer winters and a retrospective study suggests that hotter summers will change the dynamics and pattern of seasonal activity, resulting in the bulk of the tick population becoming active in the latter part of the year. Climate suitability models predict that eight important tick species are likely to establish more northern permanent populations in a climate-warming scenario. However, the complex ecology and epidemiology of such tick-borne diseases as Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis make it difficult to implicate climate change as the main cause of their increasing prevalence. Climate change models are required that take account of the dynamic biological processes involved in vector abundance and pathogen transmission in order to predict future tick-borne disease scenarios. PMID:19277106

  8. Designing and Fostering Effective Online Group Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherling, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    Collaborative learning is a hallmark of adult education and a popular instructional strategy. For over a decade, as an educator of adult learners, the author has integrated group work into courses. Group projects require the contribution and evaluation from all group members and often reflect a collective grade at the end of the project. However,…

  9. Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

  10. Eighth USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2009) Effects of Fuel Prices and Slot Controls on Air

    E-print Network

    1 Eighth USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2009) Effects of Fuel Prices and Slot Controls on Air Transportation Performance at New York Airports John Ferguson@gmu.edu; lsherry@gmu.edu; akara@gmu.edu; gcaldero@gmu.edu Center for Air Transportation Systems Research, George

  11. Atmospheric black carbon and warming effects influenced by the source and absorption enhancement in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordmann, S.; Cheng, Y. F.; Carmichael, G. R.; Yu, M.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Zhang, Q.; Saide, P. E.; Pöschl, U.; Su, H.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2014-06-01

    Particles containing black carbon (BC), a strong absorbing substance, exert a rather uncertain direct and indirect radiative forcing in the atmosphere. To investigate the mass concentration and absorption properties of BC particles over Central Europe, the model WRF-Chem was used at a resolution of 12 km in conjunction with a high resolution BC emission inventory (EUCAARI 42-Pan-European Carbonaceous Aerosol Inventory; 1/8° × 1/16°). The model simulation was evaluated using measurements of equivalent soot carbon, absorption coefficients and particle number concentrations at 7 sites within the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network, PM10 mass concentrations from the dense measurement network of the German Federal Environmental Agency at 392 monitoring stations, and aerosol optical depth from MODIS and AERONET. A distinct time period (25 March to 10 April 2009) was chosen, during which the clean marine air mass prevailed in the first week and afterwards the polluted continental air mass mainly from south-east dominated with elevated daily average BC concentration up to 4 ?g m-3. The simulated PM10 mass concentration, aerosol number concentration and optical depth were in a good agreement with the observations, while the modelled BC mass concentrations were found to be a factor of 2 lower than the observations. Together with backtrajectories, detailed model bias analyses suggested that the current BC emission in countries to the east and south of Germany might be underestimated by a factor of 5, at least for the simulation period. Running the model with upscaled BC emissions in these regions led to a smaller model bias and a better correlation between model and measurement. On the contrary, the particle absorption coefficient was positively biased by about 20% even when the BC mass concentration was underestimated by around 50%. This indicates that the internal mixture treatment of BC in the WRF-Chem optical calculation is unrealistic in our case, which over amplifies the light absorption by BC containing particles. By adjusting the modeled mass absorption cross-section towards the measured values, the simulation of particle light absorption of BC was improved as well. Finally, the positive direct radiative forcing of BC particles at top of the atmosphere was estimated to be in the range of 0 to +4 W m-2 over Germany for the model run with improved BC mass concentration and adjusted BC light absorption cross-section. This treatment lowered the positive forcing of BC by up to 70%, compared with the internal mixing treatment of BC in the model simulation.

  12. Atmospheric black carbon and warming effects influenced by the source and absorption enhancement in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordmann, S.; Cheng, Y. F.; Carmichael, G. R.; Yu, M.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Zhang, Q.; Saide, P. E.; Pöschl, U.; Su, H.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2014-12-01

    Particles containing black carbon (BC), a strong absorbing substance, exert a rather uncertain direct and indirect radiative forcing in the atmosphere. To investigate the mass concentration and absorption properties of BC particles over central Europe, the model WRF-Chem was used at a resolution of 12 km in conjunction with a high-resolution BC emission inventory (EUCAARI 42-Pan-European Carbonaceous Aerosol Inventory; 1/8° × 1/16°). The model simulation was evaluated using measurements of equivalent soot carbon, absorption coefficients and particle number concentrations at seven sites within the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network, PM

  13. Occupational cancer in europe

    PubMed

    Boffetta; Kogevinas

    1999-05-01

    This monograph summarizes the current research on the epidemiology and prevention of occupational cancer in Europe. Eleven peer-reviewed articles offer a composite view of the current status and future perspectives of this discipline at a time of major economic and political changes in Europe. The monograph includes a brief history of occupational cancer research in Europe and the current burden of cancer from occupational exposure. A large portion of the monograph is devoted to reviews of occupational cancer in various European countries or groups of countries. The first two reviews describe those regions with the strongest tradition of research in the field: the Nordic countries and the United Kingdom. These countries are characterized by high-quality cancer registries and routinely collected information on occupation, e.g., on the occasion of censuses, allowing record linkage studies. Four articles address the situation in the remaining large Western European countries--France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Although these countries have a strong tradition in occupational health research, with the possible exception of Spain, their epidemiologic research dates back only to the 1970s and 1980s; in recent years, however, research on occupational cancer has expanded considerably. The last two articles of the geographic overview describe the occupational cancer research in the Central European countries and the European territories of the Commonwealth of Independent States. The authors of these two articles critically review the available data on occupational cancer from former Socialist countries and provide reliable information on the extent and amount of occupational exposure to carcinogens. The two final articles of the monograph address specific thematic issues: the importance of asbestos as an occupational carcinogen in Europe and the use of routinely collected data to investigate occupational cancer in women, based on the experience in England and Wales. Despite the heterogeneity of these articles, which reflects to a large extent the differences in quality and completeness of the available data on occupational cancer, they represent an original attempt to provide a systematic overview of occupational cancer research in Europe. This publication is originally a partial result of two projects on occupational cancer in Europe funded by the European Commission, Directorate General XII (grants BMH1-CT92-1110 and BMH1-CT95-1100) and has been expanded to include non-European Union countries. PMID:10350503

  14. Communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care in Europe: the case for improvement. The rationale for the RESTORE FP 7 project.

    PubMed

    van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Burns, Nicola; O'Donnell, Catherine; Mair, Frances; Spiegel, Wolfgang; Lionis, Christos; Dowrick, Chris; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; de Brun, Tomas; MacFarlane, Anne

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to substantiate the importance of research about barriers and levers to the implementation of supports for cross-cultural communication in primary care settings in Europe. After an overview of migrant health issues, with the focus on communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care and the importance of language barriers, we highlight the fact that there are serious problems in routine practice that persist over time and across different European settings. Language and cultural barriers hamper communication in consultations between doctors and migrants, with a range of negative effects including poorer compliance and a greater propensity to access emergency services. It is well established that there is a need for skilled interpreters and for professionals who are culturally competent to address this problem. A range of professional guidelines and training initiatives exist that support the communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care. However, these are commonly not implemented in daily practice. It is as yet unknown why professionals do not accept or implement these guidelines and interventions, or under what circumstances they would do so. A new study involving six European countries, RESTORE (REsearch into implementation STrategies to support patients of different ORigins and language background in a variety of European primary care settings), aims to address these gaps in knowledge. It uses a unique combination of a contemporary social theory, normalisation process theory (NPT) and participatory learning and action (PLA) research. This should enhance understanding of the levers and barriers to implementation, as well as providing stakeholders, with the opportunity to generate creative solutions to problems experienced with the implementation of such interventions. PMID:23601205

  15. Agricultural impacts: Europe's diminishing bread basket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, Holger

    2014-07-01

    Global demand for wheat is projected to increase significantly with continuing population growth. Currently, Europe reliably produces about 29% of global wheat supply. However, this might be under threat from climate change if adaptive measures are not taken now.

  16. Requirement Changes and Project Success: The Moderating Effects of Agile Approaches in System Engineering Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maierhofer, Sabine; Stelzmann, Ernst; Kohlbacher, Markus; Fellner, Björn

    This paper reports the findings of an empirical study on the influence agile development methods exert on the success of projects. The goal is to determine whether agile methods are able to mitigate negative effects requirement changes have on the performance of Systems Engineering projects, i.e. projects where systems consisting of hard- and software are developed. Agile methods have been proven to successfully support development projects in the field of traditional software engineering, but with an ever expending market of integrated systems manufacturers their usability for those complex projects has yet to be examined. This study focuses on 16 specific agile practices and their ability to improve the success of complex hard- and software projects.

  17. Public health in Europe.

    PubMed

    McKee, M; Jacobson, B

    2000-08-19

    Any attempt to describe public health in Europe faces the twin problems of defining Europe and of dealing with the diversity of health and health systems it contains. Health status varies considerably between countries. In some, health is improving, with substantial decreases in heart disease in many western and central European countries. In others, especially in the former Soviet Union, there is concern about the rapid increase in tuberculosis and AIDS. A national analysis does, however, conceal a substantial variation within countries, between regions, and between social classes. The responses to these threats to health are also diverse. A few countries have developed effective mechanisms to design and implement appropriate policies but, in many countries, the public-health community is weak. In particular, public health has largely failed in its role as an advocate of the health of the population. There are, however, many encouraging signs that this may change in the future. PMID:10968451

  18. Local and regional effects of large scale atmospheric circulation patterns on winter wind power output in Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubiate, Laura; McDermott, Frank; Sweeney, Conor; O'Malley, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies (Brayshaw, 2009, Garcia-Bustamante, 2010, Garcia-Bustamante, 2013) have drawn attention to the sensitivity of wind speed distributions and likely wind energy power output in Western Europe to changes in low-frequency, large scale atmospheric circulation patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Wind speed variations and directional shifts as a function of the NAO state can be larger or smaller depending on the North Atlantic region that is considered. Wind speeds in Ireland and the UK for example are approximately 20 % higher during NAO + phases, and up to 30 % lower during NAO - phases relative to the long-term (30 year) climatological means. By contrast, in southern Europe, wind speeds are 15 % lower than average during NAO + phases and 15 % higher than average during NAO - phases. Crucially however, some regions such as Brittany in N.W. France have been identified in which there is negligible variability in wind speeds as a function of the NAO phase, as observed in the ERA-Interim 0.5 degree gridded reanalysis database. However, the magnitude of these effects on wind conditions is temporally and spatially non-stationary. As described by Comas-Bru and McDermott (2013) for temperature and precipitation, such non-stationarity is caused by the influence of two other patterns, the East Atlantic pattern, (EA), and the Scandinavian pattern, (SCA), which modulate the position of the NAO dipole. This phenomenon has also implications for wind speeds and directions, which has been assessed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and the indices obtained from the PC analysis of sea level pressure over the Atlantic region. In order to study the implications for power production, the interaction of the NAO and the other teleconnection patterns with local topography was also analysed, as well as how these interactions ultimately translate into wind power output. The objective is to have a better defined relationship between wind speed and power output at a local level and a tool that wind farm developers could use to inform site selection. A particular priority was to assess how the potential wind power outputs over a 25-30 year windfarm lifetime in less windy, but resource-stable regions, compare with those from windier but more variable sites.

  19. A Meta-Analysis on the Effectiveness of Bilingual Programs in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reljic, Gabrijela; Ferring, Dieter; Martin, Romain

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of bilingual programs for promoting academic achievement of language minority children in the United States has been examined in six meta-analyses. The present meta-analytic study investigates this topic for the first time in the European context. Thorough literature searches uncovered 101 European studies, with only 7 meeting…

  20. Secondary Transfer Effects of Intergroup Contact: A Cross-National Comparison in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Kupper, Beate; Zick, Andreas; Wagner, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    This article examines so-called secondary transfer effects of intergroup contact, a phenomenon whereby positive intergroup contact experiences can influence attitudes not only toward encountered (primary) outgroups but also toward other (secondary) outgroups that were not initially involved in the intergroup encounter. The current study relies on…

  1. Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca travelling from Africa to breed in Europe: differential effects of winter and

    E-print Network

    Potti, Jaime

    to predict how well species can adapt to climate change. In this paper we analyse effects of vegetation;INTRODUCTION Long-distance migrant birds may be particularly vulnerable to climate change, because prior at the right time on their breeding grounds. However such cues are unaltered by climate change (unlike food

  2. North America Europe Central &

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Matthew

    1 North America Western Europe Central & Eastern Europe Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & Central Asia Asia Pacific Africa Population (100 millions) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 North America Western Europe Central & Eastern Europe Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & Central Asia Asia Pacific Africa

  3. Effective Teaching Methods--Project-based Learning in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holubova, Renata

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents results of the research of new effective teaching methods in physics and science. It is found out that it is necessary to educate pre-service teachers in approaches stressing the importance of the own activity of students, in competences how to create an interdisciplinary project. Project-based physics teaching and learning…

  4. PERMEABLE TREATMENT WALL EFFECTIVENESS MONITORING PROJECT, NEVADA STEWART MINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 39, Permeable Treatment Wall Effectiveness Monitoring Project, implemented and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. De...

  5. Assessing the Human Genome Project: Effects on world agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Lesney; V. B. Smocovitis

    1994-01-01

    The Human Genome Project is the attempt to sequence the complement of human DNA. Its ultimate purpose is to understand and control human genetics. The social and ethical concerns raised by this attempt have been much debated, especially fears concerning human genetic engineering and eugenics. An almost completely neglected aspect of the genome project's potential effects is its impact on

  6. The Effect of Group Projects on Content-Related Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Donald R.

    2005-01-01

    Business schools often assign student group projects to enhance student learning of course content and to build teamwork skills. However, the characteristics of effective collaborative learning tasks, including group goals and individual accountability, are often not found in student group projects assigned in business classes. The current…

  7. Health Effects of High Radon Environments in Central Europe: Another Test for the LNT Hypothesis?

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Among the various “natural laboratories” of high natural or technical enhanced natural radiation environments in the world such as Kerala (India), Brazil, Ramsar (Iran), etc., the areas in and around the Central European Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge) in the southern parts of former East Germany, but also including parts of Thuringia, northern Bohemia (now Czech Republic), and northeastern Bavaria, are still relatively little known internationally. Although this area played a central role in the history of radioactivity and radiation effects on humans over centuries, most of the valuable earlier results have not been published in English or quotable according to the current rules in the scientific literature and therefore are not generally known internationally. During the years 1945 to 1989, this area was one of the world’s most important uranium mining areas, providing the former Soviet Union with 300,000 tons of uranium for its military programs. Most data related to health effects of radon and other carcinogenic agents on miners and residents became available only during the years after German reunification. Many of the studies are still unpublished, or more or less internal reports. By now, substantial studies have been performed on the previously unavailable data about the miners and the population, providing valuable insights that are, to a large degree, in disagreement with the opinion of various international bodies assuming an increase of lung cancer risk in the order of 10% for each 100 Bq/m3 (or doubling for 1000 Bq/m3), even for small residential radon concentrations. At the same time, other studies focusing on never-smokers show little or no effects of residential radon exposures. Experiments in medical clinics using radon on a large scale as a therapeutic against various rheumatic and arthritic disease demonstrated in randomized double-blind studies the effectiveness of such treatments. The main purpose of this review is to critically examine, including some historical references, recent results primarily in three areas, namely the possible effects of the inhalation of very high radon concentrations on miners; the effect of increased residential radon concentrations on the population; and the therapeutic use of radon. With many of the results still evolving and/or under intense discussion among the experts, more evidence is emerging that radon, which has been inhaled at extremely high concentrations in the multimillion Bq/m3 range by many of older miners (however, with substantial confounders, and large uncertainties in retrospective dosimetry), was perhaps an important but not the dominating factor for an increase in lung cancer rates. Other factors such as smoking, inhalation of quartz and mineral dust, arsenic, nitrous gases, etc. are likely to be more serious contributors to increased miner lung cancer rates. An extrapolation of miner data to indoor radon situations is not feasible. Concerning indoor radon studies, the by far dominating effect of smoking on the lung cancer incidence makes the results of some studies, apparently showing a positive dose-response relationship, questionable. According to recent studies in several countries, there are no, or beneficial, residential radon effects below about 600 to 1000 Bq/m3 (the extensive studies in the U.S., in particular by B. Cohen, and the discussions about these data, will not be part of this review, because they have already been discussed in detail in the U.S. literature). As a cause of lung cancer, radon seems to rank — behind active and passive smoking, and probably also air pollution in densely populated and/or industrial areas (diesel exhaust soot, etc.) — as a minor contributor in cases of extremely high residential radon levels, combined with heavy smoking of the residents. As demonstrated in an increasing number of randomized double-blind clinical studies for various painful inflammatory joint diseases such as rheumatism, arthritic problems, and Morbus Bechterew, radon treatments are beneficial, with the positiv

  8. Effects of air pollution and climate change on forests of the Tatra Mountains, Central Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Fleischer; Barbara Godzik; Svetlana Bicarova; Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    Synergistic effects of air pollution, extreme weather conditions and biotic agents related to global climate change have caused\\u000a serious deterioration of forest condition in the Tatra National Park since early 1990s. Atmospheric deposition of sulfate\\u000a (SO4\\u000a 2?), nitrate (NO3\\u000a ?) and acidity (H+) are above the established critical load limits for forests. In addition, ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are also

  9. Adapting wheat in Europe for climate change.

    PubMed

    Semenov, M A; Stratonovitch, P; Alghabari, F; Gooding, M J

    2014-05-01

    Increasing cereal yield is needed to meet the projected increased demand for world food supply of about 70% by 2050. Sirius, a process-based model for wheat, was used to estimate yield potential for wheat ideotypes optimized for future climatic projections for ten wheat growing areas of Europe. It was predicted that the detrimental effect of drought stress on yield would be decreased due to enhanced tailoring of phenology to future weather patterns, and due to genetic improvements in the response of photosynthesis and green leaf duration to water shortage. Yield advances could be made through extending maturation and thereby improve resource capture and partitioning. However the model predicted an increase in frequency of heat stress at meiosis and anthesis. Controlled environment experiments quantify the effects of heat and drought at booting and flowering on grain numbers and potential grain size. A current adaptation of wheat to areas of Europe with hotter and drier summers is a quicker maturation which helps to escape from excessive stress, but results in lower yields. To increase yield potential and to respond to climate change, increased tolerance to heat and drought stress should remain priorities for the genetic improvement of wheat. PMID:24882934

  10. A framework for improving the effectiveness of distributed project teams

    E-print Network

    Cherbonneau, Gregg

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The focus of this work is on improving the effectiveness of distributed project teams - adopting a widely accepted definition of team as described in "Virtual Teams" as: "A team is a collection of individuals ...

  11. Effective correlator for RadioAstron project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Sergey

    This paper presents the implementation of programme FX-correlator for Very Long Baseline Interferometry, adapted for the project "RadioAstron". Software correlator implemented for heterogeneous computing systems using graphics accelerators. It is shown that for the task interferometry implementation of the graphics hardware has a high efficiency. The host processor of heterogeneous computing system, performs the function of forming the data flow for graphics accelerators, the number of which corresponds to the number of frequency channels. So, for the Radioastron project, such channels is seven. Each accelerator is perform correlation matrix for all bases for a single frequency channel. Initial data is converted to the floating-point format, is correction for the corresponding delay function and computes the entire correlation matrix simultaneously. Calculation of the correlation matrix is performed using the sliding Fourier transform. Thus, thanks to the compliance of a solved problem for architecture graphics accelerators, managed to get a performance for one processor platform Kepler, which corresponds to the performance of this task, the computing cluster platforms Intel on four nodes. This task successfully scaled not only on a large number of graphics accelerators, but also on a large number of nodes with multiple accelerators.

  12. A comparison of the cost-effectiveness of treatment of prolonged acute convulsive epileptic seizures in children across Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the majority of children and adolescents with epilepsy, optimal drug therapy adequately controls their condition. However, among the remaining patients who are still uncontrolled despite mono-, bi- or tri-therapy with chronic anti-epileptic treatment, a rescue medication is required. In Western Europe, the licensed medications available for first-line treatment of prolonged acute convulsive seizures (PACS) vary widely, and so comparators for clinical and economic evaluation are not consistent. No European guidelines currently exist for the treatment of PACS in children and adolescents and limited evidence is available for the effectiveness of treatments in the community setting. The authors present cost-effectiveness data for BUCCOLAM® (midazolam oromucosal solution) for the treatment of PACS in children and adolescents in the context of the treatment pathway in seven European countries in patients from 6 months to 18 years. For each country, the health economic model consisted of a decision tree, with decision nodes informed by clinical data and expert opinion obtained via a Delphi methodology. The events modelled are those associated with a patient experiencing a seizure in the community setting. The model assessed the likelihood of medication being administered successfully and of seizure cessation. The associated resource use was also modelled, and ambulance call-outs and hospitalisations were considered. The patient’s quality of life was estimated by clinicians, who completed a five-level EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire from the perspective of a child or adolescent suffering a seizure. Despite differences in current therapy, treatment patterns and healthcare costs in all countries assessed, BUCCOLAM was shown to be cost saving and offered increased health-related benefits for patients in the treatment of PACS compared with the current local standard of care. PMID:24949280

  13. Possible future effects of large-scale algae cultivation for biofuels on coastal eutrophication in Europe.

    PubMed

    Blaas, Harry; Kroeze, Carolien

    2014-10-15

    Biodiesel is increasingly considered as an alternative for fossil diesel. Biodiesel can be produced from rapeseed, palm, sunflower, soybean and algae. In this study, the consequences of large-scale production of biodiesel from micro-algae for eutrophication in four large European seas are analysed. To this end, scenarios for the year 2050 are analysed, assuming that in the 27 countries of the European Union fossil diesel will be replaced by biodiesel from algae. Estimates are made for the required fertiliser inputs to algae parks, and how this may increase concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in coastal waters, potentially leading to eutrophication. The Global NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model has been used to estimate the transport of nitrogen and phosphorus to the European coastal waters. The results indicate that the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in the coastal waters may increase considerably in the future as a result of large-scale production of algae for the production of biodiesel, even in scenarios assuming effective waste water treatment and recycling of waste water in algae production. To ensure sustainable production of biodiesel from micro-algae, it is important to develop cultivation systems with low nutrient losses to the environment. PMID:25058933

  14. Pesticide abuse in Europe: effects on the Cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) population in Spain.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Mauro; Margalida, Antoni

    2008-05-01

    A survey was carried out to investigate incidents of pesticide poisoning of the Cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) in Spain during the period 1990-2006. A total of 241 incidents affecting 464 vultures were investigated to establish their causes: approved use, misuse, or deliberate abuse. Other factors studied were compounds, other species affected by the incident, the mode of application, spatial and temporal variation and reasons for the pesticide abuse involved. Approved use was responsible for only a minor fraction (1.3%) of the incidents whereas up to 98% of the investigated incidents were intentional poisonings. Pesticide mortality mainly affects adult individuals (83%) and the implications of this for population dynamics could be important. Eleven different compounds were involved in these incidents although three compounds accounted for up to 88% of the poisoning cases: carbofuran, aldicarb, and strychnine. Most of the pesticide kills seem to be related to the illegal control of predators. Given the minor impact of labeled-use pesticides, currently approved pesticide use does not represent a problem for the Cinereous vulture. Nevertheless, availability of highly toxic pesticides may exacerbate illegal use. As a few compounds, mainly granular insecticides, are responsible for most pesticide kills, stronger regulation and control of these in the EU could result in a decrease of mortality related to pesticide abuse in several endangered species without a significant effect on agriculture. PMID:18274896

  15. Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. A Secondary Education for Europe Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucher, Michel

    This monograph, published as part of the project "A Secondary Education for Europe," makes no claim to deal with all the questions relating to minorities, from either the legal point of view of that of international action. The paper does not aim to suggest recommendations on a theme which has concerned the Council of Europe for years. The…

  16. Allelopathic effect of a native species on a major plant invader in Europe.

    PubMed

    Christina, Mathias; Rouifed, Soraya; Puijalon, Sara; Vallier, Félix; Meiffren, Guillaume; Bellvert, Floriant; Piola, Florence

    2015-04-01

    Biological invasions have become a major global issue in ecosystem conservation. As formalized in the "novel weapon hypothesis", the allelopathic abilities of species are actively involved in invasion success. Here, we assume that allelopathy can also increase the biotic resistance of native species against invasion. We tested this hypothesis by studying the impact of the native species Sambucus ebulus on the colonization of propagules of the invasive species Fallopia x bohemica and the subsequent development of plants from these. Achenes and rhizome fragments from two natural populations were grown in a greenhouse experiment for 50 days. We used an experimental design that involved "donor" and "target" pots in order to separate resource competition from allelopathy. An allelopathic treatment effect was observed for plant growth but not for propagule establishment. Treatment affected, in particular, the growth of Fallopia plants originating from achenes, but there was less influence on plants originating from rhizomes. By day 50, shoot height had decreased by 27 % for plants originating from rhizomes and by 38 % for plants originating from achenes. The number of leaves for plants originating from achenes had only decreased by 20 %. Leaf and above- and below-ground dry masses decreased with treatment by 40, 41 and 25 % for plants originating from rhizomes and 70, 61 and 55 % for plants originating from achenes, respectively. S. ebulus extracts were analysed using high-performance chromatography, and the choice of test molecules was narrowed down. Our results suggest native species use allelopathy as a biotic containment mechanism against the naturalization of invasive species. PMID:25740225

  17. Allelopathic effect of a native species on a major plant invader in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christina, Mathias; Rouifed, Soraya; Puijalon, Sara; Vallier, Félix; Meiffren, Guillaume; Bellvert, Floriant; Piola, Florence

    2015-04-01

    Biological invasions have become a major global issue in ecosystem conservation. As formalized in the "novel weapon hypothesis", the allelopathic abilities of species are actively involved in invasion success. Here, we assume that allelopathy can also increase the biotic resistance of native species against invasion. We tested this hypothesis by studying the impact of the native species Sambucus ebulus on the colonization of propagules of the invasive species Fallopia x bohemica and the subsequent development of plants from these. Achenes and rhizome fragments from two natural populations were grown in a greenhouse experiment for 50 days. We used an experimental design that involved "donor" and "target" pots in order to separate resource competition from allelopathy. An allelopathic treatment effect was observed for plant growth but not for propagule establishment. Treatment affected, in particular, the growth of Fallopia plants originating from achenes, but there was less influence on plants originating from rhizomes. By day 50, shoot height had decreased by 27 % for plants originating from rhizomes and by 38 % for plants originating from achenes. The number of leaves for plants originating from achenes had only decreased by 20 %. Leaf and above- and below-ground dry masses decreased with treatment by 40, 41 and 25 % for plants originating from rhizomes and 70, 61 and 55 % for plants originating from achenes, respectively. S. ebulus extracts were analysed using high-performance chromatography, and the choice of test molecules was narrowed down. Our results suggest native species use allelopathy as a biotic containment mechanism against the naturalization of invasive species.

  18. EURO4M: monitoring weather and climate extremes in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein Tank, A. M. G.

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a new project called EURO4M: European Reanalysis and Observations for Monitoring (www.euro4m.eu), which is funded under the European Union FP7 programme. The ambitious plans in this project will be illustrated by examples from ongoing work and some early results. EURO4M sets out to develop the capacity for, and deliver the best possible and most complete (gridded) climate change time series and monitoring services covering all of Europe. The focus is on weather and climate extremes. Key questions include: What changes in weather and climate extremes do we observe in Europe over recent decades? How certain are we about these changes? Are our monitoring systems adequate to address these questions? EURO4M addresses the situation of fragmentation and scarcity of long-term climate change monitoring information for Europe. The project will extend, in a cost effective manner, European capacity to systematically monitor climate variability and change on a range of space and time scales. It will do so by combining seamlessly two different but complementary approaches: regional observation datasets of GCOS Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) and newly developed regional reanalysis. EURO4M will reach out with innovative and integrated data products and services to policy-makers, researchers, planners and citizens at European, national and local levels. This will directly address the needs of, for instance, the European Environment Agency for their environmental assessment reports - and even provide online reporting during emerging extreme events. EURO4M intends to become Europe's primary source of timely and reliable information about the state of the climate. The project has the potential to evolve into a future GMES service on climate change monitoring that is fully complimentary and supporting the existing operational GMES services. The EURO4M consortium consists of 9 partners from 8 countries. The project will run from 1 April 2010 until 31 March 2014. Co-ordinator is KNMI, the Netherlands.

  19. Energy Balance Related Behaviour: Personal, Home- and Friend-Related Factors among Schoolchildren in Europe Studied in the ENERGY-Project

    PubMed Central

    te Velde, Saskia J.; Singh, Amika; Chinapaw, Mai; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Natasa; Kovacs, Eva; Bere, Elling; Vik, Froydis N.; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Manios, Yannis; Moreno, Luis; Brug, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Objective To design interventions that target energy balance-related behaviours, knowledge of primary schoolchildren's perceptions regarding soft drink intake, fruit juice intake, breakfast consumption, TV viewing and physical activity (PA) is essential. The current study describes personal beliefs and attitudes, home- and friend-related variables regarding these behaviours across Europe. Design Cross-sectional study in which personal, family and friend -related variables were assessed by validated questionnaires, and dichotomized as favourable versus unfavourable answers. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate proportions of children giving unfavourable answers and test between-country differences. Setting A survey in eight European countries. Subjects A total of 7903 10–12 year old primary schoolchildren. Results A majority of the children reported unfavourable attitudes, preferences and subjective norms regarding soft drink, fruit juice intake and TV viewing accompanied with high availability and accessibility at home. Few children reported unfavourable attitudes and preferences regarding breakfast consumption and PA. Many children reported unfavourable health beliefs regarding breakfast consumption and TV viewing. Substantial differences between countries were observed, especially for variables regarding soft drink intake, breakfast consumption and TV viewing. Conclusion The surveyed children demonstrated favourable attitudes to some healthy behaviours (PA, breakfast intake) as well as to some unhealthy behaviours (soft drink consumption, TV viewing). Additionally, many children across Europe have personal beliefs and are exposed to social environments that are not supportive to engagement in healthy behaviours. Moreover, the large differences in personal, family and friend-related variables across Europe argue for implementing different strategies in the different European countries. PMID:25372490

  20. Decline in tropospheric NO2 and the effects of the 2008-09 economic crisis observed by OMI over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, P.; Boersma, F. F.

    2011-12-01

    We present a trend analysis of tropospheric NO2 for the time period of 2004-2010. Necessary for monitoring pollution abatement strategies, NO2 trends analyses are often based on surface networks, which suffer from high NO2 biases and spatial representativity issues inherent to the standard monitoring method (thermal reduction of NO2 followed by reaction with ozone and chemiluminescence). Space based NO2 trends are unbiased and self-consistent, but over Europe they have not been as obvious as those observed over North America and East Asia. In this work we exploit the daily NO2 column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in order to isolate long-term (timescales greater than one year) variability in NO2 over Europe without imposing a parametric fit to the data. In general, we find between 2005 and 2008, 1-5% per year declines in NO2 concentration in many polluted regions (e.g. Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Spain), but also 1-5% per year increases over the English Channel and the southern North Sea (a major shipping channel), as well as the United Kingdom, northern France and Eastern Europe. In 2009, NO2 almost exclusively decreased over Europe at a rate of 5-10% per year, coinciding with the abrupt decrease in industrial production and construction prompted by the global economic crisis. By 2010, in many areas the NO2 rate of change returned to pre-2009 levels suggesting economic recovery. We employ a simple fitting model to separate the forcing by meteorological variability, which can influence apparent NO2 trends, from that of NOx emissions. We calculate 1-3% per year NOx emissions reduction rates over most of Europe and an additional 15-30% per year decrease in NOx emissions during the economic crisis time period.

  1. How to write a history of Europe: Europe, Europes, Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Peter

    2006-05-01

    This article looks at the history of European culture from three angles, those of European uniqueness, European variety and European consciousness. The first section discusses the question of whether the fundamental unit of study, for cultural as well as economic historians, is not Eurasia. The second section is concerned with cultural divisions within Europe, with Europes in the plural. It asks whether it is more illuminating to distinguish two Europes (like Leopold von Ranke), or three (like Jeno Szucs), or even five (like Hugo Hassinger), and examine both centripetal and centrifugal forces in early modern history. The final section deals with the history of the idea of Europe, or more exactly with the rise of consciousness of being European, as it is revealed in early modern histories, geographies, journals and newspapers.

  2. The projected effect of scaling up midwifery.

    PubMed

    Homer, Caroline S E; Friberg, Ingrid K; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; ten Hoope-Bender, Petra; Sandall, Jane; Speciale, Anna Maria; Bartlett, Linda A

    2014-09-20

    We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate deaths averted if midwifery was scaled up in 78 countries classified into three tertiles using the Human Development Index (HDI). We selected interventions in LiST to encompass the scope of midwifery practice, including prepregnancy, antenatal, labour, birth, and post-partum care, and family planning. Modest (10%), substantial (25%), or universal (95%) scale-up scenarios from present baseline levels were all found to reduce maternal deaths, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths by 2025 in all countries tested. With universal coverage of midwifery interventions for maternal and newborn health, excluding family planning, for the countries with the lowest HDI, 61% of all maternal, fetal, and neonatal deaths could be prevented. Family planning alone could prevent 57% of all deaths because of reduced fertility and fewer pregnancies. Midwifery with both family planning and interventions for maternal and newborn health could avert a total of 83% of all maternal deaths, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths. The inclusion of specialist care in the scenarios resulted in an increased number of deaths being prevented, meaning that midwifery care has the greatest effect when provided within a functional health system with effective referral and transfer mechanisms to specialist care. PMID:24965814

  3. Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE study) profile: objectives, study protocol and descriptive data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indoor air pollution (IAP) constitutes a major global public health problem requiring increasing efforts in research and policymaking that may have special significance for elderly that are likely to spend most of their day indoors and appear to be particularly susceptible to adverse effects of chemical pollutants and bio-contaminants. Yet, evidence existing on the effects of IAP in elderly is scanty. The Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE) study aimed to assess health effects of major indoor air pollutants and thermal conditions in elderly (> 70 years) living stably in nursing homes (NH) across Europe. Respiratory effects were particularly considered as airways and lung constitute the first target of air pollutants. Objectives We describe here the rationale and the methods of the GERIE Study. Methods 8 nursing homes were randomly selected in 7 European countries. Twenty individuals were randomly selected in each nursing home. Major indoor and outdoor air chemical pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, PM0.1, formaldehyde, NO2; O3, VOC, CO2) and bio-contaminants (moulds, allergens) were assessed objectively with standardized procedures. Major health status indicators were assessed through a standardized questionnaire, non-invasive clinical tests and blood and urine biomarkers as well as saliva for ADN. Results The GERIE study has given the opportunity to publish two reviews on respiratory health effects of indoor and outdoor air pollution in elderly. In addition it has provided the inventory of air quality and thermal conditions in 50 nursing homes across Europe and data on respiratory health status in 600 elderly aged 82 years in mean. Major future results will include the relationships between NH environment and health in elderly. Conclusions The main long-term purpose of the GERIE study is to improve the health of elderly who permanently reside in nursing homes or of those who are exposed to indoor air pollution because of reduced mobility. PMID:24262306

  4. Impact of biogenic emissions on ozone and fine particles over Europe: Comparing effects of temperature increase and a potential anthropogenic NOx emissions abatement strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagaris, E.; Sotiropoulou, R. E. P.; Gounaris, N.; Andronopoulos, S.; Vlachogiannis, D.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of biogenic emissions on ozone and PM2.5 levels over Europe is assessed using CMAQ. Biogenic emissions are predicted to increase Max8hrO3 mixing ratios by 5.7% and to decrease PM2.5 concentrations by 1.9%, increasing PM2.5_OC by 13.6% and decreasing PM2.5_SO4, PM2.5_NO3 and PM2.5_NH4 by 5.6%, 3.7% and 5.6%, respectively, on average over Europe due to their interactions with anthropogenic emissions. A suite of perturbations in temperature is imposed individually on the base case conditions in order to determine the sensitivities to air temperature changes. Temperature increases of 1, 2 or 3° K suggest an average increase in Max8hrO3 mixing ratios of 0.9%, 1.8% or 2.9%, respectively, and an average decrease in daily average PM2.5 concentrations of 2.5%, 4.2% and 5.8%, respectively, increasing PM2.5_OC and decreasing PM2.5_SO4, PM2.5_NO3 and PM2.5_NH4 component concentrations on average over Europe. In order to examine if abatement measures for anthropogenic emissions could offset ozone increases in higher temperatures and their effect on PM2.5 concentrations, a simulation with a domain wide reduction in anthropogenic NOx emissions of 10% is performed. This is estimated to reduce Max8hrO3 mixing ratios by 1.3% on average over Europe. However, NOx reduction is estimated to increase Max8hrO3 in VOCs limited areas. The reduction in anthropogenic NOx emissions is predicted to reduce PM2.5 concentrations by 1.0% enhancing the reduction simulated, here, with temperature increase but further modifying PM2.5 component concentrations.

  5. Which specific causes of death are associated with short term exposure to fine and coarse particles in Southern Europe? Results from the MED-PARTICLES project.

    PubMed

    Samoli, Evangelia; Stafoggia, Massimo; Rodopoulou, Sophia; Ostro, Bart; Alessandrini, Ester; Basagaña, Xavier; Díaz, Julio; Faustini, Annunziata; Gandini, Martina; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Kelessis, Apostolos G; Le Tertre, Alain; Linares, Cristina; Ranzi, Andrea; Scarinzi, Cecilia; Katsouyanni, Klea; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the short-term effects of particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5?m (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10?m (PM2.5-10) and less than 10?m (PM10) on deaths from diabetes, cardiac and cerebrovascular causes, lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in 10 European Mediterranean metropolitan areas participating in the MED-PARTICLES project during 2001-2010. In the first stage of the analysis, data from each city were analyzed separately using Poisson regression models, whereas in the second stage, the city-specific air pollution estimates were combined to obtain overall estimates. We investigated the effects following immediate (lags 0-1), delayed (lags 2-5) and prolonged exposure (lags 0-5) and effect modification patterns by season. We evaluated the sensitivity of our results to co-pollutant exposures or city-specific model choice. We applied threshold models to investigate the pattern of selected associations. For a 10?g/m(3) increase in two days' PM2.5 exposure there was a 1.23% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): -1.63%, 4.17%) increase in diabetes deaths, while six days' exposure statistically significantly increased cardiac deaths by 1.33% (95% CI: 0.27, 2.40%), COPD deaths by 2.53% (95% CI: -0.01%, 5.14%) and LRTI deaths by 1.37% (95% CI: -1.94%, 4.78%). PM2.5 results were robust to co-pollutant adjustments and alternative modeling approaches. Stronger effects were observed in the warm season. Coarse particles displayed positive, even if not statistically significant, associations with mortality due to diabetes and cardiac causes that were more variable depending on exposure period, co-pollutant and seasonality adjustment. Our findings provide support for positive associations between PM2.5 and mortality due to diabetes, cardiac causes, COPD, and to a lesser degree to cerebrovascular causes, in the European Mediterranean region, which seem to drive the particles short-term health effects. PMID:24657768

  6. The Manhattan Project and its Effects on American Women Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Samuel

    2008-04-01

    There have been many detailed historical accounts of the Manhattan Project, but few have recognized the technical role women scientists and engineers crucially played in the Project's success. Despite their absence from these prominent accounts, recent studies have revealed that, in fact, women participated in every non-combat operation associated with the Manhattan Project. With such extensive participation of women and such a former lack of historical attention upon them, little analysis has been done on how the Manhattan Project might have influenced the prospectus of women scientists after the war. This talk has two aims: 1) to recount some of the technical and scientific contributions of women to the Manhattan Project, and 2) to examine what effects these contributions had on the women's careers as scientists. In other words, I intend offer a preliminary explanation of the extent to which the Manhattan Project acted both as a boon and as a detriment to American women scientists. And finally, I will address what this historical analysis could imply about the effects of current efforts to recruit women into science.

  7. Wake fields effects for the eRHIC project

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov A. V.; Belomestnykh, S.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.; Ptitsyn, V.

    2012-05-20

    An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) with a high peak electron bunch current is proposed for the Electron-Ion collider (eRHIC) project at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The present design is based on the multi-pass electron beam transport in existing tunnel of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). As a result of a high peak current and a very long beam transport, consideration of various collective beam dynamics effects becomes important. Here we summarize effects of the coherent synchrotron radiation, resistive wall, accelerating cavities and wall roughness on the resulting energy spread and energy loss for several scenarios of the eRHIC project.

  8. Controls on project proponents and environmental impact assessment effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Ortolano, L. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The degree of effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) for particular projects is associated with the existence of mechanisms of organizational control. Five dimensions of EIA effectiveness are considered: procedural compliance, completeness of EIA documents, methods to assess impacts, influence on project decisions, and weight given to environmental factors. Six mechanisms of control are introduced and illustrated by programs and projects in several countries. Experience in the Philippines under President Marcos demonstrates that procedural control in the form of EIA regulations, when used without other control mechanisms, will lead at most to token compliance. Judicial control, as practiced in the US, yields high procedural compliance. Evaluative control can yield effective EIA, but some systems based on this form of control treat only a small fraction of the major projects proposed. Both control exerted by development assistance organizations and control by professionals have great potential for yielding effective EIA, but that potential has not been fully realized. Control exerted directly by citizens or agencies not otherwise involved in EIA is uncommon, but cases from Taiwan demonstrate that those controls can be significant. An understanding of relationships between control mechanisms and EIA effectiveness is useful in designing EIA policies and programs.

