Sample records for europe projects effects

  1. Effect of Soviet cancellation of petrochemical plant projects on east and west Europe and Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, P.

    1985-02-01

    The Soviet Union has scaled down plans to build four petrochemical projects, each worth more than US $1 billion, over the next five years because it is giving priority to the re-equipment of plants. The project to build a polyvinyl plant on the shores of Lake Baikal in Siberia has been cancelled. Another scheme to build a nylon plant at Kursk has been delayed, but might still be resurrected during the present five-year plan (1986-1990). The two projects still going ahead, or which British companies are bidding, are a polyolefin plant in the north Caucasus and a polyester plant in the Urals. Despite the investment priority given by the Soviet leadership to high technology and re-equipment, diplomats in Moscow do not expect a surge of orders for Western companies. They say there are two reasons for this; Moscow wants to rely as much as possible on imports of machinery from Eastern Europe, notably East Germany and Czechoslovakia, in return for its exports of oil and gas. Senior officials say that where they cannot obtain high technology from West because of restrictive legislation they will not be prepared to accept less efficient equipment. The level of Soviet imports from hard currency supplies will be limited by the fall in Soviet exports revenues. These have been hit by a decline of some four per cent in oil exports last year and the drop in the world oil price. The Soviet Union needs to keep its customers for gas which has given increased leverage to consumers such as West Germany, Italy and France in the award of contracts. This was exemplified by the visit of Mme. Edith Cresson, the French Foreign Trade Minister, to Moscow to discuss increasing trade. Paris wants the Soviet Union to redress the adverse trade balance with France with amounted to 4.5 billion francs (L 410 million) in the first 11 months of last year.

  2. Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. Methods/Design This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating coherent messages to consumers in Europe. Discussion The FoodRisC project offers a unique approach to the investigation of food risk/benefit communication. The effective spread of food risk/benefit information will assist initiatives aimed at reducing the burden of food-related illness and disease, reducing the economic impact of food crises and ensuring that confidence in safe and nutritious food is fostered and maintained in Europe. PMID:21569458

  3. The Shale Gas in Europe project (GASH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian; Gash-Team

    2010-05-01

    At the present time no shale gas play has been brought to the production level in Europe. While the opportunities appear abundant, there are still many challenges to be overcome in Europe such as land access and environmental issues. Costs per well are still higher than in the US, and mining regulations are tighter. As yet it remains unclear whether European shales can support commercial shale gas production. First, it will be essential to test the sub-surface and the potential deliverability of wells, supported by basic research. GASH is the first major scientific initiative in Europe that is focussed on shale gas; it is ambitious in that it is broad ranging in scientific scope and that it unites leading European research groups and geological surveys with industry. US know-how is also integrated into the programme to avoid reinventing the wheel, or, still worse, the flat tyre. GASH is currently funded by eight companies, and comprises two main elements: compilation of a European Black Shale Database (EBSD) and focussed research projects that are based on geochemical, geophysical and geomechanical investigations. The EBSD is being built by a team of more than 20 geological surveys, extending from Sweden in the north, through western Europe and the Baltic states down to southern Europe, and over to Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic in the east. The research projects apply numerical modelling, process simulations and laboratory analyses to selected regional study areas or "natural laboratories" from both Europe and the USA - the goal: to predict gas-in-place and fracability based on process understanding. The European black shales selected as natural shale gas laboratories are the Cambrian Alum Shale from Sweden and Denmark, the Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale from Central Germany, and Carboniferous black shales from the UK in the west via the Netherlands to Germany in the east. Fresh core material for detailed investigations will be recovered during the mid-2010 drilling of the Alum Shale on Bornholm, a small Danish island in the Baltic Sea. North American black shales which hold successful shale gas plays such as the Barnett and Marcellus Shale are also incorporated in the studies to help calibrate known features and processes.

  4. Final Year Engineering Projects in Australia and Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, H.; Goh, S.

    2010-01-01

    The paper starts by emphasising that final year engineering projects are regarded important in the training and education of professional engineers in Australia and Europe. The sources of projects available to students were also mentioned. Some Australian universities insist on individual projects but some not, each with their own reasons.…

  5. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific aims, work plan, and organization of the Middle Atmosphere Program winter in northern Europe (MAP/WINE) are described. Proposed contributions to the MAP/WINE program from various countries are enumerated. Specific atmospheric parameters to be examined are listed along with the corresponding measurement technique.

  6. The ELISE II Project: A Digital Image Library for Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunz, Bob; Waters, Mairead

    This paper describes the progress made under the ELISE II electronic image library project from a technical standpoint. The ELISE II project is a European-wide initiative that aims to provide a comprehensive electronic image library service for Europe. It is funded under the European Commission, DG XIII-E, Telematics for Libraries Initiative. The…

  7. Projected changes in clear-sky erythemal and vitamin D effective UV doses for Europe over the period 2006 to 2100.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Haeffelin, Martial; Bekki, Slimane; Saiag, Philippe; Badosa, Jordi; Jégou, Fabrice; Pazmiño, Andrea; Mahé, Emmanuel

    2013-06-01

    The benefits and the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure have been well discussed. Most studies show concern for the solar overexposure in the tropics and low latitude sites and its scarcity at higher latitudes. Both cases are of concern, the first for diseases such as skin cancer and the second for the lack of vitamin D production in the skin. In this study, we evaluate the influence of climate change scenarios on the total ozone content (TOC) and typical aerosol properties, such as the optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA), over Europe. From these parameters, we estimate the erythemal and the vitamin D effective UVR doses from 2006 to 2100. Our results indicate a small reduction of the UVR daily doses caused by the ozone layer recovery and partially compensated by an AOD diminution through this century. The attenuation will be larger at high latitudes, during the springtime and for more polluted scenarios during this century. However, this diminution should not be sufficient to provide a protection condition for erythema. On the other hand, at higher latitudes, it possibly contributes to a relevant increase in the exposure time necessary for the synthesis of vitamin D, mainly during autumn and spring seasons. PMID:23549360

  8. Soil threats in Europe for the RECARE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolte, Jannes; Tesfai, Mehretaeb; Oygarden, Lillian

    2015-04-01

    Soil is one of our most important natural resources that provides us with vital goods and services to sustain life. Nevertheless, soils functions are threatened by a wide range of processes and a number of soil threats have been identified in Europe. Although there is a large body of knowledge available on soil threats in Europe, the complexity and functioning of soil systems and their interaction with human activities, climate change, and ecosystem services (ESS), is still not fully understood. An extensive literature review was carried out by a group of experts on soil threats at the European level. In total, around 60 experts from the 17 case study sites of the RECARE project, were involved in the process of reviewing and drafting the report and 11 soil threats were identified. The objective of WP2 of the RECARE project was to provide an improved overview of existing information on soil threats and degradation at the European scale. These soil threats are soil erosion by water, soil erosion by wind, decline of organic matter (OM) in peat, decline of OM in minerals soils, soil compaction, soil sealing, soil contamination, soil salinization, desertification, flooding and landslides and decline in soil biodiversity. The final report of WP2 provides a comprehensive thematic information on the major soil threats of Europe with due attention given to the Driving force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response to soil threats. Interrelationships between soil threats, between soil threats and soil functions and between soil threats and Ecosystems Services are made, and will be presented. A synergy between the soil threats is made based on the given information in each of the chapters, where we tried to identify the interactions between the threats. We tried to identify in what way one threat acts as a threat for another threat. Also, the link between soil degradation and Ecosystem Services are identified. Again, based on the information given in each chapter, the major climate, human and policy drivers are described.

  9. Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B. G.; SafeLand Research Consortium

    2011-12-01

    The changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, the need to protect people and property, the reality for society in Europe to live with hazard and risk and the need to manage risk were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). It started on 1 May 2009 and will go on for 3 years, ending on 30 April 2012. There project involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://www.safeland-fp7.eu/ . SafeLand is an ongoing project, which results will be finalized in 2012. This lecture summarizes the SafeLand's activities and achievements until November 2011. The main results achieved so far include: - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots by an objective, GIS-based analysis for Europe. The results show clearly where landslides pose the largest hazard in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional climate model simulations over Europe (from the EU FP6 project ENSEMBLES) at a spatial resolution of 25 x 25 km have been used to perform an extreme value analysis for trends in heavy precipitation events. In winter a general trend towards more heavy precipitation events across all analyzed regional climate model simulations is found. For summer, a slight increase of heavy precipitation in Northern Europe and a general decrease in southern Europe is found in all regional climate model simulations. - The prototype of a web-based "toolbox" of innovative and technically appropriate prevention and mitigation measures was developed. The toolbox does a preliminary assessment and ranking of up to 60 structural and non-structural landslide risk mitigation options. - Development of an empirical model for assessing the changes in landslide frequency (hazard) as a function of changes in the demography and population density. - Case histories and "hotspots" of European Land¬slides have been collected and documented. Data for 41 potential case study sites have been compiled and summarized. These comprise 39 sites in Europe located in Italy, France, Norway, Switzerland, Austria, Andorra, and Romania; as well as one site in Canada and one in India. Almost every type of landslide and every type of movement is represented in these sites. - Research on stakeholder workshops and participatory processes to involve the population exposed to landslide risk in the decision-making process for choosing the most appropriate risk mitigation measure(s).

  10. Retirement effects on health in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Norma B.; Zamarro, Gema

    2013-01-01

    What are the health impacts of retirement? As talk of raising retirement ages in pensions and social security schemes continues around the world, it is important to know both the costs and benefits for the individual, as well as the governments’ budgets. In this paper we use the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) dataset to address this question in a multi-country setting. We use country-specific early and full retirement ages as instruments for retirement behavior. These statutory retirement ages clearly induce retirement, but are not related to an individual’s health. Exploiting the discontinuities in retirement behavior across countries, we find significant evidence that retirement has a health-preserving effect on overall general health. Our estimates indicate that retirement leads to a 35 percent decrease in the probability of reporting to be in fair, bad, or very bad health, and an almost one standard deviation improvement in the health index. While the self-reported health seems to be a temporary impact, the health index indicates there are long-lasting health differences. PMID:21183235

  11. Eiatne and Flyklim, Two Projects Concerning Environmental Impacts From Air Transportation Over North Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pålsson, A.; Moldanová, J.; Bergström, R.; Langner, J.; Wyser, K.; Lindskog, A.

    Structure and methodology of two projects concerned with regional impact of air traf- fic on the atmosphere is presented. The EIATNE project aims to develop methods and decision support for environmental adaptation of air traffic and air traffic control in en- vironmentally sensitive regions. The FLYKLIM project is closely related to EIATNE, its objective is to study the effect of air traffic on the regional climate in Northern Europe and in particular its effect on high-altitude clouds. The environmental impacts from air traffic within a geographical area are evaluated through interdisciplinary co- operation. Aircraft emissions have been extracted from a four-dimensional analysis based on model calculations of the collected air traffic over Sweden during a limited duration. The project aims to combine model simulations of aircraft performance with model simulations of the dispersion of exhausts and their reactions in the atmosphere, both at cruise altitudes and around airports, in order to evaluate the environmental im- pacts. The project involves use of results from previous research projects, which will be integrated for a qualified analysis of the large-scale environmental effects.

  12. Projections of twenty-first century climate over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, F.; Coppola, E.

    2009-02-01

    We present an assessment of climate change pro jections over the European region for the 21st century from the ensembles of CMIP3 global model experiments and PRUDENCE regional climate model experiments. The A2, A1B, and B1 IPCC emission scenarios are considered. A brief review is also presented of the literature available on future European climate pro jections. In all emission scenarios the European region shows maximum warming of up to several degrees C over the Mediterranean region in summer and over northeastern Europe in winter. The precipitation change signal shows a north-south dipolar structure, with increasing precipitation over Northern Europe and decreasing over southern Europe. This structure migrates northward from the winter to the summer and is tied to the north-south motion of an increasing anticyclonic circulation cell over the North Atlantic-European sector. Temperature interannual variability decreases in winter over central and northern Europe and increases in summer throughout Europe. Precipitation interannual variability shows a predominant increase, most pronounced in summer. The seasonal temperature anomaly probability density functions (PDFs) show a shift and a widening and flattening in future climate conditions, especially in summer, which is indicative of pronounced increases of extreme hot seasons. The seasonal precipitation anomaly PDFs show pronounced changes over Southern Europe in summer, with a strong increase of very dry seasons. In general, the magnitude of future climate change increases with the greenhouse gas forcing. A broad consensus is found between the pro jections obtained with the CMIP3 and PRUDENCE ensembles, as well as between the present analysis and previous generations of model pro jections. The climate change signal over Europe exhibits a consistent latitudinal and seasonal evolution identified as the European Climate change Oscillation (ECO) by Giorgi and Coppola [F. Giorgi and E. Coppola, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L21703 (2007)]. The changes of temperature and precipitation over Europe are pronounced, making this region highly vulnerable to global warming.

  13. Comparative Gender and Policy Projects in Europe: Current Trends in Theory, Method and Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy G. Mazur

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines nine cross-national research projects on gender and policy in Europe at different stages of completion. In the first part of the paper, the infrastructure, analytical foci, methodological approach theoretical framework and policy relevance are examined for each project. General research findings are presented in cases where projects have been completed. In the second part of the paper,

  14. Project DAFNE - Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, I. T.; Ask, M. S. V.; Olesen, O.

    2012-04-01

    We are currently developing a new ICDP project 'Drillling Active Faults in Northern Europe' (DAFNE) which aims at investigating, via scientific drilling, the tectonic and structural characteristics of postglacial (PG) faults in northern Fennoscandia, including their hydrogeology and associated deep biosphere [1, 2]. During the last stages of the Weichselian glaciation (ca. 9,000 - 15,000 years B.P.), reduced ice load and glacially affected stress field resulted in active faulting in Fennoscandia with fault scarps up to 160 km long and 30 m high. These postglacial (PG) faults are usually SE dipping, SW-NE oriented thrusts, and represent reactivated, pre-existing crustal discontinuities. Postglacial faulting indicates that the glacio-isostatic compensation is not only a gradual viscoelastic phenomenon, but includes also unexpected violent earthquakes, suggestively larger than other known earthquakes in stable continental regions. The research is anticipated to advance science in neotectonics, hydrogeology and deep biosphere studies, and provide important information for nuclear waste and CO2 disposal, petroleum exploration on the Norwegian continental shelf and studies of mineral resources in PG fault areas. We expect that multidisciplinary research applying shallow and deep drilling of postglacial faults would provide significant scientific results through generating new data and models, namely: (1) Understanding PG fault genesis and controls of their locations; (2) Deep structure and depth extent of PG faults; (3) Textural, mineralogical and physical alteration of rocks in the PG faults; (4) State of stress and estimates of paleostress of PG faults; (5) Hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and hydraulic properties of PG faults; (6) Dating of tectonic reactivation(s) and temporal evolution of tectonic systems hosting PG faults; (7) Existence/non-existence of deep biosphere in PG faults; (8) Data useful for planning radioactive waste disposal in crystalline bedrock; (9) Data on rock stress changes in the periphery of the inland ice; (10) Stress pattern along the Norwegian continental margin in relation to the bending spreading ridge and Plio-Pleistocene erosion, uplift and sedimentation with implications for fluid migration and sealing properties of petroleum reservoirs. (11) Data useful in predicting future seismic activity in areas of current deglaciation due to ongoing climatic warming.

  15. Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B.

    2012-04-01

    The need to protect people and property with a changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, and the reality for societies in Europe to live with the risk associated with natural hazards, were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). The project started on 1 May 2009 and will end on 30 April 2012. It involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://safeland-fp7.eu/. Main results achieved in SafeLand include: - Various guidelines related to landslide triggering processes and run-out modelling. - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides, and development of an empirical model for assessing the changes in landslide frequency (hazard) as a function of changes in the demography and population density. - Guideline for landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment and zoning. - New methodologies for physical and societal vulnerability assessment. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots for Europe. The results show clearly where areas with the largest landslide risk are located in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional and local climate model simulations over selected regions of Europe at spatial resolutions of 10x10 km and 2.8x2.8 km. These simulations were used to perform an extreme value analysis for trends in heavy precipitation events, and subsequent effects on landslide hazard and risk trends. - Guidelines for use of remote sensing techniques, monitoring and early warning systems. - Development of a prototype web-based "toolbox" of innovative and technically appropriate prevention and mitigation measures. The toolbox does a preliminary assessment and ranking of up to 60 structural and non-structural landslide risk mitigation options. - Case histories and "hotspots" of European Land¬slides have been collected and documented. Data for close to fifty potential case study sites have been compiled and summarized. Most of the case study sites are located in Europe (Italy, France, Norway, Switzerland, Austria, Andorra, and Romania); but they also include one site in Canada and one in India. Almost every type of landslide and every type of movement is represented in these sites. - Research on stakeholder workshops and participatory processes to involve the population exposed to landslide risk in the decision-making process for choosing the most appropriate risk mitigation measure(s).

  16. The research project Winter In Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1983-06-01

    The MAP/WINE study of the structure and dynamics of the middle atmosphere above northern Europe during winter is outlined. The project measures the morphology of small scale dynamic features, in order to study the control exerted by gravity waves and tides on the mean flow in the mesosphere, and to develop improved parameterizations of the interactions of small scale dynamic processes with mesospheric temperature, structure, and mean flow. Sudden stratospheric warmings, their cause, the time history of their large scale spatial structures, and their effect on the mesosphere temperature and dynamics are investigated. The effects of dynamics and temperature structure on the distribution of minor constituents, including ionospheric plasma, in the middle atmosphere are examined. Remote sensing and in-situ techniques for measuring mesospheric parameters are compared.

  17. Critical levels for ozone effects on vegetation in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fuhrer; L. Skärby; M. R. Ashmore

    1997-01-01

    The evidence of detrimental effects of ozone on vegetation in Europe, and the need to develop international control policies to reduce ozone exposures which are based on the effects of the pollutant, has led to attempts to define so-called critical levels of ozone above which adverse effects on trees, crops and natural vegetation may occur. This review is a critical

  18. Software Product Families in Europe: The Esaps & Café Projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Van Der Linden

    2002-01-01

    The EU and European governments have been funding product family development projects for years. This article overviews the different projects, the topics each has addressed, and the main results obtained thus far.

  19. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE). The project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE): Introduction and outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1989-01-01

    The project Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) comprised a multinational study of the structure, dynamics and composition of the middle atmosphere in winter at high latitudes. Coordinated field measurements were performed during the winter 1983 to 1984 by a large number of ground-based, air-borne, rocket-borne and satellite-borne instruments. Many of the individual experiments were performed in the European sector of the high latitude and polar atmosphere. Studies of the stratosphere, were, in addition, expanded to hemispheric scales by the use of data obtained from remotely sensing satellites. Beyond its direct scientific results, which are reviewed, MAP/WINE has stimulated quite a number of follow-on experiments and projects which address the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere at high and polar latitudes.

  20. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE). The project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE): Introduction and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1989-04-01

    The project Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) comprised a multinational study of the structure, dynamics and composition of the middle atmosphere in winter at high latitudes. Coordinated field measurements were performed during the winter 1983 to 1984 by a large number of ground-based, air-borne, rocket-borne and satellite-borne instruments. Many of the individual experiments were performed in the European sector of the high latitude and polar atmosphere. Studies of the stratosphere, were, in addition, expanded to hemispheric scales by the use of data obtained from remotely sensing satellites. Beyond its direct scientific results, which are reviewed, MAP/WINE has stimulated quite a number of follow-on experiments and projects which address the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere at high and polar latitudes.

  1. The Eurolight project: the impact of primary headache disorders in Europe. Description of methods.

    PubMed

    Andrée, C; Stovner, L J; Steiner, T J; Barré, J; Katsarava, Z; Lainez, J M; Lanteri-Minet, M; Mick, G; Rastenyte, D; Ruiz de la Torre, E; Tassorelli, C; Vriezen, P; Lampl, C

    2011-10-01

    The Eurolight project is the first at European Union level to assess the impact of headache disorders, and also the first of its scale performed by collaboration between professional and lay organizations and individuals. Here are reported the methods developed for it. The project took the form of surveys, by structured questionnaire, conducted in ten countries of Europe which together represented 60% of the adult population of the European Union. In Lithuania, the survey was population-based. Elsewhere, truly population-based studies were impractical for reasons of cost, and various compromises were developed. Closest to being population-based were the surveys in Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain. In Austria, France and UK, samples were taken from health-care settings. In addition in the Netherlands, Spain and Ireland, samples were drawn from members of national headache patient organizations and their relatives. Independent double data-entry was performed prior to analysis. Returned questionnaires from 9,269 respondents showed a moderate female bias (58%); of respondents from patients' organizations (n = 992), 61% were female. Mean age of all respondents was 44 years; samples from patients' organizations were slightly older (mean 47 years). The different sampling methods worked with differing degrees of effectiveness, as evidenced by the responder-rates, which varied from 10.8 to 90.7%. In the more population-based surveys, responder-rates varied from 11.3 to 58.8%. We conclude that the methodology, although with differences born of necessity in the ten countries, was sound overall, and will provide robust data on the public ill-health that results from headache in Europe. PMID:21660430

  2. Leaving the Academic Towers: The Council of Europe and the Education for Democratic Citizenship Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Keith

    2003-01-01

    The Council of Europe's Education for Democratic Citizenship Project created "Sites of Citizenship" in 12 countries. These grassroots initiatives attempted to involve individuals in creating democratic culture. Preliminary evaluation indicated that informal and nonformal learning at these sites was a challenging but innovative feature. (Contains…

  3. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: Europe Albers Equal Area

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 ´Projection: Europe Albers Equal Area 0 500 Kilometers Amount of phosphorus fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell computed by fusing global maps of harvested areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use

  4. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: Europe Albers Equal Area

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 ´Projection: Europe Albers Equal Area 0 500 Kilometers Amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell computed by fusing global maps of harvested areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use

  5. Adult Education and Learning in Europe: Evaluation of the Adult Education Action within the SOCRATES Programme. Final Report of the Project "MOPED--Monitoring of Projects: Evaluation as Dialogue."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuissl, Ekkehard, Ed.

    The SOCRATES Program was conducted in 1995-1999 to increase transnational cooperation between institutions in the field of adult education (AE) and thereby enhance the quality of AE in Europe. In 1997, a project called Monitoring of Projects: Evaluation as Dialogue (MOPED) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 101 transnational…

  6. SHORT REPORT Open Access Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SHORT REPORT Open Access Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing, evidence existing on the effects of IAP in elderly is scanty. The Geriatric study in Europe on health Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE study) aiming

  7. An developing ICDP drilling project on intraplate seismicity: Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe (DAFNE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ask, M. V.; Kukkonen, I. T.; Olesen, O.; Steffen, H.; Schmitt, D.

