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1

Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project  

PubMed Central

Background European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. Methods/Design This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating coherent messages to consumers in Europe. Discussion The FoodRisC project offers a unique approach to the investigation of food risk/benefit communication. The effective spread of food risk/benefit information will assist initiatives aimed at reducing the burden of food-related illness and disease, reducing the economic impact of food crises and ensuring that confidence in safe and nutritious food is fostered and maintained in Europe. PMID:21569458

2011-01-01

2

Facing Europe: visualizing spontaneous in-group projection.  

PubMed

Individuals perceive their own group to be more typical of a shared superordinate identity than other groups are. This in-group projection process has been demonstrated with both self-report and indirect measures. The two studies reported here extend this research to the visual level, specifically, within the domain of faces. Using an innovative reverse-correlation approach, we found that German and Portuguese participants' visual representations of European faces resembled the appearance typical for their own national identity. This effect was found even among participants who explicitly denied that one nation was more typical of Europe than the other (Study 1). Moreover, Study 2 provides experimental evidence that in-group projection is restricted to inclusive superordinate groups, as the effect was not observed for visual representations of a category ("Australian") that did not include participants' in-group. Implications for the in-group projection model, as well as for the applicability of reverse-correlation paradigms, are discussed. PMID:22082611

Imhoff, Roland; Dotsch, Ron; Bianchi, Mauro; Banse, Rainer; Wigboldus, Daniël H J

2011-12-01

3

How many dementia cases in France and Europe? Alternative projections and scenarios 2010-2050  

E-print Network

How many dementia cases in France and Europe? Alternative projections and scenarios 2010:Claudine.berr@inserm.fr Running title: Future numbers of dementia cases Key words: dementia; forecast; projection; burden; Europe: The objective of this study is to estimate the number of dementia cases expected to occur in France and Europe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

4

Projected changes in clear-sky erythemal and vitamin D effective UV doses for Europe over the period 2006 to 2100.  

PubMed

The benefits and the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure have been well discussed. Most studies show concern for the solar overexposure in the tropics and low latitude sites and its scarcity at higher latitudes. Both cases are of concern, the first for diseases such as skin cancer and the second for the lack of vitamin D production in the skin. In this study, we evaluate the influence of climate change scenarios on the total ozone content (TOC) and typical aerosol properties, such as the optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA), over Europe. From these parameters, we estimate the erythemal and the vitamin D effective UVR doses from 2006 to 2100. Our results indicate a small reduction of the UVR daily doses caused by the ozone layer recovery and partially compensated by an AOD diminution through this century. The attenuation will be larger at high latitudes, during the springtime and for more polluted scenarios during this century. However, this diminution should not be sufficient to provide a protection condition for erythema. On the other hand, at higher latitudes, it possibly contributes to a relevant increase in the exposure time necessary for the synthesis of vitamin D, mainly during autumn and spring seasons. PMID:23549360

Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Haeffelin, Martial; Bekki, Slimane; Saiag, Philippe; Badosa, Jordi; Jégou, Fabrice; Pazmiño, Andrea; Mahé, Emmanuel

2013-06-01

5

Aerosol effect on climate extremes in Europe under different future scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates changes in extreme temperature and precipitation events under different future scenarios of anthropogenic aerosol emissions (i.e., SO2 and black and organic carbon) simulated with an aerosol-climate model (ECHAM5-HAM) with focus on Europe. The simulations include a maximum feasible aerosol reduction (MFR) scenario and a current legislation emission (CLEmod) scenario where Europe implements the MFR scenario, but the rest of the world follows the current legislation scenario and a greenhouse gas scenario. The strongest changes relative to the year 2000 are projected for the MFR scenario, in which the global aerosol reduction greatly enforces the general warming effect due to greenhouse gases and results in significant increases of temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe. Regional warming effects can also be identified from aerosol reductions under the CLEmodscenario. This becomes most obvious in the increase of the hottest summer daytime temperatures in Northern Europe.

Sillmann, J.; Pozzoli, L.; Vignati, E.; Kloster, S.; Feichter, J.

2013-05-01

6

The SPACELAB Project: A Transatlantic challenge for Europe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contribution of Europe to the U.S. space program is related to the development of Spacelab. The Federal Republic of Germany is to contribute 53% and Italy 18% of the expenses. The industrial team conducting the development work for the Spacelab consists of experts from firms of the ten nations participating financially in the program. Attention is given to organizational problems, details on the development program, aspects of mission preparation, and future developments.

Ottemeyer, D. R.

1981-01-01

7

Risk reduction projects in Russia, Ukraine, and eastern Europe  

SciTech Connect

Assistance to Russia, Ukraine, and Central and Eastern Europe countries (CEEC) in the area of nuclear power safety has been undertaken in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for implementing the nuclear safety portion of this assistance. One aspect of this work is to provide near-term improvement to the safety of VVER and RBMK nuclear power plants (NPPs). This activity has been designated as near-term risk reduction (NTRR). This accident risk reduction effort is being conducted by utilizing teams of experts.

Guppy, J.G.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Reisman, A.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Spencer, B.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1993-01-01

8

Winter in Northern Europe (WINE). The project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE): Introduction and outlook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) comprised a multinational study of the structure, dynamics and composition of the middle atmosphere in winter at high latitudes. Coordinated field measurements were performed during the winter 1983 to 1984 by a large number of ground-based, air-borne, rocket-borne and satellite-borne instruments. Many of the individual experiments were performed in the European sector of the high latitude and polar atmosphere. Studies of the stratosphere, were, in addition, expanded to hemispheric scales by the use of data obtained from remotely sensing satellites. Beyond its direct scientific results, which are reviewed, MAP/WINE has stimulated quite a number of follow-on experiments and projects which address the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere at high and polar latitudes.

Vonzahn, U.

1989-01-01

9

The Tuning Project for Medicine--learning outcomes for undergraduate medical education in Europe.  

PubMed

The Tuning Project is an initiative funded by the European Commission to develop learning outcomes/competences for degree programmes in Europe and to promote harmonisation in the Higher Education sector. It is closely linked to the Bologna Declaration and subsequent developments. Under the auspices of the MEDINE Thematic Network for Medical Education in Europe, the Tuning (Medicine) Task Force has generated a draft set of learning outcomes for primary medical degree qualifications in Europe. These take account of previous work on learning outcomes in medicine, have been generated through an iterative process of expert review and development, and have been the subject of a Europe-wide internet-based opinion survey and subsequent analysis. They have been approved by the MEDINE Network and validated (subject to some additional analysis) by an Expert Panel of the European Commission. PMID:18236249

Cumming, Allan; Ross, Michael

2007-09-01

10

Critical levels for ozone effects on vegetation in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence of detrimental effects of ozone on vegetation in Europe, and the need to develop international control policies to reduce ozone exposures which are based on the effects of the pollutant, has led to attempts to define so-called critical levels of ozone above which adverse effects on trees, crops and natural vegetation may occur. This review is a critical

J. Fuhrer; L. Skärby; M. R. Ashmore

1997-01-01

11

Future scenarios for viticultural zoning in Europe: ensemble projections and uncertainties.  

PubMed

Optimum climate conditions for grapevine growth are limited geographically and may be further challenged by a changing climate. Due to the importance of the winemaking sector in Europe, the assessment of future scenarios for European viticulture is of foremost relevance. A 16-member ensemble of model transient experiments (generated by the ENSEMBLES project) under a greenhouse gas emission scenario and for two future periods (2011-2040 and 2041-2070) is used in assessing climate change projections for six viticultural zoning indices. After model data calibration/validation using an observational gridded daily dataset, changes in their ensemble means and inter-annual variability are discussed, also taking into account the model uncertainties. Over southern Europe, the projected warming combined with severe dryness in the growing season is expected to have detrimental impacts on the grapevine development and wine quality, requiring measures to cope with heat and water stress. Furthermore, the expected warming and the maintenance of moderately wet growing seasons over most of the central European winemaking regions may require a selection of new grapevine varieties, as well as an enhancement of pest/disease control. New winemaking regions may arise over northern Europe and high altitude areas, when considering climatic factors only. An enhanced inter-annual variability is also projected over most of Europe. All these future changes pose new challenges for the European winemaking sector. PMID:23306774

Fraga, H; Malheiro, A C; Moutinho-Pereira, J; Santos, J A

2013-11-01

12

Future scenarios for viticultural zoning in Europe: ensemble projections and uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimum climate conditions for grapevine growth are limited geographically and may be further challenged by a changing climate. Due to the importance of the winemaking sector in Europe, the assessment of future scenarios for European viticulture is of foremost relevance. A 16-member ensemble of model transient experiments (generated by the ENSEMBLES project) under a greenhouse gas emission scenario and for two future periods (2011-2040 and 2041-2070) is used in assessing climate change projections for six viticultural zoning indices. After model data calibration/validation using an observational gridded daily dataset, changes in their ensemble means and inter-annual variability are discussed, also taking into account the model uncertainties. Over southern Europe, the projected warming combined with severe dryness in the growing season is expected to have detrimental impacts on the grapevine development and wine quality, requiring measures to cope with heat and water stress. Furthermore, the expected warming and the maintenance of moderately wet growing seasons over most of the central European winemaking regions may require a selection of new grapevine varieties, as well as an enhancement of pest/disease control. New winemaking regions may arise over northern Europe and high altitude areas, when considering climatic factors only. An enhanced inter-annual variability is also projected over most of Europe. All these future changes pose new challenges for the European winemaking sector.

Fraga, H.; Malheiro, A. C.; Moutinho-Pereira, J.; Santos, J. A.

2013-11-01

13

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: Europe Albers Equal Area  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 ´Projection: Europe Albers Equal Area 0 500 Kilometers Amount of phosphorus fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell computed by fusing global maps of harvested areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use

Columbia University

14

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: Europe Albers Equal Area  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 ´Projection: Europe Albers Equal Area 0 500 Kilometers Amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell computed by fusing global maps of harvested areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use

Columbia University

15

Strategies for Reforming Initial Vocational Education and Training in Europe. Final Report of the Project. Leonardo da Vinci/Transnational Pilot Projects: Multiplier Effect, Strand III.3.a. Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking (1997-2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 24 papers examining strategies for reforming initial vocational education and training (VET) in Europe. The following papers are included: "Reassessing VET Reform Strategies in a New Context: Implementation of the SPES-NET (Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking) Project" (Marja-Leena…

Stenstrom, Marja-Leena, Ed.; Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

16

Constraining climate analysis and climate change projections over Europe using land heat flux observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the coming decades more frequent and more severe heatwaves are expected to occur over Europe, with consequences for amongst others human health and ecosystems. To reduce negative impacts, an early warning system would be useful. Hot summer years are known to be preceded by Southern Europe rainfall deficit, and such a signal might also be present for other climate variables. Because land-atmosphere feedbacks are expected to become more important in large parts over Europe, it is useful to consider variables that are relevant to these feedbacks. In this study we analyze latent (LH) and sensible heat (H) flux in observation based data and regional climate models (RCMs) from the ENSEMBLES project with the aim 1) to study the evolution of the fluxes with in particular the difference between warm and cold summer years, and the possibility to use land fluxes as early indicator for heatwaves; 2) to evaluate the ability of RCMs to capture both the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of the fluxes; and 3) to investigate whether heat fluxes can be used to constrain temperature projections, because strong feedbacks in the current climate might lead to more climate warming in future scenarios. We find that warm summers are preceded by a positive springtime LH anomaly. During these summers both fluxes increase over the largest part of Europe, but there is a LH deficit of the Iberian Peninsula, indicating a soil moisture limited regime in this area. In general the RCMs overestimate LH and underestimate H in the seasonal cycle as compared to observation based data. In the difference between warm and cold summer years H tend to increase too much in late spring, probably leading to too strong drying, a LH deficit, and the establishment of a soil moisture limited regime over Europe in summer. Land heat flux observations suggest that temperature projections may regionally be slightly underestimated in Central-Western Europe to Northern Europe, but overestimated over the Mediterranean and the Balkan in the RCM ensemble mean. With the use of H observations we were able to reduce uncertainty in temperature change predictions up to regionally 40%.

Stegehuis, Annemiek; Vautard, Robert; Ciais, Philippe; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Jung, Martin; Yiou, Pascal

2013-04-01

17

Trends in the mortality effects of hot spells in central Europe: adaptation to climate change?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Europe has recently been affected by several long-lasting and severe heat waves, particularly in July-August 2003 (western Europe), June-July 2006 (central Europe), July 2007 (southeastern Europe) and July 2010 (western Russia). The heat waves influenced many sectors of human activities, with enormous socio-economic and environmental impacts. With estimated death tolls exceeding 50,000, the 2003 and 2010 heat waves were the worst natural disasters in Europe over the last 50 years, yielding an example of how seriously may also high-income societies be affected by climate change. The present study examines temporal changes in mortality associated with spells of large positive temperature anomalies (hot spells) in the population of the Czech Republic (around 10 million inhabitants, central Europe). Declining trends in the mortality impacts since 1986 are found, in spite of rising temperature trends. The findings remain unchanged if possible confounding effects of within-season acclimatization to heat and the mortality displacement effect are taken into account, and they are similar for all-cause mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Recent positive socio-economic development, following the collapse of communism in central and eastern Europe in 1989, and better public awareness of heat-related risks are likely the primary causes of the declining vulnerability in the examined population (Kyselý and Plavcová, 2012). The results are also consistent with those reported for other developed regions of the world (the US, western Europe, Australia) and suggest that climate change may have relatively little influence on heat-related deaths, since changes in other factors that affect vulnerability of the population are dominant instead of temperature trends. It is essential to better understand the observed non-stationarity of the temperature-mortality relationship and the role of adaptation and its limits, both physiological and technological, and to address associated uncertainties in studies dealing with climate change projections of temperature-related mortality. However, it is also obvious that impacts of major and unprecented heat waves such as the 2003 heat wave in western Europe and the 2010 heat wave in Russia may far exceed estimates extrapolated from the observed relationships between thermal environment and human morbidity and mortality, and ';broke' the observed (positive) changes in time. Reference: Kyselý J., Plavcová E., 2012: Declining impacts of hot spells on mortality in the Czech Republic, 1986-2009: adaptation to climate change? Climatic Change 113: 437-453, doi 10.1007/s10584-011-0358-4.

Kysely, J.; Plavcova, E.

2013-12-01

18

SHORT REPORT Open Access Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air  

E-print Network

SHORT REPORT Open Access Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing, evidence existing on the effects of IAP in elderly is scanty. The Geriatric study in Europe on health Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE study) aiming

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

Employment and Occupations in Europe in the 1980s. Effects of Technical and Economic Changes on the Employment Situation. Project No. 1 of the CCC: "Preparation for Life." Preparation for Working Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is an attempt to forecast for 1990 the following: (1) employment structures in the member countries of the Council of Europe for all three major sectors of the economy; and (2) employment structures in the Council of Europe for the nine major sectors of the manufacturing industry (food, textiles, leather and clothing, wood and…

Cacace, Nicole

20

The Joint CEDEFOP/ETF Project on 'Scenarios and Strategies for Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Europe': A Contribution to the Debate on the Future of Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project in Europe is working to improve the quality of work, promote equal opportunities, combat exclusion and poverty; promote lasting economic growth and a European Union economic policy; and promote sustainable development and quality of life. In order to achieve these goals, three main objectives for vocational education and training (VET)…

Sellin, Burkart

21

Review of trend analysis and climate change projections of extreme precipitation and floods in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a review of trend analysis of extreme precipitation and hydrological floods in Europe based on observations and future climate projections. The review summaries methods and methodologies applied and key findings from a large number of studies. Reported analyses of observed extreme precipitation and flood records show that there is some evidence of a general increase in extreme precipitation, whereas there are no clear indications of significant trends at large-scale regional or national level of extreme streamflow. Several studies from regions dominated by snowmelt-induced peak flows report decreases in extreme streamflow and earlier spring snowmelt peak flows, likely caused by increasing temperature. The review of likely future changes based on climate projections indicates a general increase in extreme precipitation under a future climate, which is consistent with the observed trends. Hydrological projections of peak flows show large impacts in many areas with both positive and negative changes. A general decrease in flood magnitude and earlier spring floods are projected for catchments with snowmelt-dominated peak flows, which is consistent with the observed trends. Finally, existing guidelines in Europe on design flood and design rainfall estimation are reviewed. The review shows that only few countries have developed guidelines that incorporate a consideration of climate change impacts.

Madsen, H.; Lawrence, D.; Lang, M.; Martinkova, M.; Kjeldsen, T. R.

2014-11-01

22

Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America  

E-print Network

Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America on surface ozone in Europe and North America by using a 5-year (1993­1997) simulation with the GEOS emissions from North America. North American influence on surface ozone in Europe is particularly strong

Palmer, Paul

23

Effects of large-scale distribution of wind energy in and around Europe  

E-print Network

Effects of large-scale distribution of wind energy in and around Europe Gregor Giebel Niels Gylling energy in Europe? · Distribution of wind energy all over Europe leads to smoothing of the wind power energy can easily supply up to ~20% of the European demand. At this stage, · Less than 13% of the wind

24

Identifying Critical Nutrient Intake in Groups at Risk of Poverty in Europe: The CHANCE Project Approach  

PubMed Central

The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project’s objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe. PMID:24699195

Nikoli?, Marina; Glibeti?, Maria; Gurinovi?, Mirjana; Mileševi?, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

2014-01-01

25

Solar effects on circulation types over Europe: an analysis based on a large number of classifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, effects of the 11-year solar cycle on various aspects of tropospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere in winter have been recognized. One of our previous studies showed a significant solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types from the Hess-Brezowsky catalogue. Here, we use a large collection of varied classifications of circulation patterns, defined over central Europe, assembled within the COST733 Action "Harmonization and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions" to detect the solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types. The advantage of this multi-classification approach is that peculiarities or biases present in any single classification (catalogue) that might influence the detected solar signal are eliminated once a large ensemble of classifications is used. We divide winter months (December to March) into three groups according to the mean monthly solar activity, quantified by the solar 10.7 cm flux. The three groups correspond to the minima of the 11-year solar cycle, a moderate solar activity, and solar maxima. Within each group, frequencies of occurrence of individual circulation types are calculated. Differences in the occurrence of individual classes between solar activity groups indicate the presence of a solar activity effect on atmospheric circulation over Europe. Statistical significance of these differences is estimated by a block resampling method. An enhanced frequency under solar minima and a reduced frequency under solar maxima are observed almost exclusively for the types with easterly flow over central Europe. On the other hand, a reduced frequency under solar minima and an enhanced frequency under solar maxima are found for the types with westerly flow over central Europe. The research is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805, and by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic, contract OC115.

Huth, R.; Cahynová, M.; Kyselý, J.

2010-09-01

26

The Cosmetics Europe strategy for animal-free genotoxicity testing: project status up-date.  

PubMed

The Cosmetics Europe (formerly COLIPA) Genotoxicity Task Force has driven and funded three projects to help address the high rate of misleading positives in in vitro genotoxicity tests: The completed "False Positives" project optimized current mammalian cell assays and showed that the predictive capacity of the in vitro micronucleus assay was improved dramatically by selecting more relevant cells and more sensitive toxicity measures. The on-going "3D skin model" project has been developed and is now validating the use of human reconstructed skin (RS) models in combination with the micronucleus (MN) and Comet assays. These models better reflect the in use conditions of dermally applied products, such as cosmetics. Both assays have demonstrated good inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility and are entering validation stages. The completed "Metabolism" project investigated enzyme capacities of human skin and RS models. The RS models were shown to have comparable metabolic capacity to native human skin, confirming their usefulness for testing of compounds with dermal exposure. The program has already helped to improve the initial test battery predictivity and the RS projects have provided sound support for their use as a follow-up test in the assessment of the genotoxic hazard of cosmetic ingredients in the absence of in vivo data. PMID:23811264

Pfuhler, S; Fautz, R; Ouedraogo, G; Latil, A; Kenny, J; Moore, C; Diembeck, W; Hewitt, N J; Reisinger, K; Barroso, J

2014-02-01

27

Descriptive epidemiology of sarcomas in Europe: report from the RARECARE project.  

PubMed

Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms arising from mesenchymal cells which encompass dozens of histological types and can occur in virtually any anatomic site. They form one of the principal groups of rare cancers in Europe as defined in the RARECARE project. We analysed 45,568 incident cases diagnosed during 1995-2002 and registered by 76 population-based cancer registries. Total crude incidence was 5.6 per 100,000 per year with an estimated 27,908 new cases per year in the EU27 countries, of which 84% were soft tissue sarcomas and 14% were bone sarcomas. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) were only widely recognised as an entity in the late 1990s and consequently were under-registered. Their true incidence is believed to be about 1.5 per 100,000. Age-standardised incidence of soft tissue sarcomas ranged from 3.3 per 100,000 in Eastern Europe to 4.7 per 100,000 in Northern Europe. About 280,000 persons were estimated to be alive at the beginning of 2003 with a past diagnosis of sarcoma, of which 83% were soft tissue sarcomas and 16% were bone sarcomas. Five-year relative survival for 2000-2002 by the period was 58% for soft tissue sarcomas and 62% for bone sarcomas. The diversity and rarity of sarcomas combined with the quite large number of people affected by them mean that they provide a classic example of the importance of networking in diagnosis, therapy and research for rare cancers. PMID:23079473

Stiller, C A; Trama, A; Serraino, D; Rossi, S; Navarro, C; Chirlaque, M D; Casali, P G

2013-02-01

28

Cross-border care and healthcare quality improvement in Europe: the MARQuIS research project  

PubMed Central

Citizens are increasingly crossing borders within the European Union (EU). Europeans have always been free to travel to receive care abroad, but if they wished to benefit from their statutory social protection scheme, they were subject to their local or national legislation on social protection. This changed in 1991 with the European Court of Justice defining healthcare as a service, starting a debate on the right balance between different principles in European treaties: movement of persons, goods and services, versus the responsibility of member states to organise their healthcare systems. Simultaneously, cross-border cooperation has developed between member states. In this context, patient mobility has become a relevant issue on the EU’s agenda. The EU funded a number of Scientific Support to Policies (SSP) activities within the Sixth Framework Programme, to provide the evidence needed by EU policy makers to deal with issues that European citizens face due to enhanced mobility in Europe. One SSP project “Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies” (MARQuIS), focused on cross-border care. It aimed to assess the value of different quality strategies, and to provide information needed when: (1) countries contract care for patients moving across borders; and (2) individual hospitals review the design of their quality strategies. This article describes the European context related to healthcare, and its implications for cross-border healthcare in Europe. The background information demonstrates a need for further research and development in this area. PMID:19188459

Suñol, R; Garel, P; Jacquerye, A

2009-01-01

29

Project INTEGRATE - a common methodological approach to understand integrated health care in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background The use of case studies in health services research has proven to be an excellent methodology for gaining in-depth understanding of the organisation and delivery of health care. This is particularly relevant when looking at the complexity of integrated healthcare programmes, where multifaceted interactions occur at the different levels of care and often without a clear link between the interventions (new and/or existing) and their impact on outcomes (in terms of patients health, both patient and professional satisfaction and cost-effectiveness). Still, integrated care is seen as a core strategy in the sustainability of health and care provision in most societies in Europe and beyond. More specifically, at present, there is neither clear evidence on transferable factors of integrated care success nor a method for determining how to establish these specific success factors. The drawback of case methodology in this case, however, is that the in-depth results or lessons generated are usually highly context-specific and thus brings the challenge of transferability of findings to other settings, as different health care systems and different indications are often not comparable. Project INTEGRATE, a European Commission-funded project, has been designed to overcome these problems; it looks into four chronic conditions in different European settings, under a common methodology framework (taking a mixed-methods approach) to try to overcome the issue of context specificity and limited transferability. The common methodological framework described in this paper seeks to bring together the different case study findings in a way that key lessons may be derived and transferred between countries, contexts and patient-groups, where integrated care is delivered in order to provide insight into generalisability and build on existing evidence in this field. Methodology To compare the different integrated care experiences, a mixed-methods approach has been adopted with the creation of a common methodological framework (including data collection tools and case study template report) to be used by the case studies for their analyses. Methods of analysis The four case studies attempt to compare health care services before and after the ‘integration’ of care, while triangulating the findings using quantitative and qualitative data, and provide an in-depth description of the organisation and delivery of care, and the impact on outcomes. The common framework aims to allow for the extraction of key transferable learning from the cases, taking into account context-dependency. Conclusion The application and evaluation of the common methodological approach aim to distill and identify important elements for successful integrated care, in order to strengthen the evidence base for integrated care (by facilitating cross-context comparisons), increase the transferability of findings from highly context-specific to other settings and lead to concrete and practical policy and operational recommendations. PMID:25550690

Cash-Gibson, Lucinda; Rosenmoller, Magdalene

2014-01-01

30

Oceanography Vol.22, No.460 AbstrAct. The European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA) is Europe's  

E-print Network

research is needed to fill the gaps in our understanding of ocean acidification and its impacts on marine of ocean acidification are perfectly foresee- able, the potential responses of organisms and ecosystemsOceanography Vol.22, No.460 AbstrAct. The European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA) is Europe

Fortunat, Joos

31

Comparative study of Regional Urban Growth (RUG) model projections for new EU members in central Europe and the Baltic States   

E-print Network

Urban modelling and land-cover changes are well discussed in literature and are in a focal point of many researches. Regional urban growth (RUG) model for central Europe and the Baltic States projects land-cover changes and their volume...

Langner, Pawel

2009-11-26

32

Promoting harmonization of BME education in Europe: the CRH-BME Tempus project.  

PubMed

Biomedical Engineers should be prepared to adapt to existing or forecasted needs. There is a strong pressure on education, training and life long learning programs to continuously adapt their objectives in order to face new requirements and challenges. The main objective of the TEMPUS IV, CRH-BME project is to update existing curricula in the field of Biomedical Engineering (BME) in order to meet recent and future developments in the area, address new emerging inter-disciplinary domains that appear as a result of the R&D progress and respond to the BME job market demands. The first step is to extensively review the curricula in the BME education field. In this paper, a proposal for a generic curriculum in the BME education is presented, in order to meet recent and future developments and respond to the demands of the BME job market. Adoption of the core program structure will facilitate harmonization of studies as well as student and staff exchange across Europe, thus promoting the European Higher Education Area. PMID:22255833

Pallikarakis, Nicolas; Bliznakov, Zhivko; Miklavcic, Damijan; Jarm, Tomaz; Magjarevic, Ratko; Lackovic, Igor; Pecchia, Leandro; Stagni, Rita; Jobaggy, Akos; Barbenel, Joseph

2011-01-01

33

Projected Changes in Northern Europe Storm and Precipitation Characteristics: Uncertainty and the Implications for Climate Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future changes in storm characteristics and storm tracks over the eastern North Atlantic may have profound implications for energy providers, coastal communities and water resources availability across the European sector. Shifts in the storm tracks and the amount and intensity of precipitation are of particular concern to local/ municipal governments as they contemplate climate change adaptation/ mitigation strategies. Communicating the latest science to these end users is a two-pronged problem. On one prong the scientific community still has some way to go before fully understanding the physical mechanisms driving projected changes at local to regional scales and their associated uncertainties (which can be quite large). On the other prong planners require up-to-date, reliable information at just these scales as they seek to make decisions, which will resonate for decades. The present study investigates projected changes to storms and precipitation over Northern Europe and decomposes the sources of uncertainty surrounding these changes. Strategies for communicating these changes and uncertainties with planners are also discussed. The city of Bergen, which is a participant in the ECLISE project, is employed as a case study for how complex and often counterintuitive climate information can be made useful for end users. Some large-scale, robust changes in storm track statistics have been identified in the ensemble mean climate change response. However, there are often widely varying responses between models and little analysis on the role intra-model variability. A focus on the multi model ensemble mean response is useful in that it isolates externally forced (i.e. climate change) aspects of future variability. However, this approach underestimates the influence of internal variability (weather-related "noise") and its contribution to total uncertainty. Recent research suggests that internal variability can make a large contribution to overall uncertainty with clear implications for future prediction efforts. The present study investigates projected regional changes to seasonal storm characteristics and precipitation over the eastern North Atlantic and Northern Europe using a high-resolution, stretched grid, AGCM (ARPEGE). An extra-tropical cyclone-tracking algorithm is applied to simulations for present (1980-1999) and future (2020-2060) periods and NCEP reanalysis data (1980-1999). Two present day simulations are carried out: one with spectral nudging toward the large-scale circulation (Nudged) and one without (Free). Four future realizations are run that differ only in their SST specifications, which are taken from four A1B AOGCM simulations from different modeling groups. Storm track statistics are computed for all months with winter (DJF) and summer (JJA) shown. Future changes are evaluated by subtracting the 20th century seasonal mean of the Free run from the ensemble mean of the (2041-2060) 21st century runs. The multiple future realizations allow for the decomposition of total future variability into parts due to forced and internal variability. Despite the dominance of internal variability in the seasonal storm response, robust precipitation signals are identified. These results suggest that, in these simulations at least, the changes in the precipitation come mainly from the thermodynamic rather than the dynamic response of the atmosphere to global warming.

Sobolowski, S.; Mesquita, M.; Keay, K.

2012-04-01

34

Projected evolution of circulation types and their temperatures over Central Europe in climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study deals with changes in large-scale atmospheric circulation (represented by circulation types) and associated surface air temperatures as projected in an ensemble of regional climate models (RCMs) from the ENSEMBLES project. We examine changes of circulation type frequencies and means of daily maximum and minimum temperatures within circulation types in individual seasons for two time slices of transient runs under the SRES A1B scenario (2021-2050 and 2071-2100) with respect to the control period (1961-1990). To study the influence of driving data, simulations of the driving general circulation models (GCMs) also are evaluated. We find that all models project changes of atmospheric circulation that are statistically significant for both future time slices. The models tend to project strengthening of the westerly circulation in winter and its weakening in summer. We show that increases of daily maximum and minimum temperatures in all seasons differ for individual circulation types. There are, however, only few features of the projected changes in the future circulation-temperature links that are common among the models, in particular relatively smaller warming for westerly types. Only in winter, projected changes in circulation types tend to contribute to the projected overall warming. This effect is negligible and mostly opposite in the other seasons. We also detect a strong influence of driving data on RCMs' simulation of atmospheric circulation and temperature changes.

Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan

2013-11-01

35

Radiation Effects: Core Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The risks to personnel in space from the naturally occurring radiations are generally considered to be one of the most serious limitations to human space missions, as noted in two recent reports of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. The Core Project of the Radiation Effects Team for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute is the consequences of radiations in space in order to develop countermeasure, both physical and pharmaceutical, to reduce the risks of cancer and other diseases associated with such exposures. During interplanetary missions, personnel in space will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays, including high-energy protons and energetic ions with atomic masses of iron or higher. In addition, solar events will produce radiation fields of high intensity for short but irregular durations. The level of intensity of these radiations is considerably higher than that on Earth's surface, and the biological risks to astronauts is consequently increased, including increased risks of carcinogenesis and other diseases. This group is examining the risk of cancers resulting from low-dose, low-dose rate exposures of model systems to photons, protons, and iron by using ground-based accelerators which are capable of producing beams of protons, iron, and other heavy ions at energies comparable to those encountered in space. They have begun the first series of experiments using a 1-GeV iron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and 250-MeV protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center's proton synchrotron facility. As part of these studies, this group will be investigating the potential for the pharmaceutical, Tamoxifen, to reduce the risk of breast cancer in astronauts exposed to the level of doses and particle types expected in space. Theoretical studies are being carried out in a collaboration between scientists at NASA's Johnson Space Center and Johns Hopkins University in parallel with the experimental program have provided methods and predictions which are being used to assess the levels of risks to be encountered and to evaluate appropriate strategies for countermeasures. Although the work in this project is primarily directed toward problems associated with space travel, the problem of protracted exposures to low-levels of radiation is one of national interest in our energy and defense programs, and the results may suggest new paradigms for addressing such risks.

Dicello, John F.

1999-01-01

36

Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP): a collaborative research project of the TopoEurope initiative of ESF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With elevations of several kilometers, low local relief and pronounced relief contrasts with surrounding regions, orogenic plateaus are first-order tectonic and topographic features of several Cenozoic mountain belts. The morphologic characteristics of plateaus may result from efficient tectonic uplift of mountain ranges that successively incorporate foreland domains into intermontane sedimentary environments. This process may ultimately lead to leeward aridification and a reduction of erosional power and inability of the fluvial network to keep pace with uplift. The combination of tectonic uplift and the decreasing ability of the fluvial system to keep pace with the tectonic processes causes a transition from externally to internally drained basins that eventually become overfilled and coalesce, causing low local relief at high elevations in the orogen interior. Although many studies are being carried out on the Tibetan and Puna-Altiplano plateaus, very little attention has been devoted to the development of the smaller Central Anatolia Plateau (CAP). With its low local relief located at high elevations and with an arid interior compared to deeply incised, humid flanks, the CAP fulfills all characteristics of orogenic plateaus. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanisms controlling the topographic development of this region and to quantify the competing tectonic, geomorphic and climatic processes, we have developed a multidisciplinary project (VAMP) under the umbrella of the TopoEurope initiative of ESF. Our project integrates 11 research institutions from 7 countries. We study a ~400-km-wide strip from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean that includes CAP and its flanks, the offshore basins and Cyprus. The semi-arid CAP interior has a subdued topography at elevations of ~1500m. The plateau interior comprises internally drained sedimentary basins that have helped reduce the refielf contrasts between individual ranges and intervening depressions. Infilling by Miocene to Quaternary continental sediments has created low local relief, where large shallow lakes occur. However, several basins have been captured by headward erosion and major rivers (Göksu River in the S and K?z?l?rmak River in the N) now expose basin-fill sediments and drain large areas of the CAP and form deeply incised gorges along the northern and southern margins, respectively. Miocene marine sediments, locally up to 2 km thick and deposited in a basin stretching, at least, from Antalya to Adana unconformably overlie rocks of the Taurus orogen in S Turkey. Northward, these units grade into a partly preserved erosional surface. To the south, correlative Miocene marine sediments are found in the Cilicia offshore basin and in the N Cyprus thrust-belt. These sediments provide a topographic datum for the beginning of plateau development. In addition these units provide information on the behavior of the Anatolian crust during subsidence. The end of marine sedimentation (~Tortonian) provides a maximum age for the onset of CAP uplift. Thereafter, uplift was coeval with, and tectonically linked to subsidence in the offshore basins. Interestingly, other important events occurred at this time as well. This includes the Messinian salinity crisis and the onset of fragmentation of the Tethyan slab. In our study, an interdisciplinary approach with a wide range of temporal and spatial scales of is adopted to (1) better constrain the kinematics of plateau (de)formation; (2) the timing of associated climatic changes; (3) to quantify patterns of sediment routing and deposition; and to (4) reconstruct the (deep) geometry of Anatolia and surrounding sedimentary basins. We furthermore assess the importance of crustal shortening, magmatic underplating and possible lithospheric segmentation and delamination with respect to plateau uplift and analyze the nature of the interactions between tectonic forcing and changing climate. We will perform structural, geomorphological and sedimentological studies and will apply low-T geochronology, cosmogenic exposure dating of geomor

Strecker, M.; Bertotti, G.; Echtler, H.; Ciner, A.; Dirik, E. Aydar (4), K.; Rojay, B.; Mulch, A.; Ková?ová, M.; Govers, R.; Gliozzi, E.; Simpson, G.; Aksu, A.

2009-04-01

37

Enabling the Use of Research Evidence within Educational Policymaking in Europe: Lessons from the EIPEE Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a political climate demanding evidence-informed decision making in education both within individual countries and at the international level, empirically grounded European research in this field is scarce. This paper reports on a European Commission-funded study that sought to identify and analyze different initiatives across Europe aimed…

Tripney, Janice; Kenny, Caroline; Gough, David

2014-01-01

38

Eur J Neurol . Author manuscript How many dementia cases in France and Europe? Alternative projections  

E-print Network

Eur J Neurol . Author manuscript Page /1 9 How many dementia cases in France and Europe Background The objective of this study is to estimate the number of dementia cases expected to occur using the European incidence data for dementia by age and sex, the relative mortality risks related

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Europe and US to Collaborate on the Design and Development of a Giant Radio Telescope Project in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Goals for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Representatives from the U.S. and Europe signed an agreement today in Washington to continue collaboration on the first phase of a giant new telescope project. The telescope will image the Universe with unprecedented sensitivity and sharpness at millimeter wavelengths (between the radio and infrared spectral regions). It will be a major step for astronomy, making it possible to study the origins of galaxies, stars and planets. This project is a prime example of a truly global project, an essential development in view of the ever-increasing complexity and cost of front-line astronomical facilities. The U.S. side of the project is run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) , operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The European side of the project is a collaboration between the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) , the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) , the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy (NFRA) and Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie (NOVA) , and the United Kingdom Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC). The Europe-U.S. agreement signed today may be formally extended in the very near future to include Japan, following an already existing tripartite declaration of intent. Dr. Robert Eisenstein, NSF's Assistant Director Mathematical and Physical Sciences, called the project "a path-breaking international partnership that will open far-reaching opportunities for astronomical observations. This array would enable astronomers to explore the detailed processes through which the stars and planets form and give us a vastly improved understanding of the formation of the first galaxies in the very early universe." Eisenstein welcomed the collaboration with Europe and Japan's interest in becoming a major partner. Speaking on behalf of the European Signatories, Prof. Riccardo Giacconi, Director General of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , one of the signatories to the new astronomy project, described the new project as "absolutely fantastic and farsighted - a major ground-based astronomical observatory for the 21st century. It will open up a key region of the electromagnetic spectrum to study the very early universe and the interstellar clouds where the stars and planets are born". The new telescope will be located in the Atacama desert of northern Chile, and has been given the name ALMA, for "Atacama Large Millimeter Array". This land has been given in concession to CONICYT (The Chilean National Commission for Science and Technology) last year by the "Ministerio de Bienes Nacionales" (Ministry of National Assets). It has also been declared a national reserve for science by President Frei because of its unique capabilities for astronomical research. ALMA will be a revolutionary telescope, operating at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths and comprised of an array of individual antennas each 12 meters in diameter that work together to make precision images of astronomical objects. The goal of the ALMA Project is an array of 64 antennas that can be positioned as needed over an area 10 km in diameter so as to give the array a zoom-lens capability. Dr. Paul Vanden Bout, Director of the U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory , emphasized the technical capabilities needed for the array: "The ALMA Project involves development of a variety of fundamental technologies including amplification of faint cosmic signals using superconducting receivers and ultrafast digital data processing, technologies that will enhance many related areas of scientific research". This MOU commits the Signatories to collaborate in a three-year Design and Development Phase 1 for a joint project. In the U.S., an amount of US $26 million has been approved for this phase, and in Europe, DM 28 million (15 million EURO). Two prototype 12-meter antennas will be cons

1999-06-01

40

Sustainable management regimes for Europe's forests — a projection with EFISCEN until 2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, forest policy discussions are moving towards a European Union-wide strategy. This will further intensify the relations between European countries in the field of forests and forest management. European-wide forest planning and decision-making require that policy makers have insight into the long-term development of European forests under alternative regimes. The European Forest Information Scenario Model (EFISCEN) was used to

G. J. Nabuurs; R. Paivinen; H. Schanz

2001-01-01

41

Development of patient-centred standards of care for rheumatoid arthritis in Europe: the eumusc.net project  

PubMed Central

Objective The eumusc.net project is a European Union (EU) commission and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)funded project that aims to facilitate equal standards for musculoskeletal health in all EU countries. One work-package was to develop evidence-based and patient-centred standards of care (SOC), for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) understandable for patients and professionals across Europe. Method A review of documents covering clinical practice ‘guidelines’ and SOC for RA was conducted. The obtained documents were evaluated using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) criteria, and all recommended methods to treat RA were extracted. Based on this information, a three-round Delphi exercise was performed including a consensus group meeting of 21 researchers and patient representatives. Results 16 patient-centred SOC were formulated including a lay version in the format of a checklist. An example is SOC 3: ‘People with RA should receive a treatment plan developed individually between them and their clinician at each visit.’ The corresponding checklist question reads: ‘Have I received a treatment plan which includes an explanation of my management, expected goals and outcomes and important contact details?’ Conclusions The SOC for RA will be available in all 23 official European languages and contribute to more unified treatment approaches in Europe. PMID:23921994

Stoffer, Michaela A; Smolen, Josef S; Woolf, Anthony; Ambrozic, Ales; Bosworth, Ailsa; Carmona, Loreto; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Loza, Estibaliz; Olejnik, Pawel; Petersson, Ingemar F; Uhlig, Till; Stamm, Tanja A

2014-01-01

42

Explaining Sonority?Projection?Effects  

E-print Network

Sonority projection?refers?to?behavioral?distinctions?speakers?make?between unattested phonological?sequences?on?the?basis?of?sonority. For?example,? among onset clusters,? the?well?formedness?relation?[bn]?>?[lb]? is?observed?in?speech perception,? speech?production,? and?nonword?acceptability?(Albright,? in?preparation; Berent,? Steriade,? Lenertz,? &? Vaknin,? 2007;? Davidson?2006,? 2007).?We?begin?by replicating the?sonority?projection?effects?in?a?nonword?acceptability?study. Then?we evaluate the?extent?to?which?sonority?projection?is?predicted?by?existing computational models?of?phonotactics?(Coleman? &? Pierrehumbert?1997;? Hayes?& Wilson 2008;? et?alia).?We?show?that?a?model?based?only?on?lexical?statistics?can explain sonority?projection?in?English?without?a?pre?existing?sonority?sequencing principle. To?do?this,? a?model?must?possess?(i)? a?featural?system?supporting sonority?based generalizations?and?(ii)? a?context?representation?including syllabification or?equivalent?information. 1

Robert Dal; Bruce Hayes A; Marc Garellek A; James White A; Andrea Davis B; Ingrid Norrmann C

43

The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe.  

PubMed

We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure-experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973

Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P; Winter, Joachim K

2014-03-01

44

THE EFFECT OF PESTICIDES ON DUCKWEED AT THEIR PREDICTED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS IN EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Pesticides may enter the environment and pose nega- tive effects on non-target organisms. The predicted envi- ronmental concentration (PEC) is used to assess the risk of chemicals listed in Europe's pesticide registration. Duckweed is one of the most prevalently used indicator plants for bioassays in many countries. This work may be the first to give broad information on toxicity

Cafer Turgut

45

Cost-effectiveness of pre-participation screening of athletes with ECG in Europe and Algeria.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ECG in combination with family and personal history and physical examination in order to detect cardiovascular diseases that might cause sudden death in athletes. The study was conducted on a cohort of 6,634, mainly young professional and recreational athletes, 1,071 from Algeria and 5,563 from Europe (France, Germany and Greece). Each athlete underwent medical history, physical examination, and resting 12-lead ECG. 293 athletes (4.4 %), 149 in Europe (2.7 %) and 144 in Algeria (13.4 %) required further tests, and 56 were diagnosed with cardiovascular disease and thus disqualified. The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) was calculated as the ratio between the cost of screening and the number of statistical life-years saved by the intervention. The estimated reduced risk of death deriving from treatment or disqualification resulted in the saving of 79.1 statistical life-years in Europe and 136.3 in Algeria. CER of screening was 4,071 purchasing-power-parity-adjusted US dollars ($PPP) in Europe and 582 $PPP in Algeria. The results of this study strongly support the utilisation of 12-lead ECG in the pre-participation screening of young athletes, especially in countries where secondary preventive care is not highly developed. PMID:25164412

Assanelli, Deodato; Levaggi, Rosella; Carré, François; Sharma, Sanjay; Deligiannis, Asterios; Mellwig, Klaus Peter; Tahmi, Mohamed; Vinetti, Giovanni; Aliverti, Paola

2015-03-01

46

Priorities for mental health research in Europe: A survey among national stakeholders' associations within the ROAMER project  

PubMed Central

Within the ROAMER project, funded by the European Commission, a survey was conducted with national associations/organizations of psychiatrists, other mental health professionals, users and/or carers, and psychiatric trainees in the 27 countries of the European Union, aiming to explore their views about priorities for mental health research in Europe. One hundred and eight associations/organizations returned the questionnaire. The five most frequently selected research priorities were early detection and management of mental disorders, quality of mental health services, prevention of mental disorders, rehabilitation and social inclusion, and new medications for mental disorders. All these areas, except the last one, were among the top ten research priorities according to all categories of stakeholders, along with stigma and discrimination. These results seem to support the recent argument that some rebalancing in favor of psychosocial and health service studies may be needed in psychiatric research. PMID:23737426

Fiorillo, Andrea; Luciano, Mario; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Sampogna, Gaia; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Maj, Mario

2013-01-01

47

Factorization of air pollutant emissions: projections versus observed trends in Europe.  

PubMed

This paper revisits the emission scenarios of the European Commission's 2005 Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution (TSAP) in light of today's knowledge. We review assumptions made in the past on the main drivers of emission changes, i.e., demographic trends, economic growth, changes in the energy intensity of GDP, fuel-switching, and application of dedicated emission control measures. Our analysis shows that for most of these drivers, actual trends have not matched initial expectations. Observed ammonia and sulfur emissions in European Union in 2010 were 10% to 20% lower than projected, while emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter exceeded estimates by 8% to 15%. In general, a higher efficiency of dedicated emission controls compensated for a lower-than-expected decline in total energy consumption as well as a delay in the phase-out of coal. For 2020, updated projections anticipate lower sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions than those under the 2005 baseline, whereby the degree to which these emissions are lower depends on what assumptions are made for emission controls and new vehicle standards. Projected levels of particulates are about 10% higher, while smaller differences emerge for other pollutants. New emission projections suggest that environmental targets established by the TSAP for the protection of human health, eutrophication and forest acidification will not be met without additional measures. PMID:25058894

Rafaj, Peter; Amann, Markus; Siri, José G

2014-10-01

48

A Community-University Exchange Project Modeled after Europe's Science Shops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a pilot project of the Morgridge Center for Public Service at the University of Wisconsin-Madison for a new structure for community-based learning and research. It is based on the European-derived science shop model for democratizing campus-community partnerships using shared values of mutual respect and validation of…

Tryon, Elizabeth; Ross, J. Ashleigh

2012-01-01

49

The Heidelberg Basin Drilling Project - Exploring one of the most complete successions of mid-continental Quaternary in Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Heidelberg Basin, located in the northern part of the Upper Rhine Graben (Germany) hosts one of the thickest and most complete successions of Plio-/Pleistocene sediments in continental Mid-Europe. Since Late Pliocene / Early Pleistocene, the River Rhine has acted as the only drainage system that connected the Alps with Northern Europe, especially the North Sea. The ongoing subsidence of the Upper Rhine Graben offers a unique potential for continuous sediment accumulation and preservation. Especially the Heidelberg Basin, as the distal sediment trap for alpine sediments, defines a key location to understand the glacial evolution of the Alps since Late Pliocene. With the aim to establish a reference profile of Quaternary stratigraphy of the region north of the Alps, that must be discussed in the context of the 4-D basin evolution, the Heidelberg Basin is investigated by new cored boreholes at three different locations. Each borehole is between 300 m and 500 m deep. Petrographic, sequence stratigraphic, biostratigraphic, and magnetostratigraphic approaches are included and complemented by geochronological and geophysical data. First investigations of the core material confirm that the depocenter of the basin is located close to the eastern main fault of the Rhine Graben, as was demonstrated by seismic pre-site surveys. The pollen data of the deepest borehole revealed a pollen assemblage that is interpreted as Tegelen interglacial. In the sense of climate stratigraphy, the sediment succession seems to be complete. Glacials and interglacials are found in superposition along one profile - a unique situation for Western Europe. A significant part of the cored boreholes consists of fine sediments. Therefore, the potential of the material for further research that concentrates e.g. on the control of sedimentation by tectonics and climate, the characterization of Base Quaternary by a combination of different datasets, the detailed characterization of the glacial and interglacials, and the spatial-temporal evolution of the basin, is already given. Reference Gabriel, G., Ellwanger, D., Hoselmann, C., Weidenfeller, M. (guest editors). Special Issue 'The Heidelberg Basin Drilling Project'. - Quaternary Science Journal (Eiszeitalter und Gegenwart), 57(3/4), 2008.

Gabriel, Gerald; Ellwanger, Dietrich; Frechen, Manfred; Hoselmann, Christian; Simon, Theo; Weidenfeller, Michael; Wielandt-Schuster, Ulrike

2010-05-01

50

Acute effects of ambient ozone on mortality in Europe and North America: results from the APHENA study.  