  9. A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Myres, Natalie M; Rootsi, Siiri; Lin, Alice A; Järve, Mari; King, Roy J; Kutuev, Ildus; Cabrera, Vicente M; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Rudan, Pavao; Baldovic, Marian; Herrera, Rene J; Chiaroni, Jacques; Di Cristofaro, Julie; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of numerous branches within the core Y-chromosome haplogroup R-M207 support a West Asian origin of haplogroup R1b, its initial differentiation there followed by a rapid spread of one of its sub-clades carrying the M269 mutation to Europe. Here, we present phylogeographically resolved data for 2043 M269-derived Y-chromosomes from 118 West Asian and European populations assessed for the M412 SNP that largely separates the majority of Central and West European R1b lineages from those observed in Eastern Europe, the Circum-Uralic region, the Near East, the Caucasus and Pakistan. Within the M412 dichotomy, the major S116 sub-clade shows a frequency peak in the upper Danube basin and Paris area with declining frequency toward Italy, Iberia, Southern France and British Isles. Although this frequency pattern closely approximates the spread of the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), Neolithic culture, an advent leading to a number of pre-historic cultural developments during the past ?10 thousand years, more complex pre-Neolithic scenarios remain possible for the L23(xM412) components in Southeast Europe and elsewhere. PMID:20736979

  10. The Conservation Effects Assessment Project—The First Five Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) was initiated by USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) in response to a general call for better accountability of how soci...

  11. Fine sediment sources in conservation effects assessment project watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two naturally occurring radionuclides, 7Be and 210Pbxs , were used as tracers to discriminate eroded surface soils from channel-derived sediments in the fine suspended sediment loads of eight Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) benchmark watersheds. Precipitation, source soils, and suspe...

  12. Long-Term Effects of a Nursing Home Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Robert D.; Gurian, Bennett S.

    1976-01-01

    A survey was conducted by a mental health center to evaluate the effects of a nursing home education project which attempted 1) to teach mental health professionals and nursing home staff how to set up in-service education programs in nursing homes, and 2) to teach nursing home staff mental health principles. (Author/EJT)

  13. Projecting the effects of environmental change on Antarctic seals

    E-print Network

    Opinion Projecting the effects of environmental change on Antarctic seals DONALD B. SINIFF1 Gatos, CA 95032, USA *sinif001@umn.edu Abstract: We consider how Antarctic seals may respond to changes), Ross (Ommataphoca rossii) and leopard (Hydrurga leptonyx) seal - and the ice-tolerant Antarctic fur

  14. 1. Quantum Zeno effect (QZE) "proves" projective measurement

    E-print Network

    Sun, Chang-Pu

    Packet Collapse (WPC), Projection Measurement , Wave Function Reduction, Strong measurement ( )A a a a= a von Neumann 1929 #12;WPC results in quantum Zeno effect 2 2 2n- 0 0 2n 2 2 0 0 ( ) 2 2 P(=n)= 1 1

  15. Effects of Applied Strain on Rates of Ageing: Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campion, R. P.

    1997-01-01

    One of the stated intents of this project has been to make some assessment of effects of strain on rates of ageing of project thermoplastics exposed to project fluids. To this end, certain straining jigs which apply in various modes - tensile, four-point bending and crack growth using compact tension samples - were designed and made for holding samples during fluid exposures. During testing, features of the thermoplastics have been observed which have tended to confuse apparent strain effects on the polymers' aged performance, but recent assessments of the topic and its data have led to considerable progress being made in identifying test procedures necessary for strain and related effects on chemical deterioration to manifest themselves. It is the intent of this report to provide a summary of what has been determined on strain and related effects thus far, and provide recommendations for clarifying them in Phase 2 by means of further test procedures which will increase and focus the severity of the conditions applying. The choice of flexible pipe rather than umbilicals service for assessing service strain conditions reflects the major interest of project members. However, Tefzel data are still provided.

  16. Pastureland Conservation Effects Assessment Project: Status and expected outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a multiagency scientific effort to quantify environmental outcomes of conservation practices applied to private agricultural lands. A CEAP effort on pastureland, primarily in the eastern and central United States, began in 2008. In this paper we ...

  17. Learning Effects of an International Group Competition Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpinar, Murat; del Campo, Cristina; Eryarsoy, Enes

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of collaboration and competition on students' learning performance in a course of business statistics. The collaboration involved a simultaneously organised group competition project with analysis of real-life business problems among students. Students from the following schools participated: JAMK…

  18. The foot in multistage ultra-marathon runners: experience in a cohort study of 22 participants of the Trans Europe Footrace Project with mobile MRI

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Frank; Billich, Christian; Schuetz, Uwe H

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 67 runners participated in the Trans Europe FootRace 2009 (TEFR09), a 4487?km (2789 mi) multistage ultra-marathon covering the south of Europe (Bari, Italy) to the North Cape. Reports on ultra-marathons are lacking, but the literature reports overuse injuries in athletes, especially to the Achilles tendon (AT), ankle or hind foot. Bone oedema may be related to exposure and is present in fatigue fractures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine prospectively if sustained maximal load during an ultra-marathon leads to damage to the foot. Design and participants In a cohort study, repeated scanning of the 22 athletes participating in the study was performed before and during (approximately every 1000?km) the race. Using the obtained fat saturated inversion recovery sequence, two experienced readers blinded to the clinical data rated the images regarding foot lesions. Statistical analysis included regression analysis and computation of the inter-rater reliability. Setting The TEFR09 course. MRI scanning was performed according to prearranged schedules for every participant, using a mobile 1.5?Tesla MRI unit on a trailer following the race. Primary outcome measures MRI data such as AT diameter, bone or tendon lesions, subcutaneous, plantar fascia or intraosseous oedema. Results The 22 study participants did not differ significantly from the total of the 67 TEFR09 runners regarding height, weight and age. The AT diameter increased significantly from 6.8 to 7.8?mm as did intraosseous signal, bone lesions and subcutaneous oedema. However, finishers differed only regarding plantar aponeurosis and subcutaneous oedema from participants aborting the TEFR09. Inter-rater reliability was 0.88–0.98. Conclusion Under the extreme stress of the TEFR09, an increase of the AT diameter as well as bone signal are thought to be adaptive since only subcutaneous oedema and plantar fascia oedema were related to abortion of the race. Trial registration number University of Ulm, Germany Ethics Committee Number 78/08-UBB/se. PMID:22619270

  19. Power plant rehabilitation in Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Gaglia, B.N. [Pyropower Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Lecesne, E. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Beginning in 1989, political revolution in the former Eastern block countries precipitated a period of economic transformation from a centrally planned to a market-oriented economy. Because energy is a vital factor of any economic development, rehabilitation of the region`s aging and polluting energy sector is essential to achieving economic stability and growth. Today Eastern Europe is among the most polluted regions in the world. This is due to the absence of effective environmental responsibility over the last 40 years. The European Community and other Western countries have focused on Eastern Europe as a significant world environmental problem, particularly the Black Triangle area. To meet this challenge the governments of Poland, the Czech Republic, Germany and others have embarked on various programs to rehabilitate the key power stations in the region. This paper will present the various aspects of power plant rehabilitation including the installation of new efficient turbine generators, new digital control systems, renovated power cycle equipment and modern efficient clean coal circulating fluidized bed technology. The paper focuses on this issue by using the Turow 2 x 235 MW rehabilitation project in Bogatynia, Poland as a case study. Included in the paper will be a discussion of a broad range of issues affecting rehabilitation including technical considerations, financial and commercial limitations and political aspects.

  20. Can cars and trucks coexist peacefully on highways? Analyzing the effectiveness of road safety policies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Manzano, José I; Castro-Nuño, Mercedes; Fageda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    We examine the impact on the traffic accident rate of the interaction between trucks and cars on Europe's roads using a panel data set that covers the period 1999-2010. We find that rising motorization rates for trucks lead to higher traffic fatalities, while rising motorization rates for cars do not. Empirically, the model we build predicts the positive impact of stricter speed limit legislation for trucks in the reduction of road fatalities. These findings lend support to European strategies and aimed at promoting alternative modes of freight transport, including rail and maritime transport. PMID:25703350

  1. No effects of Bacillus thuringiensis maize on nontarget organisms in the field in southern Europe: a meta-analysis of 26 arthropod taxa.

    PubMed

    Comas, C; Lumbierres, B; Pons, X; Albajes, R

    2014-02-01

    Maize with the insecticidal properties of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, known as Bt maize, has been sown in Europe since 1998. For several years, EU and Spanish regulations have required laboratory and field trials to assess risks of genetically modified crops for nontarget organisms prior to their authorization. Thirteen field trials were conducted in Spain to measure the effects of Bt maize on a broad range of arthropod taxa; no effects were found in accordance with most literature records. However, statistical analyses of single trials rarely have the statistical power to detect low effect sizes if they do not have a sufficient sample size. When sample size is low, meta-analysis may improve statistical power by combining several trials and assuming a common measure of effect size. Here we perform a meta-analysis of the results of 13 independent field trials conducted in Spain in which effects of single or stacked Bt traits on several arthropod taxa were measured with no significant results. Since the taxa included in each single trial were not the same for all trials, for the meta-analysis we selected only those taxa recorded in a minimum of six trials, resulting finally in 7, 7, and 12 taxa analyzed in visual counts, pitfall traps and yellow sticky traps, respectively. In comparison with single trial analysis, meta-analysis dramatically increased the detectability of treatment effects for most of the taxa regardless of the sampling technique; of the 26 taxa analyzed, only three showed poorer detectability in the meta-analysis than the best recorded in the 13 single trials. This finding reinforces the conclusion that Bt maize has no effect on the most common herbivore, predatory and parasitoid arthropods found in the maize ecosystems of southern Europe. PMID:23904218

  2. The Contribution of Local Experiments and Negotiation Processes to Field-Level Learning in Emerging (Niche) Technologies: Meta-Analysis of 27 New Energy Projects in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raven, Rob P. J. M.; Heiskanen, Eva; Lovio, Raimo; Hodson, Mike; Brohmann, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how local experiments and negotiation processes contribute to social and field-level learning. The analysis is framed within the niche development literature, which offers a framework for analyzing the relation between projects in local contexts and the transfer of local experiences into generally applicable rules. The…

  3. OneGeology-Europe Plus Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capova, Dana; Kondrova, Lucie

    2014-05-01

    The Geological Surveys of the European countries hold valuable resources of geological data but, to discover, understand and use this data efficiently, a good level of standardization is essential. The OneGeology-Europe project had the aim of making geological maps at a scale 1:1M from Europe discoverable and accessible, available under a common data license and described by multilingual metainformation. A harmonized specification for basic geological map data was developed so that significant progress towards harmonizing the datasets was achieved. Responsibility for the management of the OneGeology-Europe portal has been taken by EuroGeoSurveys and provided by CGS and BRGM. Of the 34 members of EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), only 20 participated in the OneGeology-Europe project (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Spain, United Kingdom), so the European area was not completely covered. At the 33rd General Meeting and Directors Workshop in 2012 it was therefore decided to establish a successor initiative OneGeology Europe Plus (1G-E+) with the purpose of extending the coverage by geological maps at a scale of 1:1 M to all the EGS member countries (including Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Iceland, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine) and also, if possible, to the other European countries (Belorussia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Faeroe Islands, Kosovo, Latvia, Macedonia, Moldavia, Montenegro, Serbia). In order to achieve the desired result, it has been necessary for the new GSOs who intend to supply the additional 1G-E standardized services to carry out the work using their own staff and resources. The technical guidance and other support have been provided by the 1G-E+ Technical Support Team, funded from the internal budgets of their respective surveys. The team is coordinated by the Czech Geological Survey (CGS) working with the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), the British Geological Survey (BGS), the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the Geological Survey of Slovenia (GeoZS). The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (TNO) decided to provide financial support for the initiative. The Technical Support Team has been providing the technical advice required to enable the inclusion of geological maps from new countries in the 1G-E Portal using the standards developed and accepted for 1G-E. Cookbooks, on-line help and a helpdesk are provided during the work. A technical workshop was organized at which all the technical steps required to reach the target solution were presented and discussed. All newcomers must agree the existing common license that was created for downloading the 1G-E data. It should be emphasized that the results will be displayed as part of the 1G-E project and metadata/portal infrastructures. The process is still ongoing because the harmonization work for most of the countries involved has been a demanding process. Some countries are facing difficulties because of the lack of expert personnel or insufficient resources of data. Despite some problems, the 1G-E+ initiative and the work involved has contributed to effective networking and technical cooperation between the GSOs across the wider European region.

  4. Physical and economic consequences of climate change in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ciscar, Juan-Carlos; Iglesias, Ana; Feyen, Luc; Szabó, László; Van Regemorter, Denise; Amelung, Bas; Nicholls, Robert; Watkiss, Paul; Christensen, Ole B.; Dankers, Rutger; Garrote, Luis; Goodess, Clare M.; Hunt, Alistair; Moreno, Alvaro; Richards, Julie; Soria, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative estimates of the economic damages of climate change usually are based on aggregate relationships linking average temperature change to loss in gross domestic product (GDP). However, there is a clear need for further detail in the regional and sectoral dimensions of impact assessments to design and prioritize adaptation strategies. New developments in regional climate modeling and physical-impact modeling in Europe allow a better exploration of those dimensions. This article quantifies the potential consequences of climate change in Europe in four market impact categories (agriculture, river floods, coastal areas, and tourism) and one nonmarket impact (human health). The methodology integrates a set of coherent, high-resolution climate change projections and physical models into an economic modeling framework. We find that if the climate of the 2080s were to occur today, the annual loss in household welfare in the European Union (EU) resulting from the four market impacts would range between 0.2–1%. If the welfare loss is assumed to be constant over time, climate change may halve the EU's annual welfare growth. Scenarios with warmer temperatures and a higher rise in sea level result in more severe economic damage. However, the results show that there are large variations across European regions. Southern Europe, the British Isles, and Central Europe North appear most sensitive to climate change. Northern Europe, on the other hand, is the only region with net economic benefits, driven mainly by the positive effects on agriculture. Coastal systems, agriculture, and river flooding are the most important of the four market impacts assessed. PMID:21282624

  5. Inpatient Drug Utilization in Europe: Nationwide Data Sources and a Review of Publications on a Selected Group of Medicines (PROTECT Project).

    PubMed

    Sabaté, Mònica; Ferrer, Pili; Ballarín, Elena; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Amelio, Justyne; Schmiedl, Sven; Reynolds, Robert; Klungel, Olaf; Ibáñez, Luisa

    2015-03-01

    Drug utilization (DU) studies in inpatient settings at a national level are rarely conducted. The main objective of this study was to review the general information on hospital medicine management in Europe and to report on the availability and characteristics of nationwide administrative drug consumption databases. A secondary objective was to perform a review of published studies on hospital DU of a group of selected drugs, focusing on methodological characteristics (ATC/DDD). General information on hospital drug management was retrieved from several websites, nationwide administrative drug consumption databases and reports published by governmental organizations. A PubMed search was conducted using keywords related to the selected group of drugs AND 'hospital drug utilization'. The data sources for hospital DU information varied widely and included 14 databases from 25 reviewed countries. Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Norway and Sweden obtain information on inpatient DU at a national level from wholesalers/manufacturers. In Belgium, Italy and Portugal, drugs dispensed to patients in hospitals are registered at a national level. Data are freely available online only for Denmark and Iceland. From the PubMed search, of a total of 868 retrieved studies, only 13 studies used the ATC/DDD methodology. Although the number of DDD/100 bed-days was used in four studies, other units of measure were also used. The type of information provided for the inpatient sector allowed primarily for conducting DU research at an aggregated data level. The existence of national administrative structures to monitor hospital DU would contribute to promoting the rational use of medicines and improving the safety and quality of prescribing. PMID:25420967

  6. Crustal structure variation from the Precambrian to Palaeozoic platforms in Europe imaged by the inversion of teleseismic receiver functions-project TOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde-Piórko, M.; Grad, M.

    2002-07-01

    The TOR experiment (Teleseismic TOmography TORnquist) carried out in winter 1996/97 across the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) in Germany, Denmark and Sweden has collected new data to investigate the transition zone between Precambrian and Palaeozoic Europe. In this study, seismograms of teleseismic earthquakes recorded by the broad-band TOR stations have been used to calculate the receiver functions. The time-domain inversion method has been applied to the receiver functions to compute S-wave velocities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath each station. The results of inversion down to 60 km depth provide new, independent information about the distribution of S-wave velocity in this area. Beneath the Swedish stations on Baltica, the thickness of the crust varies from about 45 to 50 km with mostly gradually increasing S-wave velocity and no sharp discontinuities while for Danish and German stations the crust is thinner (29-38 km) with a sharp Moho discontinuity. A very distinct S-wave low velocity layer was found at depth of 8-16 km in the upper crust of Baltica, supported by the results of refraction/deep seismic sounding experiments using both P and S waves. The map of Vp/Vs ratio beneath the c. 1000 km long TOR `profile' was obtained using the Vp velocity model from previous investigations. The values of Vp/Vs= 1.73 were found in the uppermost crust of Baltica and upper Avalonian crust. The low velocity layer in the upper crust of Baltica is characterized by high value of Vp/Vs= 1.85. Relatively low S-wave velocities are observed in the lower crust of Variscides (Vp/Vs= 1.79), Baltica (Vp/Vs= 1.83) and Avalonia (Vp/Vs= 1.91); in the uppermost mantle Vp/Vs values are 1.77, 1.79 and 1.82, respectively.

  7. Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    A first part of the presentation is devoted to the consequences of the severe accident in the 1986 Chernobyl NPP. It lead to a substantial radioactive contaminated of large parts of Europe and thus raised the awareness for off-site nuclear accident consequences. Spatial patterns of the (transient) contamination of the air and (persistent) contamination of the ground were studied by both measurements and model simulations. For a variety of reasons, ground contamination measurements have variability at a range of spatial scales. Results will be reviewed and discussed. Model simulations, including inverse modelling, have shown that the standard source term as defined in the ATMES study (1990) needs to be updated. Sensitive measurements of airborne activities still reveal the presence of low levels of airborne radiocaesium over the northern hemisphere which stems from resuspension. Over time scales of months and years, the distribution of radionuclides in the Earth system is constantly changing, for example relocated within plants, between plants and soil, in the soil, and into water bodies. Motivated by the permanent risk of transboundary impacts from potential major nuclear accidents, the multidisciplinary project flexRISK (see http://flexRISK.boku.ac.at) has been carried out from 2009 to 2012 in Austria to quantify such risks and hazards. An overview of methods and results of flexRISK is given as a second part of the presentation. For each of the 228 NPPs, severe accidents were identified together with relevant inventories, release fractions, and release frequencies. Then, Europe-wide dispersion and dose calculations were performed for 2788 cases, using the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. Maps of single-case results as well as various aggregated risk parameters were produced. It was found that substantial consequences (intervention measures) are possible for distances up to 500-1000 km, and occur more frequently for a distance range up to 100-300 km, which is in agreement with Chernobyl experiences. However, emergency planning presently is still often focussing on too small areas. In reality, almost all of Europe should be prepared for nuclear disaster. The project investigated also the effect of a simple phase-out scenario. A regional phase-out policy is effective for reducing or even eliminating high damage in the respective regions. It should also be mentioned that risk distribution depends strongly on accident frequency, but this parameter is highly uncertain. The work in flexRISK was funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund (KLI.EN).

  8. In situ bioremediation in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Porta, A. [Battelle Europe, Geneva (CH); Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

    1993-06-01

    Site remediation activity in Europe is increasing, even if not at the forced pace of the US. Although there is a better understanding of the benefits of bioremediation than of other approaches, especially about in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, relatively few projects have been carried out full-scale in Europe or in the US. Some engineering companies and large industrial companies in Europe are investigating bioremediation and biotreatment technologies, in some cases to solve their internal waste problems. Technologies related to the application of microorganisms to the soil, release of nutrients into the soil, and enhancement of microbial decontamination are being tested through various additives such as surfactants, ion exchange resins, limestone, or dolomite. New equipment has been developed for crushing and mixing or injecting and sparging the microorganisms, as have new reactor technologies (e.g., rotating aerator reactors, biometal sludge reactors, and special mobile containers for simultaneous storage, transportation, and biodegradation of contaminated soil). Some work has also been done with immobilized enzymes to support and restore enzymatic activities related to partial or total xenobiotic decontamination. Finally, some major programs funded by public and private institutions confirm that increasing numbers of firms have a working interest in bioremediation.

  9. Space Radiation Effects on Inflatable Habitat Materials Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Nichols, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Space Radiation Effects on Inflatable Habitat Materials project provides much needed risk reduction data to assess space radiation damage of existing and emerging materials used in manned low-earth orbit, lunar, interplanetary, and Martian surface missions. More specifically, long duration (up to 50 years) space radiation damage will be quantified for materials used in inflatable structures (1st priority), as well as for habitable composite structures and space suits materials (2nd priority). The data acquired will have relevance for nonmetallic materials (polymers and composites) used in NASA missions where long duration reliability is needed in continuous or intermittent radiation fluxes. This project also will help to determine the service lifetimes for habitable inflatable, composite, and space suit materials.

  10. I-MOVE Multi-Centre Case Control Study 2010-11: Overall and Stratified Estimates of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kissling, Esther; Valenciano, Marta; Cohen, Jean Marie; Oroszi, Beatrix; Barret, Anne-Sophie; Rizzo, Caterina; Stefanoff, Pawel; Nunes, Baltazar; Pitigoi, Daniela; Larrauri, Amparo; Daviaud, Isabelle; Horvath, Judit Krisztina; O'Donnell, Joan; Seyler, Thomas; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona Anna; Pechirra, Pedro; Ivanciuc, Alina Elena; Jiménez-Jorge, Silvia; Savulescu, Camelia; Ciancio, Bruno Christian; Moren, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Background In the third season of I-MOVE (Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe), we undertook a multicentre case-control study based on sentinel practitioner surveillance networks in eight European Union (EU) member states to estimate 2010/11 influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically-attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza. Methods Using systematic sampling, practitioners swabbed ILI/ARI patients within seven days of symptom onset. We compared influenza-positive to influenza laboratory-negative patients among those meeting the EU ILI case definition. A valid vaccination corresponded to > 14 days between receiving a dose of vaccine and symptom onset. We used multiple imputation with chained equations to estimate missing values. Using logistic regression with study as fixed effect we calculated influenza VE adjusting for potential confounders. We estimated influenza VE overall, by influenza type, age group and among the target group for vaccination. Results We included 2019 cases and 2391 controls in the analysis. Adjusted VE was 52% (95% CI 30-67) overall (N?=?4410), 55% (95% CI 29-72) against A(H1N1) and 50% (95% CI 14-71) against influenza B. Adjusted VE against all influenza subtypes was 66% (95% CI 15-86), 41% (95% CI -3-66) and 60% (95% CI 17-81) among those aged 0-14, 15-59 and ?60 respectively. Among target groups for vaccination (N?=?1004), VE was 56% (95% CI 34-71) overall, 59% (95% CI 32-75) against A(H1N1) and 63% (95% CI 31-81) against influenza B. Conclusions Results suggest moderate protection from 2010-11 trivalent influenza vaccines against medically-attended ILI laboratory-confirmed as influenza across Europe. Adjusted and stratified influenza VE estimates are possible with the large sample size of this multi-centre case-control. I-MOVE shows how a network can provide precise summary VE measures across Europe. PMID:22110695

  11. An Overview of Land Consolidation in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arvo VITIKAINEN

    2004-01-01

    Summary Rural development by land consolidation is used in several countries in the Continent of Europe. At the moment, land consolidation projects are executed broadly in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Switzerland, as well as in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The demand for land consolidation arises from a similar source in all countries: the need for readjusting

  12. Retirement Age Considerations for Central Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hana Polackova

    1999-01-01

    The paper analyzes the arguments for and possible consequences of an increase in the statutory retirement age in central Europe, including the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. The analysis reflects the current and projected demographic and economic developments, and discerns the long-term trends from the specific aspects of transition. As for the long-term trends, the paper offers a simple

  13. Short term effects of air pollution on health: a European approach using epidemiologic time series data: the APHEA protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Katsouyanni; J Schwartz; C Spix; G Touloumi; D Zmirou; A Zanobetti; B Wojtyniak; J M Vonk; A Tobias; A Pönkä; S Medina; L Bachárová; H R Anderson

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Results from several studies over the past five years have shown that the current levels of pollutants in Europe and North America have adverse short term effects on health. The APHEA project aims to quantifying these in Europe, using standardised methodology. The project protocol and analytical methodology are presented here. DESIGN: Daily time series data were gathered

  14. Childhood cancer survivor cohorts in Europe.

    PubMed

    Winther, Jeanette F; Kenborg, Line; Byrne, Julianne; Hjorth, Lars; Kaatsch, Peter; Kremer, Leontien C M; Kuehni, Claudia E; Auquier, Pascal; Michel, Gérard; de Vathaire, Florent; Haupt, Riccardo; Skinner, Roderick; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura M; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Wesenberg, Finn; Reulen, Raoul C; Grabow, Desiree; Ronckers, Cecile M; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Schindler, Matthias; Berbis, Julie; Holmqvist, Anna S; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; de Fine Licht, Sofie; Bonnesen, Trine G; Asdahl, Peter H; Bautz, Andrea; Kristoffersen, Anja K; Himmerslev, Liselotte; Hasle, Henrik; Olsen, Jørgen H; Hawkins, Mike M

    2015-05-01

    With the advent of multimodality therapy, the overall five-year survival rate from childhood cancer has improved considerably now exceeding 80% in developed European countries. This growing cohort of survivors, with many years of life ahead of them, has raised the necessity for knowledge concerning the risks of adverse long-term sequelae of the life-saving treatments in order to provide optimal screening and care and to identify and provide adequate interventions. Childhood cancer survivor cohorts in Europe. Considerable advantages exist to study late effects in individuals treated for childhood cancer in a European context, including the complementary advantages of large population-based cancer registries and the unrivalled opportunities to study lifetime risks, together with rich and detailed hospital-based cohorts which fill many of the gaps left by the large-scale population-based studies, such as sparse treatment information. Several large national cohorts have been established within Europe to study late effects in individuals treated for childhood cancer including the Nordic Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia study (ALiCCS), the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS), the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) LATER study, and the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS). Furthermore, there are other large cohorts, which may eventually become national in scope including the French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (FCCSS), the French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study for Leukaemia (LEA), and the Italian Study on off-therapy Childhood Cancer Survivors (OTR). In recent years significant steps have been taken to extend these national studies into a larger pan-European context through the establishment of two large consortia - PanCareSurFup and PanCareLIFE. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the current large, national and pan-European studies of late effects after childhood cancer. This overview will highlight the strong cooperation across Europe, in particular the EU-funded collaborative research projects PanCareSurFup and PanCareLIFE. Overall goal. The overall goal of these large cohort studies is to provide every European childhood cancer survivor with better care and better long-term health so that they reach their full potential, and to the degree possible, enjoy the same quality of life and opportunities as their peers. PMID:25813473

  15. Effect of risk aversion on prioritizing conservation projects.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Maloney, Richard F; Joseph, Liana N; Bennett, Joseph R; Di Fonzo, Martina M I; Probert, William J M; O'Connor, Shaun M; Densem, Jodie P; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-04-01

    Conservation outcomes are uncertain. Agencies making decisions about what threat mitigation actions to take to save which species frequently face the dilemma of whether to invest in actions with high probability of success and guaranteed benefits or to choose projects with a greater risk of failure that might provide higher benefits if they succeed. The answer to this dilemma lies in the decision maker's aversion to risk-their unwillingness to accept uncertain outcomes. Little guidance exists on how risk preferences affect conservation investment priorities. Using a prioritization approach based on cost effectiveness, we compared 2 approaches: a conservative probability threshold approach that excludes investment in projects with a risk of management failure greater than a fixed level, and a variance-discounting heuristic used in economics that explicitly accounts for risk tolerance and the probabilities of management success and failure. We applied both approaches to prioritizing projects for 700 of New Zealand's threatened species across 8303 management actions. Both decision makers' risk tolerance and our choice of approach to dealing with risk preferences drove the prioritization solution (i.e., the species selected for management). Use of a probability threshold minimized uncertainty, but more expensive projects were selected than with variance discounting, which maximized expected benefits by selecting the management of species with higher extinction risk and higher conservation value. Explicitly incorporating risk preferences within the decision making process reduced the number of species expected to be safe from extinction because lower risk tolerance resulted in more species being excluded from management, but the approach allowed decision makers to choose a level of acceptable risk that fit with their ability to accommodate failure. We argue for transparency in risk tolerance and recommend that decision makers accept risk in an adaptive management framework to maximize benefits and avoid potential extinctions due to inefficient allocation of limited resources. El Efecto de la Aversión de Riesgo sobre la Priorización de Proyectos de Conservación. PMID:25327837

  16. Project: Pin down framing effects in situation of risky choice Behavioral data

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Project: Pin down framing effects in situation of risky choice Behavioral data fMRI data Behavioral (London) July 2005 S.Bourgeois-Gironde and Ã?lise Payzan Budapest 07/05 #12;Project: Pin down framing effects in situation of risky choice Behavioral data fMRI data 1 Project: Pin down framing effects

  17. The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project--design, population and data harmonization of a large-scale, international study.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Bobak, Martin; Borsch-Supan, Axel; Brenner, Hermann; Eriksson, Sture; Grodstein, Fran; Jansen, Eugene; Jenab, Mazda; Juerges, Hendrik; Kampman, Ellen; Kee, Frank; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Park, Yikyung; Tjonneland, Anne; van Duijn, Cornelia; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wolk, Alicja; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2014-12-01

    There is a public health demand to prevent health conditions which lead to increased morbidity and mortality among the rapidly-increasing elderly population. Data for the incidence of such conditions exist in cohort studies worldwide, which, however, differ in various aspects. The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project aims at harmonizing data from existing major longitudinal studies for the elderly whilst focussing on cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancer, fractures and cognitive impairment in order to estimate their prevalence, incidence and cause-specific mortality, and identify lifestyle, socioeconomic, and genetic determinants and biomarkers for the incidence of and mortality from these conditions. A survey instrument assessing ageing-related conditions of the elderly will be also developed. Fourteen cohort studies participate in CHANCES with 683,228 elderly (and 150,210 deaths), from 23 European and three non-European countries. So far, 287 variables on health conditions and a variety of exposures, including biomarkers and genetic data have been harmonized. Different research hypotheses are investigated with meta-analyses. The results which will be produced can help international organizations, governments and policy-makers to better understand the broader implications and consequences of ageing and thus make informed decisions. PMID:25504016

  18. Living in Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Weblogs on just about every topic imaginable (including a few which no one would have imagined) are now available. And, after some time spent living in the shadows of traditional formats such as television and mainstream periodicals, they have garnered the attention of major media programs. One of the more interesting weblog sites out there is Living in Europe, which consists of a cooperative of bloggers and writers who contribute essays, photographs, personal diaries, and news items from Europe. The perspectives section of the site offers some commentaries on the expansion of the European Union and a diary of a foreigner living in Turkey. The photos section features contributions from various parts of Europe, including some musings and photos from Catalonia and Bristol. Visitors who develop a penchant for the site may sign up to help with the administration of the site, or just offer their own commentaries on life in Europe.

  19. Where Europe meets Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Data from a portion of the imagery acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera during 2000-2002 were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of southwestern Europe and northwestern Morocco and Algeria. The image extends from 48oN, 16oW in the northwest to 32oN, 8oE in the southeast. It is displayed in Albers conic equal-area projection (a projection which is frequently used for equal-area maps of regions that are predominantly east-west in extent).

    From the northeast, the image traverses a portion of the Swiss Alps (partially snow-covered) and a small part of Italy's Po Valley. The northern portion of the image also includes the western coast of France and much of southern and southwestern France's undulating terrain, which continues until reaching the hills of the Pyrenees. The Pyrenees act as the natural frontier to the Iberian Peninsula -- a landmass comprised of Spain and Portugal. The Peninsular landscapes are extremely varied, with some almost desert-like, others green and fertile. About half of Spain is situated atop a high plain, known as the Central Plateau, and many mountain ranges, rivers, geological basement rock and vegetation types are found across this great plateau. The largest alluvial plain is Andalusia in the south, where the valley of the Guadalquivir River is shut in by mountain ranges on every side except the southwest, where the valley descends to the Atlantic. The islands of Mallorca, Menorca and Ibiza are Spanish territories in the western Mediterranean. At the Strait of Gibralter, Spain and Morocco very nearly kiss, and Morocco appears relatively verdant along its northern coastal corner. The rugged Atlas Mountain ranges traverse northern Algeria and Morocco.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during 2000-2002. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  20. Quantifying Nitrogen Fluxes and Their Influence on the Greenhouse gas Balance Research Strategy and new Findings From the NitroEurope Integrated Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sutton; E. Nemitz; S. Reis; C. Beier; K. Butterbach-Bahl; P. Cellier; M. F. Cotrufo; J. W. Erisman; U. M. Skiba; W. de Vries; S. Zechmeister-Baltenstern; A. Bleeker; P. Calanca; T. Dalgaard; U. Dragosits; J. H. Duyzer; P. Gundersen; A. Hensen; H. Kros; A. Leip; M. Obersteiner; J. E. Olesen; G. Phillips; R. M. Rees; P. E. Smith; J. Soussana; Y. Tang; M. R. Theobald; A. van Amstel; M. van Oijen; M. Bakker; T. Vesala

    2008-01-01

    The human-driven production of reactive nitrogen to stimulate agricultural productivity and its unintended formation in combustion processes both have major impacts on the global environment. Effects of excess reactive nitrogen include reductions in air quality, water quality, soil quality and biodiversity. One of the most controversial impacts of nitrogen, however, is on the greenhouse gas balance. While recent papers have

  1. Forests and Soil Erosion across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathurst, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Land use and climate change threaten the ability of Europe's forests to provide a vital service in limiting soil erosion, e.g. from forest fires and landslides. However, our ability to define the threat and to propose mitigation measures suffers from two deficiencies concerning the forest/erosion interface: 1) While there have been a considerable number of field studies of the relationship between forest cover and erosion in different parts of Europe, the data sets are scattered among research groups and a range of literature outlets. There is no comprehensive overview of the forest/erosion interface at the European scale, essential for considering regional variations and investigating the effects of future changes in land use and climate. 2) Compared with forest/water studies, we have a poorer quantitative appreciation of forest/erosion interactions. In the forest/water area it is possible to make quantitative statements such as that a 20% change in forest cover across a river catchment is needed for the effect on annual water yield to be measurable or that a forested catchment in upland UK has an annual water yield around 15% lower than an otherwise comparable grassland catchment. Comparable statements are not yet possible for forest/erosion interactions and there are uncertainties in the mathematical representation of forest/erosion interactions which limit our ability to make predictions, for example of the impact of forest loss in a given area. This presentation therefore considers the next step in improving our predictive capability. It proposes the integration of existing research and data to construct the "big picture" across Europe, i.e. erosion rates and sediment yields associated with forest cover and its loss in a range of erosion regimes (e.g. post-forest fire erosion or post-logging landslides). This would provide a basis for generalizations at the European scale. However, such an overview would not form a predictive capability. Therefore it is also necessary to identify a range of predictive methods, from empirical guidelines to computer models, which can be recommended for applications such as extrapolating from the local to the regional scale and for planning mitigation strategies. Such developments could help improve efficiency in the integrated management of forest, soil and water resources, benefit local engineering projects ranging from hazard mitigation plans to road culvert design, contribute to the implementation of the EU Water Framework Development, form a more objective basis for cost/benefit analysis of proposed management actions and help in putting a value on forest services.

  2. The effect of systemic errors on optimal project buffers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Trietsch

    2005-01-01

    Existing mathematical models for setting buffers for time or cost in project management assume that project activities are statistically independent. This leads to a highly counterintuitive and damaging conclusion that project buffers should become relatively negligible for projects with long chains of activities. We present a model that considers the statistical dependence between activities caused by estimation bias. We show

  3. Designing Effective Projects: Decision Options for Maximizing Learning and Project Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkema, Roger J.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, more and more business schools have introduced team-based projects into their curricula as a means of addressing corporate, small business, and community-service issues while teaching students a variety of project management skills (technical and sociocultural). In designing a project-oriented course, an instructor has a number of…

  4. A New Tool for Effective and Efficient Project Management

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, Jesse A.

    2011-12-01

    Organizations routinely handle thousands of projects per year, and it is difficult to manage all these projects concurrently. Too often, projects do not get the attention they need when they need it. Management inattention can lead to late projects or projects with less than desirable content and/or deliverables. This paper discusses the application of Visual Project Management (VPM) as a method to track and manage projects. The VPM approach proved to be a powerful management tool without the overhead and restrictions of traditional management methods.

  5. Diabetes in Europe: an update.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, T; Rosenbauer, J; Wild, S H; Spijkerman, A M W; Baan, C; Forouhi, N G; Herder, C; Rathmann, W

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes is among the leading causes of death in the IDF Europe Region (EUR), continues to increase in prevalence with diabetic macro- and microvascular complications resulting in increased disability and enormous healthcare costs. In 2013, the number of people with diabetes is estimated to be 56 million in EUR with an overall estimated prevalence of 8.5%. However, estimates of diabetes prevalence in 2013 vary widely in the 56 diverse countries in EUR from 2.4% in Moldova to 14.9% in Turkey. Trends in diabetes prevalence also vary between countries with stable prevalence since 2002 for many countries but a doubling of diabetes prevalence in Turkey. For 2035, a further increase of nearly 10 million people with diabetes is projected for the EUR. Prevalence of type 1 has also increased over the past 20 years in EUR and there was estimated to be 129,350 cases in children aged 0-14 years in 2013. Registries provide valid information on incidence of type 1 diabetes with more complete data available for children than for adults. There are large differences in distribution of risk factors for diabetes at the population level in EUR. Modifiable risk factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, smoking behaviour (including secondhand smoking), environmental pollutants, psychosocial factors and socioeconomic deprivation could be tackled to reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Europe. In addition, diabetes management is a major challenge to health services in the European countries. Improved networking practices of health professionals and other stakeholders in combination with empowerment of people with diabetes and continuous quality monitoring need to be further developed in Europe. PMID:24300019

  6. Education and ethnic prejudice in Europe : explanations for cross-national variances in the educational effect on ethnic prejudice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn Hello; Peer Scheepers; Mérove Gijsberts

    2002-01-01

    Education is often found to be a strong determinant of ethnic pre judice. However, there is preliminary evidence that this educational effect varies across countries. Moreover, there are also theoretical arguments to expect cross-national variances in the educational effect on ethnic pre judice. From both a cultural and structural perspective, we set out to explain these cross-national variances in the

  7. Education and Ethnic Prejudice in Europe: Explanations for Cross-National Variances in the Educational Effect on Ethnic Prejudice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hello, Evelyn; Scheepers, Peer; Gijsberts, Merove

    2002-01-01

    Studied cross-national variances in the effect of education on ethnic prejudice using data from11 European countries with a total sample of 11,904 adults. Findings show that a country's democratic tradition and degree of religious heterogeneity are important for the strength of an educational effect on ethnic prejudice, while ethnic composition…

  8. Tempo Effects in the Fertility Decline in Eastern Europe: Evidence from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimiter Philipov; Hans-Peter Kohler

    2001-01-01

    A recent formula due to Bongaarts and Feeney allows us todisentangle tempo and quantum effects in changes of the totalfertility rate. This article applies the TFR adjustment toBulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Russia.Substantial differences between the adjusted and the observed TFRindicate important tempo effects in the recent decline offertility. Moreover, these five countries differ in the relativeimportance of

  9. The Manhattan Project and its Effects on American Women Scientists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Fletcher

    2008-01-01

    There have been many detailed historical accounts of the Manhattan Project, but few have recognized the technical role women scientists and engineers crucially played in the Project's success. Despite their absence from these prominent accounts, recent studies have revealed that, in fact, women participated in every non-combat operation associated with the Manhattan Project. With such extensive participation of women and

  10. A Reflection on the Effects of the 985 Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Cheng

    2011-01-01

    China's 985 Project, which came after the 211 Project, is a key program of the Chinese government to create world-class universities and high-level research universities. The central government invested a total of RMB32.9 billion in special funds for phase I (1999-2001) and phase II (2004-2007) of the project, assisting thirty-nine universities.…

  11. Soft Skills and Technical Expertise of Effective Project Managers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharlett Gillard

    As the field of research surrounding project manage ment continues to grow, it is becoming more evident that success in the role of project manager cannot be attained with a technical skill set only. Project managers functioning within a matrix organizational structure and championing large-scale initiatives are in a communication para digm unparalleled by any other management position. Excellent interpersonal,

  12. Endemic syphilis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lipozen?i?, Jasna; Marinovi?, Branka; Gruber, Franjo

    2014-01-01

    Nonvenereal syphilis (endemic syphilis) has existed in Europe since the 16th century. Main characteristics of the disease are its presence for a longer time in a specific territory and its transmission regardless of age and sex, mainly extragenitally in unsanitary living conditions. Nonvenereal syphilis was described under different names in almost all regions of Europe. The primary genital chancre was absent, and lesions were most frequently found in the mouth and affected mostly children. The disease spread in rural areas with poor economic and hygienic conditions. The disease was eradicated in Europe in the 20th century, but it is still present in some rural regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Southwest Asia, and North Africa. PMID:24559557

  13. EPOS: Integrating seismological Research Infrastructures within Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck Van, Torild; Clinton, John; Haslinger, Florian; Michelini, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    Seismological data, products and models are currently produced in Europe within individual countries or research organizations, and with the contribution of coordinating organizations like ORFEUS and EMSC. In spite of these partly scattered resources, significant scientific results are obtained, excellent monitoring and information systems are operational and a huge amount of research quality data is being archived and disseminated. The seismological community, however, realizes that an effective European-scale integration of seismological and related geophysical data, products and models, combined with broad and easy access, is needed to facilitate future top level geoscience, for example, to appropriately harness the technological advancements enabling large scale and near-real time data processing. Here we present the technical concepts and developments within European seismology that will build the next generation of integrated services. Within the EPOS initiative and a number of related projects, where seismology infrastructure and IT developments are merging, in depth discussions are on-going on how to realize an effective integration. Concepts and visions addressing the obviously complex challenges resulting from the current highly distributed facilities and resources in Europe are emerging and are already partly being implemented. We will provide an overview of developments within key EU projects (NERA, VERCE, COOPEUS, EUDAT, REAKT, COMMIT, etc) and demonstrate how these are in coherence with EPOS and other on-going global initiatives. Within seismology current focus is on addressing IT related challenges to a) organize distributed data archives, develop metadata attributes for improved data searching, specifically including quality indicators, and define products from data and/or models, and b) define and create(on-line) monitoring, data access and processing tools. While developments to meet those challenges originate partly from within the community itself, it is important to harvest relevant ideas and tools from other scientific communities dealing with similar issues. We will present a short summary of those developments and how they fit within the proposed visions and concepts. These integration developments address a wide framework of seismological services that include: basic seismological data services (waveform data from velocity and acceleration sensors from land and underwater sites); seismological data products (source mechanism and process estimates, earthquake catalogues, structural and tomography model estimations); seismological models (synthetic waveforms, earth and earthquake source models, hazard models).Our aim is to build significantlyimproved seismological services and valuable products for multidisciplinary earth science research.