    2011-12-01

    The combined effects of reduced ice load and glacially affected rock stresses are believed to have generated dramatic postglacial fault (PGF) structures in northern Europe, reflecting a special type of intraplate seismicity. A total of 14 PGFs have been identified up to date, with fault scarps up to 160 km in length and 30 m in height. They are usually SE dipping, SW-NE oriented thrusts that represent reactivated, pre-existing crustal discontinuities. Local and national seismic networks reveal that, at least some of the faults are still very active, with several hundreds of microseismic events each year. It is evident that if they were formed in single events, they would imply massive intraplate earthquakes (up to M 7-8). Hence, PGFs may generate larger intraplate earthquakes than generally assumed. Similar structures in North America have not been reported yet. Currently, an International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) project on Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe (DAFNE) is under development. The aim of the project is to investigate tectonic and structural characteristics of PGFs in northern Fennoscandia, including their hydrogeology and associated deep biosphere. The research is anticipated to advance science in neotectonics, hydrogeology and deep biosphere studies, and provide important information for nuclear waste and CO2 disposal, petroleum exploration on the Norwegian continental shelf and studies of mineral resources in PG fault areas. We expect that multidisciplinary research applying shallow and deep drilling of PGFs would provide significant scientific results through generating new data and models, namely: 1. Understanding PGF genesis and controls of their locations; 2. Deep structure and depth extent of PGFs; 3. Textural, mineralogical and physical alteration of rocks in the PGFs; 4. State of stress and estimates of paleostress of PGFs; 5. Hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and hydraulic properties of PGFs; 6. Dating of tectonic reactivation(s) and temporal evolution of tectonic systems hosting PGFs; 7. Existence/non-existence of deep biosphere in PGFs; 8. Data useful for planning radioactive waste disposal in crystalline bedrock; 9. Data on rock stress changes in the periphery of the inland ice; 10. Stress pattern along the Norwegian continental margin in relation to the bending spreading ridge and Plio-Pleistocene erosion, uplift and sedimentation with implications for fluid migration and sealing properties of petroleum reservoirs; and 11. Data useful in predicting future seismic activity in areas of current deglaciation due to ongoing climatic warming.

  8. The distribution of NMHC in Europe: Results from the EUROTRAC TOR project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lindskog; S. Solberg; M. Roemer; D. Klemp; R. Sladkovic; H. Boudries; A. Dutot; R. H. Hakola; R. Schmitt; H. Areskoug

    1995-01-01

    Within the EUROTRAC sub project TOR, an European network of advanced monitoring stations situated at representative sites is operated, starting in 1988. Within the EMEP Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe measurements of VOC started in August 1992. In this study the combined TOR-EMEP data base has been used. Sector analyses

  9. Comparing Emission Inventories and Model-Ready Emission Datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the similarities and differences in how emission inventories and datasets were developed and processed across North America and Europe for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project and then characterizes the emissions for the...

  10. Projection of climatic suitability for Aedes albopictus Skuse (Culicidae) in Europe under climate change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Dominik; Thomas, Stephanie Margarete; Niemitz, Franziska; Reineking, Björn; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2011-07-01

    During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus ( Ae. albopictus) has rapidly spread around the globe. The spread of this species raises serious public health concerns. Here, we model the present distribution and the future climatic suitability of Europe for this vector in the face of climate change. In order to achieve the most realistic current prediction and future projection, we compare the performance of four different modelling approaches, differentiated by the selection of climate variables (based on expert knowledge vs. statistical criteria) and by the geographical range of presence records (native range vs. global range). First, models of the native and global range were built with MaxEnt and were either based on (1) statistically selected climatic input variables or (2) input variables selected with expert knowledge from the literature. Native models show high model performance (AUC: 0.91-0.94) for the native range, but do not predict the European distribution well (AUC: 0.70-0.72). Models based on the global distribution of the species, however, were able to identify all regions where Ae. albopictus is currently established, including Europe (AUC: 0.89-0.91). In a second step, the modelled bioclimatic envelope of the global range was projected to future climatic conditions in Europe using two emission scenarios implemented in the regional climate model COSMO-CLM for three time periods 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100. For both global-driven models, the results indicate that climatically suitable areas for the establishment of Ae. albopictus will increase in western and central Europe already in 2011-2040 and with a temporal delay in eastern Europe. On the other hand, a decline in climatically suitable areas in southern Europe is pronounced in the Expert knowledge based model. Our projections appear unaffected by non-analogue climate, as this is not detected by Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis. The generated risk maps can aid in identifying suitable habitats for Ae. albopictus and hence support monitoring and control activities to avoid disease vector establishment.

  11. Solar effects on circulation types over Europe: an analysis based on a large number of classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, R.; Cahynová, M.; Kyselý, J.

    2010-09-01

    Recently, effects of the 11-year solar cycle on various aspects of tropospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere in winter have been recognized. One of our previous studies showed a significant solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types from the Hess-Brezowsky catalogue. Here, we use a large collection of varied classifications of circulation patterns, defined over central Europe, assembled within the COST733 Action "Harmonization and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions" to detect the solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types. The advantage of this multi-classification approach is that peculiarities or biases present in any single classification (catalogue) that might influence the detected solar signal are eliminated once a large ensemble of classifications is used. We divide winter months (December to March) into three groups according to the mean monthly solar activity, quantified by the solar 10.7 cm flux. The three groups correspond to the minima of the 11-year solar cycle, a moderate solar activity, and solar maxima. Within each group, frequencies of occurrence of individual circulation types are calculated. Differences in the occurrence of individual classes between solar activity groups indicate the presence of a solar activity effect on atmospheric circulation over Europe. Statistical significance of these differences is estimated by a block resampling method. An enhanced frequency under solar minima and a reduced frequency under solar maxima are observed almost exclusively for the types with easterly flow over central Europe. On the other hand, a reduced frequency under solar minima and an enhanced frequency under solar maxima are found for the types with westerly flow over central Europe. The research is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805, and by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic, contract OC115.

  12. Projections of extreme precipitation events in regional climate simulations for Europe and the Alpine Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajczak, J.; Pall, P.; SchäR, C.

    2013-05-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) from the ENSEMBLES project are analyzed to assess projected changes in 21st century heavy and extreme precipitation events over Europe. A set of 10 RCMs with horizontal grid spacing of 25 km is considered, which are driven by six GCMs under an A1B greenhouse gas scenario. The diagnostics include basic precipitation indices (including mean, wet-day frequency, intensity, and percentile exceedance) and application of generalized extreme value theory for return periods up to 100 years. Changes in precipitation climate between present (1970-1999) and future (2070-2099) conditions are presented on a European scale and in more detail for 11 European regions (mostly in supplemental figures). On the European scale, projections show increases (decreases) in mean amounts and wet-day frequency in northern (southern) Europe. This pattern is oscillating with the seasonal cycle. Changes in extremes exhibit a similar pattern, but increases in heavy events reach much further south. For instance, during spring and fall, much of the Mediterranean is projected to experience decreases in mean precipitation but increases in heavy events. Thus, projected changes in mean and extremes may show different signals. The inter-model spread is partly attributable to a GCM-dependent clustering of the climate change signal, but also affected by RCM uncertainties, in particular in summer. Despite these uncertainties, many of the projected changes are statistically significant and consistent across models. For instance, for the Alps, all models project an intensification of heavy events during fall, and these changes are statistically significant for a majority of the models considered.

  13. Uncertainties in future ozone and PM10 projections over Europe from a regional climate multiphysics ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; Jerez, S.; Montávez, J. P.; Trigo, R. M.

    2013-11-01

    Due to the computational time required for modeling air quality climatologies, the characterization of processes introducing the largest uncertainty in air quality-climate projections is a sound field of research. Here an air quality ensemble is assessed over Europe for present (1971-2000) and future (2071-2100, SRES A2) periods to characterize the sensitivity of regional air quality projections to the physics of the regional climate model driving the simulations. The ensemble comprises eight members resulting from combining two options of parameterization schemes for the planetary boundary layer, cumulus, and microphysics. The differences in the ensemble members (spread) for the concentration of tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM10) are strongly affected by the physics selected and could be considered as a matter of uncertainty in the change signals. Also, the leading processes causing the largest uncertainties in air quality projections have been identified and are mainly related to the election of the cumulus schemes.

  14. Preventing socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviour in adolescents in Europe: Background, design and methods of project TEENAGE

    PubMed Central

    van Lenthe, Frank J; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Lien, Nanna; Moore, Laurence; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Kunst, Anton E; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2009-01-01

    Background Higher prevalence rates of unhealthy behaviours among lower socioeconomic groups contribute substantially to socioeconomic inequalities in health in adults. Preventing the development of these inequalities in unhealthy behaviours early in life is an important strategy to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in health. Little is known however, about health promotion strategies particularly effective in lower socioeconomic groups in youth. It is the purpose of project TEENAGE to improve knowledge on the prevention of socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents in Europe. This paper describes the background, design and methods to be used in the project. Methods/design Through a systematic literature search, existing interventions aimed at promoting physical activity, a healthy diet, preventing the uptake of smoking or alcohol, and evaluated in the general adolescent population in Europe will be identified. Studies in which indicators of socioeconomic position are included will be reanalysed by socioeconomic position. Results of such stratified analyses will be summarised by type of behaviour, across behaviours by type of intervention (health education, environmental interventions and policies) and by setting (individual, household, school, and neighbourhood). In addition, the degree to which effective interventions can be transferred to other European countries will be assessed. Discussion Although it is sometimes assumed that some health promotion strategies may be particularly effective in higher socioeconomic groups, thereby increasing socioeconomic inequalities in health-related behaviour, there is little knowledge about differential effects of health promotion across socioeconomic groups. Synthesizing stratified analyses of a number of interventions conducted in the general adolescent population may offer an efficient guidance for the development of strategies and interventions to prevent socioeconomic inequalities in health early in life. PMID:19426476

  15. Identifying critical nutrient intake in groups at risk of poverty in Europe: the CHANCE project approach.

    PubMed

    Nikoli?, Marina; Glibeti?, Maria; Gurinovi?, Mirjana; Mileševi?, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project's objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe. PMID:24699195

  16. RAND Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    RAND Europe is part of the US-based RAND Corporation and has been active for the past 15 years. Based in Cambridge, UK, RAND Europe conducts research and analysis on the challenges facing many European countries. RAND Europe also provides a number of their research publications which can be viewed alphabetically, chronologically, or browsed by topic. The homepage includes articles on recent research findings, current projects and news highlights.

  17. The Cosmetics Europe strategy for animal-free genotoxicity testing: project status up-date.

    PubMed

    Pfuhler, S; Fautz, R; Ouedraogo, G; Latil, A; Kenny, J; Moore, C; Diembeck, W; Hewitt, N J; Reisinger, K; Barroso, J

    2014-02-01

    The Cosmetics Europe (formerly COLIPA) Genotoxicity Task Force has driven and funded three projects to help address the high rate of misleading positives in in vitro genotoxicity tests: The completed "False Positives" project optimized current mammalian cell assays and showed that the predictive capacity of the in vitro micronucleus assay was improved dramatically by selecting more relevant cells and more sensitive toxicity measures. The on-going "3D skin model" project has been developed and is now validating the use of human reconstructed skin (RS) models in combination with the micronucleus (MN) and Comet assays. These models better reflect the in use conditions of dermally applied products, such as cosmetics. Both assays have demonstrated good inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility and are entering validation stages. The completed "Metabolism" project investigated enzyme capacities of human skin and RS models. The RS models were shown to have comparable metabolic capacity to native human skin, confirming their usefulness for testing of compounds with dermal exposure. The program has already helped to improve the initial test battery predictivity and the RS projects have provided sound support for their use as a follow-up test in the assessment of the genotoxic hazard of cosmetic ingredients in the absence of in vivo data. PMID:23811264

  18. Inventory of veterinary syndromic surveillance initiatives in Europe (Triple-S project): current situation and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Bronner, Anne; Watson, Eamon; Wuyckhuise-Sjouke, Linda; Reist, Martin; Fouillet, Anne; Calavas, Didier; Hendrikx, Pascal; Perrin, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-09-01

    Within the current context that favours the emergence of new diseases, syndromic surveillance (SyS) appears increasingly more relevant tool for the early detection of unexpected health events. The Triple-S project (Syndromic Surveillance Systems in Europe), co-financed by the European Commission, was launched in September 2010 for a three year period to promote both human and animal health SyS in European countries. Objectives of the project included performing an inventory of current and planned European animal health SyS systems and promoting knowledge transfer between SyS experts. This study presents and discusses the results of the Triple-S inventory of European veterinary SyS initiatives. European SyS systems were identified through an active process based on a questionnaire sent to animal health experts involved in SyS in Europe. Results were analyzed through a descriptive analysis and a multiple factor analysis (MFA) in order to establish a typology of the European SyS initiatives. Twenty seven European SyS systems were identified from twelve countries, at different levels of development, from project phase to active systems. Results of this inventory showed a real interest of European countries for SyS but also highlighted the novelty of this field. This survey highlighted the diversity of SyS systems in Europe in terms of objectives, population targeted, data providers, indicators monitored. For most SyS initiatives, statistical analysis of surveillance results was identified as a limitation in using the data. MFA results distinguished two types of systems. The first one belonged to the private sector, focused on companion animals and had reached a higher degree of achievement. The second one was based on mandatory collected data, targeted livestock species and is still in an early project phase. The exchange of knowledge between human and animal health sectors was considered useful to enhance SyS. In the same way that SyS is complementary to traditional surveillance, synergies between human and animal health SyS could be an added value, most notably to enhance timeliness, sensitivity and help interpreting non-specific signals. PMID:23835313

  19. Descriptive epidemiology of Kaposi sarcoma in Europe. Report from the RARECARE project.

    PubMed

    Stiller, C A; Trama, A; Brewster, D H; Verne, J; Bouchardy, C; Navarro, C; Chirlaque, M D; Marcos-Gragera, R; Visser, O; Serraino, D; Weiderpass, E; Dei Tos, A P; Ascoli, V

    2014-12-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a virus-related malignancy which most frequently arises in skin, though visceral sites can also be involved. Infection with Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV or HHV-8) is required for development of KS. Nowadays, most cases worldwide occur in persons who are immunosuppressed, usually because of HIV infection or as a result of therapy to combat rejection of a transplanted organ, but classic Kaposi sarcoma is predominantly a disease of the elderly without apparent immunosuppression. We analyzed 2667 KS incident cases diagnosed during 1995-2002 and registered by 75 population-based European cancer registries contributing to the RARECARE project. Total crude and age-standardized incidence rate was 0.3 per 100,000 per year with an estimated 1642 new cases per year in the EU27 countries. Age-standardized incidence rate was 0.8 per 100,000 in Southern Europe but below 0.3 per 100,000 in all other regions. The elevated rate in southern Europe was attributable to a combination of classic Kaposi sarcoma in some Mediterranean countries and the relatively high incidence of AIDS in several countries. Five-year relative survival for 2000-2002 by the period method was 75%. More than 10,000 persons were estimated to be alive in Europe at the beginning of 2008 with a past diagnosis of KS. The aetiological link with suppressed immunity means that many people alive following diagnosis of KS suffer comorbidity from a pre-existing condition. While KS is a rare cancer, it has a relatively good prognosis and so the number of people affected by it is quite large. Thus it provides a notable example of the importance of networking in diagnosis, therapy and research for rare cancers. PMID:25454979

  20. Cross-border care and healthcare quality improvement in Europe: the MARQuIS research project

    PubMed Central

    Suñol, R; Garel, P; Jacquerye, A

    2009-01-01

    Citizens are increasingly crossing borders within the European Union (EU). Europeans have always been free to travel to receive care abroad, but if they wished to benefit from their statutory social protection scheme, they were subject to their local or national legislation on social protection. This changed in 1991 with the European Court of Justice defining healthcare as a service, starting a debate on the right balance between different principles in European treaties: movement of persons, goods and services, versus the responsibility of member states to organise their healthcare systems. Simultaneously, cross-border cooperation has developed between member states. In this context, patient mobility has become a relevant issue on the EU’s agenda. The EU funded a number of Scientific Support to Policies (SSP) activities within the Sixth Framework Programme, to provide the evidence needed by EU policy makers to deal with issues that European citizens face due to enhanced mobility in Europe. One SSP project “Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies” (MARQuIS), focused on cross-border care. It aimed to assess the value of different quality strategies, and to provide information needed when: (1) countries contract care for patients moving across borders; and (2) individual hospitals review the design of their quality strategies. This article describes the European context related to healthcare, and its implications for cross-border healthcare in Europe. The background information demonstrates a need for further research and development in this area. PMID:19188459

  1. The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) Project: Design and First Results

    PubMed Central

    Kovess, Viviane; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Koç, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background : The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) project aims to build up a set of indicators to collect and monitor children's mental health in an efficient and comparable methodology across the EU countries. It concerns primary schools children aged 6 to 11 years a range where few data are available whereas school interventions are promising. Methods : Three informants were used: parents, teachers and children. In selecting instruments language, instruments were selected according to the easiness to translate them: SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) for parents and teachers and DI (Dominic Interactive). A two-step procedure was used: schools randomization then six children by class in each grade. Results : 9084 children from seven countries (Italy, Netherlands, Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Turkey) completed the Dominic Interactive in their own language. 6563 teachers and 6031 parents completed their questionnaire, and a total of 5574 interviews have been completed by the 3 informants. The participation rate of the children with parents in the participating schools was about 66.4%. As expected teachers report more externalised problems and less internalised problems than parents. Children report more internalised problems than parents and teachers. Boys have consistently more externalised problems than girls and this is the reverse for internalised problems. Combining the diverse informants and impairment levels children with problems requiring some sort of mental health care were about 9.9%: 76% did not see any mental health professional: 78.7% In Eastern countries 63.1% in Western Europe. PMID:25834631

  2. Future flood risk in Europe under high-end climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc; Bianchi, Alessandra; Burek, Peter; Dottori, Francesco; Forzieri, Giovanni; Roudier, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Every year, new record-breaking hydrological extremes affect our society, fueling the debate between climate change and natural climate variability. A new generation of climate projections for the present century has recently become available, based on the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) adopted by the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. A number of COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiments (CORDEX) were set up to provide high-resolution climatic scenarios over different areas of the world, where the European branch is referred to as EURO-CORDEX. In this work, an ensemble of EURO-CORDEX RCP 8.5 scenarios is used as input to a distributed hydrological model to assess the projected changes in flood hazard and flood risk in Europe through the current century. Statistical robustness is sought with the use of ensemble projections, through data aggregation over time (i.e., 30-year time slices) and space (i.e., country and river basin level), with the goal of detecting statistically significant trends over time and with regard to extreme events. A consistent method is proposed to evaluate the agreement of ensemble projections. Changes in the magnitude of average and extreme precipitation and streamflow are investigated through statistical tools and extreme value distribution fitting. A dedicated analysis on peaks over threshold is performed to evaluate changes in the frequency of extreme discharge peaks. The hazard component driven by the climate scenarios is then combined with exposure maps obtained from high resolution flood hazard maps and with vulnerability information, to estimate the overall flood risk in Europe under high-end climate projections. This work brings a number of novelties to address issues pointed out in previous flood risk assessments at continental scale: 1) flood hazard maps are derived by a 2D hydraulic model rather than through simplified approaches; 2) the frequency of extreme peak discharges is assessed more consistently through a peak over threshold approach; 3) a new methodology is proposed to bias correct the climate projections used, which is performed in the evaluation of the flood risk and therefore does not modify atmospheric variables nor the energy balance; 4) a coherent estimate of vulnerability information is included. Results indicate that the change in frequency of discharge extremes is likely to have a larger impact on the overall flood hazard as compared to the change in their magnitude. This underlines some limitations embedded in the commonly used block-maxima analysis on annual peak discharges. On a continental average, flood peaks with return period above 100 years are projected to double in frequency within the next few decades. This is reflected into an average 200 percent climate-related increase in the future expected damage and population affected by the end of the century in Europe.

  3. Reproductive Health in Eastern Europe: A Collaborative Training Project in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Lüdicke, Frank; Horga, Mihai; Campana, Aldo

    2001-01-01

    Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, fundamental political changes in eastern Europe have affected the Soviet-style health care systems that formerly provided basic care for everyone. Many of these systems have collapsed, and the new systems of social insurance that have replaced them often are inadequate. Advanced Training in Reproductive Health in Romania aimed to create an authority in family planning and reproductive health in selected Romanian university centers and to improve training and research capabilities. Initially, the project had 2 main goals: to provide advanced training in reproductive health and family planning to Romanian obstetrics–gynecology specialists from the main university centers—which would allow them to train other physicians (obstetricians, gynecologists, and general practitioners) and medical students—and to develop, test, and finalize specific training materials in Romanian to be used by the new trainers. PMID:11684595

  4. Advanced reprocessing developments in Europe contribution of European projects ACSEPT and ACTINET-I3

    SciTech Connect

    Bourg, S.; Poinssot, C. [CEA DEN, Nuclear Energy Div., RadioChemistry and Processes Dept., F-30207Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Geist, A. [KIT-INE (Germany); Cassayre, L. [CIEMAT (Spain); Rhodes, C. [NNL-UK (United Kingdom); Ekberg, C. [CHALMERS (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Nuclear energy has more than ever to demonstrate that it can contribute safely and on a sustainable way to answer the international increase in energy needs. Actually, in addition to an increased safety of the reactors themselves, its acceptance is still closely associated to our capability to reduce the lifetime of the nuclear waste, to manage them safely and to propose options for a better use of the natural resources. Spent fuel reprocessing can help to reach these objectives. But this cannot be achieved only by optimizing industrial processes through engineering studies. It is of a primary importance to increase our fundamental knowledge in actinide sciences in order to build the future of nuclear energy on reliable and scientifically-founded results, and therefore meet the needs of the future fuel cycles in terms of fabrication and performance of fuels, reprocessing and waste management. At the European level, both the collaborative project ACSEPT and the Integrated Infrastructure Initiative ACTINET-I3 work together to improve our knowledge in actinides chemistry and therefore develop advanced separation processes. These tools are complementary and work in close connection on some specific issues such as the understanding of the selectivity of extracting organic ligands. By offering trans-national access to the main nuclear research facility in Europe, ACTINET-I3 aims at increasing the knowledge in actinide sciences by gathering all the expertise available in European nuclear research institutes or university and giving them the opportunity to come and work in hot-labs (ITU, Atalante...) or beamlines (ESFR, ANKA, PSI) ACSEPT is focused on the development of advanced separation processes, both aqueous and pyrochemical. Head-end steps, fuel re-fabrication, solvent treatment, waste management are also taken into account. In aqueous process development, the SANEX and innovative SANEX flowsheets demonstration were successfully achieved. Chemical systems were selected for GANEX and a hot-test under finalization thanks to an important collaboration between European teams. In pyrometallurgy, studies on actinide back-extraction from aluminium and exhaustive electrolysis allowed the validation of two flowsheets developed from more then 10 years in Europe. In addition, efforts were made to increase collaborations, mutualize and homogenise procedures and share good practices. A training and education program including seminars, workshops, brainstorming meeting but also student exchanges and support to post-doctorate fellowships was a key point for maintaining and increasing a high expertise level in actinide separation sciences in Europe. The second ACSEPT International workshop, organised as a specific session of the next Atalante 2012 International Conference, will conclude the ACSEPT project. (authors)

  5. Project INTEGRATE - a common methodological approach to understand integrated health care in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cash-Gibson, Lucinda; Rosenmoller, Magdalene