PubMed

The "Air Pollution and Health: A Combined European and North American Approach" (APHENA) project is a collaborative analysis of multi-city time-series data on the association between air pollution and adverse health outcomes. The main objective of APHENA was to examine the coherence of findings of time-series studies relating short-term fluctuations in air pollution levels to mortality and morbidity in 125 cities in Europe, the US, and Canada. Multi-city time-series analysis was conducted using a two-stage approach. We used Poisson regression models controlling for overdispersion with either penalized or natural splines to adjust for seasonality. Hierarchical models were used to obtain an overall estimate of excess mortality associated with ozone and to assess potential effect modification. Potential effect modifiers were city-level characteristics related to exposure to other ambient air pollutants, weather, socioeconomic status, and the vulnerability of the population. Regionally pooled risk estimates from Europe and the US were similar; those from Canada were substantially higher. The pooled estimated excess relative risk associated with a 10 µg/m(3) increase in 1 h daily maximum O3 was 0.26 % (95 % CI, 0.15 %, 0.37 %). Across regions, there was little consistent indication of effect modification by age or other effect modifiers considered in the analysis. The findings from APHENA on the effects of O3 on mortality in the general population were comparable with previously reported results and relatively robust to the method of data analysis. Overall, there was no indication of strong effect modification by age or ecologic variables considered in the analysis. PMID:23734168

Peng, Roger D; Samoli, Evangelia; Pham, Luu; Dominici, Francesca; Touloumi, Giota; Ramsay, Tim; Burnett, Richard T; Krewski, Daniel; Le Tertre, Alain; Cohen, Aaron; Atkinson, Richard W; Anderson, H Ross; Katsouyanni, Klea; Samet, Jonathan M

2013-06-01

51

Meteorology and photochemical air pollution in Southern Europe: Experimental results from EC research projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MECAPIP project of EC has served to document the summer atmospheric circulations and the related air pollution dynamics over Spain and the Western Mediterranean. The first includes surface wind convergence over the Iberian peninsula, large-scale compensatory subsidence over the surrounding coastal areas, and the formation of re-circulatory cells as a result of the sea breezes combining with up-slope winds

B. Artnano

1996-01-01

52

Jet fuel property changes and their effect on producibility and cost in the U.S., Canada, and Europe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of changes in properties and blending stocks on the refinery output and cost of jet fuel in the U.S., Canada, and Europe were determined. Computerized refinery models that minimize production costs and incorporated a 1981 cost structure and supply/demand projections to the year 2010 were used. Except in the West U.S., no changes in jet fuel properties were required to meet all projected demands, even allowing for deteriorating crude qualities and changes in competing product demand. In the West U.S., property changes or the use of cracked blendstocks were projected to be required after 1990 to meet expected demand. Generally, relaxation of aromatics and freezing point, or the use of cracked stocks produced similar results, i.e., jet fuel output could be increased by up to a factor of three or its production cost lowered by up to $10/cu m. High quality hydrocracked stocks are now used on a limited basis to produce jet fuel. The conversion of U.S. and NATO military forces from wide-cut to kerosene-based jet fuel is addressed. This conversion resulted in increased costs of several hundred million dollars annually. These costs can be reduced by relaxing kerosene jet fuel properties, using cracked stocks and/or considering the greater volumetric energy content of kerosene jet fuel.

Varga, G. M., Jr.; Avella, A. J., Jr.; Cunningham, A. R.; Featherston, C. D.; Gorgol, J. F.; Graf, A. J.; Lieberman, M.; Oliver, G. A.

1985-01-01

53

Observed and simulated impacts of the summer NAO in Europe: implications for projected drying in the Mediterranean region  

E-print Network

in the Mediterranean region Ileana Blade´ · Brant Liebmann · Didac Fortuny · Geert Jan van Oldenborgh Received: 6 April summer precipitation reductions in Europe and the Mediterranean region in the twenty-first century of the dominant large-scale driver of summer rainfall variability in Europe and the Mediterranean, the summer

Stoffelen, Ad

54

Linking climate and air quality over Europe: effects of meteorology on PM2.5 concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of various meteorological parameters such as temperature, wind speed, absolute humidity, precipitation and mixing height on PM2.5 concentrations over Europe were examined using a three-dimensional chemical transport model, PMCAMx-2008. Our simulations covered three periods, representative of different seasons (summer, winter, and fall). PM2.5 appears to be more sensitive to temperature changes compared to the other meteorological parameters in all seasons. PM2.5 generally decreases as temperature increases, although the predicted changes vary significantly in space and time, ranging from -700 ng m-3 K-1 (-8% K-1) to 300 ng m-3 K-1 (7% K-1). The predicted decreases of PM2.5 are mainly due to evaporation of ammonium nitrate, while the higher biogenic emissions and the accelerated gas-phase reaction rates increase the production of organic aerosol (OA) and sulfate, having the opposite effect on PM2.5. The predicted responses of PM2.5 to absolute humidity are also quite variable, ranging from -130 ng m-3%-1 (-1.6% %-1) to 160 ng m-3 %-1 (1.6% %-1) dominated mainly by changes in inorganic PM2.5 species. An increase in absolute humidity favors the partitioning of nitrate to the aerosol phase and increases the average PM2.5 during summer and fall. Decreases in sulfate and sea salt levels govern the average PM2.5 response to humidity during winter. A decrease of wind speed (keeping constant the emissions) increases all PM2.5 species (on average 40 ng m-3 %-1) due to changes in dispersion and dry deposition. The wind speed effects on sea salt emissions are significant for PM2.5 concentrations over water and in coastal areas. Increases in precipitation have a negative effect on PM2.5 (decreases up to 110 ng m-3 %-1) in all periods due to increases in wet deposition of PM2.5 species and their gas precursors. Changes in mixing height have the smallest effects (up to 35 ng m-3 %-1) on PM2.5. Regarding the relative importance of each of the meteorological parameters in a changed future climate, the projected changes in precipitation are expected to have the largest impact on PM2.5 levels during all periods (changes up to 2 ?g m-3 in the fall). The expected effects in future PM2.5 levels due to wind speed changes are similar in all seasons and quite close to those resulting from future precipitation changes (up to 1.4 ?g m-3). The expected increases in absolute humidity in the future can lead to large changes in PM2.5 levels (increases up to 2 ?g m-3) mainly in the fall due to changes in particulate nitrate levels. Despite the high sensitivity of PM2.5 levels to temperature, the small expected increases of temperature in the future will lead to modest PM2.5 changes and will not dominate the overall change.

Megaritis, A. G.; Fountoukis, C.; Charalampidis, P. E.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S. N.

2014-04-01

55

Linking climate and air quality over Europe: effects of meteorology on PM2.5 concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of various meteorological parameters such as temperature, wind speed, absolute humidity, precipitation and mixing height on PM2.5 concentrations over Europe were examined using a three-dimensional chemical transport model, PMCAMx-2008. Our simulations covered three periods, representative of different seasons (summer, winter, and fall). PM2.5 appears to be more sensitive to temperature changes compared to the other meteorological parameters in all seasons. PM2.5 generally decreases as temperature increases, although the predicted changes vary significantly in space and time, ranging from -700 ng m-3 K-1 (-8% K-1) to 300 ng m-3 K-1 (7% K-1). The predicted decreases of PM2.5 are mainly due to evaporation of ammonium nitrate, while the higher biogenic emissions and the accelerated gas-phase reaction rates increase the production of organic aerosol (OA) and sulfate, having the opposite effect on PM2.5. The predicted responses of PM2.5 to absolute humidity are also quite variable, ranging from -130 ng m-3 %-1 (-1.6% %-1) to 160 ng m-3 %-1 (1.6% %-1) dominated mainly by changes in inorganic PM2.5 species. An increase in absolute humidity favors the partitioning of nitrate to the aerosol phase and increases the average PM2.5 during summer and fall. Decreases in sulfate and sea salt levels govern the average PM2.5 response to humidity during winter. A decrease of wind speed (keeping the emissions constant) increases all PM2.5 species (on average 40 ng m-3 %-1) due to changes in dispersion and dry deposition. The wind speed effects on sea salt emissions are significant for PM2.5 concentrations over water and in coastal areas. Increases in precipitation have a negative effect on PM2.5 (decreases up to 110 ng m-3 %-1) in all periods due to increases in wet deposition of PM2.5 species and their gas precursors. Changes in mixing height have the smallest effects (up to 35 ng m-3 %-1) on PM2.5 . Regarding the relative importance of each of the meteorological parameters in a changed future climate, the projected changes in precipitation are expected to have the largest impact on PM2.5 levels during all periods (changes up to 2 ?g m-3 in the fall). The expected effects in future PM2.5 levels due to wind speed changes are similar in all seasons and quite close to those resulting from future precipitation changes (up to 1.4 ?g m-3). The expected increases in absolute humidity in the future can lead to large changes in PM2.5 levels (increases up to 2 ?g m-3) mainly in the fall due to changes in particulate nitrate levels. Despite the high sensitivity of PM2.5 levels to temperature, the small expected increases of temperature in the future will lead to modest PM2.5 changes and will not dominate the overall change.

Megaritis, A. G.; Fountoukis, C.; Charalampidis, P. E.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S. N.

2014-09-01

56

Economics of chronic diseases protocol: cost-effectiveness modelling and the future burden of non-communicable disease in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of chronic disease is caused by risk factors which are mostly preventable. Effective interventions to reduce these risks are known and proven to be applicable to a variety of settings. Chronic disease is generally developed long before the fatal outcome, meaning that a lot of people spend a number of years in poor health. Effective prevention measures can prolong lives of individuals and significantly improve their quality of life. However, the methods to measure cost-effectiveness are a subject to much debate. The Economics of Chronic Diseases project aims to establish the best possible methods of measuring cost-effectiveness as well as develop micro-simulation models apt at projecting future burden of chronic diseases, their costs and potential savings after implementation of cost-effective interventions. Method This research project will involve eight European countries: Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Lithuania, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom (UK). A literature review will be conducted to identify scientific articles which critically review the methods of cost-effectiveness. Contact will be made health economists to inform and enrich this review. This evidence will be used as a springboard for discussion at a meeting with key European stakeholders and experts with the aim of reaching a consensus on recommendations for cost-effectiveness methodology. Epidemiological data for coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be collected along with data on time trends in three major risk factors related to these diseases, specifically tobacco consumption, blood pressure and body mass index. Economic and epidemiological micro-simulation models will be developed to asses the future distributions of risks, disease outcomes, healthcare costs and the cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in Europe. Discussion This work will help to establish the best methods of measuring cost-effectiveness of health interventions as well as test a variety of scenarios to reduce the risk factors associated with selected chronic diseases. The modelling projections could be used to inform decisions and policies that will implement the best course of action to curb the rising incidence of chronic diseases. PMID:24886110

2014-01-01

57

Improved appreciation of the functioning and importance of biological soil crusts in Europe: the Soil Crust International Project (SCIN).  

PubMed

Here we report details of the European research initiative "Soil Crust International" (SCIN) focusing on the biodiversity of biological soil crusts (BSC, composed of bacteria, algae, lichens, and bryophytes) and on functional aspects in their specific environment. Known as the so-called "colored soil lichen community" (Bunte Erdflechtengesellschaft), these BSCs occur all over Europe, extending into subtropical and arid regions. Our goal is to study the uniqueness of these BSCs on the regional scale and investigate how this community can cope with large macroclimatic differences. One of the major aims of this project is to develop biodiversity conservation and sustainable management strategies for European BSCs. To achieve this, we established a latitudinal transect from the Great Alvar of Öland, Sweden in the north over Gössenheim, Central Germany and Hochtor in the Hohe Tauern National Park, Austria down to the badlands of Tabernas, Spain in the south. The transect stretches over 20° latitude and 2,300 m in altitude, including natural (Hochtor, Tabernas) and semi-natural sites that require maintenance such as by grazing activities (Öland, Gössenheim). At all four sites BSC coverage exceeded 30 % of the referring landscape, with the alpine site (Hochtor) reaching the highest cyanobacterial cover and the two semi-natural sites (Öland, Gössenheim) the highest bryophyte cover. Although BSCs of the four European sites share a common set of bacteria, algae (including cyanobacteria) lichens and bryophytes, first results indicate not only climate specific additions of species, but also genetic/phenotypic uniqueness of species between the four sites. While macroclimatic conditions are rather different, microclimatic conditions and partly soil properties seem fairly homogeneous between the four sites, with the exception of water availability. Continuous activity monitoring of photosystem II revealed the BSCs of the Spanish site as the least active in terms of photosynthetic active periods. PMID:24954978

Büdel, Burkhard; Colesie, Claudia; Green, T G Allan; Grube, Martin; Lázaro Suau, Roberto; Loewen-Schneider, Katharina; Maier, Stefanie; Peer, Thomas; Pintado, Ana; Raggio, José; Ruprecht, Ulrike; Sancho, Leopoldo G; Schroeter, Burkhard; Türk, Roman; Weber, Bettina; Wedin, Mats; Westberg, Martin; Williams, Laura; Zheng, Lingjuan

2014-01-01

58

Review of recent studies from central and Eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to "traditional" air pollutants.  

PubMed Central

The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review focuses on epidemiologic evidence regarding health effects of poor air quality in Central and Eastern Europe. It appears that short-term high levels of air pollutants (primarily particulates and SO2) may increase mortality in sensitive parts of the population. Associations were also seen between air pollution levels and prevalence of respiratory diseases as well as lung function disturbances in adults and children. One study indicated that urban air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer. Several investigations pointed to strong interactions between risk factors. The poor scientific standard of the studies often makes it difficult to evaluate the findings. Several steps should be taken to develop environmental epidemiology in Central and Eastern Europe, including international collaboration in research projects and training. PMID:7614938

Jedrychowski, W

1995-01-01

59

Climatic Effects on the Inter-Annual Variability of Carbon Fluxes for North America and Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The connection between climate variability and global carbon cycle has already been shown to be linked with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) (1). A positive phase of the NAO is associated with more and stronger winter storms crossing the North Atlantic on a more northerly route, causing major anomalies in sea surface temperature, currents and convective activity throughout the North Atlantic. A long-term trend towards very positive values has culminated in the early 1990s, and since then a decreasing trend is happening (1). Identification of the climatic drivers of the net ecosystem fluxes is becoming a rising issue. In particular the effects of year-to-year climate variability on regional budgets and the understanding of the underlying biogeochemical processes are of fundamental importance due to the intensification of extreme climatic events like precipitation (2) and drought events (3). We identified the relations between climatic variability (i.e. NAO) and the regional carbon budgets of North America and Europe over the period from 1989 to 2008. In doing this we kept special focus both on temporal and spatial scale. For this purpose we took advantage of the high-density of FLUXNET measurement sites in these areas. We applied a radiation use efficiency model for gross primary production (4) combined with a semi-empirical total ecosystem respiration model (5). As drivers for the model we used climatic and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) records. We utilized in-situ calibrated model parameters to estimate the regional ecosystem carbon fluxes. The model was spatially applied according to the similarity in the climatic-phenological space of each grid pixel with the measurement site to which it was calibrated (e.g., 6). We found that for Europe NAO could explain NEE variability in a reasonable way for northern and southern Europe, but for the mid-latitude region this was not the case. For North America the patterns were less clear. In both the regions we found a significant time dependency of the spatial patterns. Hence we showed how broad-scale climatic and circulations patterns transfer into carbon cycle patterns in a direct and lagged way. References 1. Thomas, H., et al., (2008). Changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation influence CO_2 uptake in the North Atlantic over the past 2 decades. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 22, GB4027. 2. Christensen, O. & Christensen, J. (2004) Intensification of extreme European summer precipitation in a warmer climate. Global and Planetary Change 44, 107-117. 3. Ciais, P. et al., (2005). Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature 437, 528-533. 4. Running, S. W., et al., (2000). Methods in Ecosystem Science. , 44-57. 5. Migliavacca, et al., (2010). Semi-empirical modeling of abiotic and biotic factors controlling ecosystem respiration across eddy covariance sites. Global Change Biology in Press. 6. Carvalhais, N., et al., (2010). Deciphering the components of regional net ecosystem fluxes following a bottom-up approach for the Iberian Peninsula. Biogeosciences Discussions 3, 4801-4855.

Tomelleri, E.; Carvalhais, N.; Migliavacca, M.; Reichstein, M.; Fluxnet Lathuille Synthesis Team (Cf. Www. Fluxdata. Org)

2010-12-01

60

Common summertime total cloud cover and aerosol optical depth weekly variabilities over Europe: Sign of the aerosol indirect effects?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the summer total cloud cover (TCC) weekly cycle over Europe is investigated using MODIS and ISCCP satellite data in conjunction with aerosol optical depth (AOD) MODIS data. Spatial weekly patterns are examined at a 1° × 1° (MODIS) and 250 × 250 km2 (ISCCP) resolution. Despite the noise in the TCC weekly cycle patterns, their large-scale features show similarities with the AOD550 patterns. Regions with a positive (higher values during midweek) weekly cycle appear over Central Europe, while a strong negative (higher values during weekend) weekly plume appears over the Iberian Peninsula and the North-Eastern Europe. The TCC weekly variability exhibits a very good agreement with the AOD550 weekly variability over Central, South-Western Europe and North-Eastern Europe and a moderate agreement for Central Mediterranean. The MODIS derived TCC weekly variability shows reasonable agreement with the independent ISCCP observations, thus supporting the credibility of the results. TCC and AOD550 correlations exhibit a strong slope for the total of the 6 regions investigated in this work with the slopes being higher for regions with common TCC-AOD550 weekly variabilities. The slope is much stronger for AOD550 values less than 0.2 for Central and South-Western Europe, in line with previous studies around the world. Possible scenarios that could explain the common weekly variability of aerosols and cloud cover through the aerosol indirect effects are discussed here also taking into account the weekly variability appearing in ECA&D E-OBS rainfall data.

Georgoulias, A. K.; Kourtidis, K. A.; Alexandri, G.; Rapsomanikis, S.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.

2015-02-01

61

Climate change effects on Chikungunya transmission in Europe: geospatial analysis of vector’s climatic suitability and virus’ temperature requirements  

PubMed Central

Background Chikungunya was, from the European perspective, considered to be a travel-related tropical mosquito-borne disease prior to the first European outbreak in Northern Italy in 2007. This was followed by cases of autochthonous transmission reported in South-eastern France in 2010. Both events occurred after the introduction, establishment and expansion of the Chikungunya-competent and highly invasive disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) in Europe. In order to assess whether these outbreaks are indicative of the beginning of a trend or one-off events, there is a need to further examine the factors driving the potential transmission of Chikungunya in Europe. The climatic suitability, both now and in the future, is an essential starting point for such an analysis. Methods The climatic suitability for Chikungunya outbreaks was determined by using bioclimatic factors that influence, both vector and, pathogen. Climatic suitability for the European distribution of the vector Aedes albopictus was based upon previous correlative environmental niche models. Climatic risk classes were derived by combining climatic suitability for the vector with known temperature requirements for pathogen transmission, obtained from outbreak regions. In addition, the longest potential intra-annual season for Chikungunya transmission was estimated for regions with expected vector occurrences. In order to analyse spatio-temporal trends for risk exposure and season of transmission in Europe, climate change impacts are projected for three time-frames (2011–2040, 2041–2070 and 2071–2100) and two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). These climatic projections are based on regional climate model COSMO-CLM, which builds on the global model ECHAM5. Results European areas with current and future climatic suitability of Chikungunya transmission are identified. An increase in risk is projected for Western Europe (e.g. France and Benelux-States) in the first half of the 21st century and from mid-century onwards for central parts of Europe (e.g. Germany). Interestingly, the southernmost parts of Europe do not generally provide suitable conditions in these projections. Nevertheless, many Mediterranean regions will persist to be climatically suitable for transmission. Overall, the highest risk of transmission by the end of the 21st century was projected for France, Northern Italy and the Pannonian Basin (East-Central Europe). This general tendency is depicted in both, the A1B and B1 climate change scenarios. Conclusion In order to guide preparedness for further outbreaks, it is crucial to anticipate risk as to identify areas where specific public health measures, such as surveillance and vector control, can be implemented. However, public health practitioners need to be aware that climate is only one factor driving the transmission of vector-borne disease. PMID:24219507

2013-01-01

62

Update of survey, regulation and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most frequent toxigenic fungi in Europe are Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium species. They produce aflatoxin B1 transformed into aflatoxin M1 found in the milk, as well as Ochratoxins and Zearalenone, Fumonisin B1, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin), which are of increasing concern in human health. These mycotoxins are under continuous survey in Europe, but the regulatory aspects

Edmond E. Creppy

2002-01-01

63

Global warming increases the frequency of river floods in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EURO-CORDEX, a new generation of downscaled climate projections, has become available for climate change impact studies in Europe. New opportunities arise in the investigation of potential effects of a warmer world on meteorological and hydrological extremes at regional scales. In this work, an ensemble of EURO-CORDEX RCP 8.5 scenarios is used to drive a distributed hydrological model and assess the projected changes in flood hazard in Europe through the current century. Changes in magnitude and frequency of extreme streamflow events are investigated by statistical distribution fitting and peak over threshold analysis. A consistent method is proposed to evaluate the agreement of ensemble projections. Results indicate that the change in frequency of discharge extremes is likely to have a larger impact on the overall flood hazard as compared to the change in their magnitude. On average in Europe, flood peaks with return period above 100 years are projected to double in frequency within three decades.

Alfieri, L.; Burek, P.; Feyen, L.; Forzieri, G.

2015-01-01

64

The effect of spatial and temporal correlations in the evaluation of flood risk in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk models as developed for the insurance sector tend to have two distinct features that set them apart from many other model applications. Firstly, the insurance sector has an interest in large-scale models (viz., country scale and larger), so that flood risk across their entire portfolio, which is often geographically dispersed over a large area, can be consistently assessed. Secondly, it's also relevant to the insurance sector to model spatio-temporal correlations of the drivers of flood loss correctly across the entire domain, in order to not over- or underestimate the financial consequences of flood events. As flood risk can conceptually be regarded as the result of the combined effects of intense local precipitation (triggering local "pluvial" flood events), and high river discharge (driving large-scale "fluvial" floods), there is a need to model both these variables in such a way that the statistics at any one location as well as the correlations in space and time are aptly described. In this work, additionally to giving an overview of the European Flood Model that is currently being developed at RMS, we describe the development and the analysis of a coherent, continent-wide set of stochastic model forcings and their effect on large-scale flood modelling. Our results show that by applying the model we are able to simulate input forcings such that the statistics compare favourably with those of observations. Moreover, by providing these forcings to our hydrological model, we are able to adequately reflect the corresponding hydrological response in terms of discharge. Furthermore we discuss the application of this model for flood risk evaluation across Europe, specifically by interpretation of some key model results, such as spatial and temporal correlations of precipitation and discharge for various aggregation periods and evaluation windows (e.g., precipitation and discharge maxima over a month, and their correlations in both space and time), as well as effects of seasonality on precipitation and discharge regimes.

Tsaknias, Dimosthenis; Assteerawatt, Anongnart; Azemar, Frederic; Ghosh, Sourima; Hilberts, Arno; Nicótina, Ludovico; Tillmanns, Stephan

2013-04-01

65

New international long-term ecological research on air pollution effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests, Central Europe.  

PubMed

An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and other ecosystems caused by air pollution in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania and in the Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians on the Polish-Slovak border. Both of these important mountain ranges have the status of national parks and are Man & the Biosphere Reserves. In the Retezat Mountains, the primary research objective was to evaluate how air pollution may affect forest health and biodiversity. The main research objective in the Tatra Mountains was to evaluate responses of natural and managed Norway spruce forests to air pollution and other stresses. Ambient concentrations of ozone (O(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) as well as forest health and biodiversity changes were monitored on densely distributed research sites. Initial monitoring of pollutants indicated low levels of O(3), SO(2), and NO(x) in the Retezat Mountains, while elevated levels of O(3) and high deposition of atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have characterized the Tatra Mountains. In the Retezat Mountains, air pollution seems to have little effect on forest health; however, there was concern that over a long time, even low levels of pollution may affect biodiversity of this important ecosystem. In contrast, severe decline of Norway spruce has been observed in the Tatra Mountains. Although bark beetle seems to be the immediate cause of that decline, long-term elevated levels of atmospheric N and S depositions and elevated O(3) could predispose trees to insect attacks and other stresses. European and US scientists studied pollution deposition, soil and plant chemistry, O(3)-sensitive plant species, forest insects, and genetic changes in the Retezat and Tatra Mountains. Results of these investigations are presented in a GIS format to allow for a better understanding of the changes and the recommendations for effective management in these two areas. PMID:12676229

Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Badea, Ovidiu; Barbu, Ion; Fleischer, Peter; Fraczek, Witold; Gancz, Vladimir; Godzik, Barbara; Grodzi?ska, Krystyna; Grodzki, Wojciech; Karnosky, David; Koren, Milan; Krywult, Marek; Krzan, Zbigniew; Longauer, Roman; Mankovska, Blanka; Manning, William J; McManus, Michael; Musselman, Robert C; Novotny, Julius; Popescu, Flaviu; Postelnicu, Daniela; Prus-G?owacki, Wies?aw; Skawi?ski, Pawe?; Skiba, Stefan; Szaro, Robert; Tamas, Stefan; Vasile, Cristian

2003-06-01

66

Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project: cross-national comparison of smoking prevalence in 18 European countries.  

PubMed

Limited data on smoking prevalence allowing valid between-country comparison are available in Europe. The aim of this study is to provide data on smoking prevalence and its determinants in 18 European countries. In 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project, we conducted a face-to-face survey on smoking in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden) on a total of 18 056 participants, representative for each country of the population aged 15 years or older. Overall, 27.2% of the participants were current smokers (30.6% of men and 24.1% of women). Smoking prevalence was highest in Bulgaria (40.9%) and Greece (38.9%) and lowest in Italy (22.0%) and Sweden (16.3%). Smoking prevalence ranged between 15.7% (Sweden) and 44.3% (Bulgaria) for men and between 11.6% (Albania) and 38.1% (Ireland) for women. Multivariate analysis showed a significant inverse trend between smoking prevalence and the level of education in both sexes. Male-to-female smoking prevalence ratios ranged from 0.85 in Spain to 3.47 in Albania and current-to-ex prevalence ratios ranged from 0.68 in Sweden to 4.28 in Albania. There are considerable differences across Europe in smoking prevalence, and male-to-female and current-to-ex smoking prevalence ratios. Eastern European countries, lower income countries and those with less advanced tobacco control policies have less favourable smoking patterns and are at an earlier stage of the tobacco epidemic. PMID:24441832

Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo; Chaloupka, Frank J; Colombo, Paolo; Currie, Laura; Fernandez, Esteve; Fischbacher, Colin; Gilmore, Anna; Godfrey, Fiona; Joossens, Luk; Leon, Maria E; Levy, David T; Nguyen, Lien; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Ross, Hana; Townsend, Joy; Clancy, Luke

2014-05-01

67

The school nutrition environment and its association with soft drink intakes in seven countries across Europe - the ENERGY project.  

PubMed

The school is an important setting for promoting healthy eating especially at the transition from childhood to adolescence. This study contributes to the literature by describing practices within physical, political and sociocultural aspects of the school nutrition environment in seven countries across Europe based on questionnaires to the school management, and exploring their associations with soft drink consumption reported on questionnaires by 10-12 year olds. Several of the commonly self-reported practices could be supportive of a healthy diet (time to eat, access to water, restriction on marketing), but some practices were underutilized (i.e. discussion with stakeholders, healthy foods at events). Only a few associations of practices with the pupils? soft drink consumption were found. PMID:25190681

Lien, Nanna; van Stralen, Maartje M; Androutsos, Odysseas; Bere, Elling; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; van Lippevelde, Wendy; Manios, Yannis; Te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

2014-11-01

68

Effective Showcase Projects: Office of Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Indian Education Programs supplement state, local, and tribal education efforts to improve the quality of Indian education and assure parental and community participation. Each year, the Office of Indian Education, assisted by the six regional Indian Education Technical Assistance Centers, selects effective projects to be showcased at the…

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC. Indian Education Programs.

69

CNBC Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CNBC EuropeEBN Interactive is the web site of the European Business News (EBN) channel. The site posts the latest business news from all over Europe. Visitors can also listen to EBN's live broadcast of European news or specific programs. The Markets section provides continuous updates of European stock markets and daily market reports for each stock exchange. The Features section holds a collection of video clips from EBN programs such as "The Big Game," "Automotive," and "Your Money," among others.

1998-01-01

70

Biotechnology in europe.  

PubMed

The countries of the European Economic Community have recently mounted considerable efforts to commercialize biotechnology. Together, these efforts approach the same number of companies and level of government spending as those in the United States. In Europe there is more government emphasis on support for industry-university collaborations and industrial projects than in the United States, where basic research is emphasized. European efforts are often not easily delineated from those in the United States; many European companies have extensive U.S. operations and many U.S. companies have involvement in Europe. Strategies and efforts in European biotechnology are examined and compared to those in the United States. PMID:17828912

Dibner, M D

1986-06-13

71

Incentive effects of social security on labor force participation: evidence in Germany and across Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

All across Europe, old age labor force participation has declined dramatically during the last decades. This secular trend coincides with population aging. The European social security systems therefore face a double threat: Retirees receive pensions for a longer time while there are less workers per retiree to shoulder the financial burden of the pension systems. This paper shows that a

Axel Börsch-Supan

2000-01-01

72

The Citizen's Effect: 25 Features about the Europe for Citizens Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public forums and shared spaces in which citizens can debate and deliberate have always constituted essential elements of a democratic society. Today, the Europe for Citizens Programme serves to create a modern European agora. Launched in 2007, the programme supports initiatives that bring people together in international and intercultural…

Reding, Viviane

2012-01-01

73

Adult Education Research in the Countries in Transition. Adult Education Research Trends in the Former Socialist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic Region. Research Project Report. Studies and Researches 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents results of an investigation into the state of the art of research on the education of adults in Central and Eastern European and Baltic countries. The first section discusses the background and implementation of the research. Section 2 is "Adult Education Research Trends in Central and Eastern Europe: Research Project

Jelenc, Zoran

74

Vertical cultural transmission effects on demic front propagation: Theory and application to the Neolithic transition in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that Lotka-Volterra interaction terms are not appropriate to describe vertical cultural transmission. Appropriate interaction terms are derived and used to compute the effect of vertical cultural transmission on demic front propagation. They are also applied to a specific example, the Neolithic transition in Europe. In this example, it is found that the effect of vertical cultural transmission can be important (about 30%). On the other hand, simple models based on differential equations can lead to large errors (above 50%). Further physical, biophysical, and cross-disciplinary applications are outlined.

Fort, Joaquim

2011-05-01

75

Masculinities in Organizational Cultures in Engineering Education in Europe: Results of the European Union Project WomEng  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes elements of engineering organizational cultures and structures in higher engineering education from the European project WomEng. Hypotheses, based on state of the art, refer to: women friendly presentation, attractiveness of interdisciplinary teaching methods, single sex education, perceptions of minority status, feelings of…

Sagebiel, F.; Dahmen, J.

2006-01-01

76

Oceanography Vol.22, No.4190 AbstrAct. The European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA) is Europe's  

E-print Network

in our understanding of ocean acidification and its impacts on marine flora and fauna. Several recent of ocean acidification research, attention has often been devoted to the behavior of calcifying organismsOceanography Vol.22, No.4190 AbstrAct. The European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA

Rodgers, Keith

77

Methods for the Drug Effectiveness Review Project  

PubMed Central

The Drug Effectiveness Review Project was initiated in 2003 in response to dramatic increases in the cost of pharmaceuticals, which lessened the purchasing power of state Medicaid budgets. A collaborative group of state Medicaid agencies and other organizations formed to commission high-quality comparative effectiveness reviews to inform evidence-based decisions about drugs that would be available to Medicaid recipients. The Project is coordinated by the Center for Evidence-based Policy (CEbP) at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU), and the systematic reviews are undertaken by the Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) at OHSU and at the University of North Carolina. The reviews adhere to high standards for comparative effectiveness reviews. Because the investigators have direct, regular communication with policy-makers, the reports have direct impact on policy and decision-making, unlike many systematic reviews. The Project was an innovator of methods to involve stakeholders and continues to develop its methods in conducting reviews that are highly relevant to policy-makers. The methods used for selecting topics, developing key questions, searching, determining eligibility of studies, assessing study quality, conducting qualitative and quantitative syntheses, rating the strength of evidence, and summarizing findings are described. In addition, our on-going interactions with the policy-makers that use the reports are described. PMID:22970848

2012-01-01

78

Advection from the North Atlantic as the forcing of winter greenhouse effect over Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface temperature are observed over central Europe. Comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996, a satellite-retrieved surface (skin) temperature difference of 9.8 K is observed for the region 50-60°N 5-35°E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index Ina,

J. Otterman; J. Angell; R. Atlas; D. Bungato; S. Schubert; D. Starr; J. Susskind; M.-L. C. Wu

2002-01-01

79

Advection from the North Atlantic as the forcing of winter greenhouse effect over Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface temperature are observed over central Europe. Comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996, a satellite-retrieved surface (skin) temperature difference of 9.8 K is observed for the region 50–60°N; 5–35°E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index Ina,

J. Otterman; J. Angell; R. Atlas; D. Bungato; S. Schubert; D. Starr; J. Susskind; M.-L. C. Wu

2002-01-01

80

Identifying factors which modify the effects of ambient ozone on white clover ( Trifolium repens) in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes results of experiments carried out by participants of the UN\\/ECE ICP-Crops to investigate the dose response of plants to long-term ozone exposure. The data were analysed to determine the influences of climatic and geographical factors upon this dose response. Members of the ICP-Crops carried out experiments at 12 sites in Europe, covering a geographical range from Jokioinen,

G. R Ball; J Benton; D Palmer-Brown; J Fuhrer; L Skärby; B. S Gimeno; G Mills

1998-01-01

81

Climate modelling and near future solar power assessment in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the near future (2030-2050) solar power in Europe is assessed using numerical experiments. The photovoltaic energy is computed on the basis of the solar radiation and air temperature simulated by regional climate models run in the framework of the FP6-ENSEMBLES project. The multi-model simulation of the climate evolution over Europe is performed at a 25 km resolution using the IPCC A1B scenario, and the period 1961-2050 is analyzed. The A1B scenario assumes a world of very rapid economic growth, with a global population peak in mid-century. Preliminary results show a general increase of near-surface air temperature, accompanied by an increase (reduction) of the solar radiation in Southern (Northern) Europe, with significant positive effects on the photovoltaic energy availability over Western Europe.

Gaetani, Marco; Vignati, Elisabetta; Huld, Thomas; Monforti-Ferrario, Fabio; Wilson, Julian; Dosio, Alessandro

2013-04-01

82

Assessment of extreme precipitation over Northern Europe using WRF as a regional climate model within the RiskChange-project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is likely that one of the most damaging impacts of climate change may be an increase in the frequency and/or intensity of extreme precipitation events. Understanding the patterns of these changes is crucial for the design and adaptation of critical infrastructure. However, the magnitude, location and timing of these changes are largely unknown at the local to regional scales that stakeholders most care about. Further, the physical mechanisms underlying extreme events at regional scales are not well understood and the range of uncertainty is high. The main objective of the RiskChange project is to establish a consistent scientifically based framework for risk-based design using state-of-the-art knowledge of future changes in climate extreme statistics. Within the project a major part is to dynamical downscale from global and regional climate model projections to local scales of applications which will provide a data basis for the assessment of future changes in climate extreme statistics. Associated with this task is the quantification of uncertainties in the projected future climate extremes and associated variables for extreme environmental load. Concretely, the Weather Research and Forecasting model WRF is used as a regional climate model to downscale global climate model data from the models NORESM (met.no/BCCR) and EC-Earth (DMI) to a horizontal grid of 8 km for the cities Copenhagen, Denmark and Oslo, Norway. Results from preliminary test runs are presented to evaluate the performance of the chosen WRF model set up; in particular, we focus on the choice of physical parameterizations. First results addressing the representation of extreme rainfall events and extreme winds in a 20-years hindcast of the ERA-interim (1989-2009) period are shown. RiskChange results will contribute to the development of planning and decision support tools for local and central authorities and form the basis for establishing design guidelines and associated tools for the industry.

Mayer, S.; Sobolowski, S.; Outten, S.

2012-04-01

83

Effectiveness of design projects in teaching Telecommunications Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effectiveness of design projects in teaching Telecommunications Engineering to undergraduate students. The projects consisted in designing and prototyping of relatively complex electronic or optoelectronic devices. The distinctive feature of these projects was their real-world interdisciplinary nature. We discuss the requirements for educationally effective projects and describe the technical and educational results that we achieved. The recommendations that

A. Beltran-Hernandez; V. Dolores-Calzadilla; V. Garcia-Garduno; M. Moctezuma-Flores; S. Perez-Garcia; S. Khotiaintsev

2012-01-01

84

Solar and geomagnetic effects on the frequency of atmospheric circulation types over Europe: an analysis based on a large number of classifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, effects of the 11-year solar cycle on various aspects of tropospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere in winter have been recognized. One of our previous studies showed a significant solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types from the Hess-Brezowsky catalogue. Here, we use a large collection of varied classifications of circulation patterns, assembled within the COST733 Action "Harmonization and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions" to detect the solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types. The collection contains both objective and subjective classifications. The advantage of this multi-classification approach is that peculiarities or biases of any single classification (catalogue) that might influence the detected solar signal vanish once a large ensemble of classifications is used. We divide winter months (December to March) into three groups according to the mean monthly solar activity, quantified by the F10.7 flux. The three groups correspond to the minima of the 11-year solar cycle, a moderate solar activity, and solar maxima. Within each group, frequencies of occurrence of individual circulation types are calculated. Differences in the occurrence of individual classes between solar activity groups indicate the presence of a solar activity effect on atmospheric circulation over Europe. Statistical significance of these differences is estimated by a block resampling method. The research is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805, and by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic, contract OC115.

Huth, Radan; Cahynová, Monika; Kyselý, Jan

2010-05-01

85

Positive health effects of the natural outdoor environment in typical populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE): a study programme protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Growing evidence suggests that close contact with nature brings benefits to human health and well-being, but the proposed mechanisms are still not well understood and the associations with health remain uncertain. The Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor environment in Typical Populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE) project investigates the interconnections between natural outdoor environments and better human health and well-being. Aims and methods The PHENOTYPE project explores the proposed underlying mechanisms at work (stress reduction/restorative function, physical activity, social interaction, exposure to environmental hazards) and examines the associations with health outcomes for different population groups. It implements conventional and new innovative high-tech methods to characterise the natural environment in terms of quality and quantity. Preventive as well as therapeutic effects of contact with the natural environment are being covered. PHENOTYPE further addresses implications for land-use planning and green space management. The main innovative part of the study is the evaluation of possible short-term and long-term associations of green space and health and the possible underlying mechanisms in four different countries (each with quite a different type of green space and a different use), using the same methodology, in one research programme. This type of holistic approach has not been undertaken before. Furthermore there are technological innovations such as the use of remote sensing and smartphones in the assessment of green space. Conclusions The project will produce a more robust evidence base on links between exposure to natural outdoor environment and human health and well-being, in addition to a better integration of human health needs into land-use planning and green space management in rural as well as urban areas. PMID:24740979

Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Antó, Josep Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Danileviciute, Asta; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Garcia, Judith; Jerrett, Michael; Jones, Marc; Julvez, Jordi; van Kempen, Elise; van Kamp, Irene; Maas, Jolanda; Seto, Edmund; Smith, Graham; Triguero, Margarita; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Wright, John; Zufferey, Joris; van den Hazel, Peter Jan; Lawrence, Roderick; Grazuleviciene, Regina

2014-01-01

86

Leadership behaviors of effective project managers in construction project organizations in Texas  

E-print Network

A study involving twenty-six construction firms, which practice project management in Texas, examined whether thirteen leadership behaviors could be associated with effective project managers. The data indicated that supervisors and subordinates...

Haney, Harvey Joe

2012-06-07

87

Application of circulation classifications from the COST733 collection to the detection of solar and geomagnetic effects on tropospheric circulation over Europe in winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies of circulation classifications are biased by the fact that they are based on a single classification only; that is, their results are affected by the properties of a particular classification to an unknown extent. A large number of circulation classifications produced and collected in the COST733 database allows such a bias to be removed. As an example, we examine effects of solar activity variations on the frequency of circulation types, making use of more than sixty objective classifications for each of 12 domains, defined over Europe. To determine the solar effects, winter months (December to March) are divided into three classes according to the mean monthly solar activity, within which the frequencies of occurrence of circulation types are calculated. Circulation types coming from any classification with significant differences in frequency between high and low solar activity are identified. Current results generally confirm results of a previous study based on a single classification only (subjective Hess-Brezowsky) that (a) westerly types are more frequent under high than low solar activity; (b) northerly types are more frequent under low than high activity, and (iii) easterly and anticyclonic types are more frequent under low than moderate solar activity; the opposite holds for cyclonic types. The research is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic under contract OC115 and the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805.

Huth, Radan; Cahynová, Monika; Kyselý, Jan

2010-05-01

88

NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During August 1-14, 1999, NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) convened a workshop at the NASA Langley Research Center to try to determine why such a wide variation in aerosol emissions indices and chemical and physical properties has been reported by various independent AEAP-supported research teams trying to characterize the exhaust emissions of subsonic commercial aircraft. This workshop was divided into two phases, a laboratory phase and a field phase. The laboratory phase consisted of supplying known particle number densities (concentrations) and particle size distributions to a common manifold for the participating research teams to sample and analyze. The field phase was conducted on an aircraft run-up pad. Participating teams actually sampled aircraft exhaust generated by a Langley T-38 Talon aircraft at 1 and 9 m behind the engine at engine powers ranging from 48 to 100 percent. Results from the laboratory phase of this intercomparison workshop are reported in this paper.

Cofer, W. Randy, III; Anderson, Bruce E.; Connors, V. S.; Wey, C. C.; Sanders, T.; Winstead, E. L.; Pui, C.; Chen, Da-ren; Hagen, D. E.; Whitefield, P.

2001-01-01

89

Quality assessment of expert answers to lay questions about cystic fibrosis from various language zones in Europe: the ECORN-CF project  

PubMed Central

Background The European Centres of Reference Network for Cystic Fibrosis (ECORN-CF) established an Internet forum which provides the opportunity for CF patients and other interested people to ask experts questions about CF in their mother language. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a detailed quality assessment tool to analyze quality of expert answers, 2) evaluate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this tool, and 3) explore changes in the quality of expert answers over the time frame of the project. Methods The quality assessment tool was developed by an expert panel. Five experts within the ECORN-CF project used the quality assessment tool to analyze the quality of 108 expert answers published on ECORN-CF from six language zones. 25 expert answers were scored at two time points, one year apart. Quality of answers was also assessed at an early and later period of the project. Individual rater scores and group mean scores were analyzed for each expert answer. Results A scoring system and training manual were developed analyzing two quality categories of answers: content and formal quality. For content quality, the grades based on group mean scores for all raters showed substantial agreement between two time points, however this was not the case for the grades based on individual rater scores. For formal quality the grades based on group mean scores showed only slight agreement between two time points and there was also poor agreement between time points for the individual grades. The inter-rater agreement for content quality was fair (mean kappa value 0.232 ± 0.036, p < 0.001) while only slight agreement was observed for the grades of the formal quality (mean kappa value 0.105 ± 0.024, p < 0.001). The quality of expert answers was rated high (four language zones) or satisfactory (two language zones) and did not change over time. Conclusions The quality assessment tool described in this study was feasible and reliable when content quality was assessed by a group of raters. Within ECORN-CF, the tool will help ensure that CF patients all over Europe have equal possibility of access to high quality expert advice on their illness. PMID:22309508

2012-01-01

90

Learning about Teaching: Initial Findings from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project. Research Paper. MET Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to test new approaches to measuring effective teaching. The goal of the MET project is to improve the quality of information about teaching effectiveness available to education professionals within states and districts--information that will…

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

2010-01-01

91

Reforming Upper Secondary Education in Europe. The Leonardo da Vinci Project Post-16 Strategies. Surveys of Strategies for Post-16 Education To Improve the Parity of Esteem for Initial Vocational Education in Eight European Educational Systems. Theory into Practice 92. Institute for Educational Research Publication Series B.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the following papers on the Leonardo da Vinci project: "Looking for Post-16 Education Strategies for Parity of Esteem in Europe" (Lasonen); "Improving Parity of Esteem as a Policy Goal" (Makinen, Volanen); "Alternative Strategies for Parity of Esteem between General/Academic and Vocational Education in Europe" (Kamarainen);…

Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

92

[Consequences of opposition to vaccination in France and Europe. How to maintain effective vaccine coverage in 2010?].  

PubMed

Refusal of vaccination can result in inadequate vaccine coverage. The collective benefit of immunisation depends on a sufficient and sustained level of vaccine coverage. Low vaccine coverage can lead to the persistence of preventable diseases and, in some cases, to a dangerous shift in the age of pathogen encounter towards adulthood. This is the case of measles in Europe, where some countries, including France, have not reached the effective vaccine coverage rate of 95%. Outbreaks are occurring, leading to complications (encephalitis and pneumonia) in adolescents and adults, necessitating hospitalization in nearly one-third of cases. The French population is also under-vaccinated against hepatitis B, due to fears of a risk of demyelinating disorders: the coverage rate is currently only about 30% in infants and 10% in adolescents. These difficulties are due to negligence and to vaccine refusal by parents. Refusal of immunisation has a long history in Europe, and explains for example why pertussis remained endemic in many countries until 1995, and also the resurgence of diphtheria in the Russian federation during the 1990s. Sections of Western society are now questioning the need for some routine vaccines, overlooking the fact that they have eradicated some diseases (polio, diphtheria, etc.) and protect effectively against lesser-known pathogens such as hepatitis B virus and HPV. In France, it will be necessary to restructure healthcare professional training programs in vaccinology and to provide the public with more thorough information on the risk-benefit ratio of vaccination. The recent controversy surrounding pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccination demonstrates that the public and the media tend to focus more on the potential risks of vaccination than on its benefits. A vigorous ethical and political debate is needed to shape an effective and acceptable vaccine policy for the 21st century. PMID:21568045

Bégué, Pierre

2010-01-01

93

New Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1993, New Europe is a weekly publication that covers 49 countries, with a particular focus on institutions in the European Union (EU). Their site offers access to the contents of their print publication, along with additional information on their outreach activities that involve higher education, media groups, and think tanks. Users may wish to start by looking through the "EU Update" area on the left-hand side of the page. Here they will find news stories and investigative reporting that looks into the governmental organization and politics surrounding the European Union. Further down the page, visitors can look through sections such as "Business Update", "Regional News", and the individual country news area, which covers nations from Albania to Uzbekistan.

94

Challenge from Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European approach to developing a commercial space industry by establishing a market in a variety of space-based services is examined. The joint U.S./French project concerned with developing a system of mobile location and message transmission services covering Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, Locstar, and an American-based system, Geostar, is described. The marketing of the Argos satellite location and data collection services and efforts to promote space activities in the microgravity environment of low earth orbit are discussed.

95

Designing and Fostering Effective Online Group Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative learning is a hallmark of adult education and a popular instructional strategy. For over a decade, as an educator of adult learners, the author has integrated group work into courses. Group projects require the contribution and evaluation from all group members and often reflect a collective grade at the end of the project. However,…

Scherling, Sarah E.

2011-01-01

96

Energy drink consumption in europe: a review of the risks, adverse health effects, and policy options to respond.  

PubMed

With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

2014-01-01

97

Atmospheric black carbon and warming effects influenced by the source and absorption enhancement in central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles containing black carbon (BC), a strong absorbing substance, exert a rather uncertain direct and indirect radiative forcing in the atmosphere. To investigate the mass concentration and absorption properties of BC particles over central Europe, the model WRF-Chem was used at a resolution of 12 km in conjunction with a high-resolution BC emission inventory (EUCAARI 42-Pan-European Carbonaceous Aerosol Inventory; 1/8° × 1/16°). The model simulation was evaluated using measurements of equivalent soot carbon, absorption coefficients and particle number concentrations at seven sites within the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network, PM

Nordmann, S.; Cheng, Y. F.; Carmichael, G. R.; Yu, M.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Zhang, Q.; Saide, P. E.; Pöschl, U.; Su, H.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.