  14. Acid rain in Europe and the United States: an update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredric C. Menz; Hans M. Seip

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of science and policies to control acid rain in Europe and the United States over the past several decades. Acid rain gained prominence in the late 1960s because of its perceived effects on ecosystem integrity. Extensive research efforts in both Europe and the United States, however, have concluded that the effects of acid rain—at least

  15. The greying of Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Dall, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    About a quarter of the population of Europe is now of pensionable age. Facilities for caring for very old or disabled people differ throughout Europe in scope and means of funding, and the countries of the European Union are far from equity in the status of pensioners. Health expectations have increased in older people--most of the calculated gain in life expectancy is likely to be without disability. Most countries now have specialist geriatric medicine facilities, and international research programmes are under way. Images p1283-a p1285-a PMID:7888855

  16. Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nussli, Christos.

    This seventh edition of the Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe, available in English and French, was posted on the Web in September 2001. The atlas, a project of Christos Nussli, consists of maps "depicting with accuracy the states of this continent every first day of each centennial year from AD 1 to AD 2000." A legend helps users understand each of the maps, which are presented as expandable thumbnails. The site also links to a bibliography and maps from De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. Though the site functions in part as an advertisement for Nussli's CD version of the atlas, it is nonetheless a useful stop in its own right.

  17. Religion and Party Choice in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wouter van der Brug; Sara B. Hobolt; Claes H. de Vreese

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates religiosity in relation to party choice in European Parliament elections. Conventional wisdom tells us that as Europe has secularised, the effect of religion on party choice should also have diminished. Yet, this cross-national and cross-temporal study of religious voting in European elections from 1989 to 2004 paints a more nuanced picture. It shows that a) the effect

  18. The effect of total solar eclipse of October 3, 2005, on the total electron content over Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Krankowski; I. I. Shagimuratov; L. W. Baran; G. A. Yakimova

    2008-01-01

    GPS observations from EUREF permanent GPS network were used to observe the response of TEC (Total Electron Content) to the total solar eclipse on October 3, 2005, under quiet geomagnetic conditions of the daytime ionosphere. The effect of the eclipse was detected in diurnal variations and more distinctly in the variations of TEC along individual satellite passes. The trough-like variations

  19. Uromyces Scutellatus as a keystone species affecting Euphorbia spp. in Europe as shown by effects on density in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearest neighbor spatial analysis was used to assess the effect of systemic rust caused by Uromyces scutellatus on stands density of Euphorbia esula/virgata, a highly invasive deep-rooted perennial weed of rangelands and natural areas in North America. ANOVA applied to nearest neighbor measurements ...

  20. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  1. OCLC in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Christine

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the early days of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) in Europe, and developments in its usage. Highlights include negotiations between OCLC and France; retrospective conversion; reorganization and restructuring; the gradual approach to international use of OCLC; problems facing European libraries using OCLC; and benefits. (AEF)

  2. EUROPE'S GEOSTATIONARY METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES

    E-print Network

    Stoffelen, Ad

    MISSIONS MFG MISSION MSG MISSION MTG IMAGING MISSION MTG I MTG SOUNDING MISSION MTG S * MSG 4/METEOSAT 11 MTG S 1 MTG S 2 METEOSAT 9 MSG 3/METEOSAT 10 MSG 4/METEOSAT 11* METEOSAT FIRST GENERATION METEOSAT services over Europe and Africa, are now exclusively provided by Meteosat Second Generation (MSG

  3. A meta-analysis of the effects of agricultural management on soil physical quality for different farm typologies across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Gema; Sáenz de Rodrigáñez, Marta; Laguna, Ana; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Vanderlinden, Karl; Ten Berge, Hein

    2014-05-01

    Despite important research efforts directed towards increasing our understanding of the links between agricultural management practices and environmental degradation and crop yield decline, current knowledge is still insufficient to provide an integrated approach for untangling relationships with soil quality from a chemical, biological and physical perspective. (Davis et al. 2012). Within the European project CATCH-C (ten Berge 2011) a practical tool is being developed for analyzing the sustainability of soil management practices for a wide range of farm typologies across European. As a partner of CATCH-C, the Spanish team aims at assessing physical soil quality by using meta-analysis techniques, previously used to assess other aspects of agricultural management (van den Putte et al. 2010; González et al. 2012; Quemada et al. 2013). As a first step, key indicators for characterizing soil physical quality such as bulk density, resistance to penetration, hydraulic conductivity, runoff and sediment yield have been identified. A literature review of the performance of these indicators was carried out. Data extracted from literature, was integrated in an online database developed by Plant Research International (Wageningen, UR). After an exploratory data analysis, a meta-analysis of the indicators with baseline treatments allowed a proper interpretation of the indicators to elucidate relationships between agricultural management and soil physical quality. References: Davis A.S. et al. 2012. Plos ONE 7(10): e4719. doi:10.1371/journalpone.0047149. González-Sánchez E.J.et al. 2012. Soil Till. Res. 122: 52-60. Quemada M. et al. 2013. Agric. Ecosyst. Environm. 174: 1-10. ten Berge, H.F.T.M. coord. 2011. Compatibility of Agricultural Management Practices and Types of Farming in the EU to enhance Climate Change Mitigation and Soil Health. KBBE.2011.1.2-01, GA 289782. van den Putte A.et al. 2010. Eur. J. Agron. 33: 231-41.

  4. Working with Teachers to Develop Fair and Reliable Measures of Effective Teaching. MET Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to develop and test multiple measures of teacher effectiveness. The goal of the MET project is to improve the quality of information about teaching effectiveness available to education professionals within states and districts--information…

  5. Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Müller, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ˜273?800 km2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus-Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and biodiversity, and for increasing agricultural production on previously cultivated lands.

  6. Biomass energy in Western Europe to 2050

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JI House

    1995-01-01

    Presently biomass energy supplies at least 2 EJ\\/yr (47 Mtoe) in OECD Europe, which is about 4% of total primary energy consumption (54.1 EJ). Estimates of the potential for bioenergy in the next century range from 2 to 20 EJ\\/yr. This paper estimates a potential of 9.0–13.5 EJ in 2050, which represents 17–30% of projected total energy requirements. This depends

  7. The Competencies and Characteristics Required of an Effective Project Manager: A Web-Based Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Jennifer M.; Bishop, M. J.; Walker, Andrew E.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we explore the competencies required for a project manager to be effective in the workplace. We used a Web-based Delphi method to lead experienced project managers through an anonymous consensus-building process consisting of two rounds of surveys. The Round I analysis of 147 respondents, all with 20 or more years of project

  8. ASSIGNMENT SHEET GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Lamme III

    1. The objective of this course is to provide students with a knowledge of spatial patterns in Europe (physical, national, urban, cultural, etc.) to be used in the analysis of past and present European affairs. Furthermore, Europe must be understood in the context of an international perspective. I'll use many different forms of information to present Europe as a dynamic

  9. The Effect of a Mathematics-Science Curriculum Integration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kull, Judith A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Four "fables" from the perspectives of four university collaborators describe the transformation of the original Mathematics and Science Collaborative Project (University of New Hampshire and four Durham, New Hampshire, middle and high schools) as its participants and leaders tried to balance the demands of an externally funded project with the…

  10. On the Effectiveness of Projection Methods for Convex Feasibility ...

    E-print Network

    wei

    Dec 13, 2009 ... building bricks of a projection algorithm are the projections onto the given individual ... algorithm with the parallel architecture at hand; for block-iterative ... problems in sensor networks [14], in radiation therapy treatment planning [21,52], in ..... Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School,.

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness of collaborative computer-intensive projects in an undergraduate psychometrics course

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly A. Barchard; Larry A. Pace

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate psychometrics classes often use computer-intensive active learning projects. However, little research has examined active learning or computer-intensive projects in psychometrics courses. We describe two computer-intensive collaborative learning projects used to teach the design and evaluation of psychological tests. Course evaluations were significantly above the department average, and students perceived the projects as effective in meeting course objectives and improving

  12. ‘New Europe’: Between Cosmopolitan Dreams and Nationalist Nightmares

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEFAN AUER

    2010-01-01

    AbstractThis article seeks to expose some limitations of dominant discourses about European integration. It argues that the attempt to move towards a more federalist Europe underpinned by the ideal of ‘post-national citizenship’ (Habermas) is both unrealistic and undesirable. The populism and ethno-centric nationalism endangering the European project emerged in Europe not despite the cosmopolitan agendas of its elites, but arguably,

  13. Projected effects of proposed chloride-control projects on shallow ground water; preliminary results for the Wichita River basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garza, Sergio

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers ' plan to control the natural chloride pollution in Wichita River basin includes construction of Truscott Brine Lake on a tributary of North Wichita River. In connection with the proposed brine lake, the U.S. Geological Survey was requested to define the existing ground-water conditions in the shallow freshwater system of the project area and to project the postconstruction effects of the proposed lake on the freshwater aquifer. The freshwater aquifer in the project area is a shallow water-table system with relatively freshwater that contains approximately 500-5,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids and consists of Permian rocks with very small values of hydraulic conductivity. It overlies a brine system that is even less permeable. Two-dimensional mathematical computer models were developed for aquifer simulation of steady-state conditions in a freshwater system and transient conditions in a brine-freshwater system where density effects of the brine are considered. Main results of the project are: (1) Water-level rises in the aquifer of 5-40 feet would be confined to areas near the proposed dam and along lake shoreline, and (2) migration of saltwater downstream from dam generally would be limited to less than 1 mile and apparently, would not reach equilibrium during the 100-year duration of the project. (USGS)

  14. Europe Targets the Moon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amos, Jonathan.

    2003-01-01

    Tentatively set for a July 2003 launch, the Smart-1 spacecraft will host Europe's first lunar mission. A news article from the BBC outlines the objectives of this pioneering mission. The Smart-1 is incorporating many new technologies and testing them for the first time in space. One of the most notable is the ion thruster, but several other novel items used in the Smart-1, if successful, will end up in a mission to Mercury around 2010.

  15. Europe: tilting toward fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear reactor technology, which has been developing in Europe since World War II, has progressed to the breeder, and is now developing fusion programs. In spite of some safety concerns, Britain is likely to shift its next nuclear effort to the pressurized-water reactor (PWR) after a period of emphasizing the advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGRs). France began in 1959 with gas-cooled

  16. Does information matter? The effect of the Meth Project on meth use among youths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Mark Anderson

    2010-01-01

    Are demand-side interventions effective at curbing drug use? To the extent demand-side programs are successful, their cost effectiveness can be appealing from a policy perspective. Established in 2005, the Montana Meth Project (MMP) employs a graphic advertising campaign to deter meth use among teens. Due to the MMP's apparent success, seven other states have adopted Meth Project campaigns. Using data

  17. "Project ALERT's" Effects on Adolescents' Prodrug Beliefs: A Replication and Extension Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Hanley, Sean; Shamblen, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    This article represents a replication and extension of previous studies of the effects of "Project ALERT", a school-based substance use prevention program, on the prodrug beliefs of adolescents. Specifically, the authors' research examined "Project ALERT's" effects on adolescents' intentions to use substances in the future, beliefs about substance…

  18. New Orleans Effective Schools Project. An Interim Report to the Orleans Parish School Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Jane L.

    The primary goal of the Southern Coalition for Educational Equity's New Orleans Effective Schools Project is to improve academic achievement at one middle school, Martin Behrman, in ways that can be replicated by schools facing similar problems. The Project is based on research findings about school improvement from the school effectiveness

  19. Financial integration and innovation in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernst Baltensperger; Andrea Behrends

    1994-01-01

    The creation of an internal market for financial services by the European Union, along with technological changes in communications and data management, will have a strong impact on banking and financial markets in Europe. This paper presents a selective review of discussions concerning the resulting processes of adjustment and their outcomes. Topics covered include effects on cost efficiency, competition production

  20. Generating effective project scheduling heuristics by abstraction and reconstitution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janakiraman, Bhaskar; Prieditis, Armand

    1992-01-01

    A project scheduling problem consists of a finite set of jobs, each with fixed integer duration, requiring one or more resources such as personnel or equipment, and each subject to a set of precedence relations, which specify allowable job orderings, and a set of mutual exclusion relations, which specify jobs that cannot overlap. No job can be interrupted once started. The objective is to minimize project duration. This objective arises in nearly every large construction project--from software to hardware to buildings. Because such project scheduling problems are NP-hard, they are typically solved by branch-and-bound algorithms. In these algorithms, lower-bound duration estimates (admissible heuristics) are used to improve efficiency. One way to obtain an admissible heuristic is to remove (abstract) all resources and mutual exclusion constraints and then obtain the minimal project duration for the abstracted problem; this minimal duration is the admissible heuristic. Although such abstracted problems can be solved efficiently, they yield inaccurate admissible heuristics precisely because those constraints that are central to solving the original problem are abstracted. This paper describes a method to reconstitute the abstracted constraints back into the solution to the abstracted problem while maintaining efficiency, thereby generating better admissible heuristics. Our results suggest that reconstitution can make good admissible heuristics even better.

  1. Migrant Culture in a Changing Society: Multicultural Europe by the Year 2000. Colloquy (Strasbourg, France, January 18-20, 1983). The CDCC's Project No. 7: "The Education and Cultural Development of Migrants."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Micheline

    The 3-day colloquy was held to discuss educational and cultural problems with a view to what European society might be like in the year 2000. Participants divided into three working groups, each focusing on one of three major themes: multicultural Europe in 2000, the role of the school in a changing society, and migrant culture and its educational…

  2. Adria/Europe collision effects

    SciTech Connect

    Balla, Z.

    1988-08-01

    In the Senonian, the Adriatic promontory of the African plate lay between two transform faults which joined the north-vergent Alpine-Carpathian front with the south-vergent Apenninic and Hellenic fronts. In the late Eocene it collided with the European continent. The head of the promontory was crushed by compression in the Oligocene and lengthened in a west-east direction. This initiated formation of the West Alpine and West Carpathian arcs. A bay of thin European crust in the area now occupied by the Carpathians facilitated a more pronounced advance of the eastern arc. A wedge-shaped body with the Bakony Mountains in its rigid core was pressed out from the Alpine region. The eastern Alps and the West Carpathians as well as the Southern Alps and the middle Pannonian units suffered sinistral and dextral shear, respectively, which resulted in their lengthening and zonality. In the early-middle Miocene in the Adriatic promontory was broken up. Its northern part suffered counterclockwise rotation in connection with the opening of the Ligurian Sea while the southern part only shifted relative to Africa. Rotation of the northern microplate forced the Dinaric-Hellenic arc to change its shape from convex to concave, and the intra-Carpathian units advanced toward the northeast and rotated toward each other. This completed the Carpathian arc and initiated subsidence in the Pannonian basin. Since the late Miocene the Adriatic promontory has acted again as a part of Africa with a maximum 60-km shift toward the west, caused by the escaping Turkish microplate.

  3. The Effects of Mobility: The Rights of the Child in Europe. Report of the Conference (Athens, Greece, April 14-16, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah, Ed.

    The European Forum for Child Welfare (EFCW) is committed to promoting the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the Convention's views underpin and influence the work program of the EFCW. The 1994 EFCW Conference concentrated on articles within the Convention whereby mobility within Europe may have a…

  4. The Search for Effective Biological Control Agents in Europe: History and Lessons from Leafy Spurge ( Euphorbia esula L.) and Cypress Spurge ( Euphorbia cyparissias L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gassmann; D. Schroeder

    1995-01-01

    During field surveys made in Europe nearly 40 specialized insect species were found and considered as potential biological control agents of leafy spurge and cypress spurge (Euphorbia esula and Euphorbia cyparissias). More insect species were found on the most common and the geographically most widespread spurge species and on those occurring in a wide range of habitat types. The insect

  5. The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

  6. Modifying effect of HLA haplotypes located trans to DQB1*02-DRB1*03 in celiac patients of Southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Charro, B; Donat, E; Miner, I; Aranburu, E; Sánchez-Valverde, F; Ramos-Arroyo, M A

    2008-03-01

    The DQ2 heterodimer, encoded by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQA1*05-DQB1*02 alleles, is the major genetic susceptibility factor for celiac disease (CD). However, the risk associated to HLA alleles varies among populations. While DRB1*03 is almost the only CD susceptibility allele in Northern Europe with a homozygote frequency of around 30%, CD in south European countries is also associated with the DRB1*07, and DRB1*03 homozygotes patients are rare. Some authors have suggested that DQB1*02-DRB1*03/DQB1*02-DRB1*03 and DQB1*02-DRB1*03/DQB1*02-DRB1*07 may confer different risk susceptibility to CD. This hypothesis, however, has not been demonstrated in a recent family-based study carried out in Finland, suggesting that the proposed differences in risk may be secondary to stratification burdens of case-control studies. To assess this issue, we have investigated the effect of different haplotypes carried trans to DQB1*02-DRB1*03 as additional factors for CD in Spain, using two statistical approaches, a case-control study and a family-based study. We found that DQB1*02-DRB1*03/DQB1*02-DRB1*03 and DQB1*02-DRB1*03/DQB1*02-DRB1*07 were the only combinations that showed a strong and independent association to CD. We did not observe any difference in susceptibility risk conferred by DQB1*02-DRB1*03 and DQB1*02-DRB1*07 when carried trans to DQB1*02-DRB1*03, suggesting that variation in HLA haplotype frequencies among populations may not represent real differences in risk to CD development. We also confirmed a gene dosage effect of the DQB1*02-DRB1*03 haplotype estimating that DQB1*02 homozygotes are at fivefold increased risk for CD compared with DQB1*02 heterozygotes. This risk is conferred by the second copy of the DQB1*02 allele and it seems to be independent of the DQA1. PMID:18257894

  7. Developing Instructional Technology Products Using Effective Project Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Stephanie; Hardin, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    Delivering a successful instructional technology (IT) product depends on more than just having an extremely creative instructional solution or following an instructional systems design (ISD) model. Proper planning, direction, and execution of the project are require, as well. We present a model of management that encompasses the ISD process. Five…

  8. An effective methodology for the stochastic project compression problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Mitchell; Ted Klastorin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of planning a complex project when task durations are random. Specifically, we consider the problem of deciding how much to compress tasks in order to minimize the expected total cost that is defined by the sum of direct, indirect, and incentive costs. We initially consider this problem under the assumption that task durations

  9. Cheney Lake CEAP Project: Conservation Practice Effects Assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AnnAGNPS was used to analyze Cheney Lake Watershed, a Special Emphasis Watershed, during the Conservation Evaluation Assessment Project (CEAP). Seven (7) best management conservation practice (BMP) scenarios, which would impact sediment and nutrient loading to Cheney Lake, were identified and evalu...

  10. Projective Geometry Image Analysis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Projective Geometry for Image Analysis A Tutorial given at ISPRS, Vienna, July 1996 Roger Mohr A Hierarchy of Geometries 25 4.1 From Projective to Affine Space and Bill Triggs GRAVIR, project MOVI INRIA, 655 avenue de l'Europe F-38330 Montbonnot St Martin France E

  11. Europe is going to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    The Agency's Science Programme Committee (SPC) approved Mars Express after ESA's Council, meeting at ministerial level in Brussels on 11 and 12 May, had agreed the level of the science budget for the next 4 years, just enough to make the mission affordable. "Mars Express is a mission of opportunity and we felt we just had to jump in and do it. We are convinced it will produce first-rate science", says Hans Balsiger, SPC chairman. As well as being a first for Europe in Mars exploration, Mars Express will pioneer new, cheaper ways of doing space science missions. "With a total cost of just 150 million euros, Mars Express will be the cheapest Mars mission ever undertaken", says Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science. Mars Express will be launched in June 2003. When it arrives at the red planet six months later, it will begin to search for water and life. Seven instruments, provided by space research institutes throughout Europe, will make observations from the main spacecraft as it orbits the planet. Just before the spacecraft arrives, it will release a small lander, provided by research institutes in the UK, that will journey on to the surface to look for signs of life. The lander is called Beagle 2 after the ship in which Charles Darwin sailed round the world in search of evidence supporting his theory of evolution. But just as Darwin had to raise the money for his trip, so the search is on for public and private finance for Beagle 2. "Beagle 2 is an extremely important element of the mission", says Bonnet. Europe's space scientists have envisaged a mission to Mars for over fifteen years. But limited funding has prevented previous proposals from going ahead. The positioning of the planets in 2003, however, offers a particularly favourable passage to the red planet - an opportunity not to be missed. Mars Express will be joined by an international flotilla of spacecraft that will also be using this opportunity to work together on scientific questions and pave the way for future exploration. ESA is now able to afford Mars Express because it will be built more quickly and cheaply than any other comparable mission. It will be the first of the Agency's new flexible missions, based on maximum reuse of technology off-the-shelf and from other missions (the Rosetta cometary mission in this case). Mars Express will explore the extent to which innovative working practices, now made possible by the maturity of Europe's space industry, can cut mission costs and the time from concept to launch : a new kind of relationship with industrial partners is starting. "We are adopting a new approach to management by delegating to Matra Marconi Space (the prime contractor) responsibility for the whole project. This means we can reduce the ESA's management costs" says Bonnet. Despite the knock-down price, however, the future of Mars Express has hung in the balance because of the steady erosion of ESA's space science budget since 1995. Last November, the SPC said the mission could go ahead only if it could be afforded without affecting missions already approved, especially the FIRST infra-red observatory and the Planck mission to measure the cosmic microwave background. On 19/20 May, the SPC, which has the ultimate decision over the Agency's science missions, agreed that the level of resources allowed was just sufficient to allow Mars Express to go ahead. "To do such an ambitious mission for so little money is a challenge and we have decided to meet", says Balsiger.

  12. Historical eclipses in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debarbat, S.

    1999-03-01

    An overview of total eclipses is given that have been observed and recorded by astronomers in Europe since antiquity till 20th century. A particular attention is payed to the computations that Kepler carried out in Prague to predict the eclipse 1605, further to some eclipses of 18th century that have been computed and observed by French astronomers (Madame Nicole-Reine Lepaute) and to the book (Elementa Eclipsium ... 1816 -- 1860) that was published by F.I.C. Hallaschka in Prague 1816.

  13. Consolidating peace in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, M.A

    1987-01-01

    Consolidating Peace in Europe is a collection of essays and discussions by some of the leading experts in the field of international relations and disarmament. Some of the issues raised include: the responsibility of a West divided by peace movements to create a unified diplomatic front; the need for both East and West to understand the contradictory behavior of a Soviet Union that is militarily strong but economically weak; and the development of a new political awareness for a generation of Europeans who have on direct experience of post-World War II political tumult.

  14. Central Europe Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website, a service of the European Internet Network, brings English-language news and background to users each weekday. Central Europe Online covers the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The site offers current headlines (along with the time that they were most recently updated), business news, travel information, and links to local media. New stories are drawn primarily from Reuters. An archive holds back issues. Users who want to stay current on issues affecting these regions will benefit from the professional approach this site brings to coverage.

  15. Job quality in Europe

    E-print Network

    Burchell, Brendan J.; Smith, Mark; Fagan, Colette; O’Brien, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 1 SESS: 49 OUTPUT: Tue Aug 19 17:58:42 2008 /v2503/blackwell/journals/irj_v39_i6/08irj_507 Job quality in Europe Mark Smith, Brendan Burchell, Colette Fagan and Catherine O’Brien ABSTRACT Promoting job quality and gender... in the Lisbon process (Fagan et al., 2006; Rubery et al., 2003; 2004), even though women have a central role to play in achieving the overall employment rate target. ? Mark Smith is Grenoble Ecole de Management; Brendan Burchell and Catherine O’Brien are Faculty...

  16. Cost Containment in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Culyer, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Health care cost containment is not in itself a sensible policy objective, because any assessment of the appropriateness of health care expenditure in aggregate, as of that on specific programs, requires a balancing of costs and benefits at the margin. International data on expenditures can, however, provide indications of the likely impact on costs and expenditures of structural features of health care systems. Data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for both European countries and a wider set are reviewed, and some current policies in Europe that are directed at controlling health care costs are outlined. PMID:10313433

  17. Working towards healthy air in dwellings in Europe.

    PubMed

    Franchi, M; Carrer, P; Kotzias, D; Rameckers, E M A L; Seppänen, O; van Bronswijk, J E M H; Viegi, G; Gilder, J A; Valovirta, E

    2006-07-01

    Poor indoor air quality has been implicated in the increase in allergic and respiratory diseases seen in industrialized countries in recent decades. Although air pollution in the workplace is well studied, much less is known about the consequences of poor air quality in homes. In an attempt to halt or slow down the increase in allergic and respiratory diseases, the European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA) carried out the EU-funded project entitled 'Towards Healthy Air in Dwellings in Europe' (THADE). The aims were to: compile an overview of evidence-based data about exposure to indoor air pollution and its health effects, particularly in relation to allergies, asthma and other respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; review cost-effective measures and technology to improve indoor air quality; review legislation and guidelines on indoor air pollution; produce maps of pollutants in dwellings; and recommend an integrated strategy that defines appropriate indoor air quality policies for implementation in Europe. This paper summarizes the information about air quality in dwellings and indoor environment-related diseases collected by expert consultants within the framework of THADE and terminates with recommendations for actions aimed at improving air quality in homes. The results of this project confirmed that air pollution in dwellings is a relevant health problem. It is a complex problem that must be addressed at European and international levels, and it involves the medical profession, scientific societies, patients' organizations, lawmakers, architects and the building industry. The complete THADE report is available at http://www.efanet.org/activities/documents/THADEReport.pdf. PMID:16792586

  18. Adjoint tomography of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H.; Bozdag, E.; Peter, D. B.; Tromp, J.

    2011-12-01

    We use spectral-element and adjoint methods to iteratively resolve crustal and upper mantle heterogeneity in Europe, using 159 earthquakes, with magnitudes from 5 to 6.5, and data from 338 stations. Crustal model EPcrust1.0 (Molinari& Morelli, 2010) combined with mantle model S362ANI (Kustowski et al. 2008) comprise the initial 3D model M00. Before the iterative inversion, earthquake source parameters (i.e, centroid moment tensor and location), are recalculated using 3D Green's functions and Fréchet derivatives. Since we concentrate on upper mantle structures, involving significant anisotropy in the asthenosphere, transversely isotropic (frequency-dependent) traveltime sensitivity kernels are employed in the inversion. Long-period surface waves (25 s -- 150 s) and short-period body waves (15 s -- 40 s) are combined to constrain shallow and deep structures simultaneously. With each iteration, higher frequency signals are incorporated in the inversion. Statistical assessments of traveltime anomalies and logarithmic waveform differences enable us to validate the inverted sources and structural parameters. Our current model, M15, shows numerous interesting features, for instance, slabs underneath the Hellenic, Vrancea and Calabria arcs, a slab detachment underneath the Central Apennines, mantle upwelling associated with the Eifel hotspot in Northern German, slow wavespeed structures in several back-arc basins, e.g., the Ponnonian basin and the Tyrrhenian sea, and a sharp transition of the Teisseyre-Tornquist suture zone between central Europe and the East European platform.

  19. Eastern Europe scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Hafele, W. [Research Center Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The Russian situation is key to Eastern Europe if present trends continue. Its strategy for the establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle was conceived decades ago when the former USSR still existed. It was based on the fuel recycle with attention given to the requirements of the military. The former Warsaw Pact Countries (WPC) were not meant to have independent fuel cycles, and their irradiated fuel elements were scheduled to go back to Russian territory. In 1976 a fuel cycle center was built at Mayak/Chelyabinsk, centered on the RT-1 plant with a nominal capacity of 400 tonnes/yr plant for the reprocessing of spent fuel from VVER-440 reactors, fast reactors (BN-350 and BN-600) icebreaker and submarine transport units, research reactors, and other power units. The plan provided for the reprocessing of spent fuel from the WPC all having VVER-440 reactors. All together, 3000 tonnes of spent fuel have been processed there. Nuclear waste went to vitrification. A new reprocessing facility is under construction in the neighborhood of Krasnoyarsk 26, the RT-2 plant. It is scheduled to operate after 2005, and its design capacity is 1500 tonne/yr. A storage for 6000 tonnes of spent fuel from VVER-1000 reactors is in operation since 1985. A second mixed-oxide plant for VVER-1000 reactors is under consideration. Now, there are no fuel cycle facilities in the newly independent countries. The fuel cycle problems in Eastern Europe and Russia are discussed.

  20. Dust radiative effect over Europe, Mediterranean, Sahara and Middle East from a radiative transfer model using BSC-DREAM8b aerosol optical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimas, Christos; Gkikas, Antonis; Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Matsoukas, Christos; Kazadzis, Stelios; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, Jose; Vardavas, Ilias

    2013-04-01

    The arid regions of Saharan desert and Middle East are the world's major dust sources. However, dust particles from these areas are transported to nearby regions, through favourable synoptic conditions, even reaching remote locations in Europe or in the Arctic. This transport is very important in numerous aspects. One of its most important effects is on the radiation budget, and more specifically on solar radiation, through the aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE). Previous studies have shown that this effect is great under dust load conditions. Therefore, it is very important to simulate dust transport processes and associated radiative effects. The simulation of dust production, transport and removal is done by numerical models, which however have their own limitations as to the consideration of physical and dynamical processes as well as their initial conditions. On the other hand, the computation of dust DRE is ideally done with radiative transfer models (RTMs), which however imply uncertainties associated with the input aerosol optical properties. The most important aerosol optical properties used in RTMs and climate models are aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (AP). The main target of the present study is to reduce the uncertainties of dust DRE by using a detailed spectral RTM and an acknowledged regional and meso-scale model describing the distribution of dust. The combined use of these tools is applied to the region covering the deserts of Sahara, Arabian Peninsula and Middle East, and the neighbouring Mediterranean basin and European continent (extending from 15°N to 60°N and from 21°W to 54°E). The computations are performed on a monthly mean basis, refer to the 11-year period 2000-2010, and quantify the effects of dust on the reflected solar radiation at the top of atmosphere (DRETOA), on the absorbed solar radiation within the atmosphere (DREatmab), and on the downwelling and absorbed solar radiation at the surface (DREsurf and DREsurfnet, respectively). The RTM takes into account all physical parameters of the Earth-Atmosphere system that interact with solar radiation, namely ozone, carbon dioxide, methane, water vapour, clouds (low, middle, high), aerosol and atmospheric molecules (Rayleigh scattering) as well as surface reflection. Emphasis is given to aerosol optical properties (AOD, SSA and AP) which are all obtained from the dust regional BSC-DREAM8b model. Detailed analysis is undertaken of the modelled aerosol properties, and the spatial and temporal (seasonal and year by year) variation of these properties and of the model DREs are thoroughly investigated. In addition, the computed DREs are inter-compared with corresponding ones obtained with the same RTM using aerosol data from satellites (e.g. MODIS) or other datasets (e.g. Global Aerosol DataSet, GADS and Hamburg Aerosol Climatology, HAC).

  1. Effective Reconstruction of Data Perturbed by Random Projections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingpeng Sang; Hong Shen; Hui Tian

    2012-01-01

    Random Projection (RP) has raised great concern among the research community of privacy-preserving data mining, due to its high efficiency and utility, e.g., keeping the euclidean distances among the data points. It was shown in (33) that, if the original data set composed of m attributes is multiplied by a mixing matrix of kmð m>k Þ which is random and

  2. Projecting the climatic effects of increasing carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, M C; Luther, F M [eds.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents the current knowns, unknowns, and uncertainties regarding the projected climate changes that might occur as a result of an increasing atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. Further, the volume describes what research is required to estimate the magnitude and rate of a CO/sub 2/-induced clamate change with regional and seasonal resolution. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  3. Project DARE: No Effects at 10Year Follow-Up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R. Lynam; Richard Milich; Rick Zimmerman; Scott P. Novak; T. K. Logan; Catherine A. Martin; Carl Leukefeld; Richard Clayton

    1999-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of Project DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education), a widespread drug-prevention program, 10 years after administration. A total of 1,002 individuals who in 6th grade had either received DARE or a standard drug-education curriculum, were reevaluated at age 20. Few differences were found between the 2 groups in terms of actual drug use, drug attitudes,

  4. Five Claims about Effective Propagation From the TUES Project, "Increasing the Impact of TUES Projects through Effective

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Charles

    to influence adoption. 2. Developing awareness of an innovation is only the first stage in adoption decisions different descriptions of the stages through which an adapter reaches the point of using an innovation awareness of an innovation is only the first stage in adoption decisions. TUES project teams face decisions

  5. Perspectives on Europe: Language Issues and Language Planning in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Muller, Karis, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Language Issues and Language Planning in Europe" (Anthony J. Liddicoat and Karis Muller); "Language and National Identity" (Peter M. Hill); "Language Planning, Linguistic Diversity and Democracy in Europe" (Anthony J. Liddicoat); "Language Competition in European Community Institutions" (Karis…

  6. The Effect of Web-Based Project Applications on Students' Attitudes towards Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgil, Inci; Gungor Seyhan, Hatice; Ural Alsan, Evrim; Temel, Senar

    2008-01-01

    Students perform intensive web-based applications during their education. One of these is project-based application. In this study, the effect of web based project applications on students' attitudes towards chemistry has been investigated. 42 students attending Hacettepe University, Faculty of Education, and Department of Chemistry Education have…

  7. The Effects of a Comprehensive Early Literacy Project on Preschoolers' Language and Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yaoying; Chin, Christopher; Reed, Evelyn; Hutchinson, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a federally funded early literacy project that aimed to promote the school readiness skills of preschool-age children from low income families. Through daily, explicit, and systematic instruction, the project targeted to improve preschoolers' oral language skills, phonological awareness,…

  8. Collaborative inquiry project-based learning: Effects on reading ability and interests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Kai Wah Chu; Shek Kam Tse; Elizabeth Ka Yee Loh; Ken Chow

    2011-01-01

    The academic performance of students has been shown to be associated with reading ability. Inquiry learning can potentially enhance the reading abilities and interests of students. This study verified this proposition by examining the effects of an inquiry approach to group projects on the reading abilities of primary school students. Using a case study design, an inquiry project-based learning (PBL)

  9. Distance Education Training for Distance Education Trainers: The "Roadmap to Effective Distance Education Instructional Design" Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telg, Ricky W.; Lundy, Lisa; Irani, Tracy; Bielema, Cheryl; Dooley, Kim E.; Anderson, Erik; Raulerson, Rebekah

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of a 6-university collaborative project, "Roadmap to Effective Distance Education Instructional Design." This project developed instructional materials and innovative approaches to better prepare instructional designers at land-grant universities and other universities with agricultural academic programs to…

  10. Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Colette, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common Ragweed) is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. This study is realised within the framework of the ATOPICA project (https://www.atopica.eu/) which is designed to provide first steps in tools and estimations of the fate of allergies in Europe due to changes in climate, land use and air quality. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. Models have been developed or adapted for simulating the phenology (PMP phonological modelling platform), inter-annual production (ORCHIDEE vegetation model), release and airborne processes (CHIMERE chemical transport model) of ragweed pollen. Airborne pollens follow processes similar to air quality pollutants in CHIMERE with some adaptations. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations (2000 - 2012) driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, 20-year long historical simulations (1986 - 2005) are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe. The spatial distribution is well captured with correlation equal to 0.7, but the daily variability of pollen counts remains to be improved with correlations varying between 0.1 and 0.75. The model chain captures reasonably well the inter-annual variability of pollen yearly mean concentrations, correlations, even not statistically significant due to the short length of time series, are positive for about 80% of sites. The main uncertainty in ambrosia pollen modelling is linked to the uncertainty in the plant density distribution. Preliminary results of the impact of environmental changes on pollen concentrations in the future will also be shown.

  11. Project resumes: biological effects from electric fields associated with high-voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts of research projects are presented in the following areas: measurements and special facilities; cellular and subcellular studies; physiology; behavior; environmental effects; modeling, scaling and dosimetry; and high voltage direct current. (ACR)

  12. THE EFFECT OF THE BALLOONSAT PROJECT ON MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS' ATTITUDE TOWARD SCIENCE

    E-print Network

    Verhage, Lloyd Paul

    2012-08-31

    This study measured the effect of completing a BalloonSat project on student attitude toward science. Seven categories of student attitudes toward science were measured using the Test of Science Relate Attitudes survey ...

  13. The effects of the implementation of grey water reuse systems on construction cost and project schedule

    E-print Network

    Kaduvinal Varghese, Jeslin

    2009-05-15

    . Implementation of a grey water reuse system has a significant effect on the capital cost of a project. The increase in cost may be attributed to dual sanitary and grey water distribution piping which doubles construction piping costs. Disinfection treatment...

  14. Aurora europe's space exploration programme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Ongaro; J. P. Swings; R. Condessa

    2003-01-01

    What will happen after the ISS in terms of space exploration, specifically to the human presence beyond Earth? What will be the role of Europe in the future international venture to explore space? What are the most immediate actions to be undertaken in Europe in order to best profit from the efforts made through the participation in the ISS and

  15. Significance and effect of ecological rehabilitation project in inland river basins in northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Feng, Qi; Chen, Lijuan; Yu, Tengfei

    2013-07-01

    The Ecological Water Transfer and Rehabilitation Project in the arid inland area of northwest China is an important measure in restoring a deteriorated ecosystem. However, the sustainability of the project is affected by many socio-economic factors. This article examines the attitudes of the local populace toward the project, its impact on the livelihood of the people, and the positive effects of water-efficient agricultural practices in Ejina County. Related data were collected through questionnaire surveys and group discussions. The results identified three critical issues that may influence the sustainability of the project in the study area. The first issue relates to the impact of the project on the livelihood of local herdsmen. The potential for the sustainability of the project is compromised because the livelihood of the herdsmen greatly depends on the compensation awarded by the project. The second issue is that the project did not raise the water resource utilization ratio, which may undermine its final purpose. Finally, the compensation provided by the project considers losses in agriculture, but neglects the externalities and public benefit of eco-water. Thus, appropriate compensation mechanisms should be established and adopted according to local economic, environmental, and social conditions. Some recommendations for improving the sustainability of the project are provided based on the results of this study. PMID:23716005

  16. Central Europe Review

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new weekly online journal from Central and East European New Media Initiative (CEENMI) offers news and analysis of events in politics, society, and culture across the region. With over 45 contributors from 17 countries, the journal provides a surprising amount of coverage each week. In addition to regular columns and weekly news summaries, the journal contains several in-depth articles and special feature pieces, including a number of resources (such as articles, film and book reviews, and related links) grouped around a weekly theme. The journal also offers a weekly list of Central and East European cultural events in the UK, links to related stories from other online news sources, and an archive. Users can read the Central Europe Review at the site or receive free weekly summaries via email.

  17. Future scenarios for viticultural bioclimatic indices in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, João.; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Fraga, Helder; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2010-05-01

    Winemaking has a predominant economic, social and environmental relevance in several European countries. Studies addressing the influence of climate variability and change in viticulture are particularly pertinent, as climate is one of the main conditioning factors of this activity. In this context, bioclimatic indices are a useful zoning tool, allowing the description of the suitability of a particular region for wine production. In this study, we compute climatic indices (concerning to thermal and hydrological conditions) for Europe, characterize regions with different viticultural aptitude, and assess possible variations in these regions under a future climate conditions using a state-of-the-art regional climate model. The indices are calculated from climatic variables (mostly daily maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation) obtained from the NCEP reanalysis dataset. Then, the same indices are calculated for present and future climate conditions using data from the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (Consortium for Small Scale Modelling - Climate Limited-area Modelling). Maps of theses indices for recent-past periods (1961-2008) and for the SRES A1B scenario are considered in order to identify significant changes in their patterns. Results show that climate change is projected to have a significant negative impact in wine quality by increased dryness and cumulative thermal effects during growing seasons in Southern European regions (e.g. Portugal, Spain and Italy). These changes represent an important constraint to grapevine growth and development, making crucial adaptation/mitigation strategies to be adopted. On the other hand, regions of western and central Europe (e.g. southern Britain, northern France and Germany) will benefit from this scenario both in wine quality, and in new potential areas for viticulture. This approach provides a macro-characterization of European areas where grapevines may preferentially grow, as well as their projected changes under human-induced forcing. As such, it can be a useful tool for viticultural zoning in a changing climate.

  18. Using Open Plan with integrated Xbase applications for effective project management solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Freier, K.D.; Hirschi, E.J.

    1994-04-01

    Open Plan`s open architecture allows the user many advantages that are not available from other project management software. One of these advantages is its ability to interface with various database management systems, thereby allowing the user to develop a project management system tailored to their specific needs. This open architecture offers maximum flexability to the user to personalize reports, screens, data structures, and develop customized management systems. Using Xbase, applications can be developed for every facet of a complete project management system including baseline development, performance measurement, reporting, and analysis. These applications can range from simple routines such as user-defined status worksheets, milestone logs and other reports, to complex cost,and schedule control systems. The combined power of Xbase and Open Plan can be used to produce effective project management solutions. Customized applications are easily obtainable allowing the user to gather information more timely and efficiently, produce customized reports, and analyze project management information more effectively.