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of case studies in health services research has proven to be an excellent methodology for gaining in-depth understanding of the organisation and delivery of health care. This is particularly relevant when looking at the complexity of integrated healthcare programmes, where multifaceted interactions occur at the different levels of care and often without a clear link between the interventions (new and/or existing) and their impact on outcomes (in terms of patients health, both patient and professional satisfaction and cost-effectiveness). Still, integrated care is seen as a core strategy in the sustainability of health and care provision in most societies in Europe and beyond. More specifically, at present, there is neither clear evidence on transferable factors of integrated care success nor a method for determining how to establish these specific success factors. The drawback of case methodology in this case, however, is that the in-depth results or lessons generated are usually highly context-specific and thus brings the challenge of transferability of findings to other settings, as different health care systems and different indications are often not comparable. Project INTEGRATE, a European Commission-funded project, has been designed to overcome these problems; it looks into four chronic conditions in different European settings, under a common methodology framework (taking a mixed-methods approach) to try to overcome the issue of context specificity and limited transferability. The common methodological framework described in this paper seeks to bring together the different case study findings in a way that key lessons may be derived and transferred between countries, contexts and patient-groups, where integrated care is delivered in order to provide insight into generalisability and build on existing evidence in this field. Methodology To compare the different integrated care experiences, a mixed-methods approach has been adopted with the creation of a common methodological framework (including data collection tools and case study template report) to be used by the case studies for their analyses. Methods of analysis The four case studies attempt to compare health care services before and after the ‘integration’ of care, while triangulating the findings using quantitative and qualitative data, and provide an in-depth description of the organisation and delivery of care, and the impact on outcomes. The common framework aims to allow for the extraction of key transferable learning from the cases, taking into account context-dependency. Conclusion The application and evaluation of the common methodological approach aim to distill and identify important elements for successful integrated care, in order to strengthen the evidence base for integrated care (by facilitating cross-context comparisons), increase the transferability of findings from highly context-specific to other settings and lead to concrete and practical policy and operational recommendations. PMID:25550690

  6. The range of regional climate change projections in central Europe: How to deal with the spread of climate model results?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Rechid; D. Jacob; R. Podzun

    2010-01-01

    The regional climate change projections for central Europe in the 21st century show a large spread of simulated temperature and precipitation trends due to natural variability and modelling uncertainties. The questions are how to extract robust climate change signals and how to transfer the range of possible temperature and precipitation trends to climate change impact studies and adaptation strategies? Within

  7. Future projection of drought conditions in Europe: A comprehensive study using the ENSEMBLES regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Georg; Gobiet, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Drought is a natural recurrent phenomenon which occurs in a variety of different temporal and spatial scales and significantly affects natural and socio-economic systems. Under the aspect of the human induced climate change it is of high interest to decision makers how drought conditions might change at regional scale in order to map out adequate mitigation and adaption strategies. For this study, the most recent regional climate scenarios for Europe with a horizontal resolution of approximately 25 km are used (provided by the EU FP6 Integrated Project ENSEMBLES - http://ensembles-eu.org/). Based on seasonal temperature and precipitation climate change signals, eight scenarios out of the entire ensemble are selected in order to span a large fraction of the uncertainty range. These eight scenarios are analysed in more detail. A quantile mapping approach based on the E-OBS observational dataset is applied to daily temperature and precipitation to reduce model errors before investigating drought conditions in nine European sub regions. Two commonly used drought indices are calculated as drought indicators - the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) which is solely based on precipitation and the self calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) which is additionally based on temperature and available water capacity of the soil. The SPI is calculated for various time scales, accounting for different drought types, and the scPDSI is calculated on monthly basis. Both indices are calibrated in the past (1951 - 2000) and then applied to the future scenarios (2021 - 2050) according to the concept of relative drought indices. The temporal and spatial characteristics of projected future drought conditions are analysed with focus on moderately and extremely dry and wet conditions and the uncertainty in the projections. Finally, first results will be presented. Acknowledgement: "The ENSEMBLES data used in this work was funded by the EU FP6 Integrated Project ENSEMBLES (Contract number 505539) whose support is gratefully acknowledged."

  8. Projected Changes in Northern Europe Storm and Precipitation Characteristics: Uncertainty and the Implications for Climate Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolowski, S.; Mesquita, M.; Keay, K.

    2012-04-01

    Future changes in storm characteristics and storm tracks over the eastern North Atlantic may have profound implications for energy providers, coastal communities and water resources availability across the European sector. Shifts in the storm tracks and the amount and intensity of precipitation are of particular concern to local/ municipal governments as they contemplate climate change adaptation/ mitigation strategies. Communicating the latest science to these end users is a two-pronged problem. On one prong the scientific community still has some way to go before fully understanding the physical mechanisms driving projected changes at local to regional scales and their associated uncertainties (which can be quite large). On the other prong planners require up-to-date, reliable information at just these scales as they seek to make decisions, which will resonate for decades. The present study investigates projected changes to storms and precipitation over Northern Europe and decomposes the sources of uncertainty surrounding these changes. Strategies for communicating these changes and uncertainties with planners are also discussed. The city of Bergen, which is a participant in the ECLISE project, is employed as a case study for how complex and often counterintuitive climate information can be made useful for end users. Some large-scale, robust changes in storm track statistics have been identified in the ensemble mean climate change response. However, there are often widely varying responses between models and little analysis on the role intra-model variability. A focus on the multi model ensemble mean response is useful in that it isolates externally forced (i.e. climate change) aspects of future variability. However, this approach underestimates the influence of internal variability (weather-related "noise") and its contribution to total uncertainty. Recent research suggests that internal variability can make a large contribution to overall uncertainty with clear implications for future prediction efforts. The present study investigates projected regional changes to seasonal storm characteristics and precipitation over the eastern North Atlantic and Northern Europe using a high-resolution, stretched grid, AGCM (ARPEGE). An extra-tropical cyclone-tracking algorithm is applied to simulations for present (1980-1999) and future (2020-2060) periods and NCEP reanalysis data (1980-1999). Two present day simulations are carried out: one with spectral nudging toward the large-scale circulation (Nudged) and one without (Free). Four future realizations are run that differ only in their SST specifications, which are taken from four A1B AOGCM simulations from different modeling groups. Storm track statistics are computed for all months with winter (DJF) and summer (JJA) shown. Future changes are evaluated by subtracting the 20th century seasonal mean of the Free run from the ensemble mean of the (2041-2060) 21st century runs. The multiple future realizations allow for the decomposition of total future variability into parts due to forced and internal variability. Despite the dominance of internal variability in the seasonal storm response, robust precipitation signals are identified. These results suggest that, in these simulations at least, the changes in the precipitation come mainly from the thermodynamic rather than the dynamic response of the atmosphere to global warming.

  9. Inter-comparison of statistical downscaling methods for projection of extreme precipitation in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunyer, M. A.; Hundecha, Y.; Lawrence, D.; Madsen, H.; Willems, P.; Martinkova, M.; Vormoor, K.; Bürger, G.; Hanel, M.; Kriau?i?nien?, J.; Loukas, A.; Osuch, M.; Yücel, I.

    2015-04-01

    Information on extreme precipitation for future climate is needed to assess the changes in the frequency and intensity of flooding. The primary source of information in climate change impact studies is climate model projections. However, due to the coarse resolution and biases of these models, they cannot be directly used in hydrological models. Hence, statistical downscaling is necessary to address climate change impacts at the catchment scale. This study compares eight statistical downscaling methods (SDMs) often used in climate change impact studies. Four methods are based on change factors (CFs), three are bias correction (BC) methods, and one is a perfect prognosis method. The eight methods are used to downscale precipitation output from 15 regional climate models (RCMs) from the ENSEMBLES project for 11 catchments in Europe. The overall results point to an increase in extreme precipitation in most catchments in both winter and summer. For individual catchments, the downscaled time series tend to agree on the direction of the change but differ in the magnitude. Differences between the SDMs vary between the catchments and depend on the season analysed. Similarly, general conclusions cannot be drawn regarding the differences between CFs and BC methods. The performance of the BC methods during the control period also depends on the catchment, but in most cases they represent an improvement compared to RCM outputs. Analysis of the variance in the ensemble of RCMs and SDMs indicates that at least 30% and up to approximately half of the total variance is derived from the SDMs. This study illustrates the large variability in the expected changes in extreme precipitation and highlights the need for considering an ensemble of both SDMs and climate models. Recommendations are provided for the selection of the most suitable SDMs to include in the analysis.

  10. Highlight of rapid aeolian events within the last glacial loess series of europe (eole project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, P.; Rousseau, D. D.; Hatté, C.; Moine, O.; Fontugne, M.; Lang, A.; Zoller, L.

    2003-04-01

    The EOLE project focuses on the impact of millenial climatic variations (Dansgaard /Oeschger) and abrupt events (Heinrich), on the loessic environments of Western and Central Europe between 30 and 15ka BP (50°N transect between 2° and 17°E). The evidence of rapid climatic events in the loess sequences is based on their physical (grain-size, CaCO3, Iron, magnetic susceptibility) and biogeochimical (molluscs, organic carbon, d13C) characterisations, within the best-developed sequences (high-resolution 1 sample/5 cm; 10 to 15 m in thickness). The main results have been obtained in the Nussloch reference sequence (Rhine valley, Germany) where cyclic variations appear within the Upper Pleniglacial from high-resolution grain-size and MS analyses. These variations are mainly underlined by the %20-50µm/%<20µm ratio (grain-size index GSI) which is interpreted as an indirect proxy of the aeolian dynamics: high values within pure typical loess ("Lœss Events" L1 to L8)/ low values in the various tundra gley layers G1 to G8. Our investigations show that, during the Upper Pleniglacial, the loess deposition is basically characterised by a succession of rapid sedimentation phases (especially during Heinrich events 2 and 3), separated by stops (or strong reduction) in the aeolian flux. According to OSL and 14C dating, a correlation between GSI index and the dust record from GRIP or GISP II ice cores is proposed. In addition, the cyclicity of the loess record seems to represent the expression, in continental environments, of the 1500 years cycles described in North Atlantic sediments. In parallel, the analysis of the13C of loess organic matter and of the malacological assemblages at Nussloch shows a close correspondence with the d18O from GRIP. Finally these results show that the high frequency climatic variability that characterises the North Atlantic and Greenland records during the LGM had a strong impact on aeolian sedimentation and on terrestrial environments of Western and Central Europe.

  11. Rapid Eolian Events Within The Last Glacial Loess Series of Europe (EOLE project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, D.; Antoine, P.; Hatté, C.; Moine, O.; Lang, A.; Fontugne, M.; Zoeller, L.

    2003-12-01

    The EOLE project focuses on the impact of millennial climatic variations (Dansgaard /Oeschger) and abrupt events (Heinrich), on the loess environments of Western and Central Europe between 30 and 15ka BP (50° N transect between 2° and 17° E). The evidence of rapid climatic events in the loess sequences is based on their physical (grain-size, CaCO3, Iron, magnetic susceptibility) and biogeochimical (mollusks, organic carbon, ?13C ) characterizations, within the best-developed sequences (high-resolution 1 sample/5 cm; 10 to 15 m in thickness). The main results have been obtained in the Nussloch reference sequence (Rhine valley, Germany) where cyclic variations appear within the Upper Pleniglacial from high-resolution grain-size and MS analyses. These variations are mainly underlined by the %20-50? m? %<20? m ratio (grain-size index GSI) which is interpreted as an indirect proxy of the a dynamics: high values within pure typical loess ("L?ss Events" L1 to L8)/ low values in the various tundra gley layers G1 to G8. Our investigations show that, during the Upper Pleniglacial, the loess deposition is basically characterized by a succession of rapid sedimentation phases (especially during Heinrich events 2 and 3), separated by stops (or strong reduction) in the a flux. According to OSL and 14C dating, a correlation between GSI index and the dust record from GRIP or GISP II ice cores is proposed. In addition, the cyclicity of the loess record seems to represent the expression, in continental environments, of the 1500 years cycles described in North Atlantic sediments. In parallel, the analysis of the13C of loess organic matter and of the malacological assemblages at Nussloch shows a close correspondence with the d18O from GRIP. Finally these results show that the high frequency climatic variability that characterizes the North Atlantic and Greenland records during the LGM had a strong impact on sedimentation and on terrestrial environments of Western and Central Europe.

  12. Costing the impact of climate change on tourism in Europe: results of the PESETA project. Climatic Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Amelung; A. Moreno

    2012-01-01

    Climate change might lead to large shifts in tourist flows, with large economic implications. This article simulates the effect of future climate change by the 2080s on outdoor international tourism expenditure within Europe. The assessment is based on the statistical relationship between bed nights and a climate-related index of human comfort, after accounting for other determinants of bed nights such

  13. Effectiveness and impact of rotavirus vaccines in Europe, 2006-2014.

    PubMed

    Karafillakis, Emilie; Hassounah, Sondus; Atchison, Christina

    2015-04-27

    Prior to the introduction of rotavirus vaccines in 2006, rotavirus was the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis among European children <5 years of age. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to examine the effectiveness and impact of rotavirus vaccines in Europe following the first eight years of routine use. Four publication databases were searched, yielding 276 unique citations from February 1st, 2006 to July 31st, 2014. Twenty four studies on effectiveness (n=9) and impact (n=15) met the inclusion criteria. Across Europe, vaccine effectiveness against rotavirus-related healthcare utilisation ranged from 68% to 98%, consistent with efficacy data from clinical trials. Reductions in rotavirus hospitalisations ranged from 65% to 84%, consistent with findings from post-marketing studies from the US and Latin America. We confirm the significant public health benefit of rotavirus vaccination in Europe and provide further evidence to support implementation of universal rotavirus vaccination in all European countries. PMID:25795258

  14. The Climate and Landscape of the Middle Part of the Weichselian Glaciation in Europe: The Stage 3 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    2002-01-01

    Oxygen isotope stage 3 (OIS 3) was a mild interval between the two cold maxima of the last (Weichselian) glaciation marked by climate changes oscillating on a 100-1000 yr time scale between near-interglacial and peak-glacial conditions. During OIS 3, modern humans entered Europe, and somewhat later their Neanderthal predecessors became extinct. Our understanding of this momentous event depends on an answer to the question, Did the unstable environmental conditions of the time play a significant role in early human history? The Stage 3 Project is an interdisciplinary study with two main goals: (1) to describe with existing data and to simulate the climates and landscapes of typical warm and cold phases between 45,000 and 30,000 yr ago and (2) to compare the results with the spatial and temporal distribution of human beings in this context. This paper introduces the Stage 3 Project and provides background to a set of papers on the climate and landscape aspects of the Project that will appear in Quaternary Research and to studies of their relevance to the Early Upper Paleolithic of Europe to appear in journals yet to be determined.

  15. Quantifying nitrogen fluxes and their influence on the greenhouse gas balance - recent findings of the NitroEurope Integrated Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, S.; Sutton, M. A.; Nemitz, E.; Beier, C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Cellier, P.; de Vries, W.; Erisman, J.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Bleeker, A.; Nitroeurope Ip Consortium

    2010-12-01

    The generation of reactive nitrogen (Nr) by human activities to stimulate agricultural productivity and the unintended formation of Nr in combustion processes both have major impacts on the global environment. Effects of excess Nr include the deterioration of air quality, water quality, soil quality and a decline in biodiversity. One of the most controversial impacts of nitrogen, however, is on the greenhouse gas balance. While recent papers have highlighted a possible benefit of nitrogen in enhancing rates of carbon sequestration, there remain many trade-offs between nitrogen and greenhouse gas exchange. The result is that the net effect of Nr on the global radiative balance has yet to be fully quantified. To better understand these relationships requires intense measurement and modelling of Nr fluxes at various temporal and spatial scales in order to make the link between different nitrogen forms and their fate in the environment. It is essential to measure fluxes for a wide range of ecosystems considering the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of the Nr components and greenhouse gases, as well as the fixation of di-nitrogen and its creation by denitrification. Long-term observations are needed for representative ecosystems, together with results from experiments addressing the responses of the key nitrogen and greenhouse gas fluxes to different global change drivers. The NitroEurope Integrated Project (in short NEU IP), funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission, has developed and applied a strategy for quantifying these different terms on multiple scales. With the project nearing completion, this presentation reports selected preliminary findings. It highlights the first estimates of Nr inputs and net green-house gas exchange for a series of 13 flux ‘supersites’, complemented by the emerging results of Nr concentrations and related N inputs at a network of 58 ‘inferential sites’, which extend the European representativity of the results. In addition, new low cost methods to measure nitrogen fluxes will be reported, which have been extensively tested at those sites. Results from this 3-tier flux network are underpinned by emerging findings from an extensive network of manipulation sites. A combination of modelling at plot, landscape and European scales is used to upscale the results. Finally the talk will illustrate how nitrogen mitigation techniques are being considered at the European scale, including an estimation of the scale of costs involved in simultaneously mitigating nitrous oxide, ammonia and nitrate losses.

  16. Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca travelling from Africa to breed in Europe: differential effects of winter and

    E-print Network

    Potti, Jaime

    of winter and migration conditions on breeding date Both C., Sanz J.J., Artemyev A.A., Blaauw B., Cowie R travelling from Africa to breed in Europe: differential effects of winter and migration condi- tions on breeding date. Ardea 94(3): 511­525. In most bird species there is only a short time window available

  17. Nutritional status and lifestyles of adolescents from a public health perspective. The HELENA Project—Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. De Henauw; F. Gottrand; I. De Bourdeaudhuij; M. Gonzalez-Gross; C. Leclercq; A. Kafatos; D. Molnar; A. Marcos; M. Castillo; J. Dallongeville; C. C. Gilbert; P. Bergman; K. Widhalm; Y. Manios; C. Breidenassel; M. Kersting; L. A. Moreno

    2007-01-01

    The HELENA Project—Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence—is a European, collaborative research project financed by the EU Sixth Framework Programme in the area of nutrition-related\\u000a adolescent health. The basic objective of the HELENA project is to obtain reliable and comparable data from a random sample\\u000a of European adolescents (boys and girls aged 13–16 years) on a broad battery of

  18. Short-term Associations between Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and Hospitalizations in Southern Europe: Results from the MED-PARTICLES Project

    PubMed Central

    Samoli, Evangelia; Alessandrini, Ester; Cadum, Ennio; Ostro, Bart; Berti, Giovanna; Faustini, Annunziata; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Linares, Cristina; Pascal, Mathilde; Randi, Giorgia; Ranzi, Andrea; Stivanello, Elisa; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the short-term effects of fine and coarse particles on morbidity in Europe is scarce and inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to estimate the association between daily concentrations of fine and coarse particles with hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in eight Southern European cities, within the MED-PARTICLES project. Methods: City-specific Poisson models were fitted to estimate associations of daily concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), ? 10 ?m (PM10), and their difference (PM2.5–10) with daily counts of emergency hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. We derived pooled estimates from random-effects meta-analysis and evaluated the robustness of results to co-pollutant exposure adjustment and model specification. Pooled concentration–response curves were estimated using a meta-smoothing approach. Results: We found significant associations between all PM fractions and cardiovascular admissions. Increases of 10 ?g/m3 in PM2.5, 6.3 ?g/m3 in PM2.5–10, and 14.4 ?g/m3 in PM10 (lag 0–1 days) were associated with increases in cardiovascular admissions of 0.51% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.90%), 0.46% (95% CI: 0.10, 0.82%), and 0.53% (95% CI: 0.06, 1.00%), respectively. Stronger associations were estimated for respiratory hospitalizations, ranging from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.21, 2.11%) for PM10 to 1.36% (95% CI: 0.23, 2.49) for PM2.5 (lag 0–5 days). Conclusions: PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 were positively associated with cardiovascular and respiratory admissions in eight Mediterranean cities. Information on the short-term effects of different PM fractions on morbidity in Southern Europe will be useful to inform European policies on air quality standards. Citation: Stafoggia M, Samoli E, Alessandrini E, Cadum E, Ostro B, Berti G, Faustini A, Jacquemin B, Linares C, Pascal M, Randi G, Ranzi A, Stivanello E, Forastiere F, the MED-PARTICLES Study Group. 2013. Short-term associations between fine and coarse particulate matter and hospitalizations in Southern Europe: results from the MED-PARTICLES project. Environ Health Perspect 121:1026–1033; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206151 PMID:23777832

  19. Priorities for mental health research in Europe: A survey among national stakeholders' associations within the ROAMER project

    PubMed Central

    Fiorillo, Andrea; Luciano, Mario; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Sampogna, Gaia; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Maj, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Within the ROAMER project, funded by the European Commission, a survey was conducted with national associations/organizations of psychiatrists, other mental health professionals, users and/or carers, and psychiatric trainees in the 27 countries of the European Union, aiming to explore their views about priorities for mental health research in Europe. One hundred and eight associations/organizations returned the questionnaire. The five most frequently selected research priorities were early detection and management of mental disorders, quality of mental health services, prevention of mental disorders, rehabilitation and social inclusion, and new medications for mental disorders. All these areas, except the last one, were among the top ten research priorities according to all categories of stakeholders, along with stigma and discrimination. These results seem to support the recent argument that some rebalancing in favor of psychosocial and health service studies may be needed in psychiatric research. PMID:23737426

  20. THE SUMMER NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION IN CMIP3 MODELS AND RELATED UNCERTAINTIES IN PROJECTED SUMMER DRYING IN EUROPE

    E-print Network

    Stoffelen, Ad

    DRYING IN EUROPE Ileana Bladé1,2 , Didac Fortuny1 , Geert Jan van Oldenborgh3 and Brant Liebmann4/European sector and modulates precipitation not only in the vicinity of the SLP dipole (northwest Europe) but also in northwest Europe that accompany the positive phase. The models also capture the concurrent wet conditions

  1. Performance Indicators and Rational Management Tools: A Comparative Assessment of Projects in North America and Europe. AIR 1993 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedwek, Brian P.; Neal, John E.

    This study developed a classification scheme to critically compare performance assessment projects at higher education universities in North America and Europe. Performance indicators and assessment initiatives were compared using nine basic dimensions: (1) locus of control, (2) degree of governmental involvement, (3) focus of performance…

  2. Collective effective dose in Europe from X-ray and nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Bly, R; Jahnen, A; Järvinen, H; Olerud, H; Vassileva, J; Vogiatzi, S

    2015-07-01

    Population doses from radiodiagnostic (X-ray and nuclear medicine) procedures in Europe were estimated based on data collected from 36 European countries. For X-ray procedures in EU and EFTA countries (except Liechtenstein) the collective effective dose is 547 500 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 605 000 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.05 mSv per caput. For nuclear medicine procedures in EU countries and EFTA (except Liechtenstein) countries the collective effective dose is 30 700 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 31 100 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.05 mSv per caput. PMID:25848115

  3. A Community-University Exchange Project Modeled after Europe's Science Shops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Elizabeth; Ross, J. Ashleigh

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a pilot project of the Morgridge Center for Public Service at the University of Wisconsin-Madison for a new structure for community-based learning and research. It is based on the European-derived science shop model for democratizing campus-community partnerships using shared values of mutual respect and validation of…

  4. The implementation of urban regeneration projects in Europe: Global ambitions, local matters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjolein Spaans

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic of the world economy influences function profiles of cities. Many European cities find themselves confronted by a weakening of their economic base and have formulated a new profile for which to aim. They have tried to strengthen the profile through inner city multifunctional urban regeneration projects. The assumption of this paper is that when looking at the implementation

  5. Comenius Project: Are e-Learning Collaborations of High School Students across Europe in Maths Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonovits, Reinhard; McElroy, Jim; O'Loughlin, James; Townsend, Colin

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of the project is to allow for the collaboration of high school students of different European countries on small, selected maths topics. This involves the use of technology, student mobility and English language competency. Benefits are also expected to accrue to teachers of mathematics by providing the opportunity to work with…

  6. Advection from the North Atlantic as the Forcing of Winter Greenhouse Effect Over Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, Jay; Angell, J.; Atlas, Robert; Bungato, D.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Susskind, J.; Wu, M.-L. C.