2014-12-01

98

Effects of human resource management on project effectiveness and success: Toward a new conceptual framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project management strategy research has focused on the effects of structure and planning operations (such as budgets, date completion and quality) on project success. In the past, projects have been managed as technical systems instead of behavioral systems. Relatively little attention has been paid to human resource factor. However, the Project Management Institute in its official definition of Project Management

Adnane Belout

1998-01-01

99

Project Information Form Project Title Evaluation of the Combined Effect of Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP),  

E-print Network

Project Information Form Project Title Evaluation of the Combined Effect of Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP), Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS), and Different Virgin Binder Sources on Performance the allowable RAP content to 25 percent in asphalt mixes. Caltrans-industry-academia task group has proposed

California at Davis, University of

100

Ion Beam Therapy in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, seven facilities in Europe treat deep-seated tumors with particle beams, six with proton beams and one with carbon ions. Three of these facilities are in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Dubna, Russia. Other facilities include the TSL Uppsala, Sweden, CPO Orsay, France, and PSI Villigen, Switzerland, all for proton therapy, and GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, which utilizes carbon ions only. But only two of these facilities irradiate with scanned ion beams: the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI), Villigen (protons) and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt. These two facilities are experimental units within physics laboratories and have developed the technique of intensity-modulated beam scanning in order to produce irradiation conforming to a 3-D target. There are three proton centers presently under construction in Munich, Essen and Orsay, and the proton facility at PSI has added a superconducting accelerator connected to an isocentric gantry in order to become independent of the accelerator shared with the physics research program. The excellent clinical results using carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) in Chiba and GSI have triggered the construction of four new heavy-ion therapy projects (carbon ions and protons), located in Heidelberg, Pavia, Marburg and Kiel. The projects in Heidelberg and Pavia will begin patient treatment in 2009, and the Marburg and Kiel projects will begin in 2010 and 2011, respectively. These centers use different accelerator designs but have the same kind of treatment planning system and use the same approach for the calculation of the biological effectiveness of the carbon ions as developed at GSI [1]. There are many other planned projects in the works. Do not replace the word "abstract," but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your "Enter" key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style sample before you begin working on your paper.

Kraft, Gerhard

2009-03-01

101

Ion Beam Therapy in Europe  

SciTech Connect

At present, seven facilities in Europe treat deep-seated tumors with particle beams, six with proton beams and one with carbon ions. Three of these facilities are in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Dubna, Russia. Other facilities include the TSL Uppsala, Sweden, CPO Orsay, France, and PSI Villigen, Switzerland, all for proton therapy, and GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, which utilizes carbon ions only. But only two of these facilities irradiate with scanned ion beams: the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI), Villigen (protons) and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt. These two facilities are experimental units within physics laboratories and have developed the technique of intensity-modulated beam scanning in order to produce irradiation conforming to a 3-D target. There are three proton centers presently under construction in Munich, Essen and Orsay, and the proton facility at PSI has added a superconducting accelerator connected to an isocentric gantry in order to become independent of the accelerator shared with the physics research program. The excellent clinical results using carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) in Chiba and GSI have triggered the construction of four new heavy-ion therapy projects (carbon ions and protons), located in Heidelberg, Pavia, Marburg and Kiel. The projects in Heidelberg and Pavia will begin patient treatment in 2009, and the Marburg and Kiel projects will begin in 2010 and 2011, respectively. These centers use different accelerator designs but have the same kind of treatment planning system and use the same approach for the calculation of the biological effectiveness of the carbon ions as developed at GSI [1]. There are many other planned projects in the works. Do not replace the word ''abstract,'' but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your ''Enter'' key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style sample before you begin working on your paper.

Kraft, Gerhard [GSI Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany)

2009-03-10

102

The Balassa-Samuelson effect in Central and Eastern Europe: myth or reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the Balassa-Samuelson effect in 9 CEECs . Using panel cointegration techniques, we find strong empirical evidence in favour of what we call the internal transmission mechanism since productivity growth in the open sector is found to bring about non-tradable inflation. However, we also shed new light on the fact that the impact of the internal transmission mechanism

Balazs Egert; Imed Drine; Kirsten Lommatzsch; Christophe Rault

2003-01-01

103

Secondary Transfer Effects of Intergroup Contact: A Cross-National Comparison in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines so-called secondary transfer effects of intergroup contact, a phenomenon whereby positive intergroup contact experiences can influence attitudes not only toward encountered (primary) outgroups but also toward other (secondary) outgroups that were not initially involved in the intergroup encounter. The current study relies on…

Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Kupper, Beate; Zick, Andreas; Wagner, Ulrich

2012-01-01

104

A Standardized Vascular Disease Health Check in Europe: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background No clinical trials have assessed the effects or cost-effectiveness of health check strategies to detect and manage vascular disease. We used a mathematical model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of several health check strategies in six European countries. Methods We used country-specific data from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and the United Kingdom to generate simulated populations of individuals aged 40–75 eligible for health checks in those countries (e.g. individuals without a previous diagnosis of diabetes, myocardial infarction, stroke, or serious chronic kidney disease). For each country, we used the Archimedes model to compare seven health check strategies consisting of assessments for diabetes, hypertension, lipids, and smoking. For patients diagnosed with vascular disease, treatment was simulated in a standard manner. We calculated the effects of each strategy on the incidence of type 2 diabetes, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), and microvascular complications in addition to quality of life, costs, and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Results Compared with current care, health checks reduced the incidence of MACE (6–17 events prevented per 1000 people screened) and diabetes related microvasular complications (5–11 events prevented per 1000 people screened), and increased QALYs (31–59 discounted QALYs) over 30 years, in all countries. The cost per QALY of offering a health check to all individuals in the study cohort ranged from €14903 (France) to cost saving (Poland). Pre-screening the population and offering health checks only to higher risk individuals lowered the cost per QALY. Pre-screening on the basis of obesity had a cost per QALY of €10200 (France) or less, and pre-screening with a non-invasive risk score was similar. Conclusions A vascular disease health check would likely be cost effective at 30 years in Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and the United Kingdom. PMID:23869204

Schuetz, C. Andy; Alperin, Peter; Guda, Swathi; van Herick, Andrew; Cariou, Bertrand; Eddy, David; Gumprecht, Janusz; Nicolucci, Antonio; Schwarz, Peter; Wareham, Nick J.; Witte, Daniel R.; Smith, Ulf

2013-01-01

105

The Balassa–Samuelson effect in Central and Eastern Europe: myth or reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the Balassa–Samuelson effect in nine Central and East European countries. Using panel cointegration techniques, we find that the productivity growth differential in the open sector leads to inflation in non-tradable goods. Because of the low share of non-tradables and the high share of food items in addition to regulated prices, the consumer price index is misleading when

Balázs Égert; Imed Drine; Kirsten Lommatzsch; Christophe Rault

2003-01-01

106

Adapting wheat in Europe for climate change  

PubMed Central

Increasing cereal yield is needed to meet the projected increased demand for world food supply of about 70% by 2050. Sirius, a process-based model for wheat, was used to estimate yield potential for wheat ideotypes optimized for future climatic projections for ten wheat growing areas of Europe. It was predicted that the detrimental effect of drought stress on yield would be decreased due to enhanced tailoring of phenology to future weather patterns, and due to genetic improvements in the response of photosynthesis and green leaf duration to water shortage. Yield advances could be made through extending maturation and thereby improve resource capture and partitioning. However the model predicted an increase in frequency of heat stress at meiosis and anthesis. Controlled environment experiments quantify the effects of heat and drought at booting and flowering on grain numbers and potential grain size. A current adaptation of wheat to areas of Europe with hotter and drier summers is a quicker maturation which helps to escape from excessive stress, but results in lower yields. To increase yield potential and to respond to climate change, increased tolerance to heat and drought stress should remain priorities for the genetic improvement of wheat. PMID:24882934

Semenov, M.A.; Stratonovitch, P.; Alghabari, F.; Gooding, M.J.

2014-01-01

107

Effective Teaching Methods--Project-based Learning in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents results of the research of new effective teaching methods in physics and science. It is found out that it is necessary to educate pre-service teachers in approaches stressing the importance of the own activity of students, in competences how to create an interdisciplinary project. Project-based physics teaching and learning…

Holubova, Renata

2008-01-01

108

PERMEABLE TREATMENT WALL EFFECTIVENESS MONITORING PROJECT, NEVADA STEWART MINE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 39, Permeable Treatment Wall Effectiveness Monitoring Project, implemented and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. De...

109

Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. A Secondary Education for Europe Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph, published as part of the project "A Secondary Education for Europe," makes no claim to deal with all the questions relating to minorities, from either the legal point of view of that of international action. The paper does not aim to suggest recommendations on a theme which has concerned the Council of Europe for years. The…

Foucher, Michel

110

A comparison of the cost-effectiveness of treatment of prolonged acute convulsive epileptic seizures in children across Europe  

PubMed Central

In the majority of children and adolescents with epilepsy, optimal drug therapy adequately controls their condition. However, among the remaining patients who are still uncontrolled despite mono-, bi- or tri-therapy with chronic anti-epileptic treatment, a rescue medication is required. In Western Europe, the licensed medications available for first-line treatment of prolonged acute convulsive seizures (PACS) vary widely, and so comparators for clinical and economic evaluation are not consistent. No European guidelines currently exist for the treatment of PACS in children and adolescents and limited evidence is available for the effectiveness of treatments in the community setting. The authors present cost-effectiveness data for BUCCOLAM® (midazolam oromucosal solution) for the treatment of PACS in children and adolescents in the context of the treatment pathway in seven European countries in patients from 6 months to 18 years. For each country, the health economic model consisted of a decision tree, with decision nodes informed by clinical data and expert opinion obtained via a Delphi methodology. The events modelled are those associated with a patient experiencing a seizure in the community setting. The model assessed the likelihood of medication being administered successfully and of seizure cessation. The associated resource use was also modelled, and ambulance call-outs and hospitalisations were considered. The patient’s quality of life was estimated by clinicians, who completed a five-level EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire from the perspective of a child or adolescent suffering a seizure. Despite differences in current therapy, treatment patterns and healthcare costs in all countries assessed, BUCCOLAM was shown to be cost saving and offered increased health-related benefits for patients in the treatment of PACS compared with the current local standard of care. PMID:24949280

2014-01-01

111

Possible future effects of large-scale algae cultivation for biofuels on coastal eutrophication in Europe.  

PubMed

Biodiesel is increasingly considered as an alternative for fossil diesel. Biodiesel can be produced from rapeseed, palm, sunflower, soybean and algae. In this study, the consequences of large-scale production of biodiesel from micro-algae for eutrophication in four large European seas are analysed. To this end, scenarios for the year 2050 are analysed, assuming that in the 27 countries of the European Union fossil diesel will be replaced by biodiesel from algae. Estimates are made for the required fertiliser inputs to algae parks, and how this may increase concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in coastal waters, potentially leading to eutrophication. The Global NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model has been used to estimate the transport of nitrogen and phosphorus to the European coastal waters. The results indicate that the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in the coastal waters may increase considerably in the future as a result of large-scale production of algae for the production of biodiesel, even in scenarios assuming effective waste water treatment and recycling of waste water in algae production. To ensure sustainable production of biodiesel from micro-algae, it is important to develop cultivation systems with low nutrient losses to the environment. PMID:25058933

Blaas, Harry; Kroeze, Carolien

2014-10-15

112

EURO4M: monitoring weather and climate extremes in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new project called EURO4M: European Reanalysis and Observations for Monitoring (www.euro4m.eu), which is funded under the European Union FP7 programme. The ambitious plans in this project will be illustrated by examples from ongoing work and some early results. EURO4M sets out to develop the capacity for, and deliver the best possible and most complete (gridded) climate change time series and monitoring services covering all of Europe. The focus is on weather and climate extremes. Key questions include: What changes in weather and climate extremes do we observe in Europe over recent decades? How certain are we about these changes? Are our monitoring systems adequate to address these questions? EURO4M addresses the situation of fragmentation and scarcity of long-term climate change monitoring information for Europe. The project will extend, in a cost effective manner, European capacity to systematically monitor climate variability and change on a range of space and time scales. It will do so by combining seamlessly two different but complementary approaches: regional observation datasets of GCOS Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) and newly developed regional reanalysis. EURO4M will reach out with innovative and integrated data products and services to policy-makers, researchers, planners and citizens at European, national and local levels. This will directly address the needs of, for instance, the European Environment Agency for their environmental assessment reports - and even provide online reporting during emerging extreme events. EURO4M intends to become Europe's primary source of timely and reliable information about the state of the climate. The project has the potential to evolve into a future GMES service on climate change monitoring that is fully complimentary and supporting the existing operational GMES services. The EURO4M consortium consists of 9 partners from 8 countries. The project will run from 1 April 2010 until 31 March 2014. Co-ordinator is KNMI, the Netherlands.

Klein Tank, A. M. G.

2010-09-01

113

Comparative phylogeography of two related plant species with overlapping ranges in Europe, and the potential effects of climate change on their intraspecific genetic diversity  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the present study was to use a combined phylogeographic and species distribution modelling approach to compare the glacial histories of two plant species with overlapping distributions, Orthilia secunda (one-sided wintergreen) and Monotropa hypopitys (yellow bird's nest). Phylogeographic analysis was carried out to determine the distribution of genetic variation across the range of each species and to test whether both correspond to the "classic" model of high diversity in the south, with decreasing diversity at higher latitudes, or whether the cold-adapted O. secunda might retain more genetic variation in northern populations. In addition, projected species distributions based on a future climate scenario were modelled to assess how changes in the species ranges might impact on total intraspecific diversity in both cases. Results Palaeodistribution modelling and phylogeographic analysis using multiple genetic markers (chloroplast trnS-trnG region, nuclear ITS and microsatellites for O. secunda; chloroplast rps2, nuclear ITS and microsatellites for M. hypopitys) indicated that both species persisted throughout the Last Glacial Maximum in southern refugia. For both species, the majority of the genetic diversity was concentrated in these southerly populations, whereas those in recolonized areas generally exhibited lower levels of diversity, particularly in M. hypopitys. Species distribution modelling based on projected future climate indicated substantial changes in the ranges of both species, with a loss of southern and central populations, and a potential northward expansion for the temperate M. hypopitys. Conclusions Both Orthilia secunda and Monotropa hypopitys appear to have persisted through the LGM in Europe in southern refugia. The boreal O. secunda, however, has retained a larger proportion of its genetic diversity in more northerly populations outside these refugial areas than the temperate M. hypopitys. Given that future species distribution modelling suggests northern range shifts and loss of suitable habitat in the southern parts of the species' current distributions, extinction of genetically diverse rear edge populations could have a significant effect in the rangewide intraspecific diversity of both species, but particularly in M. hypopitys. PMID:21272309

2011-01-01

114

An Overview on Coronary Heart Disease (A Comparative Evaluation of Turkey and Europe) and Cost-effectiveness of Diagnostic Strategies  

PubMed Central

Objective: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death for men and women in Turkey as it is in Europe and US. The prevalence of the disease is 3.8% in Turkey and 200,000 patients are added to the pool of CHD annually Because of genetic predisposition and high proportions of physical inactivity, smoking habit, and obesity, CHD is encountered in earlier ages in our country So, the economic burden of the disease is expected to be relatively high, but the amount of health expenditure is not always parallel to the prevalence of a disease in the community. This article was written to overview CHD statistics to make a comparison between Turkey and some European countries and to investigate the value of myocardial perfusion scan (MPS) as a gatekeeper in diagnosing CHD before invasive coronary angiography (ICA). The consequences were evaluated for Turkey In diagnosis; noninvasive testing gains importance in connection with the new approaches in treatment strategies, because a direct ICA strategy results in higher rates of revascularization without improvement in clinical outcomes. A "gatekeeper" is needed to select the patients who are not required to undergo angiography. MPS with its proved power in diagnosis and predicting prognosis, provides a cost-effective solution, and is accepted in some extensive analyses as a "gatekeeper" particularly in intermediate and high risk patients and in patients with known CHD. In conclusion, MPS may provide an optimal solution better than the ongoing situation in Turkey as well, when it is approved as a "gatekeeper in an algorithm before ICA. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487016

Ta?ç?, Cengiz; Özçelik, Nihat

2011-01-01

115

MOEM systems in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a brief summary of the talk given at Photonics West, San Jose, on 10 February 1997. The description made hereafter of the strategic problematics in Europe in the domain of microsystems results from a free and extensive reading of the literature made available by the EC programs in particular through EUROPRACTICE and NEXUS. What follows expresses personal views and does not reflect any official position. Most of the information material can be found in the mst news journal edited by VDI/VDE-IT. This talk was an attempt to extract the essentials of what is going on in European Microsystem Technologies (MST) from the numerous programs, projects schemes, and initiatives which have been announced, and to position the Opto-Electro-Mechanical Microsystem sin the MST framework.

Salomon, Patric R.; Parriaux, Olivier M.

1997-04-01

116

The new Europe. [Economic opportunities in Europe  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the opportunities for business growth in an area of changing social, economic and political climate. The topics include existing political and economic ties, how these ties are evolving, comparisons between east and west, pollution and environmental issues, battery markets in eastern Europe, motive power, standby power, the transition of eastern europe to a market economy, and opportunities for the west.

Richardson, J.

1991-07-01

117

Energy Balance Related Behaviour: Personal, Home- and Friend-Related Factors among Schoolchildren in Europe Studied in the ENERGY-Project  

PubMed Central

Objective To design interventions that target energy balance-related behaviours, knowledge of primary schoolchildren's perceptions regarding soft drink intake, fruit juice intake, breakfast consumption, TV viewing and physical activity (PA) is essential. The current study describes personal beliefs and attitudes, home- and friend-related variables regarding these behaviours across Europe. Design Cross-sectional study in which personal, family and friend -related variables were assessed by validated questionnaires, and dichotomized as favourable versus unfavourable answers. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate proportions of children giving unfavourable answers and test between-country differences. Setting A survey in eight European countries. Subjects A total of 7903 10–12 year old primary schoolchildren. Results A majority of the children reported unfavourable attitudes, preferences and subjective norms regarding soft drink, fruit juice intake and TV viewing accompanied with high availability and accessibility at home. Few children reported unfavourable attitudes and preferences regarding breakfast consumption and PA. Many children reported unfavourable health beliefs regarding breakfast consumption and TV viewing. Substantial differences between countries were observed, especially for variables regarding soft drink intake, breakfast consumption and TV viewing. Conclusion The surveyed children demonstrated favourable attitudes to some healthy behaviours (PA, breakfast intake) as well as to some unhealthy behaviours (soft drink consumption, TV viewing). Additionally, many children across Europe have personal beliefs and are exposed to social environments that are not supportive to engagement in healthy behaviours. Moreover, the large differences in personal, family and friend-related variables across Europe argue for implementing different strategies in the different European countries. PMID:25372490

te Velde, Saskia J.; Singh, Amika; Chinapaw, Mai; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Natasa; Kovacs, Eva; Bere, Elling; Vik, Froydis N.; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Manios, Yannis; Moreno, Luis; Brug, Johannes

2014-01-01

118

Saharan aeolian input and effective humidity variations over western Europe during the Holocene from a high altitude record  

E-print Network

to aeolian input and climate changes (e.g., Adrian et al., 2009). The high biogeochemical sensitivity and regional climatic variations during the Holocene. After the last deglaciation, results indicate that Saharan dust reached Western Europe in a stepwise fashion from 7.0 to 6.0 cal. kyr BP and increased since

Anderson, R. Scott

119

Ethnic German Immigration from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union to Germany: the Effects of Migrant Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper employed a widely accepted theoretical concept, the ‘theory of migrant networks’ to look at the recent immigration and absorption experience of ethnic Germans (Aussiedler) from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union in Germany. Consistent with network theory, the social background of the Aussiedler group became more representative of the sending communities as migrant networks expanded. The paper

Barbara Dietz

1999-01-01

120

Artificial Retina Project: Electromagnetic and Thermal Effects  

SciTech Connect

This award supported the investigation on electromagnetic and thermal effects associated with the artificial retina, designed in collaboration with national laboratories, universities, and private companies. Our work over the two years of support under this award has focused mainly on 1) Design of new telemetry coils for optimal power and data transfer between the implant and the external device while achieving a significant size reduction with respect to currently used coils; 2) feasibility study of the virtual electrode configuration 3) study the effect of pulse shape and duration on the stimulation efficacy.

Lazzi, Gianluca

2014-08-29

121

Pollen-inferred quantitative reconstructions of Holocene land-cover in NW Europe for the evaluation of past climate-vegetation feedbacks - The Swedish LANDCLIM project and the NordForsk LANDCLIM network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable predictive models are needed to describe potential future climate changes and their impacts. Land surface-atmosphere feedbacks and their impacts on climate are a current priority in the climate modelling community, but reliable records of long-term land use and vegetation change required for model evaluation are limited. Palaeoecological and palaeo-climatic data provide a unique record of the past changes in vegetation, land use and climate on time scales relevant to vegetation processes and global change projections. The application of a new technique (the REVEALS model (Sugita 2007) to landscape reconstruction using fossil pollen data makes robust comparisons with vegetation model output possible . The model corrects for biases caused by e.g. inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and dispersal. Our results show that pollen percentages, a traditional indicator of land cover changes, generally underestimate the unforested areas and certain broad-leaved trees such as Corylus and Tilia, while they often overestimate Betula and Pinus (see Cui et al. BG 6.2). Climate models use simplified land-surface classifications (plant functional types (PFTs)), such as grass (i.e. open land), deciduous trees, and conifers. Therefore, the observed large discrepancies in past land cover between the REVEALS estimates and pollen percentages are expected to influence model outcomes of the Holocene regional climate in NW Europe. The LANDCLIM project and research network (sponsored by the Swedish [VR] and Nordic [NordForsk] Research Councils) aim to quantify human-induced changes in regional vegetation/land-cover in NW Europe during the Holocene, and to evaluate the effects of these changes on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. We use the REVEALS model, theoretically derived and empirically tested, to estimate the percentage cover of taxa and groups of taxa (PFTs) from fossil pollen data for selected time windows of the Holocene, at a spatial resolution of ca. 1o x 1o. The REVEALS estimates of the past cover of PFTs will be 1) compared with the outputs of the LPJ-GUESS (10 PFTs), a widely-used dynamic vegetation model and 2) used as an alternative to the LPJ-GUESS-simulated vegetation (3 PFTs) to run for the past the regional climate model RCA3 developed at the Rossby Centre, Norrköping, Sweden. The study will evaluate and further refine these models (RCA3 and LPJ-GUESS) using a data-model comparison approach that incorporates new syntheses of palaeoclimatic data as well. It will lead to new assessments of the possible effect of various factors on climate, such as deforestations and afforestations, and changes in vegetation composition and spatial patterns of land cover/land use. Refined climate models and empirical land-cover reconstructions will shed new light on controversial hypotheses of past climate change and human impacts, such as the "Ruddiman hypothesis". First maps of REVEALS estimates of plant functional types (PFTs) are now available for Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Estonia, Poland, Germany, The Czech Republic, Switzerland and Britain (see Mazier et al. C1.21 and Trondman et al. C1.22). Correlation tests show that the REVEALS estimates are robust in terms of ranking of the PFTs' abundance (see Mazier et al, C1.21). The LANDCLIM project and network are a contribution to the IGBP-PAGES-Focus 4 PHAROS programme on human impact on environmental changes in the past. The following LANDCLIM members are acknowledged for providing pollen records, for help with pollen databases, and for providing results to the project: Mihkel Kangur and Tiiu Koff (Univ. Tallinn, Tallinn); Erik Kjellström (SMHI, Norrköping), Anna Broström, Lena Barnekow and Thomas Persson (GeoBiosphere Science Centre, Lund University); Anneli Poska (Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University); Thomas Giesecke (Albrecht-von-Haller-Institute for Plant Sciences, University of Göttingen), Anne Bjune and John Birks (Dept. of Biology, University of Bergen); Pim van der Knaap (Institute of Plant Sciences, Univ

Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Sugita, Shinya; Rundgren, Mats; Smith, Benjamin; Mazier, Florence; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Fyfe, Ralph; Kokfelt, Ulla; Nielsen, Anne-Birgitte; Strandberg, Gustav

2010-05-01

122

North America Europe Central &  

E-print Network

1 North America Western Europe Central & Eastern Europe Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & Central Asia Asia Pacific Africa Population (100 millions) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 North America Western Per capita consumption Population (100 millions) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 North America Western Europe

Johnson, Matthew

123

Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE study) profile: objectives, study protocol and descriptive data  

PubMed Central

Background Indoor air pollution (IAP) constitutes a major global public health problem requiring increasing efforts in research and policymaking that may have special significance for elderly that are likely to spend most of their day indoors and appear to be particularly susceptible to adverse effects of chemical pollutants and bio-contaminants. Yet, evidence existing on the effects of IAP in elderly is scanty. The Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE) study aimed to assess health effects of major indoor air pollutants and thermal conditions in elderly (> 70 years) living stably in nursing homes (NH) across Europe. Respiratory effects were particularly considered as airways and lung constitute the first target of air pollutants. Objectives We describe here the rationale and the methods of the GERIE Study. Methods 8 nursing homes were randomly selected in 7 European countries. Twenty individuals were randomly selected in each nursing home. Major indoor and outdoor air chemical pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, PM0.1, formaldehyde, NO2; O3, VOC, CO2) and bio-contaminants (moulds, allergens) were assessed objectively with standardized procedures. Major health status indicators were assessed through a standardized questionnaire, non-invasive clinical tests and blood and urine biomarkers as well as saliva for ADN. Results The GERIE study has given the opportunity to publish two reviews on respiratory health effects of indoor and outdoor air pollution in elderly. In addition it has provided the inventory of air quality and thermal conditions in 50 nursing homes across Europe and data on respiratory health status in 600 elderly aged 82 years in mean. Major future results will include the relationships between NH environment and health in elderly. Conclusions The main long-term purpose of the GERIE study is to improve the health of elderly who permanently reside in nursing homes or of those who are exposed to indoor air pollution because of reduced mobility. PMID:24262306

2013-01-01

124

Class Size. Research on School Effectiveness Project: Topic Summary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Alaska School Effectiveness Project produced several reports in a series of reviews of research literature on such topics as class size. Using an ERIC search and conventional library methods, the question raised was "Do small classes have a positive effect on the academic achievement of elementary and secondary students?" Of the 35 documents…

Cotton, K.; Savard, W. G.

125

The drug effectiveness review project: an important step forward.  

PubMed

Peter Neumann's paper on the Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP) is a constructive if incomplete point of departure for discussing the work done by the project and the use of that work by decision-makers in states and elsewhere. This Perspective attempts to establish the proper context for judging the DERP by comparing its product and processes with those commonly produced and used by industry and other parties. It also provides a direct response to the criticisms of the project noted by Neumann. PMID:16757487

Gibson, Mark; Santa, John

2006-01-01

126

Impact of biogenic emissions on ozone and fine particles over Europe: Comparing effects of temperature increase and a potential anthropogenic NOx emissions abatement strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of biogenic emissions on ozone and PM2.5 levels over Europe is assessed using CMAQ. Biogenic emissions are predicted to increase Max8hrO3 mixing ratios by 5.7% and to decrease PM2.5 concentrations by 1.9%, increasing PM2.5_OC by 13.6% and decreasing PM2.5_SO4, PM2.5_NO3 and PM2.5_NH4 by 5.6%, 3.7% and 5.6%, respectively, on average over Europe due to their interactions with anthropogenic emissions. A suite of perturbations in temperature is imposed individually on the base case conditions in order to determine the sensitivities to air temperature changes. Temperature increases of 1, 2 or 3° K suggest an average increase in Max8hrO3 mixing ratios of 0.9%, 1.8% or 2.9%, respectively, and an average decrease in daily average PM2.5 concentrations of 2.5%, 4.2% and 5.8%, respectively, increasing PM2.5_OC and decreasing PM2.5_SO4, PM2.5_NO3 and PM2.5_NH4 component concentrations on average over Europe. In order to examine if abatement measures for anthropogenic emissions could offset ozone increases in higher temperatures and their effect on PM2.5 concentrations, a simulation with a domain wide reduction in anthropogenic NOx emissions of 10% is performed. This is estimated to reduce Max8hrO3 mixing ratios by 1.3% on average over Europe. However, NOx reduction is estimated to increase Max8hrO3 in VOCs limited areas. The reduction in anthropogenic NOx emissions is predicted to reduce PM2.5 concentrations by 1.0% enhancing the reduction simulated, here, with temperature increase but further modifying PM2.5 component concentrations.

Tagaris, E.; Sotiropoulou, R. E. P.; Gounaris, N.; Andronopoulos, S.; Vlachogiannis, D.

2014-12-01

127

Which specific causes of death are associated with short term exposure to fine and coarse particles in Southern Europe? Results from the MED-PARTICLES project.  

PubMed

We investigated the short-term effects of particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5?m (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10?m (PM2.5-10) and less than 10?m (PM10) on deaths from diabetes, cardiac and cerebrovascular causes, lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in 10 European Mediterranean metropolitan areas participating in the MED-PARTICLES project during 2001-2010. In the first stage of the analysis, data from each city were analyzed separately using Poisson regression models, whereas in the second stage, the city-specific air pollution estimates were combined to obtain overall estimates. We investigated the effects following immediate (lags 0-1), delayed (lags 2-5) and prolonged exposure (lags 0-5) and effect modification patterns by season. We evaluated the sensitivity of our results to co-pollutant exposures or city-specific model choice. We applied threshold models to investigate the pattern of selected associations. For a 10?g/m(3) increase in two days' PM2.5 exposure there was a 1.23% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): -1.63%, 4.17%) increase in diabetes deaths, while six days' exposure statistically significantly increased cardiac deaths by 1.33% (95% CI: 0.27, 2.40%), COPD deaths by 2.53% (95% CI: -0.01%, 5.14%) and LRTI deaths by 1.37% (95% CI: -1.94%, 4.78%). PM2.5 results were robust to co-pollutant adjustments and alternative modeling approaches. Stronger effects were observed in the warm season. Coarse particles displayed positive, even if not statistically significant, associations with mortality due to diabetes and cardiac causes that were more variable depending on exposure period, co-pollutant and seasonality adjustment. Our findings provide support for positive associations between PM2.5 and mortality due to diabetes, cardiac causes, COPD, and to a lesser degree to cerebrovascular causes, in the European Mediterranean region, which seem to drive the particles short-term health effects. PMID:24657768

Samoli, Evangelia; Stafoggia, Massimo; Rodopoulou, Sophia; Ostro, Bart; Alessandrini, Ester; Basagaña, Xavier; Díaz, Julio; Faustini, Annunziata; Gandini, Martina; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Kelessis, Apostolos G; Le Tertre, Alain; Linares, Cristina; Ranzi, Andrea; Scarinzi, Cecilia; Katsouyanni, Klea; Forastiere, Francesco

2014-06-01

128

Error Correction of Daily Temperature and Precipitation from Regional Climate Simulations in Europe and the Effects on Climate Change Signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State-of-the-art regional climate models (RCMs) have shown their capability to reproduce mesoscale and even finer climate variability satisfactorily. However, considerable differences between model results and observational data remain, due to scale discrepancies and model errors. This limits the direct utilization of RCM results in climate change impact studies. Besides continuous climate model improvement, empirical-statistical post-processing approaches (model output statistics) offer an immediate pathway to mitigate these model problems and to provide better input data for climate change impact assessments. Among various statistical approaches, quantile mapping (QM) represents one powerful non-parametric technique to post-process RCM outputs. In this study, results from a transient regional climate simulation (period: 1951 to 2050; general circulation model: HadCM3; emission scenario: A1B; RCM: CLM) with horizontal grid spacing of 25 km is error corrected for entire Europe based on the E-OBS European daily gridded observational dataset (http://ensembles-eu.org). Firstly, the performance of QM for correcting daily temperature and precipitation for long-term simulations is evaluated in a decadal cross-validation framework between 1961 and 2000 and the error characteristics are discussed. In the case of precipitation amount a frequency adaptation tool is presented which deals with rare situations where the probability for non-precipitation days is lower in the observations than in the model. Secondly, the issue of generating new extremes in future scenarios is raised. For this purpose, the ERA-40 reanalysis driven hindcast is used to assure best possible temporal correlation between observations and model output. The hindcast is split such that the independent validation period contains observed extremes outside the range of the calibration period. Two extrapolation schemes at the tails of the calibrated correction functions are tested and compared to the simple mapping on the calibration extremes. Finally, the impact of QM on the climate change signal (2021-2050 minus 1971-2000 from the transient simulation) is analyzed for monthly means as well as monthly extreme parameters according to spatial patterns as well as annual cycles of the climate change signals. It is demonstrated that QM reduces RCM errors by one order of magnitude independent of region or season considered. Additionally, it is shown that, if new extremes outside the calibration range occur, QM using an extrapolation of the error correction function shows more reliable results concerning extremes than using a simple mapping to the extremes of the historical calibration period. Regarding the impacts of QM on the climate change signal, it can be concluded that if variables feature a distinct trend in combination with intensity-dependent error characteristics, QM can change the mean climate change signal by more than 50% as well as the respective annual cycles. The ENSEMBLES data used in this work was funded by the EU FP6 Integrated Project ENSEMBLES (Contract number 505539) whose support is gratefully acknowledged.

Themessl, M. J.; Gobiet, A.; Heinrich, G.; Regional; Local Climate Modeling; Analysis Research Group

2010-12-01

129

Efficacy of hand rubs with a low alcohol concentration listed as effective by a national hospital hygiene society in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background Some national hospital hygiene societies in Europe such as the French society for hospital hygiene (SFHH) have positive lists of disinfectants. Few hand disinfectants with a rather low concentration of ethanol are listed by one society as effective for hygienic hand disinfection with 3 mL in 30 s including a virucidal activity in 30 s or 60 s, but published data allow having doubts. We have therefore evaluated the efficacy of three commonly used hand disinfectants according to EN 1500 and EN 14476. Methods Products 1 (Aniosgel 85 NPC) and 2 (Aniosrub 85 NPC) were based on 70% ethanol, product 3 (ClinoGel derma+) on 60% ethanol and 15% isopropanol (all w/w). They were tested in 3 laboratories according to EN 1500. Three mL were applied for 30 s and compared to the reference treatment of 2 × 3 mL applications of isopropanol 60% (v/v), on hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli. Each laboratory used a cross-over design against the reference alcohol with 15 or 20 volunteers. The virucidal activity of the products was evaluated (EN 14476) in one laboratory against adenovirus and poliovirus in different concentrations (80%, 90%, 97%), with different organic loads (none; clean conditions; phosphate-buffered saline) for up to 3 min. Results Product 1 revealed a mean log10-reduction of 3.87 ± 0.79 (laboratory 1) and 4.38 ± 0.87 (laboratory 2) which was significantly lower compared to the reference procedure (4.62 ± 0.89 and 5.00 ± 0.87). In laboratory 3 product 1 was inferior to the reference disinfection (4.06 ± 0.86 versus 4.99 ± 0.90). Product 2 revealed similar results. Product 3 fulfilled the requirements in one laboratory but failed in the two other. None of the three products was able to reduce viral infectivity of both adenovirus and poliovirus by 4 log10 steps in 3 min according to EN 14476. Conclusions Efficacy data mentioned in a positive list published by a society for hospital hygiene should still be regarded with caution if they quite obviously contradict published data on the same or similar products. PMID:23759059

2013-01-01

130

A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic relationships of numerous branches within the core Y-chromosome haplogroup R-M207 support a West Asian origin of haplogroup R1b, its initial differentiation there followed by a rapid spread of one of its sub-clades carrying the M269 mutation to Europe. Here, we present phylogeographically resolved data for 2043 M269-derived Y-chromosomes from 118 West Asian and European populations assessed for the M412 SNP that largely separates the majority of Central and West European R1b lineages from those observed in Eastern Europe, the Circum-Uralic region, the Near East, the Caucasus and Pakistan. Within the M412 dichotomy, the major S116 sub-clade shows a frequency peak in the upper Danube basin and Paris area with declining frequency toward Italy, Iberia, Southern France and British Isles. Although this frequency pattern closely approximates the spread of the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), Neolithic culture, an advent leading to a number of pre-historic cultural developments during the past ?10 thousand years, more complex pre-Neolithic scenarios remain possible for the L23(xM412) components in Southeast Europe and elsewhere. PMID:20736979

Myres, Natalie M; Rootsi, Siiri; Lin, Alice A; Järve, Mari; King, Roy J; Kutuev, Ildus; Cabrera, Vicente M; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Rudan, Pavao; Baldovic, Marian; Herrera, Rene J; Chiaroni, Jacques; Di Cristofaro, Julie; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A

2011-01-01

131

Measuring Muslim Integration in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (established by the Council of Europe in 1997) has warned that anti-terrorism security measures risk disrupting the task of integrating Muslim communities in EU member states. Without reliable statistics, the effects of these measures are difficult to assess. Fears of Muslim radicalization and “cultural conflict” can then be exploited to justify just

Pamela Irving Jackson

2009-01-01

132

The Manhattan Project and its Effects on American Women Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been many detailed historical accounts of the Manhattan Project, but few have recognized the technical role women scientists and engineers crucially played in the Project's success. Despite their absence from these prominent accounts, recent studies have revealed that, in fact, women participated in every non-combat operation associated with the Manhattan Project. With such extensive participation of women and such a former lack of historical attention upon them, little analysis has been done on how the Manhattan Project might have influenced the prospectus of women scientists after the war. This talk has two aims: 1) to recount some of the technical and scientific contributions of women to the Manhattan Project, and 2) to examine what effects these contributions had on the women's careers as scientists. In other words, I intend offer a preliminary explanation of the extent to which the Manhattan Project acted both as a boon and as a detriment to American women scientists. And finally, I will address what this historical analysis could imply about the effects of current efforts to recruit women into science.

Fletcher, Samuel

2008-04-01

133

The foot in multistage ultra-marathon runners: experience in a cohort study of 22 participants of the Trans Europe Footrace Project with mobile MRI  

PubMed Central

Objectives 67 runners participated in the Trans Europe FootRace 2009 (TEFR09), a 4487?km (2789 mi) multistage ultra-marathon covering the south of Europe (Bari, Italy) to the North Cape. Reports on ultra-marathons are lacking, but the literature reports overuse injuries in athletes, especially to the Achilles tendon (AT), ankle or hind foot. Bone oedema may be related to exposure and is present in fatigue fractures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine prospectively if sustained maximal load during an ultra-marathon leads to damage to the foot. Design and participants In a cohort study, repeated scanning of the 22 athletes participating in the study was performed before and during (approximately every 1000?km) the race. Using the obtained fat saturated inversion recovery sequence, two experienced readers blinded to the clinical data rated the images regarding foot lesions. Statistical analysis included regression analysis and computation of the inter-rater reliability. Setting The TEFR09 course. MRI scanning was performed according to prearranged schedules for every participant, using a mobile 1.5?Tesla MRI unit on a trailer following the race. Primary outcome measures MRI data such as AT diameter, bone or tendon lesions, subcutaneous, plantar fascia or intraosseous oedema. Results The 22 study participants did not differ significantly from the total of the 67 TEFR09 runners regarding height, weight and age. The AT diameter increased significantly from 6.8 to 7.8?mm as did intraosseous signal, bone lesions and subcutaneous oedema. However, finishers differed only regarding plantar aponeurosis and subcutaneous oedema from participants aborting the TEFR09. Inter-rater reliability was 0.88–0.98. Conclusion Under the extreme stress of the TEFR09, an increase of the AT diameter as well as bone signal are thought to be adaptive since only subcutaneous oedema and plantar fascia oedema were related to abortion of the race. Trial registration number University of Ulm, Germany Ethics Committee Number 78/08-UBB/se. PMID:22619270

Weber, Frank; Billich, Christian; Schuetz, Uwe H

2012-01-01

134

The Conservation Effects Assessment Project—The First Five Years  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) was initiated by USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) in response to a general call for better accountability of how soci...

135

Pastureland Conservation Effects Assessment Project: Status and expected outcomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a multiagency scientific effort to quantify environmental outcomes of conservation practices applied to private agricultural lands. A CEAP effort on pastureland, primarily in the eastern and central United States, began in 2008. In this paper we ...

136

Heat-related respiratory hospital admissions in Europe in a changing climate: a health impact assessment  

PubMed Central

Objectives Respiratory diseases are ranked second in Europe in terms of mortality, prevalence and costs. Studies have shown that extreme heat has a large impact on mortality and morbidity, with a large relative increase for respiratory diseases. Expected increases in mean temperature and the number of extreme heat events over the coming decades due to climate change raise questions about the possible health impacts. We assess the number of heat-related respiratory hospital admissions in a future with a different climate. Design A Europe-wide health impact assessment. Setting An assessment for each of the EU27 countries. Methods Heat-related hospital admissions under a changing climate are projected using multicity epidemiological exposure–response relationships applied to gridded population data and country-specific baseline respiratory hospital admission rates. Times-series of temperatures are simulated with a regional climate model based on four global climate models, under two greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Results Between a reference period (1981–2010) and a future period (2021–2050), the total number of respiratory hospital admissions attributed to heat is projected to be larger in southern Europe, with three times more heat attributed respiratory hospital admissions in the future period. The smallest change was estimated in Eastern Europe with about a twofold increase. For all of Europe, the number of heat-related respiratory hospital admissions is projected to be 26?000 annually in the future period compared with 11?000 in the reference period. Conclusions The results suggest that the projected effects of climate change on temperature and the number of extreme heat events could substantially influence respiratory morbidity across Europe. PMID:23355662

Åström, Christofer; Orru, Hans; Rocklöv, Joacim; Strandberg, Gustav; Ebi, Kristie L; Forsberg, Bertil

2013-01-01

137

Effective Project Management of Small Satellite Projects from the System Engineer's Point of View, An Example of the Small Satellite Flying Laptop Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of the small satellite projects is recently dramatically increasing and there are great demands for effective project management methods for them. The goal of this paper is to propose effective project management methods for small satellite projects, which are obtained through the real-life experience of the small satellite Flying Laptop project. The project management methods implemented in this project maximize the advantages of rapid and cost-effective small satellite approaches. The management of the project is based on project breakdown structures, which are derived from a combination of several existing standards and empirical methods. These management methods use a product tree as the backbone of the management architecture. The project management activities, such as the establishment of a work breakdown structure, drawing and documentation management structures, time scheduling, and cost management is described with real-life examples. Applications of project management tools, including open source software, which play important roles in cost-effective small satellite approaches, are also summarized and examples of them are illustrated. Finally, further possibilities of effective project management with up-coming new management tools are discussed.

Kuwahara, Toshinori; Falke, Albert; Röser, Hans-Peter

138

Coexistence of effects from an algebra of two projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coexistence relation of quantum effects is a fundamental structure, describing those pairs of experimental events that can be implemented in a single setup. Only in the simplest case of qubit effects is an analytic characterization of coexistent pairs known. We generalize the qubit coexistence characterization to all pairs of effects in arbitrary dimensions that belong to the von Neumann algebra generated by two projections. We demonstrate the presented mathematical machinery by several examples, and show that it covers physically relevant classes of effect pairs.

Heinosaari, Teiko; Kiukas, Jukka; Reitzner, Daniel

2014-06-01

139

Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe  

SciTech Connect

Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Planning and Strategic Business Development Div.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Glicken, J. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S. [Columbia Environmental Services, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States)

1997-05-01

140

The ATLAS project: The effects of a constructionist digital laboratory project on undergraduate laboratory performance.  

PubMed

Anatomical education is a dynamic field where developments in the implementation of constructive, situated-learning show promise in improving student achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an individualized, technology heavy project in promoting student performance in a combined anatomy and physiology laboratory course. Mixed-methods research was used to compare two cohorts of anatomy laboratories separated by the adoption of a new laboratory atlas project, which were defined as preceding (PRE) and following the adoption of the Anatomical Teaching and Learning Assessment Study (ATLAS; POST). The ATLAS project required the creation of a student-generated, photographic atlas via acquisition of specimen images taken with tablet technology and digital microscope cameras throughout the semester. Images were transferred to laptops, digitally labeled and photo edited weekly, and compiled into a digital book using Internet publishing freeware for final project submission. An analysis of covariance confirmed that student final examination scores were improved (P < 0.05) following the implementation of the laboratory atlas project (PRE, n = 75; POST, n = 90; means ± SE; 74.9 ± 0.9 versus 78.1 ± 0.8, respectively) after controlling for cumulative student grade point average. Analysis of questionnaires collected (n = 68) from the post group suggested students identified with atlas objectives, appreciated the comprehensive value in final examination preparation, and the constructionism involved, but recommended alterations in assignment logistics and the format of the final version. Constructionist, comprehensive term-projects utilizing student-preferred technologies could be used to improve performance toward student learning outcomes. Anat Sci Educ 8: 12-20. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists. PMID:24678042

Shoepe, Todd C; Cavedon, Dana K; Derian, Joseph M; Levy, Celine S; Morales, Amy

2015-01-01

141

Project Copernicus: Cooperation Programme in Europe on Nature and Industry through Coordinated University Study. Round Table. Unesco-Standing Conference of Rectors, Presidents, and Vice Chancellors of the European Universities (CRE) (Catania, Sicily, April 5-8, 1989). Number 32. Papers on Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Project COPERNICUS (Cooperation Programme in Europe for Research on Nature and Industry through Coordinated University Studies) Round Table report considers efforts to identify priorities and objectives of the new alliance between the higher education community, industry, and international organizations in addressing today's environmental…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

142

No effects of Bacillus thuringiensis maize on nontarget organisms in the field in southern Europe: a meta-analysis of 26 arthropod taxa.  

PubMed

Maize with the insecticidal properties of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, known as Bt maize, has been sown in Europe since 1998. For several years, EU and Spanish regulations have required laboratory and field trials to assess risks of genetically modified crops for nontarget organisms prior to their authorization. Thirteen field trials were conducted in Spain to measure the effects of Bt maize on a broad range of arthropod taxa; no effects were found in accordance with most literature records. However, statistical analyses of single trials rarely have the statistical power to detect low effect sizes if they do not have a sufficient sample size. When sample size is low, meta-analysis may improve statistical power by combining several trials and assuming a common measure of effect size. Here we perform a meta-analysis of the results of 13 independent field trials conducted in Spain in which effects of single or stacked Bt traits on several arthropod taxa were measured with no significant results. Since the taxa included in each single trial were not the same for all trials, for the meta-analysis we selected only those taxa recorded in a minimum of six trials, resulting finally in 7, 7, and 12 taxa analyzed in visual counts, pitfall traps and yellow sticky traps, respectively. In comparison with single trial analysis, meta-analysis dramatically increased the detectability of treatment effects for most of the taxa regardless of the sampling technique; of the 26 taxa analyzed, only three showed poorer detectability in the meta-analysis than the best recorded in the 13 single trials. This finding reinforces the conclusion that Bt maize has no effect on the most common herbivore, predatory and parasitoid arthropods found in the maize ecosystems of southern Europe. PMID:23904218

Comas, C; Lumbierres, B; Pons, X; Albajes, R

2014-02-01

143

The Contribution of Local Experiments and Negotiation Processes to Field-Level Learning in Emerging (Niche) Technologies: Meta-Analysis of 27 New Energy Projects in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how local experiments and negotiation processes contribute to social and field-level learning. The analysis is framed within the niche development literature, which offers a framework for analyzing the relation between projects in local contexts and the transfer of local experiences into generally applicable rules. The…

Raven, Rob P. J. M.; Heiskanen, Eva; Lovio, Raimo; Hodson, Mike; Brohmann, Bettina

2008-01-01

144

OneGeology-Europe Plus Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geological Surveys of the European countries hold valuable resources of geological data but, to discover, understand and use this data efficiently, a good level of standardization is essential. The OneGeology-Europe project had the aim of making geological maps at a scale 1:1M from Europe discoverable and accessible, available under a common data license and described by multilingual metainformation. A harmonized specification for basic geological map data was developed so that significant progress towards harmonizing the datasets was achieved. Responsibility for the management of the OneGeology-Europe portal has been taken by EuroGeoSurveys and provided by CGS and BRGM. Of the 34 members of EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), only 20 participated in the OneGeology-Europe project (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Spain, United Kingdom), so the European area was not completely covered. At the 33rd General Meeting and Directors Workshop in 2012 it was therefore decided to establish a successor initiative OneGeology Europe Plus (1G-E+) with the purpose of extending the coverage by geological maps at a scale of 1:1 M to all the EGS member countries (including Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Iceland, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine) and also, if possible, to the other European countries (Belorussia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Faeroe Islands, Kosovo, Latvia, Macedonia, Moldavia, Montenegro, Serbia). In order to achieve the desired result, it has been necessary for the new GSOs who intend to supply the additional 1G-E standardized services to carry out the work using their own staff and resources. The technical guidance and other support have been provided by the 1G-E+ Technical Support Team, funded from the internal budgets of their respective surveys. The team is coordinated by the Czech Geological Survey (CGS) working with the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), the British Geological Survey (BGS), the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the Geological Survey of Slovenia (GeoZS). The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (TNO) decided to provide financial support for the initiative. The Technical Support Team has been providing the technical advice required to enable the inclusion of geological maps from new countries in the 1G-E Portal using the standards developed and accepted for 1G-E. Cookbooks, on-line help and a helpdesk are provided during the work. A technical workshop was organized at which all the technical steps required to reach the target solution were presented and discussed. All newcomers must agree the existing common license that was created for downloading the 1G-E data. It should be emphasized that the results will be displayed as part of the 1G-E project and metadata/portal infrastructures. The process is still ongoing because the harmonization work for most of the countries involved has been a demanding process. Some countries are facing difficulties because of the lack of expert personnel or insufficient resources of data. Despite some problems, the 1G-E+ initiative and the work involved has contributed to effective networking and technical cooperation between the GSOs across the wider European region.