  19. Integration and immigration pressures in western Europe.

    PubMed

    Bohning, W R

    1991-01-01

    "With xenophobia resurgent in Europe, this article addresses some of the complexities of immigration and integration in EC [European Community] and EFTA [European Free Trade Association] countries. The categories of legal and illegal immigrants (including estimates thereof) are first described, as are the necessary ingredients of an integration policy (a framework law, a secure environment, cultural tolerance, demarginalization in housing and the labour market). The author then considers what types of action would help to ease the present immigration pressure, discussing in turn quota policies, project-tied or training migration and, finally, the use of international aid." PMID:12317134

  20. Douglas-fir plantations in Europe: a retrospective test of assisted migration to address climate change

    E-print Network

    Hamann, Andreas

    tables; 4 figures #12;2 Abstract1 2 We evaluate genetic test plantations of North American Douglas north-south gradients in western9 Europe, but failed to predict superior performance of coastal North American populations10 under continental climate conditions in eastern Europe. However, model projections

  1. THE PREV AIR SYSTEM, AN OPERATIONAL SYSTEM FOR LARGE SCALE AIR QUALITY FORECASTS OVER EUROPE; APPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE PREV AIR SYSTEM, AN OPERATIONAL SYSTEM FOR LARGE SCALE AIR QUALITY FORECASTS OVER EUROPE air quality forecasts over Europe. This is the visible part of a wider collaborative project, in the framework of negotiations on trans-boundary air pollution". (2) Providing large scale national air quality

  2. Secondary Education in Spain. Guide to Secondary Education in Europe Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Alejandro Tiana; And Others

    This publication contains a brief description of secondary education in Spain. It constitutes one part of a series entitled "Guide to Secondary Education in Europe," developed as part of a Council of Europe project. Chapter 1 presents a general overview of the Spanish education system, with a focus on secondary education. Chapter 2 describes…

  3. Summertime precipitation variability over Europe and its links to atmospheric dynamics and evaporation

    E-print Network

    Allan, Richard P.

    Click Here for Full Article Summertime precipitation variability over Europe and its links precipitation data for 1979­2006 from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project are used to investigate interannual summer precipitation variability over Europe and its links to regional atmospheric circulation

  4. Modelling the risk of ecosystem disruption in Europe with a dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dury, M.; Hambuckers, A.; Warnant, P.; Jacquemin, I.; Thuiller, W.; François, L.

    2012-04-01

    What will be the European ecosystem responses to future climate? With unprecedented speed and extent, the projected climate change might lead to a disruption of terrestrial plants functioning in many regions. In the framework of the EcoChange project, transient projections over the 1901-2100 period have been performed with a process-based dynamic vegetation model, CARAIB DVM (Dury et al., 2011, iForest 4: 82, 99). The vegetation model was driven by the outputs of four climate models under the SRES A1B scenario: the ARPEGE/Climate model and three regional climate models (KNMI-RACMO2, DMI-HIRHAM5 and HC-HadRM3Q0 RCMs) from the European Union project ENSEMBLES. DVMs are appropriate tools to apprehend potential climate change impacts on ecosystems and identify threatened regions over Europe. CARAIB outputs (soil moisture, runoff, net primary productivity, fire, etc.) were used to characterise the ecosystem evolution. To assess consequences on biodiversity, the evolution of 100 natural common European species (47 herbs, 12 shrubs and 41 trees) has been studied year-to-year over the 1901-2100 period. Under the combined effects of projected changes particularly in temperature and precipitations, CARAIB simulates important reductions in the annual soil water content. The species productivities vary strongly from year to year reaching during the driest years values much lower than present-day average productivities. According to CARAIB, a lot of species might go beyond their water tolerance very frequently, particularly after 2050, due to more intense summer droughts. In the northern part of Europe and in the Alps, with reduced temperature variability and positive soil water anomalies, NPP variability tends to decrease. Regions with more severe droughts might also be affected by an increase of the frequency and intensity of wildfires. With this background, the species distributions might be strongly modified at the end of the century. 15% of tree species and 30% of herb and shrub species (respectively 30% and 60% if the CO2 fertilization effect on species is not taken into account) might experience a loss of 30% or more of their current distribution. Proportions of new species appearance were also studied. Southern Europe might suffer important species extinction while the more suitable climate conditions in northern Europe might lead to a gain in species diversity.

  5. A follow-up and conclusive report on the attitude towards hydrogen fuel cell buses in the CUTE project—From passengers in Stockholm to bus operators in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Saxe; A. Folkesson; P. Alvfors

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns the attitude towards the fuel cell bus and the hydrogen technology used in the CUTE project, represented by two passenger surveys performed in Stockholm, a survey performed among drivers in four cities and final statements as well as recommendations for future projects by project partners.Main results are:•The passengers’ willingness to pay for having more fuel cell buses

  6. MEDAWARE project for wastewater reuse in the Mediterranean countries: An innovative compact biological wastewater treatment system for promoting wastewater reclamation in Cyprus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Fatta; S. Anayiotou

    2007-01-01

    The MEDAWARE project (which is funded by the Europe Aid program of EU) aims at addressing the significant issue of sustainable urban wastewater treatment and reuse in the agricultural production through the promotion of effective technologies and safe practices. The general objective of this project is to facilitate the change of the current situation in the Mediterranean countries in respect

  7. Dispersal time for ancient human migrations: Americas and Europe colonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, J. C.

    2007-07-01

    I apply the recently proposed intermittence strategy to investigate the ancient human migrations in the world. That is, the Americas colonization (Bering-bridge and Pacific-coast theories) and Neanderthal replacement in Europe around 45000 years before the present. Using a mathematical equation related to diffusion and ballistic motion, I calculate the colonization time in all these cases in good agreement with archeological data (including Neolithic transition in Europe). Moreover, to support these calculations, I obtain analytically the effective speed of colonization in Europe veff=0.62 [km/yr] and related to the Aurignacian culture propagation.

  8. Performance projections for ballistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Guo; Mark Lundstrom; Supriyo Datta

    2002-01-01

    The performance limits of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) are examined theoretically by extending a one-dimensional treatment used for silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Compared to ballistic MOSFETs, ballistic CNTFETs show similar I-V characteristics but the channel conductance is quantized. For low-voltage, digital applications, the CNTFET with a planar gate geometry provides an on-current that is comparable to that expected

  9. The Rockefeller Foundation and Central Europe: a Reconsideration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benhamin B. Page

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues that the health-related work of the RockefellerFoundation in Central Europe following the First World War flowed not somuch from geopolitical concerns as from the Foundation's ambition tocreate a global network in scientific medicine. It examines theassumptions and values that underpinned this project, and indicates someof the questions that these pose for today's world.

  10. IR 250 International Relations in the New Europe Spring 2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas U. Berger

    Europe today appears to have entered a new era. The old nationalist and ideological rivalries that plunged the continent into a disastrous conflict three times during the twentieth century (WW I, WW II and the Cold War) appear to have been tamed. A bold new project, the European Union, has demonstrated its ability to hold together the fractious nations of

  11. Status of Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae in Europe1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan F. Webber

    Following the recognition that Phytophthora ramorum (the cause of sudden oak death in the U.S.) was present in Europe as well as America, emergency European Community (EC) phytosanitary measures were put in place in September 2002 to prevent spread of P. ramorum, and also to stop introductions of the pathogen from elsewhere. A 3 year European project then started in

  12. Dental Education in Europe: The Challenges of Variety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, John

    2003-01-01

    Finds that dental education varies considerably across Europe, with differing traditions of stomatology and odontology. The European Union's Dental Directives are often poorly followed by individual schools, and differences will likely intensify as Eastern/Central European countries join. The DentEd Thematic Network Project, which aims to promote…

  13. LAND CONSOLIDATION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Palmer; Paul Munro-Faure; Fritz Rembold

    Summary There is growing inequality between rural and urban areas in Central and Eastern Europe. This situation occurs for many reasons and efforts to enhance the quality of rural life must include improvements to agricultural production, employment, infrastructure, environment and housing. The success of projects to improve rural areas will depend to a large extent on how they address the

  14. Exploiting TV white spaces in Europe: The COGEU approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph W. Mwangoka; Paulo Marques; Jonathan Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    The regulatory scenario in Europe is very diverse, and hence innovative solutions to address harmonization and co- existence issues become crucial for the successful exploitation of the TV white spaces (TVWS) among member states. This paper introduces the approach of the European Commission funded COGEU (COgnitive radio systems for efficient sharing of TV white spaces in EUropean context) project in

  15. Quantifying Observational Projection Effects Using Molecular Cloud Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Christopher N.; Offner, Stella S. R.; Shetty, Rahul; Glover, Simon C. O.; Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2013-11-01

    The physical properties of molecular clouds are often measured using spectral-line observations, which provide the only probes of the clouds' velocity structure. It is hard, though, to assess whether and to what extent intensity features in position-position-velocity (PPV) space correspond to "real" density structures in position-position-position (PPP) space. In this paper, we create synthetic molecular cloud spectral-line maps of simulated molecular clouds, and present a new technique for measuring the reality of individual PPV structures. Using a dendrogram algorithm, we identify hierarchical structures in both PPP and PPV space. Our procedure projects density structures identified in PPP space into corresponding intensity structures in PPV space and then measures the geometric overlap of the projected structures with structures identified from the synthetic observation. The fractional overlap between a PPP and PPV structure quantifies how well the synthetic observation recovers information about the three-dimensional structure. Applying this machinery to a set of synthetic observations of CO isotopes, we measure how well spectral-line measurements recover mass, size, velocity dispersion, and virial parameter for a simulated star-forming region. By disabling various steps of our analysis, we investigate how much opacity, chemistry, and gravity affect measurements of physical properties extracted from PPV cubes. For the simulations used here, which offer a decent, but not perfect, match to the properties of a star-forming region like Perseus, our results suggest that superposition induces a ~40% uncertainty in masses, sizes, and velocity dispersions derived from 13CO (J = 1-0). As would be expected, superposition and confusion is worst in regions where the filling factor of emitting material is large. The virial parameter is most affected by superposition, such that estimates of the virial parameter derived from PPV and PPP information typically disagree by a factor of ~2. This uncertainty makes it particularly difficult to judge whether gravitational or kinetic energy dominate a given region, since the majority of virial parameter measurements fall within a factor of two of the equipartition level ? ~ 2.

  16. QUANTIFYING OBSERVATIONAL PROJECTION EFFECTS USING MOLECULAR CLOUD SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Beaumont, Christopher N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Offner, Stella S.R. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Shetty, Rahul; Glover, Simon C. O. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Goodman, Alyssa A., E-mail: beaumont@ifa.hawaii.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    The physical properties of molecular clouds are often measured using spectral-line observations, which provide the only probes of the clouds' velocity structure. It is hard, though, to assess whether and to what extent intensity features in position-position-velocity (PPV) space correspond to 'real' density structures in position-position-position (PPP) space. In this paper, we create synthetic molecular cloud spectral-line maps of simulated molecular clouds, and present a new technique for measuring the reality of individual PPV structures. Using a dendrogram algorithm, we identify hierarchical structures in both PPP and PPV space. Our procedure projects density structures identified in PPP space into corresponding intensity structures in PPV space and then measures the geometric overlap of the projected structures with structures identified from the synthetic observation. The fractional overlap between a PPP and PPV structure quantifies how well the synthetic observation recovers information about the three-dimensional structure. Applying this machinery to a set of synthetic observations of CO isotopes, we measure how well spectral-line measurements recover mass, size, velocity dispersion, and virial parameter for a simulated star-forming region. By disabling various steps of our analysis, we investigate how much opacity, chemistry, and gravity affect measurements of physical properties extracted from PPV cubes. For the simulations used here, which offer a decent, but not perfect, match to the properties of a star-forming region like Perseus, our results suggest that superposition induces a ?40% uncertainty in masses, sizes, and velocity dispersions derived from {sup 13}CO (J = 1-0). As would be expected, superposition and confusion is worst in regions where the filling factor of emitting material is large. The virial parameter is most affected by superposition, such that estimates of the virial parameter derived from PPV and PPP information typically disagree by a factor of ?2. This uncertainty makes it particularly difficult to judge whether gravitational or kinetic energy dominate a given region, since the majority of virial parameter measurements fall within a factor of two of the equipartition level ? ? 2.

  17. "europe Towards the Stars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    YOUNG EUROPEANS AND THEIR TEACHERS TO OBSERVE WITH SUPER-TELESCOPE With the above title, and following the very successful events of the past two years [1], ESO again organises an "educational adventure" in 1995. It takes place within the framework of the "Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture", initiated and supported by the European Commission. This time ESO will invite about fifty 17-18 year old grammar school pupils with their teachers to try their skills at one of the world's most advanced astronomical telescopes. The young people are the winners of a Europe-wide astronomy contest that will take place during the summer and early autumn. The main event involves a free, week-long stay at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory in November this year. During this time, the participants will experience modern astronomy and astrophysics at one of the world's foremost international centres and also have the opportunity to perform remote observations via a satellite link with two telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory in Chile. THE CONTEST This year's programme will begin with national competitions in sixteen European countries. It is devised as a contest between joint teams of pupils and teachers. Each team is expected to consist of (up to) three pupils and their teacher. They can choose between four different subjects requiring either practical or theoretical work. Each subject has a strong scientific and technological component. Here are short descriptions: At the telescope - Catching and interpreting the signals. "You observe with an existing telescope and instrument of your own choice. In your observational report you describe the scientific goal, the capability of your equipment, the execution of the observation. You discuss the observational data including an error analysis, and describe the conclusions." Technology for Science - Building an Instrument. "You build an astronomical instrument (e.g. a photometer or a spectrograph, fitted with the associated detector). In the instrument documentation, you describe the instrument, its design, construction and the test results." A Future Space Mission - Designing an on-board Instrument. "You design an instrument for a future space mission to the outer Solar System. The purpose is to carry out observations of Pluto and Transneptunian Objects. Describe the design, the physical/chemical principles of the instrument and the observations to be made with it. Give examples of some possible results." Theory - Looking into the Future. "You describe a stable planetary system around another star. Your report contains a description of the conditions (inner structure, composition, surface features, atmosphere) of the planets. What are the technical requirements for observing this system from the Earth? Which kind of observations of these objects can be done with available instruments?" None of these subjects are easy to treat, but experience has shown that thanks to very dedicated teachers, the teaching of astronomy takes place at a surprisingly high level at many of Europe's schools. The establishment of the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) last year has also resulted in a Europe-wide, increasing interest in these matters and many EAAE members actively promote the present contest and participate in the organisation. Many good entries are therefore expected. The participation is open to pupils in their last or second-to-last year before baccalaureate. In each country, a National Committee has been established that will organise the contest and evaluate the responses. In most cases, the closing date is early October 1995, and the national award ceremonies will take place in early November. Detailed information about this programme may be obtained from the National Committees at the addresses below. A VISIT TO ESO The members of the winning teams from each country will be invited to spend an exciting and informative week at the ESO Headquarters in Garching near Munich (

  18. Effect of projective viewpoint in detecting temporal density changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raundahl, Jakob; Nielsen, Mads; Olsen, Ole F.; Bagger, Yu Z.

    2004-05-01

    An important question in mammographic image analysis is the importance of the projected view of the breast. Can temporal changes in density be detected equally well using either one of the commonly available views Medio-Lateral (ML) and Cranio-Caudal (CC) or a combination of the two? Two sets of mammograms of 50 patients in a double-blind, placebo controlled hormone replacement therapy (HRT) experiment were used. One set of ML and CC view from 1999 and one from 2001. HRT increases density which means that the degree of separation of the populations (one group receiving HRT and the other placebo) can be used as a measure of how much density change information is carried in a particular view or combination of views. Earlier results have shown a high correlation between CC and ML views leading to the conclusion that only one of them is needed for density assessment purposes. A similar high correlation coefficient was observed in this study (0.85), while the correlation between changes was a bit lower (0.71). Using both views to separate the patients receiving hormones from the ones receiving placebo increased the area under corresponding ROC curves from 0.76 +/- 0.04 to 0.79 +/- 0.04.

  19. Performance Limits Projection of Black Phosphorous Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Kai-Tak; Dong, Zhipeng; Guo, Jing

    2014-09-01

    Ballistic device performance of monolayer black phosphorous (BP) field-effect transistors (FET) is investigated in this work. Due to the anisotropic effect mass of the carriers, the ON-state current is dependent on the transport direction. The effective masses are lower in the "armchair" direction which provides higher drive current at the same biasing. The degree of anisotropy is higher for the holes, which improves the performance of p-type devices. The intrinsic delay of 20 nm BP FETs is in the range of 50 fs at ON-/OFF-current ratio of 4 orders. Monolayer BP FETs outperform both MoS$_2$ and Si FETs for both n- and p-type devices in terms of ballistic performance limits, due to highly anisotropic band structure.

  20. Potential effects of the projected increase in coal use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur M. Squires

    1980-01-01

    The effects of an expected return to the use of coal for many energy needs that are now met by oil and gas are considered. Air pollution by new coal-fired equipment is discussed, along with relatively clean ways to burn coal for electric power generation, household space heating, and district heating. It is suggested that chicken farmers be targeted for

  1. Using 'Science across Europe' as Part of an Advanced GNVQ Science Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Rosemary

    1997-01-01

    Describes how a unit on drinking water from the Association for Science Education's (ASE) project, Science across Europe, is used as the basis for incorporating assessable key skills into GNVQ Science assignments. Provides examples of worksheets and data analysis. (DDR)

  2. Weakened thermohaline circulation will increase snow cover over Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jacob et al.

    A high resolution regional climate model nested into a global climate model was used to perform a Thermohaline Circulation (THC) slowdown experiment. Freshwater corresponding to one-sixth of the Greenland ice sheet melting over 100 years was introduced into the northern Atlantic. This reduced THC strength by half, changing atmospheric circulation and enhancing maritime climate influences over Europe. Implications of weakened thermohaline circulation's effects on specific locations in Europe are discussed.

  3. Trends in phenological phases in Europe between 1951 and 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Menzel

    2000-01-01

    Increases in air temperature due to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect can be detected easily in the phenological data of\\u000a Europe within the last four decades because spring phenological events are particularly sensitive to temperature. Our new\\u000a analysis of observational data from the International Phenological Gardens in Europe for the 1959–1996 period revealed that\\u000a spring events, such as leaf unfolding, have

  4. Using Project Performance to Measure Effectiveness of Quality Management System Maintenance and Practices in Construction Industry

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Tiong Kung; Ariff, Mohd. Shoki Md.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed seven existing and new performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of quality management system (QMS) maintenance and practices in construction industry. This research is carried out with a questionnaire based on QMS variables which are extracted from literature review and project performance indicators which are established from project management's theory. Data collected was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings indicate that client satisfaction and time variance have positive and significant relationship with QMS while other project performance indicators do not show significant results. Further studies can use the same project performance indicators to study the effectiveness of QMS in different sampling area to improve the generalizability of the findings. PMID:24701182

  5. Fundamental remote sensing science research program: The Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Effects Characterization Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deering, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Effects Characterization (SRAEC) Project was established within the NASA Fundamental Remote Sensing Science Research Program to improve our understanding of the fundamental relationships of energy interactions between the sensor and the surface target, including the effect of the atmosphere. The current studies are generalized into the following five subject areas: optical scene modeling, Earth-space radiative transfer, electromagnetic properties of surface materials, microwave scene modeling, and scatterometry studies. This report has been prepared to provide a brief overview of the SRAEC Project history and objectives and to report on the scientific findings and project accomplishments made by the nineteen principal investigators since the project's initiation just over three years ago. This annual summary report derives from the most recent annual principal investigators meeting held January 29 to 31, 1985.

  6. Preservation Map of Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In an effort to stimulate international information exchange, cooperative projects, and research, the European Commission on Preservation and Access (ECPA) has created an online directory of European organizations working in the preservation field. This directory is based on a survey conducted over the past year. For each of the twenty-five countries currently listed there is a section on national policy as it relates to preservation in libraries and archives, followed by background information on individual organizations, projects, and training courses. Background information includes contacts, email or web access if available, and a brief description of activities. Users can search the preservation map database by organization name, project focus, training availability, or by keyword.

  7. Effects of Implementing STEM-I Project-Based Learning Activities for Female High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Shih, Ru-Chu

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the application of STEM-I (STEM-Imagination) project-based learning activities and its effects on the effectiveness, processes, and characteristics of STEM integrative knowledge learning and imagination development for female high school students. A total of 72 female high school students were divided into 18 teams.…

  8. Comprehensive health effects testing program for Denver's potable water reuse demonstration project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. Lauer; Frank J. Johns; Gary W. Wolfe; Barbara A. Myers; Lyman W. Condie; Joseph F. Borzelleca

    1990-01-01

    The Comprehensive Health Effects Testing Program for the Denver Water Department's Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project is designed to evaluate the relative health effects of highly treated reclaimed water derived from secondary wastewater compared to Denver's present high?quality drinking water. The 1 million gallon per day (1 mgd) demonstration plant provides water to be evaluated in the studies treating unchlorinated

  9. Inference on Peer Effects with Missing Peer Data: Evidence from Project STAR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sojourner, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    This paper contributes empirically to the literature on peer effects in first-grade classrooms. The paper examines peer effects on academic achievement among first graders randomly assigned to their classrooms and to their teachers as part of Tennessee's Project STAR, America's largest ever education experiment. The analysis draws on previously…

  10. Semester in Environmental Science, Independent Project, 2011 Effects of warming on soil respiration

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Semester in Environmental Science, Independent Project, 2011 Effects of warming on soil respiration;Abstract Soil respiration plays a significant role on global carbon cycle as the primary path that releases focuses on the effects of warming on soil respiration on three different types of soil. Soil from Harvard

  11. Projection imaging of photon beams by the Cerenkov effect

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, Adam K.; Davis, Scott C.; McClatchy, David M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W.; Gladstone, David J. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Thayer School of Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: A novel technique for beam profiling of megavoltage photon beams was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced Cerenkov emission in water, as a potential surrogate for the imparted dose in irradiated media. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire 2D projection images of Cerenkov emission from a 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 cm{sup 2} 6 MV linear accelerator (LINAC) x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 400 MU/min incident on a water tank with transparent walls. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the LINAC sync pulse to reduce background light artifacts, and the measurement quality was investigated by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and measurement repeatability as a function of delivered dose. Monte Carlo simulations were used to derive a calibration factor for differences between the optical images and deposited dose arising from the anisotropic angular dependence of Cerenkov emission. Finally, Cerenkov-based beam profiles were compared to a percent depth dose (PDD) and lateral dose profile at a depth of d{sub max} from a reference dose distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system (TPS). Results: The signal to noise ratio was found to be 20 at a delivered dose of 66.6 cGy, and proportional to the square root of the delivered dose as expected from Poisson photon counting statistics. A 2.1% mean standard deviation and 5.6% maximum variation in successive measurements were observed, and the Monte Carlo derived calibration factor resulted in Cerenkov emission images which were directly correlated to deposited dose, with some spatial issues. The dose difference between the TPS and PDD predicted by Cerenkov measurements was within 20% in the buildup region with a distance to agreement (DTA) of 1.5-2 mm and {+-}3% at depths beyond d{sub max}. In the lateral profile, the dose difference at the beam penumbra was within {+-}13% with a DTA of 0-2 mm, {+-}5% in the central beam region, and 2%-3% in the beam umbra. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of Cerenkov emission imaging to profile x-ray photon LINAC beams in water. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method.

  12. Projection imaging of photon beams by the ?erenkov effect

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Adam K.; Davis, Scott C.; McClatchy, David M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W.; Gladstone, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A novel technique for beam profiling of megavoltage photon beams was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced ?erenkov emission in water, as a potential surrogate for the imparted dose in irradiated media. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire 2D projection images of ?erenkov emission from a 4 × 4 cm2 6 MV linear accelerator (LINAC) x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 400 MU/min incident on a water tank with transparent walls. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the LINAC sync pulse to reduce background light artifacts, and the measurement quality was investigated by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and measurement repeatability as a function of delivered dose. Monte Carlo simulations were used to derive a calibration factor for differences between the optical images and deposited dose arising from the anisotropic angular dependence of ?erenkov emission. Finally, ?erenkov-based beam profiles were compared to a percent depth dose (PDD) and lateral dose profile at a depth of dmax from a reference dose distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system (TPS). Results: The signal to noise ratio was found to be 20 at a delivered dose of 66.6 cGy, and proportional to the square root of the delivered dose as expected from Poisson photon counting statistics. A 2.1% mean standard deviation and 5.6% maximum variation in successive measurements were observed, and the Monte Carlo derived calibration factor resulted in ?erenkov emission images which were directly correlated to deposited dose, with some spatial issues. The dose difference between the TPS and PDD predicted by ?erenkov measurements was within 20% in the buildup region with a distance to agreement (DTA) of 1.5–2 mm and ±3% at depths beyond dmax. In the lateral profile, the dose difference at the beam penumbra was within ±13% with a DTA of 0–2 mm, ±5% in the central beam region, and 2%–3% in the beam umbra. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of ?erenkov emission imaging to profile x-ray photon LINAC beams in water. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method. PMID:23298103

  13. Inequality, Unemployment and Contemporary Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Amartya

    1997-01-01

    Unemployment has social costs such as psychological harm, social exclusion, family breakdown, and loss of political voice. It can exacerbate inequality and technological conservatism. Reducing unemployment would contribute to solving many of Europe's social ills. (SK)

  14. Electric railway traction in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Steimel

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of the state-of-the-art and innovational trends of electric railway technology in Europe. Subjects discussed include power supply systems, motor drive concepts, locomotives, power convertors and vehicle bus systems

  15. Adjoint tomography of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H.; Bozdag, E.; Peter, D. B.; Tromp, J.

    2010-12-01

    We use spectral-element and adjoint methods to image crustal and upper mantle heterogeneity in Europe. The study area involves the convergent boundaries of the Eurasian, African and Arabian plates and the divergent boundary between the Eurasian and North American plates, making the tectonic structure of this region complex. Our goal is to iteratively fit observed seismograms and improve crustal and upper mantle images by taking advantage of 3D forward and inverse modeling techniques. We use data from 200 earthquakes with magnitudes between 5 and 6 recorded by 262 stations provided by ORFEUS. Crustal model Crust2.0 combined with mantle model S362ANI comprise the initial 3D model. Before the iterative adjoint inversion, we determine earthquake source parameters in the initial 3D model by using 3D Green functions and their Fréchet derivatives with respect to the source parameters (i.e., centroid moment tensor and location). The updated catalog is used in the subsequent structural inversion. Since we concentrate on upper mantle structures which involve anisotropy, transversely isotropic (frequency-dependent) traveltime sensitivity kernels are used in the iterative inversion. Taking advantage of the adjoint method, we use as many measurements as can obtain based on comparisons between observed and synthetic seismograms. FLEXWIN (Maggi et al., 2009) is used to automatically select measurement windows which are analyzed based on a multitaper technique. The bandpass ranges from 15 second to 150 second. Long-period surface waves and short-period body waves are combined in source relocations and structural inversions. A statistical assessments of traveltime anomalies and logarithmic waveform differences is used to characterize the inverted sources and structure.

  16. Rainfall erosivity in Europe.

    PubMed

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Klik, Andreas; Rousseva, Svetla; Tadi?, Melita Per?ec; Michaelides, Silas; Hrabalíková, Michaela; Olsen, Preben; Aalto, Juha; Lakatos, Mónika; Rymszewicz, Anna; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Beguería, Santiago; Alewell, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall is one the main drivers of soil erosion. The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the R-factor in the USLE model and its revised version, RUSLE. At national and continental levels, the scarce availability of data obliges soil erosion modellers to estimate this factor based on rainfall data with only low temporal resolution (daily, monthly, annual averages). The purpose of this study is to assess rainfall erosivity in Europe in the form of the RUSLE R-factor, based on the best available datasets. Data have been collected from 1541 precipitation stations in all European Union (EU) Member States and Switzerland, with temporal resolutions of 5 to 60min. The R-factor values calculated from precipitation data of different temporal resolutions were normalised to R-factor values with temporal resolutions of 30min using linear regression functions. Precipitation time series ranged from a minimum of 5years to a maximum of 40years. The average time series per precipitation station is around 17.1years, the most datasets including the first decade of the 21st century. Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) has been used to interpolate the R-factor station values to a European rainfall erosivity map at 1km resolution. The covariates used for the R-factor interpolation were climatic data (total precipitation, seasonal precipitation, precipitation of driest/wettest months, average temperature), elevation and latitude/longitude. The mean R-factor for the EU plus Switzerland is 722MJmmha(-1)h(-1)yr(-1), with the highest values (>1000MJmmha(-1)h(-1)yr(-1)) in the Mediterranean and alpine regions and the lowest (<500MJmmha(-1)h(-1)yr(-1)) in the Nordic countries. The erosivity density (erosivity normalised to annual precipitation amounts) was also the highest in Mediterranean regions which implies high risk for erosive events and floods. PMID:25622150

  17. Headache yesterday in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Surveys enquiring about burden of headache over a prior period of time (eg, 3 months) are subject to recall bias. To eliminate this as far as possible, we focused on presence and impact of headache on the preceding day (“headache yesterday”). Methods Adults (18-65 years) were surveyed from the general populations of Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, from a work-force population in Spain and from mostly non-headache patient populations of Austria, France and UK. A study of non-responders in some countries allowed detection of potential participation bias where initial participation rates were low. Results Participation rates varied between 11% and 59% (mean 27%). Non-responder studies suggested that, because of participation bias, headache prevalence might be overestimated in initial responders by up to 2% (absolute). Across all countries, 1,422 of 8,271 participants (15-17%, depending on correction for participation bias) had headache yesterday lasting on average for 6 hours. It was bad or very bad in 56% of cases and caused absence from work or school in 6%. Among those who worked despite headache, 20% reported productivity reduced by >50%. Social activities were lost by 24%. Women (21%) were more likely than men (12%) to have headache yesterday, but impact was similar in the two genders. Conclusions With recall biases avoided, our findings indicate that headache costs at least 0.7% of working capacity in Europe. This calculation takes into account that most of those who missed work could make up for this later, which, however, means that leisure and social activities are even more influenced by headache. PMID:24884765

  18. The Pentalfa project. 3: participant evaluations of the interactivity of the educational videoconferences and the effectiveness of project promotion.

    PubMed

    Himpens, B

    2003-01-01

    A distance continuing medical education programme was established at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven using multipoint videoconferencing via ISDN lines at 384 kbit/s. During each academic year, 24-26 sessions were organized. The interactivity afforded by the videoconferencing was investigated during the first three years of the project. More than 60% of the participants rated the interactivity as good or very good. No differences were found between the sites or over the three years of the project, but female participants were more positive (66% making ratings of good or very good) in this regard than male participants (57%). Also, the effectiveness of the various types of publicity used to promote the programme was analysed. A brochure was the main source of information (62% of participants heard of the programme by this means), followed by direct mailings (27%), posters (15%), personal contact (14%) and the programme's Website (1%). The proportions of participants who heard of the programme through these different means varied with age and gender. PMID:12877779

  19. Life+ EnvEurope DEIMS - improving access to long-term ecosystem monitoring data in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliment, Tomas; Peterseil, Johannes; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pugnetti, Alessandra; Blankman, David

    2013-04-01

    Long-term ecological (LTER) studies aim at detecting environmental changes and analysing its related drivers. In this respect LTER Europe provides a network of about 450 sites and platforms. However, data on various types of ecosystems and at a broad geographical scale is still not easily available. Managing data resulting from long-term observations is therefore one of the important tasks not only for an LTER site itself but also on the network level. Exchanging and sharing the information within a wider community is a crucial objective in the upcoming years. Due to the fragmented nature of long-term ecological research and monitoring (LTER) in Europe - and also on the global scale - information management has to face several challenges: distributed data sources, heterogeneous data models, heterogeneous data management solutions and the complex domain of ecosystem monitoring with regard to the resulting data. The Life+ EnvEurope project (2010-2013) provides a case study for a workflow using data from the distributed network of LTER-Europe sites. In order to enhance discovery, evaluation and access to data, the EnvEurope Drupal Ecological Information Management System (DEIMS) has been developed. This is based on the first official release of the Drupal metadata editor developed by US LTER. EnvEurope DEIMS consists of three main components: 1) Metadata editor: a web-based client interface to manage metadata of three information resource types - datasets, persons and research sites. A metadata model describing datasets based on Ecological Metadata Language (EML) was developed within the initial phase of the project. A crosswalk to the INSPIRE metadata model was implemented to convey to the currently on-going European activities. Person and research site metadata models defined within the LTER Europe were adapted for the project needs. The three metadata models are interconnected within the system in order to provide easy way to navigate the user among the related resources. 2) Discovery client: provides several search profiles for datasets, persons, research sites and external resources commonly used in the domain, e.g. Catalogue of Life , based on several search patterns ranging from simple full text search, glossary browsing to categorized faceted search. 3) Geo-Viewer: a map client that portrays boundaries and centroids of the research sites as Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Each layer provides a link to both Metadata editor and Discovery client in order to create or discover metadata describing the data collected within the individual research site. Sharing of the dataset metadata with DEIMS is ensured in two ways: XML export of individual metadata records according to the EML schema for inclusion in the international DataOne network, and periodic harvesting of metadata into GeoNetwork catalogue, thus providing catalogue service for web (CSW), which can be invoked by remote clients. The final version of DEIMS will be a pilot implementation for the information system of LTER-Europe, which should establish a common information management framework within the European ecosystem research domain and provide valuable environmental information to other European information infrastructures as SEIS, Copernicus and INSPIRE.

  20. Influence of projection effects on the observed differential rotation rate in the UV corona

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Salvatore; Giordano, Silvio

    2012-01-01

    Following previous investigations by Giordano and Mancuso [1] and Mancuso and Giordano [2,3] on the differential rotation of the solar corona as obtained through the analysis of the intensity time series of the O VI 1032 Å spectral line observed by the UVCS/SOHO telescope during solar cycle 23, we analysed the possible influence of projection effects of extended coronal structures on the observed differential rotation rate in the ultraviolet corona. Through a simple geometrical model, we found that, especially at higher latitudes, the differential rotation may be less rigid than observed, since features at higher latitudes could be actually linked to much lower coronal structures due to projection effects. At solar maximum, the latitudinal rigidity of the UV corona, with respect to the differential rotating photosphere, has thus to be considered as an upper limit of the possible rigidity. At solar minimum and near the equatorial region throughout the solar cycle, projection effects are negligible. PMID:25685430

  1. Influence of projection effects on the observed differential rotation rate in the UV corona.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Salvatore; Giordano, Silvio

    2013-05-01

    Following previous investigations by Giordano and Mancuso [1] and Mancuso and Giordano [2,3] on the differential rotation of the solar corona as obtained through the analysis of the intensity time series of the O VI 1032 Å spectral line observed by the UVCS/SOHO telescope during solar cycle 23, we analysed the possible influence of projection effects of extended coronal structures on the observed differential rotation rate in the ultraviolet corona. Through a simple geometrical model, we found that, especially at higher latitudes, the differential rotation may be less rigid than observed, since features at higher latitudes could be actually linked to much lower coronal structures due to projection effects. At solar maximum, the latitudinal rigidity of the UV corona, with respect to the differential rotating photosphere, has thus to be considered as an upper limit of the possible rigidity. At solar minimum and near the equatorial region throughout the solar cycle, projection effects are negligible. PMID:25685430

  2. SOLAR-PERIODIC FULL MOON EFFECT IN THE FOURMILAB RETROPSYCHOKINESIS PROJECT EXPERIMENT DATA: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eckhard Etzold

    Radin and Rebman (1998) claimed evidence of psychokinesis effects in casino payout rates depending on lunar phases. They found the peak effect in the full-moon interval. This paper reports on an experimental data evaluation of 199,632 retroPK experiment trials, covering eight years. The hypothesis of a full moon effect is tested with the large database of the Fourmilab RetroPsychoKinesis Project.

  3. Assessing the cumulative effects of projects using geographic information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, Samuel F., E-mail: atkinson@unt.edu [Institute of Applied Science, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle 310559, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Canter, Larry W., E-mail: envimptr@aol.com [Environmental Impact Training, P.O. Box 9143, Horseshoe Bay, TX 78657 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Systems that allow users to store and retrieve spatial data, provide for analyses of spatial data, and offer highly detailed display of spatial data are referred to as geographic information systems, or more typically, GIS. Since their initial usage in the 1960s, GISs have evolved as a means of assembling and analyzing diverse data pertaining to specific geographical areas, with spatial locations of the data serving as the organizational basis for the information systems. The structure of GISs is built around spatial identifiers and the methods used to encode data for storage and manipulation. This paper examines how GIS has been used in typical environmental assessment, its use for cumulative impact assessment, and explores litigation that occurred in the United States Federal court system where GIS was used in some aspect of cumulative effects. The paper also summarizes fifteen case studies that range from area wide transportation planning to wildlife and habitat impacts, and draws together a few lessons learned from this review of literature and litigation.

  4. The effect of sonophoresis on topical anesthesia: a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Packer, Joseph L; Krall, Barry; Makki, Ali; Torabinejad, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    The dental anesthesia sonophoresis device (DASD) is a novel device that is intended to reduce the discomfort associated with intraoral mucosa needle puncture. The DASD produces ultrasonic energy that provides a sonophoretic effect on the oral mucosa, generating microchannels through the lipids between the keratinized cells that make up the stratum corneum. Once the topical anesthetic has permeated the stratum corneum, it quickly diffuses through the soft tissue, desensitizing the nerve endings and reducing the perception of pain caused by needle penetration. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether topical anesthesia applied using the DASD will reduce the discomfort of the needle puncture when compared to the control device. A split-mouth model, using 50 healthy subjects with puncture site at the maxillary canine vestibule, was used for this study. Subjects received a needle puncture on both sides of the mouth. Prior to the needle puncture, there was randomized application of 5% lidocaine with the DASD and a control device. Subjects rated their discomfort after needle punctures utilizing the visual analog scale pain scoring system. There was no statistically significant difference in the pain perception using the DASD versus the control device. PMID:23763557

  5. The Effect of Sonophoresis on Topical Anesthesia: A Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Joseph L.; Krall, Barry; Makki, Ali; Torabinejad, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    The dental anesthesia sonophoresis device (DASD) is a novel device that is intended to reduce the discomfort associated with intraoral mucosa needle puncture. The DASD produces ultrasonic energy that provides a sonophoretic effect on the oral mucosa, generating microchannels through the lipids between the keratinized cells that make up the stratum corneum. Once the topical anesthetic has permeated the stratum corneum, it quickly diffuses through the soft tissue, desensitizing the nerve endings and reducing the perception of pain caused by needle penetration. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether topical anesthesia applied using the DASD will reduce the discomfort of the needle puncture when compared to the control device. A split-mouth model, using 50 healthy subjects with puncture site at the maxillary canine vestibule, was used for this study. Subjects received a needle puncture on both sides of the mouth. Prior to the needle puncture, there was randomized application of 5% lidocaine with the DASD and a control device. Subjects rated their discomfort after needle punctures utilizing the visual analog scale pain scoring system. There was no statistically significant difference in the pain perception using the DASD versus the control device. PMID:23763557

  6. The HLA-net GENE[RATE] pipeline for effective HLA data analysis and its application to 145 population samples from Europe and neighbouring areas.

    PubMed

    Nunes, J M; Buhler, S; Roessli, D; Sanchez-Mazas, A

    2014-05-01

    In this review, we present for the first time an integrated version of the Gene[rate] computer tools which have been developed during the last 5 years to analyse human leukocyte antigen (HLA) data in human populations, as well as the results of their application to a large dataset of 145 HLA-typed population samples from Europe and its two neighbouring areas, North Africa and West Asia, now forming part of the Gene[va] database. All these computer tools and genetic data are, from now, publicly available through a newly designed bioinformatics platform, HLA-net, here presented as a main achievement of the HLA-NET scientific programme. The Gene[rate] pipeline offers user-friendly computer tools to estimate allele and haplotype frequencies, to test Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), selective neutrality and linkage disequilibrium, to recode HLA data, to convert file formats, to display population frequencies of chosen alleles and haplotypes in selected geographic regions, and to perform genetic comparisons among chosen sets of population samples, including new data provided by the user. Both numerical and graphical outputs are generated, the latter being highly explicit and of publication quality. All these analyses can be performed on the pipeline after scrupulous validation of the population sample's characterisation and HLA typing reporting according to HLA-NET recommendations. The Gene[va] database offers direct access to the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1 and -DPB1 frequencies and summary statistics of 145 population samples having successfully passed these HLA-NET 'filters', and representing three European subregions (South-East, North-East and Central-West Europe) and two neighbouring areas (North Africa, as far as Sudan, and West Asia, as far as South India). The analysis of these data, summarized in this review, shows a substantial genetic variation at the regional level in this continental area. These results have main implications for population genetics, transplantation and epidemiological studies. PMID:24738646

  7. Community wind power ownership schemes in Europe and their relevance to the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark

    2001-05-15

    With varying success, the United States and Europe have followed a more or less parallel path of policies to support wind development over the past twenty years. Feed-in laws and tax incentives first popularized in California in the early 1980s and greatly expanded upon in Europe during the 1990s are gradually giving way to market-based support mechanisms such as renewable portfolio standards, which are being implemented in one form or another in ten US states and at least three European nations. At the same time, electricity markets are being liberalized in both the US and Europe, and many electricity consumers are being given the choice to support the development of renewable energy through higher tariffs, both in traditionally regulated and newly competitive markets. One notable area in which wind development in Europe and United States has not evolved in common, however, is with respect to the level of community ownership of wind turbines or clusters. While community ownership of wind projects is unheard of in the United States, in Europe, local wind cooperatives or other participatory business schemes have been responsible for a large share of total wind development. In Denmark, for example, approximately 80% of all wind turbines are either individually or cooperatively owned, and a similar pattern holds in Germany, the world leader in installed wind capacity. Sweden also has a strong wind cooperative base, and the UK has recently made forays into community wind ownership. Why is it that wind development has evolved this way in Europe, but not in the United States? What incremental effect have community-owned wind schemes had on European wind development? Have community-owned wind schemes driven development in Europe, or are they merely a vehicle through which the fundamental driving institutions have been channeled? Is there value to having community wind ownership in the US? Is there reason to believe that such schemes would succeed in the US? If so, which model seems most appropriate, and what barriers--legal, regulatory, tax, market, or investment--stand in the way of implementing such a scheme? These are the questions this report seeks to address. The report begins with a discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of community wind ownership, as opposed to the large commercially-owned projects that have so far dominated US wind development. Next, four detailed case studies relate community-owned wind experience in Denmark, Sweden, the UK, Germany, focusing primarily on the different participatory models employed in each country. The report then categorizes the various models into three main groupings--community-led, developer-led, and investment funds--and draws general conclusions about the success of each category in Europe, and the conditions that dictate the effective use of one approach over another. Finally, the focus shifts to the US, where the report discusses the domestic barriers facing each model category, and identifies the category offering the most value with the fewest barriers to implementation. The report concludes with a high-level introduction to potential applications for community wind ownership within the United States.