    2001-01-01

    In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface skin temperature are observed over central Europe: we observe a difference of 9.8 K comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996 for the region 50-60 degrees N; 5-35 degrees E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index I(sub na), the average of the ocean-surface wind speed over the eastern North Atlantic when the direction is from the southwest (when the wind is from another direction, it counts as a zero speed to the average). Average Ina for February 1990 was 10.6 in s(exp -1), but for February 1996 I(sub na) was only 2.4 m s(exp -1). A large value of I(sub na) means a strong southwesterly flow which brings warm and moist air into Europe at low level, producing a steeper tropospheric lapse rate. Strong ascending motions result, which we observe in February 1990 at 700 mb. The near-surface moisture rises to higher (and cooler) levels, producing clouds and precipitation. Total preciptable water and cloud-cover fraction have larger values in February 1990 than in 1996. The difference in the greenhouse effect between these two scenarios can be translated into a virtual irradiating source of 2.6 W m(exp -2) above the February 1990 atmosphere, which, as an order of magnitude estimate, contributes to the warming of the surface by 2.6 K. If we accept this estimate as numerically pertinent, the direct effect stands as 7.2 K (9.8 K - 2.6 K), and therefore its greenhouse-effect reinforcement is by 36%. This constitutes a substantial positive feedback to the direct effect, which is the inflow of warm air to the low troposphere over Europe.

  7. Meteorology and photochemical air pollution in Southern Europe: Experimental results from EC research projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Artnano

    1996-01-01

    The MECAPIP project of EC has served to document the summer atmospheric circulations and the related air pollution dynamics over Spain and the Western Mediterranean. The first includes surface wind convergence over the Iberian peninsula, large-scale compensatory subsidence over the surrounding coastal areas, and the formation of re-circulatory cells as a result of the sea breezes combining with up-slope winds

  8. Economics of chronic diseases protocol: cost-effectiveness modelling and the future burden of non-communicable disease in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of chronic disease is caused by risk factors which are mostly preventable. Effective interventions to reduce these risks are known and proven to be applicable to a variety of settings. Chronic disease is generally developed long before the fatal outcome, meaning that a lot of people spend a number of years in poor health. Effective prevention measures can prolong lives of individuals and significantly improve their quality of life. However, the methods to measure cost-effectiveness are a subject to much debate. The Economics of Chronic Diseases project aims to establish the best possible methods of measuring cost-effectiveness as well as develop micro-simulation models apt at projecting future burden of chronic diseases, their costs and potential savings after implementation of cost-effective interventions. Method This research project will involve eight European countries: Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Lithuania, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom (UK). A literature review will be conducted to identify scientific articles which critically review the methods of cost-effectiveness. Contact will be made health economists to inform and enrich this review. This evidence will be used as a springboard for discussion at a meeting with key European stakeholders and experts with the aim of reaching a consensus on recommendations for cost-effectiveness methodology. Epidemiological data for coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be collected along with data on time trends in three major risk factors related to these diseases, specifically tobacco consumption, blood pressure and body mass index. Economic and epidemiological micro-simulation models will be developed to asses the future distributions of risks, disease outcomes, healthcare costs and the cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in Europe. Discussion This work will help to establish the best methods of measuring cost-effectiveness of health interventions as well as test a variety of scenarios to reduce the risk factors associated with selected chronic diseases. The modelling projections could be used to inform decisions and policies that will implement the best course of action to curb the rising incidence of chronic diseases. PMID:24886110

  9. Using Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) to Resolve the Major Construction Project Delay Causes in Saudi Arabia

    E-print Network

    Alkhalid, Khalid Abdullah

    2011-12-16

    Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) has gained attention in the United States and Europe as an effective delivery method for construction projects. The aim of this research paper is to determine the major causes of delay in projects in Saudi Arabia...

  10. Response of Urban Systems to Climate Change in Europe: Heat Stress Exposure and the Effect on Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart; Grommen, Mart

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heavy rain- and windstorms, floods, drought, heat waves, etc. The summer 2003 European heat wave was the hottest summer on record in Europe over the past centuries leading to health crises in several countries like France and caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. The main risks induced by global climate change in urbanised areas are considered to be overheating and resulting health effects, increased exposure to flood events, increased damage losses from extreme weather conditions but also shortages in the provision of life-sustaining services. Moreover, the cities themselves create specific or inherent risks and urban adaptation is often very demanding. As most of Europe's inhabitants live in cities, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of climate variability on urban areas and their populations. The present study focusses on the identification of heat stress variables related to human health and the extraction of this information by processing daily temperature statistics of local urban climate simulations over multiple timeframes of 20 years and three different European cities based on recent, near future and far future global climate predictions. The analyses have been conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (Belgium), Berlin (Germany) and Almada (Portugal) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. Apart from the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect), additional heat stress parameters such as the average number of heat wave days together with their duration and intensities have been covered during this research. In a subsequent step, the heat stress variables are superposed on relevant socio-economic datasets targeting total population and its distribution per age class as well as vulnerable institutions such as hospitals, schools, rest homes and child/day care facilities in order to generate heat stress exposure maps for each use case city and various climate, urban planning and mitigation scenarios. The specifications and requirements for the various scenarios have been consolidated in close collaboration with the local stakeholders during dedicated end-users workshops. The results of this study will allow urban planners and policy makers facing the challenges of climate change and develop sound strategies for evolving towards sustainable and climate resilient cities.

  11. Future snowfall in western and central Europe projected with a high-resolution regional climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vries, Hylke; Lenderink, Geert; Meijgaard, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Snowfall frequency and intensity are influenced strongly by climate change. Here we separate the basic frequency change resulting from a gradually warming climate, from the intensity changes, by focusing on snowfall on days where the mean temperature is below freezing (Hellmann days). Using an ensemble of simulations, obtained with the high-resolution regional climate model KNMI-RACMO2 driven by the EC-EARTH global climate model and RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 forcing scenarios, we show that in addition to the strong decrease in the number of Hellmann days, also a substantial reduction in the mean Hellmann-day snowfall can be expected over large parts of western and central Europe. Moreover, seasonal snowfall extremes display trends that are comparable or even larger. Projected intensity reductions are locally as large as -30% per degree warming, thus being in sharp contrast to mean winter precipitation, which increases in most future climate scenarios. Exceptions are the high Alps and parts of Scandinavia, which may see an increase of up to +10% per degree warming.

  12. Evidence-based development of school-based and family-involved prevention of overweight across Europe: The ENERGY-project's design and conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for more carefully developed public health measures in order to curb the obesity epidemic among youth. The overall aim of the "EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth" (ENERGY)-project is the development and formative evaluation of a theory-informed and evidence-based multi-component school-based and family-involved intervention program ready to be implemented and evaluated for effectiveness across Europe. This program aims at promoting the adoption or continuation of health behaviors that contribute to a healthy energy balance among school-aged children. Earlier studies have indicated that school and family environments are key determinants of energy-balance behaviors in schoolchildren. Schools are an important setting for health promotion in this age group, but school-based interventions mostly fail to target and involve the family environment. Methods Led by a multidisciplinary team of researchers from eleven European countries and supported by a team of Australian experts, the ENERGY-project is informed by the Environmental Research Framework for Weight gain Prevention, and comprises a comprehensive epidemiological analysis including 1) systematic reviews of the literature, 2) secondary analyses of existing data, 3) focus group research, and 4) a cross European school-based survey. Results and discussion The theoretical framework and the epidemiological analysis will subsequently inform stepwise intervention development targeting the most relevant energy balance-related behaviors and their personal, family-environmental and school-environmental determinants applying the Intervention Mapping protocol. The intervention scheme will undergo formative and pilot evaluation in five countries. The results of ENERGY will be disseminated among key stakeholders including researchers, policy makers and the general population. Conclusions The ENERGY-project is an international, multidisciplinary effort to develop and test an evidence-based and theory-informed intervention program for obesity prevention among school-aged children. PMID:20500859

  13. Assessing projected changes in heat waves over Northern Europe using two regional climate models at 8-km resolution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox Maule, Cathrine; Christensen, Ole B.; Mayer, Stephanie; Thejll, Peter

    2013-04-01

    As temperatures in Northern Europe increase due to climate change the occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves is likely to change. A higher occurrence rate of heat waves can have serious health consequences, in particular for the elderly, but also for very young children and the infirm. Not only the occurrence rate of heat waves, but also changes in the duration of individual heat waves, is of importance. It is therefore of relevance to investigate how the occurrence of heat waves is likely to increase in the future, to allow for adaptation. We have looked at the projected changes in the occurrence rate of heat waves in a part of northern Europe including southern Scandinavia, the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, according to two different greenhouse gas emission scenarios: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. In this study we have chosen to use the Danish Meteorological Institutes definition, in which a high temperature event is classified as a heat wave if the average of the maximum temperature of a period of at least 3 consecutive days exceeds 28°C. To estimate the change in the occurrence rate of heat waves we have used two different GCM-RCM combinations, NorESM-WRF (BCCR) and EC-EARTH-HIRHAM5 (DMI). Both regional models have down-scaled the global models to a resolution of about 8 km, and hourly values of several parameters including temperature, precipitation and wind have been stored. We compare the climate model data from three different time slices, 1981-2010 run with historical greenhouse gas concentrations, 2021-2050 (RPC4.5 and RCP 8.5) and 2071-2100 (RPC4.5 and RCP 8.5), to see the time evolution in the occurrence rate of heat waves for the two RCP scenarios. Our results indicate that the occurrence rate of heat waves in this region will increase as a consequence of global warming, and that individual heat waves will tend to last longer.

  14. Forest transitions in Eastern Europe and their effects on carbon budgets.

    PubMed

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Kaplan, Jed O; Prishchepov, Alexander V; Rylsky, Ilya; Chaskovskyy, Oleh; Tikunov, Vladimir S; Müller, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Forests often rebound from deforestation following industrialization and urbanization, but for many regions our understanding of where and when forest transitions happened, and how they affected carbon budgets remains poor. One such region is Eastern Europe, where political and socio-economic conditions changed drastically over the last three centuries, but forest trends have not yet been analyzed in detail. We present a new assessment of historical forest change in the European part of the former Soviet Union and the legacies of these changes on contemporary carbon stocks. To reconstruct forest area, we homogenized statistics at the provincial level for ad 1700-2010 to identify forest transition years and forest trends. We contrast our reconstruction with the KK11 and HYDE 3.1 land change scenarios, and use all three datasets to drive the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model to calculate carbon stock dynamics. Our results revealed that forest transitions in Eastern Europe occurred predominantly in the early 20th century, substantially later than in Western Europe. We also found marked geographic variation in forest transitions, with some areas characterized by relatively stable or continuously declining forest area. Our data suggest extensive deforestation in European Russia already prior to ad 1700, and even greater deforestation in the 18th and 19th centuries than in the KK11 and HYDE scenarios. Based on our reconstruction, cumulative carbon emissions from deforestation were greater before 1700 (60 Pg C) than thereafter (29 Pg C). Summed over our entire study area, forest transitions led to a modest uptake in carbon over recent decades, with our dataset showing the smallest effect (<5.5 Pg C) and a more heterogeneous pattern of source and sink regions. This suggests substantial sequestration potential in regrowing forests of the region, a trend that may be amplified through ongoing land abandonment, climate change, and CO2 fertilization. PMID:25691481

  15. Europe Note Europe note number

    E-print Network

    Müller, Jens-Dominik

    1 Europe Note Europe note number: E/2012/03 Date 15 April 2012 Distribution Vice degrees and collaborative degrees; · recognition of UK qualifications elsewhere in Europe; · institutional by the European Commission, the Council of Europe and UNESCO/CEPES. This compares with 87% in 2009 and 81% in 2007

  16. Europe Note Europe note number

    E-print Network

    Müller, Jens-Dominik

    1 Europe Note Europe note number: E/2012/05 Date 23 April 2012 Distribution Vice qualifications elsewhere in Europe; · institutional strategies and responsibility for the Bologna Process (or 60%) use the standard format developed by the European Commission, the Council of Europe

  17. Europe Note Europe note number

    E-print Network

    Müller, Jens-Dominik

    Europe Note Europe note number: E/2012/04 Date 23 April 2012 Distribution Vice of UK qualifications elsewhere in Europe; · institutional strategies and responsibility for the Bologna by the European Commission, the Council of Europe and UNESCO/CEPES. This contrasts with the 2009 results, when

  18. The effect of moving cold fronts over Central Europe to the variability of the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potuznikova, Katerina; Koucka Knizova, Petra; Boska, Josef; Sindelarova, Tereza; Mosna, Zbysek

    2015-04-01

    Cold fronts represent well known source of atmospheric waves, (especially short and medium scale AGW - acoustic gravity waves), that are able to propagate up to the ionospheric heights. In our study we focus on the effects of the transitions of cold front over the region of Central Europe on the variations of the ionosphere. We concentrate on periods of low solar and geomagnetic activity. Neutral atmosphere data are compared with the wave-like oscillations in the E and F layer. Our tropospheric data comprise synoptic maps on of 500 hPa and 850 hPa geopotential heights. Within ionospheric data we search for variability that is linked to the tropospheric disturbances. The ionospheric parameters (electron concentration and corresponding height) we analyse by the wavelet transform method. The Modern HF digisonde DPS-4 D (Digisonde Portable Sounder), which is in operation at the Pruhonice observatory (49.59 N; 14.33 E) of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Prague (IAP) since 2004, represents an excellent source of the ionospheric data for Central Europe. Pruhonice digisonde usually operates in standard mode - one ionogram and electron density profie N(h) each 15 minutes. Besides that, data from several european stations of the digisonde world network (data from Juliusruhe, Chilton, Brusel, Roma and Tortosa digisonde stations) are included in the study.

  19. Hazardous wastes in eastern and central Europe: technology and health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, D O; Cikrt, M; Suk, W A

    1999-01-01

    Issues of hazardous waste management are major concerns in the countries of eastern and central Europe. A National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences-supported conference was held in Prague, Czech Republic, as a part of a continuing effort to provide information and promote discussion among the countries of eastern and central Europe on issues related to hazardous wastes. The focus was on incineration as a means of disposal of hazardous wastes, with discussions on both engineering methods for safe incineration, and possible human health effects from incineration by-products. Representatives from government agencies, academic institutions, and local industries from 14 countries in the region participated along with a few U.S. and western European experts in this field. A series of 12 country reports documented national issues relating to the environment, with a focus on use of incineration for hazardous waste disposal. A particularly valuable contribution was made by junior scientists from the region, who described results of environmental issues in their countries. PMID:10090701

  20. Advection from the North Atlantic as the Forcing of Winter Greenhouse Effect Over Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Angell, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Shubert, S.; Starr, David OC.; Susskind, J.; Wu, M.-L. C.

    2002-01-01

    In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface temperature are observed over central Europe. Comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996, a satellite-retrieved surface (skin) temperature difference of 9.8 K is observed for the region 50-60 degrees N; 5-35 degrees E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index I(sub na), the average of the ocean-surface wind speed over the eastern North Atlantic when the direction is from the southwest (when the wind is from another direction, it counts as a zero speed to the average). Average I(sub na) for February 1990 was 10.6 m/s, but for February 1996 I(sub na) was only 2.4 m/s. A large value of I(sub na) means a strong southwesterly flow which brings warm and moist air into central Europe at low level, producing a steeper tropospheric lapse rate. Strong ascending motions at 700 mb are observed in association with the occurrence of enhanced warm, moist advection from the ocean in February 1990 producing clouds and precipitation. Total precipitable water and cloud-cover fraction have larger values in February 1990 than in 1996. The difference in the greenhouse effect between these two scenarios, this reduction in heat loss to space, can be translated into a virtual radiative heating of 2.6 W/square m above the February 1990 surface/atmosphere system, which contributes to a warming of the surface on the order of 2.6 K. Accepting this estimate as quantitatively meaningful, we evaluate the direct effect, the rise in the surface temperature in Europe as a result of maritime-air inflow, as 7.2 K (9.8 K-2.6 K). Thus, fractional reinforcement by the greenhouse effect is 2.6/7.2, or 36%, a substantial positive feedback.

  1. Effective Schools Pilot Project: Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pink, William T.

    The Effective Schools Pilot Project, conceived in fall 1983, was designed to improve selected schools by focusing resources to assist six elementary schools in developing strategies for self-assessment and renewal through participatory decision-making. Phase I of the project (1983-1984) resulted in a set of research-based school improvement plans…

  2. Exploring Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Claire Olsen

    2005-03-14

    You will be working with web resources to explore modern Europe. At the end of these activities, you will have a better understanding of the countries that make up modern-day Europe. Identifying European Countries and Capitals We're going to be visiting Europe. We need to know something about each of the countries that make up this continent. Use the Interactive Map of Europe to find the name of the countries and their capitals. Fill in the worksheet "Countries of Europe". Write the ...

  3. The test blanket modules project in Europe: From the strategy to the technical plan over next 10 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Poitevin; L. V. Boccaccini; G. Dell’Orco; E. Diegele; R. Lässer; J.-F. Salavy; J. Sundström; M. Zmitko

    2007-01-01

    The testing of breeding blanket concepts in ITER is recognized as an essential milestone in the development of a future reactor ensuring tritium self-sufficiency, extraction of high grade heat and electricity production. Europe is currently developing two reference breeding blankets for DEMO reactor specifications that will be tested in ITER under the form of test blanket modules (TBMs): the helium-cooled

  4. Operational Model Evaluation for Particulate Matter in Europe and North America in the Context of the AQMEII Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten state-of-the-science regional air quality (AQ) modeling systems have been applied to continental scale domains in North America and Europe for full-year simulations of 2006 in the context of Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII), whose main goals are ...

  5. Satellite-derived trends in phenology over Europe: real trends or algorithmic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, A.; Mücher, S.

    2009-04-01

    Changes in the length of the growing season as a result of climate change, have raised many questions about the effects on plant and animal populations. Using Remote Sensing, analysis of Vegetation Index (VI) time-series can help to understand the behavior of plant phenology through the years. Large datasets of satellite images are available to study phenology changes but the interpretation of data to get information can be difficult and different approaches give different answers about changes in the phenological cycle over Europe. In this study 21 years of GIMMS NDVI data was analyzed using two approaches to derive indicators for start, end and length of growing season. Quality control procedures showed clear limitations in the applicability of the two approaches. While there was significant correlation between indicators derived from them, trends detected in start, end or length of growing season for the two approaches often do not agree. This leaves room for questions whether trends are real or due to algorithmic effects.

  6. Global warming increases the frequency of river floods in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfieri, L.; Burek, P.; Feyen, L.; Forzieri, G.

    2015-01-01

    EURO-CORDEX, a new generation of downscaled climate projections, has become available for climate change impact studies in Europe. New opportunities arise in the investigation of potential effects of a warmer world on meteorological and hydrological extremes at regional scales. In this work, an ensemble of EURO-CORDEX RCP 8.5 scenarios is used to drive a distributed hydrological model and assess the projected changes in flood hazard in Europe through the current century. Changes in magnitude and frequency of extreme streamflow events are investigated by statistical distribution fitting and peak over threshold analysis. A consistent method is proposed to evaluate the agreement of ensemble projections. Results indicate that the change in frequency of discharge extremes is likely to have a larger impact on the overall flood hazard as compared to the change in their magnitude. On average in Europe, flood peaks with return period above 100 years are projected to double in frequency within three decades.

  7. The diffusion of health economics knowledge in Europe : The EURONHEED (European Network of Health Economics Evaluation Database) project.

    PubMed

    de Pouvourville, Gérard; Ulmann, Philippe; Nixon, John; Boulenger, Stéphanie; Glanville, Julie; Drummond, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper overviews the EURONHEED (EUROpean Network of Health Economics Evaluation Databases) project. Launched in 2003, this project is funded by the EU. Its aim is to create a network of national and international databases dedicated to health economic evaluation of health services and innovations. Seven centres (France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK) are involved covering 17 countries. The network is based on two existing databases, the French CODECS (COnnaissance et Decision en EConomie de la Sante) database, created in 2000 by the French Health Economists Association (College des Economistes de la Sante), and the UK NHS-EED (NHS Economic Electronic Database), run by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York, England. The network will provide bibliographic records of published full health economic evaluation studies (cost-benefit, cost-utility and cost-effectiveness studies) as well as cost studies, methodological articles and review papers. Moreover, a structured abstract of full evaluation studies will be provided to users, allowing them access to a detailed description of each study and to a commentary stressing the implications and limits, for decision making, of the study. Access will be free of charge. The database features and its ease of access (via the internet: http://www.euronheed.org) should facilitate the diffusion of existing economic evidence on health services and the generalisation of common standards in the field at the European level, thereby improving the quality, generalisability and transferability of results across countries. PMID:15748086

  8. Effective Showcase Projects: Office of Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC. Indian Education Programs.

    The Indian Education Programs supplement state, local, and tribal education efforts to improve the quality of Indian education and assure parental and community participation. Each year, the Office of Indian Education, assisted by the six regional Indian Education Technical Assistance Centers, selects effective projects to be showcased at the…

  9. The Citizen's Effect: 25 Features about the Europe for Citizens Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reding, Viviane

    2012-01-01

    Public forums and shared spaces in which citizens can debate and deliberate have always constituted essential elements of a democratic society. Today, the Europe for Citizens Programme serves to create a modern European agora. Launched in 2007, the programme supports initiatives that bring people together in international and intercultural…

  10. Demand for movies in Europe and the effects of multiplex diffusion: a panel approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orietta DESSY; Marco GAMBARO

    2008-01-01

    After three decades of decreasing admissions, cinema attendance in Europe showed a significant rise during the nineties despite the competition of several audiovisual media. This growth in ticket sales must be compared with the declining share of exhibition in total film revenues. In this period exhibition started to be for movies the first window of a complex multi release strategy

  11. Higher Education and Unemployment in Europe: An Analysis of the Academic Subject and National Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Imanol; Livanos, Ilias

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of an academic degree and field of study on short and longterm unemployment across Europe (EU15). Labour Force Survey (LFS) data on over half a million individuals are utilised for that purpose. The harmonized LFS classification of level of education and field of study overcomes past problems of comparability across…

  12. Characterization of Saharan dust properties transported towards Europe in the frame of the FENNEC project: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marnas, F.; Chazette, P.; Flamant, C.; Royer, P.; Sodemman, H.; Derimian, Y.

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the FENNEC experiment (6 to 30 June 2011) an effort has been dedicated to characterize Saharan dust plumes transported towards southern Europe. Hence, a multi instrumented field campaign has been conducted. Ground based nitrogen Raman LIDAR (GBNRL) has been deployed in southern Spain close to Marbella, simultaneously with airborne lidar (AL) performing measurements over both the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the western Africa (from 2 to 23 June). The GBNRL was equipped with co-polar and cross-polar channels to perform continuous measurements of the dust aerosols trapped in the troposphere. It was developed by LSCE with the support of the LEOSPHERE Company. The French FALCON 20 research aircraft operated by SAFIRE (Service des Avions Francais Instrumentés pour la Recherche en Environnement) carried the AL Leandre Nouvelle Generation (LNG) as well as a dropsonde releasing system and radiometers. A major, one week long, dust event has been sampled over Spain from 25 June to 1 July with high optical depth (>0.5 at 355nm) and particular depolarization ratios (15 to 25%). Backtrajectory studies suggest that the dust particles observed were from dust uplifts that occurred in Southern Morocco and Northern Mauritania. The event has been also documented 3 days before by the AL flying over Mauritania. AERONET sunphotometer measurements of aerosol properties, along the dust plume transport path appear to be coherent with both the lidar and the backtrajectory analysis. These analysis exhibit a likely major contribution from the Western Sahara sources to the Southern Europe. Such a contribution may impact the visibility and then the airtrafic, modify the tropospheric chemistry, and add nutrients to both the Mediterranean Sea and the continental surfaces. It can also affect the health of European populations. We will present strategy of the experiment and the case study built from measurements performed at the end of June.