Capova, Dana; Kondrova, Lucie

2014-05-01

145

Inpatient Drug Utilization in Europe: Nationwide Data Sources and a Review of Publications on a Selected Group of Medicines (PROTECT Project).  

PubMed

Drug utilization (DU) studies in inpatient settings at a national level are rarely conducted. The main objective of this study was to review the general information on hospital medicine management in Europe and to report on the availability and characteristics of nationwide administrative drug consumption databases. A secondary objective was to perform a review of published studies on hospital DU of a group of selected drugs, focusing on methodological characteristics (ATC/DDD). General information on hospital drug management was retrieved from several websites, nationwide administrative drug consumption databases and reports published by governmental organizations. A PubMed search was conducted using keywords related to the selected group of drugs AND 'hospital drug utilization'. The data sources for hospital DU information varied widely and included 14 databases from 25 reviewed countries. Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Norway and Sweden obtain information on inpatient DU at a national level from wholesalers/manufacturers. In Belgium, Italy and Portugal, drugs dispensed to patients in hospitals are registered at a national level. Data are freely available online only for Denmark and Iceland. From the PubMed search, of a total of 868 retrieved studies, only 13 studies used the ATC/DDD methodology. Although the number of DDD/100 bed-days was used in four studies, other units of measure were also used. The type of information provided for the inpatient sector allowed primarily for conducting DU research at an aggregated data level. The existence of national administrative structures to monitor hospital DU would contribute to promoting the rational use of medicines and improving the safety and quality of prescribing. PMID:25420967

Sabaté, Mònica; Ferrer, Pili; Ballarín, Elena; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Amelio, Justyne; Schmiedl, Sven; Reynolds, Robert; Klungel, Olaf; Ibáñez, Luisa

2015-03-01

146

Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first part of the presentation is devoted to the consequences of the severe accident in the 1986 Chernobyl NPP. It lead to a substantial radioactive contaminated of large parts of Europe and thus raised the awareness for off-site nuclear accident consequences. Spatial patterns of the (transient) contamination of the air and (persistent) contamination of the ground were studied by both measurements and model simulations. For a variety of reasons, ground contamination measurements have variability at a range of spatial scales. Results will be reviewed and discussed. Model simulations, including inverse modelling, have shown that the standard source term as defined in the ATMES study (1990) needs to be updated. Sensitive measurements of airborne activities still reveal the presence of low levels of airborne radiocaesium over the northern hemisphere which stems from resuspension. Over time scales of months and years, the distribution of radionuclides in the Earth system is constantly changing, for example relocated within plants, between plants and soil, in the soil, and into water bodies. Motivated by the permanent risk of transboundary impacts from potential major nuclear accidents, the multidisciplinary project flexRISK (see http://flexRISK.boku.ac.at) has been carried out from 2009 to 2012 in Austria to quantify such risks and hazards. An overview of methods and results of flexRISK is given as a second part of the presentation. For each of the 228 NPPs, severe accidents were identified together with relevant inventories, release fractions, and release frequencies. Then, Europe-wide dispersion and dose calculations were performed for 2788 cases, using the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. Maps of single-case results as well as various aggregated risk parameters were produced. It was found that substantial consequences (intervention measures) are possible for distances up to 500-1000 km, and occur more frequently for a distance range up to 100-300 km, which is in agreement with Chernobyl experiences. However, emergency planning presently is still often focussing on too small areas. In reality, almost all of Europe should be prepared for nuclear disaster. The project investigated also the effect of a simple phase-out scenario. A regional phase-out policy is effective for reducing or even eliminating high damage in the respective regions. It should also be mentioned that risk distribution depends strongly on accident frequency, but this parameter is highly uncertain. The work in flexRISK was funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund (KLI.EN).

Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

2013-04-01

147

Immigrant Languages in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio); "South Asian…

Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

148

EUROPE'S GEOSTATIONARY METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES  

E-print Network

METEOSAT EUROPE'S GEOSTATIONARY METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES MONITORING WEATHER AND CLIMATE FROM SPACE, 6 July 2010 Paul de Valk Koninklijk nederlands Meteorologisch instituut (KnMi) "you need satellites for a country to have its own satellites so it is very beneficial to share costs in Europe, as we do through Eu

Stoffelen, Ad

149

Nuclear disengagement in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined withdrawal of nuclear and major conventional arms from central Europe would not only raise the nuclear threshold but also reduce the danger of surprise attack. In northern and southern Europe, nuclear weapon-free zones (NWFZs) would aim at enhancing stability and inducing confidence. In the North, limitations on nuclear weapons deployed in the vicinity of the zone, and particularly

S. Lodgaard; M. Thee

1983-01-01

150

In situ bioremediation in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Site remediation activity in Europe is increasing, even if not at the forced pace of the US. Although there is a better understanding of the benefits of bioremediation than of other approaches, especially about in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, relatively few projects have been carried out full-scale in Europe or in the US. Some engineering companies and large industrial companies in Europe are investigating bioremediation and biotreatment technologies, in some cases to solve their internal waste problems. Technologies related to the application of microorganisms to the soil, release of nutrients into the soil, and enhancement of microbial decontamination are being tested through various additives such as surfactants, ion exchange resins, limestone, or dolomite. New equipment has been developed for crushing and mixing or injecting and sparging the microorganisms, as have new reactor technologies (e.g., rotating aerator reactors, biometal sludge reactors, and special mobile containers for simultaneous storage, transportation, and biodegradation of contaminated soil). Some work has also been done with immobilized enzymes to support and restore enzymatic activities related to partial or total xenobiotic decontamination. Finally, some major programs funded by public and private institutions confirm that increasing numbers of firms have a working interest in bioremediation.

Porta, A. [Battelle Europe, Geneva (CH); Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

1993-06-01

151

Evaluation of Enviro-HIRLAM model and aerosols effect during wildfires episodes in Europe and Central Russia in summer 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The summer of 2010 was characterized by severe weather events such as floods, heat waves and droughts across Middle East, most of Europe and European Russia. Among them the wildfires in Portugal and European Russia were some of the most prominent and led to substantial increase of atmospheric aerosols concentration. For instance, pollution from Russian wildfires, which were the most noticeable, spread around the entire central part of the country and also dispersed towards the Northern Europe. This study is devoted to Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) model evaluation and analysis of radiation balance change due to increased aerosol burden caused by wildfires in Russia. For this purpose the model was forced by boundary and initial conditions produced by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) IFS and MOZART models for meteorology and atmospheric composition, respectively. The model setup included aerosol microphysics module M7 with simple tropospheric sulfur chemistry, anthropogenic emissions by TNO, wildfires emissions by FMI and interactive sea-salt and dust emissions. During the model run surface data assimilation of meteorological parameters was applied. The HIRLAM Savijarvi radiation scheme has been improved to account explicitly for aerosol radiation interactions. So that the short-wave radiative transfer calculations are performed as standard 2-stream calculations for averages of aerosol optical properties weighted over the entire spectrum. The model shows good correlation of particulate matter (PM) concentrations on diurnal cycle as well as day-to-day variability, but one always has negative bias of PM. The Enviro-HIRLAM is able to capture concentration peaks both from short-term and long-term trans boundary transport of PM and predicted the Aerosol Optical Thickness (at 550 nm) up to 2 over wildfire-polluted regions. And the direct radiative forcing is less than -100 W/m2.

Nuterman, Roman; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Baklanov, Alexander; Kaas, Eigil

2014-05-01

152

The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic material on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is presented in this teachers' guide in such a way that teachers can incorporate it into the daily curriculum or utilize it through special units or projects. The guide is divided into two sections, one covering the Soviet Union, the other Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union section discusses…

Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

153

Uncertainties in Projecting Risks of Late Effects from Space Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The health risks faced by astronauts from space radiation include cancer, cataracts, hereditary effects, CNS risks, and non - cancer morbidity and mortality risks related to the diseases of the old age. Methods used to project risks in low -Earth orbit are of questionable merit for exploration missions because of the limited radiobiology data and knowledge of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) heavy ions, which causes estimates of the risk of late effects to be highly uncertain. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. Within the linear-additivity model, we use Monte-Carlo sampling from subjective uncertainty distributions in each factor to obtain a maximum likelihood estimate of the overall uncertainty in risk projections. The resulting methodology is applied to several human space exploration mission scenarios including ISS, lunar station, deep space outpost, and Mar's missions of duration of 360, 660, and 1000 days. The major results are the quantification of the uncertainties in current risk estimates, the identification of the primary factors that dominate risk projection uncertainties, and the development of a method to quantify candidate approaches to reduce uncertainties or mitigate risks. The large uncertainties in GCR risk projections lead to probability distributions of risk that mask any potential risk reduction using the "optimization" of shielding materials or configurations. In contrast, the design of shielding optimization approaches for solar particle events and trapped protons can be made at this time, and promising technologies can be shown to have merit using our approach. The methods used also make it possible to express risk management objectives in terms of quantitative objectives, i.e., number of days in space without exceeding a given risk level within well defined confidence limits

Cucinotta, F.; Schimmerling, W.; Peterson, L.; Wilson, J.; Saganti, P.; Dicello, J.

154

Science across Europe--Why It Works!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives background information on the development of the Science Across Europe (SAE) project and its goals, which include creating a global dimension to education, raising awareness of how science and technology affect society, and providing opportunities to communicate with other countries. Presents information for educators in the sciences,…

Cutler, Marianne

1997-01-01

155

Short term effects of air pollution on health: a European approach using epidemiologic time series data: the APHEA protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Results from several studies over the past five years have shown that the current levels of pollutants in Europe and North America have adverse short term effects on health. The APHEA project aims to quantifying these in Europe, using standardised methodology. The project protocol and analytical methodology are presented here. DESIGN: Daily time series data were gathered

K Katsouyanni; J Schwartz; C Spix; G Touloumi; D Zmirou; A Zanobetti; B Wojtyniak; J M Vonk; A Tobias; A Pönkä; S Medina; L Bachárová; H R Anderson

1996-01-01

156

Living in Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weblogs on just about every topic imaginable (including a few which no one would have imagined) are now available. And, after some time spent living in the shadows of traditional formats such as television and mainstream periodicals, they have garnered the attention of major media programs. One of the more interesting weblog sites out there is Living in Europe, which consists of a cooperative of bloggers and writers who contribute essays, photographs, personal diaries, and news items from Europe. The perspectives section of the site offers some commentaries on the expansion of the European Union and a diary of a foreigner living in Turkey. The photos section features contributions from various parts of Europe, including some musings and photos from Catalonia and Bristol. Visitors who develop a penchant for the site may sign up to help with the administration of the site, or just offer their own commentaries on life in Europe.

157

Delivering professional projects : The effectiveness of project management in transformational e-government initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Owing to inadequate implementations of project management (PM) procedures and processes, many large information technology systems (ITS) projects failed to deliver its promises. Also, many of the failures in the implementation of large ITS projects around the world have been attributed to inadequate PM action. This criticism encompasses e-government project initiatives which have attempted ambitious program change, major

Shauneen Furlong; Wafi Al-Karaghouli

2010-01-01

158

The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project-design, population and data harmonization of a large-scale, international study.  

PubMed

There is a public health demand to prevent health conditions which lead to increased morbidity and mortality among the rapidly-increasing elderly population. Data for the incidence of such conditions exist in cohort studies worldwide, which, however, differ in various aspects. The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project aims at harmonizing data from existing major longitudinal studies for the elderly whilst focussing on cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancer, fractures and cognitive impairment in order to estimate their prevalence, incidence and cause-specific mortality, and identify lifestyle, socioeconomic, and genetic determinants and biomarkers for the incidence of and mortality from these conditions. A survey instrument assessing ageing-related conditions of the elderly will be also developed. Fourteen cohort studies participate in CHANCES with 683,228 elderly (and 150,210 deaths), from 23 European and three non-European countries. So far, 287 variables on health conditions and a variety of exposures, including biomarkers and genetic data have been harmonized. Different research hypotheses are investigated with meta-analyses. The results which will be produced can help international organizations, governments and policy-makers to better understand the broader implications and consequences of ageing and thus make informed decisions. PMID:25504016

Boffetta, Paolo; Bobak, Martin; Borsch-Supan, Axel; Brenner, Hermann; Eriksson, Sture; Grodstein, Fran; Jansen, Eugene; Jenab, Mazda; Juerges, Hendrik; Kampman, Ellen; Kee, Frank; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Park, Yikyung; Tjonneland, Anne; van Duijn, Cornelia; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wolk, Alicja; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulou, Antonia

2014-12-01

159

Europe's first farmers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

People migrating from the Middle East brought farming techniques to present-day Germany and other parts of central Europe about 7,500 years ago. For years, scientists have been arguing over whether people with European ancestors are closely related to these first farmers. Some scientists say yes. Others say no and argue instead that people with European roots are closely related to the humans who lived in Europe long before the first farmers showed up.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

2005-11-10

160

Health Telematics Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The adoption and use of information technology (IT) in health care is influenced by many factors and depends on legal and\\u000a cultural constraints prevailing in a country. While Europe is constantly coalescing on a political basis, health care is a\\u000a sector still dominated by national legislation. Consequently, different types of national health care systems have existed\\u000a throughout Europe for decades

Ursula Hübner

161

Emerging lessons from the drug effectiveness review project.  

PubMed

The Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP) is an alliance of fifteen states and two private organizations, which have pooled resources to synthesize and judge clinical evidence for drug-class reviews. The experience shines a bright light on challenges involved in implementing an evidence-based medicine process to inform drug formulary decisions: When should evidence reviewers accept surrogate markers and assume therapeutic class effects? How open and participatory should review procedures be? Should reviewers consider cost-effectiveness information? What is the appropriate role of the public sector in judging evidence? The DERP illustrates that attempts to undertake evidence-based reviews, apart from the methods themselves, which continue to evolve, involve questions of organization, process, and leadership. PMID:16757486

Neumann, Peter J

2006-01-01

162

An Introduction to Network-Training Collaboration in Europe and China (NCEC)1  

E-print Network

An Introduction to Network-Training Collaboration in Europe and China (NCEC)1 Zhangxi Lin-Training Collaboration in Europe and China (NCEC), as the name suggests, is a joint effort between China and Europe in Internet-based distance education in China. NCEC project was originally proposed to the European Union (EU

Lin, Zhangxi

163

Where Europe meets Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from a portion of the imagery acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera during 2000-2002 were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of southwestern Europe and northwestern Morocco and Algeria. The image extends from 48oN, 16oW in the northwest to 32oN, 8oE in the southeast. It is displayed in Albers conic equal-area projection (a projection which is frequently used for equal-area maps of regions that are predominantly east-west in extent).

From the northeast, the image traverses a portion of the Swiss Alps (partially snow-covered) and a small part of Italy's Po Valley. The northern portion of the image also includes the western coast of France and much of southern and southwestern France's undulating terrain, which continues until reaching the hills of the Pyrenees. The Pyrenees act as the natural frontier to the Iberian Peninsula -- a landmass comprised of Spain and Portugal. The Peninsular landscapes are extremely varied, with some almost desert-like, others green and fertile. About half of Spain is situated atop a high plain, known as the Central Plateau, and many mountain ranges, rivers, geological basement rock and vegetation types are found across this great plateau. The largest alluvial plain is Andalusia in the south, where the valley of the Guadalquivir River is shut in by mountain ranges on every side except the southwest, where the valley descends to the Atlantic. The islands of Mallorca, Menorca and Ibiza are Spanish territories in the western Mediterranean. At the Strait of Gibralter, Spain and Morocco very nearly kiss, and Morocco appears relatively verdant along its northern coastal corner. The rugged Atlas Mountain ranges traverse northern Algeria and Morocco.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during 2000-2002. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2005-01-01

164

Neotectonics of northern Central Europe: the legacy of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern Central Europe is regarded as aseismic, however, several historic earthquakes with intensities of up to VII occurred in this region during the last 1000 years. This historic seismicity is clearly concentrated along major reverse faults that formerly played an important role during a tectonic inversion phase in the Late Cretaceous. Here we show with numerical simulations that large parts of the observed seismicity in northern Central Europe is most likely an effect of stress changes induced by the decay of the Scandinavian ice sheet after the Weichselian glaciation and the interference with the background stress field related to the ongoing convergence of Africa and Europe. Many of the historic earthquakes concentrate for a certain time along one fault and there is even evidence for distinct earthquake clusters in northern Central Europe e.g. along the Osning Thrust or at least along closely spaced faults like in the Gardelegen area. Such a distribution fits the characteristics of other intraplate seismic zones like the eastern United States and requires a re-evaluation of the seismic hazard potential of northern Central Europe, especially in view of the revived search for nuclear waste repositories and ongoing discussions about CO2 sequestration projects in the area.

Brandes, C.; Steffen, H.; Wu, P. P.

2013-12-01

165

Effect of Risk Aversion on Prioritizing Conservation Projects.  

PubMed

Conservation outcomes are uncertain. Agencies making decisions about what threat mitigation actions to take to save which species frequently face the dilemma of whether to invest in actions with high probability of success and guaranteed benefits or to choose projects with a greater risk of failure that might provide higher benefits if they succeed. The answer to this dilemma lies in the decision maker's aversion to risk-their unwillingness to accept uncertain outcomes. Little guidance exists on how risk preferences affect conservation investment priorities. Using a prioritization approach based on cost effectiveness, we compared 2 approaches: a conservative probability threshold approach that excludes investment in projects with a risk of management failure greater than a fixed level, and a variance-discounting heuristic used in economics that explicitly accounts for risk tolerance and the probabilities of management success and failure. We applied both approaches to prioritizing projects for 700 of New Zealand's threatened species across 8303 management actions. Both decision makers' risk tolerance and our choice of approach to dealing with risk preferences drove the prioritization solution (i.e., the species selected for management). Use of a probability threshold minimized uncertainty, but more expensive projects were selected than with variance discounting, which maximized expected benefits by selecting the management of species with higher extinction risk and higher conservation value. Explicitly incorporating risk preferences within the decision making process reduced the number of species expected to be safe from extinction because lower risk tolerance resulted in more species being excluded from management, but the approach allowed decision makers to choose a level of acceptable risk that fit with their ability to accommodate failure. We argue for transparency in risk tolerance and recommend that decision makers accept risk in an adaptive management framework to maximize benefits and avoid potential extinctions due to inefficient allocation of limited resources. El Efecto de la Aversión de Riesgo sobre la Priorización de Proyectos de Conservación. PMID:25327837

Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Maloney, Richard F; Joseph, Liana N; Bennett, Joseph R; DI Fonzo, Martina M I; Probert, William J M; O'Connor, Shaun M; Densem, Jodie P; Possingham, Hugh P

2014-10-18

166

How Europe regulates its genes  

SciTech Connect

As Europe moves toward unification in 1992, more than two dozen regulations and directives that will affect biotech are working their way through the complex European legislative system. The result could mean tough scrutiny for genetically engineered products. One reason is that the European Community (EC) has chosen to examine genetically engineered products as a special category - an approach the FDA has rejected. Another is that the EC is considering enacting regulations that would mandate consideration of the socioeconomic effects of biotech products in addition to their safety. In addition, some - particularly in industry - fear a nightmare of overlapping and contradictory regulations. It's too soon to tell how well the European system will work, or how stifling the regulations might be. In all likelihood the regulations emerging in Europe won't be demonstrably superior - or inferior - to the American ones, just different, with different strengths and weaknesses. But since many US biotech companies are looking to the huge market that a unified Europe represents, the specifics of those strengths and weaknesses will ultimately be of more than passing interest.

Balter, M.

1991-06-07

167

The effects of a regional telepathology project: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Telepathology, which is an emerging form of telemedicine in Canada, is defined as the electronic transmission of pathological images, usually derived from microscopes, from one location to another. There are various applications of telepathology, including case referral for an expert opinion, provision of an emergency service in the absence of a resident pathologist, and education. Until now, there has been relatively little use of telepathology for core diagnostic services in the absence of a local pathologist, but this practice is likely to increase in the future. The Laval University Integrated Health Network is in the process of deploying a telepathology system, primarily to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to small hospitals in sparsely populated areas which are experiencing a severe shortage of on-site pathologists. The telepathology project involves 17 hospitals located in five regions of eastern Quebec, Canada. This paper describes the study protocol that will be used to evaluate the benefits associated with the project. Methods/Design A panel of experts was first assembled by Canada Health Infoway to agree on a set of benefits indicators that could be applied to all telepathology projects across Canada. Using the set of indicators as an input, we have developed a three-step study protocol. First, a survey questionnaire will be distributed to appraise the way pathologists, pathology technologists and surgeons perceive the telepathology system and its impacts. Second, a series of semi-structured interviews will be conducted with project leaders and telepathology users at sites that are representative of all the hospitals in the Laval University Integrated Health Network. The overall aim is to better understand the expected and unexpected effects of telepathology on health care professionals and patients as well as on the regional organization and delivery of care services. Finally, a pre-post design using secondary data is proposed to evaluate a wide array of tangible benefits to the patients, the health care providers, the hospitals, and the region as a whole. Discussion The Laval University Integrated Health Network's telepathology project is expected to yield positive and significant results that are relevant internationally. Our findings will provide valuable information on the nature and extent of benefits associated with telepathology systems intended to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to remote hospitals experiencing a shortage of specialists. PMID:22420301

2012-01-01

168

Optical Effects at projection measurements for Terahertz tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical effects like refraction, diffraction and edge effects have an influence on Terahertz measurements. They can result in image artifacts which makes it difficult to detect and resolve material defects inside the samples. We used a geometrical optical ray tracing approach to analyze the optical effects at Terahertz projection measurements which can be used to perform 2D or 3D THz images. We measured rectangular and cylindrical samples made of PEEK (Polyetheretherketon), POM (Polyoxymethylen), and PMMA (Polymethylmethacrylat) and compared the results to simulations that are realized with the software ZEMAX. We were able to simulate the measured Fresnel refraction and transmission behavior for rectangular cuboids with a length of 25 mm and cylinders with diameter of 25 mm. We showed the influence of diffraction and edge effects at samples with different sizes made of PMMA. Thus, the optical effect of refraction was significant and observable for cylinders with diameters greater than 1.5 mm and holes with diameter greater than 2.5 mm.

Brahm, A.; Wilms, A.; Tymoshchuk, M.; Grossmann, C.; Notni, G.; Tünnermann, A.

2014-10-01

169

A New Tool for Effective and Efficient Project Management  

SciTech Connect

Organizations routinely handle thousands of projects per year, and it is difficult to manage all these projects concurrently. Too often, projects do not get the attention they need when they need it. Management inattention can lead to late projects or projects with less than desirable content and/or deliverables. This paper discusses the application of Visual Project Management (VPM) as a method to track and manage projects. The VPM approach proved to be a powerful management tool without the overhead and restrictions of traditional management methods.

Willett, Jesse A.

2011-12-01

170

Aquaculture in Europe.  

PubMed

The major aquatic species farmed in Europe are Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout and carp. Eels, flat-fish, mussels, oysters and crayfish are also produced. Northern Europe, with more temperate climates, centers its production around the salmonidae; further south and east eels and various species of carp are farmed. Farm systems vary from extensive fishing lakes to highly intensive tank units. Drugs and chemicals appear to be reasonably available in Europe to fish farmers. Three antimicrobials are currently licensed for use in food fish. Current legislation on the use of chemicals on fish farms does not adequately cover the present situation and so, almost any chemical which does not have to be given by a veterinarians prescription is available for a fish farmer. The constraints on future development of medicines for aquaculture industry are discussed together with the problems of generic prescribing. PMID:3617445

Brown, L A

1987-01-01

171

Doctoring in Eastern Europe  

PubMed Central

Health care in Eastern Europe has not achieved world standards nor the goals of planners of socialist societies. With luck, perseverance, bribes or good connections, it is possible to obtain good medical and surgical care in Eastern Europe for a major illness. Primary and even secondary care usually are substandard, however, and often completely unacceptable to most Western foreigners. The reasons for this are complex but mainly rooted in different attitudes of health workers towards their patients, poor physical plants, poor salary structures, inadequate advancement opportunities for health care workers, poor social status and professional recognition for nurses and almost complete isolation of the average primary care doctor from hospital medicine. PMID:6659504

Wilde, Henry

1983-01-01

172

EPOS: Integrating seismological Research Infrastructures within Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismological data, products and models are currently produced in Europe within individual countries or research organizations, and with the contribution of coordinating organizations like ORFEUS and EMSC. In spite of these partly scattered resources, significant scientific results are obtained, excellent monitoring and information systems are operational and a huge amount of research quality data is being archived and disseminated. The seismological community, however, realizes that an effective European-scale integration of seismological and related geophysical data, products and models, combined with broad and easy access, is needed to facilitate future top level geoscience, for example, to appropriately harness the technological advancements enabling large scale and near-real time data processing. Here we present the technical concepts and developments within European seismology that will build the next generation of integrated services. Within the EPOS initiative and a number of related projects, where seismology infrastructure and IT developments are merging, in depth discussions are on-going on how to realize an effective integration. Concepts and visions addressing the obviously complex challenges resulting from the current highly distributed facilities and resources in Europe are emerging and are already partly being implemented. We will provide an overview of developments within key EU projects (NERA, VERCE, COOPEUS, EUDAT, REAKT, COMMIT, etc) and demonstrate how these are in coherence with EPOS and other on-going global initiatives. Within seismology current focus is on addressing IT related challenges to a) organize distributed data archives, develop metadata attributes for improved data searching, specifically including quality indicators, and define products from data and/or models, and b) define and create(on-line) monitoring, data access and processing tools. While developments to meet those challenges originate partly from within the community itself, it is important to harvest relevant ideas and tools from other scientific communities dealing with similar issues. We will present a short summary of those developments and how they fit within the proposed visions and concepts. These integration developments address a wide framework of seismological services that include: basic seismological data services (waveform data from velocity and acceleration sensors from land and underwater sites); seismological data products (source mechanism and process estimates, earthquake catalogues, structural and tomography model estimations); seismological models (synthetic waveforms, earth and earthquake source models, hazard models).Our aim is to build significantlyimproved seismological services and valuable products for multidisciplinary earth science research.

Eck Van, Torild; Clinton, John; Haslinger, Florian; Michelini, Alberto

2013-04-01

173

Acid rain in Europe and the United States: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the evolution of science and policies to control acid rain in Europe and the United States over the past several decades. Acid rain gained prominence in the late 1960s because of its perceived effects on ecosystem integrity. Extensive research efforts in both Europe and the United States, however, have concluded that the effects of acid rain—at least

Fredric C. Menz; Hans M. Seip

2004-01-01

174

Project team effectiveness: the case for sufficient setup and top management involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Launching and supporting successful maintenance projects is an overlooked aspect of maintenance management research. This paper examines the effects of four important factors on project success: resource allocation, team leader authority, significant project objectives, and top management involvement. Additionally, we investigate the moderating effects of top management involvement on the relationship between inputs and team performance. By examining the responses

S. A. McComb; D. M. Kennedy; S. G. Green; W. D. Compton

2008-01-01

175

New Races of Puccinia striiformis Found in Europe Reveal Race Specificity of Long-Term Effective Adult Plant Resistance in Wheat.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Resistance to Puccinia striiformis was examined in nine wheat recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between 'Camp Rémy' (resistant parent) and 'Récital' (susceptible parent) using an isolate of a strain common to the northwestern European population before 2011 (old) and two additional isolates, one representing an aggressive and high-temperature-adapted strain (PstS2) and another representing a virulence phenotype new to Europe since 2011 (new). The RILs carried different combinations of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to P. striiformis. Under greenhouse conditions, the three isolates gave highly contrasting results for infection type, latent period, lesion length, and diseased leaf area. The PstS2 isolate revealed Yr genes and QTL which conferred complete resistance in adult plants. Six QTL had additive effects against the old isolate whereas the effects of these QTL were significantly lower for the new isolate. Furthermore, the new isolate revealed previously undetected resistance in the susceptible parent. Disease severity under field conditions agreed with greenhouse results, except for Camp Rémy being fully resistant to the new isolate and for two RILs being susceptible in the field. These results stress the need of maintaining high genetic diversity for disease resistance in wheat and of using pathogen isolates of diverse origin in studies of host resistance genetics. PMID:24624957

Sørensen, Chris K; Hovmøller, Mogens S; Leconte, Marc; Dedryver, Françoise; de Vallavieille-Pope, Claude

2014-10-01

176

Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This seventh edition of the Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe, available in English and French, was posted on the Web in September 2001. The atlas, a project of Christos Nussli, consists of maps "depicting with accuracy the states of this continent every first day of each centennial year from AD 1 to AD 2000." A legend helps users understand each of the maps, which are presented as expandable thumbnails. The site also links to a bibliography and maps from De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. Though the site functions in part as an advertisement for Nussli's CD version of the atlas, it is nonetheless a useful stop in its own right.

Nussli, Christos.

177

Soft Skills and Technical Expertise of Effective Project Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the field of research surrounding project manage ment continues to grow, it is becoming more evident that success in the role of project manager cannot be attained with a technical skill set only. Project managers functioning within a matrix organizational structure and championing large-scale initiatives are in a communication para digm unparalleled by any other management position. Excellent interpersonal,

Sharlett Gillard

178

A Reflection on the Effects of the 985 Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China's 985 Project, which came after the 211 Project, is a key program of the Chinese government to create world-class universities and high-level research universities. The central government invested a total of RMB32.9 billion in special funds for phase I (1999-2001) and phase II (2004-2007) of the project, assisting thirty-nine universities.…

Ying, Cheng

2011-01-01

179

Social vulnerability assessment: a growing practice in Europe?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper builds upon work on social vulnerability from the CapHaz-Net consortium, an ongoing research project funded by the European Commission in its 7th Framework Programme. The project focuses on the social dimensions of natural hazards, as well as on regional practices of risk prevention and management, and aims at improving the resilience of European societies to natural hazards, paying particular attention to social capacity building. The topic of social vulnerability is one of seven themes being addressed in the project. There are various rationales for examining the relevance of social vulnerability to natural hazards. Vulnerability assessment has now been accepted as a requirement for the effective development of emergency management capability, and assessment of social vulnerability has been recognised as being integral to understanding the risk to natural hazards. The aim of our research was to examine social vulnerability, how it might be understood in the context of natural hazards in Europe, and how social vulnerability can be addressed to increase social capacity. The work comprised a review of research on social vulnerability to different natural hazards within Europe and included concepts and definitions of social vulnerability (and related concepts), the purpose of vulnerability assessment and who decides who is vulnerable, different approaches to assessing or measuring social vulnerability (such as the use of 'classical' quantitative vulnerability indicators and qualitative community-based approaches, along with the advantages and disadvantages of both), conceptual frameworks for assessing social vulnerability and three case studies of social vulnerability studies within Europe: flash floods in the Italian Alps, fluvial flooding in Germany and heat waves in Spain. The review reveals variable application of social vulnerability analysis across Europe and there are indications why this might be the case. Reasons could range from the scale of country policy and the particular risk management focus to the smaller scale risk management perceptions of the analysis techniques employed being to resource expensive, difficult to interpret or to operationalise. This paper will provide a context with some empirical examples to perhaps explain the growing popularity of concepts such as resilience and capacity building which lie more comfortably with policy makers and risk managers as concepts which focus on the solution rather than identifying a problem by assessing social vulnerability.

Tapsell, S.; McC arthy, S.

2012-04-01

180

Restructuring Ford Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the contexts of globalization, rationalization and modularization, this article seeks to explore why Ford Europe performed so badly in the second half of the 1990s, sustaining heavy losses and falling market share. The causes of this are deep-rooted and are traced to poor model development and a failure to realise that the market for cars was fragmenting with the

Tom Donnelly; David Morris

2003-01-01

181

CNN.com Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently launched, this new CNN site offers users interested or living in Europe easy and quick access to headlines and news stories from the region. In addition to the major political news, the page supplies regional weather and European sports and business news. Italian, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, and Spanish versions of the site are also available.

182

The Europe 2020 Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

Pasimeni, Paolo

2013-01-01

183

Public Relations on Fusion in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summary will be presented of PR efforts on fusion energy research in Europe. A 3-D movie of a fusion research experimental reactor has been realized at the start of this year. It has been made entirely on virtual animation basis. Two versions exists, a short version of 3 min., as a video clip, and a longer version of nearly 8 min. Both could be viewed in 3D, using special projections and passive glasses or in normal VHS video projections. A new CD-ROM for individual and classroom use will be presented, discussing (i) the different energy forms, (ii) general principles of fusion, (iii) current research efforts and (iv) future prospects of fusion. This CD-ROM is now produced in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese Several new brochures and leaflets intended to increase the public awareness on fusion in Europe will be on display.

Ongena, J.; van Oost, G.; Paris, P. J.

2000-10-01

184

Infection with hepatitis B and C virus in Europe: a systematic review of prevalence and cost-effectiveness of screening  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is improving but not benefiting individuals unaware to be infected. To inform screening policies we assessed (1) the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV-Ab) prevalence for 34 European countries; and (2) the cost-effectiveness of screening for chronic HBV and HCV infection. Methods We searched peer-reviewed literature for data on HBsAg and anti-HCV-Ab prevalence and cost-effectiveness of screening of the general population and five subgroups, and used data for people who inject drugs (PWID) and blood donors from two European organizations. Of 1759 and 468 papers found in the prevalence and cost-effectiveness searches respectively, we included 124 and 29 papers after assessing their quality. We used decision rules to calculate weighted prevalence estimates by country. Results The HBsAg and anti-HCV-Ab prevalence in the general population ranged from 0.1%-5.6% and 0.4%-5.2% respectively, by country. For PWID, men who have sex with men and migrants, the prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV-Ab was higher than the prevalence in the general population in all but 3 countries. There is evidence that HCV screening of PWID and HBsAg screening of pregnant women and migrants is cost-effective. Conclusion The prevalence of chronic HBV and HCV infection varies widely between European countries. Anti-HCV-Ab screening of PWID and HBsAg screening of pregnant women and migrants have European public health priority. Cost-effectiveness analyses may need to take effect of antiviral treatment on preventing HBV and HCV transmission into account. PMID:23597411

2013-01-01

185

Projection Effects on Physical Parameters Obtained from Solar Vector Magnetograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projection effects in Huairou solar vector magnetograms are corrected by transferring or mapping the observed vector magnetogram in the image plane to the heliographic plane (planar correction) and to the heliospheric coordinate system (spherical correction). The magnetograms after the correction are considerably different. The planar correction and the spherical correction lead to slightly different magnetic configurations, especially when the active region involved is far from the disk center. We also discuss the effects of the corrections on magnetic activity parameters, such as magnetic shear, current helicity, etc. It is shown that the neutral line is obviously distorted after the mapping. The mapping generally decreases the average shear angle on the neutral line by several degrees when the active region is in the eastern hemisphere, and increases it when in the western hemisphere. In most of the cases studied, the correction reduces the current helicity imbalance, and sometimes even changes its sign. It is found that the current helicity imbalance may change its sign in its evolution when there are apparent fluxes emerging from the lower photosphere. The corrections increase the noise level of Bz greatly, and decrease the noise level of Bt slightly. The accuracy of the magnetic field measurement at Huairou is estimated to be better than 20 G and 150 G for the longitudinal and the transverse component, respectively.

Li, Hui

2002-04-01

186

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Exemestane Compared with Megestrol in Advanced Breast Cancer: A Model for Europe and Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the cost effectiveness of exemestane compared to megestrol in post-menopausal women after tamoxifen failure. Design and setting: A modelling study from the third-party payer perspective in Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. Methods: A model was constructed, based on and driven by data on survival from a clinical study of these

Peter Lindgren; Bengt Jonsson; Alberto Redaelli; Davide Radice

2002-01-01

187

Bias in effect size of systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility loci across Europe: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Introduction We aimed to investigate whether the effect size of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk alleles varies across European subpopulations. Methods European SLE patients (n = 1,742) and ethnically matched healthy controls (n = 2,101) were recruited at 17 centres from 10 different countries. Only individuals with self-reported ancestry from the country of origin were included. In addition, participants were genotyped for top ancestry informative markers and for 25 SLE associated SNPs. The results were used to compare effect sizes between the Central Eureopan and Southern European subgroups. Results Twenty of the 25 SNPs showed independent association with SLE, These SNPs showed a significant bias to larger effect sizes in the Southern subgroup, with 15/20 showing this trend (P = 0.019) and a larger mean odds ratio of the 20 SNPs (1.46 vs. 1.34, P = 0.02) as well as a larger difference in the number of risk alleles (2.06 vs. 1.63, P = 0.027) between SLE patients and controls than for Central Europeans. This bias was reflected in a very significant difference in the cumulative genetic risk score (4.31 vs. 3.48, P = 1.8 × 10-32). Effect size bias was accompanied by a lower number of SLE risk alleles in the Southern subjects, both patients and controls, the difference being more marked between the controls (P = 1.1 × 10-8) than between the Southern and Central European patients (P = 0.016). Seven of these SNPs showed significant allele frequency clines. Conclusion Our findings showed a bias to larger effect sizes of SLE loci in the Southern Europeans relative to the Central Europeans together with clines of SLE risk allele frequencies. These results indicate the need to study risk allele clines and the implications of the polygenic model of inheritance in SLE. PMID:22541939

2012-01-01

188

ASSIGNMENT SHEET GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The objective of this course is to provide students with a knowledge of spatial patterns in Europe (physical, national, urban, cultural, etc.) to be used in the analysis of past and present European affairs. Furthermore, Europe must be understood in the context of an international perspective. I'll use many different forms of information to present Europe as a dynamic

A. J. Lamme III

189

Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ˜273?800 km2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus-Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and biodiversity, and for increasing agricultural production on previously cultivated lands.

Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Müller, Daniel

2012-06-01

190

Edge effect of low-traffic forest roads on bird communities in secondary production forests in central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide forests fragmentation has lead to a massive increase of habitat edges, creating both negative and positive impacts\\u000a on birds. While busy highways dissecting forested areas create edges which are known to reduce bird densities due to the disturbing\\u000a effect of noise, the impacts of logging forest roads with low traffic volumes have rarely been studied. In this study, we

Miroslav Šálek; Jana Svobodová; Petr Zasadil

2010-01-01

191

Development of a Secure Electronic Marketplace for Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backed by the European Commission, a consortium of partners from European industry, financial institutions, and academia has embarked on a research project to develop the fundamentals of secure electronic commerce. The goal of the 9-million ECU project, SEMPER (Secure Electronic Marketplace for Europe), is to provide the first open and comprehensive solutions for secure commerce over the Internet and other

Michael Waidner

1996-01-01

192

Europe-wide survey of estrogenicity in wastewater treatment plant effluents: the need for the effect-based monitoring.  

PubMed

A pan-European monitoring campaign of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents was conducted to obtain a concise picture on a broad range of pollutants including estrogenic compounds. Snapshot samples from 75 WWTP effluents were collected and analysed for concentrations of 150 polar organic and 20 inorganic compounds as well as estrogenicity using the MVLN reporter gene assay. The effect-based assessment determined estrogenicity in 27 of 75 samples tested with the concentrations ranging from 0.53 to 17.9 ng/L of 17-beta-estradiol equivalents (EEQ). Approximately one third of municipal WWTP effluents contained EEQ greater than 0.5 ng/L EEQ, which confirmed the importance of cities as the major contamination source. Beside municipal WWTPs, some treated industrial wastewaters also exhibited detectable EEQ, indicating the importance to investigate phytoestrogens released from plant processing factories. No steroid estrogens were detected in any of the samples by instrumental methods above their limits of quantification of 10 ng/L, and none of the other analysed classes of chemicals showed correlation with detected EEQs. The study demonstrates the need of effect-based monitoring to assess certain classes of contaminants such as estrogens, which are known to occur at low concentrations being of serious toxicological concern for aquatic biota. PMID:24870285

Jarošová, Barbora; Erseková, Anita; Hilscherová, Klára; Loos, Robert; Gawlik, Bernd M; Giesy, John P; Bláha, Ludek

2014-09-01

193

Working with Teachers to Develop Fair and Reliable Measures of Effective Teaching. MET Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to develop and test multiple measures of teacher effectiveness. The goal of the MET project is to improve the quality of information about teaching effectiveness available to education professionals within states and districts--information…

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

2010-01-01

194

Joint implementation for cost-effective carbon dioxide emission-reductions: An analysis of options in eastern Europe  

SciTech Connect

The costs of greenhouse gas emission-reductions vary among countries depending on emission levels, technologies used, past emission-reduction achievements, path of economic development, fuel mix, and initial endowment of hydrocarbon resources. The criterion of cost-effectiveness therefore suggests that the ways should be found to encourage emission reductions in the countries where the required costs of reduction of additional unit of emissions are the lowest. These countries usually face crucial capital constraints and have other development priorities than investing in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Developed countries could invest their resources in the former Soviet Union and the east European countries to achieve the same level of reduction of greenhouse gases with lower costs than they could in their own countries.

Krutilla, K.; Dolsak, N.

1996-12-31

195

The impact of climate change on grain maize production over Europe - adaptation with different irrigation strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial distribution of water deficit and maize yield deficit across Europe has been compared between current and expected climatic conditions in the near future (time window 2030). Maize yields and water requirements were simulated using the WOFOST (World Food Studies) crop growth model. In our study, the priority has been given to future projections of the A1B emission scenario produced within the ENSEMBLE project: HadRM3 RCM nested within the HADCM3 GCM (HADLEY) and HIRHAM5 RCM nested within ECHAM5 GCM (ECHAM). The two realizations can be considered as warm (HADLEY) and cold (ECHAM5) according to simulated temperature in the near future and therefore represent the extremes in air temperature change within those analyzed in ENSEMBLES project, allowing us to evaluate the largest range of uncertainty in weather inputs to the impact model. In addition, we also explored the advantages of different irrigation strategies for the target crop to offset climate change impacts. In wake of limited amount of water availability for agriculture purposes, we explored effectiveness of three different irrigation strategies on maize yield over Europe, namely full, deficit and supplemental irrigation. The results of our study indicate that the maize yield under rainfed conditions is expected to decrease over the Southern Europe as well as regions around the Black Sea during the 2030s under both climate model realizations. Water deficit is expected to increase especially in the Mediterranean, whereas slightly less in parts of Central and Western Europe. However, adaptation strategies followed in this study negate the detrimental effect of climate change and result in an increased maize yield. Three irrigation strategies have been simulated differing in timing of water application and in the total volume of water supplied during the growing season. The results show that yields, achieved using deficit and full irrigation strategies, are not significantly different. Hence, at least 30 % of irrigation water in the current and future climate conditions can be saved when using deficit irrigation strategy.

Ceglar, A.; Srivastava, A. K.; Chukaliev, O.; Duveiller, G.; Niemeyer, S.

2013-12-01

196

Detection of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Carried Out in the Influenza Project - Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness (I-MOVE).  

PubMed

The project Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness-Monitoring (I-MOVE) is part of the European research carried out by the ECDC (European Center for Disease Prevention and Control), aimed at monitoring the effectiveness of vaccination in Europe during the growing incidence of flu and influenza-like illnesses in the coming epidemic seasons. Laboratory studies using molecular RT-PCR biology methods for detection of genetic material of influenza virus and other respiratory viruses were performed by Voivodeship Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations in Poland. The validation of the results of swabs taken from the nose and throat were carried out in the Department of Influenza Research, National Influenza Center in Warsaw. The study involved 210 samples from patients across Poland. Positive results were recorded for 72.4 % of the samples; influenza virus type A was detected in 43 and type B in 38 cases, whereas in 71 cases other respiratory viruses were detected, which included Human parainfluenza virus type 1-4; Human respiratory syncytial virus type A and B; Human coronavirus 229E/NL63, OC43; Human rhinovirus type A, B, and C; Human enterovirus; and Human adenovirus. The results show that although influenza viruses predominated in the 2010/2011 season in Poland, other flu-like viruses also abounded. PMID:25252895

Wo?niak-Kosek, Agnieszka

2015-01-01

197

Analysis of an IFN-gamma gene (IFNG) polymorphism in multiple sclerosis in Europe: effect of population structure on association with disease.  

PubMed

An intronic dinucleotide polymorphism in the IFN-gamma gene (IFNG) was used as a marker for testing association with multiple sclerosis (MS). Disease association was analyzed in case-control sets sampled from four geographically separate European populations (Germany, Northern Italy, Sardinia, and Sweden). Only in the Swedish was a weak disease association of the IFNG allele pattern found, mainly due to a higher frequency of IFNG allele I1 in MS patients. No evidence for association was found in the German or Northern Italian populations. These results contrast with the situation in Sardinia. We have recently reported transmission disequilibrium of IFNG allele I2 in Sardinian MS siblings not carrying the predisposing DRB1 *03 or *04 alleles (Ann. Neurol. 44, 841-842, 1998). Further analysis now shows that I2 is significantly more often transmitted to DRB1 *03-/*04- males, than to DRB1 *03-/*04- females. The odds ratio (OR) for IFNG-associated susceptibility to MS in the total Sardinian DRB1*03-/*04- group was 1.88 for I2 heterozygotes but amounted to 8.235 for I2 homozygotes, suggestive of a recessive mode of inheritance. Score test-based statistics pointed to an I2 allele dosage effect acting in susceptibility. Comparison of the IFNG allele frequencies in seven European populations (Northern Finnish, Southern Finnish, Swedish, Danish, German, Italian, and Sardinian) revealed a highly different distribution pattern. We introduced latitude as a score variable in order to test for trend in binomial proportions. This test statistic showed that for both most common alleles, I1 and I2 (compiled allele frequency about 85%), a significant opposite north-to-south trend is seen throughout Europe. This effect is primarily due to the extreme values found in the outlier populations of Finland and Sardinia. Our findings are discussed with respect to recent literature pertinent to the role of the IFNG chromosome region in autoimmune diseases. PMID:10505747

Goris, A; Epplen, C; Fiten, P; Andersson, M; Murru, R; Sciacca, F L; Ronsse, I; Jäckel, S; Epplen, J T; Marrosu, M G; Olsson, T; Grimaldi, L M; Opdenakker, G; Billiau, A; Vandenbroeck, K

1999-09-01

198

Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects ANN DENISE FISSEKIS  

E-print Network

Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects By ANN DENISE FISSEKIS B.......................................................................6 Chapter III. Climate Change................................................................11 models...........................................................20 Climate change data

Lund, Jay R.

199

Mapping Europe's Seismic Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the rift that cuts through the heart of Iceland to the complex tectonic convergence that causes frequent and often deadly earthquakes in Italy, Greece, and Turkey to the volcanic tremors that rattle the Mediterranean, seismic activity is a prevalent and often life-threatening reality across Europe. Any attempt to mitigate the seismic risk faced by society requires an accurate estimate of the seismic hazard.

Giardini, Domenico; Wössner, Jochen; Danciu, Laurentiu

2014-07-01

200

Cost-effectiveness of Project ADAM: a project to prevent sudden cardiac death in high school students.  

PubMed

Public access defibrillation (PAD) in the adult population is thought to be both efficacious and cost-effective. Similar programs aimed at children and adolescents have not been evaluated for their cost-effectiveness. This study evaluates the potential cost-effectiveness of implementing Project ADAM, a program targeting children and adolescents in high schools in the Milwaukee Public School System. Project ADAM provides education about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the warning signs of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and training in the use and placement of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in high schools. We developed decision analysis models to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the decision to implement Project ADAM in public high schools in Milwaukee. We examined clinical model and public policy applications. Data on costs included estimates of hospital-based charges derived from a pediatric medical center where a series of patients were treated for SCD, educational programming, and the direct costs of one AED and training for 15 personnel per school. We performed sensitivity analyses to assess the variation in outputs with respect to changes to input data. The main outcome measures were Life years saved and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. At an arbitrary societal willingness to pay $100,000 per life year saved, the policy to implement Project ADAM in schools is a cost-effective strategy at a threshold of approximately 5 patients over 5 years for the clinical model and approximately 8 patients over 5 years for the public policy model. Implementation of Project ADAM in high schools in the United States is potentially associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio that is favorable. PMID:14743309

Berger, S; Whitstone, B N; Frisbee, S J; Miner, J T; Dhala, A; Pirrallo, R G; Utech, L M; Sachdeva, R C

2004-01-01

201

Mineral facilities of Europe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

2010-01-01

202

INVESTIGATING THE EFFICACY OF ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS TOOLS IN IT PROJECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology industry has received poor marks on its ability to deliver successful projects on time and on budget. According to Sribar & Passori (32), 72% of all IT projects are late, over budget, lack functionality, or are never delivered as planned. Varley (36) suggested that poor communications, unrealistic expectations, competing agendas, resistance to change, and lack of agreed upon

BRIAN H. CAMERON; MEGAN MCCUSKER MOORE

203

Thrombolytic therapy in Europe: current status.  