  8. Offshore northern Europe activity begins a slow recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1987-06-29

    The offshore industry in northwest Europe has begun its recovery. Investment in new oil projects has resumed, reflecting growing confidence that the $18/bbl crude price is sustainable. Renewed spending on oil projects has also been helped by revamping offshore projects to reduce costs and make new development viable at lower prices. Industry confidence in the North Sea was also given a boost by the decision to proceed with the $7.8 billion development of the Troll and Sleipner gas fields. Drilling activity is also starting to recover. Since the beginning of this year, 14 rigs have been brought back into service and there are now 50 semisubmersibles and jack ups active on exploration and appraisal work. There were 88 rigs operating at the start of 1986, and there are still 61 rigs stacked in northwest Europe.

  9. Institutional challenges for space activities in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Lesley Jane; Hörl, Kay-Uwe

    2007-02-01

    Cooperation between the EU and ESA in the development of Galileo marked a first decisive step in collaboration between these two communities. Current work on space programmes beyond Galileo, such as GMES, shows the need for clear institutional solutions and responses to what should become more than a mere framework space agenda. If Europe is to fulfil its space ambitions and adopt a common approach, institutional competences and abilities require clarification and formulation. The Commission's White Paper lays out an action plan designed to support space technology and activities within the EU. The EU is seen as providing the most appropriate political forum alongside optimal investment conditions for the space industry, developing the social, economic and commercial potential. If Europe wants to pursue its space ambitions effectively, institutional challenges will have to be tackled sooner rather than later. Whilst recognising current limitations on the EU's competence to legislate specifically on space matters, the White Paper seeks to address primary space issues and looks towards a future European governmental agenda that includes space activities. This paper analyses the current legal framework governing the relationship between the respective inter-governmental institutional agency (The European Space Agency) and the specific supranational community of the European Union. It argues that ad hoc models of support for specific programmes, such as the establishment of the Joint Undertaking for the Galileo programme, serve only as an interim step towards realigning competence within the institutional landscape to facilitate and benefit Europe's future activities in space.

  10. Extreme hydrometeorological events and climate change predictions in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, Millán M.

    2014-10-01

    Field meteorological data collected in several European Commission projects (from 1974 to 2011) were re-analysed in the context of a perceived reduction in summer storms around the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The findings reveal some hitherto overlooked processes that raise questions about direct impacts on European hydrological cycles, e.g., extreme hydrometeorological events, and about the role of feedbacks on climate models and climate predictions. For instance, the summer storms are affected by land-use changes along the coasts and mountain slopes. Their loss triggers a chain of events that leads to an Accumulation Mode (AM) where water vapour and air pollutants (ozone) become stacked in layers, up to 4000(+) m, over the WMB. The AM cycle can last 3-5 consecutive days, and recur several times each month from mid May to late August. At the end of each cycle the accumulated water vapour can feed Vb track events and generate intense rainfall and summer floods in Central Europe. Venting out of the water vapour that should have precipitated within the WMB increases the salinity of the sea and affects the Atlantic-Mediterranean Salinity valve at Gibraltar. This, in turn, can alter the tracks of Atlantic Depressions and their frontal systems over Atlantic Europe. Another effect is the greenhouse heating by water vapour and photo-oxidants (e.g., O3) when layered over the Basin during the AM cycle. This increases the Sea Surface Temperature (SST), and the higher SST intensifies torrential rain events over the Mediterranean coasts in autumn. All these processes raise research questions that must be addressed to improve the meteorological forecasting of extreme events, as well as climate model predictions.

  11. Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliavacca, Mirco; Dosio, Alessandro; Camia, Andrea; Hobourg, Rasmus; Houston-Durrant, Tracy; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Krasovskii, Andrey A.; Marcolla, Barbara; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Ward, Daniel S.; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2013-12-01

    this study we present an assessment of the impact of future climate change on total fire probability, burned area, and carbon (C) emissions from fires in Europe. The analysis was performed with the Community Land Model (CLM) extended with a prognostic treatment of fires that was specifically refined and optimized for application over Europe. Simulations over the 21st century are forced by five different high-resolution Regional Climate Models under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B. Both original and bias-corrected meteorological forcings is used. Results show that the simulated C emissions over the present period are improved by using bias corrected meteorological forcing, with a reduction of the intermodel variability. In the course of the 21st century, burned area and C emissions from fires are shown to increase in Europe, in particular in the Mediterranean basins, in the Balkan regions and in Eastern Europe. However, the projected increase is lower than in other studies that did not fully account for the effect of climate on ecosystem functioning. We demonstrate that the lower sensitivity of burned area and C emissions to climate change is related to the predicted reduction of the net primary productivity, which is identified as the most important determinant of fire activity in the Mediterranean region after anthropogenic interaction. This behavior, consistent with the intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis, limits the sensitivity of future burned area and C emissions from fires on climate change, providing more conservative estimates of future fire patterns, and demonstrates the importance of coupling fire simulation with a climate driven ecosystem productivity model.

  12. Distortionary effects of a production-sharing fiscal system in a sequential modular offshore petroleum project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves de Campos, Thiago

    This research examines the distortionary effects of a discovered and undeveloped sequential modular offshore project under five different designs for a production-sharing agreement (PSA). The model differs from previous research by looking at the effect of taxation from the perspective of a host government, where the objective is to maximize government utility over government revenue generated by the project and the non-pecuniary benefits to society. This research uses Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) theory, which is able to provide a good measure of the asset value accruing to various stakeholders in the project combined with the optimal decision rule for the development of the investment opportunity. Monte Carlo simulation was also applied to incorporate into the model the most important sources of risk associated with the project and to account for non-linearity in the cash flows. For a complete evaluation of how the fiscal system affects the project development, an investor's behavioral model was constructed, incorporating three operational decisions: investment timing, capacity size and early abandonment. The model considers four sources of uncertainty that affect the project value and the firm's optimal decision: the long run oil price and short-run deviations from that price, cost escalation and the reservoir recovery rate. The optimizations outcomes show that all fiscal systems evaluated produce distortion over the companies' optimal decisions, and companies adjust their choices to avoid taxation in different ways according to the fiscal system characteristics. Moreover, it is revealed that fiscal systems with tax provisions that try to capture additional project profits based on production profitability measures leads to stronger distortions in the project investment and output profile. It is also shown that a model based on a fixed percentage rate is the system that creates the least distortion. This is because companies will be subjected to the same government share of profit oil independently of any operational decision which they can make to change the production profile to evade taxation.

  13. The Effect of Personality Type on Team Performance in Engineering Materials Term Projects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jang, Jaesoon

    Most of long-term engineering class projects require teamwork. Often, conducting projects increase the quality of classroom life and facilitate student learning. Sometimes, team projects hinder student learning and create disharmony and dissatisfaction with classroom life. In many cases, the mixture of each individuals personality determines team dynamics. The Introduction to Engineering Materials course for junior level students encompasses a semester-long term project, which heavily requires teamwork. The term project should focus on a component of existing manufactured products and show why a particular material is used for a particular application. The experiments chosen should prove or disprove this. Each team will chose a topic, determine how to evaluate that topic, devise relevant experiments, evaluate the results of these experiments and formulate a conclusion. Finally, the students will present their results to the class at the end of the semester. The goal of this study is to see how the team performance can be affected by each individual students personality type in the term projects of the engineering material course. The personality test used in this study was the DISC test, which is the oldest, most validated, and reliable personality assessment tool. DISC stands for Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, and Conscientiousness, which are the four dimensions in the personality characteristics. For the term project, six teams were formulated. The instructor assigned four or five students to a team. Students with similar personality types were assigned to work with each other in three of the teams. The other three teams have students with well-mixed dimensions in their personality characteristics. This paper presents the effectiveness of using student personality on team building for the semester-long team projects. Overall student experience and lessons learned in organizing such a project are also discussed.

  14. Student Lead Nanosatellite Design/Build Projects: making a cost effective approach to Earth and Space Observational Science even more cost efficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottoms, J.; Lange, B. A.; AlbertaSat

    2011-12-01

    With the advancement of technologies and the miniaturization of sensors and electrical/computational components satellites are also undergoing miniaturization. With lower manufacturing cost and a decreased design/build cycle (~2 years from start to launch), compared to conventional large scale satellites, nanosatellites have become a cost effective alternative for satellite Earth and Space Observations. The University of Alberta student nanosatellite (10x10x30cm; <4kg) design/build team, AlbertaSat-1, is a participant in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CSDC) implemented by the CSA and Geocentrix Ltd. in addition to 15 other Universities from across Canada. AlbertaSat-1 will be launched in early 2013, after a 2 year design/build process and environmental testing. AlbertaSat-1 will be an Earth Observation satellite monitoring GHG (CO2, H2O & CH4) concentrations over many regions of the earth with the use of a NIR spectrometer. Here we present the planning, design and future manufacturing of AlbertaSat-1 with a focus on budget and cost effective solutions. Since this is a student project, AlbertaSat-1 will incur certain benefits making them exempt from certain financial requirements and obtaining services and equipment at very low or no cost. The largest cost benefit of AlbertaSat-1 is the virtual elimination of labor costs by having a team consisting of only unpaid students. Labor costs of typical satellite missions can be a very costly component. The educational components of such projects offer more indirect benefits to effective development of this industry/discipline, nevertheless just as important, by developing skills and knowledge that can only be learned through realistic hands on design/build projects. Student lead projects and student design/build initiatives such as CSDC (among many others in the U.S. and Europe lead by NASA and ESA, respectively) will have a major impact on shaping the future of Space and Earth Observational Sciences. We will present the future implications of such student projects and initiatives for the development of research and engineering in Space and Earth Observational Sciences.

  15. Towards better implementation of cancer screening in Europe through improved monitoring and evaluation and greater engagement of cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Anttila, Ahti; Lönnberg, Stefan; Ponti, Antonio; Suonio, Eero; Villain, Patricia; Coebergh, Jan Willem; von Karsa, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Proposals to improve implementation, monitoring and evaluation of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes have been developed in a European project involving scientists and professionals experienced in cancer registration (EUROCOURSE). They call for a clear and more active role for cancer registries through better interfaces with cancer screening programmes and adapting data contents of cancer registries for evaluation purposes. Cancer registries are recognised as essential for adequate evaluation of cancer screening programmes, but they are not involved in screening evaluation in several European countries. This is a key barrier to improving the effectiveness of programmes across Europe. The variation in Europe in the implementation of cancer screening offers a unique opportunity to learn from best practices in collaboration between cancer registries and screening programmes. Population-based cancer registries have experience and tools in collecting and analysing relevant data, e.g. for diagnostic and therapeutic determinants of mortality. In order to accelerate improvements in cancer control we argue that cancer registries should take co-responsibility in promoting effective screening evaluation in Europe. Additional investments are vital to further development of infrastructures and activities for screening evaluation and monitoring in the national settings and also at the pan-European level. The EUROCOURSE project also aimed to harmonise implementation of the European quality assurance guidelines for cancer screening programmes across Europe through standardising routine data collection and analysis, and definitions for key performance indicators for screening registers. Data linkage between cancer and screening registers and other repositories of demographic data and cause of death and where available clinical registers is key to implementing the European screening standards and thereby reducing the burden of disease through early detection. Greater engagement of cancer registries in this collaborative effort is also essential to develop adequate evaluation of innovations in cancer prevention and care. PMID:25483785

  16. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition...whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition...requirement that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in §...

  17. Improving Tsunami Resilience in Europe - ASTARTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Maria Ana; Yalciner, Ahmet; Canals, Miquel; Behrens, Joern; Fuhrman, David; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Harbitz, Carl; Kanoglu, Utku; Karanci, Nurai; Lavigne, Franck; Lorito, Stefano; Meghraoui, Mustafa; Melis, Nikolaos S.; Necmioglu, Ocal; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Rudloff, Alexander; Schindele, François; Terrinha, Pedro; Tinti, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The North East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Adjacent Seas (called NEAM by IOC-UNESCO) is known to be exposed to tsunamis and, like other regions of the world, faces increasing levels of risk due to i) the continuous development of coastal areas with critical infrastructures and accumulated values, and ii) the year-round presence of millions of tourists. In recent years, European researchers have greatly advanced knowledge of tsunami hazards and implementation of operational infrastructures, such as the creation of a regional system of candidate tsunami watch providers (CTWP) and national tsunami warning centers (NTWC). However, significant gaps remain and intensified efforts are needed. The ASTARTE (Assessment STrategy And Risk for Tsunami in Europe) is a three-year long EU-funded project, started in November 2013, that aims to develop a comprehensive strategy to mitigate tsunami impact in the NEAM region. To achieve this goal, an interdisciplinary consortium has been assembled. It includes all NEAM CTWPs and expert institutions across Europe and worldwide. ASTARTE will improve i) the basic knowledge on tsunami generation and recurrence with novel empirical data and new statistical analyses for assessing long-term recurrence and hazards of large events in sensitive areas within NEAM, ii) numerical techniques for tsunami simulation focusing on real-time codes, novel statistical emulation approaches, and experiments on damage analysis, and iii) methods for the assessment of hazard, vulnerability, and risk. ASTARTE will also provide i) guidelines for tsunami Eurocodes, ii) better forecasting and warning tools for CTWPs and NTWCs, and iii) guidelines for decision makers to increase the sustainability and resilience of coastal communities. In summary, ASTARTE will develop basic scientific and technical elements allowing for a significant enhancement of the Tsunami Warning System in the NEAM region in terms of monitoring, early warning,forecast, and resilience, with specific implementation in 9 tsunami test sites. Overall, this will lead to the goal of the European/NEAM Horizon 2020 strategy: to foster tsunami resilient communities. www.astarte-project.eu This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3).

  18. Taking Europe To The Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    The first step in this ESA initiated programme is a unique project called 'Euromoon 2000' which is currently being studied by ESA engineers/ scientists and key European Space Industries. The project is intended to celebrate Europe's entry into the New Millennium; and to promote public awareness and interest in science, technology and space exploration. Euromoon 2000 has an innovative and ambitious implementation plan. This includes a 'partnership with industry' and a financing scheme based on raising part of the mission's budget from sponsorship through a dynamic public relations strategy and marketing programme. The mission begins in earnest with the small (approx. 100 kg) LunarSat orbiter satellite, to be designed and built by 50 young scientists and engineers from across Europe. Scheduled for launch in 2000 as a secondary payload on a European Ariane 5 rocket, it will then orbit the Moon, mapping the planned landing area in greater detail in preparation of the EuroMoon Lander in 2001. The Lander's 40 kg payload allocation will accommodate amongst others scientific instrumentation for in-situ investigation of the unique site. Elements of specific support to the publicity and fund-raising campaign will also be considered. The Lander will aim for the 'Peak of Eternal Light' on the rim of the 20 km-diameter, 3 km-deep Shackleton South Pole crater - a site uniquely suited for establishing a future outpost. This location enjoys almost continuous sunlight thus missions can rely on solar power instead of bulky batteries or costly and potentially hazardous nuclear power generation. As a consequence of the undulating South Pole terrain there are also permanently shadowed areas - amongst the coldest in the Solar System resulting in conditions highly favourable for the formation of frozen volatiles (as suggested by the Clementine mission in 1994). Earlier this year (7th January 1998), NASA launched its Lunar Prospector satellite which is currently performing polar lunar orbits surveying areas of the moon's surface rarely documented in previous missions. The data now being received back from Prospector strongly suggests the presence of the suspected volatiles (water ice?). Understandably the presence of billions-of-years-old frozen water in proximity to Euromoon's planned landing site would provide a tremendous boost for the implementation of the EuroMoon project now in its 10th month of study. The in-situ analysis of such rare substances will provide an invaluable scientific window back in time (the Moon is believed to have been formed over 3.5 billion years ago from elements of the earth's mantel). The water's constituent elements of hydrogen and oxygen have also the possibility of offering an essentially free supply of rocket propellant and oxygen for exploitation during future activities. EuroMoon is the only mission being studied that can investigate this ice in-situ, while the US satellite will remain in a orbit. The mission is particularly challenging because of the required landing precision (within 100 m2) in terrain varying between +6 km and -5 km in altitude. Achieving the required pinpoint touchdown capability would allow the future exploitation of other interesting sites. One such site is the 6 km-high Malapert Mountain, 120 km from the pole from which the Earth can always be seen thus allowing continuous communications with the home planet for any future outpost in the region. The 'Peak of Eternal Light' (described above) is in direct view of Malapert, the twin peaks offer the tantalising possibility of both of uninterrupted power and communications. Euromoon can be seen as be the initial step in founding the first extraterrestrial outpost, founding the infrastructure for a 'robotic village' controlled by a 'virtual community' of Earth-based operators using telescience. This would indeed mark the beginning of an expansion of the human domain beyond Earth without the risk or cost of manned space travel. This concept also forms an essential element of the fund-raising campaign which will create an exciting media opport

  19. Fundamental remote sensing science research program. Part 1: Scene radiation and atmospheric effects characterization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, R. E.; Deering, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Brief articles summarizing the status of research in the scene radiation and atmospheric effect characterization (SRAEC) project are presented. Research conducted within the SRAEC program is focused on the development of empirical characterizations and mathematical process models which relate the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted from a scene to the biophysical parameters of interest.

  20. SUITABILITY OF SWAT FOR THE CONSERVATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT: COMPARISON ON USDA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE WATERSHEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent interest in tracking environmental benefits of conservation practices on agricultural watersheds throughout the United States has led to the development of the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). The purpose of CEAP is to assess environmental...

  1. Hierarchy of Study Designs for Evaluating the Effectiveness of a STEM Education Project or Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document contains a narrative overview of the hierarchy, followed by a one-page graphic summary. The purpose of the hierarchy is to help agency/program officials assess which study designs are capable of producing scientifically-valid evidence on the effectiveness of a STEM education project or practice ("intervention"). More specifically,…

  2. Project Title: Effects of Biosolid Land Application on Pathogens in Irrigation Return Flow

    E-print Network

    Fay, Noah

    Project Title: Effects of Biosolid Land Application on Pathogens in Irrigation Return Flow in irrigation return flow from fields applied with biosolids. The results of this study showed that during the first irrigation cycle, return flow becomes contaminated with E. Coli, while the return flow

  3. Effects of projected climate change on the hydrology in the Mono Lake Basin, California

    E-print Network

    Maurer,. Edwin P.

    for the city of Los Angeles, California. Climatic Change DOI 10.1007/s10584-012-0566-6 This article is partEffects of projected climate change on the hydrology in the Mono Lake Basin, California Darren L Science+Business Media B.V. 2012 Abstract The Californian Mono Lake Basin (MLB) is a fragile ecosystem

  4. The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

  5. Effect of Irrigation to River Water Quality at Thamaka Irrigation Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bancha Kwanyuen; Nimit Cherdchanpipat; Masayoshi Satoh

    This paper focuses on the analysis of effect of irrigation to water quality of Mae Klong River. Thamaka irrigation project was selected as the representative for the basin, two water samplings from both irrigation and drainage canals were collected fortnightly from April 1998 to February 1999. The 12 indexes namely, temperature, EC, turbidity, pH, concentration of nitrate, ammonia, phosphate, and

  6. The Measures of Effective Teaching Project: An Experiment to Build Evidence and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The Measures of Effective Teaching project has collected performance data using multiple indicators from over three thousand teachers across six urban districts. In the second year of the study, classes of students were randomly assigned to teachers in order to assess the impact of assignment bias on performance judgments. This article discusses…

  7. Investigating the Urban Heat Island Effect with a Collaborative Inquiry Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Linda A.; Becker, William G.

    2003-01-01

    Explains a collaborative research project in which students study a phenomenon known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect which is a measure of the near-surface air temperature contrast between urbanized and adjoining rural areas. Includes background content and literature review, preliminary studies, development of research questions,…

  8. CME projection effects studied with STEREO/COR and SOHO/LASCO

    E-print Network

    Temmer Manuela

    CME projection effects studied with STEREO/COR and SOHO/LASCO M. TEMMER, S. PREISS, A.M. VERONIG edge features in the plane-of-sky (tradi- tional CME tracking) from combined STEREO/SECCHI-SOHO- craft pairs SOHO-LASCO/STEREO-A and SOHO-LASCO/STEREO-B allows us to study the reliability of the method

  9. The "termination effect" in experiment G2 of the1 Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project2

    E-print Network

    Robock, Alan

    The "termination effect" in experiment G2 of the1 Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project2 have examined changes in climate which result from the sudden ter-5 mination of geoengineering after 50, as simulated7 by 11 different climate models in experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model8 Intercomparison

  10. A practical use of key success factors to improve the effectiveness of project management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Clarke

    1999-01-01

    In a world where change is becoming increasingly important, tools such as project management, if used properly, can provide a useful way for organisations to manage that change effectively. Whilst there is a clear understanding of the need to achieve the required cost, time and quality objectives, surprisingly little is published on how these objectives can practically be met. Furthermore,

  11. Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects ANN DENISE FISSEKIS

    E-print Network

    Lund, Jay R.

    Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects By ANN DENISE FISSEKIS B.A. (University of Southern California) 2002 THESIS Submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements to affect flood control operations in the Sacramento Valley. Snowpack storage will decrease and the fraction

  12. The Choptank Watershed Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project: Monitoring the Effect of Wetland Conservation Practices on Water Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Choptank Watershed Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) brings together an interdisciplinary group of experts and resources from multiple federal agencies and the University of Maryland to assess the ability of native, restored, and prior-converted wetlands on cropland to impro...

  13. A Process-Based Approach to Predicting the Effect of Climate Change on the Distribution of an Invasive Allergenic Plant in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Storkey, Jonathan; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Chapman, Daniel S.; Vidotto, Francesco; Semenov, Mikhail A.

    2014-01-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia is an invasive weed in Europe with highly allergenic pollen. Populations are currently well established and cause significant health problems in the French Rhône valley, Austria, Hungary and Croatia but transient or casual introduced populations are also found in more Northern and Eastern European countries. A process-based model of weed growth, competition and population dynamics was used to predict the future potential for range expansion of A.artemisiifolia under climate change scenarios. The model predicted a northward shift in the available climatic niche for populations to establish and persist, creating a risk of increased health problems in countries including the UK and Denmark. This was accompanied by an increase in relative pollen production at the northern edge of its range. The southern European limit for A.artemisiifolia was not expected to change; populations continued to be limited by drought stress in Spain and Southern Italy. The process-based approach to modelling the impact of climate change on plant populations has the advantage over correlative species distribution models of being able to capture interactions of climate, land use and plant competition at the local scale. However, for this potential to be fully realised, additional empirical data are required on competitive dynamics of A.artemisiifolia in different crops and ruderal plant communities and its capacity to adapt to local conditions. PMID:24533071

  14. A process-based approach to predicting the effect of climate change on the distribution of an invasive allergenic plant in Europe.

    PubMed

    Storkey, Jonathan; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Chapman, Daniel S; Vidotto, Francesco; Semenov, Mikhail A

    2014-01-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia is an invasive weed in Europe with highly allergenic pollen. Populations are currently well established and cause significant health problems in the French Rhône valley, Austria, Hungary and Croatia but transient or casual introduced populations are also found in more Northern and Eastern European countries. A process-based model of weed growth, competition and population dynamics was used to predict the future potential for range expansion of A.artemisiifolia under climate change scenarios. The model predicted a northward shift in the available climatic niche for populations to establish and persist, creating a risk of increased health problems in countries including the UK and Denmark. This was accompanied by an increase in relative pollen production at the northern edge of its range. The southern European limit for A.artemisiifolia was not expected to change; populations continued to be limited by drought stress in Spain and Southern Italy. The process-based approach to modelling the impact of climate change on plant populations has the advantage over correlative species distribution models of being able to capture interactions of climate, land use and plant competition at the local scale. However, for this potential to be fully realised, additional empirical data are required on competitive dynamics of A.artemisiifolia in different crops and ruderal plant communities and its capacity to adapt to local conditions. PMID:24533071

  15. Shakeout gathers momentum in Europe`s refining sector

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1996-03-25

    This paper reviews the decline and restructuring of the petroleum refining industry in Europe which is facing increased competition from foreign operators and more stringent environmental compliance laws. The excess production capacity has forced mergers between companies and consolidation of plants. The paper reviews the production and capacity of each of the major European petroleum producing countries.

  16. Electronic Signatures for Public Procurement across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ølnes, Jon; Andresen, Anette; Arbia, Stefano; Ernst, Markus; Hagen, Martin; Klein, Stephan; Manca, Giovanni; Rossi, Adriano; Schipplick, Frank; Tatti, Daniele; Wessolowski, Gesa; Windheuser, Jan

    The PEPPOL (Pan-European Public Procurement On-Line) project is a large scale pilot under the CIP programme of the EU, exploring electronic public procurement in a unified European market. An important element is interoperability of electronic signatures across borders, identified today as a major obstacle to cross-border procurement. PEPPOL will address use of signatures in procurement processes, in particular tendering but also post-award processes like orders and invoices. Signature policies, i.e. quality requirements and requirements on information captured in the signing process, will be developed. This as well as technical interoperability of e-signatures across Europe will finally be piloted in demonstrators starting late 2009 or early 2010.

  17. Climate change and infectious diseases in Europe.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Jan C; Menne, Bettina

    2009-06-01

    Concerted action is needed to address public health issues raised by climate change. In this Review we discuss infections acquired through various routes (arthropod vector, rodent, water, food, and air) in view of a changing climate in Europe. Based on an extensive review of published work and expert workshops, we present an assessment of the infectious disease challenges: incidence, prevalence, and distribution are projected to shift in a changing environment. Due to the high level of uncertainty on the rate of climate change and its impact on infectious diseases, we propose to mount a proactive public health response by building an integrated network for environmental and epidemiological data. This network would have the capacity to connect epidemic intelligence and infectious disease surveillance with meteorological, entomological, water quality, remote sensing, and other data, for multivariate analyses and predictions. Insights from these analyses could then guide adaptation strategies and protect population health from impending threats related to climate change. PMID:19467476

  18. Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

  19. The Winds of Change: Higher Education Management Programmes in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pausits, Attila; Pellert, Ada

    2009-01-01

    Amid the Bologna Process and as a direct effect of it, European higher education institutions have to rethink their core institutional policies in order to effectively deal with the increasing demands and needs of their "customers" and society at large. The higher education management programmes across Europe, with some specific needs and…

  20. Does Information Matter? The Effect of the Meth Project on Meth Use among Youths*

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Are demand-side interventions effective at curbing drug use? To the extent demand-side programs are successful, their cost effectiveness can be appealing from a policy perspective. Established in 2005, the Montana Meth Project (MMP) employs a graphic advertising campaign to deter meth use among teens. Due to the MMP’s apparent success, seven other states have adopted Meth Project campaigns. Using data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS), this paper investigates whether the MMP reduced methamphetamine use among Montana’s youth. When accounting for a preexisting downward trend in meth use, effects on meth use are statistically indistinguishable from zero. These results are robust to using related changes of meth use among individuals without exposure to the campaign as controls in a difference-in-difference framework. A complementary analysis of treatment admissions data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) confirms the MMP has had no discernable impact on meth use. PMID:20638737

  1. Projected Land Cover Change Effects on East African Rainfall Under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, N.; Andresen, J.; Pijanowski, B. C.; Lofgren, B. M.

    2011-12-01

    Land cover/Land Use Change (LCLUC) and greenhouse gas concentrations (GHG) have both been shown to influence regional climate, albeit at different spatial scales. In east Africa, climate changes due to changing greenhouse gas concentrations are broadly projected to be warmer and wetter, while LCLUC is trending towards both agricultural intensification as well as agricultural expansion into savannas, causing complex climate impacts. This study seeks to identify locations likely to witness strong responses to future GHG, LCLUC, or their combined effects, and to better understand how hydrometeorological mechanisms might be altered by LCLUC in future scenarios. Here we present high-resolution decadal simulations from a regional climate model that compare the relative and combined effects of projected LCLUC and GHG. Our research shows that taken separately, these two climate forcings are expected to significantly alter precipitation patterns both temporally and spatially but in different ways. In combination, some regions exhibit responses dominated by either LCLUC or GHG effects, but certain regions show complex effects resulting from the combined influence of these two forcings. Perhaps most importantly, projected precipitation changes around major population areas are as strongly influenced by LCLUC as by GHG effects.

  2. Managed Pollinator Coordinated Agricultural Project—The First Two Years of the Stationary Hive Project: Abiotic Site Effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : A stationary hive project was initiated in the spring of 2009. This research project will run through 2013 and consists of two replicate two-year trials (2009-2011 and 2011–2013). The objective of the study was to conduct a longitudinal study of colonies through a two-year period. In this article...

  3. Pesticides in rainfall in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. G. Dubus; J. M. Hollis; C. D. Brown

    2000-01-01

    Papers and published reports investigating the presence of pesticides in rainfall in Europe were reviewed. Approximately half of the compounds that were analysed for were detected. For those detected, most concentrations were below about 100 ng\\/l, but larger concentrations, up to a few thousand nanograms per litre, were detected occasionally at most monitoring sites. The most frequently detected compounds were

  4. The Otherness of Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudabiunigg, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses an extensive corpus of texts from the German media and existing studies of German perspectives on Poland, Russia, the Czech Republic and Slovenia in order to demonstrate that there are two idealised culture cognitive models (ICCMs) that function as overarching categories for Europe: the ICCM west (the members of the European…

  5. Promoting entrepreneurship in Eastern Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura d'Andrea Tyson; Tea Petrin; Halsey Rogers

    1994-01-01

    The past decade has seen a revival of entrepreneurship in the modern industrial economies, characterized by a wave of enterprise restructuring and of new developments in business and technology. In this paper, we argue that market transitions of the post-socialist economies of Eastern Europe cannot be successful without similar entrepreneurial restructuring. To address the massive structural distortions that still plague

  6. Remaking Education in Western Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article makes a contribution to discussion on the neo-liberal reshaping of education in Western Europe. It argues for a greater attentiveness on the part of education researchers to collective social actors such as trade unions and social movements. Making use of concepts from Gramsci and from Poulantzas, it suggests that such actors had a…

  7. Free electron laser infrastructure in Europe 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a digest of chosen research centers, subjects and results in the domain of free electron lasers and accelerator science and technology in Europe. Some of these issues were shown during the annual meeting of the EU FP7 project EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development (2009-2013) [13-14]. The project concerns building of the research infrastructure, including in this advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics and FEL experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such infrastructures, networks and systems like: POLFEL, FLASH, SPARC, LIFE, CFEL, IRFEL, IRVUX, ELBE, FELIX, LCLS, E-XFEL along with some subsystems like seeding lasers, beam diagnostics, high field magnets, superconducting structures, multichannel measurement - control networks for FELs for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution. A digest of references on FEL and HEP was included [1-133], with emphasis on work in Poland on the Polfel project.

  8. New Approaches to Teaching European Politics: Reintroducing Central Europe. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittman, Phillip M.

    Many educators in high schools and colleges have taught about European history and politics in the context of the Cold War and the division of Europe into two blocs. The revolutionary changes in 1989 and the collapse of the Soviet Union have made obsolete the superpower spheres of influence that divided Europe. This curriculum project contributes…

  9. Towards a single seismological service infrastructure in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, A.; Trani, L.; Frobert, L.; Van Eck, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the last five year services and data providers, within the seismological community in Europe, focused their efforts in migrating the way of opening their archives towards a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). This process tries to follow pragmatically the technological trends and available solutions aiming at effectively improving all the data stewardship activities. These advancements are possible thanks to the cooperation and the follow-ups of several EC infrastructural projects that, by looking at general purpose techniques, combine their developments envisioning a multidisciplinary platform for the earth observation as the final common objective (EPOS, Earth Plate Observation System) One of the first results of this effort is the Earthquake Data Portal (http://www.seismicportal.eu), which provides a collection of tools to discover, visualize and access a variety of seismological data sets like seismic waveform, accelerometric data, earthquake catalogs and parameters. The Portal offers a cohesive distributed search environment, linking data search and access across multiple data providers through interactive web-services, map-based tools and diverse command-line clients. Our work continues under other EU FP7 projects. Here we will address initiatives in two of those projects. The NERA, (Network of European Research Infrastructures for Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation) project will implement a Common Services Architecture based on OGC services APIs, in order to provide Resource-Oriented common interfaces across the data access and processing services. This will improve interoperability between tools and across projects, enabling the development of higher-level applications that can uniformly access the data and processing services of all participants. This effort will be conducted jointly with the VERCE project (Virtual Earthquake and Seismology Research Community for Europe). VERCE aims to enable seismologists to exploit the wealth of seismic data within a data-intensive computation framework, which will be tailored to the specific needs of the community. It will provide a new interoperable infrastructure, as the computational backbone laying behind the publicly available interfaces. VERCE will have to face the challenges of implementing a service oriented architecture providing an efficient layer between the Data and the Grid infrastructures, coupling HPC data analysis and HPC data modeling applications through the execution of workflows and data sharing mechanism. Online registries of interoperable worklflow components, storage of intermediate results and data provenance are those aspects that are currently under investigations to make the VERCE facilities usable from a large scale of users, data and service providers. For such purposes the adoption of a Digital Object Architecture, to create online catalogs referencing and describing semantically all these distributed resources, such as datasets, computational processes and derivative products, is seen as one of the viable solution to monitor and steer the usage of the infrastructure, increasing its efficiency and the cooperation among the community.

  10. Recent trends of persistent organic pollutants in air in central Europe - Air monitoring in combination with air mass trajectory statistics as a tool to study the effectivity of regional chemical policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorská, A.; Lammel, G.; Holoubek, I.

    We use air mass back trajectory analysis of persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels monitored at a regional background site, Košetice, Czech Republic, as a tool to study the effectiveness of emission reduction measures taken in the last decade in the region. The representativity of the chosen trajectory starting height for air sampling near ground was ensured by excluding trajectories starting at time of inversions lower than their starting height. As the relevant pollutant sources are exclusively located in the atmospheric boundary layer, trajectory segments above this layer were also excluded from the analysis. We used a linear time weight to account for the influence of dispersion and deposition on trace components abundances and to quantify the ground source loading, a continuous measure for the influence of surface emissions. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and two time periods, the years 1997-1999 and 2004-2006, were studied. The pollutant levels transported to Košetice decreased for all substances except HCB. Except for lindane seasonal emissions were insignificant. Increasing emissions of HCB were at least partly linked to the 2002 floods in the Danube basin. Major emissions of 1997-1999 which decreased significantly were in France (lindane), western Poland, Hungary and northern ex-Yugoslavia (technical HCH), and the Czech Republic (DDT). Emissions remaining in 2004-2006 include HCB and DDT in the northern Czech Republic, HCB and PCBs in Germany. Besides changes in emission strength meteorological factors influence the level of transported pollutant concentrations. The prevailing air flow pattern limits the geographic coverage of this analysis to central Europe and parts of western Europe. However, no POP monitoring stations exist in areas suitable for a possible extension of the study area.

  11. Hamburg, Germany's second largest city, is home to two of the most important urban development areas in Europe: HafenCity

    E-print Network

    District of Columbia, University of the

    areas in Europe: HafenCity and the International Building Exhibition (IBA). Both projects embrace and character. HafenCity, Europe's largest inner-city development project, is setting new standards. The International Building Exhibition (IBA) is applying experimental design and urban planning to a neglected inner

  12. Let’s give Europe a vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Manuel Barroso

    2010-01-01

    The current economic crisis has wrought havoc on Europe. However, the crisis has also given the leaders of Europe an opportunity\\u000a to re-evaluate European society and the process of European integration. The time is at hand for Europe to create a new strategic\\u000a outlook for the future. The Europe 2020 strategy could provide the impetus to create a more prosperous

  13. Alien Birds, Amphibians and Reptiles of Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salit Kark; Wojciech Solarz; François Chiron; Philippe Clergeau; Susan Shirley

    DAISIE aims to integrate information on current invasions across Europe through an online freely available database of alien\\u000a species (www.europe-aliens. org, Shirley and Kark 2006). Overall, the DAISIE database includes 55 islands or countries in\\u000a Europe (including European Russia), Israel and the Macaronesian islands (hereby referred to as Europe). Patterns of alien\\u000a introductions, their impacts and management tools differ for

  14. Effect of acquisition parameters on digital breast tomosynthesis: Total angular range and number of projection views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young-Wook; Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Ye-seul; Kim, Hee-Joung; Choi, Jae-Gu

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different acquisition parameters and to determine the optimal set of acquisition parameters of projection views (PVs) for the new developed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system. The DBT imaging parameters were optimized using 32 different acquisition sets with six angular ranges (±5°, ±10°, ±13°, ±17°, ±21°, and ±25°) and eight projection views (5, 11, 15, 21, 25, 31, 41, and 51 prjections). In addition to the contrastto-noise ratio (CNR), the artifact spread function (ASF) was used to quantify the in-focus plane artifacts along the z-direction in order to explore the relationship between the acquisition parameters and the image quality. A commercially, available breast-mimicking phantom was imaged to qualitatively verify our results. Our results show that a wide angular range improved the reconstructed image quality in the z-direction. If a large number of projections are acquired, then the electronic noise may dominate the CNR due to reduce the radiation dose per projection. Although increasing angular range was found to improve the vertical resolution, due to greater effective breast thickness, the image quality of microcalcifications in the in-focus plane was also found not to be improved by increasing the noise. Therefore, potential trade-offs of these physical imaging properties must be considered to optimize the acquisition configuration of a DBT system. Our results suggest possible directions for further improvements in DBT systems for high quality imaging.

  15. [A survey on the effects of "Dietary Guideline" nutrition education project].

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Zhai, F; Li, D; Li, Y

    2001-05-01

    A survey on the nutrition knowledge, attitude and behavior of 5145 persons from five cities of four provinces, Shandong, Guangdong, Sichuan and Heilongjiang, before and after the nutritional education project on "Dietary Guideline" has been effectively conducted. An obviously good effect has been achieved among the residents, middle and primary school students and elderly people. Before the nutritional educational project has been carried out, the people who understanding the "Dietary Guideline" was only 12.0%, 29.2% and 15.2% of residents, the elderly and students respectively. But after education, the rates raised to 93.4%, 99.0% and 91.9% respectively. Nearly 90% of residents and the elderly got to know the "Dietary Guideline" through the materials distributed from the project. The nutrition knowledge score was improved greatly after the project was conducted. The attitude towards learning nutrition knowledge was good. At the same time, some dietary behavior and the life style of people had been modified. These results indicated that nutrition education is very important on improving people's nutrition knowledge level, changing people's unhealthy living attitudes and dietary habits. PMID:12525095

  16. Projected effects of declining aerosols in RCP4.5: unmasking global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotstayn, L. D.; Collier, M. A.; Chrastansky, A.; Jeffrey, S. J.; Luo, J.-J.

    2013-11-01

    All the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) include declining aerosol emissions during the 21st century, but the effects of these declines on climate projections have had little attention. Here we assess the global and hemispheric-scale effects of declining anthropogenic aerosols in RCP4.5 in CSIRO-Mk3.6, a model from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Results from this model are then compared with those from other CMIP5 models. We calculate the aerosol effective radiative forcing (ERF, including indirect effects) in CSIRO-Mk3.6 relative to 1850, using a series of atmospheric simulations with prescribed sea-surface temperatures (SST). Global-mean aerosol ERF at the top of the atmosphere is most negative in 2005 (-1.47 W m-2). Between 2005 and 2100 it increases by 1.46 W m-2, i.e., it approximately returns to 1850 levels. Although increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and declining aerosols both exert a positive ERF at the top of the atmosphere during the 21st century, they have opposing effects on radiative heating of the atmosphere: increasing GHGs warm the atmosphere, whereas declining aerosols cool the atmosphere due to reduced absorption of shortwave radiation by black carbon (BC). We then compare two projections for 2006-2100, using the coupled atmosphere-ocean version of the model. One (RCP45) follows the usual RCP4.5; the other (RCP45A2005) has identical forcing, except that emissions of anthropogenic aerosols and precursors are fixed at 2005 levels. The global-mean surface warming in RCP45 is 2.3 °C per 95 yr, of which almost half (1.1 °C) is caused by declining aerosols. The warming due to declining aerosols is almost twice as strong in the Northern Hemisphere as in the Southern Hemisphere, whereas that due to increasing GHGs is similar in the two hemispheres. For precipitation changes, the effects of declining aerosols are larger than those of increasing GHGs due to decreasing atmospheric absorption by black carbon: 63% of the projected global-mean precipitation increase of 0.16 mm per day is caused by declining aerosols. In the Northern Hemisphere, precipitation increases by 0.29 mm per day, of which 72% is caused by declining aerosols. Comparing 13 CMIP5 models, we find a correlation of -0.54 (significant at 5%) between aerosol ERF in the present climate and projected global-mean surface warming in RCP4.5; thus, models that have more negative aerosol ERF in the present climate tend to project stronger warming during 2006-2100. A similar correlation (-0.56) is found between aerosol ERF and projected changes in global-mean precipitation. These results suggest that aerosol forcing substantially modulates projected climate response in RCP4.5. In some respects, the effects of declining aerosols are quite distinct from those of increasing GHGs. Systematic efforts are needed to better quantify the role of declining aerosols in climate projections.