  13. Session 6: Infant nutrition: future research developments in Europe EARNEST, the early nutrition programming project: EARly Nutrition programming - long-term Efficacy and Safety Trials and integrated epidemiological, genetic, animal, consumer and economic research.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, M S

    2007-08-01

    Increasing evidence from lifetime experimental studies in animals and observational and experimental studies in human subjects suggests that pre- and postnatal nutrition programme long-term health. However, key unanswered questions remain on the extent of early-life programming in contemporary European populations, relevant nutritional exposures, critical time periods, mechanisms and the effectiveness of interventions to prevent or reverse programming effects. The EARly Nutrition programming - long-term Efficacy and Safety Trials and integrated epidemiological, genetic, animal, consumer and economic research (EARNEST) consortium brings together a multi-disciplinary team of scientists from European research institutions in an integrated programme of work that includes experimental studies in human subjects, modern prospective observational studies and mechanistic animal work including physiological studies, cell-culture models and molecular techniques. Theme 1 tests early nutritional programming of disease in human subjects, measuring disease markers in childhood and early adulthood in nineteen randomised controlled trials of nutritional interventions in pregnancy and infancy. Theme 2 examines associations between early nutrition and later outcomes in large modern European population-based prospective studies, with detailed measures of diet in pregnancy and early life. Theme 3 uses animal, cellular and molecular techniques to study lifetime effects of early nutrition. Biomedical studies are complemented by studies of the social and economic importance of programming (themes 4 and 5), and themes encouraging integration, communication, training and wealth creation. The project aims to: help formulate policies on the composition and testing of infant foods; improve the nutritional value of infant formulas; identify interventions to prevent and reverse adverse early nutritional programming. In addition, it has the potential to develop new products through industrial partnerships, generate information on the social and economic cost of programming in Europe and help maintain Europe's lead in this critical area of research. PMID:17637096

  14. The treatment effect of borders on trade. The great war and the disintegration of Central Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Christian Heinemeyer

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of changes in national border demarcation on economic integration. It treats the national\\u000a breakups in Central Europe due to WWI as a natural experiment. The set-up allows to control for selection bias when estimating\\u000a the impact of national borders on trade. A gravity model of trade is used to analyze goods-specific trade among Central European

  15. The Effect of Family Control on Firm Value and Performance: Evidence from Continental Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Barontini; Lorenzo Caprio

    2006-01-01

    AbstractWe investigate the relation between ownership structure and firm performance in Continental Europe, using data from 675 publicly traded corporations in 11 countries. Although family-controlled corporations exhibit larger separation between control and cash-flow rights, our results do not support the hypothesis that family control hampers firm performance. Valuation and operating performance are significantly higher in founder-controlled corporations and in corporations

  16. Methods for the drug effectiveness review project.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Marian S; Jonas, Daniel E; Gartlehner, Gerald; Little, Alison; Peterson, Kim; Carson, Susan; Gibson, Mark; Helfand, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Drug Effectiveness Review Project was initiated in 2003 in response to dramatic increases in the cost of pharmaceuticals, which lessened the purchasing power of state Medicaid budgets. A collaborative group of state Medicaid agencies and other organizations formed to commission high-quality comparative effectiveness reviews to inform evidence-based decisions about drugs that would be available to Medicaid recipients. The Project is coordinated by the Center for Evidence-based Policy (CEbP) at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU), and the systematic reviews are undertaken by the Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) at OHSU and at the University of North Carolina. The reviews adhere to high standards for comparative effectiveness reviews. Because the investigators have direct, regular communication with policy-makers, the reports have direct impact on policy and decision-making, unlike many systematic reviews. The Project was an innovator of methods to involve stakeholders and continues to develop its methods in conducting reviews that are highly relevant to policy-makers. The methods used for selecting topics, developing key questions, searching, determining eligibility of studies, assessing study quality, conducting qualitative and quantitative syntheses, rating the strength of evidence, and summarizing findings are described. In addition, our on-going interactions with the policy-makers that use the reports are described. PMID:22970848

  17. The effects of drug market regulation on pharmaceutical prices in Europe: overview and evidence from the market of ACE inhibitors.

    PubMed

    von der Schulenburg, Fritz; Vandoros, Sotiris; Kanavos, Panos

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an overview of policy measures targeting pharmaceutical expenditure in Europe and analyses their impact on originator pharmaceutical prices. Panel data methods are used to examine the market of ACE Inhibitors in six European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom) over period 1991-2006. We find that although some measures are effective in reducing originator prices, others appear to have an insignificant effect. Results suggest that supply side measures such as mandatory generic substitution, regressive pharmacy mark-ups and claw-backs are effective in reducing pharmaceuticals prices. Results are not as strong for demand side measures. Profit controls and the use of cost-effectiveness analysis appear to have a negative effect on prices, while results on reference pricing are inconclusive. Findings also indicate that, although originator prices are not immediately affected by generic entry, they may be influenced by changes in generic prices post patent expiry. PMID:22828053

  18. Differences in Weight Status and Energy-Balance Related Behaviors among Schoolchildren across Europe: The ENERGY-Project

    PubMed Central

    Brug, Johannes; van Stralen, Maartje M.; te Velde, Saskia J.; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lien, Nanna; Bere, Elling; Maskini, Victoria; Singh, Amika S.; Maes, Lea; Moreno, Luis; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; Lobstein, Tim; Manios, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Background Current data on the prevalence of overweight and energy-balance behaviors among European children is necessary to inform overweight prevention interventions. Methodology/Principal Findings A school-based survey among 10–12 year old children was conducted in seven European countries using a standardized protocol. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured; Engagement in physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviors, and sleep duration were self-reported. Descriptive analyses were conducted, looking at differences according to country, gender, and parental education. 7234 children (52%girls; 11.6±0.7 years) participated. 25.8% and 5.4% of boys, and 21.8% and 4.1% of girls were overweight (including obese) and obese (according to International Obesity Task Force criteria), respectively. Higher prevalence of overweight/obesity was observed in Greece, Hungary, Slovenia and Spain than in Belgium, Netherlands and Norway. Large differences between countries were found in intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages, breakfast, active transport, TV and computer time. More favorable overweight status and behavior patterns were found in girls than boys and in children of higher educated parents than in children of lower educated parents. Conclusions/Significance High levels and striking differences in overweight status and potential risk behaviors were found among schoolchildren across Europe. PMID:22558098

  19. Solar and geomagnetic effects on the frequency of atmospheric circulation types over Europe: an analysis based on a large number of classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Radan; Cahynová, Monika; Kyselý, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Recently, effects of the 11-year solar cycle on various aspects of tropospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere in winter have been recognized. One of our previous studies showed a significant solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types from the Hess-Brezowsky catalogue. Here, we use a large collection of varied classifications of circulation patterns, assembled within the COST733 Action "Harmonization and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions" to detect the solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types. The collection contains both objective and subjective classifications. The advantage of this multi-classification approach is that peculiarities or biases of any single classification (catalogue) that might influence the detected solar signal vanish once a large ensemble of classifications is used. We divide winter months (December to March) into three groups according to the mean monthly solar activity, quantified by the F10.7 flux. The three groups correspond to the minima of the 11-year solar cycle, a moderate solar activity, and solar maxima. Within each group, frequencies of occurrence of individual circulation types are calculated. Differences in the occurrence of individual classes between solar activity groups indicate the presence of a solar activity effect on atmospheric circulation over Europe. Statistical significance of these differences is estimated by a block resampling method. The research is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805, and by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic, contract OC115.

  20. Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Bohn, B.; Massie, S.; Menut, L.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2007-08-01

    The present study investigates effects of wildfire emissions on air quality in Europe during an intense fire season that occurred in summer 2003. A meso-scale chemistry transport model CHIMERE is used, together with ground based and satellite aerosol optical measurements, to assess the dispersion of fire emissions and to quantify the associated radiative effects. The model has been improved to take into account a MODIS-derived daily smoke emission inventory as well as the injection altitude of smoke particles. The simulated aerosol optical properties are put into a radiative transfer model to estimate (off-line) the effects of smoke particles on photolysis rates and atmospheric radiative forcing. We have found that the simulated wildfires generated comparable amounts of primary aerosol pollutants (130 kTons of PM2.5, fine particles) to anthropogenic sources during August 2003, and caused significant changes in aerosol optical properties not only close to the fire source regions, but also over a large part of Europe as a result of the long-range transport of the smoke. Including these emissions into the model significantly improved its performance in simulating observed aerosol concentrations and optical properties. Quantitative comparison with MODIS and POLDER data during the major fire event (3-8 August 2003) showed the ability of the model to reproduce high aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over Northern Europe caused by the advection of the smoke plume from the Portugal source region. Although there was a fairly good spatial agreement with satellite data (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.4 to 0.9), the temporal variability of AOT data at specific AERONET locations was not well captured by the model. Statistical analyses of model-simulated AOT data at AERONET ground stations showed a significant decrease in the model biases suggesting that wildfire emissions are responsible for a 30% enhancement in mean AOT values during the heat-wave episode. The implications for air quality over a large part of Europe are significant during this episode. First, directly, the modeled wildfire emissions caused an increase in average PM2.5 ground concentrations from 20 to 200%. The largest enhancement in PM2.5 concentrations stayed, however, confined within a 200 km area around the fire source locations and reached up to 40 ?g/m³. Second, indirectly, the presence of elevated smoke layers over Europe significantly altered atmospheric radiative properties: the model results imply a 10 to 30% decrease in photolysis rates and an increase in atmospheric radiative forcing of 10-35 W m-2 during the period of strong fire influence throughout a large part of Europe. These results suggest that sporadic wildfire events may have significant effects on regional photochemistry and atmospheric stability, and need to be considered in current chemistry-transport models.

  1. Effective speckle reduction in laser projection displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Akio; Ohse, Norihiro; Sato, Yoshifumi; Imanishi, Daisuke; Wakabayashi, Kazuya; Ito, Satoshi; Tamamura, Koshi; Hirata, Shoji

    2008-02-01

    Two alternative methods for effectively reducing the speckle noise in laser based rear and front projection displays are studied and demonstrated. Firstly, widening of the laser emission spectrum to nearly 4nm by tailoring the structures of 640nm band AlGaInP/GaInP based edge emitting broad-area red laser diode arrays, realized a reduction of speckle contrast from 20% to an acceptable level of 5%. Designing the power/wavelength distribution of the multiple emitters to achieve a flat top profile for the total spectrum plays an important role in maximizing the speckle reduction effect. This approach could easily be adapted to laser diodes arrays of other materials or wavelengths. Secondly, relative oscillation movement within the screen layers can also reduce the speckle contrast to the acceptable level of 5%. The moving layer material and the oscillation period has been studied and optimized to maximize the reduction level for both rear and front projection configurations. The two speckle reduction techniques were evaluated on a front projector utilizing a red laser assisted UHP lamp hybrid light source, and showed significant enhancement in view ability by the suppression of speckle. Combining the two techniques lead to further reduction in speckle and scintillation noise to a supreme level of 2%, enabling a practical solution for wide color gamut and high efficiency laser projection displays.

  2. Tackling the social determinants of inequalities in health during Phase V of the Healthy Cities Project in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ritsatakis, Anna; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Webster, Premila

    2015-06-01

    The WHO European Healthy Cities Network has from its inception aimed at tackling inequalities in health. In carrying out an evaluation of Phase V of the project (2009-13), an attempt was made to examine how far the concept of equity in health is understood and accepted; whether cities had moved further from a disease/medical model to looking at the social determinants of inequalities in health; how far the HC project contributed to cities determining the extent and causes of inequalities in health; what efforts were made to tackle such inequalities and how far inequalities in health may have increased or decreased during Phase V. A broader range of resources was utilized for this evaluation than in previous phases of the project. These indicated that most cities were definitely looking at the broader determinants. Equality in health was better understood and had been included as a value in a range of city policies. This was facilitated by stronger involvement of the HC project in city planning processes. Although almost half the cities participating had prepared a City Health Profile, only few cities had the necessary local level data to monitor changes in inequalities in health. PMID:26069317

  3. Positive health effects of the natural outdoor environment in typical populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE): a study programme protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Antó, Josep Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Danileviciute, Asta; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Garcia, Judith; Jerrett, Michael; Jones, Marc; Julvez, Jordi; van Kempen, Elise; van Kamp, Irene; Maas, Jolanda; Seto, Edmund; Smith, Graham; Triguero, Margarita; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Wright, John; Zufferey, Joris; van den Hazel, Peter Jan; Lawrence, Roderick; Grazuleviciene, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Growing evidence suggests that close contact with nature brings benefits to human health and well-being, but the proposed mechanisms are still not well understood and the associations with health remain uncertain. The Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor environment in Typical Populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE) project investigates the interconnections between natural outdoor environments and better human health and well-being. Aims and methods The PHENOTYPE project explores the proposed underlying mechanisms at work (stress reduction/restorative function, physical activity, social interaction, exposure to environmental hazards) and examines the associations with health outcomes for different population groups. It implements conventional and new innovative high-tech methods to characterise the natural environment in terms of quality and quantity. Preventive as well as therapeutic effects of contact with the natural environment are being covered. PHENOTYPE further addresses implications for land-use planning and green space management. The main innovative part of the study is the evaluation of possible short-term and long-term associations of green space and health and the possible underlying mechanisms in four different countries (each with quite a different type of green space and a different use), using the same methodology, in one research programme. This type of holistic approach has not been undertaken before. Furthermore there are technological innovations such as the use of remote sensing and smartphones in the assessment of green space. Conclusions The project will produce a more robust evidence base on links between exposure to natural outdoor environment and human health and well-being, in addition to a better integration of human health needs into land-use planning and green space management in rural as well as urban areas. PMID:24740979

  4. CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS MODELLING WITH NEURAL NETWORKS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rasa Apanavi?ien?; Arvydas Juodis

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with important aspects of construction management key factors identification and their relative significance for the construction projects management effectiveness. The approach of artificial neural network allows the construction projects management effectiveness model to be built and to determine the key determinants from a host of possible management factors that influence the project effectiveness in terms of budget

  5. Leadership behaviors of effective project managers in construction project organizations in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Haney, Harvey Joe

    1989-01-01

    A study involving twenty-six construction firms, which practice project management in Texas, examined whether thirteen leadership behaviors could be associated with effective project managers. The data indicated that supervisors and subordinates...

  6. Application of circulation classifications from the COST733 collection to the detection of solar and geomagnetic effects on tropospheric circulation over Europe in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Radan; Cahynová, Monika; Kyselý, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Many studies of circulation classifications are biased by the fact that they are based on a single classification only; that is, their results are affected by the properties of a particular classification to an unknown extent. A large number of circulation classifications produced and collected in the COST733 database allows such a bias to be removed. As an example, we examine effects of solar activity variations on the frequency of circulation types, making use of more than sixty objective classifications for each of 12 domains, defined over Europe. To determine the solar effects, winter months (December to March) are divided into three classes according to the mean monthly solar activity, within which the frequencies of occurrence of circulation types are calculated. Circulation types coming from any classification with significant differences in frequency between high and low solar activity are identified. Current results generally confirm results of a previous study based on a single classification only (subjective Hess-Brezowsky) that (a) westerly types are more frequent under high than low solar activity; (b) northerly types are more frequent under low than high activity, and (iii) easterly and anticyclonic types are more frequent under low than moderate solar activity; the opposite holds for cyclonic types. The research is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic under contract OC115 and the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805.

  7. The financial crisis and the expected effects on vaccinations in Europe: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Maltezou, Helena C; Lionis, Christos

    2015-07-01

    Starting in 2008 several European countries experienced a financial crisis. Historically, diseases whose prevention and treatment depend highly on the continuity of healthcare re-emerge during political and financial crises. Evidence suggests that the current financial crisis has had an impact on the health and welfare of Europeans and that population health status and morbidity as well as mortality patterns may change in the coming years. At the same time decisions about expenditure for health services may impact the ability of public health providers to respond. It is expected that the current crisis will further exacerbate socioeconomic and health inequalities and novel vulnerable groups will emerge in addition to existing ones. We review the available evidence and discuss how the current crisis may have an impact on vaccine-preventable diseases and influence vaccination coverage rates in Europe. PMID:25739315

  8. Spain: Europe's California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  9. 7 CFR 1486.502 - How is project effectiveness measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How is project effectiveness measured? 1486.502 Section 1486.502 Agriculture...Evaluation, and Compliance § 1486.502 How is project effectiveness measured? Project evaluations may be carried out by...

  10. Preventing socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviour in adolescents in Europe: Background, design and methods of project TEENAGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J van Lenthe; Ilse de Bourdeaudhuij; Knut-Inge Klepp; Nanna Lien; Laurence Moore; Fabrizio Faggiano; Anton E Kunst; Johan P Mackenbach

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Higher prevalence rates of unhealthy behaviours among lower socioeconomic groups contribute substantially to socioeconomic inequalities in health in adults. Preventing the development of these inequalities in unhealthy behaviours early in life is an important strategy to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in health. Little is known however, about health promotion strategies particularly effective in lower socioeconomic groups in youth. It is

  11. Learning about Teaching: Initial Findings from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project. Research Paper. MET Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to test new approaches to measuring effective teaching. The goal of the MET project is to improve the quality of information about teaching effectiveness available to education professionals within states and districts--information that will…

  12. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded ‘Project Star’ report

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report (‘Project Star’, PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Methods Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18?056). Findings Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. Conclusions PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and use of independent data. PMID:24335339

  13. Effects of Climate Change on Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gray, J. S.; Dautel, H.; Estrada-Peña, A.; Kahl, O.; Lindgren, E.

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in Europe and there is speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vector biology and disease transmission. Data on the vector tick Ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change may also be partly responsible for the change in distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus. Increased winter activity of I. ricinus is probably due to warmer winters and a retrospective study suggests that hotter summers will change the dynamics and pattern of seasonal activity, resulting in the bulk of the tick population becoming active in the latter part of the year. Climate suitability models predict that eight important tick species are likely to establish more northern permanent populations in a climate-warming scenario. However, the complex ecology and epidemiology of such tick-borne diseases as Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis make it difficult to implicate climate change as the main cause of their increasing prevalence. Climate change models are required that take account of the dynamic biological processes involved in vector abundance and pathogen transmission in order to predict future tick-borne disease scenarios. PMID:19277106

  14. Coordinated lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET-AS0S project during CALIPSO overpasses: a strong dust case study analysis with modeling support

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Papayannis; V. Amiridis; L. Mona; R. E. Mamouri; A. Apituley; L. Alados-Arboledas; D. Balis; A. Chaikovski; F. de Tomasi; I. Grigorov; O. Gustafsson; H. Linnè; I. Mattis; V. Mitev; F. Molero; D. Müller; D. Nicolae; C. Pérez; A. Pietruczuk; J. P. Putaud; F. Ravetta; V. Rizi; F. Schnell; M. Sicard; V. Simeonov; K. Stebel; T. Trickl; G. D'Amico; G. Pappalardo; X. Wang

    2009-01-01

    Coordinated lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe are performed in the frame of the EARLINET-ASOS (2006-2011) project, which comprises 25 stations: 16 Raman lidar stations, including 8 multi-wavelength (3+2 station) Raman lidar stations, are used to retrieve the aerosol microphysical properties. Since the launch of CALIOP, the two-wavelength lidar on board the CALIPSO satellite (June 2006) our lidar network

  15. Quality assessment of expert answers to lay questions about cystic fibrosis from various language zones in Europe: the ECORN-CF project

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The European Centres of Reference Network for Cystic Fibrosis (ECORN-CF) established an Internet forum which provides the opportunity for CF patients and other interested people to ask experts questions about CF in their mother language. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a detailed quality assessment tool to analyze quality of expert answers, 2) evaluate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this tool, and 3) explore changes in the quality of expert answers over the time frame of the project. Methods The quality assessment tool was developed by an expert panel. Five experts within the ECORN-CF project used the quality assessment tool to analyze the quality of 108 expert answers published on ECORN-CF from six language zones. 25 expert answers were scored at two time points, one year apart. Quality of answers was also assessed at an early and later period of the project. Individual rater scores and group mean scores were analyzed for each expert answer. Results A scoring system and training manual were developed analyzing two quality categories of answers: content and formal quality. For content quality, the grades based on group mean scores for all raters showed substantial agreement between two time points, however this was not the case for the grades based on individual rater scores. For formal quality the grades based on group mean scores showed only slight agreement between two time points and there was also poor agreement between time points for the individual grades. The inter-rater agreement for content quality was fair (mean kappa value 0.232 ± 0.036, p < 0.001) while only slight agreement was observed for the grades of the formal quality (mean kappa value 0.105 ± 0.024, p < 0.001). The quality of expert answers was rated high (four language zones) or satisfactory (two language zones) and did not change over time. Conclusions The quality assessment tool described in this study was feasible and reliable when content quality was assessed by a group of raters. Within ECORN-CF, the tool will help ensure that CF patients all over Europe have equal possibility of access to high quality expert advice on their illness. PMID:22309508

  16. Eighth USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2009) Effects of Fuel Prices and Slot Controls on Air

    E-print Network

    1 Eighth USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2009) Effects of Fuel Prices and Slot Controls on Air Transportation Performance at New York Airports John Ferguson@gmu.edu; lsherry@gmu.edu; akara@gmu.edu; gcaldero@gmu.edu Center for Air Transportation Systems Research, George

  17. The effect of abrupt climate changes and climate background conditions in Southern Europe during the last glacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Gregor; Martin-Puertas, Celia; Brauer, Achim; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    The last glacial period is characterized by abrupt and large temperature shifts in Greenland and the North Atlantic realm. Pollen and sediment data from Lago Grande di Monticchio (MON) have demonstrated a clear imprint of these fluctuations operating at millennial time-scales. Interestingly, basic mean environmental condition changes with respect to temperature and precipitation occurred during MIS4, separating warm and dry conditions during MIS5 from relatively cold and humid conditions within MIS3. This general climate background shift is superposed by distinct millennial-scale variability at MON. Using a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model applying boundary conditions at 32 ka BP and pre-industrial conditions as a surrogate for MIS3 and MIS5, we have simulated and analysed characteristic changes in Southern Europe during the last glacial. We find that changes in the mean state at MON are mainly related to a partial shift of the North Atlantic deep water (NADW) convection sites from the Nordic Seas to South of Iceland, the presence of the Fennoscandian ice sheet and lower greenhouse gas concentrations. These background characteristics provide the basis for enhanced zonal moisture transport from the eastern North Atlantic to Middle and Southern Europe. Furthermore, simulations of abrupt climate change scenarios show that a deactivation of the convection sites South of Iceland during MIS3 leads to cooler and dryer conditions at MON. Such temperature and precipitation changes are thought to provide a counter-acting effect on woody vegetation and associated pollen signals at MON. This is in contrast to the impact of abrupt climate perturbation scenarios during MIS5, where no significant precipitation changes are detected. Hence, the simulated changes and underlying mechanisms are largely consistent with the recorded proxy evidence with respect to both, mean state and millennial-scale changes.