PubMed

Thrombolytic therapy is a practical, effective approach to the management of acute myocardial infarction that is widely used in Europe today. Early European trials demonstrated a clear reduction in mortality in patients who received thrombolytic therapy compared with those given conventional treatment. The findings of experimental studies suggest that early reperfusion of the infarct-related artery reduces myocardial damage, which results in the preservation of left ventricular function and, in turn, may improve survival. Although tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) has been shown to produce more rapid and complete reperfusion than streptokinase, two large-scale clinical trials in which t-PA was given as a standard 3- or 4-h infusion provided no evidence of a survival advantage with this agent. However, the accelerated t-PA regimen used in the Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) study was associated with a lower mortality than streptokinase or a combination of t-PA and streptokinase, thus lending support to the 'open artery' theory. Two recent studies conducted in Europe, the Grampian Region Early Anistreplase Trial (GREAT) and the European Myocardial Infarction Project (EMIP), have demonstrated the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of early thrombolytic therapy before admission to hospital. In GREAT, anistreplase (APSAC) was administered at home by general practitioners. In EMIP, this same agent was given by emergency medical personnel. In both studies, pre-hospital administration reduced the time between the onset of symptoms and initiation of thrombolysis and was associated with a lower mortality rate. Recent data from the European Cooperative Group Study show that the benefits of thrombolytic therapy are maintained for up to 5 years. Research continues in an effort to develop safer and more effective thrombolytic agents. Educational efforts to familiarize the public with the symptoms of myocardial infarction and the development of more rapid, efficient emergency response systems may also improve the outcome of thrombolytic therapy by shortening the time between symptom onset and thrombolytic drug administration. PMID:11824000

Vahanian, A

1996-09-01

204

Estimating the impact of wintry weather on transportation in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wintry weather conditions have high impact on transportation. Sub-zero temperatures combined to snowfall result in traffic jams and increased accident rate. Dense snowfall causes poor grip between the road surface and tires and reduces the visibility, thus increasing the risk for severe pile-ups on highways. Low temperature and snowfall have a strong negative impact also on railway traffic and aviation, as experienced in Europe during winter 2009/10. Many big airfields in Central Europe were closed during several days and thousands of people had to spend the night at the airport or in the hotels nearby. The estimated total costs from a single major snowfall event can climb up to 1.3 billion pounds (1.5 billion euro), as happened in UK on 1-2 February 2009. By investigating the effect of hazardous winter weather conditions on different transport modes the worst situations can be identified and impact thresholds for different weather parameters and their combination can be assessed. In this study we estimate the impact thresholds for snowfall, wind gust and temperature as well as for their combination, the blizzard. This work is based on an impact review collected from literature and media reports as well as on local studies concerning the link between snowfall and traffic accidents for example. From the study on six winters it appears for example that a snowfall of 10 cm/24 h resulted in a double car accident rate on average in southern Finland. Such situations can be regarded as high impact cases (peak days of traffic accidents). It is estimated that climate change and global warming will decrease the average yearly number of wintry days in Europe. Even the northern part will probably have a shorter period of snow cover during the coming decades. However, the variability between different winters will remain and cold air outbreaks with even heavy snowfall can occasionally occur also during mild winters. Several studies have shown that the more uncommon some hazardous event is, the more disruptive it can be to the society. This study, where we assess the impact thresholds for different weather parameters, will give guidelines for calculating the probabilities of hazardous wintry events in Europe at present and in the future. This study is associated with the EU/FP7 project EWENT. The objective of the project is to study the impacts of hazardous weather on European transportation system by taking into account the changing climate.

Juga, I.; Rauhala, J.; Vajda, A.

2010-09-01

205

German-Speaking People of Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book attempts to provide cultural information which will enable an American to communicate effectively with German-speaking people of Europe. The book discusses differences between American and Germanic culture in such areas as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress, and basic attitudes. Background information is given on Austria,…

Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

206

Adoption of conservation agriculture in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to KASSA findings, conservation agriculture is less adopted in Europe compared to other adopting regions and, reduced tillage is more common than no-tillage and cover crops. Currently, it is not popularised and it is less researched. The lack of knowledge on conservation agriculture systems and their management and, the absence of dynamic and effective innovation systems make it difficult

Rabah Lahmar

2010-01-01

207

The joint effect of project-level exploratory and exploitative learning in new product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to further understand the joint effect of project-level exploratory and exploitative learning in new product development. It aims to examine the complicated relationships among exploratory learning, exploitative learning and new product performance at a single project level. In addition, it seeks to shed light on the contextual effects of a firm's market

Chih-Peng Chu; Ci-Rong Li; Chen-Ju Lin

2011-01-01

208

"Project ALERT's" Effects on Adolescents' Prodrug Beliefs: A Replication and Extension Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article represents a replication and extension of previous studies of the effects of "Project ALERT", a school-based substance use prevention program, on the prodrug beliefs of adolescents. Specifically, the authors' research examined "Project ALERT's" effects on adolescents' intentions to use substances in the future, beliefs about substance…

Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Hanley, Sean; Shamblen, Stephen R.

2010-01-01

209

The Search for Effective Biological Control Agents in Europe: History and Lessons from Leafy Spurge ( Euphorbia esula L.) and Cypress Spurge ( Euphorbia cyparissias L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During field surveys made in Europe nearly 40 specialized insect species were found and considered as potential biological control agents of leafy spurge and cypress spurge (Euphorbia esula and Euphorbia cyparissias). More insect species were found on the most common and the geographically most widespread spurge species and on those occurring in a wide range of habitat types. The insect

A. Gassmann; D. Schroeder

1995-01-01

210

Irrigation Water Pricing in Southern Europe and Cyprus: The effects of the EU Common Agricultural Policy and the Water Framework Directive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agricultural policy adopted by the European Union until recently has contributed to economically inefficient, environmentally unsustainable and socially inequitable management of irrigation water in Southern Europe. The Union’s willingness to tackle these issues in an integrated manner is evident in the reformed Common Agricultural Policy and the Water Framework Directive. This paper aims to critically assess the potential impact

Christos Zoumides; Theodoros Zachariadis

2009-01-01

211

Central Europe Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, a service of the European Internet Network, brings English-language news and background to users each weekday. Central Europe Online covers the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The site offers current headlines (along with the time that they were most recently updated), business news, travel information, and links to local media. New stories are drawn primarily from Reuters. An archive holds back issues. Users who want to stay current on issues affecting these regions will benefit from the professional approach this site brings to coverage.

1995-01-01

212

Consolidating peace in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Consolidating Peace in Europe is a collection of essays and discussions by some of the leading experts in the field of international relations and disarmament. Some of the issues raised include: the responsibility of a West divided by peace movements to create a unified diplomatic front; the need for both East and West to understand the contradictory behavior of a Soviet Union that is militarily strong but economically weak; and the development of a new political awareness for a generation of Europeans who have on direct experience of post-World War II political tumult.

Kaplan, M.A

1987-01-01

213

Europe's nuclear power experiment  

SciTech Connect

The OECD (Dragon) Project was a joint venture of 12 European countries set up to study the development of high temperature reactor technology and whose programme included the construction of a demonstration high temperature helium cooled reactor and its eventual operation. The Project, which spanned 17 years, was widely regarded as an extremely successful excercise in international collaboration in nuclear technology. This specially commissioned work describes the international background to the launching of the Project, providing an unbiased appraisal of the industrial, technical, administrative and political aspects of the Project's development and the problems encountered, and an evaluation of the Project's significance in the general, context of nuclear power development.

Shaw, E.N.

1983-01-01

214

An efficient energy future: Prospects for Europe and North America  

SciTech Connect

Industrial countries will have to use energy more efficiently in the years to come to manage a wide range of energy and economic problems. The Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, the United States and Western Europe are analyzed in this book to show the potential for energy conservation up to the year 2000. Seventeen eastern and western countries are studied in detail to show what energy savings are possible with conservation measures that are widely available today. The study makes detailed energy demand projections largely based on physical activity and technology. Energy per ton of steel, for instance, is forecast along with the total tonnage of steel produced. Two views of the energy future are taken. They both rely on the same economic and activity forecasts. One shows energy needs to the end of the century with current average technology. It shows that energy demand will rise steeply if past trends continue. The other view is of an efficient energy future. It reveals how much energy could be saved using only the most efficient technology that is commercially available now. International comparisons explain how different countries use energy much more efficiently than others today. Current best technology provides a vast array of demonstrably effective conservation measures for countries to choose from.

Not Available

1983-01-01

215

Europe is going to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Agency's Science Programme Committee (SPC) approved Mars Express after ESA's Council, meeting at ministerial level in Brussels on 11 and 12 May, had agreed the level of the science budget for the next 4 years, just enough to make the mission affordable. "Mars Express is a mission of opportunity and we felt we just had to jump in and do it. We are convinced it will produce first-rate science", says Hans Balsiger, SPC chairman. As well as being a first for Europe in Mars exploration, Mars Express will pioneer new, cheaper ways of doing space science missions. "With a total cost of just 150 million euros, Mars Express will be the cheapest Mars mission ever undertaken", says Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science. Mars Express will be launched in June 2003. When it arrives at the red planet six months later, it will begin to search for water and life. Seven instruments, provided by space research institutes throughout Europe, will make observations from the main spacecraft as it orbits the planet. Just before the spacecraft arrives, it will release a small lander, provided by research institutes in the UK, that will journey on to the surface to look for signs of life. The lander is called Beagle 2 after the ship in which Charles Darwin sailed round the world in search of evidence supporting his theory of evolution. But just as Darwin had to raise the money for his trip, so the search is on for public and private finance for Beagle 2. "Beagle 2 is an extremely important element of the mission", says Bonnet. Europe's space scientists have envisaged a mission to Mars for over fifteen years. But limited funding has prevented previous proposals from going ahead. The positioning of the planets in 2003, however, offers a particularly favourable passage to the red planet - an opportunity not to be missed. Mars Express will be joined by an international flotilla of spacecraft that will also be using this opportunity to work together on scientific questions and pave the way for future exploration. ESA is now able to afford Mars Express because it will be built more quickly and cheaply than any other comparable mission. It will be the first of the Agency's new flexible missions, based on maximum reuse of technology off-the-shelf and from other missions (the Rosetta cometary mission in this case). Mars Express will explore the extent to which innovative working practices, now made possible by the maturity of Europe's space industry, can cut mission costs and the time from concept to launch : a new kind of relationship with industrial partners is starting. "We are adopting a new approach to management by delegating to Matra Marconi Space (the prime contractor) responsibility for the whole project. This means we can reduce the ESA's management costs" says Bonnet. Despite the knock-down price, however, the future of Mars Express has hung in the balance because of the steady erosion of ESA's space science budget since 1995. Last November, the SPC said the mission could go ahead only if it could be afforded without affecting missions already approved, especially the FIRST infra-red observatory and the Planck mission to measure the cosmic microwave background. On 19/20 May, the SPC, which has the ultimate decision over the Agency's science missions, agreed that the level of resources allowed was just sufficient to allow Mars Express to go ahead. "To do such an ambitious mission for so little money is a challenge and we have decided to meet", says Balsiger.

1999-06-01

216

New fire-prone areas in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With climate change, fire risk is projected to increase in many parts of Europe. Under severe climate change this could also lead to an increase of fire in ecosystems, which are not dominated by fires under current climate. In that case, fire risk would cause area and biomass burnt to increase, i.e. keep the linear relationship, and lead to an enormous increase in fire severity. We have developed an algorithm to map new fire-prone areas in Europe. It identifies grid points where large-scale fires, yet rare, are becoming the mean at the end of the 21st century. We applied this algorithm to simulation results from experiments where the dynamic vegetation-fire models LPJ-GUESS-SIMFIRE and LPJmL-SPITFIRE model were applied to scenarios of climate change and human population. Since both models simulate bi-directional feedbacks of vegetation dynamics and fire, simulated changes in fire regimes inherently reflect changes in fuel composition and fuel availability. Changes in future fire regimes and resulting new fire-prone areas as projected for the 21st century using CMIP5 climate scenarios (RCP8.5 vs. RPC2.6) will be presented. First results indicate that the new fire-prone areas would be found in eastern Europe. Depending on the climate scenario and vegetation-fire model used, it could also extend to central and south-eastern Europe. What this implies for vegetation composition and dynamics in the affected areas and how fire and climate change interact to lead to such changes will be shown.

Thonicke, Kirsten; Knorr, Wolfgang; Wu, Minchao; Arneth, Almut

2014-05-01

217

Generating effective project scheduling heuristics by abstraction and reconstitution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A project scheduling problem consists of a finite set of jobs, each with fixed integer duration, requiring one or more resources such as personnel or equipment, and each subject to a set of precedence relations, which specify allowable job orderings, and a set of mutual exclusion relations, which specify jobs that cannot overlap. No job can be interrupted once started. The objective is to minimize project duration. This objective arises in nearly every large construction project--from software to hardware to buildings. Because such project scheduling problems are NP-hard, they are typically solved by branch-and-bound algorithms. In these algorithms, lower-bound duration estimates (admissible heuristics) are used to improve efficiency. One way to obtain an admissible heuristic is to remove (abstract) all resources and mutual exclusion constraints and then obtain the minimal project duration for the abstracted problem; this minimal duration is the admissible heuristic. Although such abstracted problems can be solved efficiently, they yield inaccurate admissible heuristics precisely because those constraints that are central to solving the original problem are abstracted. This paper describes a method to reconstitute the abstracted constraints back into the solution to the abstracted problem while maintaining efficiency, thereby generating better admissible heuristics. Our results suggest that reconstitution can make good admissible heuristics even better.

Janakiraman, Bhaskar; Prieditis, Armand

1992-01-01

218

Multilingual Europe: facts and policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book offers an inclusive perspective on the constellation of languages in Europe by taking into account official state languages, regional minority languages and immigrant minority languages. Although \\

G. Extra; D. Gorter

2008-01-01

219

Working towards healthy air in dwellings in Europe.  

PubMed

Poor indoor air quality has been implicated in the increase in allergic and respiratory diseases seen in industrialized countries in recent decades. Although air pollution in the workplace is well studied, much less is known about the consequences of poor air quality in homes. In an attempt to halt or slow down the increase in allergic and respiratory diseases, the European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA) carried out the EU-funded project entitled 'Towards Healthy Air in Dwellings in Europe' (THADE). The aims were to: compile an overview of evidence-based data about exposure to indoor air pollution and its health effects, particularly in relation to allergies, asthma and other respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; review cost-effective measures and technology to improve indoor air quality; review legislation and guidelines on indoor air pollution; produce maps of pollutants in dwellings; and recommend an integrated strategy that defines appropriate indoor air quality policies for implementation in Europe. This paper summarizes the information about air quality in dwellings and indoor environment-related diseases collected by expert consultants within the framework of THADE and terminates with recommendations for actions aimed at improving air quality in homes. The results of this project confirmed that air pollution in dwellings is a relevant health problem. It is a complex problem that must be addressed at European and international levels, and it involves the medical profession, scientific societies, patients' organizations, lawmakers, architects and the building industry. The complete THADE report is available at http://www.efanet.org/activities/documents/THADEReport.pdf. PMID:16792586

Franchi, M; Carrer, P; Kotzias, D; Rameckers, E M A L; Seppänen, O; van Bronswijk, J E M H; Viegi, G; Gilder, J A; Valovirta, E

2006-07-01

220

Cheney Lake CEAP Project: Conservation Practice Effects Assessment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

AnnAGNPS was used to analyze Cheney Lake Watershed, a Special Emphasis Watershed, during the Conservation Evaluation Assessment Project (CEAP). Seven (7) best management conservation practice (BMP) scenarios, which would impact sediment and nutrient loading to Cheney Lake, were identified and evalu...

221

Dust radiative effect over Europe, Mediterranean, Sahara and Middle East from a radiative transfer model using BSC-DREAM8b aerosol optical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arid regions of Saharan desert and Middle East are the world's major dust sources. However, dust particles from these areas are transported to nearby regions, through favourable synoptic conditions, even reaching remote locations in Europe or in the Arctic. This transport is very important in numerous aspects. One of its most important effects is on the radiation budget, and more specifically on solar radiation, through the aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE). Previous studies have shown that this effect is great under dust load conditions. Therefore, it is very important to simulate dust transport processes and associated radiative effects. The simulation of dust production, transport and removal is done by numerical models, which however have their own limitations as to the consideration of physical and dynamical processes as well as their initial conditions. On the other hand, the computation of dust DRE is ideally done with radiative transfer models (RTMs), which however imply uncertainties associated with the input aerosol optical properties. The most important aerosol optical properties used in RTMs and climate models are aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (AP). The main target of the present study is to reduce the uncertainties of dust DRE by using a detailed spectral RTM and an acknowledged regional and meso-scale model describing the distribution of dust. The combined use of these tools is applied to the region covering the deserts of Sahara, Arabian Peninsula and Middle East, and the neighbouring Mediterranean basin and European continent (extending from 15°N to 60°N and from 21°W to 54°E). The computations are performed on a monthly mean basis, refer to the 11-year period 2000-2010, and quantify the effects of dust on the reflected solar radiation at the top of atmosphere (DRETOA), on the absorbed solar radiation within the atmosphere (DREatmab), and on the downwelling and absorbed solar radiation at the surface (DREsurf and DREsurfnet, respectively). The RTM takes into account all physical parameters of the Earth-Atmosphere system that interact with solar radiation, namely ozone, carbon dioxide, methane, water vapour, clouds (low, middle, high), aerosol and atmospheric molecules (Rayleigh scattering) as well as surface reflection. Emphasis is given to aerosol optical properties (AOD, SSA and AP) which are all obtained from the dust regional BSC-DREAM8b model. Detailed analysis is undertaken of the modelled aerosol properties, and the spatial and temporal (seasonal and year by year) variation of these properties and of the model DREs are thoroughly investigated. In addition, the computed DREs are inter-compared with corresponding ones obtained with the same RTM using aerosol data from satellites (e.g. MODIS) or other datasets (e.g. Global Aerosol DataSet, GADS and Hamburg Aerosol Climatology, HAC).

Papadimas, Christos; Gkikas, Antonis; Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Matsoukas, Christos; Kazadzis, Stelios; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, Jose; Vardavas, Ilias

2013-04-01

222

Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common Ragweed) is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. This study is realised within the framework of the ATOPICA project (https://www.atopica.eu/) which is designed to provide first steps in tools and estimations of the fate of allergies in Europe due to changes in climate, land use and air quality. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. Models have been developed or adapted for simulating the phenology (PMP phonological modelling platform), inter-annual production (ORCHIDEE vegetation model), release and airborne processes (CHIMERE chemical transport model) of ragweed pollen. Airborne pollens follow processes similar to air quality pollutants in CHIMERE with some adaptations. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations (2000 - 2012) driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, 20-year long historical simulations (1986 - 2005) are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe. The spatial distribution is well captured with correlation equal to 0.7, but the daily variability of pollen counts remains to be improved with correlations varying between 0.1 and 0.75. The model chain captures reasonably well the inter-annual variability of pollen yearly mean concentrations, correlations, even not statistically significant due to the short length of time series, are positive for about 80% of sites. The main uncertainty in ambrosia pollen modelling is linked to the uncertainty in the plant density distribution. Preliminary results of the impact of environmental changes on pollen concentrations in the future will also be shown.

Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Colette, Augustin

2014-05-01

223

Reforming Doctoral Education in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Doctoral education in Europe has been undergoing a major transformation in the last decade. This transformation has occurred in response to several challenges: the changing nature of the labor market in the globalized economy; the European Union's common agenda in research and education, which seeks to make Europe the most competitive…

Bitusikova, Alexandra

2009-01-01

224

Taenia saginata in Europe.  

PubMed

In spite of the EU directives that regulate meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis, Taenia saginata is still present in Europe and causes economic losses due to condemnation, refrigeration and downgrading of infected carcasses. The main reasons for this persistence include the low sensitivity of current meat inspection protocols, the dissemination and survival of eggs in the environment and cattle husbandry systems, which allow grazing on pastures and drinking from water streams. It is assumed that water streams and surface water are potentially contaminated with T. saginata eggs. Furthermore, current wastewater management not only fails to halt, but rather contributes to the dissemination of eggs in the environment. Here, the authors discuss an integrated approach for control of this food-borne zoonosis, as well as the potential use of serological methods as a way of improving detection of bovine cysticercosis. PMID:17706360

Dorny, P; Praet, N

2007-10-21

225

EUROPE Gateway: Bulgaria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Institute is committed to providing high quality information about a wide variety of European Union countries, and this particular site deals with the nation of Bulgaria. On the site, visitors can view recent news highlights drawn from a wide range of media outlets, and then move on to the "Analyses" area. Here they will find editorial pieces and other items that address everything from human rights to the current state of economic affairs in Bulgaria. The "Interview" area includes talks and discussions with various policy leaders, journalists, and commentators on issues of the day facing Bulgaria. Finally, visitors can also use the "Navigation" tools along the left-hand side of the homepage to learn about the rest of the Gateway Europe site.

226

Projecting the climatic effects of increasing carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the current knowns, unknowns, and uncertainties regarding the projected climate changes that might occur as a result of an increasing atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. Further, the volume describes what research is required to estimate the magnitude and rate of a CO/sub 2/-induced clamate change with regional and seasonal resolution. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

MacCracken, M C; Luther, F M [eds.

1985-12-01

227

Coal gasification developments in Europe -- A perspective  

SciTech Connect

This survey paper will review the development status of coal gasification in Europe and give a broad perspective of the future uptake of the technology. Three main families of gasifier design are currently being developed or demonstrated world-wide, namely fixed bed (also known as moving bed), fluidized bed and entrained flow. Gasifiers belonging to each of these families have been or are being developed in European countries. Of the three families, entrained flow gasifiers are at the most advanced stage of development, with two demonstration projects currently underway: these projects are based on designs developed by Shell and Krupp Koppers. Fixed bed systems have been developed to operate under either slagging or non-slagging conditions, ie, the British Gas-Lurgi and Tampella U-Gas systems, respectively. Fluid bed systems of various designs have also been developed, eg, the Rheinbraun HTW, British Coal and Ahlstrom systems. Gasification cycles can be based on either total or partial gasification, and the above designs represent both these options. In addition, a wide variety of fuel sources can be used in gasifiers, including bituminous coal, lignite, biomass, petroleum coke, etc or, indeed, any combination of these. The major demonstration projects in Europe are at Buggenum in the Netherlands, where a 250 MWe entrained flow gasifier based on Shell technology first gasified coal in December 1993. A further 335 MWe entrained flow gasifier, located at Puertollano in Spain, based on Krupp Koppers Prenflo technology, is at an advanced stage of construction.

Burnard, G.K.; Sharman, P.W.; Alphandary, M. [ETSU, Harwell (United Kingdom)

1994-12-31

228

Future scenarios for viticultural bioclimatic indices in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Winemaking has a predominant economic, social and environmental relevance in several European countries. Studies addressing the influence of climate variability and change in viticulture are particularly pertinent, as climate is one of the main conditioning factors of this activity. In this context, bioclimatic indices are a useful zoning tool, allowing the description of the suitability of a particular region for wine production. In this study, we compute climatic indices (concerning to thermal and hydrological conditions) for Europe, characterize regions with different viticultural aptitude, and assess possible variations in these regions under a future climate conditions using a state-of-the-art regional climate model. The indices are calculated from climatic variables (mostly daily maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation) obtained from the NCEP reanalysis dataset. Then, the same indices are calculated for present and future climate conditions using data from the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (Consortium for Small Scale Modelling - Climate Limited-area Modelling). Maps of theses indices for recent-past periods (1961-2008) and for the SRES A1B scenario are considered in order to identify significant changes in their patterns. Results show that climate change is projected to have a significant negative impact in wine quality by increased dryness and cumulative thermal effects during growing seasons in Southern European regions (e.g. Portugal, Spain and Italy). These changes represent an important constraint to grapevine growth and development, making crucial adaptation/mitigation strategies to be adopted. On the other hand, regions of western and central Europe (e.g. southern Britain, northern France and Germany) will benefit from this scenario both in wine quality, and in new potential areas for viticulture. This approach provides a macro-characterization of European areas where grapevines may preferentially grow, as well as their projected changes under human-induced forcing. As such, it can be a useful tool for viticultural zoning in a changing climate.

Santos, João.; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Fraga, Helder; Pinto, Joaquim G.

2010-05-01

229

Creating a Ripple Effect: Incorporating Multimedia-Assisted Project-Based Learning in Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the effects of multimedia-assisted, project-based learning in teacher education. We conducted pre- and post-surveys to investigate how the experience of developing multimedia projects influenced preservice teachers' knowledge and self-efficacy in (a) technology, (b) subject matter, and (c) teaching. Forty-two preservice…

Seo, Kay Kyeongju; Templeton, Rosalyn; Pellegrino, Debra

2008-01-01

230

The Effect of Web-Based Project Applications on Students' Attitudes towards Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students perform intensive web-based applications during their education. One of these is project-based application. In this study, the effect of web based project applications on students' attitudes towards chemistry has been investigated. 42 students attending Hacettepe University, Faculty of Education, and Department of Chemistry Education have…

Morgil, Inci; Gungor Seyhan, Hatice; Ural Alsan, Evrim; Temel, Senar

2008-01-01

231

Effect of Schedule Compression on Project Effort Ye Yang, Zhihao Chen, Ricardo Valerdi, Barry Boehm  

E-print Network

of the COCOMO II model. Second, compare the real schedule compression ratio exhibited by 161 industry projects, a compression of 75% of the most efficient schedule is considered Very Low schedule compression levelEffect of Schedule Compression on Project Effort Ye Yang, Zhihao Chen, Ricardo Valerdi, Barry Boehm

de Weck, Olivier L.

232

The effects of the implementation of grey water reuse systems on construction cost and project schedule  

E-print Network

of the United States due to their effects on construction cost and project schedules. Even though a project could get one or multiple points upon successful implementation of a grey water reuse system and conserving potable water, the following factors may have...

Kaduvinal Varghese, Jeslin

2009-05-15

233

Modelling the risk of ecosystem disruption in Europe with a dynamic vegetation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What will be the European ecosystem responses to future climate? With unprecedented speed and extent, the projected climate change might lead to a disruption of terrestrial plants functioning in many regions. In the framework of the EcoChange project, transient projections over the 1901-2100 period have been performed with a process-based dynamic vegetation model, CARAIB DVM (Dury et al., 2011, iForest 4: 82, 99). The vegetation model was driven by the outputs of four climate models under the SRES A1B scenario: the ARPEGE/Climate model and three regional climate models (KNMI-RACMO2, DMI-HIRHAM5 and HC-HadRM3Q0 RCMs) from the European Union project ENSEMBLES. DVMs are appropriate tools to apprehend potential climate change impacts on ecosystems and identify threatened regions over Europe. CARAIB outputs (soil moisture, runoff, net primary productivity, fire, etc.) were used to characterise the ecosystem evolution. To assess consequences on biodiversity, the evolution of 100 natural common European species (47 herbs, 12 shrubs and 41 trees) has been studied year-to-year over the 1901-2100 period. Under the combined effects of projected changes particularly in temperature and precipitations, CARAIB simulates important reductions in the annual soil water content. The species productivities vary strongly from year to year reaching during the driest years values much lower than present-day average productivities. According to CARAIB, a lot of species might go beyond their water tolerance very frequently, particularly after 2050, due to more intense summer droughts. In the northern part of Europe and in the Alps, with reduced temperature variability and positive soil water anomalies, NPP variability tends to decrease. Regions with more severe droughts might also be affected by an increase of the frequency and intensity of wildfires. With this background, the species distributions might be strongly modified at the end of the century. 15% of tree species and 30% of herb and shrub species (respectively 30% and 60% if the CO2 fertilization effect on species is not taken into account) might experience a loss of 30% or more of their current distribution. Proportions of new species appearance were also studied. Southern Europe might suffer important species extinction while the more suitable climate conditions in northern Europe might lead to a gain in species diversity.

Dury, M.; Hambuckers, A.; Warnant, P.; Jacquemin, I.; Thuiller, W.; François, L.

2012-04-01

234

Manpower Aspects of Recent Economic Developments in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examined economic growth and manpower policy and developments in Europe. Chapter I presents statistical data on labor force growth, trends in unemployment, occupational structure, and technological change for 1950-65 and made projections for 1965-80. The second chapter is an analysis of the relationship of manpower policy to general…

International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

235

The Rockefeller Foundation and Central Europe: a Reconsideration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that the health-related work of the RockefellerFoundation in Central Europe following the First World War flowed not somuch from geopolitical concerns as from the Foundation's ambition tocreate a global network in scientific medicine. It examines theassumptions and values that underpinned this project, and indicates someof the questions that these pose for today's world.

Benhamin B. Page

2002-01-01

236

"europe Towards the Stars"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

YOUNG EUROPEANS AND THEIR TEACHERS TO OBSERVE WITH SUPER-TELESCOPE With the above title, and following the very successful events of the past two years [1], ESO again organises an "educational adventure" in 1995. It takes place within the framework of the "Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture", initiated and supported by the European Commission. This time ESO will invite about fifty 17-18 year old grammar school pupils with their teachers to try their skills at one of the world's most advanced astronomical telescopes. The young people are the winners of a Europe-wide astronomy contest that will take place during the summer and early autumn. The main event involves a free, week-long stay at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory in November this year. During this time, the participants will experience modern astronomy and astrophysics at one of the world's foremost international centres and also have the opportunity to perform remote observations via a satellite link with two telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory in Chile. THE CONTEST This year's programme will begin with national competitions in sixteen European countries. It is devised as a contest between joint teams of pupils and teachers. Each team is expected to consist of (up to) three pupils and their teacher. They can choose between four different subjects requiring either practical or theoretical work. Each subject has a strong scientific and technological component. Here are short descriptions: At the telescope - Catching and interpreting the signals. "You observe with an existing telescope and instrument of your own choice. In your observational report you describe the scientific goal, the capability of your equipment, the execution of the observation. You discuss the observational data including an error analysis, and describe the conclusions." Technology for Science - Building an Instrument. "You build an astronomical instrument (e.g. a photometer or a spectrograph, fitted with the associated detector). In the instrument documentation, you describe the instrument, its design, construction and the test results." A Future Space Mission - Designing an on-board Instrument. "You design an instrument for a future space mission to the outer Solar System. The purpose is to carry out observations of Pluto and Transneptunian Objects. Describe the design, the physical/chemical principles of the instrument and the observations to be made with it. Give examples of some possible results." Theory - Looking into the Future. "You describe a stable planetary system around another star. Your report contains a description of the conditions (inner structure, composition, surface features, atmosphere) of the planets. What are the technical requirements for observing this system from the Earth? Which kind of observations of these objects can be done with available instruments?" None of these subjects are easy to treat, but experience has shown that thanks to very dedicated teachers, the teaching of astronomy takes place at a surprisingly high level at many of Europe's schools. The establishment of the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) last year has also resulted in a Europe-wide, increasing interest in these matters and many EAAE members actively promote the present contest and participate in the organisation. Many good entries are therefore expected. The participation is open to pupils in their last or second-to-last year before baccalaureate. In each country, a National Committee has been established that will organise the contest and evaluate the responses. In most cases, the closing date is early October 1995, and the national award ceremonies will take place in early November. Detailed information about this programme may be obtained from the National Committees at the addresses below. A VISIT TO ESO The members of the winning teams from each country will be invited to spend an exciting and informative week at the ESO Headquarters in Garching near Munich (

1995-06-01

237

Using Open Plan with integrated Xbase applications for effective project management solutions  

SciTech Connect

Open Plan`s open architecture allows the user many advantages that are not available from other project management software. One of these advantages is its ability to interface with various database management systems, thereby allowing the user to develop a project management system tailored to their specific needs. This open architecture offers maximum flexability to the user to personalize reports, screens, data structures, and develop customized management systems. Using Xbase, applications can be developed for every facet of a complete project management system including baseline development, performance measurement, reporting, and analysis. These applications can range from simple routines such as user-defined status worksheets, milestone logs and other reports, to complex cost,and schedule control systems. The combined power of Xbase and Open Plan can be used to produce effective project management solutions. Customized applications are easily obtainable allowing the user to gather information more timely and efficiently, produce customized reports, and analyze project management information more effectively.

Freier, K.D.; Hirschi, E.J.

1994-04-01

238

[Artificial abortion in Europe].  

PubMed

The authors of the article review the state in various European nations and the possibilities for performance of induced interruption of pregnancy. In connection with this they describe the existing various forms of legislation. There are countries, in which induced abortions are absolutely band (Ireland). Legislation of socialistic countries is far more democratic in this respect. There are many factors, on which depend whether to legalize or not induced interruption of pregnancy. In Roman-catholic countries the religious motives are determinant, but in some other countries--the demographic policy of the government, ect. The practice however prove that induced abortions are widely distributes in Europe. The number of registered abortions is quite large in the socialistic countries. The data show that Bulgaria occupies one the first places (61.9% of women). Furthermore there are a series of problems in connection with the formation of high sexual culture of the population. Attention is paid to family planning all over the world. The question about contraception is an important and pressing problem. Good knowledge of current drugs and methods for prevention of unwanted pregnancy and their correct usage leads to a substantial reduction in the number of induced abortions and their unfavourable consequences. PMID:2252142

Ivanov, S; Boianov, B; Marinov, B

1990-01-01

239

OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OneGeology-Europe is making geological spatial data held by the geological surveys of Europe more easily discoverable and accessible via the internet. This will provide a fundamental scientific layer to the European Plate Observation System Rich geological data assets exist in the geological survey of each individual EC Member State, but they are difficult to discover and are not interoperable. For those outside the geological surveys they are not easy to obtain, to understand or to use. Geological spatial data is essential to the prediction and mitigation of landslides, subsidence, earthquakes, flooding and pollution. These issues are global in nature and their profile has also been raised by the OneGeology global initiative for the International Year of Planet Earth 2008. Geology is also a key dataset in the EC INSPIRE Directive, where it is also fundamental to the themes of natural risk zones, energy and mineral resources. The OneGeology-Europe project is delivering a web-accessible, interoperable geological spatial dataset for the whole of Europe at the 1:1 million scale based on existing data held by the European geological surveys. Proof of concept will be applied to key areas at a higher resolution and some geological surveys will deliver their data at high resolution. An important role is developing a European specification for basic geological map data and making significant progress towards harmonising the dataset (an essential first step to addressing harmonisation at higher data resolutions). It is accelerating the development and deployment of a nascent international interchange standard for geological data - GeoSciML, which will enable the sharing and exchange of the data within and beyond the geological community within Europe and globally. The geological dataset for the whole of Europe is not a centralized database but a distributed system. Each geological survey implements and hosts an interoperable web service, delivering their national harmonized geological data. These datasets are registered in a multilingual catalogue, who is one the main part of this system. This catalogue and a common metadata profile allows the discovery of national geological and applied geological maps at all scapes, Such an architecture is facilitating re-use and addition of value by a wide spectrum of users in the public and private sector and identifying, documenting and disseminating strategies for the reduction of technical and business barriers to re-use. In identifying and raising awareness in the user and provider communities, it is moving geological knowledge closer to the end-user where it will have greater societal impact and ensure fuller exploitation of a key data resource gathered at huge public expense. The project is providing examples of best practice in the delivery of digital geological spatial data to users, e.g. in the insurance, property, engineering, planning, mineral resource and environmental sectors. The scientifically attributed map data of the project will provide a pan-European base for science research and, importantly, a prime geoscience dataset capable of integration with other data sets within and beyond the geoscience domain. This presentation will demonstrate the first results of this project and will indicate how OneGeology-Europe is ensuring that Europe may play a leading role in the development of a geoscience spatial data infrastructure (SDI) globally.

Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

2010-05-01

240

Using 'Science across Europe' as Part of an Advanced GNVQ Science Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a unit on drinking water from the Association for Science Education's (ASE) project, Science across Europe, is used as the basis for incorporating assessable key skills into GNVQ Science assignments. Provides examples of worksheets and data analysis. (DDR)

Taylor, Rosemary

1997-01-01

241

Preservation Map of Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an effort to stimulate international information exchange, cooperative projects, and research, the European Commission on Preservation and Access (ECPA) has created an online directory of European organizations working in the preservation field. This directory is based on a survey conducted over the past year. For each of the twenty-five countries currently listed there is a section on national policy as it relates to preservation in libraries and archives, followed by background information on individual organizations, projects, and training courses. Background information includes contacts, email or web access if available, and a brief description of activities. Users can search the preservation map database by organization name, project focus, training availability, or by keyword.

242

Weakened thermohaline circulation will increase snow cover over Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A high resolution regional climate model nested into a global climate model was used to perform a Thermohaline Circulation (THC) slowdown experiment. Freshwater corresponding to one-sixth of the Greenland ice sheet melting over 100 years was introduced into the northern Atlantic. This reduced THC strength by half, changing atmospheric circulation and enhancing maritime climate influences over Europe. Implications of weakened thermohaline circulation's effects on specific locations in Europe are discussed.

Al., Jacob E.; Agu

243

TBNET – Collaborative research on tuberculosis in Europe  

PubMed Central

Networking is a key feature of scientific success. The Tuberculosis Network European Trialsgroup (TBNET) was founded in 2006 as a non-profit, non-governmental peer-initiated scientific organization to collaboratively address research priorities in the area of tuberculosis in Europe. Today, TBNET is the largest tuberculosis research organization in Europe with nearly 500 members from 22 EU countries and 49 countries worldwide (www.tb-net.org). Apart from small multicenter basic research studies, a particular strength of TBNET is the performance of large collaborative projects, pan-European multicenter studies and database projects. In recent years, research from TBNET has substantially contributed to the understanding of the management, risk and prognosis of patients with multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis and led to a better understanding of the clinical value of novel tests for the identification of adults and children with tuberculosis and latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2009, two branches of TBNET were founded to specifically address tuberculosis in the pediatric population (ptbnet) and non-tuberculous mycobacterial diseases (NTM-NET). In addition to the research activities, TBNET is developing expert consensus documents for clinical management and provides training and capacity building especially for members from Eastern European countries, where tuberculosis is still a prevalent health problem. PMID:24265908

Giehl, C.; Duarte, R.; Bothamley, G.; Gerlach, C.; Cirillo, D.M.; Wagner, D.; Kampmann, B.; Goletti, D.; Juers, T.; Sester, M.

2012-01-01

244

MUSE from Europe to the Chilean Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument, built for ESO (European Southern Observatory) and dedicated to the VLT (Very Large Telescope). This instrument is an innovative integral field spectrograph (1x1 arcmin2 Field of View), operating in the visible wavelength range, from 465 nm to 930 nm. The MUSE project is supported by a European consortium of 7 institutes. After the finalisation of its integration and test in Europe validated by its Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, the MUSE instrument has been partially dismounted and shipped to the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in Chile. From October 2013 till February 2014, it has then been reassembled, tested and finally installed on the telescope its final home. From there it will collect its first photons coming from the outer limit of the visible universe. To come to this achievement, many tasks had to be completed and challenges overcome. These last steps in the project life have certainly been ones of the most critical. Critical in terms of risk, of working conditions, of operational constrains, of schedule and finally critical in terms of outcome: The first light and the final performances of the instrument on the sky.

Caillier, P.; Accardo, Mateo; Adjali, L.; Anwand, H.; Bacon, R.; Boudon, D.; Capoani, L.; Daguisé, E.; Dupieux, M.; Dupuy, C.; François, M.; Glindemann, A.; Gojak, D.; Gonté, F.; Haddad, N.; Hansali, G.; Hahn, T.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, Kristof; Kosmalski, Johan; Laurent, F.; Larrieu, M.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Migniau, J. E.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Piqueras, L.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Rupprecht, G.; Streicher, O.; Stuik, R.; Valentin, H.; Vernet, J.; Weilbacher, P.; Zins, G.

2014-07-01

245

Role of fire in biome-boundary shifts in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown that climatic fire risk is projected to increase with future climate change due to increases in droughts and heat waves. In many fire regimes this trend translates into increasing area burnt, but recent analyses of fire statistics and other fire-related data have shown that climate fire risk is not always linearly related to area burnt or fire severity. This means that vegetation productivity, i.e. fuel production, or landscape fragmentation, e.g. through land-use and transportation routes, influence fire spread. Drier climate negatively impacts vegetation productivity, thus leading to less fuel load which further limits fire spread despite similar fire risk. The sensitivity of the affected vegetation also influences fire effects and post-fire mortality. Climate variability additionally contributes to the non-linearity of these processes, which is likely to change under future climate conditions. All these factors point to important feedbacks between vegetation and fire, which can be investigated using dynamic process-based vegetation-fire models such as LPJmL-SPITFIRE. We investigate the role of climate variability on European fire regimes, and if the interaction between climate variability and fire can be responsible for biome shifts under climate change conditions. We apply LPJmL-SPITFIRE to future climate change scenario, 1) the WATCH-ERAI-REMO climate scenario which was run for the SRES A1B emission scenario to Europe and 2) the same climate scenario but with reduced climate variability. Here, we investigate the effects of climate variability and CO2-fertilization on future fire regimes, vegetation dynamics and associated biome shifts. It is hypothesized that climate variability influences vegetation-fire interactions along biome borders, especially in Eastern Europe. Mediterranean countries are most likely to face fuel limitation, leading to a reduction in fire towards the end of the century. Transitions in vegetation composition leading to both types of trajectories will be examined.

Thonicke, Kirsten; Rolinski, Susanne; von Bloh, Werner; Walz, Ariane; Rammig, Anja

2013-04-01

246

Multilayered regionalization in Northern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The broadening and deepening of Europe as a macro-region impels processes of expansion, contraction and transformation in\\u000a sub-regions positioned within the EU and across the EU’s border. Recent arguments stress the idea of regionalization as a\\u000a multi-layered process. Using Northern Europe as a study site, three such layers are explored: territorially bounded regionalization\\u000a in the voting patterns of the Eurovision

Paul C. Adams

247

Rainfall-induced landslides in Europe: hotspots and thresholds (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution presents preliminary results of the European project SafeLand. SafeLand is a large-scale integrating collaborative research project on landslide risks in Europe, funded by the Seventh Framework Programme for research and technological development (FP7) of the European Commission. SafeLand was launched in May 2009 and will run for three years. The project team, which comprises 27 institutions from 12 European countries, is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) in Norway. SafeLand aims to develop and implement an integrated and comprehensive approach to help and guide decision-making in connection with mitigation of landslide risks. Quantifying the effects of global change (changes in demography and climate change) on evolution of landslide risk in Europe is one of the main goals of SafeLand. The methodologies are tested in selected hazard and risk "hotspots” in Europe, in turn improving knowledge, methodologies and integration strategies for the management of landslide risk. The present contribution is focused on two components of SafeLand: (1) the identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots and (2) the estimation and assessment of rainfall thresholds for triggering of landslides. Hotspots of landslide hazard and risk were identified by an objective GIS-based analysis. The results show clearly where landslide pose the largest hazard in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. In absolute numbers, Italy is the country with the highest amount of area and population exposed. Relative to absolute number of inhabitants and area, small alpine countries such as Lichtenstein and Montenegro score highest where as much as 40% of the population could be exposed. It is obvious that the type and quality of the input data are decisive for the quality of the results. Especially the estimation of extreme precipitation events needs improvement. These preliminary results are based only on one of three applied hazard models. The two other models are currently being evaluated. Empirical rainfall thresholds for landslide triggering have been estimated in selected locations in Italy, France, Switzerland and Norway. Six different empirical models were used. The datasets included landslide inventories as well as hourly or daily observations of precipitation. The types of events were predominantly soil slides and debris flows, a few rock slides and rock falls, and the acceleration of a slowly-moving landslide. The results indicate that the occurrence of soil slides and debris flows can be predicted using precipitation observations. On the other hand, empirical models based on rainfall characteristics fail to predict rock falls and rock slides, presumably due to the predominant influence of other triggering factors. Soil slides are controlled by a combination of antecedent precipitation for short and long periods (1-10 days and 1-5 months, respectively). Debris flows are controlled by short duration precipitation lasting less than 12 hours. Since the inventories contain events with uncertainty in time of occurrence (from a few hours to several days), an innovative procedure was implemented for the inclusion of this uncertainty in the estimation of thresholds.

Cepeda, J.; Jaedicke, C.; Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B.

2010-12-01

248

Rainfall erosivity in Europe.  

PubMed

Rainfall is one the main drivers of soil erosion. The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the R-factor in the USLE model and its revised version, RUSLE. At national and continental levels, the scarce availability of data obliges soil erosion modellers to estimate this factor based on rainfall data with only low temporal resolution (daily, monthly, annual averages). The purpose of this study is to assess rainfall erosivity in Europe in the form of the RUSLE R-factor, based on the best available datasets. Data have been collected from 1541 precipitation stations in all European Union (EU) Member States and Switzerland, with temporal resolutions of 5 to 60min. The R-factor values calculated from precipitation data of different temporal resolutions were normalised to R-factor values with temporal resolutions of 30min using linear regression functions. Precipitation time series ranged from a minimum of 5years to a maximum of 40years. The average time series per precipitation station is around 17.1years, the most datasets including the first decade of the 21st century. Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) has been used to interpolate the R-factor station values to a European rainfall erosivity map at 1km resolution. The covariates used for the R-factor interpolation were climatic data (total precipitation, seasonal precipitation, precipitation of driest/wettest months, average temperature), elevation and latitude/longitude. The mean R-factor for the EU plus Switzerland is 722MJmmha(-1)h(-1)yr(-1), with the highest values (>1000MJmmha(-1)h(-1)yr(-1)) in the Mediterranean and alpine regions and the lowest (<500MJmmha(-1)h(-1)yr(-1)) in the Nordic countries. The erosivity density (erosivity normalised to annual precipitation amounts) was also the highest in Mediterranean regions which implies high risk for erosive events and floods. PMID:25622150

Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Klik, Andreas; Rousseva, Svetla; Tadi?, Melita Per?ec; Michaelides, Silas; Hrabalíková, Michaela; Olsen, Preben; Aalto, Juha; Lakatos, Mónika; Rymszewicz, Anna; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Beguería, Santiago; Alewell, Christine

2015-04-01

249

The New England School Effectiveness Project: A Facilitator's Sourcebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The School Team Facilitator assists participating New England secondary schools in planning and implementing improvement efforts based on school effectiveness research. This publication, distributed at a team training conference, begins with the conference schedule, a list of facilitators, instructions on choosing a school team, and letters to…

Northeast Regional Exchange, Inc., Chelmsford, MA.

250

Life+ EnvEurope DEIMS - improving access to long-term ecosystem monitoring data in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term ecological (LTER) studies aim at detecting environmental changes and analysing its related drivers. In this respect LTER Europe provides a network of about 450 sites and platforms. However, data on various types of ecosystems and at a broad geographical scale is still not easily available. Managing data resulting from long-term observations is therefore one of the important tasks not only for an LTER site itself but also on the network level. Exchanging and sharing the information within a wider community is a crucial objective in the upcoming years. Due to the fragmented nature of long-term ecological research and monitoring (LTER) in Europe - and also on the global scale - information management has to face several challenges: distributed data sources, heterogeneous data models, heterogeneous data management solutions and the complex domain of ecosystem monitoring with regard to the resulting data. The Life+ EnvEurope project (2010-2013) provides a case study for a workflow using data from the distributed network of LTER-Europe sites. In order to enhance discovery, evaluation and access to data, the EnvEurope Drupal Ecological Information Management System (DEIMS) has been developed. This is based on the first official release of the Drupal metadata editor developed by US LTER. EnvEurope DEIMS consists of three main components: 1) Metadata editor: a web-based client interface to manage metadata of three information resource types - datasets, persons and research sites. A metadata model describing datasets based on Ecological Metadata Language (EML) was developed within the initial phase of the project. A crosswalk to the INSPIRE metadata model was implemented to convey to the currently on-going European activities. Person and research site metadata models defined within the LTER Europe were adapted for the project needs. The three metadata models are interconnected within the system in order to provide easy way to navigate the user among the related resources. 2) Discovery client: provides several search profiles for datasets, persons, research sites and external resources commonly used in the domain, e.g. Catalogue of Life , based on several search patterns ranging from simple full text search, glossary browsing to categorized faceted search. 3) Geo-Viewer: a map client that portrays boundaries and centroids of the research sites as Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Each layer provides a link to both Metadata editor and Discovery client in order to create or discover metadata describing the data collected within the individual research site. Sharing of the dataset metadata with DEIMS is ensured in two ways: XML export of individual metadata records according to the EML schema for inclusion in the international DataOne network, and periodic harvesting of metadata into GeoNetwork catalogue, thus providing catalogue service for web (CSW), which can be invoked by remote clients. The final version of DEIMS will be a pilot implementation for the information system of LTER-Europe, which should establish a common information management framework within the European ecosystem research domain and provide valuable environmental information to other European information infrastructures as SEIS, Copernicus and INSPIRE.