  17. "Physics and Life" for Europe's Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    The EIROforum Contribution to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 [Physics on Stage 3 Logo] What do you know about modern science? Was your school science teacher inspiring and enthusiastic? Or was physics class a good time to take a nap? Unfortunately, many young Europeans don't have the fondest memories of science in school, and the result is a widespread disinterest and lack of understanding of science among adults. This has become a real problem - especially at a time when science is having a growing impact on our daily lives, and when society needs more scientists than ever! What can be done? Some of Europe's leading research organisations, scientists and teachers have put their heads together and come up with a unique approach called "Physics on Stage" . This will be the third year that these institutes, with substantial support from the European Commission, are running this project - attacking the problem at its roots. EIROforum and "Physics on Stage 3" [EIROforum Logo] "Physics On Stage 3" is based on the very successful "Physics On Stage" concept that was introduced in 2000. It is directed towards science teachers and students in Europe's secondary schools. It is a part of the year-long build-up to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 (3-9 November), an initiative by the European Commission, and is run by seven of Europe's leading Intergovernmental Research Organizations (the EIROforum) [1]. The project addresses the content and format of science teaching in European schools , seeking to improve the quality of teaching and to find new ways to stimulate pupils to take an interest in science. Innovative and inspirational science teaching is seen as a key component to attract young people to deal with scientific issues, whether or not they finally choose a career in science. Hence, "Physics On Stage 3" aims to stimulate the interest of young people through the school teachers, who can play a key role in reversing the trend of falling interest in science and current scientific research. The goals of "Physics On Stage 3" [EWST Logo] "Physics on Stage 3" also aims to facilitate the exchange of good practice and innovative ideas among Europe's science teachers and to provide a forum for a broad debate among educators, administrators and policy-makers about the key problems in science education today. Moreover, it will make available the considerable, combined expertise of the EIROforum organisations to the European scientific teaching community, in order to promote the introduction of "fresh" science into the curricula and thus to convey a more realistic image of modern science to the pupils. "Physics on Stage 3" is concerned with basic science and also with the cross-over between different science disciplines - a trend becoming more and more important in today's science, which is not normally reflected in school curricula. A key element of the programme is to give teachers an up-to-date "insiders'" view of what is happening in science and to tell them about new, highly-diverse and interesting career opportunities for their pupils. Theme of the activities The theme of "Physics on Stage" this year is "Physics and Life" , reflecting the decision to broaden the Physics on Stage activities to encompass all the natural sciences. Including other sciences will augment the already successful concept, introducing a mixture of cross-over projects that highlight the multidisciplinary aspects of modern science. Among the many subjects to be presented are radiation, physics and the environment, astrobiology (the search for life beyond earth), complex systems, self-organising systems, sports science, the medical applications of physics, mathematics and epidemiology, etc. The main elements National activities "Physics on Stage 3" has already started and National Steering Committees in 22 countries, composed of eminent science teachers, scientists, administrators and others involved in se

  18. Retailing in Europe: 20 years on

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Burt

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews retail change in Europe over the past 20 years. The sociocultural context of retailing in Europe is briefly discussed before macro level changes in the relative scale of Europe's largest retail organizations over this period are explored. Three underlying themes to retail change are then discussed – the emergence of new markets, in relation to geographical, product,

  19. Pour une Europe multilingue...Mais lequelle (Toward a Multilingual Europe...but Which Europe)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Feal, Karla Dejean

    1991-01-01

    The European Community is facing the dilemma of respecting and maintaining Europe's traditional national languages and cultures while facilitating communication. This objective can be met by expecting all citizens to speak in their native languages but understand several others, placing emphasis on comprehension in second-language instruction.…

  20. Appraising the sustainability of project alternatives: An increasing role for cumulative effects assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Senner, Robert, E-mail: robin.senner@ch2m.com

    2011-09-15

    Evaluating and comparing development alternatives with regard to sustainability is an important goal for comprehensive project appraisal. In the United States, this component has been largely missing from standard environmental impact assessment practice. Cumulative effects assessment provides a way to appraise the sustainability of project alternatives in terms of their probable contributions to long-term trends affecting the condition of valued environmental components. Sustainability metrics and predictors are being developed as criteria for rating systems and evaluation processes that are applied to community planning, building design, and transportation infrastructure. Increasing interest in adaptive management is also providing cost-effective solutions to optimizing safety and function throughout the long-term operation of a facility or infrastructure. Recent federal legislation is making it easier to integrate sustainability features into development alternatives through early, community-based planning.

  1. Assessment of the effectiveness of the advanced programmatic risk analysis and management model (apram) as a decision support tool for construction projects

    E-print Network

    Imbeah, William Kweku Ansah

    2007-09-17

    and implement measures that can mitigate the effects of project risks. Several risk analysis techniques have been developed over the years to enable construction project managers to make useful decisions that can improve the chances of project success...

  2. On the effectiveness of projection methods for convex feasibility problems with linear inequality constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yair Censor; Wei Chen; Patrick L. Combettes; Ran Davidi; Gabor T. Herman

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of projection methods for solving systems of linear inequalities is investigated. It is shown that they\\u000a often have a computational advantage over alternatives that have been proposed for solving the same problem and that this\\u000a makes them successful in many real-world applications. This is supported by experimental evidence provided in this paper on\\u000a problems of various sizes (up

  3. Effects of a physical activity intervention on body image in university seniors: Project GRAD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion F. Zabinski; Karen J. Calfas; Christine A. Gehrman; Denise E. Wilfley; James F. Sallis

    2001-01-01

    Project GRAD (Graduate Ready for Activity Daily) was a randomized controlled study to teach university seniors behavioral\\u000a skills necessary for increasing and\\/or maintaining physical activity habits in preparation for the transition to working adult\\u000a roles after graduation. This study examines the secondary effects of this intervention on body image concerns among college-aged\\u000a men and women. Three hundred thirty-eight undergraduates (54%

  4. ArcFuel methodology for mapping forest fuels in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toukiloglou, Pericles; Eftychidis, George; Gitas, Ioannis; Tompoulidou, Maria

    2013-08-01

    The ArcFuel project aims to develop a generic methodology, which will enable the regular production of consistent forest vegetation fuel maps over Europe. Such maps can be used to simulate fire scenarios and support the design and implementation of effective prevention and mitigation measures against fires. ArcFuel uses the results of a recent effort of JRC Ispra, which aimed to create a standardized scheme of fuel types, representative of the vegetation occurring in the European forest regions. Based on this approach and using existing European spatial datasets and multi-temporal remotely sensed images ArcFuel defines a methodology for producing vegetation fuel maps compatible with the relevant scheme of JRC. The choice of input material was mainly driven by the need of keeping the production cost low and updating regularly the European vegetation fuel map. The proposed methodology can be applied in all EU regions and is currently tested and validated in pilot areas in Greece, Portugal, Spain and Italy.

  5. Working project title: " Dendrochronological analyzes for climate changes in South East

    E-print Network

    University of Forestry (Bulgaria)

    1 Working project title: " Dendrochronological analyzes for climate changes in South East Europe East Europe (SEE) The climate change assessment will be done through dendrochronological analyses and LAMs atmospheric data. WORK PAKAGE 3 - Dendrochronological research and evaluation of non- climatic

  6. Report on the planning workshop on cost-effective ceramic machining. Ceramic Technology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.

    1991-11-01

    A workshop on ``Cost Effective Ceramic Machining`` (CECM) was held at Oak Ridge Associated Universities Pollard Auditorium, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, May 1991. The purpose of this workshop was to present a preliminary project plan for industry critique and to identify specific components and cost-reduction targets for a new project on Cost Effective Ceramic Machining. The CECM project is an extension of the work on the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Program sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Materials. The workshop consisted of fifteen invited papers, discussions, a survey of the attendee`s opinions, and a tour of the High Temperature Materials Laboratory at ORNL. The total number of registrants was sixty-seven, including thirty-three from industry or private sector organizations, seven from universities, three from industry groups, fourteen from DOE laboratories (including ORNL, Y-12, and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory), three from trade associations, and three from other government organizations. Forty- one survey forms, which critiqued the proposed project plan, were completed by attendees, and the results are presented in this report. Valves, cam roller followers, water pump seals, and diesel engine head plates were rated highest fro application of ceramic machining concepts to reduce cost. Coarse grinding, abrasives and wheel technology, and fine grinding were most highly rated as regards their impact on cost reduction. Specific cost-reduction targets for given parts varied greatly in the survey results and were not felt to be useful for the purposes for the CECM plan development. A range of individual comments were obtained and are listed in an appendix. As a result of the workshop and subsequent discussions, a modified project plan, different in certain aspects from the original CECM plan, has been developed.

  7. Explaining Foreign Direct Investment in Central and Eastern Europe: an Extended Gravitiy Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaap Bos; Mindel van de Laar

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we question whether there is a catch-up effect or announcement effectin Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from the European Union (EU) to the ten EU accession countries. We study FDI outflows from the Netherlands, a small open economy with few historical ties to Eastern Europe, and compare FDI in the transition countries in Central and Eastern Europe to

  8. Air pollution, forest condition and forest decline in Southern Europe: An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bussotti; M. Ferretti

    1998-01-01

    Over the last decades much of the work on the impact of air pollution on forests in Europe has concentrated on central and northern countries. The southern part of Europe has received far less attention, although air pollutants—especially the photochemical ones—can reach concentrations likely to have adverse effects on forest vegetation. Although international forest condition surveys present serious problems where

  9. Accelerator science and technology in Europe 2008-2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    European Framework Research Projects have recently added a lot of meaning to the building process of the ERA - the European Research Area. Inside this, the accelerator technology plays an essential role. Accelerator technology includes large infrastructure and intelligent, modern instrumentation embracing mechatronics, electronics, photonics and ICT. During the realization of the European research and infrastructure project FP6 CARE 2004-2008 (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe), concerning the development of large accelerator infrastructure in Europe, it was decided that a scientific editorial series of peer-reviewed monographs from this research area will be published in close relation with the projects. It was a completely new and quite brave idea to combine a kind of a strictly research publisher with a transient project, lasting only four or five years. Till then nobody did something like that. The idea turned out to be a real success. The publications now known and valued in the accelerator world, as the (CERN-WUT) Editorial Series on Accelerator Science and Technology, is successfully continued in already the third European project EuCARD2 and has logistic guarantees, for the moment, till the 2017, when it will mature to its first decade. During the realization of the European projects EuCARD (European Coordination for Accelerator R&D 2009-2013 and TIARA (Test Infrastructure of Accelerator Research Area in Europe) there were published 18 volumes in this series. The ambitious plans for the nearest years is to publish, hopefully, a few tens of new volumes. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, published in the monographs of the European Framework Projects (FP) on accelerator technology. The succession of CARE, EuCARD and EuCARD Projects is evidently creating a new quality in the European Accelerator Research. It is consolidating the technical and research communities in a new way, completely different than the traditional ones, for example via the periodic topical conferences.

  10. Shale Gas in Europe: pragmatic perspectives and actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, A.; Horsfield, B.; Kapp, I.

    2012-10-01

    Natural gas will continue to play a key role in the EU's energy mix in the coming years, with unconventional gas' role increasing in importance as new resources are exploited worldwide. As far as Europe's own shale gas resources are concerned, it is especially the public's perception and level of acceptance that will make or break shale gas in the near-term. Both the pros and cons need to be discussed based on factual argument rather than speculation. Research organizations such as ours (GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences) have an active and defining role to play in remedying this deficiency. As far as science and technology developments are concerned, the project "Gas Shales in Europe" (GASH) and the shale gas activities of "GeoEnergie" (GeoEn) are the first major initiatives in Europe focused on shale gas. Basic and applied geoscientific research is conducted to understand the fundamental nature and interdependencies of the processes leading to shale gas formation. When it comes to knowledge transfer, the perceived and real risks associated with shale gas exploitation need immediate evaluation in Europe using scientific analysis. To proactively target these issues, the GFZ and partners are launching the European sustainable Operating Practices (E-SOP) Initiative for Unconventional Resources. The web-based Shale Gas Information Platform (SHIP) brings these issues into the public domain.

  11. [Japanese encephalitis in Southern Europe].

    PubMed

    Cleton, Natalie; Koopmans, Marion; Braks, Marieta; Van Maanen, Kees; Reusken, Chantal

    2014-07-01

    In 2012, a fragment of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genome was isolated from a pool of Culex pipiens mosquitoes caught in 2010 and 2011 in Northern Italy. JEV has a broad geographical distribution in South and Southeast Asia and Oceania, and is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia in humans and also causes encephalitis in horses and fertility problems in pigs. However, recently isolated JEV genome fragments in mosquitoes in Italy could be an indication of repeated introduction of JEV, enzootic circulation of JEV or a related virus in Southern Europe. Until more information is available, Japanese encephalitis remains a travel-related infectious disease for travellers to JEV endemic and epidemic areas outside of Europe. PMID:25090898

  12. The knowledge economy of Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brinkley, Ian

    2006-01-01

    For regional development specialists and those concerned with local economies, the world of the so-called knowledge economy is tremendously important. Specifically, the knowledge economy is meant to be those segments of the economy that include financial and business services, health care, and education. In Europe, the subject is debated a great deal, and this latest 23-page report by The Work Foundation will no doubt add to that ongoing debate. In their report examining the knowledge economy in Europe (and its recent growth) they note that while the Continent continues to experience some growth in this sector of the economy, future growth may be hindered by a lack of significant investment in its knowledge base. The report also includes an extended definition of this notion of a knowledge economy for those who remain puzzled.

  13. Treasures from Europe's National Libraries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This major exhibition from the Conference of European National Librarians and provided by Gabriel, Gateway to Europe's National Libraries, features almost 100 of the most precious artifacts from the collections of 24 National Libraries. Users may tour the exhibition by document type or topic, view selected highlights, or browse several indices (Library, Creator, Titles, and Date). Entries for each artifact include an image and brief description. Although the exhibit would greatly benefit from the addition of thumbnailed links to full-screen images of the artifacts, it is still a remarkable representation of Europe's cultural heritage over the past 1,000 years. It should also be noted that this is the first of multiple planned versions, and additional treasures will be added as they become available.

  14. Projected effects of climate and development on California wildfire emissions through 2100.

    PubMed

    Hurteau, Matthew D; Westerling, Anthony L; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Bryant, Benjamin P

    2014-02-18

    Changing climatic conditions are influencing large wildfire frequency, a globally widespread disturbance that affects both human and natural systems. Understanding how climate change, population growth, and development patterns will affect the area burned by and emissions from wildfires and how populations will in turn be exposed to emissions is critical for climate change adaptation and mitigation planning. We quantified the effects of a range of population growth and development patterns in California on emission projections from large wildfires under six future climate scenarios. Here we show that end-of-century wildfire emissions are projected to increase by 19-101% (median increase 56%) above the baseline period (1961-1990) in California for a medium-high temperature scenario, with the largest emissions increases concentrated in northern California. In contrast to other measures of wildfire impacts previously studied (e.g., structural loss), projected population growth and development patterns are unlikely to substantially influence the amount of projected statewide wildfire emissions. However, increases in wildfire emissions due to climate change may have detrimental impacts on air quality and, combined with a growing population, may result in increased population exposure to unhealthy air pollutants. PMID:24443984

  15. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute for Earth Sciences and Astronomy (INSU) of the CNRS. To build consensus on priorities in a very diverse community, the Science Vision and Roadmap were developed in an open process involving intensive interaction with the community through large open meetings and feedback via e-mail and the web. The result is a plan now backed by astronomers in 28 Member and Associated States of the EU, with over 500 million inhabitants. Over 60 selected experts from across Europe contributed to the construction of the ASTRONET Roadmap, ensuring that European astronomy has the tools to compete successfully in answering the challenges of the Science Vision. They identified and prioritised a set of new facilities to observe the Universe from radio waves to gamma rays, to open up new ways of probing the cosmos, such as gravitational waves, and to advance in the exploration of our Solar System. In the process, they considered all the elements needed by a successful scientific enterprise, from global-scale cooperation on the largest mega-project to the need for training and recruiting skilled young scientists and engineers. One of two top-priority large ground-based projects is ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope. Its 42-metre diameter mirror will make the E-ELT the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world -- "the biggest eye on the sky". The science to be done with the E-ELT is extremely exciting and includes studies of exoplanets and discs, galaxy formation and dark energy. ESO Director General Tim de Zeeuw says: "The top ranking of the E-ELT in the Roadmap is a strong endorsement from the European astronomical community. This flagship project will indisputably raise the European scientific, technological and industrial profile". Among other recommendations, the Roadmap considers how to maximise the future scientific impact of existing facilities in a cost-effective manner. It also identifies a need for better access to state-of-the art computing and laboratory facilities, and for a stronger involvement of European high-tech industry in the deve

  16. Investigating organizational quality improvement systems, patient empowerment, organizational culture, professional involvement and the quality of care in European hospitals: the 'Deepening our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe (DUQuE)' project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Groene; Niek Klazinga; Cordula Wagner; Onyebuchi A Arah; Andrew Thompson; Charles Bruneau; Rosa Suñol

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospitals in European countries apply a wide range of quality improvement strategies. Knowledge of the effectiveness of these strategies, implemented as part of an overall hospital quality improvement system, is limited. METHODS\\/DESIGN: We propose to study the relationships among organisational quality improvement systems, patient empowerment, organisational culture, professionals' involvement with the quality of hospital care, including clinical effectiveness, patient

  17. Europe's last chance to restructure

    SciTech Connect

    Tattum, L.

    1992-12-23

    Looking back over the year, there has been remarkably little sign of restructuring in the chemical industry in view of the current financial crisis in most companies. But the apparent paralysis in terms of plant closures or ownership changes may be disguising much behind-the-scenes activity. But the pain threshold of companies is proving surprisingly high. Looking at ethylene plants, Shell's Peter Kwant notes that almost half the steam crackers operating in Europe are 20 years old or more. They amount to one-third of capacity, or twice current underutilization. No steps have been taken to close any unit. Meanwhile, five producers collectively will have introduced 2 million m.t./year of extra ethylene capacity between 1991 and 1994. One factor hampering closure is that 40% of ethylene capacity in Europe is at isolated sites not connected to either the Benelux/Germany ARG pipeline or a local network such as those in the UK or France. BP Chemicals chief Bryan Sanderson raised that point at a recent Wertheim Schroder/Chemical Week/Chem Systems conference in New York, arguing that steep price falls occur in times of demand slump because of the inelastic supply curve for monster chemical plants. The industry could manage cycles better, he suggests, if rather than closing its incremental capacity, small, flexible plants were available to open and close as demand warrants, thus flattening the supply curve. In addition, following the US example - where 90% of ethylene capacity is connected to pipeline system should be available in Europe, giving companies greater flexibility to take plants on- and offline. The latter solution, of course, would not work for Europe's 18 loss-making polyethylene (PE) producers, and here straight closures or merging of businesses are the only solution.

  18. PIXE pollution studies across Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Innegraeve, O.; Blanchet, X.; Muntele, C. I.; Muntele, I. C.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Popa-Simil, L. (Liviu); Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P. M.; Ila, D.

    2002-01-01

    We collected vegetation and soil samples from various locations along a route covering Eastern and Western Europe. We measured the level of elemental pollution in different places uniformly spread across the continent to determine which of them may have common sources. To achieve these objectives, samples were collected along the main roads from Romania to Portugal and analyzed using in-air PEE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission).

  19. Leisure and Consumption in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jukka Gronow; Dale Southerton

    \\u000a Household expenditure and time diary data are used to explore the changing socio-geographical patterns of leisure-related\\u000a consumption in Europe. Robust comparative data restricted the analysis to change since the late 1970 s. The chapter begins\\u000a with an outline of the key theoretical debates regarding changing European practices of leisure and consumption. This is followed\\u000a by two sections detailing geographical patterns, differences

  20. Water Management Technologies from Europe

    E-print Network

    Woinsky, S. G.

    introduce a promising niche technology, and a number of U.S. firms with other promising technologies. The first wastewater applications of the Niro freeze concentration technology are described. It is anticipated that when appropriate, the EPRIl... concentration of hazardous wastewater upstream of incinerators. That application was commercialized at the 50 ton per hour level in Asia in 1997, and the 100 ton per hour level in Europe in 1999. EPRI and Niro continue to cooperate in the introduction...

  1. TV White Space in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaap van de Beek; Janne Riihijarvi; Andreas Achtzehn; Petri Mahonen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the availability of TV white spaces in Europe. Specifically, we focus on the 470-790 MHz UHF band, which will predominantly remain in use for TV broadcasting after the analog-to-digital switch-over and the assignment of the 800 MHz band to licensed services have been completed. The expected number of unused, available TV channels in any location

  2. MODIS Snow Cover over Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cindy Starr

    2002-07-04

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides data in 36 spectral bands, some of which are used in an algorithm to map global snow cover. The animation shows the dynamic behavior of the advance and retreat of continental snow cover over Europe for the winter of 2001-02 from MODIS-derived 8-day composite snow maps with a spatial resolution of about 5 km.

  3. Increasing forest disturbances in Europe and their impact on carbon storage

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Rupert; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Rammer, Werner; Verkerk, Pieter Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances from wind, bark beetles, and wildfires have increased in Europe’s forests throughout the 20th century 1. Climatic changes were identified as a main driver behind this increase 2, yet how the expected continuation of climate change will affect Europe’s forest disturbance regime remains unresolved. Increasing disturbances could strongly impact the forest carbon budget 3,4, and are hypothesized to contribute to the recently observed carbon sink saturation in Europe’s forests 5. Here we show that forest disturbance damage in Europe has continued to increase in the first decade of the 21st century. Based on an ensemble of climate change scenarios we find that damage from wind, bark beetles, and forest fires is likely to increase further in coming decades, and estimate the rate of increase to +0.91·106 m3 of timber per year until 2030. We show that this intensification can offset the effect of management strategies aiming to increase the forest carbon sink, and calculate the disturbance-related reduction of the carbon storage potential in Europe’s forests to be 503.4 Tg C in 2021-2030. Our results highlight the considerable carbon cycle feedbacks of changing disturbance regimes, and underline that future forest policy and management will require a stronger focus on disturbance risk and resilience. PMID:25737744

  4. Trends and fluctuations in the dates of ice break-up of lakes and rivers in Northern Europe: the effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JaeChan Yoo; Paolo D'Odorico

    2002-01-01

    The existence of an ice cover has important effects on the streamflow conditions as well as on the heat transfer between water bodies and the overlying atmosphere. This paper investigates the effects of climate variability on the termination of the ice season in the Baltic region. In particular, trends and fluctuations observed in the cryophenological records from this region are

  5. Intravenous Artesunate for Severe Malaria in Travelers, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Junghanss, Thomas; Kapaun, Annette; Gjørup, Ida; Richter, Joachim; Hugo-Persson, Mats; Mørch, Kristine; Foroutan, Behruz; Suttorp, Norbert; Yürek, Salih; Flick, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Multicenter trials in Southeast Asia have shown better survival rates among patients with severe malaria, particularly those with high parasitemia levels, treated with intravenous (IV) artesunate than among those treated with quinine. In Europe, quinine is still the primary treatment for severe malaria. We conducted a retrospective analysis for 25 travelers with severe malaria who returned from malaria-endemic regions and were treated at 7 centers in Europe. All patients survived. Treatment with IV artesunate rapidly reduced parasitemia levels. In 6 patients at 5 treatment centers, a self-limiting episode of unexplained hemolysis occurred after reduction of parasitemia levels. Five patients required a blood transfusion. Patients with posttreatment hemolysis had received higher doses of IV artesunate than patients without hemolysis. IV artesunate was an effective alternative to quinine for treatment of malaria patients in Europe. Patients should be monitored for signs of hemolysis, especially after parasitologic cure. PMID:21529383

  6. Projected effects of declining aerosols in RCP4.5: unmasking global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotstayn, L. D.; Collier, M. A.; Chrastansky, A.; Jeffrey, S. J.; Luo, J.-J.

    2013-07-01

    All the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) include declining aerosol emissions during the 21st century, but the effects of these declines on climate projections have had little attention. Here we assess the global and hemispheric-scale effects of declining anthropogenic aerosols in RCP4.5 in CSIRO-Mk3.6, a model from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Results from this model are then compared with those from other CMIP5 models. We calculate the aerosol effective radiative forcing (ERF, including indirect effects) in CSIRO-Mk3.6 relative to 1850, using a series of atmospheric simulations with prescribed sea-surface temperatures. Global-mean aerosol ERF at the top of the atmosphere is most negative in 2005 (-1.47 W m-2). Between 2005 and 2100 it increases by 1.46 W m-2, i.e., it approximately returns to 1850 levels. Although increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and declining aerosols both exert a positive ERF at the top of the atmosphere during the 21st century, they have opposing effects on radiative heating of the atmosphere: increasing GHGs warm the atmosphere, whereas declining aerosols cool the atmosphere due to reduced absorption of shortwave radiation by black carbon. We then compare two projections for 2006-2100, using the coupled atmosphere-ocean version of the model. One (RCP45) follows the usual RCP4.5; the other (RCP45A2005) has identical forcing, except that emissions of anthropogenic aerosols and precursors are fixed at 2005 levels. The global-mean surface warming in RCP45 is 2.3 °C per 95 yr, of which almost half (1.1 °C) is caused by declining aerosols. The warming due to declining aerosols is almost twice as strong in the Northern Hemisphere as in the Southern Hemisphere, whereas that due to increasing GHGs is similar in the two hemispheres. For precipitation changes, the effects of declining aerosols are larger than those of increasing GHGs due to decreasing atmospheric absorption by black carbon: 63% of the projected global-mean precipitation increase of 0.16 mm per day is caused by declining aerosols. In the Northern Hemisphere, precipitation increases by 0.29 mm per day, of which 72% is caused by declining aerosols. Using data from 13 CMIP5 models, we find that projected global-mean surface warming in RCP4.5 is systematically larger in models that have more negative aerosol ERF in the present climate (r = -0.54, p = 0.03). A similar correlation is found for global-mean precipitation changes (r = -0.56, p = 0.02). These results suggest that aerosol forcing substantially modulates projected climate response in RCP4.5. In some respects, the effects of declining aerosols are quite distinct from those of increasing GHGs. Systematic efforts are needed to better quantify the role of declining aerosols in climate projections.

  7. Environmental cadmium in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jensen, A; Bro-Rasmussen, F

    1992-01-01

    The present article reviews information from the latest 10 years concerning fate and exposure of cadmium in the environment, on ecotoxicological effects, and on critical pathways leading to human and environmental exposure. It emphasizes the situation within the Community of European Countries by referring to limit values used in the EEC and some of its member states for emissions to water, air and soil. Estimates have been made on total emission balances for the Netherlands, Denmark, and for the EEC as a whole. The balances show that 70-90% of all cadmium circulating in the Community is disposed of as waste in solid waste deposits. Production and use patterns are presently changing, as indicated by reduced consumption in recent years of cadmium for plating, stabilizers and pigments in several countries as a result of regulations. However, significant increases in consumption for cadmium-containing batteries have occurred, resulting globally in increasing trends for the total consumption and production. Cadmium in sediments is more mobile than described earlier. Aquatic organisms can be classified in order of decreasing accumulation: algae greater than molluscs greater than crustaceans greater than fish. There is no evidence of biomagnification of cadmium within marine or fresh water food webs. Cadmium may enter into plants via roots or by foliar adsorption following atmospheric deposition. Biomagnification in terrestrial food chains is not observed. The uptake into plants is plant specific. Within plants significant variations are seen with concentrations generally decreasing in the order: roots greater than leaves greater than fruiting parts greater than seeds. A compilation of cadmium in air, in the aquatic environment and in soil is given. A downward trend during the 1970s to mid-1980s seems to be evidenced from various Northern European studies on cadmium air concentrations as well as for deposition rates of cadmium. In rivers, the dissolved cadmium concentrations are generally found to be relatively low (10-500 ng/L). In seawater, cadmium concentrations are found at 0.5-10 ng/L in oceanic or open marine areas, while elevated concentrations are reported in more closed marine areas and especially in coastal zones close to polluted estuaries. In fresh water, lake sediments concentrations 3-30 times higher than the background concentrations are reported in the surface layers of sediments. A significant decrease in such pollution has been observed within the recent 10 years. For marine sediments, enrichment factors of two are found in sediments from open areas and locally even 5-10 times.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1509176

  8. The effect of the BalloonSat project on middle and high school students' attitude toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhage, L. Paul

    This study measured the effect of completing a BalloonSat project on student attitude toward science. Seven categories of student attitudes toward science were measured using the Test of Science Relate Attitudes survey (TOSRA). The research anticipated that the BalloonSat project would have similar effects on student attitudes as found in robotics projects, like FIRST. The researcher also investigated whether gender moderated the effects of the BalloonSat project. This study enrolled 138 students from three states and one Canadian province. Students were free to select membership in either the treatment group or the control group. Student attitude toward science was measured prior to the start of the study and at its completion. Mean scores for the control and treatment group were then compared using an analysis of covariance. The effect of the BalloonSat project only affected one attitude toward science, Leisure Interest in Science. The study did not find gender was a factor in the effects of the BalloonSat project. This study is the first study of the BalloonSat project on grade 7--10 students and provides some evidence that a BalloonSat project can impact middle and high school attitude toward science.

  9. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shwarze, G.E. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Niedra, J.M. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States) Lewis Research Center Group; Frasca, A.J. [Wittenberg Univ., Springfield, OH (United States); Wieserman, W.R. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, Johnstown, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

  10. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Frasca, Albert J.; Wieserman, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) high capacity power project are presented: (1) neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

  11. Transnationalization of Television in West Europe. Working Paper No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepstrup, Preben

    Based primarily on data from public service broadcasting, this study had two major purposes: to develop a framework for understanding, conceptualizing, and measuring international television flows and the effects associated with these flows; and to establish a background of facts on international television flows in Western Europe. Secondary…

  12. Emerging Issues for Natech Disaster Risk Management in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Maria Cruz; Laura J. Steinberg

    2006-01-01

    There is growing concern about the potential effects of natural disaster?triggered technological (natech) disasters. The chlorine releases in the Czech Republic following the floods that swept across Europe in the summer of 2002 and the multiple hazardous materials releases triggered by the Turkey earthquake of August 1999 were examples which showed the potential danger of a natech disaster occurring near

  13. A Proposal for Multicultural Media Monitoring in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Teun A.

    1995-01-01

    Offers suggestions for multicultural media monitoring in Europe. Argues that besides practical suggestions, a new theoretical framework needs to elaborated about the forms and functions of news and other media messages so that practical recommendations, critique, and monitoring will have the desired effects. (SR)

  14. Marine pollution control in Europe : Regional approaches, 1972-80

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia Boehmer-Christiansen

    1984-01-01

    This article evaluates the effectiveness of four regional pollution agreements concluded during the 1970s: The Bonn Agreement, the Oslo Convention, the Paris Convention and the Helsinki Convention. The treaties are described and their implementation to 1980 outlined. The issue of EEC participation in environmental protection in Europe is analysed and problems of overlap with the treaties under discussion are pointed

  15. Assessing the sustainability of pension reforms in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron George Grech

    2010-01-01

    Spurred by the ageing transition, many governments have made wide-ranging reforms, dramatically changing Europe's pensions landscape. Nevertheless there remain concerns about future costs, while unease about adequacy is growing. This study develops a comprehensive framework to assess pension system sustainability. It captures the effects of reforms on the ability of systems to alleviate poverty and maintain living standards, while setting

  16. Democratization of Eastern Europe: Hungary and Poland in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallamore, Nancy A.

    Since the end of the Cold War, those teaching about developing democracies in Central and Eastern Europe have taken on new responsibilities: dispelling cultural attitudes formed and taught during the Cold War, helping students to understand the concept of democracy, and analyzing the effects of these events on the world. This high school lesson…

  17. The Effectiveness of Modified Vertical Dome Division Technique in Reducing Nasal Tip Projection in Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Gandomi, Behrooz; Arzaghi, Mohammad Hossein; Rafatbakhsh, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Background: The technique of vertical dome division or tip defining, involves incising the lateral crura and vestibular skin at or lateral to the dome or tip defining point. The incision divides the lower lateral cartilage into a lateral segment and a medial segment, which are advanced anteriorly and sutured together to increase tip projection. The present study aimed at assessing a new vertical dome division, which is a modified version of vertical dome technique to decrease nasal tip projection, and increase or decrease nasal tip rotation and other tip deformities. Methods: The medical files of patients undergone rhinoplasty from 2003 to 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The files were selected from a computerized rhinoplasty database of patients, who had been operated using a modified vertical dome technique and followed-up for one year or more after the surgery. Results: A total of 3756 patients were operated. Complications related to the nasal tip such as bossae, bifidity, persistent tip projection or tip asymmetry was seen in 81 patients (2.1%). Revisions for tip-related problems were performed in 42 patients (1.1%). Conclusions: The findings suggest that the modified vertical dome technique is an effective method for nasal tip deprojection and narrowing via an open approach. The length of follow-up and the large sample size support effectiveness of the technique. PMID:23359623

  18. Using IT To Run IT Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornum, Lis

    European education projects in which exploitation of Information Technology has been a means as well as a goal are described. (1) The Council of Europe has begun a series of workshops, number 7 of which was on using information and communication technologies in modern language teaching and learning in Europe. Themes for further development…

  19. Proliferation in Europe: Sizing up the threat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Since the dawn of the atomic age, the world has lived with the ominous threat that unstable and even diabolical forces could steal fissile materials or technology and build a nuclear bomb. That possibility has always evoked a visceral though somewhat abstract fear in the mind of the public. However, recent developments have thrust those fears into glaring reality. Keeping track of plutonium and other fissile materials is a monumental job. By the end of 1992 spent oxide fuel with more than 17,000 tonnes of heavy metal had been shipped from European nuclear power plants to European reprocessing plants. Of this spent fuel, considerable amounts of plutonium had been recovered and shipped to fuel fabrication facilities in Belgium, France and Germany, where they had been manufactured into plutonium-bearing fuel [fast breeder fuel or MOX fuel for thermal recycling]. Thus, plutonium has been transported in various forms via road, rail, sea and even in Europe and overseas. This article examines proliferation in Europe and its effect so far on the nuclear industry.

  20. Modeling microsphere axial displacement in optical projection tomographic microscopy to analyze effects on filtered backprojection reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Ryan L.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2013-02-01

    A computationally efficient method of simulating illumination in Optical Projection Tomographic Microscopy (OPTM) is presented to analyze the effect of microsphere axial displacement on image reconstruction using the filtered backprojection. OPTM reconstructs three-dimensional images of single cells from two-dimensional projection images in a fashion similar to Computed Tomography (CT). Projection images are acquired from circumferential positions around the cell by scanning the objective focal plane through the cell, while the condenser focal plane remains stationary. Unlike CT, the cell rotates between the source and detector in a microcapillary where it is not necessarily positioned at the optical axis. As the cell rotates, its axial position changes relative to the condenser focal plane for every projection. These differences in illumination have an impact on the overall reconstruction that cannot be understood experimentally. The computational model presented in this work relies on an alternative method of calculating illumination using a matrix formalism with near-field Mie theory. This method provides the ability to calculate the response of a microsphere illuminated with plane waves propagating from different directions. The response from each plane wave is subsequently summed to determine the total response. The power of this method is provided by the ability to arbitrarily choose the microsphere position after calculating the plane wave response, meaning illumination for all axial displacements can be computed in approximately the same time as a single position. Projection images are computed for microspheres at intervals away from the optical axis to understand how the axial displacement degrades the reconstructed image.

  1. "Towards a Europe of Knowledge and Innovation", the EIROforum paper on science policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Brussels, April 20, 2005 - Today Europe's seven major intergovernmental research organisations, working together in the EIROforum partnership, presented their comprehensive paper on science policy, "Towards a Europe of Knowledge and Innovation", in the presence of the European Commissioner for Science and Research, Mr. Janez Potocnik and the Luxembourg Minister for Culture, Higher Education, Employment and Research, Mr. François Biltgen. Luxembourg currently holds the presidency of the European Union. ESO PR Photo 11/05 ESO PR Photo 11/05 EIROforum Paper on Science Policy Presentation [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 475 pix - 176k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 950 pix - 505k] [Full Res - JPEG: 2023 x 2402 pix - 2.1M] Five years ago, at the meeting of the European Council in Lisbon, the creation of a European Research Area (ERA) was proposed as a means to achieve the ambitious targets necessary to develop a leading, knowledge-based economy in Europe. The ERA intends to make a single market for European research, bringing together scientists from all member states. The EIROforum partners operate some of the largest research infrastructures in the world, possess unique and long-standing expertise in the organisation of pan-European research, bring expert knowledge to discussions about new large facilities in Europe, provide a model for the ERA, and offer their experience and active engagement in creating a true European Research Area. The EIROforum paper on science policy describes their collective vision on the future of European scientific research in order to support the Lisbon Process by working, alongside the Commission, for the implementation of the European Research Area. In combination with the individual success and expertise of each of the EIROforum partners, this provides a strong boost to European Research and thus to the Lisbon Goals of developing a knowledge-based economy. "As the borders of the European Union expand there is a fundamental role for the EIROforum partnership to work with the institutions of the European Union in the evolving environment", emphasizes Jean-Jacques Dordain, the Director General of ESA. ESA currently chairs EIROforum. The EIROforum partners, through their paper on science policy, support the creation of a climate in Europe in which competitive research is undertaken in an efficient, cost-effective and successful manner. The Paper presents many concrete ways in which EIROforum organisations can effectively participate in the consolidation of the ERA. One of the main challenges for society in the years to come is to build a sound recruitment base for jobs and careers in science and technology. Attracting more young people is vital for the future of European research, and the EIROforum paper on science policy offers a series of actions to stimulate the interest of young people in science. These include improving the visibility of European science in the media, creating a "Partnership for Science Education", continuing with their successful "Science on Stage" annual festival and participating in the European Contest for Young Scientists, organised by the European Commission. The EIROforum paper on science policy subscribes to the European Commission strategy to recruit and retain world-leading scientists in Europe. This strategy should be supported by a European Research Council (ERC) acting as an autonomous, science-driven agency endowed with sufficient funds to ensure European research is competitive at a global level. The international character of the seven EIROforum partners makes them ideal to function as scientific, technological and cultural bridges between Europe and other regions of the world. The EIROforum partners could also join European industry in technology platforms or large integrated projects that would enable the development of new scientific instrumentation, an area that needs European suppliers to secure and promote front-line research on our continent and generate important industrial spin-offs. EIROforum is a partnership created in 2002

  2. Effective field theory and projective construction for Z{sub k} parafermion fractional quantum Hall states

    SciTech Connect

    Barkeshli, Maissam; Wen Xiaogang [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The projective construction is a powerful approach to deriving the bulk and edge field theories of non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states and yields an understanding of non-Abelian FQH states in terms of the simpler integer quantum Hall states. Here we show how to apply the projective construction to the Z{sub k} parafermion (Laughlin/Moore-Read/Read-Rezayi) FQH states, which occur at filling fraction nu=k/(kM+2). This allows us to derive the bulk low-energy effective field theory for these topological phases, which is found to be a Chern-Simons theory at level 1 with a U(M)xSp(2k) gauge field. This approach also helps us understand the non-Abelian quasiholes in terms of holes of the integer quantum Hall states.

  3. Atmospheric Effects of Aviation: First Report of the Subsonic Assessment Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M. (Editor); Friedl, Randall R. (Editor); Wesoky, Howard L. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This document is the first report from the Office of Aeronautics Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program's Subsonic Assessment (SASS) Project. This effort, initiated in late 1993, has as its objective the assessment of the atmospheric effects of the current and predicted future aviation fleet. The two areas of impact are ozone (stratospheric and tropospheric) and radiative forcing. These are driven, respectively, by possible perturbations from aircraft emissions of NOX and soot and/or sulfur-containing particles. The report presents the major questions to which project assessments will be directed (Introduction) and the status of six programmatic elements: Emissions Scenarios, Exhaust Characterization, Near-Field Interactions, Kinetics and Laboratory Studies, Global Modeling, and Atmospheric Observations (field studies).

  4. The effect of applying orthogonal projection technique in short window segments to obtain fetal magnetocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Bhargavi; Wilson, James D; Govindan, Rathinaswamy B; Lowery, Curtis L; Preissl, Hubert; Eswaran, Hari

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive recordings of fetal heart and brain have been possible for almost a decade with the advancement in biomagnetic sensors using the SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) technology. Techniques such as orthogonal projection and ICA have been applied to attenuate interference from other biological sources such as maternal heart. Successful application of such techniques among other factors depend on the non-stationary characteristics of the signals. To minimize the effect of non-stationarity due to maternal and/or fetal movement in long duration datasets, we proposed to investigate the minimal time window that is needed to obtain averaging with good SNR to apply the orthogonal projection technique to attenuate maternal magnetocardiogram (MCG) and obtain fetal MCG. The quantifying measure is based on spectral power of signals from 151-channel SQUID array system. PMID:24109713

  5. Effective Design and Evaluation of Serious Games: The Case of the e-VITA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappa, Dimitra; Pannese, Lucia

    Learning and training are presently facing new challenges and a strong transformation. The use of electronic games for education (game-based learning) promotes an agile, immersive and stimulating form of learning that fosters learner engagement and motivation. Nonetheless, the design of effective and engaging educational games is a creative process that is unique to each situation. This paper discusses the inherent challenges of building intellectually appropriate and engaging games and presents the methodology adopted in the case of the e-VITA project that applies GBL to promote knowledge sharing and transfer for intergenerational learning. The paper analyses the e-VITAframework for SGs evaluation, which is central to the project's iterative development approach. Early findings stemming from the validation of the e-VITA prototype game are also presented.

  6. Effective use of environmental impact assessments (EIAs) for geothermal development projects

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.