  18. Learning about Teaching: Initial Findings from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project. Policy Brief. MET Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to test new approaches to recognizing effective teaching. The project's goal is to help build fair and reliable systems for teacher observation and feedback to help teachers improve and administrators make better personnel decisions. With…

  19. Designing and Fostering Effective Online Group Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherling, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    Collaborative learning is a hallmark of adult education and a popular instructional strategy. For over a decade, as an educator of adult learners, the author has integrated group work into courses. Group projects require the contribution and evaluation from all group members and often reflect a collective grade at the end of the project. However,…

  20. Challenge from Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The European approach to developing a commercial space industry by establishing a market in a variety of space-based services is examined. The joint U.S./French project concerned with developing a system of mobile location and message transmission services covering Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, Locstar, and an American-based system, Geostar, is described. The marketing of the Argos satellite location and data collection services and efforts to promote space activities in the microgravity environment of low earth orbit are discussed.

  1. New Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Started in 1993, New Europe is a weekly publication that covers 49 countries, with a particular focus on institutions in the European Union (EU). Their site offers access to the contents of their print publication, along with additional information on their outreach activities that involve higher education, media groups, and think tanks. Users may wish to start by looking through the "EU Update" area on the left-hand side of the page. Here they will find news stories and investigative reporting that looks into the governmental organization and politics surrounding the European Union. Further down the page, visitors can look through sections such as "Business Update", "Regional News", and the individual country news area, which covers nations from Albania to Uzbekistan.

  2. Sustainable Urban Future in Southern Europe - What About the Heat Island Effect?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleftheria Alexandri; Phil Jones

    2006-01-01

    In general cities, and especially cities in hot zones, as the Mediterranean, suffer from raised temperatures in the city core, generally known as the heat island effect. Raised temperatures, especially in summer, may turn city centres into unwelcome hot areas, with direct effects on energy consumption for cooling buildings and morbidity and mortality risks for the population. These raised temperatures

  3. The Effects of IFRS 7 Adoption on Bank Disclosure in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jannis Bischof

    2009-01-01

    With the endorsement of IFRS 7, which became effective in 2007, the European regulation of bank disclosures has substantially changed. Using a sample of 171 banks from 28 European countries, I analyze the effect of the standard's first-time adoption on disclosure quality. I find that disclosure quality has generally increased both in financial statements and in risk reports but that

  4. Effect of solar radio bursts on GNSS signal reception over Europe for the period 1999-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Bergeot, Nicolas; Marqué, Christophe; Aerts, Wim; Bruyninx, Carine

    2015-04-01

    Intense solar radio bursts (SRB) emitted at L-band frequencies can affect the carrier-to-noise C/N0 ratio of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals by increasing the background noise. Such space weather events can consequently decrease the quality of GNSS-based results especially for kinematic high-precision positioning. It is thus important to develop a method capable to detect such events in near real time on a wide area. For this purpose, the ROB-IONO software was adapted for analysing the effect of SRB on the dense EUREF Permanent GNSS Network (EPN). First, S1 and S2 raw data extracted from RINEX files were converted into the C/N0 unit (dB.Hz) taking into account manufacturer corrections. Then, the differences (?C/N0) between all these C/N0observables and their medians of the 7 previous satellite ground track repeat cycles, i.e. their normal quiet state, were computed. The mean of all these well-calibrated ?C/N0values from different GNSS receivers and satellites offer at each epoch a reliable metric to detect and quantify the impact of a SRB. We investigated the degradation of GPS and GLONASS C/N0 on the entire EPN during 10 intense SRBs occurring at daylight over Europe between 1999 and 2013. The analysis shows that: (1) GPS and GLONASS ?C/N0 agree at the 0.1±0.2dB.Hz level; (2) The standard deviation of the mean ?C/N0of the EPN GNSS receivers is below 1dB.Hz 96% of the time, and below 0.6dB.Hz 76% of the time; (3) maximum ?C/N0 degradation occurs at the epoch of maximum solar peak flux delivered by the solar ground observatories; (4) C/N0 degradation becomes larger with increasing solar zenithal angle. Consequently, the ROB-IONO software is capable to detect the degradation of GNSS signal reception over Europe due to SRBs. In addition, by taking advantage of the increasing number of EPN stations delivering C/N0 data since 2005, even less intense SRB events can now be detected. Finally, the developed method can be completely applied in near real time.

  5. Who reads the project file? Exploring the power effects of knowledge tools in construction project management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Sage; Andrew R. J. Dainty; Naomi J. Brookes

    2010-01-01

    Various critical authors have questioned the salience, efficacy and power effects of formal project management bodies of knowledge (PMBoKs). As a result project management knowledge tools are increasingly being conceptualized along more flexible, adaptable, reflexive, democratic and informal terms. A central driver for this shift is that PM knowledge will be more relevant and useful for practitioners if it can

  6. A Meta-Analysis on the Effectiveness of Bilingual Programs in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reljic, Gabrijela; Ferring, Dieter; Martin, Romain

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of bilingual programs for promoting academic achievement of language minority children in the United States has been examined in six meta-analyses. The present meta-analytic study investigates this topic for the first time in the European context. Thorough literature searches uncovered 101 European studies, with only 7 meeting…

  7. Secondary Transfer Effects of Intergroup Contact: A Cross-National Comparison in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Kupper, Beate; Zick, Andreas; Wagner, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    This article examines so-called secondary transfer effects of intergroup contact, a phenomenon whereby positive intergroup contact experiences can influence attitudes not only toward encountered (primary) outgroups but also toward other (secondary) outgroups that were not initially involved in the intergroup encounter. The current study relies on…

  8. Health Effects of High Radon Environments in Central Europe: Another Test for the LNT Hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Becker, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Among the various "natural laboratories" of high natural or technical enhanced natural radiation environments in the world such as Kerala (India), Brazil, Ramsar (Iran), etc., the areas in and around the Central European Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge) in the southern parts of former East Germany, but also including parts of Thuringia, northern Bohemia (now Czech Republic), and northeastern Bavaria, are still relatively little known internationally.Although this area played a central role in the history of radioactivity and radiation effects on humans over centuries, most of the valuable earlier results have not been published in English or quotable according to the current rules in the scientific literature and therefore are not generally known internationally. During the years 1945 to 1989, this area was one of the world's most important uranium mining areas, providing the former Soviet Union with 300,000 tons of uranium for its military programs. Most data related to health effects of radon and other carcinogenic agents on miners and residents became available only during the years after German reunification. Many of the studies are still unpublished, or more or less internal reports.By now, substantial studies have been performed on the previously unavailable data about the miners and the population, providing valuable insights that are, to a large degree, in disagreement with the opinion of various international bodies assuming an increase of lung cancer risk in the order of 10% for each 100 Bq/m(3) (or doubling for 1000 Bq/m(3)), even for small residential radon concentrations. At the same time, other studies focusing on never-smokers show little or no effects of residential radon exposures. Experiments in medical clinics using radon on a large scale as a therapeutic against various rheumatic and arthritic disease demonstrated in randomized double-blind studies the effectiveness of such treatments.The main purpose of this review is to critically examine, including some historical references, recent results primarily in three areas, namely the possible effects of the inhalation of very high radon concentrations on miners; the effect of increased residential radon concentrations on the population; and the therapeutic use of radon. With many of the results still evolving and/or under intense discussion among the experts, more evidence is emerging that radon, which has been inhaled at extremely high concentrations in the multimillion Bq/m(3) range by many of older miners (however, with substantial confounders, and large uncertainties in retrospective dosimetry), was perhaps an important but not the dominating factor for an increase in lung cancer rates. Other factors such as smoking, inhalation of quartz and mineral dust, arsenic, nitrous gases, etc. are likely to be more serious contributors to increased miner lung cancer rates. An extrapolation of miner data to indoor radon situations is not feasible.Concerning indoor radon studies, the by far dominating effect of smoking on the lung cancer incidence makes the results of some studies, apparently showing a positive dose-response relationship, questionable. According to recent studies in several countries, there are no, or beneficial, residential radon effects below about 600 to 1000 Bq/m(3) (the extensive studies in the U.S., in particular by B. Cohen, and the discussions about these data, will not be part of this review, because they have already been discussed in detail in the U.S. literature). As a cause of lung cancer, radon seems to rank - behind active and passive smoking, and probably also air pollution in densely populated and/or industrial areas (diesel exhaust soot, etc.) - as a minor contributor in cases of extremely high residential radon levels, combined with heavy smoking of the residents.As demonstrated in an increasing number of randomized double-blind clinical studies for various painful inflammatory joint diseases such as rheumatism, arthritic problems, and Morbus Bechterew, radon treatments are beneficial, with the positive effect lasting until

  9. Communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care in Europe: the case for improvement. The rationale for the RESTORE FP 7 project.

    PubMed

    van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Burns, Nicola; O'Donnell, Catherine; Mair, Frances; Spiegel, Wolfgang; Lionis, Christos; Dowrick, Chris; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; de Brun, Tomas; MacFarlane, Anne

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to substantiate the importance of research about barriers and levers to the implementation of supports for cross-cultural communication in primary care settings in Europe. After an overview of migrant health issues, with the focus on communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care and the importance of language barriers, we highlight the fact that there are serious problems in routine practice that persist over time and across different European settings. Language and cultural barriers hamper communication in consultations between doctors and migrants, with a range of negative effects including poorer compliance and a greater propensity to access emergency services. It is well established that there is a need for skilled interpreters and for professionals who are culturally competent to address this problem. A range of professional guidelines and training initiatives exist that support the communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care. However, these are commonly not implemented in daily practice. It is as yet unknown why professionals do not accept or implement these guidelines and interventions, or under what circumstances they would do so. A new study involving six European countries, RESTORE (REsearch into implementation STrategies to support patients of different ORigins and language background in a variety of European primary care settings), aims to address these gaps in knowledge. It uses a unique combination of a contemporary social theory, normalisation process theory (NPT) and participatory learning and action (PLA) research. This should enhance understanding of the levers and barriers to implementation, as well as providing stakeholders, with the opportunity to generate creative solutions to problems experienced with the implementation of such interventions. PMID:23601205

  10. North America Europe Central &

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Matthew

    1 North America Western Europe Central & Eastern Europe Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & Central Asia Asia Pacific Africa Population (100 millions) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 North America Western Europe Central & Eastern Europe Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & Central Asia Asia Pacific Africa

  11. Effects of air pollution and climate change on forests of the Tatra Mountains, Central Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Fleischer; Barbara Godzik; Svetlana Bicarova; Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    Synergistic effects of air pollution, extreme weather conditions and biotic agents related to global climate change have caused\\u000a serious deterioration of forest condition in the Tatra National Park since early 1990s. Atmospheric deposition of sulfate\\u000a (SO4\\u000a 2?), nitrate (NO3\\u000a ?) and acidity (H+) are above the established critical load limits for forests. In addition, ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are also

  12. Conditions for effective biomanipulation; conclusions derived from whole-lake experiments in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jtlrgen Benndorf

    1990-01-01

    Since indirect effects, feedback mechanisms and time lag play an important role in top-down manipulated food webs, conclusions\\u000a regarding the reliability of biomanipulation as a management tool should be derived only from whole-lake studies, the results\\u000a of which were followed for at least three to five years. There are only a few experiments and applications of that type from\\u000a which

  13. Ion Beam Therapy in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, Gerhard [GSI Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-03-10

    At present, seven facilities in Europe treat deep-seated tumors with particle beams, six with proton beams and one with carbon ions. Three of these facilities are in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Dubna, Russia. Other facilities include the TSL Uppsala, Sweden, CPO Orsay, France, and PSI Villigen, Switzerland, all for proton therapy, and GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, which utilizes carbon ions only. But only two of these facilities irradiate with scanned ion beams: the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI), Villigen (protons) and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt. These two facilities are experimental units within physics laboratories and have developed the technique of intensity-modulated beam scanning in order to produce irradiation conforming to a 3-D target. There are three proton centers presently under construction in Munich, Essen and Orsay, and the proton facility at PSI has added a superconducting accelerator connected to an isocentric gantry in order to become independent of the accelerator shared with the physics research program. The excellent clinical results using carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) in Chiba and GSI have triggered the construction of four new heavy-ion therapy projects (carbon ions and protons), located in Heidelberg, Pavia, Marburg and Kiel. The projects in Heidelberg and Pavia will begin patient treatment in 2009, and the Marburg and Kiel projects will begin in 2010 and 2011, respectively. These centers use different accelerator designs but have the same kind of treatment planning system and use the same approach for the calculation of the biological effectiveness of the carbon ions as developed at GSI [1]. There are many other planned projects in the works. Do not replace the word ''abstract,'' but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your ''Enter'' key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style sample before you begin working on your paper.

  14. Ion Beam Therapy in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Gerhard

    2009-03-01

    At present, seven facilities in Europe treat deep-seated tumors with particle beams, six with proton beams and one with carbon ions. Three of these facilities are in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Dubna, Russia. Other facilities include the TSL Uppsala, Sweden, CPO Orsay, France, and PSI Villigen, Switzerland, all for proton therapy, and GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, which utilizes carbon ions only. But only two of these facilities irradiate with scanned ion beams: the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI), Villigen (protons) and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt. These two facilities are experimental units within physics laboratories and have developed the technique of intensity-modulated beam scanning in order to produce irradiation conforming to a 3-D target. There are three proton centers presently under construction in Munich, Essen and Orsay, and the proton facility at PSI has added a superconducting accelerator connected to an isocentric gantry in order to become independent of the accelerator shared with the physics research program. The excellent clinical results using carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) in Chiba and GSI have triggered the construction of four new heavy-ion therapy projects (carbon ions and protons), located in Heidelberg, Pavia, Marburg and Kiel. The projects in Heidelberg and Pavia will begin patient treatment in 2009, and the Marburg and Kiel projects will begin in 2010 and 2011, respectively. These centers use different accelerator designs but have the same kind of treatment planning system and use the same approach for the calculation of the biological effectiveness of the carbon ions as developed at GSI [1]. There are many other planned projects in the works. Do not replace the word "abstract," but do replace the rest of this text. If you must insert a hard line break, please use Shift+Enter rather than just tapping your "Enter" key. You may want to print this page and refer to it as a style sample before you begin working on your paper.

  15. Adapting wheat in Europe for climate change

    PubMed Central

    Semenov, M.A.; Stratonovitch, P.; Alghabari, F.; Gooding, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing cereal yield is needed to meet the projected increased demand for world food supply of about 70% by 2050. Sirius, a process-based model for wheat, was used to estimate yield potential for wheat ideotypes optimized for future climatic projections for ten wheat growing areas of Europe. It was predicted that the detrimental effect of drought stress on yield would be decreased due to enhanced tailoring of phenology to future weather patterns, and due to genetic improvements in the response of photosynthesis and green leaf duration to water shortage. Yield advances could be made through extending maturation and thereby improve resource capture and partitioning. However the model predicted an increase in frequency of heat stress at meiosis and anthesis. Controlled environment experiments quantify the effects of heat and drought at booting and flowering on grain numbers and potential grain size. A current adaptation of wheat to areas of Europe with hotter and drier summers is a quicker maturation which helps to escape from excessive stress, but results in lower yields. To increase yield potential and to respond to climate change, increased tolerance to heat and drought stress should remain priorities for the genetic improvement of wheat. PMID:24882934

  16. Effects of Sediment Loading in Northern Europe During the Last Glacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wal, W.; IJpelaar, M.

    2014-12-01

    Over the years the framework of GIA modelling has been subject to continuous improvements, e.g. the addition of time dependent coastal margins and rotational feedback. The latest addition to this framework is the incorporation of sediment as a time-varying surface load while accounting for sea-level variations associated with the sediment transport (Dalca et al., GJI 2013). The effects of sediment loading during a glacial cycle have not been extensively investigated even though it is known that large sediment transport took place, for example in the Barents Sea region and Fennoscandia. This study investigates the effect of sediment transport on relative sea level change and present-day rates of gravity and vertical deformation in those regions. While the ice sheet history during the last glacial period has been modelled extensively there are no full-scale models of paleo-erosion and -deposition rates for regions such as Fennoscandia. Here we create end-member paleo-sedimentary models by combining geological observations of continuous erosion and deposition and large scale failure events. These models, in combination with the ICE-5G ice sheet history, serve as an input for a GIA model for a spherically symmetric incompressible Earth with the full sea-level equation. The results from this model, i.e. (rates of) relative sea level change and crustal deformation, are obtained for different viscosity models fitting best with the local rheology of Fennoscandia. By comparing GPS measurements, GRACE observations and relative sea level records with these modelled predictions the effects of sedimentary isostasy in the Fennoscandian region are studied. The sediment load does not significantly affect the modelled relative sea level curves, nor vertical deformation rates at the location of GPS measurements. However, gravity rates over the Barents Sea region are influenced significantly

  17. A comparison of the cost-effectiveness of treatment of prolonged acute convulsive epileptic seizures in children across Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the majority of children and adolescents with epilepsy, optimal drug therapy adequately controls their condition. However, among the remaining patients who are still uncontrolled despite mono-, bi- or tri-therapy with chronic anti-epileptic treatment, a rescue medication is required. In Western Europe, the licensed medications available for first-line treatment of prolonged acute convulsive seizures (PACS) vary widely, and so comparators for clinical and economic evaluation are not consistent. No European guidelines currently exist for the treatment of PACS in children and adolescents and limited evidence is available for the effectiveness of treatments in the community setting. The authors present cost-effectiveness data for BUCCOLAM® (midazolam oromucosal solution) for the treatment of PACS in children and adolescents in the context of the treatment pathway in seven European countries in patients from 6 months to 18 years. For each country, the health economic model consisted of a decision tree, with decision nodes informed by clinical data and expert opinion obtained via a Delphi methodology. The events modelled are those associated with a patient experiencing a seizure in the community setting. The model assessed the likelihood of medication being administered successfully and of seizure cessation. The associated resource use was also modelled, and ambulance call-outs and hospitalisations were considered. The patient’s quality of life was estimated by clinicians, who completed a five-level EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire from the perspective of a child or adolescent suffering a seizure. Despite differences in current therapy, treatment patterns and healthcare costs in all countries assessed, BUCCOLAM was shown to be cost saving and offered increased health-related benefits for patients in the treatment of PACS compared with the current local standard of care. PMID:24949280

  18. Assessing the Human Genome Project: Effects on world agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Lesney; V. B. Smocovitis

    1994-01-01

    The Human Genome Project is the attempt to sequence the complement of human DNA. Its ultimate purpose is to understand and control human genetics. The social and ethical concerns raised by this attempt have been much debated, especially fears concerning human genetic engineering and eugenics. An almost completely neglected aspect of the genome project's potential effects is its impact on

  19. PERMEABLE TREATMENT WALL EFFECTIVENESS MONITORING PROJECT, NEVADA STEWART MINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 39, Permeable Treatment Wall Effectiveness Monitoring Project, implemented and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. De...

  20. Effective Teaching Methods--Project-based Learning in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holubova, Renata

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents results of the research of new effective teaching methods in physics and science. It is found out that it is necessary to educate pre-service teachers in approaches stressing the importance of the own activity of students, in competences how to create an interdisciplinary project. Project-based physics teaching and learning…

  1. CO-operation development project for new treatment of steam generator's - impact on final disposal volumes and recycling in Northern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Wirendal, B.O.; Lindstrom, A.; Lindberg, M. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Dept. RadWaste, Nykoping (Sweden); Hansson, T. [Vattenfall Ringhals, Varobacka (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes a real case of cost effective volume reduction of a retired, full size SG removed from the Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant, Sweden. The project is described from the first step of fulfilling the demands from the authorities before treatment to the results of the treatment. The evaluations of the method is also included and compared to the other possibilities and the driving forces that work in favour of our method. The waste owners' strategy is also described in this paper. Finally is the method of treatment described as a principle as well as the results. Technical details as well as detailed results are given in Paper 7131 [ref 1]. (authors)

  2. Possible future effects of large-scale algae cultivation for biofuels on coastal eutrophication in Europe.

    PubMed

    Blaas, Harry; Kroeze, Carolien

    2014-10-15

    Biodiesel is increasingly considered as an alternative for fossil diesel. Biodiesel can be produced from rapeseed, palm, sunflower, soybean and algae. In this study, the consequences of large-scale production of biodiesel from micro-algae for eutrophication in four large European seas are analysed. To this end, scenarios for the year 2050 are analysed, assuming that in the 27 countries of the European Union fossil diesel will be replaced by biodiesel from algae. Estimates are made for the required fertiliser inputs to algae parks, and how this may increase concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in coastal waters, potentially leading to eutrophication. The Global NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model has been used to estimate the transport of nitrogen and phosphorus to the European coastal waters. The results indicate that the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in the coastal waters may increase considerably in the future as a result of large-scale production of algae for the production of biodiesel, even in scenarios assuming effective waste water treatment and recycling of waste water in algae production. To ensure sustainable production of biodiesel from micro-algae, it is important to develop cultivation systems with low nutrient losses to the environment. PMID:25058933

  3. Allelopathic effect of a native species on a major plant invader in Europe.

    PubMed

    Christina, Mathias; Rouifed, Soraya; Puijalon, Sara; Vallier, Félix; Meiffren, Guillaume; Bellvert, Floriant; Piola, Florence

    2015-04-01

    Biological invasions have become a major global issue in ecosystem conservation. As formalized in the "novel weapon hypothesis", the allelopathic abilities of species are actively involved in invasion success. Here, we assume that allelopathy can also increase the biotic resistance of native species against invasion. We tested this hypothesis by studying the impact of the native species Sambucus ebulus on the colonization of propagules of the invasive species Fallopiaxbohemica and the subsequent development of plants from these. Achenes and rhizome fragments from two natural populations were grown in a greenhouse experiment for 50 days. We used an experimental design that involved "donor" and "target" pots in order to separate resource competition from allelopathy. An allelopathic treatment effect was observed for plant growth but not for propagule establishment. Treatment affected, in particular, the growth of Fallopia plants originating from achenes, but there was less influence on plants originating from rhizomes. By day 50, shoot height had decreased by 27% for plants originating from rhizomes and by 38% for plants originating from achenes. The number of leaves for plants originating from achenes had only decreased by 20%. Leaf and above- and below-ground dry masses decreased with treatment by 40, 41 and 25% for plants originating from rhizomes and 70, 61 and 55% for plants originating from achenes, respectively. S. ebulus extracts were analysed using high-performance chromatography, and the choice of test molecules was narrowed down. Our results suggest native species use allelopathy as a biotic containment mechanism against the naturalization of invasive species. PMID:25740225

  4. An Overview on Coronary Heart Disease (A Comparative Evaluation of Turkey and Europe) and Cost-effectiveness of Diagnostic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ta?ç?, Cengiz; Özçelik, Nihat

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death for men and women in Turkey as it is in Europe and US. The prevalence of the disease is 3.8% in Turkey and 200,000 patients are added to the pool of CHD annually Because of genetic predisposition and high proportions of physical inactivity, smoking habit, and obesity, CHD is encountered in earlier ages in our country So, the economic burden of the disease is expected to be relatively high, but the amount of health expenditure is not always parallel to the prevalence of a disease in the community. This article was written to overview CHD statistics to make a comparison between Turkey and some European countries and to investigate the value of myocardial perfusion scan (MPS) as a gatekeeper in diagnosing CHD before invasive coronary angiography (ICA). The consequences were evaluated for Turkey In diagnosis; noninvasive testing gains importance in connection with the new approaches in treatment strategies, because a direct ICA strategy results in higher rates of revascularization without improvement in clinical outcomes. A "gatekeeper" is needed to select the patients who are not required to undergo angiography. MPS with its proved power in diagnosis and predicting prognosis, provides a cost-effective solution, and is accepted in some extensive analyses as a "gatekeeper" particularly in intermediate and high risk patients and in patients with known CHD. In conclusion, MPS may provide an optimal solution better than the ongoing situation in Turkey as well, when it is approved as a "gatekeeper in an algorithm before ICA. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487016

  5. Effective correlator for RadioAstron project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Sergey

    This paper presents the implementation of programme FX-correlator for Very Long Baseline Interferometry, adapted for the project "RadioAstron". Software correlator implemented for heterogeneous computing systems using graphics accelerators. It is shown that for the task interferometry implementation of the graphics hardware has a high efficiency. The host processor of heterogeneous computing system, performs the function of forming the data flow for graphics accelerators, the number of which corresponds to the number of frequency channels. So, for the Radioastron project, such channels is seven. Each accelerator is perform correlation matrix for all bases for a single frequency channel. Initial data is converted to the floating-point format, is correction for the corresponding delay function and computes the entire correlation matrix simultaneously. Calculation of the correlation matrix is performed using the sliding Fourier transform. Thus, thanks to the compliance of a solved problem for architecture graphics accelerators, managed to get a performance for one processor platform Kepler, which corresponds to the performance of this task, the computing cluster platforms Intel on four nodes. This task successfully scaled not only on a large number of graphics accelerators, but also on a large number of nodes with multiple accelerators.