Kliment, Tomas; Peterseil, Johannes; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pugnetti, Alessandra; Blankman, David

2013-04-01

251

Looking back to see the future: building nuclear power plants in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The so-called ‘nuclear renaissance’ in Europe is promulgated by the execution of two large engineering projects involving the construction of two European Pressurized Reactors (EPRs) in Flamanville, France and Olkiluoto in Finland. As both projects have faced budget overruns and delays, this paper analyses their governance and history to derive lessons useful for the construction of future projects. Analysis indicates

Giorgio Locatelli; Mauro Mancini

2012-01-01

252

Fundamental remote sensing science research program: The Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Effects Characterization Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Effects Characterization (SRAEC) Project was established within the NASA Fundamental Remote Sensing Science Research Program to improve our understanding of the fundamental relationships of energy interactions between the sensor and the surface target, including the effect of the atmosphere. The current studies are generalized into the following five subject areas: optical scene modeling, Earth-space radiative transfer, electromagnetic properties of surface materials, microwave scene modeling, and scatterometry studies. This report has been prepared to provide a brief overview of the SRAEC Project history and objectives and to report on the scientific findings and project accomplishments made by the nineteen principal investigators since the project's initiation just over three years ago. This annual summary report derives from the most recent annual principal investigators meeting held January 29 to 31, 1985.

Deering, D. W.

1985-01-01

253

Using Project Performance to Measure Effectiveness of Quality Management System Maintenance and Practices in Construction Industry  

PubMed Central

This paper proposed seven existing and new performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of quality management system (QMS) maintenance and practices in construction industry. This research is carried out with a questionnaire based on QMS variables which are extracted from literature review and project performance indicators which are established from project management's theory. Data collected was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings indicate that client satisfaction and time variance have positive and significant relationship with QMS while other project performance indicators do not show significant results. Further studies can use the same project performance indicators to study the effectiveness of QMS in different sampling area to improve the generalizability of the findings. PMID:24701182

Leong, Tiong Kung; Ariff, Mohd. Shoki Md.

2014-01-01

254

Projection imaging of photon beams by the ?erenkov effect  

PubMed Central

Purpose: A novel technique for beam profiling of megavoltage photon beams was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced ?erenkov emission in water, as a potential surrogate for the imparted dose in irradiated media. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire 2D projection images of ?erenkov emission from a 4 × 4 cm2 6 MV linear accelerator (LINAC) x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 400 MU/min incident on a water tank with transparent walls. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the LINAC sync pulse to reduce background light artifacts, and the measurement quality was investigated by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and measurement repeatability as a function of delivered dose. Monte Carlo simulations were used to derive a calibration factor for differences between the optical images and deposited dose arising from the anisotropic angular dependence of ?erenkov emission. Finally, ?erenkov-based beam profiles were compared to a percent depth dose (PDD) and lateral dose profile at a depth of dmax from a reference dose distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system (TPS). Results: The signal to noise ratio was found to be 20 at a delivered dose of 66.6 cGy, and proportional to the square root of the delivered dose as expected from Poisson photon counting statistics. A 2.1% mean standard deviation and 5.6% maximum variation in successive measurements were observed, and the Monte Carlo derived calibration factor resulted in ?erenkov emission images which were directly correlated to deposited dose, with some spatial issues. The dose difference between the TPS and PDD predicted by ?erenkov measurements was within 20% in the buildup region with a distance to agreement (DTA) of 1.5–2 mm and ±3% at depths beyond dmax. In the lateral profile, the dose difference at the beam penumbra was within ±13% with a DTA of 0–2 mm, ±5% in the central beam region, and 2%–3% in the beam umbra. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of ?erenkov emission imaging to profile x-ray photon LINAC beams in water. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method. PMID:23298103

Glaser, Adam K.; Davis, Scott C.; McClatchy, David M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W.; Gladstone, David J.

2013-01-01

255

The Jefferson County Effective Schools Project: Description and Analysis of Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1982-83 the Jefferson County Public Schools (Kentucky) (JCPS) implemented a pilot effective schools project for 10 elementary buildings, based on the inservice program, "Creating Effective Schools," by Brookover and others (1982). This paper provides an overview of the origin of the program in JCPS, how the program was conducted, and a brief…

Miller, Stephen K.; And Others

256

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Project TRUST: An Elementary School-Based Victimization Prevention Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 1,269 elementary school children was conducted to test the effectiveness of Project TRUST (Teaching Reaching Using Students and Theater), a victimization prevention program. The program was found to be effective in increasing prevention knowledge and generating abuse disclosures without creating student anxiety. (CR)

Oldfield, Dick; And Others

1996-01-01

257

A synthesis of the "Ecological Effects of Reservoir Operations at Blue Mesa Reservoir" Project  

E-print Network

A synthesis of the "Ecological Effects of Reservoir Operations at Blue Mesa Reservoir" Project RESERVOIR AND FOOD WEB DYNAMICS AT BLUE MESA RESERVOIR, COLORADO, 1993-2002 U.S. Department of the Interior June 2005 #12;2 RECLAMATION A synthesis of the "Ecological Effects of Reservoir Operations at Blue Mesa

258

The ALTEA/ALTEINO projects: studying functional effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation  

E-print Network

The ALTEA/ALTEINO projects: studying functional effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation L in microgravity conditions. The facility will be made available to the international scientific community effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation 1. Introduction The interaction between the functional state

Morselli, Aldo

259

Effects of Implementing STEM-I Project-Based Learning Activities for Female High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to explore the application of STEM-I (STEM-Imagination) project-based learning activities and its effects on the effectiveness, processes, and characteristics of STEM integrative knowledge learning and imagination development for female high school students. A total of 72 female high school students were divided into 18 teams.…

Lou, Shi-Jer; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Shih, Ru-Chu

2014-01-01

260

Investigating organizational quality improvement systems, patient empowerment, organizational culture, professional involvement and the quality of care in European hospitals: the 'Deepening our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe (DUQuE)' project  

PubMed Central

Background Hospitals in European countries apply a wide range of quality improvement strategies. Knowledge of the effectiveness of these strategies, implemented as part of an overall hospital quality improvement system, is limited. Methods/Design We propose to study the relationships among organisational quality improvement systems, patient empowerment, organisational culture, professionals' involvement with the quality of hospital care, including clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient involvement. We will employ a cross-sectional, multi-level study design in which patient-level measurements are nested in hospital departments, which are in turn nested in hospitals in different EU countries. Mixed methods will be used for data collection, measurement and analysis. Hospital/care pathway level constructs that will be assessed include external pressure, hospital governance, quality improvement system, patient empowerment in quality improvement, organisational culture and professional involvement. These constructs will be assessed using questionnaires. Patient-level constructs include clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient involvement, and will be assessed using audit of patient records, routine data and patient surveys. For the assessment of hospital and pathway level constructs we will collect data from randomly selected hospitals in eight countries. For a sample of hospitals in each country we will carry out additional data collection at patient-level related to four conditions (stroke, acute myocardial infarction, hip fracture and delivery). In addition, structural components of quality improvement systems will be assessed using visits by experienced external assessors. Data analysis will include descriptive statistics and graphical representations and methods for data reduction, classification techniques and psychometric analysis, before moving to bi-variate and multivariate analysis. The latter will be conducted at hospital and multilevel. In addition, we will apply sophisticated methodological elements such as the use of causal diagrams, outcome modelling, double robust estimation and detailed sensitivity analysis or multiple bias analyses to assess the impact of the various sources of bias. Discussion Products of the project will include a catalogue of instruments and tools that can be used to build departmental or hospital quality and safety programme and an appraisal scheme to assess the maturity of the quality improvement system for use by hospitals and by purchasers to contract hospitals. PMID:20868470

2010-01-01

261

Effectiveness of Four School Health Education Projects Upon Substance Use, Self-Esteem, and Adolescent Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of school health education projects on substance use, self-esteem, and stress. The subjects were 161 adolescents in fifth through eighth grades in four school health education projects funded through the Ohio Department of Health. Data collection included pretest\\/post test questionnaires on self-report use of tobacco products, alcohol, marijuana, and other

John A. Bonaguro; Michael Rhonehouse; Ellen W. Bonaguro

1988-01-01

262

The HLA-net GENE[RATE] pipeline for effective HLA data analysis and its application to 145 population samples from Europe and neighbouring areas.  

PubMed

In this review, we present for the first time an integrated version of the Gene[rate] computer tools which have been developed during the last 5 years to analyse human leukocyte antigen (HLA) data in human populations, as well as the results of their application to a large dataset of 145 HLA-typed population samples from Europe and its two neighbouring areas, North Africa and West Asia, now forming part of the Gene[va] database. All these computer tools and genetic data are, from now, publicly available through a newly designed bioinformatics platform, HLA-net, here presented as a main achievement of the HLA-NET scientific programme. The Gene[rate] pipeline offers user-friendly computer tools to estimate allele and haplotype frequencies, to test Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), selective neutrality and linkage disequilibrium, to recode HLA data, to convert file formats, to display population frequencies of chosen alleles and haplotypes in selected geographic regions, and to perform genetic comparisons among chosen sets of population samples, including new data provided by the user. Both numerical and graphical outputs are generated, the latter being highly explicit and of publication quality. All these analyses can be performed on the pipeline after scrupulous validation of the population sample's characterisation and HLA typing reporting according to HLA-NET recommendations. The Gene[va] database offers direct access to the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1 and -DPB1 frequencies and summary statistics of 145 population samples having successfully passed these HLA-NET 'filters', and representing three European subregions (South-East, North-East and Central-West Europe) and two neighbouring areas (North Africa, as far as Sudan, and West Asia, as far as South India). The analysis of these data, summarized in this review, shows a substantial genetic variation at the regional level in this continental area. These results have main implications for population genetics, transplantation and epidemiological studies. PMID:24738646

Nunes, J M; Buhler, S; Roessli, D; Sanchez-Mazas, A

2014-05-01

263

A comparison of perceived effectiveness of technology projects from viewpoints of external nongovernmental organizations and host country beneficiaries in Haiti  

E-print Network

Three nongovernmental organizations sponsoring four projects in the Northern Department of Haiti were surveyed between May and July of 1998 to determine if their perceptions of the effectiveness of their projects correlated with the perceptions...

May, Donald Ray

1998-01-01

264

Extreme hydrometeorological events and climate change predictions in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field meteorological data collected in several European Commission projects (from 1974 to 2011) were re-analysed in the context of a perceived reduction in summer storms around the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The findings reveal some hitherto overlooked processes that raise questions about direct impacts on European hydrological cycles, e.g., extreme hydrometeorological events, and about the role of feedbacks on climate models and climate predictions. For instance, the summer storms are affected by land-use changes along the coasts and mountain slopes. Their loss triggers a chain of events that leads to an Accumulation Mode (AM) where water vapour and air pollutants (ozone) become stacked in layers, up to 4000(+) m, over the WMB. The AM cycle can last 3-5 consecutive days, and recur several times each month from mid May to late August. At the end of each cycle the accumulated water vapour can feed Vb track events and generate intense rainfall and summer floods in Central Europe. Venting out of the water vapour that should have precipitated within the WMB increases the salinity of the sea and affects the Atlantic-Mediterranean Salinity valve at Gibraltar. This, in turn, can alter the tracks of Atlantic Depressions and their frontal systems over Atlantic Europe. Another effect is the greenhouse heating by water vapour and photo-oxidants (e.g., O3) when layered over the Basin during the AM cycle. This increases the Sea Surface Temperature (SST), and the higher SST intensifies torrential rain events over the Mediterranean coasts in autumn. All these processes raise research questions that must be addressed to improve the meteorological forecasting of extreme events, as well as climate model predictions.

Millán, Millán M.

2014-10-01

265

Community differentiation and kinship among Europe’s first farmers  

PubMed Central

Community differentiation is a fundamental topic of the social sciences, and its prehistoric origins in Europe are typically assumed to lie among the complex, densely populated societies that developed millennia after their Neolithic predecessors. Here we present the earliest, statistically significant evidence for such differentiation among the first farmers of Neolithic Europe. By using strontium isotopic data from more than 300 early Neolithic human skeletons, we find significantly less variance in geographic signatures among males than we find among females, and less variance among burials with ground stone adzes than burials without such adzes. From this, in context with other available evidence, we infer differential land use in early Neolithic central Europe within a patrilocal kinship system. PMID:22645332

Bentley, R. Alexander; Bickle, Penny; Fibiger, Linda; Nowell, Geoff M.; Dale, Christopher W.; Hedges, Robert E. M.; Hamilton, Julie; Wahl, Joachim; Francken, Michael; Grupe, Gisela; Lenneis, Eva; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Hofmann, Daniela; Whittle, Alasdair

2012-01-01

266

Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

this study we present an assessment of the impact of future climate change on total fire probability, burned area, and carbon (C) emissions from fires in Europe. The analysis was performed with the Community Land Model (CLM) extended with a prognostic treatment of fires that was specifically refined and optimized for application over Europe. Simulations over the 21st century are forced by five different high-resolution Regional Climate Models under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B. Both original and bias-corrected meteorological forcings is used. Results show that the simulated C emissions over the present period are improved by using bias corrected meteorological forcing, with a reduction of the intermodel variability. In the course of the 21st century, burned area and C emissions from fires are shown to increase in Europe, in particular in the Mediterranean basins, in the Balkan regions and in Eastern Europe. However, the projected increase is lower than in other studies that did not fully account for the effect of climate on ecosystem functioning. We demonstrate that the lower sensitivity of burned area and C emissions to climate change is related to the predicted reduction of the net primary productivity, which is identified as the most important determinant of fire activity in the Mediterranean region after anthropogenic interaction. This behavior, consistent with the intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis, limits the sensitivity of future burned area and C emissions from fires on climate change, providing more conservative estimates of future fire patterns, and demonstrates the importance of coupling fire simulation with a climate driven ecosystem productivity model.

Migliavacca, Mirco; Dosio, Alessandro; Camia, Andrea; Hobourg, Rasmus; Houston-Durrant, Tracy; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Krasovskii, Andrey A.; Marcolla, Barbara; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Ward, Daniel S.; Cescatti, Alessandro

2013-12-01

267

Influence of projection effects on the observed differential rotation rate in the UV corona  

PubMed Central

Following previous investigations by Giordano and Mancuso [1] and Mancuso and Giordano [2,3] on the differential rotation of the solar corona as obtained through the analysis of the intensity time series of the O VI 1032 Å spectral line observed by the UVCS/SOHO telescope during solar cycle 23, we analysed the possible influence of projection effects of extended coronal structures on the observed differential rotation rate in the ultraviolet corona. Through a simple geometrical model, we found that, especially at higher latitudes, the differential rotation may be less rigid than observed, since features at higher latitudes could be actually linked to much lower coronal structures due to projection effects. At solar maximum, the latitudinal rigidity of the UV corona, with respect to the differential rotating photosphere, has thus to be considered as an upper limit of the possible rigidity. At solar minimum and near the equatorial region throughout the solar cycle, projection effects are negligible.

Mancuso, Salvatore; Giordano, Silvio

2012-01-01

268

Assessing the cumulative effects of projects using geographic information systems  

SciTech Connect

Systems that allow users to store and retrieve spatial data, provide for analyses of spatial data, and offer highly detailed display of spatial data are referred to as geographic information systems, or more typically, GIS. Since their initial usage in the 1960s, GISs have evolved as a means of assembling and analyzing diverse data pertaining to specific geographical areas, with spatial locations of the data serving as the organizational basis for the information systems. The structure of GISs is built around spatial identifiers and the methods used to encode data for storage and manipulation. This paper examines how GIS has been used in typical environmental assessment, its use for cumulative impact assessment, and explores litigation that occurred in the United States Federal court system where GIS was used in some aspect of cumulative effects. The paper also summarizes fifteen case studies that range from area wide transportation planning to wildlife and habitat impacts, and draws together a few lessons learned from this review of literature and litigation.

Atkinson, Samuel F., E-mail: atkinson@unt.edu [Institute of Applied Science, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle 310559, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Canter, Larry W., E-mail: envimptr@aol.com [Environmental Impact Training, P.O. Box 9143, Horseshoe Bay, TX 78657 (United States)

2011-09-15

269

Improving Tsunami Resilience in Europe - ASTARTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Adjacent Seas (called NEAM by IOC-UNESCO) is known to be exposed to tsunamis and, like other regions of the world, faces increasing levels of risk due to i) the continuous development of coastal areas with critical infrastructures and accumulated values, and ii) the year-round presence of millions of tourists. In recent years, European researchers have greatly advanced knowledge of tsunami hazards and implementation of operational infrastructures, such as the creation of a regional system of candidate tsunami watch providers (CTWP) and national tsunami warning centers (NTWC). However, significant gaps remain and intensified efforts are needed. The ASTARTE (Assessment STrategy And Risk for Tsunami in Europe) is a three-year long EU-funded project, started in November 2013, that aims to develop a comprehensive strategy to mitigate tsunami impact in the NEAM region. To achieve this goal, an interdisciplinary consortium has been assembled. It includes all NEAM CTWPs and expert institutions across Europe and worldwide. ASTARTE will improve i) the basic knowledge on tsunami generation and recurrence with novel empirical data and new statistical analyses for assessing long-term recurrence and hazards of large events in sensitive areas within NEAM, ii) numerical techniques for tsunami simulation focusing on real-time codes, novel statistical emulation approaches, and experiments on damage analysis, and iii) methods for the assessment of hazard, vulnerability, and risk. ASTARTE will also provide i) guidelines for tsunami Eurocodes, ii) better forecasting and warning tools for CTWPs and NTWCs, and iii) guidelines for decision makers to increase the sustainability and resilience of coastal communities. In summary, ASTARTE will develop basic scientific and technical elements allowing for a significant enhancement of the Tsunami Warning System in the NEAM region in terms of monitoring, early warning,forecast, and resilience, with specific implementation in 9 tsunami test sites. Overall, this will lead to the goal of the European/NEAM Horizon 2020 strategy: to foster tsunami resilient communities. www.astarte-project.eu This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3).

Baptista, Maria Ana; Yalciner, Ahmet; Canals, Miquel; Behrens, Joern; Fuhrman, David; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Harbitz, Carl; Kanoglu, Utku; Karanci, Nurai; Lavigne, Franck; Lorito, Stefano; Meghraoui, Mustafa; Melis, Nikolaos S.; Necmioglu, Ocal; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Rudloff, Alexander; Schindele, François; Terrinha, Pedro; Tinti, Stefano

2014-05-01

270

Towards better implementation of cancer screening in Europe through improved monitoring and evaluation and greater engagement of cancer registries.  

PubMed

Proposals to improve implementation, monitoring and evaluation of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes have been developed in a European project involving scientists and professionals experienced in cancer registration (EUROCOURSE). They call for a clear and more active role for cancer registries through better interfaces with cancer screening programmes and adapting data contents of cancer registries for evaluation purposes. Cancer registries are recognised as essential for adequate evaluation of cancer screening programmes, but they are not involved in screening evaluation in several European countries. This is a key barrier to improving the effectiveness of programmes across Europe. The variation in Europe in the implementation of cancer screening offers a unique opportunity to learn from best practices in collaboration between cancer registries and screening programmes. Population-based cancer registries have experience and tools in collecting and analysing relevant data, e.g. for diagnostic and therapeutic determinants of mortality. In order to accelerate improvements in cancer control we argue that cancer registries should take co-responsibility in promoting effective screening evaluation in Europe. Additional investments are vital to further development of infrastructures and activities for screening evaluation and monitoring in the national settings and also at the pan-European level. The EUROCOURSE project also aimed to harmonise implementation of the European quality assurance guidelines for cancer screening programmes across Europe through standardising routine data collection and analysis, and definitions for key performance indicators for screening registers. Data linkage between cancer and screening registers and other repositories of demographic data and cause of death and where available clinical registers is key to implementing the European screening standards and thereby reducing the burden of disease through early detection. Greater engagement of cancer registries in this collaborative effort is also essential to develop adequate evaluation of innovations in cancer prevention and care. PMID:25483785

Anttila, Ahti; Lönnberg, Stefan; Ponti, Antonio; Suonio, Eero; Villain, Patricia; Coebergh, Jan Willem; von Karsa, Lawrence

2015-01-01

271

Occupational Health in Eastern Europe  

PubMed Central

Progress may be fostered as much by spreading information as by research. The aim of this review is to add to the existing knowledge of the pattern of occupational health services in the socialist countries of Eastern Europe. The work consists of two main parts. Part I is based on official information issued by government departments or typewritten reports prepared by government officials, and relates mostly to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and to Czechoslovakia. Part II is largely based on direct observation, discussion, and comparison of the occupational health services in Czechoslovakia, of which I have more extensive knowledge than of the other countries of Eastern Europe. This part embodies a number of conclusions and is followed by a list of bibliographical references. Throughout the review I have endeavoured to show how problems which exist all over the world are dealt with in Eastern Europe. PMID:13932439

Malan, R. M.

1963-01-01

272

Distortionary effects of a production-sharing fiscal system in a sequential modular offshore petroleum project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research examines the distortionary effects of a discovered and undeveloped sequential modular offshore project under five different designs for a production-sharing agreement (PSA). The model differs from previous research by looking at the effect of taxation from the perspective of a host government, where the objective is to maximize government utility over government revenue generated by the project and the non-pecuniary benefits to society. This research uses Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) theory, which is able to provide a good measure of the asset value accruing to various stakeholders in the project combined with the optimal decision rule for the development of the investment opportunity. Monte Carlo simulation was also applied to incorporate into the model the most important sources of risk associated with the project and to account for non-linearity in the cash flows. For a complete evaluation of how the fiscal system affects the project development, an investor's behavioral model was constructed, incorporating three operational decisions: investment timing, capacity size and early abandonment. The model considers four sources of uncertainty that affect the project value and the firm's optimal decision: the long run oil price and short-run deviations from that price, cost escalation and the reservoir recovery rate. The optimizations outcomes show that all fiscal systems evaluated produce distortion over the companies' optimal decisions, and companies adjust their choices to avoid taxation in different ways according to the fiscal system characteristics. Moreover, it is revealed that fiscal systems with tax provisions that try to capture additional project profits based on production profitability measures leads to stronger distortions in the project investment and output profile. It is also shown that a model based on a fixed percentage rate is the system that creates the least distortion. This is because companies will be subjected to the same government share of profit oil independently of any operational decision which they can make to change the production profile to evade taxation.

Neves de Campos, Thiago

273

The Effect of Personality Type on Team Performance in Engineering Materials Term Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most of long-term engineering class projects require teamwork. Often, conducting projects increase the quality of classroom life and facilitate student learning. Sometimes, team projects hinder student learning and create disharmony and dissatisfaction with classroom life. In many cases, the mixture of each individuals personality determines team dynamics. The Introduction to Engineering Materials course for junior level students encompasses a semester-long term project, which heavily requires teamwork. The term project should focus on a component of existing manufactured products and show why a particular material is used for a particular application. The experiments chosen should prove or disprove this. Each team will chose a topic, determine how to evaluate that topic, devise relevant experiments, evaluate the results of these experiments and formulate a conclusion. Finally, the students will present their results to the class at the end of the semester. The goal of this study is to see how the team performance can be affected by each individual students personality type in the term projects of the engineering material course. The personality test used in this study was the DISC test, which is the oldest, most validated, and reliable personality assessment tool. DISC stands for Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, and Conscientiousness, which are the four dimensions in the personality characteristics. For the term project, six teams were formulated. The instructor assigned four or five students to a team. Students with similar personality types were assigned to work with each other in three of the teams. The other three teams have students with well-mixed dimensions in their personality characteristics. This paper presents the effectiveness of using student personality on team building for the semester-long team projects. Overall student experience and lessons learned in organizing such a project are also discussed.

Jang, Jaesoon; Kim, David; Shin, Sung J.

2009-09-25

274

Student Lead Nanosatellite Design/Build Projects: making a cost effective approach to Earth and Space Observational Science even more cost efficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advancement of technologies and the miniaturization of sensors and electrical/computational components satellites are also undergoing miniaturization. With lower manufacturing cost and a decreased design/build cycle (~2 years from start to launch), compared to conventional large scale satellites, nanosatellites have become a cost effective alternative for satellite Earth and Space Observations. The University of Alberta student nanosatellite (10x10x30cm; <4kg) design/build team, AlbertaSat-1, is a participant in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CSDC) implemented by the CSA and Geocentrix Ltd. in addition to 15 other Universities from across Canada. AlbertaSat-1 will be launched in early 2013, after a 2 year design/build process and environmental testing. AlbertaSat-1 will be an Earth Observation satellite monitoring GHG (CO2, H2O & CH4) concentrations over many regions of the earth with the use of a NIR spectrometer. Here we present the planning, design and future manufacturing of AlbertaSat-1 with a focus on budget and cost effective solutions. Since this is a student project, AlbertaSat-1 will incur certain benefits making them exempt from certain financial requirements and obtaining services and equipment at very low or no cost. The largest cost benefit of AlbertaSat-1 is the virtual elimination of labor costs by having a team consisting of only unpaid students. Labor costs of typical satellite missions can be a very costly component. The educational components of such projects offer more indirect benefits to effective development of this industry/discipline, nevertheless just as important, by developing skills and knowledge that can only be learned through realistic hands on design/build projects. Student lead projects and student design/build initiatives such as CSDC (among many others in the U.S. and Europe lead by NASA and ESA, respectively) will have a major impact on shaping the future of Space and Earth Observational Sciences. We will present the future implications of such student projects and initiatives for the development of research and engineering in Space and Earth Observational Sciences.

Bottoms, J.; Lange, B. A.; AlbertaSat

2011-12-01

275

A process-based approach to predicting the effect of climate change on the distribution of an invasive allergenic plant in Europe.  

PubMed

Ambrosia artemisiifolia is an invasive weed in Europe with highly allergenic pollen. Populations are currently well established and cause significant health problems in the French Rhône valley, Austria, Hungary and Croatia but transient or casual introduced populations are also found in more Northern and Eastern European countries. A process-based model of weed growth, competition and population dynamics was used to predict the future potential for range expansion of A.artemisiifolia under climate change scenarios. The model predicted a northward shift in the available climatic niche for populations to establish and persist, creating a risk of increased health problems in countries including the UK and Denmark. This was accompanied by an increase in relative pollen production at the northern edge of its range. The southern European limit for A.artemisiifolia was not expected to change; populations continued to be limited by drought stress in Spain and Southern Italy. The process-based approach to modelling the impact of climate change on plant populations has the advantage over correlative species distribution models of being able to capture interactions of climate, land use and plant competition at the local scale. However, for this potential to be fully realised, additional empirical data are required on competitive dynamics of A.artemisiifolia in different crops and ruderal plant communities and its capacity to adapt to local conditions. PMID:24533071

Storkey, Jonathan; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Chapman, Daniel S; Vidotto, Francesco; Semenov, Mikhail A

2014-01-01

276

Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe  

PubMed Central

We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

Suk, Jonathan E.

2011-01-01

277

Quantifying ecosystem services from pastureland in the United States: The conservation effects assessment project  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a multiagency scientific effort to quantify environmental outcomes of conservation practices applied to private agricultural lands of the United States. Society for Range Management members are familiar with the rangeland CEAP effort but may know...

278

The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

2014-01-01

279

Effect of Overlapping Projections on Reconstruction Image Quality in Multipinhole SPECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multipinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has several advantages over single pinhole SPECT imaging, including an increased sensitivity and an improved sampling. However, the quest for a good design is challenging, due to the large number of design parameters. The effect of one of these, the amount of overlap in the projection images, on the reconstruction image quality,

Kathleen Vunckx; Paul Suetens; Johan Nuyts

2008-01-01

280

GEM-PEER Global GMPEs Project Guidance for Including Near-Fault Effects in Ground Motion  

E-print Network

GEM-PEER Global GMPEs Project Guidance for Including Near-Fault Effects in Ground Motion Prediction SUMMARY Most ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) do not provide predictions that account explicitly published models of this type, noting the ground motion data sets used in their calibration and the range

Baker, Jack W.

281

The Life Interventions for Family Effectiveness (LIFE) Project: Preliminary Findings on Alternative School Intervention for Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A non-randomized control trial was conducted to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the Life Interventions for Family Effectiveness (LIFE) project: a family-based, evidence-based comprehensive substance abuse intervention for at-risk adolescents and their families. The Matrix Adolescent Treatment Model of program delivery was utilized in the…

Watson, Donnie W.; Mouttapa, Michele; Reiber, Chris; McCuller, William Jason; Arancibia, Ruben; Kavich, Julia A.; Nieves, Elena; Novgrod, Judith; Mai, Noemi; Bisesi, Lorrie; Sim, Tiffanie

2007-01-01

282

Fundamental remote sensing science research program. Part 1: Scene radiation and atmospheric effects characterization project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief articles summarizing the status of research in the scene radiation and atmospheric effect characterization (SRAEC) project are presented. Research conducted within the SRAEC program is focused on the development of empirical characterizations and mathematical process models which relate the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted from a scene to the biophysical parameters of interest.

Murphy, R. E.; Deering, D. W.

1984-01-01

283

Regional airborne flux measurements in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of identifying the spatial and temporal distribution of sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 is the subject of considerable scientific and political debate. Even if it is now possible to estimate within reasonable accuracy the sink strength of European forests at the local scale, difficulties still exist in determining the partitioning of the sinks at the global and regional scales. The aim of the EU-project RECAB (Regional Assessment of the Carbon Balance in Europe) that is coordinated by Alterra, Wageningen (NL), is to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements and continental scale inversion models by a generic modelling effort and measurement program, focussing on a limited number of selected regions in Europe for which previous measurements exists. This required the establishment of a European facility for airborne measurement of surface fluxes of CO2 at very low altitude, and a research aircraft capable of performing airborne eddy covariance measurements has been acquired by this project and used on several occasions at the different RECAB sites. The aircraft is the italian Sky Arrows ERA (Environmental Research Aircraft) equipped with the NOAA/ARA Mobile Flux Platform (MFP), and a commercial open-path infrared gas analyser. Airborne eddy covariance measurements were made from June 2001 onwards in Southern Spain near Valencia (June and December 2001), in Central Germany near Jena (July 2001), in Sweden near Uppsala (August 2001), in The Netherlands near Wageningen (January and July 2002) and in Italy near Rome (June 2002). Flux towers were present at each site to provide a validation of airborne eddy covariance measurements. This contribution reports some validation results based on the comparison between airborne and ground based flux measurements and some regional scale results for different locations and different seasons, in a wide range of meteorological and ecological settings.

Gioli, B.; Miglietta, F.; Vaccari, F. P.; Zaldei, A.; Hutjes, R. W. A.

2003-04-01

284

The Winds of Change: Higher Education Management Programmes in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amid the Bologna Process and as a direct effect of it, European higher education institutions have to rethink their core institutional policies in order to effectively deal with the increasing demands and needs of their "customers" and society at large. The higher education management programmes across Europe, with some specific needs and…

Pausits, Attila; Pellert, Ada

2009-01-01

285

Improving Australia's Schools. Executive Summary of "Making Schools More Effective: Report of the Australian Effective Schools Project".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet summarizes findings of a study, the Effective Schools Project, which sought to promote public discussion about improving educational quality in Australia. Questionnaires that were distributed with 300,000 booklets elicited a total of 7,203 responses from principals, parents, staff, and schools. Respondents were asked to identify the…

McGaw, Barry; And Others

286

The Choptank Watershed Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project: Monitoring the Effect of Wetland Conservation Practices on Water Quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Choptank Watershed Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) brings together an interdisciplinary group of experts and resources from multiple federal agencies and the University of Maryland to assess the ability of native, restored, and prior-converted wetlands on cropland to impro...

287

Promoting entrepreneurship in Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past decade has seen a revival of entrepreneurship in the modern industrial economies, characterized by a wave of enterprise restructuring and of new developments in business and technology. In this paper, we argue that market transitions of the post-socialist economies of Eastern Europe cannot be successful without similar entrepreneurial restructuring. To address the massive structural distortions that still plague

Laura d'Andrea Tyson; Tea Petrin; Halsey Rogers

1994-01-01

288

The Otherness of Eastern Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses an extensive corpus of texts from the German media and existing studies of German perspectives on Poland, Russia, the Czech Republic and Slovenia in order to demonstrate that there are two idealised culture cognitive models (ICCMs) that function as overarching categories for Europe: the ICCM west (the members of the European…

Hudabiunigg, Ingrid

2004-01-01

289

Enterprise reform in Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprise reform is emerging as the core economic problem in Eastern Europe. As privatization has been delayed, a new problem has emerged, largely unanticipated by outside advisers: It is probably possible to run a clear-cut state enterprise efficiently, and it is certainly possible to get efficient performance from a private enterprise. But it is utterly impossible to get anything like

Sweder van Wijnbergen

1993-01-01

290

Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

2010-01-01

291

Babesiosis in Immunocompetent Patients, Europe  

PubMed Central

We report 2 cases of babesiosis in immunocompetent patients in France. A severe influenza-like disease developed in both patients 2 weeks after they had been bitten by ticks. Diagnosis was obtained from blood smears, and Babesia divergens was identified by PCR in 1 case. Babesiosis in Europe occurs in healthy patients, not only in splenectomized patients. PMID:21192869

Zadeh, Mahsa Mohseni; Hansmann, Yves; Grawey, Isabelle; Christmann, Daniel; Aguillon, Sarah; Jouglin, Maggy; Chauvin, Alain; De Briel, Dominique

2011-01-01

292

Free electron laser infrastructure in Europe 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a digest of chosen research centers, subjects and results in the domain of free electron lasers and accelerator science and technology in Europe. Some of these issues were shown during the annual meeting of the EU FP7 project EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development (2009-2013) [13-14]. The project concerns building of the research infrastructure, including in this advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics and FEL experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such infrastructures, networks and systems like: POLFEL, FLASH, SPARC, LIFE, CFEL, IRFEL, IRVUX, ELBE, FELIX, LCLS, E-XFEL along with some subsystems like seeding lasers, beam diagnostics, high field magnets, superconducting structures, multichannel measurement - control networks for FELs for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution. A digest of references on FEL and HEP was included [1-133], with emphasis on work in Poland on the Polfel project.

Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

2013-01-01

293

Reference Database for Seismic Ground-Motion in Europe (RESORCE) , M.A. Sandikkaya1,2  

E-print Network

1 Reference Database for Seismic Ground-Motion in Europe (RESORCE) S. Akkar1 , M.A. Sandikkaya1-European strong-motion databank: Reference Database for Seismic Ground-Motion in Europe (RESORCE). RESORCE is one of the by-products of the SIGMA (SeIsmic Ground Motion Assessment; projet-sigma.com) project. RESORCE

Boyer, Edmond

294

Frequency and within-type variations of large-scale circulation types and their effects on low-frequency climate variability in central europe since 1780  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the importance of large-scale atmospheric circulation changes for Central European climate variations during the last two centuries. On the basis of an objective classification of monthly mean sea level pressure (SLP) grids reconstructed back to 1780 and monthly historical station data for the same period, temperature and precipitation changes in Central Europe since 1780 are decomposed into two parts; one part due to frequency changes of large-scale circulation types, and the other part caused by (dynamic and climatic) changes within these circulation types. This is achieved by applying a particular decomposition scheme for moving 31-year time windows during the 1780-1995 period. Results indicate that large parts of the long-term variations in Central European climate cannot be explained sufficiently by frequency changes of circulation types. Roughly one half of these variations - even up to 80% during July - can be ascribed to varying internal properties of some major circulation types. Percentages of frequency-related and within-type-related climate changes are seen to vary on decadal to multidecadal time scales, thus implying that relationships between large-scale circulation patterns and regional climates are characterised by distinct instationarities. Furthermore, regional climate variations, being attributable to within-type changes of major circulation types, can only partly be explained by corresponding variations in dynamic properties (vorticity, intensity) of these circulation types. This points to the importance of further sources for within-type variability, including subgrid-scale processes, synoptic-scale variations, and modifications of the climatic boundary conditions.

Beck, C.; Jacobeit, J.; Jones, P. D.

2007-03-01

295

Towards a single seismological service infrastructure in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last five year services and data providers, within the seismological community in Europe, focused their efforts in migrating the way of opening their archives towards a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). This process tries to follow pragmatically the technological trends and available solutions aiming at effectively improving all the data stewardship activities. These advancements are possible thanks to the cooperation and the follow-ups of several EC infrastructural projects that, by looking at general purpose techniques, combine their developments envisioning a multidisciplinary platform for the earth observation as the final common objective (EPOS, Earth Plate Observation System) One of the first results of this effort is the Earthquake Data Portal (http://www.seismicportal.eu), which provides a collection of tools to discover, visualize and access a variety of seismological data sets like seismic waveform, accelerometric data, earthquake catalogs and parameters. The Portal offers a cohesive distributed search environment, linking data search and access across multiple data providers through interactive web-services, map-based tools and diverse command-line clients. Our work continues under other EU FP7 projects. Here we will address initiatives in two of those projects. The NERA, (Network of European Research Infrastructures for Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation) project will implement a Common Services Architecture based on OGC services APIs, in order to provide Resource-Oriented common interfaces across the data access and processing services. This will improve interoperability between tools and across projects, enabling the development of higher-level applications that can uniformly access the data and processing services of all participants. This effort will be conducted jointly with the VERCE project (Virtual Earthquake and Seismology Research Community for Europe). VERCE aims to enable seismologists to exploit the wealth of seismic data within a data-intensive computation framework, which will be tailored to the specific needs of the community. It will provide a new interoperable infrastructure, as the computational backbone laying behind the publicly available interfaces. VERCE will have to face the challenges of implementing a service oriented architecture providing an efficient layer between the Data and the Grid infrastructures, coupling HPC data analysis and HPC data modeling applications through the execution of workflows and data sharing mechanism. Online registries of interoperable worklflow components, storage of intermediate results and data provenance are those aspects that are currently under investigations to make the VERCE facilities usable from a large scale of users, data and service providers. For such purposes the adoption of a Digital Object Architecture, to create online catalogs referencing and describing semantically all these distributed resources, such as datasets, computational processes and derivative products, is seen as one of the viable solution to monitor and steer the usage of the infrastructure, increasing its efficiency and the cooperation among the community.

Spinuso, A.; Trani, L.; Frobert, L.; Van Eck, T.

2012-04-01

296

Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities: results from the APHEA project  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. As part of a European project (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach (APHEA)), we analysed data from the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, London, Milan, Paris and Rotterdam, using a standardized approach to data eligibility and statistical analysis. Relative risks for

H. R. Anderson; C. Spix; S. Medina; J. P. Schouten; J. Castellsague; G. Rossi; D. Zmirou; G. Touloumi; B. Wojtyniak; A. Ponka; L. Bacharova; J. Schwartz; K. Katsouyanni

1997-01-01

297

"Physics and Life" for Europe's Science Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EIROforum Contribution to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 [Physics on Stage 3 Logo] What do you know about modern science? Was your school science teacher inspiring and enthusiastic? Or was physics class a good time to take a nap? Unfortunately, many young Europeans don't have the fondest memories of science in school, and the result is a widespread disinterest and lack of understanding of science among adults. This has become a real problem - especially at a time when science is having a growing impact on our daily lives, and when society needs more scientists than ever! What can be done? Some of Europe's leading research organisations, scientists and teachers have put their heads together and come up with a unique approach called "Physics on Stage" . This will be the third year that these institutes, with substantial support from the European Commission, are running this project - attacking the problem at its roots. EIROforum and "Physics on Stage 3" [EIROforum Logo] "Physics On Stage 3" is based on the very successful "Physics On Stage" concept that was introduced in 2000. It is directed towards science teachers and students in Europe's secondary schools. It is a part of the year-long build-up to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 (3-9 November), an initiative by the European Commission, and is run by seven of Europe's leading Intergovernmental Research Organizations (the EIROforum) [1]. The project addresses the content and format of science teaching in European schools , seeking to improve the quality of teaching and to find new ways to stimulate pupils to take an interest in science. Innovative and inspirational science teaching is seen as a key component to attract young people to deal with scientific issues, whether or not they finally choose a career in science. Hence, "Physics On Stage 3" aims to stimulate the interest of young people through the school teachers, who can play a key role in reversing the trend of falling interest in science and current scientific research. The goals of "Physics On Stage 3" [EWST Logo] "Physics on Stage 3" also aims to facilitate the exchange of good practice and innovative ideas among Europe's science teachers and to provide a forum for a broad debate among educators, administrators and policy-makers about the key problems in science education today. Moreover, it will make available the considerable, combined expertise of the EIROforum organisations to the European scientific teaching community, in order to promote the introduction of "fresh" science into the curricula and thus to convey a more realistic image of modern science to the pupils. "Physics on Stage 3" is concerned with basic science and also with the cross-over between different science disciplines - a trend becoming more and more important in today's science, which is not normally reflected in school curricula. A key element of the programme is to give teachers an up-to-date "insiders'" view of what is happening in science and to tell them about new, highly-diverse and interesting career opportunities for their pupils. Theme of the activities The theme of "Physics on Stage" this year is "Physics and Life" , reflecting the decision to broaden the Physics on Stage activities to encompass all the natural sciences. Including other sciences will augment the already successful concept, introducing a mixture of cross-over projects that highlight the multidisciplinary aspects of modern science. Among the many subjects to be presented are radiation, physics and the environment, astrobiology (the search for life beyond earth), complex systems, self-organising systems, sports science, the medical applications of physics, mathematics and epidemiology, etc. The main elements National activities "Physics on Stage 3" has already started and National Steering Committees in 22 countries, composed of eminent science teachers, scientists, administrators and others involved in se

2003-04-01

298

SMA-EUROPE workshop report: opportunities and challenges in developing clinical trials for spinal muscular atrophy in Europe  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common lethal recessive disease in childhood, and there is currently no effective treatment to halt disease progression. The translation of scientific advances into effective therapies is hampered by major roadblocks in clinical trials, including the complex regulatory environment in Europe, variations in standards of care, patient ascertainment and enrolment, a narrow therapeutic window and a lack of biomarkers of efficacy. In this context, SMA-Europe organized its first international workshop in July 2012 in Rome, gathering 34 scientists, clinicians and representatives of patient organizations to establish recommendations for improving clinical trials for SMAa. PMID:23514578

2013-01-01

299

Does Information Matter? The Effect of the Meth Project on Meth Use among Youths*  

PubMed Central

Are demand-side interventions effective at curbing drug use? To the extent demand-side programs are successful, their cost effectiveness can be appealing from a policy perspective. Established in 2005, the Montana Meth Project (MMP) employs a graphic advertising campaign to deter meth use among teens. Due to the MMP’s apparent success, seven other states have adopted Meth Project campaigns. Using data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS), this paper investigates whether the MMP reduced methamphetamine use among Montana’s youth. When accounting for a preexisting downward trend in meth use, effects on meth use are statistically indistinguishable from zero. These results are robust to using related changes of meth use among individuals without exposure to the campaign as controls in a difference-in-difference framework. A complementary analysis of treatment admissions data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) confirms the MMP has had no discernable impact on meth use. PMID:20638737

Anderson, D. Mark

2010-01-01

300

Managed Pollinator Coordinated Agricultural Project—The First Two Years of the Stationary Hive Project: Abiotic Site Effects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

: A stationary hive project was initiated in the spring of 2009. This research project will run through 2013 and consists of two replicate two-year trials (2009-2011 and 2011–2013). The objective of the study was to conduct a longitudinal study of colonies through a two-year period. In this article...

301

[The Better Beginnings, Better Futures Project: short-term effects on the children of Cornwall].  

PubMed

The Ontario Better Beginnings, Better Futures Project is a prevention project for young children and their families living in 8 disadvantaged neighbourhoods throughout the province. The Cornwall site of Better Beginnings, Better Futures ("Partir d'un bon pas pour un avenir meilleur"), the only francophone site of the project, has focused on children aged 4 to 8 in 4 francophone schools. This article presents the short-term effects of the programs on the children of Cornwall after 4 years of operation. Results showed a decrease in teacher ratings of behaviour problems and an increase in teacher ratings of prosocial behaviour. There was also a significant improvement in nutrition and health care. Finally, results showed a decrease in the number of students receiving special education services for learning disabilities or behavioural problems. However, results failed to show significant improvements in cognitive functioning or academic achievement. PMID:15462582

Herry, Yves; Peters, Ray DeV; Arnold, Robert

2003-01-01

302

Monsanto Europe: Monsanto Introduces GMOs To Europe With Unexpected Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case, which can be used in conjunction with the other Monsanto cases (UVA-E-0216, UVA-E-0220, and UVA-E-0263), details Monsanto's efforts to introduce genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into Europe in the mid-1990s. Monsanto did not anticipate the European resistance and public outcry, based on a number of factors, and company officials ultimately admitted their mistakes in the introduction process. Additionally, the

Patricia Werhane; Michael Gorman; Jenny Mead; Michael Hertz; Dean Nieusma

303

What Can We Learn from 15,000 Teachers in Central Europe and Central Asia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the "Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking Project" which has now sent more than 70 volunteer teacher educators into 20 countries across Central Europe and Central Asia to help teachers to try out methods that foster active learning and critical thinking. Discusses support for the project, teaching strategies introduced, and the…

Temple, Charles

2000-01-01

304

Randomised Double-Blind Comparison of Placebo and Active Drugs for Effects on Risks Associated with Blood Pressure Variability in the Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial  

PubMed Central

Background In the Systolic Hypertension in Europe trial (NCT02088450), we investigated whether systolic blood pressure variability determines prognosis over and beyond level. Methods Using a computerised random function and a double-blind design, we randomly allocated 4695 patients (?60 years) with isolated systolic hypertension (160–219/<95 mm Hg) to active treatment or matching placebo. Active treatment consisted of nitrendipine (10–40 mg/day) with possible addition of enalapril (5–20 mg/day) and/or hydrochlorothiazide (12.5–25.0 mg/day). We assessed whether on-treatment systolic blood pressure level (SBP), visit-to-visit variability independent of the mean (VIM) or within-visit variability (WVV) predicted total (n?=?286) or cardiovascular (n?=?150) mortality or cardiovascular (n?=?347), cerebrovascular (n?=?133) or cardiac (n?=?217) endpoints. Findings At 2 years, mean between-group differences were 10.5 mm Hg (p<0.0001) for SBP, 0.29 units (p?=?0.20) for VIM, and 0.07 mm Hg (p?=?0.47) for WVV. Active treatment reduced (p?0.048) cardiovascular (?28%), cerebrovascular (?40%) and cardiac (?24%) endpoints. In analyses dichotomised by the median, patients with low vs. high VIM had similar event rates (p?0.14). Low vs. high WVV was not associated with event rates (p?0.095), except for total and cardiovascular mortality on active treatment, which were higher with low WVV (p?0.0003). In multivariable-adjusted Cox models, SBP predicted all endpoints (p?0.0043), whereas VIM did not predict any (p?0.058). Except for an inverse association with total mortality (p?=?0.042), WVV was not predictive (p?0.15). Sensitivity analyses, from which we excluded blood pressure readings within 6 months after randomisation, 6 months prior to an event or both were confirmatory. Conclusions The double-blind placebo-controlled Syst-Eur trial demonstrated that blood-pressure lowering treatment reduces cardiovascular complications by decreasing level but not variability of SBP. Higher blood pressure level, but not higher variability, predicted risk. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02088450 PMID:25090617

Hara, Azusa; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Jacobs, Lotte; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A.

2014-01-01

305

Religion as heritage, religion as belief: Shifting frontiers of secularism in Europe, the USA and Brazil  

E-print Network

(including Latin America) cannot simply be conjured out of existence, and also because of its accompanying normative baggage and its indissoluble link to an exemplary projection of the United States Constitution and the European Human Rights Convention... of the child, who can decide his religious affiliation himself later in life’. If this principle is upheld and extended, then the entire basis of Europe’s religious regime is threatened, because all family religious rituals can be regarded as pre- empting...

Lehmann, David

2013-10-25

306

Project SUCCESS' Effects on Substance Use-Related Attitudes and Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Alternative High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a randomized controlled effectiveness trial, we examined the effects of Project SUCCESS on a range of secondary outcomes, including the program's mediating variables. Project SUCCESS, which is based both on the Theory of Reasoned Action and on Cognitive Behavior Theory, is a school-based substance use prevention program that targets…

Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Hanley, Sean M.