    2000-05-28

    Both the developed and developing nations of the world would like to move toward a position of sustainable development while paying attention to the restoration of natural resources, improving the environment, and improving the quality of life. The impacts of geothermal development projects are generally positive. It is important, however, that the environmental issues associated with development be addressed in a systematic fashion. Drafted early in the project planning stage, a well-prepared Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can significantly add to the quality of the overall project. An EIA customarily ends with the decision to proceed with the project. The environmental analysis process could be more effective if regular monitoring, detailed in the EIA, continues during project implementation. Geothermal development EIAs should be analytic rather than encyclopedic, emphasizing the impacts most closely associated with energy sector development. Air quality, water resources and quality, geologic factors, and socioeconomic issues will invariably be the most important factors. The purpose of an EIA should not be to generate paperwork, but to enable superb response. The EIA should be intended to help public officials make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences and take proper actions. The EIA process has been defined in different ways throughout the world. In fact, it appears that no two countries have defined it in exactly the same way. Going hand in hand with the different approaches to the process is the wide variety of formats available. It is recommended that the world geothermal community work towards the adoption of a standard. The Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)(OLADE, 1993) prepared a guide that presents a comprehensive discussion of the environmental impacts and suggested mitigation alternatives associated with geothermal development projects. The OLADE guide is a good start for providing the geothermal community a standard EIA format. As decision makers may only read the Executive Summary of the EIA, this summary should be well written and present the significant impacts (in order of importance), clarifying which are unavoidable and which are irreversible; the measures which can be taken to mitigate them; the cumulative effects of impacts; and the requirements for monitoring and supervision. Quality plans and Public Participation plans should also be included as part of the environmental analysis process.

  7. Projections of atmospheric mercury levels and their effect on air quality in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, H.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Liang, X.-Z.; Tao, Z.; Olsen, S.; Artz, R.; Ren, X.; Cohen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of global climate change and emissions changes from 2000 to 2050 on atmospheric mercury levels in the United States are investigated by using the global climate-chemistry model, CAM-Chem, coupled with a mercury chemistry-physics mechanism (CAM-Chem/Hg). Three future pathways from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) are considered, with the A1FI, A1B and B1 scenarios representing the upper, middle and lower bounds of potential climate warming, respectively. The anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of mercury are projected from the energy use assumptions in the IPCC SRES report. Natural emissions from both land and ocean sources are projected by using dynamic schemes. TGM concentration increases are greater in the low latitudes than they are in the high latitudes, indicative of a larger meridional gradient than in the present day. In the A1FI scenario, TGM concentrations in 2050 are projected to increase by 2.1-4.0 ng m-3 for the eastern US and 1.4-3.0 ng m-3 for the western US. This spatial difference corresponds to potential increases in wet deposition of 10-14 ?g m-2 for the eastern US and 2-4 ?g m-2 for the western US. The increase in Hg(II) emissions tends to enhance wet deposition and hence increase the risk of higher mercury entering the hydrological cycle and ecosystem. In the B1 scenario, mercury concentrations in 2050 are similar to present level concentrations; this finding indicates that the domestic reduction in mercury emissions is essentially counteracted by the effects of climate warming and emissions increases in other regions. The sensitivity analyses show that changes in anthropogenic emissions contribute 32-53% of projected changes in mercury air concentration, while the independent contribution by climate change and its induced natural emissions change accounts for 47-68%.

  8. Bell beaker copper use in central Europe: a distinctive tradition? A re-evaluation of the composition of copper artefacts and its effects on the properties of the metal 

    E-print Network

    Merkl, Matthias Bernd

    2010-11-24

    This thesis is concerned with the manufacture of copper artefacts by the users of Bell Beaker pottery in the Eastern Bell Beaker group in central Europe, and addresses the question: did these metalworkers have distinct ...

  9. The Effect of a Community Project on Sense of Community among Social Work Students: An Exploratory Evaluative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Amnon; Moin, Victor

    2014-01-01

    This article evaluates the effect of a community project that was adopted by the students of a school of social work in Israel. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used. The pretest was administered during the planning stage of the project and the posttest a year later, during the implementation period. The findings show a significant…

  10. The Effects of Project-Based Learning Activities on Intrinsic Motivation and Skill Acquisition of Rural Middle School Math Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancy, Yuri G.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in a middle school math class and investigated the effects of project-based activities on the middle school math students' skill acquisition and intrinsic motivation. After math-related project activities were implemented and completed, an analysis of how the students were affected in the areas of math skills and…

  11. The Memory-Impairing Effects of Septal GABA Receptor Activation Involve GABAergic Septo-Hippocampal Projection Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Wheeler, Marina G.; Parent, Marise B.

    2007-01-01

    Septal infusions of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA)[subscript A] agonist muscimol impair memory, and the effect likely involves the hippocampus. GABA[subscript A] receptors are present on the perikarya of cholinergic and GABAergic septo-hippocampal (SH) projections. The current experiments determined whether GABAergic SH projections are…

  12. Integrated Methods for Pupils To Reinforce Occupational and Verbal Effectiveness (Project IMPROVE). Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guadalupe, Deana R.

    Integrated Methods for Pupils to Reinforce Occupational and Vocational Effectiveness (Project IMPROVE) was a federally funded project in its second year of operation in two Manhattan (New York) high schools in 1992-93. It served limited-English-proficient students, 186 Latino and 13 Asian-American, in grades 9-12. Students received instruction in…

  13. The Effects of Team Personality Awareness Exercises on Team Satisfaction and PerformanceThe Context of Marketing Course Projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew P. Lancellotti; Thomas Boyd

    2008-01-01

    Marketing courses heavily utilize team projects that can enhance student learning and make students more desirable to recruiters seeking greater teamwork skills and experience from students. Unfortunately team projects that provide opportunities to learn and improve such skills can also be great sources of frustration and dissatisfaction for instructors and students. This research investigates the effects of exercises designed to

  14. Projections of atmospheric mercury levels and their effect on air quality in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, H.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Liang, X.-Z.; Tao, Z.; Olsen, S.; Artz, R.; Ren, X.; Cohen, M.

    2013-08-01

    The individual and combined effects of global climate change and emissions changes from 2000 to 2050 on atmospheric mercury levels in the US are investigated by using the global climate-chemistry model, CAM-chem, coupled with a mercury chemistry-physics mechanism (CAM-Chem/Hg). Three future pathways from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) are considered, with the A1FI, A1B and B1 scenarios representing the upper, middle and lower bounds of potential climate warming, respectively. The anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of mercury are projected from the energy use assumptions in the IPCC SRES report. Natural emissions from both land and ocean sources are projected using dynamic schemes. The zonal mean surface total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the tropics and mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere are projected to increase by 0.5-1.2 ng m-3 in 2050. TGM concentration increases are greater in the low latitudes than they are in the high latitudes, indicative of a larger meridional gradient than in the present day. In the A1FI scenario, TGM concentrations in 2050 are projected to increase by 2.1-4.0 ng m-3 for the eastern US and 1.4-3.0 ng m-3 for the western US. This pattern corresponds to potential increases in wet deposition of 10-14 ?g m-2 for the eastern US and 2-4 ?g m-2 for the western US. The increase in Hg(II) emissions tends to enhance wet deposition and hence increase the risk of higher mercury entering the hydrological cycle and ecosystems. In the B1 scenario, mercury concentrations in 2050 are similar to present level concentrations; this indicates that the domestic reduction in mercury emissions is essentially counteracted by the effects of climate warming and emissions increases in other regions. The sensitivity analyses presented show that anthropogenic emissions changes contribute 32-53% of projected mercury air concentration changes, while the independent contribution by climate change accounts for 47-68%. In summary, global climate change could have a comparable effect on mercury pollution in the US to that caused by global emissions changes.

  15. Pronatalist policies in Eastern Europe and France.

    PubMed

    Girard, A

    1983-08-01

    Western European fertility rates dropped markedly during the 1930s, and several governments established pronatalist policies. The policies were shortlived as fertility began to rise again after World War 2 and government intervention no longer appeared warranted. In contrast the countries of Eastern Europe retained their relatively high birthrates until measures in the 1950s gave individuals, especially women, greater freedom of choice in childbearing. Divorce laws were liberalized following World War 2, and women's participation in the labor force became widespread. Most European governments, following the example of the Soviet Union, liberalized abortion laws as well, making safe, medical abortion available for social, economic, and medical reasons. Whether or not as a direct result of this legislation, the Eastern European nations experienced such a rapid decline in birthrates that governments, fearing further ramifications, decided to intervene. In 1966, for example, Romania decreed abortion to be illegal except for medical reasons or in the case of rape. Eastern European governments justified their actions by emphasizing their concern about longterm effects. They wanted to avoid the "aging" of their population and the risk of future decrease in total population size. The abortion restrictions were accompanied by widespread efforts to encourage contraception through education, information programs, and postnatal consultations. Incentives were also adopted, and there were adjustments in working conditions for women including longer maternity leave and the opportunity for young mothers to have extended leave. The government's goal is to encourage 2 child families with enough 3 or 4 child families to compensate for 1 child or childless households. Eastern Europe is not alone in its pronatalist policy. France has set similar policies into motion. If this is exceptional among Western countries, it is because French fertility declined about a century before other European countries. As a result France's population experienced a radical change in its age structure toward an older citizenry, and despite significant immigration, the population ceased to grow by the beginning of the 20th century. In 1920 the French government prohibited abortion and any promotion of contraception, but this act did not appear to have had a clearcut effect on fertility. In the mid 1940s a consciously pronatalist policy was put into effect. Laws regarding contraceptives were not liberalized until 1967 and abortion was not legalized until 1975. In Eastern Europe restrictive measures have assured a slight and momentary recovery, but it is unknown if they are sufficient to reverse the previous tendency of decline. PMID:12338982

  16. Life insurance securitisation in Europe: An overview on the effects of alternative capital resources and its relation to regulator and IFRS guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieter Walhof; André B. Dorsman; André Thibeault

    2005-01-01

    Recently Life Insurance Securitisation practices have been probed in dedicated areas to access the wider capital markets. These developments have shown a rising interest among leading insurers and reinsurers to start building experience with securitisation practices, either for risk transfer, raising additional capital or a combination of these. As these structures have proven to be cost effective and generally accepted

  17. Success in large high-technology projects: What really works?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, P.

    2014-08-01

    Despite a plethora of tools, technologies and management systems, successful execution of big science and engineering projects remains problematic. The sheer scale of globally funded projects such as the Large Hadron Collider and the Square Kilometre Array telescope means that lack of project success can impact both on national budgets, and collaborative reputations. In this paper, I explore data from contemporary literature alongside field research from several current high-technology projects in Europe and Australia, and reveal common `pressure points' that are shown to be key influencers of project control and success. I discuss the how mega-science projects sit between being merely complicated, and chaotic, and explain the importance of understanding multiple dimensions of project complexity. Project manager/leader traits are briefly discussed, including capability to govern and control such enterprises. Project structures are examined, including the challenge of collaborations. I show that early attention to building project resilience, curbing optimism, and risk alertness can help prepare large high-tech projects against threats, and why project managers need to understand aspects of `the silent power of time'. Mission assurance is advanced as a critical success function, alongside the deployment of task forces and new combinations of contingency plans. I argue for increased project control through industrial-style project reviews, and show how post-project reviews are an under-used, yet invaluable avenue of personal and organisational improvement. Lastly, I discuss the avoidance of project amnesia through effective capture of project knowledge, and transfer of lessons-learned to subsequent programs and projects.

  18. Enhancing the effectiveness of diabetes self-management education: the diabetes literacy project.

    PubMed

    Van den Broucke, S; Van der Zanden, G; Chang, P; Doyle, G; Levin, D; Pelikan, J; Schillinger, D; Schwarz, P; Sørensen, K; Yardley, L; Riemenschneider, H

    2014-12-01

    Patient empowerment through self-management education is central to improving the quality of diabetes care and preventing Type 2 Diabetes. Although national programs exist, there is no EU-wide strategy for diabetes self-management education, and patients with limited literacy face barriers to effective self-management. The Diabetes Literacy project, initiated with the support of the European Commission, aims to fill this gap. The project investigates the effectiveness of diabetes self-management education, targeting people with or at risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the 28 EU Member States, as part of a comprehensive EU-wide diabetes strategy. National diabetes strategies in the EU, US, Taiwan, and Israel are compared, and diabetes self-management programs inventorized. The costs of the diabetes care pathway are assessed on a per person basis at national level. A comparison is made of the (cost)-effectiveness of different methods for diabetes self-management support, and the moderating role of health literacy, organization of the health services, and implementation fidelity of education programs are considered. Web-based materials are developed and evaluated by randomized trials to evaluate if interactive internet delivery can enhance self-management support for people with lower levels of health literacy. The 3-year project started in December 2012. Several literature reviews have been produced and protocol development and research design are in the final stages. Primary and secondary data collection and analysis take place in 2014. The results will inform policy decisions on improving the prevention, treatment, and care for persons with diabetes across literacy levels. PMID:25337960

  19. Effects of baseline conditions on the simulated hydrologic response to projected climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koczot, Kathryn M.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in temperature and precipitation projected from five general circulation models, using one late-twentieth-century and three twenty-first-century emission scenarios, were downscaled to three different baseline conditions. Baseline conditions are periods of measured temperature and precipitation data selected to represent twentieth-century climate. The hydrologic effects of the climate projections are evaluated using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), which is a watershed hydrology simulation model. The Almanor Catchment in the North Fork of the Feather River basin, California, is used as a case study. Differences and similarities between PRMS simulations of hydrologic components (i.e., snowpack formation and melt, evapotranspiration, and streamflow) are examined, and results indicate that the selection of a specific time period used for baseline conditions has a substantial effect on some, but not all, hydrologic variables. This effect seems to be amplified in hydrologic variables, which accumulate over time, such as soil-moisture content. Results also indicate that uncertainty related to the selection of baseline conditions should be evaluated using a range of different baseline conditions. This is particularly important for studies in basins with highly variable climate, such as the Almanor Catchment.

  20. US and Europe close in on LHC deal

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, A.

    1996-04-05

    For U.S. high-energy physicists still reeling from the cancellation of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) in 1993 and their cash-strapped European colleagues a decision last week is cause for celebration. U.S. and European negotiators said they have the outlines of a deal in which the United States would pump about half a billion dollars into an accelerator that would have rivaled the SSC, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Europe`s particle physics laboratory near Geneva. If the proposed arrangement wins support from politicians on both sides of the Atlantic, it would allow CERN to speed up construction of the facility and give U.S. physicists a major role in the project.

  1. 75 FR 53701 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket...Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project...Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...support of FDA's Office of Orphan Products Development...and Grants, Food and Drug Administration,...

  2. The effect of compensating filter on image quality in lateral projection of thoraco lumbar radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, N. A. A.; Ali, M. H.; Nazri, N. A. Ahmad; Hamzah, N. J.; Awang, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this project was to study the effect of compensating filter on image quality in lateral projection of thoraco lumbar radiography. The specific objectives of this study were to verify the relationship between density, contrast and noise of lateral thoraco lumbar radiography using various thickness of compensating filter and to determine the appropriate filter thickness with the thoraco lumbar density. The study was performed by an X- ray unit exposed to the body phantom where different thicknesses of aluminium were used as compensating filter. The radiographs were processed by CR reader and being imported to KPACS software to analyze the pixel depth value, contrast and noise. Result shows different thickness of aluminium compensating filter improved the image quality of lateral projection thoraco lumbar radiography. The compensating filter of 8.2 mm was considered as the optimal filter to compensate the thoraco lumbar junction (T12-L1), 1 mm to compensate lumbar region and 5.9 mm to compensate thorax region. The addition of aluminium compensating filter is advantageous in terms of efficiency which saving radiograph film, workload of the radiographer and radiation dose to patient.

  3. Effects of long-term variability on projections of twenty-first century dynamic sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordbar, Mohammad H.; Martin, Thomas; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2015-04-01

    Sea-level rise is one of the most pressing aspects of anthropogenic global warming with far-reaching consequences for coastal societies. However, sea-level rise did and will strongly vary from coast to coast. Here we investigate the long-term internal variability effects on centennial projections of dynamic sea level (DSL), the local departure from the globally averaged sea level. A large ensemble of global warming integrations has been conducted with a climate model, where each realization was forced by identical CO2 increase but started from different atmospheric and oceanic initial conditions. In large parts of the mid- and high latitudes, the ensemble spread of the projected centennial DSL trends is of the same order of magnitude as the globally averaged steric sea-level rise, suggesting that internal variability cannot be ignored when assessing twenty-first-century DSL trends. The ensemble spread is considerably reduced in the mid- to high latitudes when only the atmospheric initial conditions differ while keeping the oceanic initial state identical; indicating that centennial DSL projections are strongly dependent on ocean initial conditions.

  4. Exploring the Effects of Vertical and Lateral Mechanisms in International Knowledge Transfer Projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Ciabuschi; Henrik Dellestrand; Philip Kappen

    2011-01-01

    • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Knowledge is critical for creating and sustaining competitive advantage and in today’s fast-moving international market firms\\u000a need to leverage knowledge globally. Therefore, one important question becomes what effect different transfer mechanisms have\\u000a on transfer success.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This study investigates 169 international knowledge transfer projects in multinational corporations focusing on the role of\\u000a hierarchy, heterarchy and IT in terms of

  5. Direct and indirect effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation on the bacterioplankton metabolism in high-mountain lakes from southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán, C.; Medina-Sánchez, J. M.; Herrera, G.; Villar-Argaiz, M.; Villafañe, V. E.; Helbling, E. W.; Carrillo, P.

    2014-05-01

    As a consequence of global change, modifications in the interaction among abiotic stressors on aquatic ecosystems have been predicted. Among other factors, UVR transparency, nutrient inputs and shallower epilimnetic layers could alter the trophic links in the microbial food web. Currently, there are some evidences of higher sensitiveness of aquatic microbial organisms to UVR in opaque lakes. Our aim was to assess the interactive direct and indirect effects of UVR (through the excretion of organic carbon - EOC - by algae), mixing regime and nutrient input on bacterial metabolism. We performed in situ short-term experiments under the following treatments: full sunlight (UVR + PAR, >280 nm) vs. UVR exclusion (PAR only, >400 nm); ambient vs. nutrient addition (phosphorus (P; 30 ?g PL-1) and nitrogen (N; up to final N : P molar ratio of 31)); and static vs. mixed regime. The experiments were conducted in three high-mountain lakes of Spain: Enol [LE], Las Yeguas [LY] and La Caldera [LC] which had contrasting UVR transparency characteristics (opaque (LE) vs. clear lakes (LY and LC)). Under ambient nutrient conditions and static regimes, UVR exerted a stimulatory effect on heterotrophic bacterial production (HBP) in the opaque lake but not in the clear ones. Under UVR, vertical mixing and nutrient addition HBP values were lower than under the static and ambient nutrient conditions, and the stimulatory effect that UVR exerted on HBP in the opaque lake disappeared. By contrast, vertical mixing and nutrient addition increased HBP values in the clear lakes, highlighting for a photoinhibitory effect of UVR on HBP. Mixed regime and nutrient addition resulted in negative effects of UVR on HBP more in the opaque than in the clear lakes. Moreover, in the opaque lake, bacterial respiration (BR) increased and EOC did not support the bacterial carbon demand (BCD). In contrast, bacterial metabolic costs did not increase in the clear lakes and the increased nutrient availability even led to higher HBP. Consequently, EOC satisfied BCD in the clear lakes, particularly in the clearest one [LC]. Our results suggest that the higher vulnerability of bacteria to the damaging effects of UVR may be particularly accentuated in the opaque lakes and further recognizes the relevance of light exposure history and biotic interactions on bacterioplankton metabolism when coping with fluctuating radiation and nutrient inputs.

  6. Newborn screening in southeastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Groselj, Urh; Tansek, Mojca Zerjav; Smon, Andraz; Angelkova, Natalija; Anton, Dana; Baric, Ivo; Djordjevic, Maja; Grimci, Lindita; Ivanova, Maria; Kadam, Adil; Kotori, Vjosa Mulliqi; Maksic, Hajrija; Marginean, Oana; Margineanu, Otilia; Milijanovic, Olivera; Moldovanu, Florentina; Muresan, Mariana; Murko, Simona; Nanu, Michaela; Lampret, Barbka Repic; Samardzic, Mira; Sarnavka, Vladimir; Savov, Aleksei; Stojiljkovic, Maja; Suzic, Biljana; Tincheva, Radka; Tahirovic, Husref; Toromanovic, Alma; Usurelu, Natalia; Battelino, Tadej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the current state of newborn screening (NBS) in the region of southeastern Europe, as an example of a developing region, focusing also on future plans. Responses were obtained from 11 countries. Phenylketonuria screening was not introduced in four of 11 countries, while congenital hypothyroidism screening was not introduced in three of them; extended NBS programs were non-existent. The primary challenges were identified. Implementation of NBS to developing countries worldwide should be considered as a priority. PMID:25174966

  7. A Single Currency for Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ng, Thiam Hee.

    This week's In the News examines the introduction of a single currency for Europe. The nine resources above will provide details of the new European currency, the Euro, and the issues involved in the creation of the single currency. On March 25, 1998, the European Commission recommended that eleven countries (Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal and Finland) have met the conditions necessary for adopting the single currency, the Euro, on January 1, 1999. The introduction of the single currency is expected to bring the European nations closer together and to increase trade.

  8. Interactive effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation: in situ photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton from high mountain lakes in Southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbling, E. W.; Carrillo, P.; Medina-Sánchez, J. M.; Durán, C.; Herrera, G.; Villar-Argaiz, M.; Villafañe, V. E.

    2013-02-01

    Global change, together with human activities, has resulted in increasing amounts of organic material (including nutrients) that water bodies receive. This input further attenuates the penetration of solar radiation, leading to the view that opaque lakes are more "protected" from solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than clear ones. Vertical mixing, however, complicates this view as cells are exposed to fluctuating radiation regimes, for which the effects have, in general, been neglected. Furthermore, the combined impacts of mixing, together with those of UVR and nutrient inputs are virtually unknown. In this study, we carried out complex in situ experiments in three high mountain lakes of Spain (Lake Enol in the National Park Picos de Europa, Asturias, and lakes Las Yeguas and La Caldera in the National Park Sierra Nevada, Granada), used as model ecosystems to evaluate the joint impact of these climate change variables. The main goal of this study was to address the question of how short-term pulses of nutrient inputs, together with vertical mixing and increased UVR fluxes modify the photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton. The experimentation consisted in all possible combinations of the following treatments: (a) solar radiation: UVR + PAR (280-700 nm) versus PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) alone (400-700 nm); (b) nutrient addition (phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)): ambient versus addition (P to reach to a final concentration of 30 ?g P L-1, and N to reach N:P molar ratio of 31); and (c) mixing: mixed (one rotation from surface to 3 m depth (speed of 1 m 4 min-1, total of 10 cycles)) versus static. Our findings suggest that under ambient nutrient conditions there is a synergistic effect between vertical mixing and UVR, increasing phytoplankton photosynthetic inhibition and excretion of organic carbon (EOC) from opaque lakes as compared to algae that received constant mean irradiance within the epilimnion. The opposite occurs in clear lakes where antagonistic effects were determined, with mixing partially counteracting the negative effects of UVR. Nutrient input, mimicking atmospheric pulses from Saharan dust, reversed this effect and clear lakes became more inhibited during mixing, while opaque lakes benefited from the fluctuating irradiance regime. These climate change related scenarios of nutrient input and increased mixing, would not only affect photosynthesis and production in lakes, but might also further influence the microbial loop and trophic interactions via enhanced EOC under fluctuating UVR exposure.

  9. 77 FR 71013 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Spring Mountain Raceway Expansion Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ...FF08ENVD00-FXES11130800000-134] Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Spring...measures to avoid, minimize, and mitigate effects of the proposed project's covered activities...as described in the applicant's low- effect habitat conservation plan (HCP)....

  10. A conceptual framework for the evaluation of cost-effectiveness of projects to reduce GHG emissions and sequester carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, J.; Norgaard, R.; Makundi, W.

    1993-07-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for evaluating the cost of projects to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs). The evaluation of cost-effectiveness should account for both the timing of carbon emissions and the damage caused by the atmospheric stock of carbon. We develop a conceptual basis to estimate the cost-effectiveness of projects in terms of the cost of reducing atmospheric carbon (CRAC) and other GHGs. CRAC accounts for the economic discount rate, alternative functional forms of the shadow price, the residence period of carbon in the atmosphere, and the multiple monetary benefits of projects. The last item is of particular importance to the developing countries.

  11. PDBe: Protein Data Bank in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gutmanas, Aleksandras; Alhroub, Younes; Battle, Gary M.; Berrisford, John M.; Bochet, Estelle; Conroy, Matthew J.; Dana, Jose M.; Fernandez Montecelo, Manuel A.; van Ginkel, Glen; Gore, Swanand P.; Haslam, Pauline; Hatherley, Rowan; Hendrickx, Pieter M.S.; Hirshberg, Miriam; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Mir, Saqib; Mukhopadhyay, Abhik; Oldfield, Thomas J.; Patwardhan, Ardan; Rinaldi, Luana; Sahni, Gaurav; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Sen, Sanchayita; Slowley, Robert A.; Velankar, Sameer; Wainwright, Michael E.; Kleywegt, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank in Europe (pdbe.org) is a founding member of the Worldwide PDB consortium (wwPDB; wwpdb.org) and as such is actively engaged in the deposition, annotation, remediation and dissemination of macromolecular structure data through the single global archive for such data, the PDB. Similarly, PDBe is a member of the EMDataBank organisation (emdatabank.org), which manages the EMDB archive for electron microscopy data. PDBe also develops tools that help the biomedical science community to make effective use of the data in the PDB and EMDB for their research. Here we describe new or improved services, including updated SIFTS mappings to other bioinformatics resources, a new browser for the PDB archive based on Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, updates to the analysis of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-derived structures, redesigned search and browse interfaces, and new or updated visualisation and validation tools for EMDB entries. PMID:24288376

  12. Gulf Stream Heat Budget and Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Warren Tomkiewicz

    Students are presented with a scenario (problem) to recommend whether the Gulf Stream is responsible for keeping Europe warm and the potential effects if polar ice were to continue melting. The students work in small groups and discuss the problem and identify the issue. They then list everything they know about the issue and develop a problem statement. They then ask what they need to know to solve the problem and search the Internet data sites, etc., and analyze the information gathered. They complete the activity by preparing an individual report and PowerPoint presentation where they make a recommendation or other appropriate resolution of the problem based on the data, visualizations, and background information.

  13. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Europe.

    PubMed

    Caporale, V; Alessandrini, B; Dalla Villa, P; Del Papa, S

    2005-08-01

    Effective implementation and enforcement of legislation is essential to ensure animal welfare. In the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) European Region the well-established body of national and European Union laws in existence is growing continuously. The growth is due to various factors, such as new technology in animal farming and experimentation, exploitation of wildlife, new understanding of animal needs, and increasing public awareness and concern. The latter, in particular, determines the need for new animal welfare legislation to regulate and discipline the 'use' of animals for different purposes, such as food production, companionship, work and leisure. This paper intends to provide an overview of the more relevant activities carried out by the Council of Europe and the European Union in the field of animal welfare. The authors identify eLearning as a tool to harmonise the interpretation and the implementation of animal welfare legislation. PMID:16358508

  14. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunovi?, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th.; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA. PMID:25005236

  15. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunovi?, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-15

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA. PMID:25005236

  16. Integrating ecophysiology and forest landscape models to improve projections of drought effects under climate change.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Eric J; De Bruijn, Arjan M G; Pangle, Robert E; Limousin, Jean-Marc; McDowell, Nate G; Pockman, William T; Sturtevant, Brian R; Muss, Jordan D; Kubiske, Mark E

    2015-02-01

    Fundamental drivers of ecosystem processes such as temperature and precipitation are rapidly changing and creating novel environmental conditions. Forest landscape models (FLM) are used by managers and policy-makers to make projections of future ecosystem dynamics under alternative management or policy options, but the links between the fundamental drivers and projected responses are weak and indirect, limiting their reliability for projecting the impacts of climate change. We developed and tested a relatively mechanistic method to simulate the effects of changing precipitation on species competition within the LANDIS-II FLM. Using data from a field precipitation manipulation experiment in a piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) ecosystem in New Mexico (USA), we calibrated our model to measurements from ambient control plots and tested predictions under the drought and irrigation treatments against empirical measurements. The model successfully predicted behavior of physiological variables under the treatments. Discrepancies between model output and empirical data occurred when the monthly time step of the model failed to capture the short-term dynamics of the ecosystem as recorded by instantaneous field measurements. We applied the model to heuristically assess the effect of alternative climate scenarios on the piñon-juniper ecosystem and found that warmer and drier climate reduced productivity and increased the risk of drought-induced mortality, especially for piñon. We concluded that the direct links between fundamental drivers and growth rates in our model hold great promise to improve our understanding of ecosystem processes under climate change and improve management decisions because of its greater reliance on first principles. PMID:25155807

  17. Europe experienced a "warming hole" in autumn in the second half of the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahynova, M.; Pokorna, L.; Huth, R.

    2012-12-01

    Recent global warming has not been ubiquitous - there might be seasons, regions, and time periods with clearly discernible zero or downward air temperature trends. Regions that are not warming or are even cooling - also known as "warming holes" - have been previously detected mainly in autumn in the second half of the 20th century in large parts of North America as well as in central and eastern Europe. In this study we use daily maximum and minimum temperature (TX and TN, respectively) and daily temperature range (DTR) at 136 stations from the ECA&D database in Europe and the Mediterranean in the period 1961-2000 to precisely locate their seasonal and sub-seasonal trends in space and within the course of the year, and to assess the effect of circulation changes on these observed trends. Linear trends are calculated for moving "seasons" of differing lengths (10, 20, 30, 60, and 90 days), each shifted by one day. Thus we obtain 365 values of "moving trends" for each station and each variant of season length. The day-to-day variability of these trends is greatest for short "seasons" of 10 and 20 days. Trends of the 90-day seasons are the most stable throughout the year and also bear the lowest trend magnitudes. Cluster analysis of the annual course of "moving trends" reveals relatively well-defined regions with similar trend behavior. Over most of Europe, the observed warming is greatest in winter, and the highest trend magnitudes are reached by TN in eastern Europe. Two regions stand out of this general picture: in Iceland and the Mediterranean, winter shows almost no trends, while in summer we see a pronounced warming. Significant autumn cooling centered on mid-November was found in eastern and southeastern Europe for both TX and TN; in many other regions trends are close to zero in the same period. Other clearly non-warming (or even cooling) periods occur in western and central Europe in April and June. Trends of DTR are largely inconclusive and no general picture can be drawn. Changes in atmospheric circulation may be one of the factors that influence the observed temperature trends. We use one daily circulation type classification from the European project "COST733", calculated over 11 pre-defined spatial domains, and a simple decomposition method to assess the effect of circulation changes on "moving trends" of temperature and DTR. Our results vary greatly between stations and times of the year; all in all, circulation changes are only responsible for a minor part of the observed trends. At most stations, the only substantial circulation effect is found in winter. Our results suggest that using different time scales apart from the conventional three-month seasons is highly desirable for a proper location of trends within the course of the year.

  18. Birds and people in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kevin J.; Evans, Karl L.

    2004-01-01

    At a regional scale, species richness and human population size are frequently positively correlated across space. Such patterns may arise because both species richness and human density increase with energy availability. If the species-energy relationship is generated through the 'more individuals' hypothesis, then the prediction is that areas with high human densities will also support greater numbers of individuals from other taxa. We use the unique data available for the breeding birds in Europe to test this prediction. Overall regional densities of bird species are higher in areas with more people; species of conservation concern exhibit the same pattern. Avian density also increases faster with human density than does avian biomass, indicating that areas with a higher human density have a higher proportion of small-bodied individuals. The analyses also underline the low numbers of breeding birds in Europe relative to humans, with a median of just three individual birds per person, and 4 g of bird for every kilogram of human. PMID:15306313

  19. DSpace@Cambridge Implementation Project website

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Peter; Massiou, Anna

    2003-01-01

    , notably those of the JISC DNER such as the Digital Preservation Coalition, FAIR (Focus on Access to Institutional Resources) Programme, SPARC Europe, and the AHDS (Arts and Humanities Data Service). Consultation will ensure that the DSpace project... , notably those of the JISC DNER such as the Digital Preservation Coalition, FAIR (Focus on Access to Institutional Resources) Programme, SPARC Europe, and the AHDS (Arts and Humanities Data Service). Consultation will ensure that the DSpace project...

  20. Aurora europe's space exploration programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ongaro, F.; Swings, J. P.; Condessa, R.

    2003-04-01

    What will happen after the ISS in terms of space exploration, specifically to the human presence beyond Earth? What will be the role of Europe in the future international venture to explore space? What are the most immediate actions to be undertaken in Europe in order to best profit from the efforts made through the participation in the ISS and to position Europe's capabilities according to its interests? As approved by the Ministers at the Edinburgh Council in November 2001, the European Space Exploration Programme - Aurora - is ESA's programme in charge of defining and implementing the long term plan for human and robotic exploration of the Solar system. The Aurora programme started in 2002 and extends until the end goal of Aurora: the first human mission to Mars, expected in the 2025-2030 time-frame. The approach of Aurora is to implement a robust development of technologies and robotic missions, in parallel to the utilization phase of the ISS, to prepare for a continuous and sustainable future of human space exploration (which shall include the Moon, Mars and the asteroids as targets), in which Europe will be a valuable partner. Two classes of missions are foreseen in the programme's strategy: Flagships, defined as major missions driving to soft landing, in-situ analysis, sample return from other planetary bodies and eventually human missions; and Arrows, defined as cost-capped, short development time missions to demonstrate new technologies or mission approaches, or to exploit opportunities for payloads on European or international missions. So far the participating national delegations have approved two Flagships (ExoMars and Mars Sample Return) and two Arrows (Earth Re-entry and Mars Aerocapture) for phase A industrial studies. Although the last call for ideas of Aurora resulted in the definition of two Flagship missions targeted to Mars, the next one might be aimed to the Moon. At this stage the role of the Moon, on the path of Mars exploration is not totally clear, however in the Aurora long term plan a lander mission is being considered for the first half of the next decade and a human mission for later on. An example of what an Arrow mission to the Moon could be is SMART-1, in this class a cooperative opportunity for lunar exploration could be envisaged. ExoMars is proposed to fly in 2009 and is an exobiology driven mission. It includes a rover carrying a payload called Pasteur, which integrates a set of instruments with the primary objective of identifying biosignatures. A secondary objective is to assess the hazards (e.g. radiation) to human exploration. Mars Sample Return, aimed for launch in 2011, is one of the most important milestones for Mars exploration as even a small amount of sample brought back to Earth will dramatically increase our knowledge about the red planet. Besides, this would be the first mission to incorporate all the basic operations of a human mission. Earth Re-entry will validate technologies required for future missions, namely the Mars Sample Return. Mars Aerocapture will test an orbit insertion technique, which could significantly reduce the cost of future missions. The assessment of priorities and most urgent technology fields to be developed by Europe, within an international framework, are determined taking into consideration the technologies that will enable the most immediate Aurora missions; as well those which are fundamental for the European interests and need an early development start given their complexity or originality. Fields which will be of relevance to planetary exploration include: Automated guidance & navigation control; Micro-Avionics; Data Processing & Communication Entry, Descent and Landing; Crew and Life Support Systems; In Situ Resource Utilisation; Power generation, conditioning and storage; Propulsion (In-space transportation, Ascent/descent vehicles); Robotics and mechanisms; Structure & thermal control; Instrument Technologies.

  1. Quantification of mitigation potentials of agricultural practices for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesschen, J. P.; Kuikman, P. J.; Smith, P.; Schils, R. L.; Oudendag, D.

    2009-04-01

    Agriculture has a significant impact on climate, with a commonly estimated contribution of 9% of total greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Besides, agriculture is the main source of nitrous oxide and methane emissions to the atmosphere. On the other hand, there is a large potential for climate change mitigation in agriculture through carbon sequestration into soils. Within the framework of the PICCMAT project (Policy Incentives for Climate Change Mitigation Agricultural Techniques) we quantified the mitigation potential of 11 agricultural practices at regional level for the EU. The focus was on smaller-scale measures towards optimised land management that can be widely applied at individual farm level and which can have a positive climate change mitigating effect and be beneficial to soil conditions, e.g. cover crops and reduced tillage. The mitigation potentials were assessed with the MITERRA-Europe model, a deterministic and static N cycling model which calculates N emissions on an annual basis, using N emission factors and N leaching fractions. For the PICCMAT project the model was extended with a soil carbon module, to assess changes in soil organic carbon according to the IPCC Tier1 approach. The amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) is calculated by multiplying the soil reference carbon content, which depends on soil type and climate, by coefficients for land use, land management and input of organic matter. By adapting these coefficients changes in SOC as result of the measures were simulated. We considered both the extent of agricultural area across Europe on which a measure could realistically be applied (potential level of implementation), and the current level of implementation that has already been achieved . The results showed that zero tillage has the highest mitigation potential, followed by adding legumes, reduced tillage, residue management, rotation species, and catch crops. Optimising fertiliser application and fertiliser type are the measures with the largest positive effect on N2O emissions. Overall the results showed that the additional mitigation potential of each individual measure is limited, but taken together they have a significant mitigation potential of about 10 percent of the current GHG emissions from agriculture. Besides, most of the measures with high mitigation potentials are associated with no or low implementation costs. Although CH4 and N2O are the most important GHG emitted from agricultural activities, it is more difficult to mitigate these emissions than increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and thus compensate them through carbon sequestration. However, the effect on carbon is only temporary and sequestered SOC stocks can easily be lost again, while for N2O the emission reduction is permanent and non-saturating. Another important implication that follows from our results is the large regional difference with regard to mitigation potential and feasibility of implementation. Policy measures to support agricultural mitigation should therefore be adjusted to regional conditions.

  2. Adverse drug effects in hospitalized elderly: Data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project

    PubMed Central

    Shamliyan, Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to analyze trends in hospital admissions due to adverse drug effects between the years 2000 to 2007 among the elderly using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. We identified the discharges with the principal and all listed diagnoses related to adverse drug effects and associated hospital charges using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9) codes. Between 2000 and 2007, 321,057 patients over 65 years were discharged with a principal diagnosis related to an adverse drug effect. Hospital charges were $5,329,276,300 or $666,159,537 annual cost. The number of discharges and total hospital charges did not change over the examined years, while mean charge per discharge increased on average by $1064 ± 384 per year. Total hospital charges for drug-induced gastritis with hemorrhage increased the most by $11,206,555 per year among those 66–84 years old and by $8,646,456 per year among those older than 85 years. During 2007, 791,931 elderly had adverse treatment effects among all listed diagnoses with hospital charges of $937,795,690. Effective drug management interventions are needed to improve safety of treatments in the elderly. PMID:22291486

  3. Effects of requested, forced and denied shift schedule change on work ability and health of nurses in Europe -Results from the European NEXT-Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous cross-sectional findings from the European Nurses Early Exit Study (NEXT) show that nurses who were dissatisfied with their work schedule tended to consider leaving the nursing profession. Mediating factors in this decision process may be caused by self-perceived poor work ability and/or health. The aim of this paper is to investigate changes in work ability and general health among nurses in relation to requested, forced and denied change of shift schedule. Methods Longitudinal data from the NEXT Study was used. In total 11,102 nurses from Belgium, Germany, Finland, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, France and Italy completed both the ‘basic questionnaire’ (t1) and the ’12 month follow-up questionnaire’ (t2). To examine the time-effect (repeated measures) and the group-effect of five defined groups of nurses on the Work Ability Index (WAI) and general health (SF36), an adjusted 2-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed. Results The nurses who wanted to, but could not change their shifts during the 12 month follow-up had the lowest initial and follow-up scores for WAI (t1: 37.6, t2: 36.6, p <0.001), lowest general health (t1: 63.9, t2: 59.2, p <0.001) and showed the highest decrease in both outcomes. Shift pattern change in line with the nurses’ wishes was associated with improved work ability and to a lesser comparatively low extent with increased decline in health scores. A forced change of shift against the nurses’ will was significantly associated with a deteriorating work ability and health. Conclusions The findings would suggest that nurses’ desire to change their shift patterns may be an indicator for perceived low work ability and/or low health. The results also indicate that fulfilling nurses’ wishes with respect to their shift work pattern may improve their personal resources such as work ability and – to somewhat lesser extent – health. Disregarding nurses’ preferences, however, bears the risk for further resource deterioration. The findings imply that shift schedule organization may constitute a valuable preventive tool to promote nurses’ work ability and – to lesser extent – their perceived health, not least in aging nursing work forces. PMID:24308567

  4. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION POLICY APPROACHES IN NORTH AMERICA, EUROPE, AND AUSTRALIA. (R825761)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Soil and water conservation policies and programs in developed countries in North America, Europe, and Australia are examined in the context of their effectiveness for addressing environmental degradation associated with technology-intensive agricultural syste...