  6. BiodivERsA project VineDivers: Analysing interlinkages between soil biota and biodiversity-based ecosystem services in vineyards across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Winter, Silvia; Strauss, Peter; Querner, Pascal; Kriechbaum, Monika; Pachinger, Bärbel; Gómez, José A.; Campos, Mercedes; Landa, Blanca; Popescu, Daniela; Comsa, Maria; Iliescu, Maria; Tomoiaga, Liliana; Bunea, Claudiu-Ioan; Hoble, Adela; Marghitas, Liviu; Rusu, Teodor; Lora, Ángel; Guzmán, Gema; Bergmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Essential ecosystem services provided by viticultural landscapes result from diverse communities of above- and belowground organisms and their interactions. For centuries traditional viticulture was part of a multifunctional agricultural system including low-input grasslands and fruit trees resulting in a high functional biodiversity. However, in the last decades intensification and mechanisation of vineyard management caused a separation of production and conservation areas. As a result of management intensification including frequent tilling and/or use of pesticides several ecosystem services are affected leading to high rates of soil erosion, degradation of soil structure and fertility, contamination of groundwater and high levels of agricultural inputs. In this transdisciplinary BiodivERsA project we will examine to what extent differently intensive managed vineyards affect the activity and diversity of soil biota (e.g. earthworms, collembola, soil microorganisms) and how this feed back on aboveground biodiversity (e.g. weeds, pollinators). We will also investigate ecosystem services associated with soil faunal activity and biodiversity such as soil structure, the formation of stable soil aggregates, water infiltration, soil erosion as well as grape quality. These effects will become increasingly important as more extreme precipitation events are predicted with climate change. The socio-economic part of the project will investigate the role of diversely structured, species-rich viticultural landscapes as a cultural heritage providing aesthetic values for human well-being and recreation. The project objectives will be analysed at plot, field (vineyard) and landscape scales in vineyards located in Spain, France, Romania and Austria. A detailed engagement and dissemination plan for stakeholder at the different governance levels will accompany scientific research and will contribute to the implementation of best-practice recommendations for policy and farmers.

  7. Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE study) profile: objectives, study protocol and descriptive data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indoor air pollution (IAP) constitutes a major global public health problem requiring increasing efforts in research and policymaking that may have special significance for elderly that are likely to spend most of their day indoors and appear to be particularly susceptible to adverse effects of chemical pollutants and bio-contaminants. Yet, evidence existing on the effects of IAP in elderly is scanty. The Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE) study aimed to assess health effects of major indoor air pollutants and thermal conditions in elderly (> 70 years) living stably in nursing homes (NH) across Europe. Respiratory effects were particularly considered as airways and lung constitute the first target of air pollutants. Objectives We describe here the rationale and the methods of the GERIE Study. Methods 8 nursing homes were randomly selected in 7 European countries. Twenty individuals were randomly selected in each nursing home. Major indoor and outdoor air chemical pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, PM0.1, formaldehyde, NO2; O3, VOC, CO2) and bio-contaminants (moulds, allergens) were assessed objectively with standardized procedures. Major health status indicators were assessed through a standardized questionnaire, non-invasive clinical tests and blood and urine biomarkers as well as saliva for ADN. Results The GERIE study has given the opportunity to publish two reviews on respiratory health effects of indoor and outdoor air pollution in elderly. In addition it has provided the inventory of air quality and thermal conditions in 50 nursing homes across Europe and data on respiratory health status in 600 elderly aged 82 years in mean. Major future results will include the relationships between NH environment and health in elderly. Conclusions The main long-term purpose of the GERIE study is to improve the health of elderly who permanently reside in nursing homes or of those who are exposed to indoor air pollution because of reduced mobility. PMID:24262306

  8. Evaluation of multidecadal variability in CMIP5 surface solar radiation and inferred underestimation of aerosol direct effects over Europe, China, Japan, and India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. J.; Norris, J. R.; Wild, M.

    2013-06-01

    Observations from the Global Energy Balance Archive indicate regional decreases in all sky surface solar radiation from ˜1950s to 1980s, followed by an increase during the 1990s. These periods are popularly called dimming and brightening, respectively. Removal of the radiative effects of cloud cover variability from all sky surface solar radiation results in a quantity called "clear sky proxy" radiation, in which multidecadal trends can be seen more distinctly, suggesting aerosol radiative forcing as a likely cause. Prior work has shown climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) generally underestimate the magnitude of these trends, particularly over China and India. Here we perform a similar analysis with 173 simulations from 42 climate models participating in the new CMIP5. Results show negligible improvement over CMIP3, as CMIP5 dimming trends over four regions—Europe, China, India, and Japan—are all underestimated. This bias is largest for both India and China, where the multimodel mean yields a decrease in clear sky proxy radiation of -1.3±0.3 and -1.2±0.2 W m-2decade-1, respectively, compared to observed decreases of -6.5±0.9 and -8.2±1.3 W m-2decade-1. Similar underestimation of the observed dimming over Japan exists, with the CMIP5 mean dimming ˜20% as large as observed. Moreover, not a single simulation reproduces the magnitude of the observed dimming trend for these three regions. Relative to dimming, CMIP5 models better simulate the observed brightening, but significant underestimation exists for both China and Japan. Overall, no individual model performs particularly well for all four regions. Model biases do not appear to be related to the use of prescribed versus prognostic aerosols or to aerosol indirect effects. However, models exhibit significant correlations between clear sky proxy radiation and several aerosol-related fields, most notably aerosol optical depth (AOD) and absorption AOD. This suggests model underestimation of the observed trends is related to underestimation of aerosol direct radiative forcing and/or deficient aerosol emission inventories.

  9. How Do Aerosol Radiative Effects Influence Wind? a Sensitivity Study of the Aerosol Impact on the Spatially-Distributed Wind over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baro Esteban, R.; Lorente-Plazas, R.; Jerez, S.; Montavez, J. P.; Jimenez-guerrero, P.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect the Earth's climate through their radiative effects, being one of the most uncertain areas in climate modeling. Radiative effects depend mainly on the aerosol optical properties and can be divided into direct and semi-direct effect, produced by the scattering and absorption of radiation; and indirect effect, which influences the aerosols-cloud interactions. Aerosols are widely known to affect radiation, temperature, stability, clouds, and precipitation. However, scientific literature about their effects on wind is scarce. In this sense, the effects of aerosol particles on spatially-distributed winds over Europe are examined. The methodology carried out consists of two WRF-Chem simulations for Europe for the entire year 2010 differing only in the inclusion (or not) of aerosol radiative feedbacks. These simulations have been carried out under the umbrella of the second phase of the AQMEII (Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative, http://aqmeii.jrc.ec.europa.eu/). A Euro-CORDEX compliant domain at 0.22º and 23 km resolution has been used. The first simulation does not take into account any aerosol feedbacks (NFB) and the second simulation differs from the base case by the inclusion of direct and indirect radiative feedbacks (FB). Results show that the presence of aerosol generally reduces the wind over Europe. The absorption and scattering of solar radiation by the aerosol particles heat the air and cool the ground temperature leading to an atmospheric stability. This increases the atmospheric stability and decreases the turbulence, as consequence the vertical transfer of momentum diminishes and the surface winds are slower. In addition, the decrease of solar radiation to the ground weakens the thermal circulations, such as land-sea breezes which is more noticeable in the southern of Europe in summer. On the other hand, the indirect effect of the aerosols through their enhancement of clouds also favors a decline of winds evidenced by the spatial correlations between the cloud optical depth and wind speed reductions. Despite these results further investigation is necessary in order to reduce the uncertainties of the aerosol effects over meteorological variables.

  10. Artificial Retina Project: Electromagnetic and Thermal Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzi, Gianluca

    2014-08-29

    This award supported the investigation on electromagnetic and thermal effects associated with the artificial retina, designed in collaboration with national laboratories, universities, and private companies. Our work over the two years of support under this award has focused mainly on 1) Design of new telemetry coils for optimal power and data transfer between the implant and the external device while achieving a significant size reduction with respect to currently used coils; 2) feasibility study of the virtual electrode configuration 3) study the effect of pulse shape and duration on the stimulation efficacy.

  11. Impact of biogenic emissions on ozone and fine particles over Europe: Comparing effects of temperature increase and a potential anthropogenic NOx emissions abatement strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagaris, E.; Sotiropoulou, R. E. P.; Gounaris, N.; Andronopoulos, S.; Vlachogiannis, D.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of biogenic emissions on ozone and PM2.5 levels over Europe is assessed using CMAQ. Biogenic emissions are predicted to increase Max8hrO3 mixing ratios by 5.7% and to decrease PM2.5 concentrations by 1.9%, increasing PM2.5_OC by 13.6% and decreasing PM2.5_SO4, PM2.5_NO3 and PM2.5_NH4 by 5.6%, 3.7% and 5.6%, respectively, on average over Europe due to their interactions with anthropogenic emissions. A suite of perturbations in temperature is imposed individually on the base case conditions in order to determine the sensitivities to air temperature changes. Temperature increases of 1, 2 or 3° K suggest an average increase in Max8hrO3 mixing ratios of 0.9%, 1.8% or 2.9%, respectively, and an average decrease in daily average PM2.5 concentrations of 2.5%, 4.2% and 5.8%, respectively, increasing PM2.5_OC and decreasing PM2.5_SO4, PM2.5_NO3 and PM2.5_NH4 component concentrations on average over Europe. In order to examine if abatement measures for anthropogenic emissions could offset ozone increases in higher temperatures and their effect on PM2.5 concentrations, a simulation with a domain wide reduction in anthropogenic NOx emissions of 10% is performed. This is estimated to reduce Max8hrO3 mixing ratios by 1.3% on average over Europe. However, NOx reduction is estimated to increase Max8hrO3 in VOCs limited areas. The reduction in anthropogenic NOx emissions is predicted to reduce PM2.5 concentrations by 1.0% enhancing the reduction simulated, here, with temperature increase but further modifying PM2.5 component concentrations.

  12. Pollen-inferred quantitative reconstructions of Holocene land-cover in NW Europe for the evaluation of past climate-vegetation feedbacks - The Swedish LANDCLIM project and the NordForsk LANDCLIM network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Sugita, Shinya; Rundgren, Mats; Smith, Benjamin; Mazier, Florence; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Fyfe, Ralph; Kokfelt, Ulla; Nielsen, Anne-Birgitte; Strandberg, Gustav

    2010-05-01

    Reliable predictive models are needed to describe potential future climate changes and their impacts. Land surface-atmosphere feedbacks and their impacts on climate are a current priority in the climate modelling community, but reliable records of long-term land use and vegetation change required for model evaluation are limited. Palaeoecological and palaeo-climatic data provide a unique record of the past changes in vegetation, land use and climate on time scales relevant to vegetation processes and global change projections. The application of a new technique (the REVEALS model (Sugita 2007) to landscape reconstruction using fossil pollen data makes robust comparisons with vegetation model output possible . The model corrects for biases caused by e.g. inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and dispersal. Our results show that pollen percentages, a traditional indicator of land cover changes, generally underestimate the unforested areas and certain broad-leaved trees such as Corylus and Tilia, while they often overestimate Betula and Pinus (see Cui et al. BG 6.2). Climate models use simplified land-surface classifications (plant functional types (PFTs)), such as grass (i.e. open land), deciduous trees, and conifers. Therefore, the observed large discrepancies in past land cover between the REVEALS estimates and pollen percentages are expected to influence model outcomes of the Holocene regional climate in NW Europe. The LANDCLIM project and research network (sponsored by the Swedish [VR] and Nordic [NordForsk] Research Councils) aim to quantify human-induced changes in regional vegetation/land-cover in NW Europe during the Holocene, and to evaluate the effects of these changes on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. We use the REVEALS model, theoretically derived and empirically tested, to estimate the percentage cover of taxa and groups of taxa (PFTs) from fossil pollen data for selected time windows of the Holocene, at a spatial resolution of ca. 1o x 1o. The REVEALS estimates of the past cover of PFTs will be 1) compared with the outputs of the LPJ-GUESS (10 PFTs), a widely-used dynamic vegetation model and 2) used as an alternative to the LPJ-GUESS-simulated vegetation (3 PFTs) to run for the past the regional climate model RCA3 developed at the Rossby Centre, Norrköping, Sweden. The study will evaluate and further refine these models (RCA3 and LPJ-GUESS) using a data-model comparison approach that incorporates new syntheses of palaeoclimatic data as well. It will lead to new assessments of the possible effect of various factors on climate, such as deforestations and afforestations, and changes in vegetation composition and spatial patterns of land cover/land use. Refined climate models and empirical land-cover reconstructions will shed new light on controversial hypotheses of past climate change and human impacts, such as the "Ruddiman hypothesis". First maps of REVEALS estimates of plant functional types (PFTs) are now available for Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Estonia, Poland, Germany, The Czech Republic, Switzerland and Britain (see Mazier et al. C1.21 and Trondman et al. C1.22). Correlation tests show that the REVEALS estimates are robust in terms of ranking of the PFTs' abundance (see Mazier et al, C1.21). The LANDCLIM project and network are a contribution to the IGBP-PAGES-Focus 4 PHAROS programme on human impact on environmental changes in the past. The following LANDCLIM members are acknowledged for providing pollen records, for help with pollen databases, and for providing results to the project: Mihkel Kangur and Tiiu Koff (Univ. Tallinn, Tallinn); Erik Kjellström (SMHI, Norrköping), Anna Broström, Lena Barnekow and Thomas Persson (GeoBiosphere Science Centre, Lund University); Anneli Poska (Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University); Thomas Giesecke (Albrecht-von-Haller-Institute for Plant Sciences, University of Göttingen), Anne Bjune and John Birks (Dept. of Biology, University of Bergen); Pim van der Knaap (Institute of Plant Sciences, Univ

  13. Energy Balance Related Behaviour: Personal, Home- and Friend-Related Factors among Schoolchildren in Europe Studied in the ENERGY-Project

    PubMed Central

    te Velde, Saskia J.; Singh, Amika; Chinapaw, Mai; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Natasa; Kovacs, Eva; Bere, Elling; Vik, Froydis N.; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Manios, Yannis; Moreno, Luis; Brug, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Objective To design interventions that target energy balance-related behaviours, knowledge of primary schoolchildren's perceptions regarding soft drink intake, fruit juice intake, breakfast consumption, TV viewing and physical activity (PA) is essential. The current study describes personal beliefs and attitudes, home- and friend-related variables regarding these behaviours across Europe. Design Cross-sectional study in which personal, family and friend -related variables were assessed by validated questionnaires, and dichotomized as favourable versus unfavourable answers. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate proportions of children giving unfavourable answers and test between-country differences. Setting A survey in eight European countries. Subjects A total of 7903 10–12 year old primary schoolchildren. Results A majority of the children reported unfavourable attitudes, preferences and subjective norms regarding soft drink, fruit juice intake and TV viewing accompanied with high availability and accessibility at home. Few children reported unfavourable attitudes and preferences regarding breakfast consumption and PA. Many children reported unfavourable health beliefs regarding breakfast consumption and TV viewing. Substantial differences between countries were observed, especially for variables regarding soft drink intake, breakfast consumption and TV viewing. Conclusion The surveyed children demonstrated favourable attitudes to some healthy behaviours (PA, breakfast intake) as well as to some unhealthy behaviours (soft drink consumption, TV viewing). Additionally, many children across Europe have personal beliefs and are exposed to social environments that are not supportive to engagement in healthy behaviours. Moreover, the large differences in personal, family and friend-related variables across Europe argue for implementing different strategies in the different European countries. PMID:25372490

  14. A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Myres, Natalie M; Rootsi, Siiri; Lin, Alice A; Järve, Mari; King, Roy J; Kutuev, Ildus; Cabrera, Vicente M; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Rudan, Pavao; Baldovic, Marian; Herrera, Rene J; Chiaroni, Jacques; Di Cristofaro, Julie; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of numerous branches within the core Y-chromosome haplogroup R-M207 support a West Asian origin of haplogroup R1b, its initial differentiation there followed by a rapid spread of one of its sub-clades carrying the M269 mutation to Europe. Here, we present phylogeographically resolved data for 2043 M269-derived Y-chromosomes from 118 West Asian and European populations assessed for the M412 SNP that largely separates the majority of Central and West European R1b lineages from those observed in Eastern Europe, the Circum-Uralic region, the Near East, the Caucasus and Pakistan. Within the M412 dichotomy, the major S116 sub-clade shows a frequency peak in the upper Danube basin and Paris area with declining frequency toward Italy, Iberia, Southern France and British Isles. Although this frequency pattern closely approximates the spread of the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), Neolithic culture, an advent leading to a number of pre-historic cultural developments during the past ?10 thousand years, more complex pre-Neolithic scenarios remain possible for the L23(xM412) components in Southeast Europe and elsewhere. PMID:20736979

  15. A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Myres, Natalie M; Rootsi, Siiri; Lin, Alice A; Järve, Mari; King, Roy J; Kutuev, Ildus; Cabrera, Vicente M; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Rudan, Pavao; Baldovic, Marian; Herrera, Rene J; Chiaroni, Jacques; Di Cristofaro, Julie; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of numerous branches within the core Y-chromosome haplogroup R-M207 support a West Asian origin of haplogroup R1b, its initial differentiation there followed by a rapid spread of one of its sub-clades carrying the M269 mutation to Europe. Here, we present phylogeographically resolved data for 2043 M269-derived Y-chromosomes from 118 West Asian and European populations assessed for the M412 SNP that largely separates the majority of Central and West European R1b lineages from those observed in Eastern Europe, the Circum-Uralic region, the Near East, the Caucasus and Pakistan. Within the M412 dichotomy, the major S116 sub-clade shows a frequency peak in the upper Danube basin and Paris area with declining frequency toward Italy, Iberia, Southern France and British Isles. Although this frequency pattern closely approximates the spread of the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), Neolithic culture, an advent leading to a number of pre-historic cultural developments during the past ?10 thousand years, more complex pre-Neolithic scenarios remain possible for the L23(xM412) components in Southeast Europe and elsewhere. PMID:20736979

  16. Wake fields effects for the eRHIC project

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov A. V.; Belomestnykh, S.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.; Ptitsyn, V.

    2012-05-20

    An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) with a high peak electron bunch current is proposed for the Electron-Ion collider (eRHIC) project at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The present design is based on the multi-pass electron beam transport in existing tunnel of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). As a result of a high peak current and a very long beam transport, consideration of various collective beam dynamics effects becomes important. Here we summarize effects of the coherent synchrotron radiation, resistive wall, accelerating cavities and wall roughness on the resulting energy spread and energy loss for several scenarios of the eRHIC project.

  17. The Manhattan Project and its Effects on American Women Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Samuel

    2008-04-01

    There have been many detailed historical accounts of the Manhattan Project, but few have recognized the technical role women scientists and engineers crucially played in the Project's success. Despite their absence from these prominent accounts, recent studies have revealed that, in fact, women participated in every non-combat operation associated with the Manhattan Project. With such extensive participation of women and such a former lack of historical attention upon them, little analysis has been done on how the Manhattan Project might have influenced the prospectus of women scientists after the war. This talk has two aims: 1) to recount some of the technical and scientific contributions of women to the Manhattan Project, and 2) to examine what effects these contributions had on the women's careers as scientists. In other words, I intend offer a preliminary explanation of the extent to which the Manhattan Project acted both as a boon and as a detriment to American women scientists. And finally, I will address what this historical analysis could imply about the effects of current efforts to recruit women into science.

  18. Coordinated lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe in the frame of EARLINET-AS0S project during CALIPSO overpasses: a strong dust case study analysis with modeling support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papayannis, A.; Amiridis, V.; Mona, L.; Mamouri, R. E.; Apituley, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Balis, D.; Chaikovski, A.; de Tomasi, F.; Grigorov, I.; Gustafsson, O.; Linnè, H.; Mattis, I.; Mitev, V.; Molero, F.; Müller, D.; Nicolae, D.; Pérez, C.; Pietruczuk, A.; Putaud, J. P.; Ravetta, F.; Rizi, V.; Schnell, F.; Sicard, M.; Simeonov, V.; Stebel, K.; Trickl, T.; D'Amico, G.; Pappalardo, G.; Wang, X.

    2009-09-01

    Coordinated lidar observations of Saharan dust over Europe are performed in the frame of the EARLINET-ASOS (2006-2011) project, which comprises 25 stations: 16 Raman lidar stations, including 8 multi-wavelength (3+2 station) Raman lidar stations, are used to retrieve the aerosol microphysical properties. Since the launch of CALIOP, the two-wavelength lidar on board the CALIPSO satellite (June 2006) our lidar network has been performing correlative aerosol measurements during CALIPSO overpasses over the individual stations. In our presentation, we report on the correlative measurements obtained during Saharan dust intrusions in the period from June 2006 to June 2008. We found that the number of dust events is generally greatest in late spring, summer and early autumn periods, mainly in southern and south-eastern Europe. A measurement example is presented that was analyzed to show the potential of a ground based lidar network to follow a dust event over a specific study area, in correlation with the CALIOP measurements. The dust transport over the studied area was simulated by the DREAM forecast model. Cross-section analyses of CALIOP over the study area were used to assess the model performance for describing and forecasting the vertical and horizontal distribution of the dust field over the Mediterranean. Our preliminary results can be used to reveal the importance of the synergy between the CALIOP measurement and the dust model, assisted by ground-based lidars, for clarifying the overall transport of dust over the European continent.