2011-01-01

307

The Effect of the BalloonSat Project on Middle and High School Students' Attitude toward Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study measured the effect of completing a BalloonSat project on student attitude toward science. Seven categories of student attitudes toward science were measured using the Test of Science Relate Attitudes survey (TOSRA). The research anticipated that the BalloonSat project would have similar effects on student attitudes as found in robotics…

Verhage, L. Paul

2012-01-01

308

Flood effects on an Alaskan stream restoration project: the value of long-term monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On a nationwide basis, few stream restoration projects have long-term programs in place to monitor the effects of floods on channel and floodplain configuration and floodplain vegetation, but long-term and event-based monitoring is required to measure the effects of these stochastic events and to use the knowledge for adaptive management and the design of future projects. This paper describes a long-term monitoring effort (15 years) on a stream restoration project in Glen Creek in Denali National Park and Preserve in Alaska. The stream channel and floodplain of Glen Creek had been severely degraded over a period of 80 years by placer mining for gold, which left many reaches with unstable and incised streambeds without functioning vegetated floodplains. The objectives of the original project, initiated in 1991, were to develop and test methods for the hydraulic design of channel and floodplain morphology and for floodplain stabilization and riparian habitat recovery, and to conduct research and monitoring to provide information for future projects in similar degraded watersheds. Monitoring methods included surveyed stream cross-sections, vegetation plots, and aerial, ground, and satellite photos. In this paper we address the immediate and outlying effects of a 25-year flood on the stream and floodplain geometry and riparian vegetation. The long-term monitoring revealed that significant channel widening occurred following the flood, likely caused by excessive upstream sediment loading and the fairly slow development of floodplain vegetation in this climate. Our results illustrated design flaws, particularly in regard to identification and analysis of sediment sources and the dominant processes of channel adjustment.

Densmore, Roseann V.; Karle, Kenneth F.

2009-01-01

309

Project ALERT's effects on adolescents' prodrug beliefs: a replication and extension study.  

PubMed

This article represents a replication and extension of previous studies of the effects of Project ALERT, a school-based substance use prevention program, on the prodrug beliefs of adolescents. Specifically, the authors' research examined Project ALERT's effects on adolescents' intentions to use substances in the future, beliefs about substance use consequences, normative beliefs, and resistance self-efficacy. In all, 34 schools with Grades 6 to 8 completed this randomized controlled trial and 71 Project ALERT instructors taught 11 core lessons to 6th graders and 3 booster lessons to 7th graders (one grade level earlier than in previous studies). Students were assessed in 6th grade prior to the onset of the intervention, in 7th grade after the completion of the 2-year curriculum, and again 1 year later in 8th grade. The authors found no evidence to suggest that Project ALERT had a positive impact on any alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana prodrug beliefs. Implications for school-based substance use prevention are discussed. PMID:20495102

Kovach Clark, Heddy; Ringwalt, Chris L; Hanley, Sean; Shamblen, Stephen R

2010-06-01

310

Air pollution, forest condition and forest decline in Southern Europe: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decades much of the work on the impact of air pollution on forests in Europe has concentrated on central and northern countries. The southern part of Europe has received far less attention, although air pollutants—especially the photochemical ones—can reach concentrations likely to have adverse effects on forest vegetation. Although international forest condition surveys present serious problems where

F. Bussotti; M. Ferretti

1998-01-01

311

Comparing Active TransportationComparing Active Transportation in China and Europein China and Europe  

E-print Network

development­ Economic development ­ Chic and social acceptance C l di th ht h· Concluding thoughts on change 2 on economic development?­ Effects on economic development? ­ Chic-ness and social acceptance? Ch· Change #12;Economic Development - EuropeEconomic Development Europe · Active transportation directly affects

Bertini, Robert L.

312

The knowledge economy of Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For regional development specialists and those concerned with local economies, the world of the so-called knowledge economy is tremendously important. Specifically, the knowledge economy is meant to be those segments of the economy that include financial and business services, health care, and education. In Europe, the subject is debated a great deal, and this latest 23-page report by The Work Foundation will no doubt add to that ongoing debate. In their report examining the knowledge economy in Europe (and its recent growth) they note that while the Continent continues to experience some growth in this sector of the economy, future growth may be hindered by a lack of significant investment in its knowledge base. The report also includes an extended definition of this notion of a knowledge economy for those who remain puzzled.

Brinkley, Ian; Lee, Neil

2006-01-01

313

Accelerator science and technology in Europe 2008-2017  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

European Framework Research Projects have recently added a lot of meaning to the building process of the ERA - the European Research Area. Inside this, the accelerator technology plays an essential role. Accelerator technology includes large infrastructure and intelligent, modern instrumentation embracing mechatronics, electronics, photonics and ICT. During the realization of the European research and infrastructure project FP6 CARE 2004-2008 (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe), concerning the development of large accelerator infrastructure in Europe, it was decided that a scientific editorial series of peer-reviewed monographs from this research area will be published in close relation with the projects. It was a completely new and quite brave idea to combine a kind of a strictly research publisher with a transient project, lasting only four or five years. Till then nobody did something like that. The idea turned out to be a real success. The publications now known and valued in the accelerator world, as the (CERN-WUT) Editorial Series on Accelerator Science and Technology, is successfully continued in already the third European project EuCARD2 and has logistic guarantees, for the moment, till the 2017, when it will mature to its first decade. During the realization of the European projects EuCARD (European Coordination for Accelerator R&D 2009-2013 and TIARA (Test Infrastructure of Accelerator Research Area in Europe) there were published 18 volumes in this series. The ambitious plans for the nearest years is to publish, hopefully, a few tens of new volumes. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, published in the monographs of the European Framework Projects (FP) on accelerator technology. The succession of CARE, EuCARD and EuCARD Projects is evidently creating a new quality in the European Accelerator Research. It is consolidating the technical and research communities in a new way, completely different than the traditional ones, for example via the periodic topical conferences.

Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

2013-10-01

314

Shale Gas in Europe: pragmatic perspectives and actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas will continue to play a key role in the EU's energy mix in the coming years, with unconventional gas' role increasing in importance as new resources are exploited worldwide. As far as Europe's own shale gas resources are concerned, it is especially the public's perception and level of acceptance that will make or break shale gas in the near-term. Both the pros and cons need to be discussed based on factual argument rather than speculation. Research organizations such as ours (GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences) have an active and defining role to play in remedying this deficiency. As far as science and technology developments are concerned, the project "Gas Shales in Europe" (GASH) and the shale gas activities of "GeoEnergie" (GeoEn) are the first major initiatives in Europe focused on shale gas. Basic and applied geoscientific research is conducted to understand the fundamental nature and interdependencies of the processes leading to shale gas formation. When it comes to knowledge transfer, the perceived and real risks associated with shale gas exploitation need immediate evaluation in Europe using scientific analysis. To proactively target these issues, the GFZ and partners are launching the European sustainable Operating Practices (E-SOP) Initiative for Unconventional Resources. The web-based Shale Gas Information Platform (SHIP) brings these issues into the public domain.

Hübner, A.; Horsfield, B.; Kapp, I.

2012-10-01

315

PIXE pollution studies across Europe  

SciTech Connect

We collected vegetation and soil samples from various locations along a route covering Eastern and Western Europe. We measured the level of elemental pollution in different places uniformly spread across the continent to determine which of them may have common sources. To achieve these objectives, samples were collected along the main roads from Romania to Portugal and analyzed using in-air PEE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission).

Innegraeve, O.; Blanchet, X.; Muntele, C. I.; Muntele, I. C.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Popa-Simil, L. (Liviu); Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P. M.; Ila, D.

2002-01-01

316

MODIS Snow Cover over Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides data in 36 spectral bands, some of which are used in an algorithm to map global snow cover. The animation shows the dynamic behavior of the advance and retreat of continental snow cover over Europe for the winter of 2001-02 from MODIS-derived 8-day composite snow maps with a spatial resolution of about 5 km.

Starr, Cindy; Hall, Dorothy

2002-07-04

317

Europe's last chance to restructure  

SciTech Connect

Looking back over the year, there has been remarkably little sign of restructuring in the chemical industry in view of the current financial crisis in most companies. But the apparent paralysis in terms of plant closures or ownership changes may be disguising much behind-the-scenes activity. But the pain threshold of companies is proving surprisingly high. Looking at ethylene plants, Shell's Peter Kwant notes that almost half the steam crackers operating in Europe are 20 years old or more. They amount to one-third of capacity, or twice current underutilization. No steps have been taken to close any unit. Meanwhile, five producers collectively will have introduced 2 million m.t./year of extra ethylene capacity between 1991 and 1994. One factor hampering closure is that 40% of ethylene capacity in Europe is at isolated sites not connected to either the Benelux/Germany ARG pipeline or a local network such as those in the UK or France. BP Chemicals chief Bryan Sanderson raised that point at a recent Wertheim Schroder/Chemical Week/Chem Systems conference in New York, arguing that steep price falls occur in times of demand slump because of the inelastic supply curve for monster chemical plants. The industry could manage cycles better, he suggests, if rather than closing its incremental capacity, small, flexible plants were available to open and close as demand warrants, thus flattening the supply curve. In addition, following the US example - where 90% of ethylene capacity is connected to pipeline system should be available in Europe, giving companies greater flexibility to take plants on- and offline. The latter solution, of course, would not work for Europe's 18 loss-making polyethylene (PE) producers, and here straight closures or merging of businesses are the only solution.

Tattum, L.

1992-12-23

318

Inventory of pesticide emissions into the air in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creation of a reliable and comprehensive emission inventory of the pesticides used in Europe is a key step towards quantitatively assessing the link between actual pesticide exposure and adverse health effects. An inventory of pesticide emissions was generated at a 1 × 1 km grid, for the year 2000. The emission model comprises three components: estimates of active substance (AS) wind drift taking into account crop type, volatilization during pesticide application and volatilization from the crop canopy. Results show that atmospheric emission of pesticides varies significantly across Europe. Different pesticide families are emitted from different parts of Europe as a function of the main crop(s) cultivated, agro-climatic conditions and production intensity. The pesticide emission inventory methodology developed herein is a valuable tool for assessing air quality in rural and peri-urban Europe, furnishing the necessary input for atmospheric modelling at different scales. Its estimates have been tested using global sensitivity and Monte Carlo analysis for uncertainty assessment and they have been validated against national and local surveys in four European countries; the results demonstrate the robustness and reliability of the inventory. The latter may therefore be readily used for exposure and health risk assessment studies targeting farmers, applicators, but also bystanders and the general population in Europe.

Sarigiannis, D. A.; Kontoroupis, P.; Solomou, E. S.; Nikolaki, S.; Karabelas, A. J.

2013-08-01

319

The first hominin of Europe.  

PubMed

The earliest hominin occupation of Europe is one of the most debated topics in palaeoanthropology. However, the purportedly oldest of the Early Pleistocene sites in Eurasia lack precise age control and contain stone tools rather than human fossil remains. Here we report the discovery of a human mandible associated with an assemblage of Mode 1 lithic tools and faunal remains bearing traces of hominin processing, in stratigraphic level TE9 at the site of the Sima del Elefante, Atapuerca, Spain. Level TE9 has been dated to the Early Pleistocene (approximately 1.2-1.1 Myr), based on a combination of palaeomagnetism, cosmogenic nuclides and biostratigraphy. The Sima del Elefante site thus emerges as the oldest, most accurately dated record of human occupation in Europe, to our knowledge. The study of the human mandible suggests that the first settlement of Western Europe could be related to an early demographic expansion out of Africa. The new evidence, with previous findings in other Atapuerca sites (level TD6 from Gran Dolina), also suggests that a speciation event occurred in this extreme area of the Eurasian continent during the Early Pleistocene, initiating the hominin lineage represented by the TE9 and TD6 hominins. PMID:18368116

Carbonell, Eudald; Bermúdez de Castro, José M; Parés, Josep M; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Ollé, Andreu; Mosquera, Marina; Huguet, Rosa; van der Made, Jan; Rosas, Antonio; Sala, Robert; Vallverdú, Josep; García, Nuria; Granger, Darryl E; Martinón-Torres, María; Rodríguez, Xosé P; Stock, Greg M; Vergès, Josep M; Allué, Ethel; Burjachs, Francesc; Cáceres, Isabel; Canals, Antoni; Benito, Alfonso; Díez, Carlos; Lozano, Marina; Mateos, Ana; Navazo, Marta; Rodríguez, Jesús; Rosell, Jordi; Arsuaga, Juan L

2008-03-27

320

Investigating organizational quality improvement systems, patient empowerment, organizational culture, professional involvement and the quality of care in European hospitals: the 'Deepening our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe (DUQuE)' project  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hospitals in European countries apply a wide range of quality improvement strategies. Knowledge of the effectiveness of these strategies, implemented as part of an overall hospital quality improvement system, is limited. METHODS\\/DESIGN: We propose to study the relationships among organisational quality improvement systems, patient empowerment, organisational culture, professionals' involvement with the quality of hospital care, including clinical effectiveness, patient

Oliver Groene; Niek Klazinga; Cordula Wagner; Onyebuchi A Arah; Andrew Thompson; Charles Bruneau; Rosa Suñol

2010-01-01

321

Appraising the sustainability of project alternatives: An increasing role for cumulative effects assessment  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating and comparing development alternatives with regard to sustainability is an important goal for comprehensive project appraisal. In the United States, this component has been largely missing from standard environmental impact assessment practice. Cumulative effects assessment provides a way to appraise the sustainability of project alternatives in terms of their probable contributions to long-term trends affecting the condition of valued environmental components. Sustainability metrics and predictors are being developed as criteria for rating systems and evaluation processes that are applied to community planning, building design, and transportation infrastructure. Increasing interest in adaptive management is also providing cost-effective solutions to optimizing safety and function throughout the long-term operation of a facility or infrastructure. Recent federal legislation is making it easier to integrate sustainability features into development alternatives through early, community-based planning.

Senner, Robert, E-mail: robin.senner@ch2m.com

2011-09-15

322

The Noncoplanar Baselines Effect in Radio Interferometry: The W-Projection Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a troublesome form of nonisoplanatism in synthesis radio telescopes: noncoplanar baselines. We present a novel interpretation of the noncoplanar baselines effect as being due to differential Fresnel diffraction in the neighborhood of the array antennas. We have developed a new algorithm to deal with this effect. Our new algorithm, which we call ldquoW-projectionrdquo, has markedly superior performance compared to existing algorithms. At roughly equivalent levels of accuracy, W-projection can be up to an order of magnitude faster than the corresponding facet-based algorithms. Furthermore, the precision of result is not tightly coupled to computing time. W-projection has important consequences for the design and operation of the new generation of radio telescopes operating at centimeter and longer wavelengths

Cornwell, T. J.; Golap, K.; Bhatnagar, S.

2008-11-01

323

The Holly Project: Effects on Captive Chimpanzee (Pan trogolodytes) Behavior of Applying Sensory Integration Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Captive apes often display behavioral abnormalities that may threaten their health or disrupt functioning of social groups. This research is part of an on-going project by a multi-disciplinary team that includes anthropologists, child psychologists, occupational therapists, veterinarians, and zoo personnel. My contribution to the team is as a chimpanzee behavioral specialist. This is ground-breaking research examining the effects of utilizing

Ellen Ingmanson

2010-01-01

324

The effects of the environment and ecology projects on lake management and water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the characteristics, benefits, and effects of the environment and ecology project, which has been implemented\\u000a in Turkey for the first time to restore the natural life that has been spoilt and the ecological balance of Lake Bafa located\\u000a in Great Meander Basin, are searched. Moreover, the water samples taken from the stations that were spotted in the

Cengiz Koç

2008-01-01

325

Regional decadal prediction for Europe: First results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German research program MiKlip aims at the development of a decadal ensemble predictions system. A module within MiKlip is dedicated to develop a regional downscaling system for the global predictions. The regional focuses of the downscaling experiments are Europe - which is the main focus here - and Africa. Previous studies indicate some potential predictability for both regions. The global prediction system consists of the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology earth-system model MPI-ESM. For the regional downscaling over Europe the regional climate models (RCMs) COSMO-CLM and REMO are applied in several MiKlip projects to establish a joint regional ensemble for the CORDEX-EU domain with a resolution of 0.22°. During the first phase of the research programme the MPI-ESM-LR decadal ensemble experiments for CMIP5 are used to force the RCMs. Ten ensemble members from five hindcast periods between 1960 and 2010 were downscaled to create a regional baseline ensemble. The main scientific questions posed in this study are: - At which temporal scales and in which regions can a predictive skill be achieved? - Is there an added value of the regionalization compared to the global predictions? Different analysis techniques are applied to determine the basic skill of both regional and global experiments over different European regions. These methods include continuous and categorical skill metrics as well as tests of the potential predictability and the ensemble spread. Some previous studies indicate that extremes might partly show a higher predictive skill than mean precipitation or temperatures. Skilful predictions of decadal tendencies of extremes (like droughts, heat waves or storms) also exhibit a higher value to potential users than variations of mean quantities.

Feldmann, Hendrik; Mieruch, Sebastian; Lenz, Claus-Jürgen; Sieck, Kevin; Kottmeier, Christoph

2013-04-01

326

WINDENG - a new network in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A European training-through-research network is underway in which wind conditions relevant to wind turbine and wind farm design for the implementation of the wind energy in Europe are being studied. The network is based on:- - The success of a previous network within the EU Human Capital and Mobility programme in establishing links among European institutes through the co-operative effort of young scientists working in countries other than their own. - The need to foster the necessary exchange of experiences and personal contacts in order to produce a fruitful collaboration for the academic and research institutions and private companies involved. The aim of the network is to bring together young and experienced researchers to work jointly to define the basis for the design of wind turbines and wind fans in different environments. The goals are:- - To define reliable values for turbulence descriptors to be used in modelling the turbulent wind fields, spectra, coherence in homogeneous and complex terrain and offshore, to offer guidelines for wind turbine design. - To improve existing methods used for modelling wind climates under the different situations existing within Europe to offer reliable tools for wind farm designers in complex terrain and offshore. - To address all European climates from the cold Baltic and nearby North Sea to warmer Mediterranean regions. - To supply knowledge of use to EU energy policies, to local authorities or national and international energy agencies and authorities. Furthermore it will offer guidelines for the best turbine design and best sitting procedures for isolated generators or turbine parks. The project got underway in September 2002 and the first positions for young researchers are expected to begin in early 2003. This poster will present the first scientific and practical results.

Sempreviva, A. M.; Barthelmie, R.; Landberg, L.; Heinemann, D.; Strack, M.; Christensen, L.; Stefanatos, N.; Svenson, J.; Lavagnini, A.; Tammelin, B.

2003-04-01

327

Report on the planning workshop on cost-effective ceramic machining. Ceramic Technology Project  

SciTech Connect

A workshop on ``Cost Effective Ceramic Machining`` (CECM) was held at Oak Ridge Associated Universities Pollard Auditorium, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, May 1991. The purpose of this workshop was to present a preliminary project plan for industry critique and to identify specific components and cost-reduction targets for a new project on Cost Effective Ceramic Machining. The CECM project is an extension of the work on the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Program sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Materials. The workshop consisted of fifteen invited papers, discussions, a survey of the attendee`s opinions, and a tour of the High Temperature Materials Laboratory at ORNL. The total number of registrants was sixty-seven, including thirty-three from industry or private sector organizations, seven from universities, three from industry groups, fourteen from DOE laboratories (including ORNL, Y-12, and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory), three from trade associations, and three from other government organizations. Forty- one survey forms, which critiqued the proposed project plan, were completed by attendees, and the results are presented in this report. Valves, cam roller followers, water pump seals, and diesel engine head plates were rated highest fro application of ceramic machining concepts to reduce cost. Coarse grinding, abrasives and wheel technology, and fine grinding were most highly rated as regards their impact on cost reduction. Specific cost-reduction targets for given parts varied greatly in the survey results and were not felt to be useful for the purposes for the CECM plan development. A range of individual comments were obtained and are listed in an appendix. As a result of the workshop and subsequent discussions, a modified project plan, different in certain aspects from the original CECM plan, has been developed.

Blau, P.J.

1991-11-01

328

Marine pollution control in Europe : Regional approaches, 1972-80  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates the effectiveness of four regional pollution agreements concluded during the 1970s: The Bonn Agreement, the Oslo Convention, the Paris Convention and the Helsinki Convention. The treaties are described and their implementation to 1980 outlined. The issue of EEC participation in environmental protection in Europe is analysed and problems of overlap with the treaties under discussion are pointed

Sonia Boehmer-Christiansen

1984-01-01

329

A Shift in Perception: The Evolution of Satellites in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses evolution of communication satellite use and its effect on the commercial television industry in Western Europe to illustrate the pitfalls of misunderstanding telecommunications and aerospace technology. Three stages of progression in European broadcasters' misinformed thinking about television and satellites and their current attitudes…

Howkins, John

1985-01-01

330

The distribution of groundwater habitats in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globalization and planetary environmental changes have stimulated the inventory of groundwater resources and biodiversity at continental and global scales but there has been no concurrent attempt to map the distribution of groundwater habitats even at continental scale. A vector version of the areal information contained in the international hydrogeological map of Europe (IHME) was produced, and thematic indicators for assessing its accuracy were established. Then, groundwater flow type, permeability and pore size were extracted from the vector IHME to define and map the distribution of 13 habitat types. The habitat map was used to test for latitudinal variations in habitat diversity (HD) and whether these variations might in part account for the latitudinal gradient of regional species richness. The HD of river catchments decreased significantly with increasing latitude after correcting for the effect of catchment area. HD decreased by half the amount of deviance attributed to latitude in a regression model of regional species richness, although the explanatory power of HD was probably limited by the coarse resolution of biogeographical regions. The groundwater habitat map of Europe represents a major step for the understanding, assessment and conservation of groundwater biodiversity and for incorporating ecological perspectives in groundwater management policy.

Cornu, Jean-François; Eme, David; Malard, Florian

2013-08-01

331

Projected effects of climate and development on California wildfire emissions through 2100.  

PubMed

Changing climatic conditions are influencing large wildfire frequency, a globally widespread disturbance that affects both human and natural systems. Understanding how climate change, population growth, and development patterns will affect the area burned by and emissions from wildfires and how populations will in turn be exposed to emissions is critical for climate change adaptation and mitigation planning. We quantified the effects of a range of population growth and development patterns in California on emission projections from large wildfires under six future climate scenarios. Here we show that end-of-century wildfire emissions are projected to increase by 19-101% (median increase 56%) above the baseline period (1961-1990) in California for a medium-high temperature scenario, with the largest emissions increases concentrated in northern California. In contrast to other measures of wildfire impacts previously studied (e.g., structural loss), projected population growth and development patterns are unlikely to substantially influence the amount of projected statewide wildfire emissions. However, increases in wildfire emissions due to climate change may have detrimental impacts on air quality and, combined with a growing population, may result in increased population exposure to unhealthy air pollutants. PMID:24443984

Hurteau, Matthew D; Westerling, Anthony L; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Bryant, Benjamin P

2014-02-18

332

Building the evidence base for effective tobacco control policies: the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (the ITC Project)  

PubMed Central

The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a seminal event in tobacco control and in global health. Scientific evidence guided the creation of the FCTC, and as the treaty moves into its implementation phase, scientific evidence can be used to guide the formulation of evidence?based tobacco control policies. The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project) is a transdisciplinary international collaboration of tobacco control researchers who have created research studies to evaluate and understand the psychosocial and behavioural impact of FCTC policies as they are implemented in participating ITC countries, which together are inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers. This introduction to the ITC Project supplement of Tobacco Control presents a brief outline of the ITC Project, including a summary of key findings to date. The overall conceptual model and methodology of the ITC Project—involving representative national cohort surveys created from a common conceptual model, with common methods and measures across countries—may hold promise as a useful paradigm in efforts to evaluate and understand the impact of population?based interventions in other important domains of health, such as obesity. PMID:16754940

Fong, G T; Cummings, K M

2006-01-01

333

Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI High Capacity Power Project  

SciTech Connect

The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

Shwarze, G.E. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Niedra, J.M. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States) Lewis Research Center Group; Frasca, A.J. [Wittenberg Univ., Springfield, OH (United States); Wieserman, W.R. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, Johnstown, PA (United States)

1994-09-01

334

Geodynamics of Central Europe Based On Observations of The GPS Euref Stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When azimuths of the horizontal movement vectors processed from GPS data mon- itored during several campaigns on regional networks situated in the Central Europe (the East Sudeten, the West Alps, the Trans-Alpen area) were compared, they dis- played remarkable changed in their values evaluated from two sequential campaigns with respect to next ones. As adopted, the GPS data processed of one campaign are ordinarily linked to a close EUREF station (or stations) to be joined to an Interna- tional Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Even though the interconnection to the ITRF, the vector azimuths for one site evaluated from different campaigns can still show changes. To eliminate this effect, available movements of the Central European EUREF stations were analysed with respect to geological structural units in that rela- tively coincident character of geodynamic movements are expected. Several "geody- namic" units were identified and delineated for an area of the Central Europe. Then, directions of the horizontal vector azimuths of network sites were incorporated into the unit scheme above mentioned. The paper will present data analysis of the EU- REF stations, the geodynamic unit scheme for the Central Europe and comparisons of geodynamic horizontal movements of the EUREF stations and the network sites. Fur- ther, an assessment of interrelated movements among the individual structural units was estimated. The geodynamic pattern of Central European unit movements brings more transparent understanding of mutual relations between EUREF stations and the regional GPS networks observations. The data analyse of GPS observations were sup- ported by the program of Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport 'Research Centre', No. LN00A005, and by the project of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, No. 205/01/0480.

Schenk, V.

335

Intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity across Europe.  

PubMed

Soil biodiversity plays a key role in regulating the processes that underpin the delivery of ecosystem goods and services in terrestrial ecosystems. Agricultural intensification is known to change the diversity of individual groups of soil biota, but less is known about how intensification affects biodiversity of the soil food web as a whole, and whether or not these effects may be generalized across regions. We examined biodiversity in soil food webs from grasslands, extensive, and intensive rotations in four agricultural regions across Europe: in Sweden, the UK, the Czech Republic and Greece. Effects of land-use intensity were quantified based on structure and diversity among functional groups in the soil food web, as well as on community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. We also elucidate land-use intensity effects on diversity of taxonomic units within taxonomic groups of soil fauna. We found that between regions soil food web diversity measures were variable, but that increasing land-use intensity caused highly consistent responses. In particular, land-use intensification reduced the complexity in the soil food webs, as well as the community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. In all regions across Europe, species richness of earthworms, Collembolans, and oribatid mites was negatively affected by increased land-use intensity. The taxonomic distinctness, which is a measure of taxonomic relatedness of species in a community that is independent of species richness, was also reduced by land-use intensification. We conclude that intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity, making soil food webs less diverse and composed of smaller bodied organisms. Land-use intensification results in fewer functional groups of soil biota with fewer and taxonomically more closely related species. We discuss how these changes in soil biodiversity due to land-use intensification may threaten the functioning of soil in agricultural production systems. PMID:25242445

Tsiafouli, Maria A; Thébault, Elisa; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; de Ruiter, Peter C; van der Putten, Wim H; Birkhofer, Klaus; Hemerik, Lia; de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D; Brady, Mark Vincent; Bjornlund, Lisa; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht; Christensen, Sören; Hertefeldt, Tina D'; Hotes, Stefan; Gera Hol, W H; Frouz, Jan; Liiri, Mira; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; Uteseny, Karoline; Pižl, Václav; Stary, Josef; Wolters, Volkmar; Hedlund, Katarina

2015-02-01

336

Effective Design and Evaluation of Serious Games: The Case of the e-VITA Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning and training are presently facing new challenges and a strong transformation. The use of electronic games for education (game-based learning) promotes an agile, immersive and stimulating form of learning that fosters learner engagement and motivation. Nonetheless, the design of effective and engaging educational games is a creative process that is unique to each situation. This paper discusses the inherent challenges of building intellectually appropriate and engaging games and presents the methodology adopted in the case of the e-VITA project that applies GBL to promote knowledge sharing and transfer for intergenerational learning. The paper analyses the e-VITAframework for SGs evaluation, which is central to the project's iterative development approach. Early findings stemming from the validation of the e-VITA prototype game are also presented.

Pappa, Dimitra; Pannese, Lucia

337

Effective field theory and projective construction for Z{sub k} parafermion fractional quantum Hall states  

SciTech Connect

The projective construction is a powerful approach to deriving the bulk and edge field theories of non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states and yields an understanding of non-Abelian FQH states in terms of the simpler integer quantum Hall states. Here we show how to apply the projective construction to the Z{sub k} parafermion (Laughlin/Moore-Read/Read-Rezayi) FQH states, which occur at filling fraction nu=k/(kM+2). This allows us to derive the bulk low-energy effective field theory for these topological phases, which is found to be a Chern-Simons theory at level 1 with a U(M)xSp(2k) gauge field. This approach also helps us understand the non-Abelian quasiholes in terms of holes of the integer quantum Hall states.

Barkeshli, Maissam; Wen Xiaogang [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2010-04-15

338

Climate-mediated spatiotemporal variability in terrestrial productivity across Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying the interannual variability (IAV) of the terrestrial ecosystem productivity and its sensitivity to climate is crucial for improving carbon budget predictions. In this context it is necessary to disentangle the influence of climate from impacts of other mechanisms underlying the spatiotemporal patterns of IAV of the ecosystem productivity. In this study we investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of IAV of historical observations of European crop yields in tandem with a set of climate variables. We further evaluated if relevant remote-sensing retrievals of NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) and FAPAR (fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation) depict a similar behaviour. Our results reveal distinct spatial patterns in the IAV of the analysed proxies linked to terrestrial productivity. In particular, we find higher IAV in water-limited regions of Europe (Mediterranean and temperate continental Europe) compared to other regions in both crop yield and remote-sensing observations. Our results further indicate that variations in the water balance during the active growing season exert a more pronounced and direct effect than variations of temperature on explaining the spatial patterns in IAV of productivity-related variables in temperate Europe. Overall, we observe a temporally increasing trend in the IAV of terrestrial productivity and an increasing sensitivity of productivity to water availability in dry regions of Europe during the 1975-2009 period. In the same regions, a simultaneous increase in the IAV of water availability was detected. These findings suggest intricate responses of carbon fluxes to climate variability in Europe and that the IAV of terrestrial productivity has become potentially more sensitive to changes in water availability in the dry regions in Europe. The changing sensitivity of terrestrial productivity accompanied by the changing IAV of climate is expected to impact carbon stocks and the net carbon balance of European ecosystems.

Wu, X.; Babst, F.; Ciais, P.; Frank, D.; Reichstein, M.; Wattenbach, M.; Zang, C.; Mahecha, M. D.

2014-06-01

339

Effective use of environmental impact assessments (EIAs) for geothermal development projects  

SciTech Connect

Both the developed and developing nations of the world would like to move toward a position of sustainable development while paying attention to the restoration of natural resources, improving the environment, and improving the quality of life. The impacts of geothermal development projects are generally positive. It is important, however, that the environmental issues associated with development be addressed in a systematic fashion. Drafted early in the project planning stage, a well-prepared Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can significantly add to the quality of the overall project. An EIA customarily ends with the decision to proceed with the project. The environmental analysis process could be more effective if regular monitoring, detailed in the EIA, continues during project implementation. Geothermal development EIAs should be analytic rather than encyclopedic, emphasizing the impacts most closely associated with energy sector development. Air quality, water resources and quality, geologic factors, and socioeconomic issues will invariably be the most important factors. The purpose of an EIA should not be to generate paperwork, but to enable superb response. The EIA should be intended to help public officials make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences and take proper actions. The EIA process has been defined in different ways throughout the world. In fact, it appears that no two countries have defined it in exactly the same way. Going hand in hand with the different approaches to the process is the wide variety of formats available. It is recommended that the world geothermal community work towards the adoption of a standard. The Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)(OLADE, 1993) prepared a guide that presents a comprehensive discussion of the environmental impacts and suggested mitigation alternatives associated with geothermal development projects. The OLADE guide is a good start for providing the geothermal community a standard EIA format. As decision makers may only read the Executive Summary of the EIA, this summary should be well written and present the significant impacts (in order of importance), clarifying which are unavoidable and which are irreversible; the measures which can be taken to mitigate them; the cumulative effects of impacts; and the requirements for monitoring and supervision. Quality plans and Public Participation plans should also be included as part of the environmental analysis process.

Goff, S.J.

2000-05-28

340

A Single Currency for Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines the introduction of a single currency for Europe. The nine resources above will provide details of the new European currency, the Euro, and the issues involved in the creation of the single currency. On March 25, 1998, the European Commission recommended that eleven countries (Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal and Finland) have met the conditions necessary for adopting the single currency, the Euro, on January 1, 1999. The introduction of the single currency is expected to bring the European nations closer together and to increase trade.

Ng, Thiam Hee.

341

Newborn screening in southeastern Europe.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to assess the current state of newborn screening (NBS) in the region of southeastern Europe, as an example of a developing region, focusing also on future plans. Responses were obtained from 11 countries. Phenylketonuria screening was not introduced in four of 11 countries, while congenital hypothyroidism screening was not introduced in three of them; extended NBS programs were non-existent. The primary challenges were identified. Implementation of NBS to developing countries worldwide should be considered as a priority. PMID:25174966

Groselj, Urh; Tansek, Mojca Zerjav; Smon, Andraz; Angelkova, Natalija; Anton, Dana; Baric, Ivo; Djordjevic, Maja; Grimci, Lindita; Ivanova, Maria; Kadam, Adil; Kotori, Vjosa Mulliqi; Maksic, Hajrija; Marginean, Oana; Margineanu, Otilia; Milijanovic, Olivera; Moldovanu, Florentina; Muresan, Mariana; Murko, Simona; Nanu, Michaela; Lampret, Barbka Repic; Samardzic, Mira; Sarnavka, Vladimir; Savov, Aleksei; Stojiljkovic, Maja; Suzic, Biljana; Tincheva, Radka; Tahirovic, Husref; Toromanovic, Alma; Usurelu, Natalia; Battelino, Tadej

2014-01-01

342

Consequences of climate change on the tree of life in Europe.  

PubMed

Many species are projected to become vulnerable to twenty-first-century climate changes, with consequent effects on the tree of life. If losses were not randomly distributed across the tree of life, climate change could lead to a disproportionate loss of evolutionary history. Here we estimate the consequences of climate change on the phylogenetic diversities of plant, bird and mammal assemblages across Europe. Using a consensus across ensembles of forecasts for 2020, 2050 and 2080 and high-resolution phylogenetic trees, we show that species vulnerability to climate change clusters weakly across phylogenies. Such phylogenetic signal in species vulnerabilities does not lead to higher loss of evolutionary history than expected with a model of random extinctions. This is because vulnerable species have neither fewer nor closer relatives than the remaining clades. Reductions in phylogenetic diversity will be greater in southern Europe, and gains are expected in regions of high latitude or altitude. However, losses will not be offset by gains and the tree of life faces a trend towards homogenization across the continent. PMID:21326204

Thuiller, Wilfried; Lavergne, Sébastien; Roquet, Cristina; Boulangeat, Isabelle; Lafourcade, Bruno; Araujo, Miguel B

2011-02-24

343

The Memory-Impairing Effects of Septal GABA Receptor Activation Involve GABAergic Septo-Hippocampal Projection Neurons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Septal infusions of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA)[subscript A] agonist muscimol impair memory, and the effect likely involves the hippocampus. GABA[subscript A] receptors are present on the perikarya of cholinergic and GABAergic septo-hippocampal (SH) projections. The current experiments determined whether GABAergic SH projections are…

Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Wheeler, Marina G.; Parent, Marise B.

2007-01-01

344

Approved Module Information for BN3385, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Effective Project Delivery Module Code: BN3385  

E-print Network

? To develop your project management soft skills like teamwork, presentation, and report-writing skills. #12 can confidently call upon a wide range of skills and knowledge to assist them in effectively will be able: ? Professional Skills ? To select and use appropriate project management tools and techniques

Neirotti, Juan Pablo

345

Integrated Methods for Pupils To Reinforce Occupational and Verbal Effectiveness (Project IMPROVE). Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrated Methods for Pupils to Reinforce Occupational and Vocational Effectiveness (Project IMPROVE) was a federally funded project in its second year of operation in two Manhattan (New York) high schools in 1992-93. It served limited-English-proficient students, 186 Latino and 13 Asian-American, in grades 9-12. Students received instruction in…

Guadalupe, Deana R.

346

Success in large high-technology projects: What really works?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite a plethora of tools, technologies and management systems, successful execution of big science and engineering projects remains problematic. The sheer scale of globally funded projects such as the Large Hadron Collider and the Square Kilometre Array telescope means that lack of project success can impact both on national budgets, and collaborative reputations. In this paper, I explore data from contemporary literature alongside field research from several current high-technology projects in Europe and Australia, and reveal common `pressure points' that are shown to be key influencers of project control and success. I discuss the how mega-science projects sit between being merely complicated, and chaotic, and explain the importance of understanding multiple dimensions of project complexity. Project manager/leader traits are briefly discussed, including capability to govern and control such enterprises. Project structures are examined, including the challenge of collaborations. I show that early attention to building project resilience, curbing optimism, and risk alertness can help prepare large high-tech projects against threats, and why project managers need to understand aspects of `the silent power of time'. Mission assurance is advanced as a critical success function, alongside the deployment of task forces and new combinations of contingency plans. I argue for increased project control through industrial-style project reviews, and show how post-project reviews are an under-used, yet invaluable avenue of personal and organisational improvement. Lastly, I discuss the avoidance of project amnesia through effective capture of project knowledge, and transfer of lessons-learned to subsequent programs and projects.

Crosby, P.

2014-08-01

347

Interactive effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation: in situ photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton from high mountain lakes of Southern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global change, together with human activities had resulted in increasing amounts of organic material (including nutrients) received by water bodies. This input further attenuates the penetration of solar radiation leading to the view that opaque lakes are more "protected" from solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than clear ones. Vertical mixing, however, complicates this view as cells are exposed to fluctuating radiation regimes, which effects have in general been neglected. Even more, the combined impacts of mixing, together with those of UVR and nutrients input are virtually unknown. In this study, we carried out in situ experiments in three high mountain lakes of Spain (Lake Enol in Asturias, and lakes Las Yeguas and La Caldera in Granada) to determine the combined effects of these three variables associated to global change on photosynthetic responses of natural phytoplankton communities. The experimentation consisted in all possible combinations of the following treatments: (a) solar radiation: UVR + PAR (280-700 nm) versus PAR alone (400-700 nm); (b) nutrient addition (phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)): ambient versus addition (P to reach to a final concentration of 30 ?g P l-1, and N to reach a N : P molar ratio of 31) and, (c) mixing: mixed (one rotation from surface to 3 m depth (speed of 1 m every 4 min, total of 10 cycles) versus static. Our findings suggest that under in situ nutrient conditions there is a synergistic effect between vertical mixing and UVR, increasing phytoplankton photosynthetic inhibition and EOC from opaque lakes as compared to algae that received constant mean irradiance within the epilimnion. The opposite occurs in clear lakes where antagonistic effects were determined, with mixing partially counteracting the negative effects of UVR. Nutrients input mimicking atmospheric pulses from Saharan dust, reversed this effect and clear lakes became more inhibited during mixing, while opaque lakes benefited from the fluctuating irradiance regime. These climate change-related nutrients input and increased mixing would not only affect photosynthesis and production of lakes, but might also further influence the microbial loop and trophic interactions via enhanced EOC under fluctuating UVR exposure.

Helbling, E. W.; Carrillo, P.; Medina-Sanchez, J. M.; Durán, C.; Herrera, G.; Villar-Argaiz, M.; Villafañe, V. E.

2012-07-01

348

Climate change effects on nitrogen loading from cultivated catchments in Europe: implications for nitrogen retention, ecological state of lakes and adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change might have profound effects on the nitrogen (N) dynamics in the cultivated landscape as well as on N transport\\u000a in streams and the eutrophication of lakes. N loading from land to streams is expected to increase in North European temperate\\u000a lakes due to higher winter rainfall and changes in cropping patterns. Scenario (IPCC, A2) analyses using a number

Erik Jeppesen; Brian Kronvang; Jørgen E. Olesen; Joachim Audet; Martin Søndergaard; Carl C. Hoffmann; Hans E. Andersen; Torben L. Lauridsen; Lone Liboriussen; Søren E. Larsen; Meryem Beklioglu; Mariana Meerhoff; Arda Özen; Korhan Özkan

2011-01-01

349

Modelling predicts that heat stress, not drought, will increase vulnerability of wheat in Europe  

PubMed Central

New crop cultivars will be required for a changing climate characterised by increased summer drought and heat stress in Europe. However, the uncertainty in climate predictions poses a challenge to crop scientists and breeders who have limited time and resources and must select the most appropriate traits for improvement. Modelling is a powerful tool to quantify future threats to crops and hence identify targets for improvement. We have used a wheat simulation model combined with local-scale climate scenarios to predict impacts of heat stress and drought on winter wheat in Europe. Despite the lower summer precipitation projected for 2050s across Europe, relative yield losses from drought is predicted to be smaller in the future, because wheat will mature earlier avoiding severe drought. By contrast, the risk of heat stress around flowering will increase, potentially resulting in substantial yield losses for heat sensitive cultivars commonly grown in northern Europe. PMID:22355585

Semenov, Mikhail A.; Shewry, Peter R.

2011-01-01

350

Modelling predicts that heat stress, not drought, will increase vulnerability of wheat in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New crop cultivars will be required for a changing climate characterised by increased summer drought and heat stress in Europe. However, the uncertainty in climate predictions poses a challenge to crop scientists and breeders who have limited time and resources and must select the most appropriate traits for improvement. Modelling is a powerful tool to quantify future threats to crops and hence identify targets for improvement. We have used a wheat simulation model combined with local-scale climate scenarios to predict impacts of heat stress and drought on winter wheat in Europe. Despite the lower summer precipitation projected for 2050s across Europe, relative yield losses from drought is predicted to be smaller in the future, because wheat will mature earlier avoiding severe drought. By contrast, the risk of heat stress around flowering will increase, potentially resulting in substantial yield losses for heat sensitive cultivars commonly grown in northern Europe.

Semenov, Mikhail A.; Shewry, Peter R.

2011-08-01

351

Modelling predicts that heat stress, not drought, will increase vulnerability of wheat in Europe.  

PubMed

New crop cultivars will be required for a changing climate characterised by increased summer drought and heat stress in Europe. However, the uncertainty in climate predictions poses a challenge to crop scientists and breeders who have limited time and resources and must select the most appropriate traits for improvement. Modelling is a powerful tool to quantify future threats to crops and hence identify targets for improvement. We have used a wheat simulation model combined with local-scale climate scenarios to predict impacts of heat stress and drought on winter wheat in Europe. Despite the lower summer precipitation projected for 2050s across Europe, relative yield losses from drought is predicted to be smaller in the future, because wheat will mature earlier avoiding severe drought. By contrast, the risk of heat stress around flowering will increase, potentially resulting in substantial yield losses for heat sensitive cultivars commonly grown in northern Europe. PMID:22355585

Semenov, Mikhail A; Shewry, Peter R

2011-01-01

352

Interactive effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation: in situ photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton from high mountain lakes in Southern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global change, together with human activities, has resulted in increasing amounts of organic material (including nutrients) that water bodies receive. This input further attenuates the penetration of solar radiation, leading to the view that opaque lakes are more "protected" from solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than clear ones. Vertical mixing, however, complicates this view as cells are exposed to fluctuating radiation regimes, for which the effects have, in general, been neglected. Furthermore, the combined impacts of mixing, together with those of UVR and nutrient inputs are virtually unknown. In this study, we carried out complex in situ experiments in three high mountain lakes of Spain (Lake Enol in the National Park Picos de Europa, Asturias, and lakes Las Yeguas and La Caldera in the National Park Sierra Nevada, Granada), used as model ecosystems to evaluate the joint impact of these climate change variables. The main goal of this study was to address the question of how short-term pulses of nutrient inputs, together with vertical mixing and increased UVR fluxes modify the photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton. The experimentation consisted in all possible combinations of the following treatments: (a) solar radiation: UVR + PAR (280-700 nm) versus PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) alone (400-700 nm); (b) nutrient addition (phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)): ambient versus addition (P to reach to a final concentration of 30 ?g P L-1, and N to reach N:P molar ratio of 31); and (c) mixing: mixed (one rotation from surface to 3 m depth (speed of 1 m 4 min-1, total of 10 cycles)) versus static. Our findings suggest that under ambient nutrient conditions there is a synergistic effect between vertical mixing and UVR, increasing phytoplankton photosynthetic inhibition and excretion of organic carbon (EOC) from opaque lakes as compared to algae that received constant mean irradiance within the epilimnion. The opposite occurs in clear lakes where antagonistic effects were determined, with mixing partially counteracting the negative effects of UVR. Nutrient input, mimicking atmospheric pulses from Saharan dust, reversed this effect and clear lakes became more inhibited during mixing, while opaque lakes benefited from the fluctuating irradiance regime. These climate change related scenarios of nutrient input and increased mixing, would not only affect photosynthesis and production in lakes, but might also further influence the microbial loop and trophic interactions via enhanced EOC under fluctuating UVR exposure.

Helbling, E. W.; Carrillo, P.; Medina-Sánchez, J. M.; Durán, C.; Herrera, G.; Villar-Argaiz, M.; Villafañe, V. E.

2013-02-01

353

Birds and people in Europe.  

PubMed Central

At a regional scale, species richness and human population size are frequently positively correlated across space. Such patterns may arise because both species richness and human density increase with energy availability. If the species-energy relationship is generated through the 'more individuals' hypothesis, then the prediction is that areas with high human densities will also support greater numbers of individuals from other taxa. We use the unique data available for the breeding birds in Europe to test this prediction. Overall regional densities of bird species are higher in areas with more people; species of conservation concern exhibit the same pattern. Avian density also increases faster with human density than does avian biomass, indicating that areas with a higher human density have a higher proportion of small-bodied individuals. The analyses also underline the low numbers of breeding birds in Europe relative to humans, with a median of just three individual birds per person, and 4 g of bird for every kilogram of human. PMID:15306313

Gaston, Kevin J.; Evans, Karl L.

2004-01-01

354

Exploration potential of Central Europe  

SciTech Connect

Because of governmental changes an entire region of Central Europe has received exploration scrutiny not possible during the past 40-50 years. This entire area - Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania, Poland, and East Germany - is tectonically related. Yugoslavia, although not under the same restrictions, is also considered in the same tectonic setting. Therefore, these countries can be expected to reflect some of the same stratigraphy, source rock, reservoir, trap and field types, and production history. Much of the region can be considered frontier while other parts mature. Production from all is about 55,000 T/D, 380,000 BO/D and 63.1 Bm{sup 3}/yr, 2,203 Bft{sup 3}/yr. Major source rocks have been identified as Tertiary-Oligocene, Miocene-Mesozoic, Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. Carboniferous coal sequences are considered source for the Permian. The East European platform and Tethyian plates are the foundation of the Central Europe states. Plate collisions during the late Mesozoic and into the Tertiary affected the Carpathian, Balkans, Dinarides, and Helenide Mountain chains. Mesozoic and Tertiary foredeep deposits have been proven productive from normal-, thrust-, and wrench-faulted anticlinal structures. Paleozoic, Mesozoic erosional remnants, and Tertiary lacustrine and deltaic stratigraphic deposits are the major productive reservoirs in the Pannonian basin. Permian shelf and reefal deposits are found in such areas as the Permian Shelf in Eastern Germany and Poland. Reefal plays may be found in Bulgaria and Romania offshore.

Krueger, W.C. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-03-01

355

Enhancing the effectiveness of diabetes self-management education: the diabetes literacy project.  

PubMed

Patient empowerment through self-management education is central to improving the quality of diabetes care and preventing Type 2 Diabetes. Although national programs exist, there is no EU-wide strategy for diabetes self-management education, and patients with limited literacy face barriers to effective self-management. The Diabetes Literacy project, initiated with the support of the European Commission, aims to fill this gap. The project investigates the effectiveness of diabetes self-management education, targeting people with or at risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the 28 EU Member States, as part of a comprehensive EU-wide diabetes strategy. National diabetes strategies in the EU, US, Taiwan, and Israel are compared, and diabetes self-management programs inventorized. The costs of the diabetes care pathway are assessed on a per person basis at national level. A comparison is made of the (cost)-effectiveness of different methods for diabetes self-management support, and the moderating role of health literacy, organization of the health services, and implementation fidelity of education programs are considered. Web-based materials are developed and evaluated by randomized trials to evaluate if interactive internet delivery can enhance self-management support for people with lower levels of health literacy. The 3-year project started in December 2012. Several literature reviews have been produced and protocol development and research design are in the final stages. Primary and secondary data collection and analysis take place in 2014. The results will inform policy decisions on improving the prevention, treatment, and care for persons with diabetes across literacy levels. PMID:25337960

Van den Broucke, S; Van der Zanden, G; Chang, P; Doyle, G; Levin, D; Pelikan, J; Schillinger, D; Schwarz, P; Sørensen, K; Yardley, L; Riemenschneider, H

2014-12-01

356

The effect of compensating filter on image quality in lateral projection of thoraco lumbar radiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this project was to study the effect of compensating filter on image quality in lateral projection of thoraco lumbar radiography. The specific objectives of this study were to verify the relationship between density, contrast and noise of lateral thoraco lumbar radiography using various thickness of compensating filter and to determine the appropriate filter thickness with the thoraco lumbar density. The study was performed by an X- ray unit exposed to the body phantom where different thicknesses of aluminium were used as compensating filter. The radiographs were processed by CR reader and being imported to KPACS software to analyze the pixel depth value, contrast and noise. Result shows different thickness of aluminium compensating filter improved the image quality of lateral projection thoraco lumbar radiography. The compensating filter of 8.2 mm was considered as the optimal filter to compensate the thoraco lumbar junction (T12-L1), 1 mm to compensate lumbar region and 5.9 mm to compensate thorax region. The addition of aluminium compensating filter is advantageous in terms of efficiency which saving radiograph film, workload of the radiographer and radiation dose to patient.