  5. The effectiveness of resource levelling tools for Resource Constraint Project Scheduling Problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kastor; K. Sirakoulis

    2009-01-01

    The PERT\\/CPM network techniques are based on the assumption that all needed resources will be available. The scarcity of resources is a usual reason for project delays. For the solution of the Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (RCPSP) other methods have been applied. The objective of these methods consists in minimizing the project’s duration by considering both the precedence and

  6. A single-nucleotide polymorphism-based approach for rapid and cost-effective genetic wolf monitoring in Europe based on noninvasively collected samples.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Robert H S; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Cocchiararo, Berardino; Harms, Verena; Bayerl, Helmut; Kühn, Ralph; Förster, Daniel W; Fickel, Jörns; Roos, Christian; Nowak, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Noninvasive genetics based on microsatellite markers has become an indispensable tool for wildlife monitoring and conservation research over the past decades. However, microsatellites have several drawbacks, such as the lack of standardisation between laboratories and high error rates. Here, we propose an alternative single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based marker system for noninvasively collected samples, which promises to solve these problems. Using nanofluidic SNP genotyping technology (Fluidigm), we genotyped 158 wolf samples (tissue, scats, hairs, urine) for 192 SNP loci selected from the Affymetrix v2 Canine SNP Array. We carefully selected an optimised final set of 96 SNPs (and discarded the worse half), based on assay performance and reliability. We found rates of missing data in this SNP set of <10% and genotyping error of ~1%, which improves genotyping accuracy by nearly an order of magnitude when compared to published data for other marker types. Our approach provides a tool for rapid and cost-effective genotyping of noninvasively collected wildlife samples. The ability to standardise genotype scoring combined with low error rates promises to constitute a major technological advancement and could establish SNPs as a standard marker for future wildlife monitoring. PMID:25042673

  7. Multicultural healthcare: a transatlantic project.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Liisa; Jokinen, Pirkko

    2007-01-01

    Healthcare is increasingly multicultural, posing a challenge for nurse educators in both Europe and the United States. Nursing education faculties are responding to the challenge of internationalization, for instance, by participating in international student exchange projects to foster students' intercultural competence. The authors describe an educational model constructed during a transatlantic project between European and American universities. The benefits of the project from the Finnish partner's perspective are also reported. PMID:17496825

  8. Lifetime cost effectiveness of a through-school nutrition and physical programme: Project Energize.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine; Obolonkin, Victor; McLennan, Stephanie; Graham, David; Harris, James D; Mernagh, Paul; Weston, Adéle R

    2014-01-01

    Project Energize, a multicomponent through-school physical activity and nutrition programme, is delivered to all primary school children in the Waikato region. The programme aim is to improve the overall health and reduce the rate of weight gain of all Waikato primary school children. An existing economic model was used to extrapolate the programme effects, initial costs, lifetime health treatment cost structures, quality-adjusted-life-years gained and increased life expectancy to the general and M?ori child population of New Zealand. In March 2011, a sample of 2474 younger (7.58 ± 0.57 years, mean ± SD) and 2330 older (10.30 ± 0.51 years) children (36% M?ori) attending Energize schools had body mass index measured and compared using mixed effect modelling with unEnergized comparison children from 2004 and 2006 from the same region. In 2011 the median body mass index reduction compared with the comparison younger children was -0.504 (90% CI -0.435 to -0.663) kg/m(2) and in the older children -0.551 (-0.456 to -0.789) kg/m(2). In 2010 there were 42,067 children attending Energize schools and in the same year NZ$1,891,175 was spent to deliver the programme; a cost of $44.96/child/year. Compared to the comparison children the increment in cost/quality-adjusted-life-year gained was $30,438 for the younger and $24,690 for the older children, and lower for M?ori (younger $28,241, older $22,151) and for the middle socioeconomic status schools ($23,211, $17,891). Project Energize would improve quality and length of life and when compared with other obesity prevention programmes previously assessed with this model, it would be relatively cost-effective from the health treatment payer's perspective. PMID:24743006

  9. Natural gas vehicles: An option for Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hella Engerer; Manfred Horn

    2010-01-01

    In Europe natural gas vehicles play a minor role. A decisive reason for this is the dependence of most European countries from gas imports. Except for Italy, there is no tradition to use natural gas as fuel. In addition, there is a lack of infrastructure (e.g. fuelling stations). In contrast to Europe, in Latin American and Asian countries natural gas

  10. Alpines, trees, and refugia in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine J. Willis

    2008-01-01

    Refugia were critically important for species survival in both glacial and interglacial stages of the Quaternary. The classical view of glacial stages is that alpine and arctic plants were widespread in the lowlands of central Europe and around the margins of the continental and alpine ice-sheets, whereas trees were restricted to localised refugial areas in southern Europe and the Mediterranean

  11. Inventorying emissions from nature in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Simpson; Wilfried Winiwarter; Gunnar Börjesson; Steve Cinderby; Antonio Ferreiro; Alex Guenther; C. Nicholas Hewitt; Robert Janson; M. Aslam K. Khalil; Susan Owen; Tom E. Pierce; Hans Puxbaum; Martha Shearer; Ute Skiba; Rainer Steinbrecher; Leonor Tarrasón; Mats G. Öquist

    1999-01-01

    As part of the work of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations Task Force on Emission Inventories, a new set of guidelines has been developed for assessing the emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, NH3, CH4, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) from biogenic and other natural sources in Europe. This paper gives the background to these guidelines,

  12. Vocational and Adult Education in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wieringen, Fons, Ed.; Attwell, Graham, Ed.

    This book contains 25 papers on vocational and adult education in Europe and the United States. The following papers are included: "Vocational and Adult Education in Europe: Introduction to the Volume" (Fons van Wieringen, Graham Attwell); "Introduction to Section 1: Markets and Institutions in Vocational and Adult Education" (Fons van Wieringen);…

  13. Putting culture in the curriculum: a European project.

    PubMed

    Sairanen, Raija; Richardson, Eileen; Kelly, Hélène; Bergknut, Eva; Koskinen, Liisa; Lundberg, Pranee; Muir, Nita; Olt, Helen; De Vlieger, Lily

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and the method of designing a framework for a European curriculum to promote intercultural competence in health care students. The background relating to the migration of people into and across Europe is cited as the factor driving the need for such a project. The project group emerged from the European organisation known as COHEHRE (Consortium of Higher Education Institutes in Health and Rehabilitation in Europe). Composed of a group of nurse educators from 5 European countries it charts the process which led them to create a curriculum framework. The completed work is available in the form of a CD-ROM. The paper describes the steps taken to reach the project outcomes over 4 years. The methods of dissemination of the project outcomes are included. The discussion considers the journey of the group towards the outcomes of the project and identifies the need to discover how effective the framework is in achieving the aims of the group. In conclusion it articulates the hope that this work will improve the care which is shown to all recipients of health care whatever their cultural background. PMID:22981887

  14. The evolution of the Danube gateway between Central and Eastern Paratethys (SE Europe): Insight from numerical modelling of the causes and effects of connectivity between basins and its expression in the sedimentary record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leever, K. A.; Matenco, L.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Cloetingh, S. A. P. L.

    2011-04-01

    The Pannonian and Dacic Basins in SE Europe are presently connected by the Danube River across the South Carpathians, to which they are in a back-arc and foreland position respectively. Part of the Paratethys realm during the Neogene, open water communication between the basins was interrupted by the Late Miocene uplift of the Carpathians. Different mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of the Danube gateway: capture of the upstream lake or an upstream river or incision of an antecedent river. Estimates on its age range from Late Miocene to Quaternary. A related issue is the effect of the large Mediterranean sea level fall related to the Messinian Salinity Crisis on the Paratethys subbasins, specifically the "isolated" Pannonian Basin. In a synthetic numerical modelling study, using a pseudo-3D code integrating tectonics, surface processes and isostasy, we addressed the causes and effects of changes in connectivity between two large sedimentary basins separated by an elevated barrier. Specifically, we aimed to find the expression of connectivity events in the sedimentary record in general and the consequences for the evolution of the Pannonian-Dacic area in particular. We studied a range of parameters including the geometry and uplift rate of the barrier, downstream sea level change and lithosphere rigidity. We found that changes in connectivity are expressed in the sedimentary record through their effect on base level in the upstream basin and supply in the downstream basin. The most important factors controlling the response are the elevation difference between the basins and the upstream accommodation space at the time of reconnection. The most pronounced effect of reconnection through lake capture is predicted for a large elevation difference and limited upstream accommodation space. Downstream increase in sediment supply is dependent on the latter rather than the reconnection event itself. Of the parameters we tested, the rigidity of the lithosphere was found to be of major importance by its control on sediment loaded subsidence and generation of accommodation space. A downstream sea level change is unlikely to induce capture, but may affect the upstream lake level by enhancing incision in a pre-existing gateway. In the Pannonian-Dacic region, the mechanically weak, continuously subsiding Pannonian lithosphere allowed accommodation of significant volumes of continental sedimentation and as a consequence, transfer of excess sediment to the downstream Dacic Basin was only gradual. The Messinian sea level fall in the Dacic Basin could have been recorded in the Pannonian Basin only if a connection between the basins already existed. More detailed modelling of river incision taking into account lateral differences in erodibility in the South Carpathians will be required to give better time constraints on the formation of the Danube Gateway.

  15. New power for "Old Europe".

    PubMed

    Schapiro, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The European Union's growing political clout is leading to new paradigms of environmental and health regulation. The E.U. is putting teeth behind new guidelines governing the toxicity of chemicals in consumer products, cosmetics, and automobiles that are forcing American companies to reconsider longstanding production practices. While U.S. government oversight over environmental and health concerns is being weakened, the E.U.'s strengthened governance over these and other arenas is rapidly, through the leverage of international trade, setting the stage for a new global standard. Europe's new standards present a historic choice to U.S. manufacturers: either conform to the E.U.'s preemptive screening for toxicity, or risk sacrificing the 450-million strong European market. The author explores the American response, and how the United States is slipping to the lower rungs of a double standard for protecting the health of citizens. PMID:16119575

  16. An overview of nursing in Europe: a SWOT analysis.

    PubMed

    Manzano-García, Guadalupe; Ayala-Calvo, Juan-Carlos

    2014-12-01

    This article sets out a global analysis of the weaknesses, threats, strengths and opportunities that define the current situation of nursing in Europe. The nursing profession in Europe is suffering from a crisis of self-efficacy with the syndrome of burnout being one of its consequences. Other weaknesses include shortage of staff, job insecurity, devalued nursing image in society and the lack of recognition of emotional and psychological dimensions of care. The threats to this profession are linked to the lack of prestige and social recognition and to the current economic crisis in Europe. The European economic crisis favours staff shortages and increased European migration flow. The strength of the group lies in the art of caring, which is its defining feature. Primary Care Nursing and Hospital Liaison Nursing demonstrate the great professional adaptability in meeting the needs of the ever-changing society. The European Higher Education Area and the strengthening of the specialties provide opportunities for the nursing profession. Both represent an important progress towards solid professionalism that will give nursing greater visibility. Moreover, nursing must implement strategies to disseminate its activity and emerge from anonymity. Nursing must show society the image it wants to project. PMID:24738741

  17. ROAMER: roadmap for mental health research in Europe.

    PubMed

    Haro, Josep Maria; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Bitter, Istvan; Demotes-Mainard, Jacques; Leboyer, Marion; Lewis, Shôn W; Linszen, Donald; Maj, Mario; McDaid, David; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Robbins, Trevor W; Schumann, Gunter; Thornicroft, Graham; Van Der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina; Van Os, Jim; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Wykes, Til; Arango, Celso; Bickenbach, Jerome; Brunn, Matthias; Cammarata, Pamela; Chevreul, Karine; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Finocchiaro, Carla; Fiorillo, Andrea; Forsman, Anna K; Hazo, Jean-Baptiste; Knappe, Susanne; Kuepper, Rebecca; Luciano, Mario; Miret, Marta; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Pagano, Grazia; Papp, Szilvia; Walker-Tilley, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high impact of mental disorders in society, European mental health research is at a critical situation with a relatively low level of funding, and few advances been achieved during the last decade. The development of coordinated research policies and integrated research networks in mental health is lagging behind other disciplines in Europe, resulting in lower degree of cooperation and scientific impact. To reduce more efficiently the burden of mental disorders in Europe, a concerted new research agenda is necessary. The ROAMER (Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe) project, funded under the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme, aims to develop a comprehensive and integrated mental health research agenda within the perspective of the European Union (EU) Horizon 2020 programme, with a translational goal, covering basic, clinical and public health research. ROAMER covers six major domains: infrastructures and capacity building, biomedicine, psychological research and treatments, social and economic issues, public health and well-being. Within each of them, state-of-the-art and strength, weakness and gap analyses were conducted before building consensus on future research priorities. The process is inclusive and participatory, incorporating a wide diversity of European expert researchers as well as the views of service users, carers, professionals and policy and funding institutions. PMID:24375532

  18. Effects of heavy ions on visual function and electrophysiology of rodents: the ALTEA-MICE project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sannita, W. G.; Acquaviva, M.; Ball, S. L.; Belli, F.; Bisti, S.; Bidoli, V.; Carozzo, S.; Casolino, M.; Cucinotta, F.; De Pascale, M. P.; Di Fino, L.; Di Marco, S.; Maccarone, R.; Martello, C.; Miller, J.; Narici, L.; Peachey, N. S.; Picozza, P.; Rinaldi, A.; Ruggieri, D.; Saturno, M.; Schardt, D.; Vazquez, M.; Lowenstein, D. (Principal Investigator)

    2004-01-01

    ALTEA-MICE will supplement the ALTEA project on astronauts and provide information on the functional visual impairment possibly induced by heavy ions during prolonged operations in microgravity. Goals of ALTEA-MICE are: (1) to investigate the effects of heavy ions on the visual system of normal and mutant mice with retinal defects; (2) to define reliable experimental conditions for space research; and (3) to develop animal models to study the physiological consequences of space travels on humans. Remotely controlled mouse setup, applied electrophysiological recording methods, remote particle monitoring, and experimental procedures were developed and tested. The project has proved feasible under laboratory-controlled conditions comparable in important aspects to those of astronauts' exposure to particle in space. Experiments are performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratories [BNL] (Upton, NY, USA) and the Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbH [GSI]/Biophysik (Darmstadt, FRG) to identify possible electrophysiological changes and/or activation of protective mechanisms in response to pulsed radiation. Offline data analyses are in progress and observations are still anecdotal. Electrophysiological changes after pulsed radiation are within the limits of spontaneous variability under anesthesia, with only indirect evidence of possible retinal/cortical responses. Immunostaining showed changes (e.g. increased expression of FGF2 protein in the outer nuclear layer) suggesting a retinal stress reaction to high-energy particles of potential relevance in space. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Disentangling effects of uncertainties on population projections: climate change impact on an epixylic bryophyte

    PubMed Central

    Ruete, Alejandro; Yang, Wei; Bärring, Lars; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Snäll, Tord

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of future ecosystem risks should account for the relevant uncertainty sources. This means accounting for the joint effects of climate variables and using modelling techniques that allow proper treatment of uncertainties. We investigate the influence of three of the IPCC's scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (special report on emission scenarios (SRES)) on projections of the future abundance of a bryophyte model species. We also compare the relative importance of uncertainty sources on the population projections. The whole chain global climate model (GCM)—regional climate model—population dynamics model is addressed. The uncertainty depends on both natural- and model-related sources, in particular on GCM uncertainty. Ignoring the uncertainties gives an unwarranted impression of confidence in the results. The most likely population development of the bryophyte Buxbaumia viridis towards the end of this century is negative: even with a low-emission scenario, there is more than a 65 per cent risk for the population to be halved. The conclusion of a population decline is valid for all SRES scenarios investigated. Uncertainties are no longer an obstacle, but a mandatory aspect to include in the viability analysis of populations. PMID:22456878

  20. Disentangling effects of uncertainties on population projections: climate change impact on an epixylic bryophyte.

    PubMed

    Ruete, Alejandro; Yang, Wei; Bärring, Lars; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Snäll, Tord

    2012-08-01

    Assessment of future ecosystem risks should account for the relevant uncertainty sources. This means accounting for the joint effects of climate variables and using modelling techniques that allow proper treatment of uncertainties. We investigate the influence of three of the IPCC's scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (special report on emission scenarios (SRES)) on projections of the future abundance of a bryophyte model species. We also compare the relative importance of uncertainty sources on the population projections. The whole chain global climate model (GCM)-regional climate model-population dynamics model is addressed. The uncertainty depends on both natural- and model-related sources, in particular on GCM uncertainty. Ignoring the uncertainties gives an unwarranted impression of confidence in the results. The most likely population development of the bryophyte Buxbaumia viridis towards the end of this century is negative: even with a low-emission scenario, there is more than a 65 per cent risk for the population to be halved. The conclusion of a population decline is valid for all SRES scenarios investigated. Uncertainties are no longer an obstacle, but a mandatory aspect to include in the viability analysis of populations. PMID:22456878

  1. The projected effect of the Affordable Care Act on dental care for adult Medicaid enrollees.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Priscilla; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Pintor, Jessie Kemmick; Elmi, Nafisa

    2014-02-01

    Fewer than half of all U.S. states provide dental care for non-elderly adult Medicaid enrollees. Although the Affordable Care Act (ACA) expands Medicaid eligibility for adults, states are not required to offer dental care to adults. We project the effect of the ACA on patient-identified barriers to dental care based on a framework developed using data from a 2008 survey of Minnesota Medicaid enrollees with and without an annual dental visit. The rate of annual visits (55%) was below that of all Minnesotans (79%) with 40% reporting difficulties accessing services. We found no racial/ethnic disparities in annual dental visits among adult Medicaid enrollees. Adult Medicaid recipients with no annual visit reported individual (51%), provider (27%), and system-level (22%) barriers. Hmong, Somali, and American Indian adults were more likely than others to report barriers to receiving dental care. We project that the ACA will not reduce barriers to dental care for adult Medicaid enrollees. PMID:24583489

  2. Air pollution modeling over Europe using WRFchem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Mathias; Müller, Mathias

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study is to model air pollution for entire Switzerland with a very high spatial resolution. For the first time a several year period of air pollution is modeled for entire Switzerland. The high resolution domain of Switzerland is nested into a coarser European domain with a horizontal resolution of 50 km, extending from south of Spain to south of Finland. So far only the framework for the European domain exists and therefore we focus on the method and first results of this particular domain. The state-of-the-art "Weather Research and Forecasting" (WRF) model with a chemistry extension (WRFchem) is used to simulate air pollutants. It is one of the first times that these two "online" coupled models are applied for entire Europe. Gas phase chemistry is modeled with the "Carbon bond mechanism version Z" (CBMZ) with 67 prognostic chemical species and 164 chemical reactions. Aerosols are treated by the "Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry" (MOSAIC) using 4 sectional aerosol bins. The meteorological initial and boundary conditions are derived from the NCEP Reanalysis 2 and GFS data. The anthropogenic emissions are taken from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), which have a horizontal resolution of 50 km and are divided into 11 SNAP-sectors (Selected Nomenclature for reporting of Air Pollutants). According to these different sectors and the countries the data could be disaggregated into hourly emissions according to the GENEMIS project. To use this dataset also a spatial conversion with the inverse next neighbor method and a vertical disaggregation as well as a re-apportioning of different chemical species were applied. Biogenic emissions are computed during runtime using the Guenther Scheme. We noticed that chemical initial conditions are not needed as they are mainly driven by emissions. Hence a spin-up of at least five days is used. For verification purposes correlations with European ground-based measurements (O3, NO2, SO2, PM10) are analyzed. As expected, better results are achieved using the GFS instead of the Reanalysis 2 dataset as meteorological input. As boundary conditions the performance of monthly mean values (1997-2001) from the LMDZ-INCA model and idealized profiles from the NALROM chemistry model were evaluated, but no significant differences could be found. The outcome of the model is comparable or better than other models used over entire Europe. Overall the European simulations show encouraging results for observed air pollutants, with ozone being the most and PM10 being the least satisfying, respectively.

  3. Maritime route of colonization of Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paschou, Peristera; Drineas, Petros; Yannaki, Evangelia; Razou, Anna; Kanaki, Katerina; Tsetsos, Fotis; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha Sampath; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Renda, Maria C.; Pavlovic, Sonja; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    The Neolithic populations, which colonized Europe approximately 9,000 y ago, presumably migrated from Near East to Anatolia and from there to Central Europe through Thrace and the Balkans. An alternative route would have been island hopping across the Southern European coast. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed genome-wide DNA polymorphisms on populations bordering the Mediterranean coast and from Anatolia and mainland Europe. We observe a striking structure correlating genes with geography around the Mediterranean Sea with characteristic east to west clines of gene flow. Using population network analysis, we also find that the gene flow from Anatolia to Europe was through Dodecanese, Crete, and the Southern European coast, compatible with the hypothesis that a maritime coastal route was mainly used for the migration of Neolithic farmers to Europe. PMID:24927591

  4. Maritime route of colonization of Europe.

    PubMed

    Paschou, Peristera; Drineas, Petros; Yannaki, Evangelia; Razou, Anna; Kanaki, Katerina; Tsetsos, Fotis; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha Sampath; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Renda, Maria C; Pavlovic, Sonja; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Kidd, Kenneth K; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    2014-06-24

    The Neolithic populations, which colonized Europe approximately 9,000 y ago, presumably migrated from Near East to Anatolia and from there to Central Europe through Thrace and the Balkans. An alternative route would have been island hopping across the Southern European coast. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed genome-wide DNA polymorphisms on populations bordering the Mediterranean coast and from Anatolia and mainland Europe. We observe a striking structure correlating genes with geography around the Mediterranean Sea with characteristic east to west clines of gene flow. Using population network analysis, we also find that the gene flow from Anatolia to Europe was through Dodecanese, Crete, and the Southern European coast, compatible with the hypothesis that a maritime coastal route was mainly used for the migration of Neolithic farmers to Europe. PMID:24927591

  5. Risk Analysis and Forecast Service for Geomagnetically Induced Currents in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wik, Magnus; Pirjola, Risto; Viljanen, Ari; Lundstedt, Henrik

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC), occurring during magnetic storms, pose a widespread natural disaster risk to the reliable operation of electric power transmission grids, oil and gas pipelines, telecommunication cables and railway systems. The solar magnetic activity is the cause of GIC. Solar coronal holes can cause recurrent inter-vals of raised geomagnetic activity, and coronal mass ejections (CME) at the Sun, sometimes producing very high speed plasma clouds with enhanced magnetic fields and particle densities, can cause the strongest geomagnetic storms. When the solar wind interacts with the geomag-netic field, energy is transferred to the magnetosphere, driving strong currents in the ionosphere. When these currents change in time a geoelectric field is induced at the surface of the Earth and in the ground. Finally, this field drives GIC in the ground and in any technological conductor systems. The worst consequence of a severe magnetic storm within a power grid is a complete blackout, as happened in the province of Québec, Canada, in March 1989, and in the city of Malmü, Sweden, in October 2003. Gas and oil pipelines are not regarded as vulnerable to the immediate impact of GIC, but the corrosion rate of buried steel pipes can increase due to GIC, which may thus shorten the lifetime of a pipe. European Risk from Geomagnetically Induced Currents (EURISGIC) is an EU project, that, if approved, will produce the first European-wide real-time prototype forecast service of GIC in power systems, based on in-situ solar wind observations and comprehensive simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere. This project focuses on high-voltage power transmission networks, which are probably currently the most susceptible to GIC effects. Geomagnetic storms cover large geographical regions, at times the whole globe. Consequently, power networks are rightly described as being European critical infrastructures whose disruption or destruction could have a significant impact. The project includes six research institutes and one SME, within Europe and US. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Swedish civil contingencies agency (MSB), and representatives from the European Commission are collaborating with the NOAA National Weather Service and other research institutes on various space weather scenarios -geomagnetic storms with widespread blackouts and disruptions in communications. The aim of this new project is to conduct a risk analysis from GIC on critical infrastructure. Large amounts of natural gas are transported from Russia to Central Europe. Those long pipelines are prone to GIC impacts, which should also be evaluated quantitatively. We will use the EURISGIC project to inform the pipeline community of present European capability in GIC modelling, forecasting and in developing mitigation measures.

  6. RadioNet: Advanced Radio Astronomy in Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    RadioNet, an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3), has brought together 20 of "Europe's leading astronomy facilities to produce a focused, coherent and integrated project that will significantly enhance the quality and quantity of science performed by European astronomers." After learning about the Initiative's many objectives, users can find brief summaries of the program's integration of astronomy pursuits in the areas of transnational access, joint research activities, and networking activities. The website presents press releases, upcoming and past events, and information on engineering, software, and Atacama Large (sub)-Millimeter Array (ALMA) forums. Users can also find out about the individual collaborators research activities through the external links.

  7. Working Group 7.0 Environmental Transport and Health Effects, Chernobyl Studies Project. Progress report, October 1994 -- March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Hendrickson, S.M. [eds.] [eds.

    1995-06-01

    This document presents the details from the working group 7.0 Chernobyl Studies Project. This working group looked at the environmental transport and health effects from the fallout due to the meltdown of Chernobylsk-4 reactor. Topics include: hydrological transport; chromosome painting dosimetry; EPR, TL and OSL dosimetry; stochastic effects; thyroid studies; and leukemia studies.

  8. Encouragement from Jupiter for Europe's Titan Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-04-01

    Huygens will transmit scientific information for 150 minutes, from the outer reaches of Titan's cold atmosphere and all the way down to its enigmatic surface. For comparison, the Jupiter Probe radioed scientific data for 58 minutes as it descended about 200 kilometres into the outer part of the atmosphere of the giant planet. The parachutes controlling various stages of Huygens' descent will rely upon a system for deployment designed and developed in Europe that is nevertheless similar to that used by the Jupiter Probe. The elaborate sequence of operations in Huygens worked perfectly during a dramatic drop test from a stratospheric balloon over Sweden in May 1995, which approximated as closely as possible to events on Titan. The performance of the American Probe at Jupiter renews the European engineers' confidence in their own descent control system, and also in the lithium sulphur-dioxide batteries which were chosen to power both Probes. "The systems work after long storage in space," comments Hamid Hassan, ESA's Project Manager for Huygens. "Huygens will spend seven years travelling to Saturn's vicinity aboard the Cassini Orbiter. The Jupiter Probe was a passenger in Galileo for six years before its release, so there is no reason to doubt that Huygens will work just as well." Huygens will enter the outer atmosphere of Titan at 20,000 kilometres per hour. A heat shield 2.7 metres in diameter will withstand the friction and slow the Probe to a speed at which parachutes can be deployed. The size of the parachute for the main phase of the descent is chosen to allow Huygens to reach the surface in about 2 hours. The batteries powering Huygens will last for about 21/2 hours. Prepared for surprises A different perspective on the Jupiter Probe comes from Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA's Project Scientist for Huygens. The results contradicted many preconceptions of the Galileo scientists, particularly about the abundance of water and the structure of cloud layers. Arguments continue about whether the Probe hit by chance a patch of unusual weather, whether instruments were misreading, or whether ideas about the giant planet need a thorough shake-up. "The Jupiter experience teaches us to be more modest in our predictions about what a new world will be like," says Dr Lebreton. "It shows the limitations of theories made from telescope studies and flybys, and confirms the need for on-the-spot observations. We know far less about Titan than about Jupiter. So a real understanding of Titan must await the arrival of Cassini/ Huygens in eight years' time." Hazy orange clouds obscure Titan and leave scientists guessing about what Huygens will find. As speculation and debate continue, the biggest uncertainty concerns the nature of Titan's surface. Some experts expect to find large lakes of liquid hydrocarbons, while others suspect that the surface is dry. The hypothesis that a global ocean might cover Titan is out of fashion at present, because of radar results and reasoning about the effects of tides in a global ocean. The multinational teams of scientists who have developed the instruments on Huygens are prepared for surprises. For example, the Surface Science Package is designed for a wet or a dry landing, and will give appropriate results in either case. Further tests planned With just eighteen months to go until the launch of the joint Cassini/Huygens mission in October 1997, the spring of 1996 is a busy time for the Huygens teams. The first European flight hardware reached NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for incorporation in the Flight Model of the Cassini Orbiter. This is the Probe Support Avionics, which receives and processes the signals from the Probe at Titan. The Engineering Model of Huygens has also gone to JPL, for comprehensive electrical tests of the Cassini spacecraft. ESA is planning to carry out further tests on the Flight Model of Huygens, which is due for delivery in less than a year's time. The aim is to settle questions remaining after searching reviews of the Probe's design

  9. HD 181327 Debris Disk Asymmetries: Signs of a Planet or Geometric Projection Effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Christopher C.; Schneider, G.; Weinberger, A. J.; Debes, J. H.; Jang-Condell, H.; Grady, C. A.; Carson, J.; Henning, T.; Hines, D. C.; Hinz, P.; Kuchner, M. J.; Moro-Martin, A.; Perrin, M. D.; Tamura, M.; Serabyn, G.; Silverstone, M. D.; Goto, M.; Wisniewski, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the HD 181327 debris disk using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). Our multi-roll coronagraphic image, combined with new multi-roll image processing techniques, reveals the outer debris ring in its entirety at high SNR. The disk exhibits several significant asymmetries that, at first glance, appear to suggest the presence of a planet. We use new image deprojection methods to constrain the true disk geometry, measure an empirical scattering phase function, and show that the majority of these asymmetries are consistent with scattering and line-of-sight projection effects. One asymmetry, a "post-pericenter glow," appears to be a true density enhancement and we speculate on the origin of this density asymmetry.

  10. Effective work function measurements of advanced cathode materials via a thermionic projection microscope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackie, William A.; Hinrichs, Clarence H.; Davis, Paul R.

    1990-12-01

    An experimental method for simultaneously determining the effective thermionic work functions of major planes of single-crystal surfaces is reported. This method has been used to examine transition metal carbides and the emitting surface of a prototype, thermionic fuel element (TFE) cathode. In addition to generating work function values, this method maps variations in the distribution of work functions. Transition metal carbide single-crystal specimens were prepared by arc-floating zone refinement from sintered stock. Hemispherical cathodes, 0.75 mm in diameter, were made from these carbides and from a machined sample of a high creep strength, emitter prototype. Work function ordering for various crystal planes is reported through the thermionic projection microscope image processing method. To understand the work function values obtained, SEM and optical microscopy were utilized. An optical image of a cross section of the fuel element which was electrochemically etched to reveal the crystalline structure and orientation of the CVD-W layer is presented.

  11. Practice of Project-based Learning on Fused Multiple Department and Educational Effect by Assignment System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Masato; Muranaka, Takayuki; Kameyama, Kentaro; Kitagawa, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Hidekazu

    In this paper, a new subject based on PBL (Project Based Learning) and its educational effects are discussed. The feature in this subject is that problems are solved based on the division of labor. In this subject, students break into four-member groups, and develop a line trace robot together cooperatively. Then, they share their responsibility for mechanism, electric circuit and programming, and learn basic knowledge of assigned area from teachers. After that, they develop the robot based on discussions. This procedure is like that in companies and the main objective of this subject is to get this skill. Each robot is evaluated by competition held in a public space of campus. From the questionnaire, very active posture and high attendance degree of satisfaction was gotten.

  12. AUPHEP—Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulates—general overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, H.; Berner, A.; Frischer, T.; Gomiscek, B.; Kundi, M.; Neuberger, M.; Puxbaum, H.; Preining, O.; Auphep-Team

    AUPHEP was started in 1999 as a 5 years program to investigate the situation of the atmospheric aerosol with respect to effects on human health. At four different sites in Austria (3 urban and one rural site) an extended monitoring program was conducted for PM 1, PM 2.5 and PM 10 as well as particle number concentration for 12 months each. Beside continuous measurements using TEOM and beta attenuation high-volume sampling of PM 2.5 and PM 10 provided samples for chemical analyses of various ions, heavy metals and organic compounds. Furthermore, carbonaceous material (TC, EC, OC) year round and PAHs on selected days were analyzed. From collocated public monitoring stations also pollutant gases (SO 2, NO, NO 2, O 3, CO) and meteorological components are available. In winter and summer campaigns aerosol size spectra including chemical components were measured for at least one week each. All data are collected in a project data base (CD-ROM). While extensive data analysis will be presented in following papers, some general results are presented within this paper: annual averages for PM 1 are between 10 and 20 ?g m -3, for PM 2.5 between 15 and 26 mg m -3 and for PM 10 between 20 and 38 ?g m -3. Number concentrations are between 10,000 and 30,000 cm -3. Urban concentrations are usually higher in winter, rural concentrations in summer. PM 2.5 is in average around 70% of PM 10, for PM 1 this fraction is about 57%. Several studies on health effects are included in this project: a cross-sectional study on preschool and school children regarding lung function measurements and questionnaires about respiratory impairment in the surrounding area of the monitoring sites as well as time series studies on mortality and respiratory morbidity on the general population.

  13. Enhancing Environmental Higher Education in Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmisano, E.; Caporali, E.; Valdiserri, J.

    2010-12-01

    Higher Education plays a central role in the development of both human beings and modern societies as it enhances social, cultural and economic development, active citizenship, ethical values and expertises for a sustainable growth. Different initiatives are taking place at world level to guarantee accessibility and right to higher education. The sustainability of human development has, as relevant key factors, environment protection and natural resources enhancement. Environment is therefore becoming more and more important at global level. The Environmental policy is object of discussions, in different prime minister summits and conferences, and constitutes a priority of policy in an increasing number of countries. The European Higher Education institutions, to achieve the objectives above, and to encourage cooperation between countries, may take part in a wide range of European Commission funded programmes, such as TEMPUS, which supports the modernisation of higher education and creates an area of co-operation in countries surrounding the EU. Some important projects run by the University of Florence are the TEMPUS DEREC-Development of Environmental and Resources Engineering Curriculum (2005-2008) and its spin-off called DEREL-Development of Environment and Resources Engineering Learning (2010-2013), recently recommended for funding by the European Commission. Through the co-operation of all project consortium members (Universities in Austria, Germany, Greece, FYR Macedonia, Albania and Serbia) they are aimed at the development and introduction of first and second level curricula in “Environmental and Resources Engineering” at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje (FYR Macedonia). In the DEREC Project the conditions for offering a joint degree title in the field of Environmental Engineering between the University of Florence and the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje were fulfilled and a shared educational programme leading to the mutual recognition of degree titles was defined. The DEREL Project, as logical continuation of DEREC, is aimed to introduce a new, up-to-date, postgraduate two-year curriculum in Environment and Resources Engineering at some Universities in FYR Macedonia, Serbia and Albania following the criteria and conditions for setting up a Joint Postgraduate Degree. The modernisation of higher education implies new educational requirements that, stimulated by the innovative telecommunication technologies together with novel educational materials and methodologies, lead to the development of distance learning environments. In order to provide the basis for the development of a distance learning environment based on video conferencing systems and develop a blended learning courses methodology, the TEMPUS Project VICES Videoconferencing Educational Services (2009-2012) was launched in 2009. The project is being carried out by the University of Florence and the Ss Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje with the co-operation and expertise of consortium members in Europe and Western Balkans and it foresees the implementation of videoconferencing educational modules in the frame of the DEREC Curriculum. In all above projects, the technical and methodological aspects related to environment protection and natural resources enhancement is highlighted.

  14. The FAZIA project in Europe: R&D phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougault, R.; Poggi, G.; Barlini, S.; Borderie, B.; Casini, G.; Chbihi, A.; Le Neindre, N.; Pârlog, M.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.; Sosin, Z.; Ademard, G.; Alba, R.; Anastasio, A.; Barbey, S.; Bardelli, L.; Bini, M.; Boiano, A.; Boisjoli, M.; Bonnet, E.; Borcea, R.; Bougard, B.; Brulin, G.; Bruno, M.; Carboni, S.; Cassese, C.; Cassese, F.; Cinausero, M.; Ciolacu, L.; Cruceru, I.; Cruceru, M.; D'Aquino, B.; De Fazio, B.; Degerlier, M.; Desrues, P.; Di Meo, P.; Dueñas, J. A.; Edelbruck, P.; Energico, S.; Falorsi, M.; Frankland, J. D.; Galichet, E.; Gasior, K.; Gramegna, F.; Giordano, R.; Gruyer, D.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guerzoni, M.; Hamrita, H.; Huss, C.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Korcyl, K.; Kordyasz, A.; Kozik, T.; Kulig, P.; Lavergne, L.; Legouée, E.; Lopez, O.; ?ukasik, J.; Maiolino, C.; Marchi, T.; Marini, P.; Martel, I.; Masone, V.; Meoli, A.; Merrer, Y.; Morelli, L.; Negoita, F.; Olmi, A.; Ordine, A.; Paduano, G.; Pain, C.; Pa?ka, M.; Passeggio, G.; Pastore, G.; Paw?owski, P.; Petcu, M.; Petrascu, H.; Piasecki, E.; Pontoriere, G.; Rauly, E.; Rivet, M. F.; Rocco, R.; Rosato, E.; Roscilli, L.; Scarlini, E.; Salomon, F.; Santonocito, D.; Seredov, V.; Serra, S.; Sierpowski, D.; Spadaccini, G.; Spitaels, C.; Stefanini, A. A.; Tobia, G.; Tortone, G.; Twaróg, T.; Valdré, S.; Vanzanella, A.; Vanzanella, E.; Vient, E.; Vigilante, M.; Vitiello, G.; Wanlin, E.; Wieloch, A.; Zipper, W.

    2014-02-01

    The goal of the FAZIA Collaboration is the design of a new-generation 4 ? detector array for heavy-ion collisions with radioactive beams. This article summarizes the main results of the R&D phase, devoted to the search for significant improvements of the techniques for charge and mass identification of reaction products. This was obtained by means of a systematic study of the basic detection module, consisting of two transmission-mounted silicon detectors followed by a CsI(Tl) scintillator. Significant improvements in ?E- E and pulse-shape techniques were obtained by controlling the doping homogeneity and the cutting angles of silicon and by putting severe constraints on thickness uniformity. Purposely designed digital electronics contributed to identification quality. The issue of possible degradation related to radiation damage of silicon was also addressed. The experimental activity was accompanied by studies on the physics governing signal evolution in silicon. The good identification quality obtained with the prototypes during the R&D phase, allowed us to investigate also some aspects of isospin physics, namely isospin transport and odd-even staggering. Now, after the conclusion of the R&D period, the FAZIA Collaboration has entered the demonstrator phase, with the aim of verifying the applicability of the devised solutions for the realization of a larger-scale experimental set-up.

  15. Pipeline projects off Europe to focus on gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-31

    This paper reports that pipeline construction in the North Sea and Mediterranean for the next 5 years will focus almost exclusively on natural gas systems. The next 5 years will be generally active, but there will be adequate lay barge capacity every year with the possible exception of 1995. There are now five third generation North Sea vessels, with a combined pipelay capacity under normal North Sea conditions of about 2,000 km/year. The five vessels work during a lay season from April to October without the need to lay down and pick up pipe when bad weather intervenes. Capacity can be increased by mobilizing some of the secondary capacity vessels of an earlier generation.

  16. Modelling recent and future climatic suitability for fasciolosis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Caminade, Cyril; Van Dijk, Jan; Baylis, Matthew; Williams, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic worm responsible for fasciolosis in grazed ruminants in Europe. The free-living stages of this parasite are sensitive to temperature and soil moisture, as are the intermediate snail hosts the parasite depends on for its life-cycle. We used a climate-driven disease model in order to assess the impact of recent and potential future climate changes on the incidence of fasciolosis and to estimate the related uncertainties at the scale of the European landmass. The current climate appears to be highly suitable for fasciolosis throughout the European Union with the exception of some parts of the Mediterranean region. Simulated climatic suitability for fasciolosis significantly increased during the 2000s in central and northwestern Europe, which is consistent with an observed increased in ruminant infections. The simulation showed that recent trends are likely to continue in the future with the estimated pattern of climate change for northern Europe, possibly extending the season suitable for development of the parasite in the environment by up to four months. For southern Europe, the simulated burden of disease may be lower, but the projected climate change will increase the risk during the winter months, since the simulated changes in temperature and moisture support the development of the free-living and intra-molluscan stages between November and March. In the event of predicted climate change, F. hepatica will present a serious risk to the health, welfare and productivity of all ruminant livestock. Improved, bespoke control programmes, both at farm and region levels, will then become imperative if problems, such as resistance of the parasite associated with increased drug use, are to be mitigated. PMID:25826311

  17. Corticofugal projections induce long-lasting effects on somatosensory responses in the trigeminal complex of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Malmierca, Eduardo; Chaves-Coira, Irene; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Nuñez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    The sensory information flow at subcortical relay stations is controlled by the action of topographic connections from the neocortex. To determinate the functional properties of the somatosensory corticofugal projections to the principal (Pr5) and caudal spinal (Sp5C) trigeminal nuclei, we performed unitary recordings in anesthetized rats. To examine the effect of these cortical projections we used tactile stimulation of the whisker and electrical stimulation of somatosensory cortices. Corticofugal anatomical projections to Pr5 and Sp5C nuclei were detected by using retrograde fluorescent tracers. Neurons projecting exclusively to Pr5 were located in the cingulate cortex while neurons projecting to both Sp5C and Pr5 nuclei were located in the somatosensory and insular cortices (>75% of neurons). Physiological results indicated that primary somatosensory cortex produced a short-lasting facilitating or inhibiting effects (<5 min) of tactile responses in Pr5 nucleus through activation of NMDA glutamatergic or GABAA receptors since effects were blocked by iontophoretically application of APV and bicuculline, respectively. In contrast, stimulation of secondary somatosensory cortex did not affect most of the Pr5 neurons; however both cortices inhibited the nociceptive responses in the Sp5C nucleus through activation of glycinergic or GABAA receptors because effects were blocked by iontophoretically application of strychnine and bicuculline, respectively. These and anatomical results demonstrated that the somatosensory cortices projects to Pr5 nucleus to modulate tactile responses by excitatory and inhibitory actions, while projections to the Sp5C nucleus control nociceptive sensory transmission by only inhibitory effects. Thus, somatosensory cortices may modulate innocuous and noxious inputs simultaneously, contributing to the perception of specifically tactile or painful sensations. PMID:24904321

  18. Introducing eLearning to textile companies in Europe Nicholas Bilalis1

    E-print Network

    Aristomenis, Antoniadis

    Introducing eLearning to textile companies in Europe Nicholas Bilalis1 , Emmanuel Maravelakis2 three Web-based courses on Modern Production Management Methods to textile companies. The project contributes on advancing the knowledge of personnel working on textiles on two distinct cases, current

  19. REORIENTING WORLD BANK INVOLVEMENT WITH URBAN TRANSPORT IN EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Slobodan Mitric

    2003-01-01

    Responding to an acute funding and supply crisis in urban public transport services during the past decade, the World Bank made eight loans benefiting about 20 cities in ex-socialist countries in Europe and Central Asia (ECA). The main strategy for the first five projects, now completed, was to make loans for fleet replacement and rehabilitation, conditional on restructuring publicly owned

  20. The Role of NGOs in Environmental Education in South-eastern Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Turnock

    2004-01-01

    Environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs) are playing an important role in environmental education in South-eastern Europe. Although some organisations appeared to compromise themselves by becoming political parties, others did useful work in debating ecological issues, working on environmental projects and increasing public awareness. Most are involved in environmental education in some way, although few have the resources to establish extensive networks