Daud, N. A. A.; Ali, M. H.; Nazri, N. A. Ahmad; Hamzah, N. J.; Awang, N. A.

2014-11-01

357

The impact of therapeutic effectiveness data on community mental health center management: the systems evaluation project.  

PubMed

A major assumption of C.M.H. evaluation is that data fed back to center managers have an impact on the management, resulting in optimization of programs. This is the empirical question addressed in this paper. A study of the influences bearing on management decisions, the process of decision making, and the effects of introducing evaluation data into that process is described. The concepts, procedures, and instruments are set out as possible models for further investigation of the complex but fundamental question. The data presented are consistent with the hypotheses about the detailed influences of systems evaluation project evaluation data. PMID:1132224

Bigelow, D A

1975-01-01

358

77 FR 46764 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01...substantially contribute to, market approval of these products...States per year. B. Research Objectives The goal of...substantially contribute to, market approval of these...

2012-08-06

359

Impact of the agricultural research service watershed assessment studies on the conservation effects assessment project cropland national assessment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

USDA initiated the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in 2002 to analyze societal and environmental benefits gained from the increased conservation program funding provided in the 2002 Farm Bill. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and...

360

Public-private partnership models in France and in Europe.  

PubMed

The workshop entitled "Public-Private partnerships models in Europe-- comparison between France and European countries" brought together representatives of academia and industry, of national or European health research programs, of regional or national public-private partnership (PPP) initiatives, and of biotechnology with the following objectives: sharing a common vision on the needs, expectations and challenges of public-private partnership, based on the analysis of actual and original cases, and of new initiatives on public-private partnership, drawing conclusions and identifying key success factors, identifying trails for progress and drawing recommendations. The major event in this field is a European public-private partnership initiative between pharmaceutical industry (European Federation of Pharmaceultical Industry and Associations, EFPIA) and the European Commission (DG Research--health priority) resulting in the European Technology Platform project "Innovative Medicines Initiative" (IMI). Its architecture is based on the identification of the main bottlenecks to the development of innovative treatments (predictive pharmacology and toxicology, identification and validation of biomarkers, patients' recruitment, risk evaluation, and cooperation with the regulatory authorities). Simultaneously, initiatives both at the national and regional levels also foster PPP in the therapeutic field. Regional competitivity clusters acting in the biomedical sector, and national PPP calls such as the ANR (National Research Agency) RIB (Research and Innovation in Biotechnology) call are incentives for PPP projects. These regional and national PPP levels help public and private partners to further build consortia able to compete for EU-level calls, thus acting as incubators for EU PPP projects. In spite of incentives and of the regional and national structuring of PPP, weaknesses in the French system are linked to its fragmentation--multiple transfer agencies, multiple research organisations (operator or funding agency)--making contracts more difficult. This requires a simplified organisation, with a single referent per area (health, technology...). Improvement may also result from adaptation in the carreer, recruitment and mobility, from support to scientists in the management of projects, and from consistent support (without maintaining them artificially alive) to emerging companies from concept through clinical development. Pathways have been proposed to improve the efficiency of clinical research in France and Europe, involving the public hospital sector, and this requires the connection of disease-oriented networks and integrated infrastructures in Europe. As stated in the IMI strategic research agenda on efficacy, the quality of public infrastructures in Europe will be a key factor for its competitiveness and attractiveness for both academic and industry projects. PMID:17124948

Demotes-Mainard, Jacques; Canet, Emmanuel; Segard, Lionel

2006-01-01

361

Quantification of mitigation potentials of agricultural practices for Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculture has a significant impact on climate, with a commonly estimated contribution of 9% of total greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Besides, agriculture is the main source of nitrous oxide and methane emissions to the atmosphere. On the other hand, there is a large potential for climate change mitigation in agriculture through carbon sequestration into soils. Within the framework of the PICCMAT project (Policy Incentives for Climate Change Mitigation Agricultural Techniques) we quantified the mitigation potential of 11 agricultural practices at regional level for the EU. The focus was on smaller-scale measures towards optimised land management that can be widely applied at individual farm level and which can have a positive climate change mitigating effect and be beneficial to soil conditions, e.g. cover crops and reduced tillage. The mitigation potentials were assessed with the MITERRA-Europe model, a deterministic and static N cycling model which calculates N emissions on an annual basis, using N emission factors and N leaching fractions. For the PICCMAT project the model was extended with a soil carbon module, to assess changes in soil organic carbon according to the IPCC Tier1 approach. The amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) is calculated by multiplying the soil reference carbon content, which depends on soil type and climate, by coefficients for land use, land management and input of organic matter. By adapting these coefficients changes in SOC as result of the measures were simulated. We considered both the extent of agricultural area across Europe on which a measure could realistically be applied (potential level of implementation), and the current level of implementation that has already been achieved . The results showed that zero tillage has the highest mitigation potential, followed by adding legumes, reduced tillage, residue management, rotation species, and catch crops. Optimising fertiliser application and fertiliser type are the measures with the largest positive effect on N2O emissions. Overall the results showed that the additional mitigation potential of each individual measure is limited, but taken together they have a significant mitigation potential of about 10 percent of the current GHG emissions from agriculture. Besides, most of the measures with high mitigation potentials are associated with no or low implementation costs. Although CH4 and N2O are the most important GHG emitted from agricultural activities, it is more difficult to mitigate these emissions than increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and thus compensate them through carbon sequestration. However, the effect on carbon is only temporary and sequestered SOC stocks can easily be lost again, while for N2O the emission reduction is permanent and non-saturating. Another important implication that follows from our results is the large regional difference with regard to mitigation potential and feasibility of implementation. Policy measures to support agricultural mitigation should therefore be adjusted to regional conditions.

Lesschen, J. P.; Kuikman, P. J.; Smith, P.; Schils, R. L.; Oudendag, D.

2009-04-01

362

High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fréjus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of ?+ and ?- beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt magnetized iron neutrino detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular He6 and Ne18, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fréjus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the physics reach of each facility, in particular for the measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, and estimated the cost of construction. These have demonstrated that the best facility to build is the Neutrino Factory. However, if a powerful proton driver is constructed for another purpose or if the MEMPHYS detector is built for astroparticle physics, the Super Beam also becomes very attractive.

Edgecock, T. R.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densam, C.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Wildner, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Hansen, C.; Benedetto, E.; Jensen, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Martini, M.; Osborne, J.; Prior, G.; Stora, T.; Melo Mendonca, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Waaijer, C.; Cupial, P.; Chancé, A.; Longhin, A.; Payet, J.; Zito, M.; Baussan, E.; Bobeth, C.; Bouquerel, E.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Lepers, B.; Osswald, F.; Poussot, P.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wurtz, J.; Zeter, V.; Bielski, J.; Kozien, M.; Lacny, L.; Skoczen, B.; Szybinski, B.; Ustrycka, A.; Wroblewski, A.; Marie-Jeanne, M.; Balint, P.; Fourel, C.; Giraud, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Mitrofanov, S.; Loiselet, M.; Keutgen, Th.; Delbar, Th.; Debray, F.; Trophine, C.; Veys, S.; Daversin, C.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A. C.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; De Angelis, G.; Prete, G.; Collazuol, G.; Laveder, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Signorini, C.; Vardaci, E.; Di Nitto, A.; Brondi, A.; La Rana, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Moro, R.; Palladino, V.; Gelli, N.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hirsh, T. Y.; Schaumann, M.; Stahl, A.; Wehner, J.; Bross, A.; Kopp, J.; Neuffer, D.; Wands, R.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, P.; Agarwalla, S. K.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Donini, A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez Cadenas, J. J.; Hernández, P.; Martín-Albo, J.; Mena, O.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Agostino, L.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Marafini, M.; Patzak, T.; Tonazzo, A.; Duchesneau, D.; Mosca, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Akhmedov, E.; Blennow, M.; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Fernández Martinez, E.; Maltoni, M.; Menéndez, J.; Giunti, C.; González García, M. C.; Salvado, J.; Coloma, P.; Huber, P.; Li, T.; López Pavón, J.; Orme, C.; Pascoli, S.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.; Ohlsson, T.; Zhang, H.; Scotto-Lavina, L.; Terranova, F.; Bonesini, M.; Tortora, L.; Alekou, A.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Kurup, A.; Jenner, L. J.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Beard, K.; Bogacz, A.; Berg, J. S.; Stratakis, D.; Witte, H.; Snopok, P.; Bliss, N.; Cordwell, M.; Moss, A.; Pattalwar, S.; Apollonio, M.

2013-02-01

363

High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe  

E-print Network

The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of {\\mu}+ and {\\mu}- beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the ph...

Edgecock, T R; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Fitton, M; Kelliher, D; Loveridge, P; Machida, S; Prior, C; Rogers, C; Rooney, M; Thomason, J; Wilcox, D; Wildner, E; Efthymiopoulos, I; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Hansen, C; Benedetto, E; Jensen, E; Kosmicki, A; Martini, M; Osborne, J; Prior, G; Stora, T; Melo-Mendonca, T; Vlachoudis, V; Waaijer, C; Cupial, P; Chancé, A; Longhin, A; Payet, J; Zito, M; Baussan, E; Bobeth, C; Bouquerel, E; Dracos, M; Gaudiot, G; Lepers, B; Osswald, F; Poussot, P; Vassilopoulos, N; Wurtz, J; Zeter, V; Bielski, J; Kozien, M; Lacny, L; Skoczen, B; Szybinski, B; Ustrycka, A; Wroblewski, A; Marie-Jeanne, M; Balint, P; Fourel, C; Giraud, J; Jacob, J; Lamy, T; Latrasse, L; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; Mitrofanov, S; Loiselet, M; Keutgen, Th; Delbar, Th; Debray, F; Trophine, C; Veys, S; Daversin, C; Zorin, V; Izotov, I; Skalyga, V; Burt, G; Dexter, A C; Kravchuk, V L; Marchi, T; Cinausero, M; Gramegna, F; De Angelis, G; Prete, G; Collazuol, G; Laveder, M; Mazzocco, M; Mezzetto, M; Signorini, C; Vardaci, E; Di Nitto, A; Brondi, A; La Rana, G; Migliozzi, P; Moro, R; Palladino, V; Gelli, N; Berkovits, D; Hass, M; Hirsh, T Y; Schaumann, M; Stahl, A; Wehner, J; Bross, A; Kopp, J; Neuffer, D; Wands, R; Bayes, R; Laing, A; Soler, P; Agarwalla, S K; Villanueva, A Cervera; Donini, A; Ghosh, T; Cadenas, J J Gómez; Hernández, P; Martín-Albo, J; Mena, O; Burguet-Castell, J; Agostino, L; Buizza-Avanzini, M; Marafini, M; Patzak, T; Tonazzo, A; Duchesneau, D; Mosca, L; Bogomilov, M; Karadzhov, Y; Matev, R; Tsenov, R; Akhmedov, E; Blennow, M; Lindner, M; Schwetz, T; Martinez, E Fernández; Maltoni, M; Menéndez, J; Giunti, C; García, M C González; Salvado, J; Coloma, P; Huber, P; Li, T; López-Pavón, J; Orme, C; Pascoli, S; Meloni, D; Tang, J; Winter, W; Ohlsson, T; Zhang, H; Scotto-Lavina, L; Terranova, F; Bonesini, M; Tortora, L; Alekou, A; Aslaninejad, M; Bontoiu, C; Kurup, A; Jenner, L J; Long, K; Pasternak, J; Pozimski, J; Back, J J; Harrison, P; Beard, K; Bogacz, A; Berg, J S; Stratakis, D; Witte, H; Snopok, P; Bliss, N; Cordwell, M; Moss, A; Pattalwar, S; Apollonio, M

2013-01-01

364

SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION POLICY APPROACHES IN NORTH AMERICA, EUROPE, AND AUSTRALIA. (R825761)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Soil and water conservation policies and programs in developed countries in North America, Europe, and Australia are examined in the context of their effectiveness for addressing environmental degradation associated with technology-intensive agricultural syste...

365

Making Schools More Effective: Report of the Australian Effective Schools Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost a third of all schools in Australia responded to an invitation to express views about how Australia's schools might be made more effective. This report presents the views that schools should have a full-blown view of what Australia wants for its children and youth, and they should be concerned with personal and social as well as…

McGaw, Barry; And Others

366

Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project.  

PubMed

Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA. PMID:25005236

Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunovi?, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

2015-01-15

367

Integrating ecophysiology and forest landscape models to improve projections of drought effects under climate change.  

PubMed

Fundamental drivers of ecosystem processes such as temperature and precipitation are rapidly changing and creating novel environmental conditions. Forest landscape models (FLM) are used by managers and policy-makers to make projections of future ecosystem dynamics under alternative management or policy options, but the links between the fundamental drivers and projected responses are weak and indirect, limiting their reliability for projecting the impacts of climate change. We developed and tested a relatively mechanistic method to simulate the effects of changing precipitation on species competition within the LANDIS-II FLM. Using data from a field precipitation manipulation experiment in a piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) ecosystem in New Mexico (USA), we calibrated our model to measurements from ambient control plots and tested predictions under the drought and irrigation treatments against empirical measurements. The model successfully predicted behavior of physiological variables under the treatments. Discrepancies between model output and empirical data occurred when the monthly time step of the model failed to capture the short-term dynamics of the ecosystem as recorded by instantaneous field measurements. We applied the model to heuristically assess the effect of alternative climate scenarios on the piñon-juniper ecosystem and found that warmer and drier climate reduced productivity and increased the risk of drought-induced mortality, especially for piñon. We concluded that the direct links between fundamental drivers and growth rates in our model hold great promise to improve our understanding of ecosystem processes under climate change and improve management decisions because of its greater reliance on first principles. PMID:25155807

Gustafson, Eric J; De Bruijn, Arjan M G; Pangle, Robert E; Limousin, Jean-Marc; McDowell, Nate G; Pockman, William T; Sturtevant, Brian R; Muss, Jordan D; Kubiske, Mark E

2015-02-01

368

Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project  

PubMed Central

Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA. PMID:25005236

Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunovi?, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th.; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

2015-01-01

369

A single-nucleotide polymorphism-based approach for rapid and cost-effective genetic wolf monitoring in Europe based on noninvasively collected samples.  

PubMed

Noninvasive genetics based on microsatellite markers has become an indispensable tool for wildlife monitoring and conservation research over the past decades. However, microsatellites have several drawbacks, such as the lack of standardisation between laboratories and high error rates. Here, we propose an alternative single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based marker system for noninvasively collected samples, which promises to solve these problems. Using nanofluidic SNP genotyping technology (Fluidigm), we genotyped 158 wolf samples (tissue, scats, hairs, urine) for 192 SNP loci selected from the Affymetrix v2 Canine SNP Array. We carefully selected an optimised final set of 96 SNPs (and discarded the worse half), based on assay performance and reliability. We found rates of missing data in this SNP set of <10% and genotyping error of ~1%, which improves genotyping accuracy by nearly an order of magnitude when compared to published data for other marker types. Our approach provides a tool for rapid and cost-effective genotyping of noninvasively collected wildlife samples. The ability to standardise genotype scoring combined with low error rates promises to constitute a major technological advancement and could establish SNPs as a standard marker for future wildlife monitoring. PMID:25042673

Kraus, Robert H S; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Cocchiararo, Berardino; Harms, Verena; Bayerl, Helmut; Kühn, Ralph; Förster, Daniel W; Fickel, Jörns; Roos, Christian; Nowak, Carsten

2014-07-18

370

Vaccination and Tick-borne Encephalitis, Central Europe  

PubMed Central

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a substantial public health problem in many parts of Europe and Asia. To assess the effect of increasing TBE vaccination coverage in Austria, we compared incidence rates over 40 years for highly TBE-endemic countries of central Europe (Czech Republic, Slovenia, and Austria). For all 3 countries we found extensive annual and longer range fluctuations and shifts in distribution of patient ages, suggesting major variations in the complex interplay of factors influencing risk for exposure to TBE virus. The most distinctive effect was found for Austria, where mass vaccination decreased incidence to ?16% of that of the prevaccination era. Incidence rates remained high for the nonvaccinated population. The vaccine was effective for persons in all age groups. During 2000–2011 in Austria, ?4,000 cases of TBE were prevented by vaccination. PMID:23259984

Stiasny, Karin; Holzmann, Heidemarie; Grgic-Vitek, Marta; Kriz, Bohumir; Essl, Astrid; Kundi, Michael

2013-01-01

371

Effect of the ecological water conveyance project on environment in the Lower Tarim River, Xinjiang, China.  

PubMed

The dynamic response of groundwater level is examined in traverse and lengthways directions. Take the Yinsu section for an example, we have simulated groundwater levels before and after water-conveyance every time and calculated the incidence of groundwater on the both sides of the river. It is noted that the effect keeps growing with the water-delivery times increasing, from 570 m after the first times to 3,334 m after the eighth times. In addition, this paper involves the temporal response of the natural vegetation to water conveyance, vegetation coverage, planted-species number, dominant position and species diversity from 2002 to 2006. The findings indicate that the positive influence of ecological water conveyance project (EWCP) on the ecosystem in the Lower Tarim River is a long-term process. In this paper, we try to calculate water required for recovery of damaged ecosystem by using data available. This project is likely the base of research on water demand and the reference of measures for research on ecological water conveyance effect. PMID:18274873

Ye, Zhaoxia; Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Yan, Yan

2009-02-01

372

Evaluating Alcoholics Anonymous's Effect on Drinking in Project MATCH Using Cross-Lagged Regression Panel Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of the study is to determine whether Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) participation leads to reduced drinking and problems related to drinking within Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity), an existing national alcoholism treatment data set. Method: The method used is structural equation modeling of panel data with cross-lagged partial regression coefficients. The main advantage of this technique for the analysis of AA outcomes is that potential reciprocal causation between AA participation and drinking behavior can be explicitly modeled through the specification of finite causal lags. Results: For the outpatient subsample (n = 952), the results strongly support the hypothesis that AA attendance leads to increases in alcohol abstinence and reduces drinking/problems, whereas a causal effect in the reverse direction is unsupported. For the aftercare subsample (n = 774), the results are not as clear but also suggest that AA attendance leads to better outcomes. Conclusions: Although randomized controlled trials are the surest means of establishing causal relations between interventions and outcomes, such trials are rare in AA research for practical reasons. The current study successfully exploited the multiple data waves in Project MATCH to examine evidence of causality between AA participation and drinking outcomes. The study obtained unique statistical results supporting the effectiveness of AA primarily in the context of primary outpatient treatment for alcoholism. PMID:23490566

Magura, Stephen; Cleland, Charles M.; Tonigan, J. Scott

2013-01-01

373

Mediation analysis of a school-based drug prevention program: effects of Project ALERT.  

PubMed

This study used mediation analyses, implemented in a longitudinal structural equation modeling framework, to examine the mechanisms by which a social-influence-based school drug use prevention program (Project ALERT) achieved its effects on past month cigarette use and alcohol misuse. Participants were 4277 South Dakotan middle-school students (2554 treatment and 1723 control) measured at baseline and 1 year later on past month cigarette use and alcohol misuse, as well as cigarette- and alcohol-related mediating variables targeted by the Project ALERT curriculum (i.e., resistance self-efficacy, positive and negative beliefs about use, and peer influence). Results for cigarettes showed that all hypothesized mediating variables were significant mediators of ALERT's effect on intentions to smoke and past month cigarette use, with peer influence being the strongest. Results for alcohol point to positive beliefs about the consequences of drinking as an important mediator for alcohol misuse. Taken together, the findings highlight an avenue for program improvement through increased impact on peer influence to use alcohol and drugs. PMID:15766004

Orlando, Maria; Ellickson, Phyllis L; McCaffrey, Daniel F; Longshore, Douglas L

2005-03-01

374

The practice of travel medicine in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europe, because of its geographical location, strategic position on trade routes, and colonial past, has a long history of caring for travel- lers' health. Within Europe, there is great diversity in the practice of travel medicine. Some countries have travel medicine societies and provisions for a periodic distribution of recommendations, but many countries have no national pre-travel guidelines and follow

P. Schlagenhauf; F. Santos-O’Connor; P. Parola

2010-01-01

375

Inventorying emissions from nature in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the work of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations Task Force on Emission Inventories, a new set of guidelines has been developed for assessing the emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, NH3, CH4, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) from biogenic and other natural sources in Europe. This paper gives the background to these guidelines,

David Simpson; Wilfried Winiwarter; Gunnar Börjesson; Steve Cinderby; Antonio Ferreiro; Alex Guenther; C. Nicholas Hewitt; Robert Janson; M. Aslam K. Khalil; Susan Owen; Tom E. Pierce; Hans Puxbaum; Martha Shearer; Ute Skiba; Rainer Steinbrecher; Leonor Tarrasón; Mats G. Öquist

1999-01-01

376

Understanding Education in Europe-East  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper suggests possible frames of reference for understanding education and educational policy in the Eastern part of Europe. (a) According to the geographical frame, the concept of "Eastern Europe" and its education reflects a struggle for political power and self-identity. (b) According to the political frame, the transition of 1989/1990…

Kozma, Tamas; Polonyi, Tunde

2004-01-01

377

Optical satellite communications in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes optical satellite communication activities based on technology developments, which started in Europe more than 30 years ago and led in 2001 to the world-first optical inter-satellite communication link experiment (SILEX). SILEX proved that optical communication technologies can be reliably mastered in space and in 2006 the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) joined the optical inter-satellite experiment from their own satellite. Since 2008 the German Space Agency (DLR) is operating an inter-satellite link between the NFIRE and TerraSAR-X satellites based on a second generation of laser communication technology, which will be used for the new European Data Relay Satellite (EDRS) system to be deployed in 2013.

Sodnik, Zoran; Lutz, Hanspeter; Furch, Bernhard; Meyer, Rolf

2010-02-01

378

Maritime route of colonization of Europe  

PubMed Central

The Neolithic populations, which colonized Europe approximately 9,000 y ago, presumably migrated from Near East to Anatolia and from there to Central Europe through Thrace and the Balkans. An alternative route would have been island hopping across the Southern European coast. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed genome-wide DNA polymorphisms on populations bordering the Mediterranean coast and from Anatolia and mainland Europe. We observe a striking structure correlating genes with geography around the Mediterranean Sea with characteristic east to west clines of gene flow. Using population network analysis, we also find that the gene flow from Anatolia to Europe was through Dodecanese, Crete, and the Southern European coast, compatible with the hypothesis that a maritime coastal route was mainly used for the migration of Neolithic farmers to Europe. PMID:24927591

Paschou, Peristera; Drineas, Petros; Yannaki, Evangelia; Razou, Anna; Kanaki, Katerina; Tsetsos, Fotis; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha Sampath; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Renda, Maria C.; Pavlovic, Sonja; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

2014-01-01

379

Adverse drug effects in hospitalized elderly: Data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project  

PubMed Central

We aimed to analyze trends in hospital admissions due to adverse drug effects between the years 2000 to 2007 among the elderly using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. We identified the discharges with the principal and all listed diagnoses related to adverse drug effects and associated hospital charges using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9) codes. Between 2000 and 2007, 321,057 patients over 65 years were discharged with a principal diagnosis related to an adverse drug effect. Hospital charges were $5,329,276,300 or $666,159,537 annual cost. The number of discharges and total hospital charges did not change over the examined years, while mean charge per discharge increased on average by $1064 ± 384 per year. Total hospital charges for drug-induced gastritis with hemorrhage increased the most by $11,206,555 per year among those 66–84 years old and by $8,646,456 per year among those older than 85 years. During 2007, 791,931 elderly had adverse treatment effects among all listed diagnoses with hospital charges of $937,795,690. Effective drug management interventions are needed to improve safety of treatments in the elderly. PMID:22291486

Shamliyan, Tatyana

2010-01-01

380

Effect of early intensive multifactorial therapy on 5-year cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes detected by screening (ADDITION-Europe): a cluster-randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Intensive treatment of multiple cardiovascular risk factors can halve mortality among people with established type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of early multifactorial treatment after diagnosis by screening. Methods In a pragmatic, cluster-randomised, parallel-group trial done in Denmark, the Netherlands, and the UK, 343 general practices were randomly assigned screening of registered patients aged 40–69 years without known diabetes followed by routine care of diabetes or screening followed by intensive treatment of multiple risk factors. The primary endpoint was first cardiovascular event, including cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, revascularisation, and non-traumatic amputation within 5 years. Patients and staff assessing outcomes were unaware of the practice's study group assignment. Analysis was done by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00237549. Findings Primary endpoint data were available for 3055 (99·9%) of 3057 screen-detected patients. The mean age was 60·3 (SD 6·9) years and the mean duration of follow-up was 5·3 (SD 1·6) years. Improvements in cardiovascular risk factors (HbA1c and cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure) were slightly but significantly better in the intensive treatment group. The incidence of first cardiovascular event was 7·2% (13·5 per 1000 person-years) in the intensive treatment group and 8·5% (15·9 per 1000 person-years) in the routine care group (hazard ratio 0·83, 95% CI 0·65–1·05), and of all-cause mortality 6·2% (11·6 per 1000 person-years) and 6·7% (12·5 per 1000 person-years; 0·91, 0·69–1·21), respectively. Interpretation An intervention to promote early intensive management of patients with type 2 diabetes was associated with a small, non-significant reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular events and death. Funding National Health Service Denmark, Danish Council for Strategic Research, Danish Research Foundation for General Practice, Danish Centre for Evaluation and Health Technology Assessment, Danish National Board of Health, Danish Medical Research Council, Aarhus University Research Foundation, Wellcome Trust, UK Medical Research Council, UK NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme, UK National Health Service R&D, UK National Institute for Health Research, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center, Utrecht, Novo Nordisk, Astra, Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline, Servier, HemoCue, Merck. PMID:21705063

Griffin, Simon J; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Davies, Melanie J; Khunti, Kamlesh; Rutten, Guy EHM; Sandbæk, Annelli; Sharp, Stephen J; Simmons, Rebecca K; van den Donk, Maureen; Wareham, Nicholas J; Lauritzen, Torsten

2011-01-01

381

An overview of nursing in Europe: a SWOT analysis.  

PubMed

This article sets out a global analysis of the weaknesses, threats, strengths and opportunities that define the current situation of nursing in Europe. The nursing profession in Europe is suffering from a crisis of self-efficacy with the syndrome of burnout being one of its consequences. Other weaknesses include shortage of staff, job insecurity, devalued nursing image in society and the lack of recognition of emotional and psychological dimensions of care. The threats to this profession are linked to the lack of prestige and social recognition and to the current economic crisis in Europe. The European economic crisis favours staff shortages and increased European migration flow. The strength of the group lies in the art of caring, which is its defining feature. Primary Care Nursing and Hospital Liaison Nursing demonstrate the great professional adaptability in meeting the needs of the ever-changing society. The European Higher Education Area and the strengthening of the specialties provide opportunities for the nursing profession. Both represent an important progress towards solid professionalism that will give nursing greater visibility. Moreover, nursing must implement strategies to disseminate its activity and emerge from anonymity. Nursing must show society the image it wants to project. PMID:24738741

Manzano-García, Guadalupe; Ayala-Calvo, Juan-Carlos

2014-12-01

382

RadioNet: Advanced Radio Astronomy in Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

RadioNet, an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3), has brought together 20 of "Europe's leading astronomy facilities to produce a focused, coherent and integrated project that will significantly enhance the quality and quantity of science performed by European astronomers." After learning about the Initiative's many objectives, users can find brief summaries of the program's integration of astronomy pursuits in the areas of transnational access, joint research activities, and networking activities. The website presents press releases, upcoming and past events, and information on engineering, software, and Atacama Large (sub)-Millimeter Array (ALMA) forums. Users can also find out about the individual collaborators research activities through the external links.

383

Risk Analysis and Forecast Service for Geomagnetically Induced Currents in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC), occurring during magnetic storms, pose a widespread natural disaster risk to the reliable operation of electric power transmission grids, oil and gas pipelines, telecommunication cables and railway systems. The solar magnetic activity is the cause of GIC. Solar coronal holes can cause recurrent inter-vals of raised geomagnetic activity, and coronal mass ejections (CME) at the Sun, sometimes producing very high speed plasma clouds with enhanced magnetic fields and particle densities, can cause the strongest geomagnetic storms. When the solar wind interacts with the geomag-netic field, energy is transferred to the magnetosphere, driving strong currents in the ionosphere. When these currents change in time a geoelectric field is induced at the surface of the Earth and in the ground. Finally, this field drives GIC in the ground and in any technological conductor systems. The worst consequence of a severe magnetic storm within a power grid is a complete blackout, as happened in the province of Québec, Canada, in March 1989, and in the city of Malmü, Sweden, in October 2003. Gas and oil pipelines are not regarded as vulnerable to the immediate impact of GIC, but the corrosion rate of buried steel pipes can increase due to GIC, which may thus shorten the lifetime of a pipe. European Risk from Geomagnetically Induced Currents (EURISGIC) is an EU project, that, if approved, will produce the first European-wide real-time prototype forecast service of GIC in power systems, based on in-situ solar wind observations and comprehensive simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere. This project focuses on high-voltage power transmission networks, which are probably currently the most susceptible to GIC effects. Geomagnetic storms cover large geographical regions, at times the whole globe. Consequently, power networks are rightly described as being European critical infrastructures whose disruption or destruction could have a significant impact. The project includes six research institutes and one SME, within Europe and US. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Swedish civil contingencies agency (MSB), and representatives from the European Commission are collaborating with the NOAA National Weather Service and other research institutes on various space weather scenarios -geomagnetic storms with widespread blackouts and disruptions in communications. The aim of this new project is to conduct a risk analysis from GIC on critical infrastructure. Large amounts of natural gas are transported from Russia to Central Europe. Those long pipelines are prone to GIC impacts, which should also be evaluated quantitatively. We will use the EURISGIC project to inform the pipeline community of present European capability in GIC modelling, forecasting and in developing mitigation measures.

Wik, Magnus; Pirjola, Risto; Viljanen, Ari; Lundstedt, Henrik

384

The evolution of the Danube gateway between Central and Eastern Paratethys (SE Europe): Insight from numerical modelling of the causes and effects of connectivity between basins and its expression in the sedimentary record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pannonian and Dacic Basins in SE Europe are presently connected by the Danube River across the South Carpathians, to which they are in a back-arc and foreland position respectively. Part of the Paratethys realm during the Neogene, open water communication between the basins was interrupted by the Late Miocene uplift of the Carpathians. Different mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of the Danube gateway: capture of the upstream lake or an upstream river or incision of an antecedent river. Estimates on its age range from Late Miocene to Quaternary. A related issue is the effect of the large Mediterranean sea level fall related to the Messinian Salinity Crisis on the Paratethys subbasins, specifically the "isolated" Pannonian Basin. In a synthetic numerical modelling study, using a pseudo-3D code integrating tectonics, surface processes and isostasy, we addressed the causes and effects of changes in connectivity between two large sedimentary basins separated by an elevated barrier. Specifically, we aimed to find the expression of connectivity events in the sedimentary record in general and the consequences for the evolution of the Pannonian-Dacic area in particular. We studied a range of parameters including the geometry and uplift rate of the barrier, downstream sea level change and lithosphere rigidity. We found that changes in connectivity are expressed in the sedimentary record through their effect on base level in the upstream basin and supply in the downstream basin. The most important factors controlling the response are the elevation difference between the basins and the upstream accommodation space at the time of reconnection. The most pronounced effect of reconnection through lake capture is predicted for a large elevation difference and limited upstream accommodation space. Downstream increase in sediment supply is dependent on the latter rather than the reconnection event itself. Of the parameters we tested, the rigidity of the lithosphere was found to be of major importance by its control on sediment loaded subsidence and generation of accommodation space. A downstream sea level change is unlikely to induce capture, but may affect the upstream lake level by enhancing incision in a pre-existing gateway. In the Pannonian-Dacic region, the mechanically weak, continuously subsiding Pannonian lithosphere allowed accommodation of significant volumes of continental sedimentation and as a consequence, transfer of excess sediment to the downstream Dacic Basin was only gradual. The Messinian sea level fall in the Dacic Basin could have been recorded in the Pannonian Basin only if a connection between the basins already existed. More detailed modelling of river incision taking into account lateral differences in erodibility in the South Carpathians will be required to give better time constraints on the formation of the Danube Gateway.

Leever, K. A.; Matenco, L.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Cloetingh, S. A. P. L.

2011-04-01

385

Enhancing Environmental Higher Education in Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher Education plays a central role in the development of both human beings and modern societies as it enhances social, cultural and economic development, active citizenship, ethical values and expertises for a sustainable growth. Different initiatives are taking place at world level to guarantee accessibility and right to higher education. The sustainability of human development has, as relevant key factors, environment protection and natural resources enhancement. Environment is therefore becoming more and more important at global level. The Environmental policy is object of discussions, in different prime minister summits and conferences, and constitutes a priority of policy in an increasing number of countries. The European Higher Education institutions, to achieve the objectives above, and to encourage cooperation between countries, may take part in a wide range of European Commission funded programmes, such as TEMPUS, which supports the modernisation of higher education and creates an area of co-operation in countries surrounding the EU. Some important projects run by the University of Florence are the TEMPUS DEREC-Development of Environmental and Resources Engineering Curriculum (2005-2008) and its spin-off called DEREL-Development of Environment and Resources Engineering Learning (2010-2013), recently recommended for funding by the European Commission. Through the co-operation of all project consortium members (Universities in Austria, Germany, Greece, FYR Macedonia, Albania and Serbia) they are aimed at the development and introduction of first and second level curricula in “Environmental and Resources Engineering” at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje (FYR Macedonia). In the DEREC Project the conditions for offering a joint degree title in the field of Environmental Engineering between the University of Florence and the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje were fulfilled and a shared educational programme leading to the mutual recognition of degree titles was defined. The DEREL Project, as logical continuation of DEREC, is aimed to introduce a new, up-to-date, postgraduate two-year curriculum in Environment and Resources Engineering at some Universities in FYR Macedonia, Serbia and Albania following the criteria and conditions for setting up a Joint Postgraduate Degree. The modernisation of higher education implies new educational requirements that, stimulated by the innovative telecommunication technologies together with novel educational materials and methodologies, lead to the development of distance learning environments. In order to provide the basis for the development of a distance learning environment based on video conferencing systems and develop a blended learning courses methodology, the TEMPUS Project VICES Videoconferencing Educational Services (2009-2012) was launched in 2009. The project is being carried out by the University of Florence and the Ss Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje with the co-operation and expertise of consortium members in Europe and Western Balkans and it foresees the implementation of videoconferencing educational modules in the frame of the DEREC Curriculum. In all above projects, the technical and methodological aspects related to environment protection and natural resources enhancement is highlighted.

Palmisano, E.; Caporali, E.; Valdiserri, J.

2010-12-01

386

Pipeline projects off Europe to focus on gas  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that pipeline construction in the North Sea and Mediterranean for the next 5 years will focus almost exclusively on natural gas systems. The next 5 years will be generally active, but there will be adequate lay barge capacity every year with the possible exception of 1995. There are now five third generation North Sea vessels, with a combined pipelay capacity under normal North Sea conditions of about 2,000 km/year. The five vessels work during a lay season from April to October without the need to lay down and pick up pipe when bad weather intervenes. Capacity can be increased by mobilizing some of the secondary capacity vessels of an earlier generation.

Not Available

1992-08-31

387

Home care in Europe: a systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Health and social services provided at home are becoming increasingly important. Hence, there is a need for information on home care in Europe. The objective of this literature review was to respond to this need by systematically describing what has been reported on home care in Europe in the scientific literature over the past decade. Methods A systematic literature search was performed for papers on home care published in English, using the following data bases: Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, and Social Care Online. Studies were only included if they complied with the definition of home care, were published between January 1998 and October 2009, and dealt with at least one of the 31 specified countries. Clinical interventions, instrument developments, local projects and reviews were excluded. The data extracted included: the characteristics of the study and aspects of home care 'policy & regulation', 'financing', 'organisation & service delivery', and 'clients & informal carers'. Results Seventy-four out of 5,133 potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria, providing information on 18 countries. Many focused on the characteristics of home care recipients and on the organisation of home care. Geographical inequalities, market forces, quality and integration of services were also among the issues frequently discussed. Conclusions Home care systems appeared to differ both between and within countries. The papers included, however, provided only a limited picture of home care. Many studies only focused on one aspect of the home care system and international comparative studies were rare. Furthermore, little information emerged on home care financing and on home care in general in Eastern Europe. This review clearly shows the need for more scientific publications on home care, especially studies comparing countries. A comprehensive and more complete insight into the state of home care in Europe requires the gathering of information using a uniform framework and methodology. PMID:21878111

2011-01-01

388

The Role of Stereo Projection in Developing an Effective Concluding Earth Science Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remarkably few students enrolled in introductory earth science courses have any intention of continuing in earth science, and for most students, these classes are often the last science course they will take in their academic careers. These students would be better served, if the course was instead designed to be a 'concluding' science course. One that explicitly provided students with the knowledge they need to become more informed citizens in the global community. The University of Minnesota is attempting to develop a national model of an effective 'concluding' earth science course by integrating three essential approaches: use of regional case studies to increase student comprehension; a comprehensive evaluation of students' prior knowledge, misconceptions and post-instructional knowledge that is woven throughout the project; and, an ambitious use of 'GeoWall' stereo projection systems to facilitate the students' use of maps and data sets and level the classroom playing field with regard to spatial conceptualization. In every discipline there are some critical skills or assessments that serve as conscious or unconscious 'gate-keepers' for progress in that field. In earth science, map interpretation is probably the critical restriction curtailing students' ability to access and explore course concepts. So much of our discipline's information is encoded in maps, that students who are not innately predisposed to understanding maps find it difficult to understand much of the course content and methodology. GeoWall stereo projection systems can reduce the efficiency of this 'gate-keeping' process, allowing students of diverse backgrounds and abilities to understand map data and succeed in the course. In doing so, these systems will not only help increase students' scientific literacy, but may also greatly increase the diversity of students who do go on to consider earth science as a potential career.

Kirkby, K. C.; Morin, P. J.; Finley, F.

2003-12-01

389

Effects of heavy ions on visual function and electrophysiology of rodents: the ALTEA-MICE project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALTEA-MICE will supplement the ALTEA project on astronauts and provide information on the functional visual impairment possibly induced by heavy ions during prolonged operations in microgravity. Goals of ALTEA-MICE are: (1) to investigate the effects of heavy ions on the visual system of normal and mutant mice with retinal defects; (2) to define reliable experimental conditions for space research; and (3) to develop animal models to study the physiological consequences of space travels on humans. Remotely controlled mouse setup, applied electrophysiological recording methods, remote particle monitoring, and experimental procedures were developed and tested. The project has proved feasible under laboratory-controlled conditions comparable in important aspects to those of astronauts' exposure to particle in space. Experiments are performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratories [BNL] (Upton, NY, USA) and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH [GSI]/Biophysik (Darmstadt, FRG) to identify possible electrophysiological changes and/or activation of protective mechanisms in response to pulsed radiation. Offline data analyses are in progress and observations are still anecdotal. Electrophysiological changes after pulsed radiation are within the limits of spontaneous variability under anesthesia, with only indirect evidence of possible retinal/cortical responses. Immunostaining showed changes (e.g increased expression of FGF2 protein in the outer nuclear layer) suggesting a retinal stress reaction to high-energy particles of potential relevance in space.

Sannita, W. G.; Acquaviva, M.; Ball, S. L.; Belli, F.; Bisti, S.; Bidoli, V.; Carozzo, S.; Casolino, M.; Cucinotta, F.; De Pascale, M. P.; Di Fino, L.; Di Marco, S.; Maccarone, R.; Martello, C.; Miller, J.; Narici, L.; Peachey, N. S.; Picozza, P.; Rinaldi, A.; Ruggieri, D.; Saturno, M.; Schardt, D.; Vazquez, M.

2004-01-01

390

Effects of heavy ions on visual function and electrophysiology of rodents: the ALTEA-MICE project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ALTEA-MICE will supplement the ALTEA project on astronauts and provide information on the functional visual impairment possibly induced by heavy ions during prolonged operations in microgravity. Goals of ALTEA-MICE are: (1) to investigate the effects of heavy ions on the visual system of normal and mutant mice with retinal defects; (2) to define reliable experimental conditions for space research; and (3) to develop animal models to study the physiological consequences of space travels on humans. Remotely controlled mouse setup, applied electrophysiological recording methods, remote particle monitoring, and experimental procedures were developed and tested. The project has proved feasible under laboratory-controlled conditions comparable in important aspects to those of astronauts' exposure to particle in space. Experiments are performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratories [BNL] (Upton, NY, USA) and the Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbH [GSI]/Biophysik (Darmstadt, FRG) to identify possible electrophysiological changes and/or activation of protective mechanisms in response to pulsed radiation. Offline data analyses are in progress and observations are still anecdotal. Electrophysiological changes after pulsed radiation are within the limits of spontaneous variability under anesthesia, with only indirect evidence of possible retinal/cortical responses. Immunostaining showed changes (e.g. increased expression of FGF2 protein in the outer nuclear layer) suggesting a retinal stress reaction to high-energy particles of potential relevance in space. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sannita, W. G.; Acquaviva, M.; Ball, S. L.; Belli, F.; Bisti, S.; Bidoli, V.; Carozzo, S.; Casolino, M.; Cucinotta, F.; De Pascale, M. P.; Di Fino, L.; Di Marco, S.; Maccarone, R.; Martello, C.; Miller, J.; Narici, L.; Peachey, N. S.; Picozza, P.; Rinaldi, A.; Ruggieri, D.; Saturno, M.; Schardt, D.; Vazquez, M.; Lowenstein, D. (Principal Investigator)

2004-01-01

391

The projected effect of the Affordable Care Act on dental care for adult Medicaid enrollees.  

PubMed

Fewer than half of all U.S. states provide dental care for non-elderly adult Medicaid enrollees. Although the Affordable Care Act (ACA) expands Medicaid eligibility for adults, states are not required to offer dental care to adults. We project the effect of the ACA on patient-identified barriers to dental care based on a framework developed using data from a 2008 survey of Minnesota Medicaid enrollees with and without an annual dental visit. The rate of annual visits (55%) was below that of all Minnesotans (79%) with 40% reporting difficulties accessing services. We found no racial/ethnic disparities in annual dental visits among adult Medicaid enrollees. Adult Medicaid recipients with no annual visit reported individual (51%), provider (27%), and system-level (22%) barriers. Hmong, Somali, and American Indian adults were more likely than others to report barriers to receiving dental care. We project that the ACA will not reduce barriers to dental care for adult Medicaid enrollees. PMID:24583489

Flynn, Priscilla; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Pintor, Jessie Kemmick; Elmi, Nafisa

2014-02-01

392

Disentangling effects of uncertainties on population projections: climate change impact on an epixylic bryophyte  

PubMed Central

Assessment of future ecosystem risks should account for the relevant uncertainty sources. This means accounting for the joint effects of climate variables and using modelling techniques that allow proper treatment of uncertainties. We investigate the influence of three of the IPCC's scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (special report on emission scenarios (SRES)) on projections of the future abundance of a bryophyte model species. We also compare the relative importance of uncertainty sources on the population projections. The whole chain global climate model (GCM)—regional climate model—population dynamics model is addressed. The uncertainty depends on both natural- and model-related sources, in particular on GCM uncertainty. Ignoring the uncertainties gives an unwarranted impression of confidence in the results. The most likely population development of the bryophyte Buxbaumia viridis towards the end of this century is negative: even with a low-emission scenario, there is more than a 65 per cent risk for the population to be halved. The conclusion of a population decline is valid for all SRES scenarios investigated. Uncertainties are no longer an obstacle, but a mandatory aspect to include in the viability analysis of populations. PMID:22456878

Ruete, Alejandro; Yang, Wei; Bärring, Lars; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Snäll, Tord

2012-01-01

393

Disentangling effects of uncertainties on population projections: climate change impact on an epixylic bryophyte.  

PubMed

Assessment of future ecosystem risks should account for the relevant uncertainty sources. This means accounting for the joint effects of climate variables and using modelling techniques that allow proper treatment of uncertainties. We investigate the influence of three of the IPCC's scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (special report on emission scenarios (SRES)) on projections of the future abundance of a bryophyte model species. We also compare the relative importance of uncertainty sources on the population projections. The whole chain global climate model (GCM)-regional climate model-population dynamics model is addressed. The uncertainty depends on both natural- and model-related sources, in particular on GCM uncertainty. Ignoring the uncertainties gives an unwarranted impression of confidence in the results. The most likely population development of the bryophyte Buxbaumia viridis towards the end of this century is negative: even with a low-emission scenario, there is more than a 65 per cent risk for the population to be halved. The conclusion of a population decline is valid for all SRES scenarios investigated. Uncertainties are no longer an obstacle, but a mandatory aspect to include in the viability analysis of populations. PMID:22456878

Ruete, Alejandro; Yang, Wei; Bärring, Lars; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Snäll, Tord

2012-08-01

394

Getting to Know Europe: Local and Regional Communities and the European Union Hampton Roads  

E-print Network

Getting to Know Europe: Local and Regional Communities and the European Union Hampton Roads 2011 at ODU's Webb Center This conference is part of the European Union sponsored ACCESSEU Project at ODU, Ambassador of the European Union to the United States 0930­1030 The US-EU Partnership: Transatlantic Economic

395

The Role of NGOs in Environmental Education in South-Eastern Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs) are playing an important role in environmental education in South-eastern Europe. Although some organisations appeared to compromise themselves by becoming political parties, others did useful work in debating ecological issues, working on environmental projects and increasing public awareness.…

Turnock, David

2004-01-01

396

Design, Implementation and Validation of a Europe-Wide Pedagogical Framework for E-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the context of a Europe-wide project UNITE, a number of European partners set out to design, implement and validate a pedagogical framework (PF) for e- and m-Learning in secondary schools. The process of formulating and testing the PF was an evolutionary one that reflected the experiences and skills of the various European partners and…

Granic, Andrina; Mifsud, Charles; Cukusic, Maja

2009-01-01

397

Research on Rural Ageing: Where Have We Got to and Where Are We Going in Europe?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the extent to which rural studies conducted in Europe (compared to other countries in the Global North) have addressed the phenomenon of rural ageing. Through a review of the literature published on rural ageing research in the last decade, it compares the research goals identified by the International Rural Ageing Project

Burholt, Vanessa; Dobbs, Christine

2012-01-01

398

Offshore Wind Energy in Europe - A Review of the State-of-the-Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

After several decades of theoretical developments, desk studies, experimental wind turbines and prototype wind farms, the first large-scale commercial developments of offshore wind farms are now being built. To support and accelerate this development, the European Commission funded a project, Concerted Action on Offshore Wind Energy in Europe (CA-OWEE), which aimed to gather, evaluate, synthesize and distribute knowledge on all

Andrew R. Henderson; Colin Morgan; Bernie Smith; Hans C. Sørensen; Rebecca J. Barthelmie; Bart Boesmans

2003-01-01

399

Climate warming and the decline of amphibians and reptiles in Europe  

E-print Network

SPECIAL ISSUE Climate warming and the decline of amphibians and reptiles in Europe M. B. Arau´jo1 the relationship between current European distributions of amphibian and reptile species and observed climate ask, first, what proportion of amphibian and reptile species are projected to lose and gain suitable

Binford, Michael W.

400

Introducing eLearning to textile companies in Europe Nicholas Bilalis1  

E-print Network

Introducing eLearning to textile companies in Europe Nicholas Bilalis1 , Emmanuel Maravelakis2 three Web-based courses on Modern Production Management Methods to textile companies. The project contributes on advancing the knowledge of personnel working on textiles on two distinct cases, current

Aristomenis, Antoniadis

401

The Human Health Consequences of Flooding in Europe: a Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floods are the most common natural disaster in Europe. The adverse human health consequences of flooding are complex and far-reaching:\\u000a these include drowning, injuries, and an increased incidence of common mental disorders. Anxiety and depression may last for\\u000a months and possibly even years after the flood event and so the true health burden is rarely appreciated. Effects of floods\\u000a on

S. Hajat; K. L. Ebi; R. S. Kovats; B. Menne; S. Edwards; A. Haines

402