  19. Screening and Rapid Molecular Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Prisons in Russia and Eastern Europe: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Winetsky, Daniel E.; Negoescu, Diana M.; DeMarchis, Emilia H.; Almukhamedova, Olga; Dooronbekova, Aizhan; Pulatov, Dilshod; Vezhnina, Natalia; Owens, Douglas K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Prisons of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have high rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and are thought to drive general population tuberculosis (TB) epidemics. Effective prison case detection, though employing more expensive technologies, may reduce long-term treatment costs and slow MDR-TB transmission. Methods and Findings We developed a dynamic transmission model of TB and drug resistance matched to the epidemiology and costs in FSU prisons. We evaluated eight strategies for TB screening and diagnosis involving, alone or in combination, self-referral, symptom screening, mass miniature radiography (MMR), and sputum PCR with probes for rifampin resistance (Xpert MTB/RIF). Over a 10-y horizon, we projected costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and TB and MDR-TB prevalence. Using sputum PCR as an annual primary screening tool among the general prison population most effectively reduced overall TB prevalence (from 2.78% to 2.31%) and MDR-TB prevalence (from 0.74% to 0.63%), and cost US$543/QALY for additional QALYs gained compared to MMR screening with sputum PCR reserved for rapid detection of MDR-TB. Adding sputum PCR to the currently used strategy of annual MMR screening was cost-saving over 10 y compared to MMR screening alone, but produced only a modest reduction in MDR-TB prevalence (from 0.74% to 0.69%) and had minimal effect on overall TB prevalence (from 2.78% to 2.74%). Strategies based on symptom screening alone were less effective and more expensive than MMR-based strategies. Study limitations included scarce primary TB time-series data in FSU prisons and uncertainties regarding screening test characteristics. Conclusions In prisons of the FSU, annual screening of the general inmate population with sputum PCR most effectively reduces TB and MDR-TB prevalence, doing so cost-effectively. If this approach is not feasible, the current strategy of annual MMR is both more effective and less expensive than strategies using self-referral or symptom screening alone, and the addition of sputum PCR for rapid MDR-TB detection may be cost-saving over time. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23209384

  20. Long-Term Effects of a Nursing Home Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Robert D.; Gurian, Bennett S.

    1976-01-01

    A survey was conducted by a mental health center to evaluate the effects of a nursing home education project which attempted 1) to teach mental health professionals and nursing home staff how to set up in-service education programs in nursing homes, and 2) to teach nursing home staff mental health principles. (Author/EJT)

  1. Uncertainties in Projecting Risks of Late Effects from Space Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Cucinotta; W. Schimmerling; L. Peterson; J. Wilson; P. Saganti; J. Dicello

    2002-01-01

    The health risks faced by astronauts from space radiation include cancer, cataracts, hereditary effects, CNS risks, and non - cancer morbidity and mortality risks related to the diseases of the old age. Methods used to project risks in low -Earth orbit are of questionable merit for exploration missions because of the limited radiobiology data and knowledge of galactic cosmic ray

  2. Overview of the Choptank River watershed conservation effectiveness assessment project.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Choptank River is a benchmark watershed in the Conservation Effectiveness Assessment Project. It is an estuary and tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. Land use in the watershed (2057 square km) is classified as 52% agriculture, 26% forested, and 5% developed. Agricultural production is centered ...

  3. Performance Projections for Ballistic Graphene Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors

    E-print Network

    Performance Projections for Ballistic Graphene Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistors Gengchiau Liang performance potential of ballistic carbon nanoribbon MOSFETs is examined. We calculate the bandstructure of a nano-ribbon MOSFET using a semiclassical, ballistic model. We find that semiconducting ribbons a few

  4. Power plant rehabilitation in Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Gaglia, B.N. [Pyropower Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Lecesne, E. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Beginning in 1989, political revolution in the former Eastern block countries precipitated a period of economic transformation from a centrally planned to a market-oriented economy. Because energy is a vital factor of any economic development, rehabilitation of the region`s aging and polluting energy sector is essential to achieving economic stability and growth. Today Eastern Europe is among the most polluted regions in the world. This is due to the absence of effective environmental responsibility over the last 40 years. The European Community and other Western countries have focused on Eastern Europe as a significant world environmental problem, particularly the Black Triangle area. To meet this challenge the governments of Poland, the Czech Republic, Germany and others have embarked on various programs to rehabilitate the key power stations in the region. This paper will present the various aspects of power plant rehabilitation including the installation of new efficient turbine generators, new digital control systems, renovated power cycle equipment and modern efficient clean coal circulating fluidized bed technology. The paper focuses on this issue by using the Turow 2 x 235 MW rehabilitation project in Bogatynia, Poland as a case study. Included in the paper will be a discussion of a broad range of issues affecting rehabilitation including technical considerations, financial and commercial limitations and political aspects.

  5. Can cars and trucks coexist peacefully on highways? Analyzing the effectiveness of road safety policies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Manzano, José I; Castro-Nuño, Mercedes; Fageda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    We examine the impact on the traffic accident rate of the interaction between trucks and cars on Europe's roads using a panel data set that covers the period 1999-2010. We find that rising motorization rates for trucks lead to higher traffic fatalities, while rising motorization rates for cars do not. Empirically, the model we build predicts the positive impact of stricter speed limit legislation for trucks in the reduction of road fatalities. These findings lend support to European strategies and aimed at promoting alternative modes of freight transport, including rail and maritime transport. PMID:25703350

  6. Projected BCS-Tamm-Dancoff approximation with blocking effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, H.; Krmpoti?, F.

    1982-05-01

    The blocking effect is introduced through a canonical transformation in the projected BCS-Tamm-Dancoff approximation. It is suggested that the blocking effect may play an important role in the description of the low-lying states in odd-mass nuclei. Present address: Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. Member of Carrera de Investigador Científico, CONICET, Argentina. Sponsored by Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP), Brasil.

  7. Physical and economic consequences of climate change in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ciscar, Juan-Carlos; Iglesias, Ana; Feyen, Luc; Szabó, László; Van Regemorter, Denise; Amelung, Bas; Nicholls, Robert; Watkiss, Paul; Christensen, Ole B; Dankers, Rutger; Garrote, Luis; Goodess, Clare M; Hunt, Alistair; Moreno, Alvaro; Richards, Julie; Soria, Antonio

    2011-02-15

    Quantitative estimates of the economic damages of climate change usually are based on aggregate relationships linking average temperature change to loss in gross domestic product (GDP). However, there is a clear need for further detail in the regional and sectoral dimensions of impact assessments to design and prioritize adaptation strategies. New developments in regional climate modeling and physical-impact modeling in Europe allow a better exploration of those dimensions. This article quantifies the potential consequences of climate change in Europe in four market impact categories (agriculture, river floods, coastal areas, and tourism) and one nonmarket impact (human health). The methodology integrates a set of coherent, high-resolution climate change projections and physical models into an economic modeling framework. We find that if the climate of the 2080s were to occur today, the annual loss in household welfare in the European Union (EU) resulting from the four market impacts would range between 0.2-1%. If the welfare loss is assumed to be constant over time, climate change may halve the EU's annual welfare growth. Scenarios with warmer temperatures and a higher rise in sea level result in more severe economic damage. However, the results show that there are large variations across European regions. Southern Europe, the British Isles, and Central Europe North appear most sensitive to climate change. Northern Europe, on the other hand, is the only region with net economic benefits, driven mainly by the positive effects on agriculture. Coastal systems, agriculture, and river flooding are the most important of the four market impacts assessed. PMID:21282624

  8. The ATLAS project: The effects of a constructionist digital laboratory project on undergraduate laboratory performance.

    PubMed

    Shoepe, Todd C; Cavedon, Dana K; Derian, Joseph M; Levy, Celine S; Morales, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Anatomical education is a dynamic field where developments in the implementation of constructive, situated-learning show promise in improving student achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an individualized, technology heavy project in promoting student performance in a combined anatomy and physiology laboratory course. Mixed-methods research was used to compare two cohorts of anatomy laboratories separated by the adoption of a new laboratory atlas project, which were defined as preceding (PRE) and following the adoption of the Anatomical Teaching and Learning Assessment Study (ATLAS; POST). The ATLAS project required the creation of a student-generated, photographic atlas via acquisition of specimen images taken with tablet technology and digital microscope cameras throughout the semester. Images were transferred to laptops, digitally labeled and photo edited weekly, and compiled into a digital book using Internet publishing freeware for final project submission. An analysis of covariance confirmed that student final examination scores were improved (P < 0.05) following the implementation of the laboratory atlas project (PRE, n = 75; POST, n = 90; means ± SE; 74.9 ± 0.9 versus 78.1 ± 0.8, respectively) after controlling for cumulative student grade point average. Analysis of questionnaires collected (n = 68) from the post group suggested students identified with atlas objectives, appreciated the comprehensive value in final examination preparation, and the constructionism involved, but recommended alterations in assignment logistics and the format of the final version. Constructionist, comprehensive term-projects utilizing student-preferred technologies could be used to improve performance toward student learning outcomes. PMID:24678042

  9. OneGeology-Europe Plus Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capova, Dana; Kondrova, Lucie

    2014-05-01

    The Geological Surveys of the European countries hold valuable resources of geological data but, to discover, understand and use this data efficiently, a good level of standardization is essential. The OneGeology-Europe project had the aim of making geological maps at a scale 1:1M from Europe discoverable and accessible, available under a common data license and described by multilingual metainformation. A harmonized specification for basic geological map data was developed so that significant progress towards harmonizing the datasets was achieved. Responsibility for the management of the OneGeology-Europe portal has been taken by EuroGeoSurveys and provided by CGS and BRGM. Of the 34 members of EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), only 20 participated in the OneGeology-Europe project (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Spain, United Kingdom), so the European area was not completely covered. At the 33rd General Meeting and Directors Workshop in 2012 it was therefore decided to establish a successor initiative OneGeology Europe Plus (1G-E+) with the purpose of extending the coverage by geological maps at a scale of 1:1 M to all the EGS member countries (including Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Iceland, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine) and also, if possible, to the other European countries (Belorussia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Faeroe Islands, Kosovo, Latvia, Macedonia, Moldavia, Montenegro, Serbia). In order to achieve the desired result, it has been necessary for the new GSOs who intend to supply the additional 1G-E standardized services to carry out the work using their own staff and resources. The technical guidance and other support have been provided by the 1G-E+ Technical Support Team, funded from the internal budgets of their respective surveys. The team is coordinated by the Czech Geological Survey (CGS) working with the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), the British Geological Survey (BGS), the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the Geological Survey of Slovenia (GeoZS). The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (TNO) decided to provide financial support for the initiative. The Technical Support Team has been providing the technical advice required to enable the inclusion of geological maps from new countries in the 1G-E Portal using the standards developed and accepted for 1G-E. Cookbooks, on-line help and a helpdesk are provided during the work. A technical workshop was organized at which all the technical steps required to reach the target solution were presented and discussed. All newcomers must agree the existing common license that was created for downloading the 1G-E data. It should be emphasized that the results will be displayed as part of the 1G-E project and metadata/portal infrastructures. The process is still ongoing because the harmonization work for most of the countries involved has been a demanding process. Some countries are facing difficulties because of the lack of expert personnel or insufficient resources of data. Despite some problems, the 1G-E+ initiative and the work involved has contributed to effective networking and technical cooperation between the GSOs across the wider European region.

  10. News Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

  11. Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    A first part of the presentation is devoted to the consequences of the severe accident in the 1986 Chernobyl NPP. It lead to a substantial radioactive contaminated of large parts of Europe and thus raised the awareness for off-site nuclear accident consequences. Spatial patterns of the (transient) contamination of the air and (persistent) contamination of the ground were studied by both measurements and model simulations. For a variety of reasons, ground contamination measurements have variability at a range of spatial scales. Results will be reviewed and discussed. Model simulations, including inverse modelling, have shown that the standard source term as defined in the ATMES study (1990) needs to be updated. Sensitive measurements of airborne activities still reveal the presence of low levels of airborne radiocaesium over the northern hemisphere which stems from resuspension. Over time scales of months and years, the distribution of radionuclides in the Earth system is constantly changing, for example relocated within plants, between plants and soil, in the soil, and into water bodies. Motivated by the permanent risk of transboundary impacts from potential major nuclear accidents, the multidisciplinary project flexRISK (see http://flexRISK.boku.ac.at) has been carried out from 2009 to 2012 in Austria to quantify such risks and hazards. An overview of methods and results of flexRISK is given as a second part of the presentation. For each of the 228 NPPs, severe accidents were identified together with relevant inventories, release fractions, and release frequencies. Then, Europe-wide dispersion and dose calculations were performed for 2788 cases, using the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. Maps of single-case results as well as various aggregated risk parameters were produced. It was found that substantial consequences (intervention measures) are possible for distances up to 500-1000 km, and occur more frequently for a distance range up to 100-300 km, which is in agreement with Chernobyl experiences. However, emergency planning presently is still often focussing on too small areas. In reality, almost all of Europe should be prepared for nuclear disaster. The project investigated also the effect of a simple phase-out scenario. A regional phase-out policy is effective for reducing or even eliminating high damage in the respective regions. It should also be mentioned that risk distribution depends strongly on accident frequency, but this parameter is highly uncertain. The work in flexRISK was funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund (KLI.EN).

  12. Recasting Bourgeois Europe: Stabilization

    E-print Network

    Landweber, Laura

    national histories. Second, he rethought the po- litical structure of the European interwar periodRecasting Bourgeois Europe: Stabilization in France, Germany, and Italy in the Decade after World an unparalleled analysis of the crucial decade in Europe after 1918. Based on extensive archival research in each

  13. In situ bioremediation in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Porta, A. [Battelle Europe, Geneva (CH); Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

    1993-06-01

    Site remediation activity in Europe is increasing, even if not at the forced pace of the US. Although there is a better understanding of the benefits of bioremediation than of other approaches, especially about in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, relatively few projects have been carried out full-scale in Europe or in the US. Some engineering companies and large industrial companies in Europe are investigating bioremediation and biotreatment technologies, in some cases to solve their internal waste problems. Technologies related to the application of microorganisms to the soil, release of nutrients into the soil, and enhancement of microbial decontamination are being tested through various additives such as surfactants, ion exchange resins, limestone, or dolomite. New equipment has been developed for crushing and mixing or injecting and sparging the microorganisms, as have new reactor technologies (e.g., rotating aerator reactors, biometal sludge reactors, and special mobile containers for simultaneous storage, transportation, and biodegradation of contaminated soil). Some work has also been done with immobilized enzymes to support and restore enzymatic activities related to partial or total xenobiotic decontamination. Finally, some major programs funded by public and private institutions confirm that increasing numbers of firms have a working interest in bioremediation.

  14. Uncertainties in Projecting Risks of Late Effects from Space Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucinotta, F.; Schimmerling, W.; Peterson, L.; Wilson, J.; Saganti, P.; Dicello, J.

    The health risks faced by astronauts from space radiation include cancer, cataracts, hereditary effects, CNS risks, and non - cancer morbidity and mortality risks related to the diseases of the old age. Methods used to project risks in low -Earth orbit are of questionable merit for exploration missions because of the limited radiobiology data and knowledge of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) heavy ions, which causes estimates of the risk of late effects to be highly uncertain. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. Within the linear-additivity model, we use Monte-Carlo sampling from subjective uncertainty distributions in each factor to obtain a maximum likelihood estimate of the overall uncertainty in risk projections. The resulting methodology is applied to several human space exploration mission scenarios including ISS, lunar station, deep space outpost, and Mar's missions of duration of 360, 660, and 1000 days. The major results are the quantification of the uncertainties in current risk estimates, the identification of the primary factors that dominate risk projection uncertainties, and the development of a method to quantify candidate approaches to reduce uncertainties or mitigate risks. The large uncertainties in GCR risk projections lead to probability distributions of risk that mask any potential risk reduction using the "optimization" of shielding materials or configurations. In contrast, the design of shielding optimization approaches for solar particle events and trapped protons can be made at this time, and promising technologies can be shown to have merit using our approach. The methods used also make it possible to express risk management objectives in terms of quantitative objectives, i.e., number of days in space without exceeding a given risk level within well defined confidence limits

  15. Europe Note Europe note number Territorial Relevance Contact

    E-print Network

    Müller, Jens-Dominik

    Europe Note Europe note number Territorial Relevance Contact E-2012-01 UK, European Union Lucy Conference: The Sustainability of European Universities Executive summary This Europe Note informs the sector to the sustainability of Europe's higher education institutions. The conference is scheduled to take place on 22

  16. A recent News of the Week story ("Creationist beliefs persist in Europe," A.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A recent News of the Week story ("Creationist beliefs persist in Europe," A. Curry, 27 February, p. 1159) referred to a lack of regionwide studies on creationist beliefs in Europe, while ignoring most Citizenship, 2004­2008). This project involved data collection in 19 countries, 13 of which were in Europe (1

  17. Estimates of the cancer incidence and mortality in Europe in 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ferlay; P. Autier; M. Boniol; M. Heanue; M. Colombet; P. Boyle

    2007-01-01

    Background: Monitoring the evolution of the cancer burden in Europe is of great value. Estimates of the cancer burden in Europe have been published for 2004 and estimates are now being presented for cancer incidence and mortality in Europe for 2006. Methods: The most recent sources of cancer incidence and mortality data have been collected and projections have been carried

  18. Airborne Measurements of CO and Hydrocarbons over Western Europe During ICARTT-ITOP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Rappengluck; M. Bauerfeind; H. Huntrieser; M. Lichtenstern; A. Roiger; H. Schlager

    2005-01-01

    The ICARTT-ITOP mission (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation - Intercontinental Transport of Ozone and Precursors programme) in July\\/August 2004 focused on the effects of transcontinental transport of chemicals between North America and Europe. While various aircrafts involved in this project collected samples along the north-east US corridor and over the Atlantic the DLR Falcon carried out

  19. Living in Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Weblogs on just about every topic imaginable (including a few which no one would have imagined) are now available. And, after some time spent living in the shadows of traditional formats such as television and mainstream periodicals, they have garnered the attention of major media programs. One of the more interesting weblog sites out there is Living in Europe, which consists of a cooperative of bloggers and writers who contribute essays, photographs, personal diaries, and news items from Europe. The perspectives section of the site offers some commentaries on the expansion of the European Union and a diary of a foreigner living in Turkey. The photos section features contributions from various parts of Europe, including some musings and photos from Catalonia and Bristol. Visitors who develop a penchant for the site may sign up to help with the administration of the site, or just offer their own commentaries on life in Europe.

  20. Forests and Soil Erosion across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathurst, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Land use and climate change threaten the ability of Europe's forests to provide a vital service in limiting soil erosion, e.g. from forest fires and landslides. However, our ability to define the threat and to propose mitigation measures suffers from two deficiencies concerning the forest/erosion interface: 1) While there have been a considerable number of field studies of the relationship between forest cover and erosion in different parts of Europe, the data sets are scattered among research groups and a range of literature outlets. There is no comprehensive overview of the forest/erosion interface at the European scale, essential for considering regional variations and investigating the effects of future changes in land use and climate. 2) Compared with forest/water studies, we have a poorer quantitative appreciation of forest/erosion interactions. In the forest/water area it is possible to make quantitative statements such as that a 20% change in forest cover across a river catchment is needed for the effect on annual water yield to be measurable or that a forested catchment in upland UK has an annual water yield around 15% lower than an otherwise comparable grassland catchment. Comparable statements are not yet possible for forest/erosion interactions and there are uncertainties in the mathematical representation of forest/erosion interactions which limit our ability to make predictions, for example of the impact of forest loss in a given area. This presentation therefore considers the next step in improving our predictive capability. It proposes the integration of existing research and data to construct the "big picture" across Europe, i.e. erosion rates and sediment yields associated with forest cover and its loss in a range of erosion regimes (e.g. post-forest fire erosion or post-logging landslides). This would provide a basis for generalizations at the European scale. However, such an overview would not form a predictive capability. Therefore it is also necessary to identify a range of predictive methods, from empirical guidelines to computer models, which can be recommended for applications such as extrapolating from the local to the regional scale and for planning mitigation strategies. Such developments could help improve efficiency in the integrated management of forest, soil and water resources, benefit local engineering projects ranging from hazard mitigation plans to road culvert design, contribute to the implementation of the EU Water Framework Development, form a more objective basis for cost/benefit analysis of proposed management actions and help in putting a value on forest services.

  1. Europe's first farmers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2005-11-10

    People migrating from the Middle East brought farming techniques to present-day Germany and other parts of central Europe about 7,500 years ago. For years, scientists have been arguing over whether people with European ancestors are closely related to these first farmers. Some scientists say yes. Others say no and argue instead that people with European roots are closely related to the humans who lived in Europe long before the first farmers showed up.

  2. Where Europe meets Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Data from a portion of the imagery acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera during 2000-2002 were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of southwestern Europe and northwestern Morocco and Algeria. The image extends from 48oN, 16oW in the northwest to 32oN, 8oE in the southeast. It is displayed in Albers conic equal-area projection (a projection which is frequently used for equal-area maps of regions that are predominantly east-west in extent).

    From the northeast, the image traverses a portion of the Swiss Alps (partially snow-covered) and a small part of Italy's Po Valley. The northern portion of the image also includes the western coast of France and much of southern and southwestern France's undulating terrain, which continues until reaching the hills of the Pyrenees. The Pyrenees act as the natural frontier to the Iberian Peninsula -- a landmass comprised of Spain and Portugal. The Peninsular landscapes are extremely varied, with some almost desert-like, others green and fertile. About half of Spain is situated atop a high plain, known as the Central Plateau, and many mountain ranges, rivers, geological basement rock and vegetation types are found across this great plateau. The largest alluvial plain is Andalusia in the south, where the valley of the Guadalquivir River is shut in by mountain ranges on every side except the southwest, where the valley descends to the Atlantic. The islands of Mallorca, Menorca and Ibiza are Spanish territories in the western Mediterranean. At the Strait of Gibralter, Spain and Morocco very nearly kiss, and Morocco appears relatively verdant along its northern coastal corner. The rugged Atlas Mountain ranges traverse northern Algeria and Morocco.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during 2000-2002. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  3. Vegetation fire proneness in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Aranha, José; Amraoui, Malik

    2015-04-01

    Fire selectivity has been studied for vegetation classes in terms of fire frequency and fire size in a few European regions. This analysis is often performed along with other landscape variables such as topography, distance to roads and towns. These studies aims to assess the landscape sensitivity to forest fires in peri-urban areas and land cover changes, to define landscape management guidelines and policies based on the relationships between landscape and fires in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the objectives of this study includes the: (i) analysis of the spatial and temporal variability statistics within Europe; and, (ii) the identification and characterization of the vegetated land cover classes affected by fires; and, (iii) to propose a fire proneness index. The datasets used in the present study comprises: Corine Land Cover (CLC) maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006) and burned area (BA) perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe, provided by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS). The CLC is a part of the European Commission programme to COoRdinate INformation on the Environment (Corine) and it provides consistent, reliable and comparable information on land cover across Europe. Both the CLC and EFFIS datasets were combined using geostatistics and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of shrubs and forest affected by fires. Obtained results confirms the usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index which allows to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire. As expected, differences between northern and southern Europe are notorious in what concern to land cover distribution, fire incidence and fire proneness of vegetation cover classes. This work was supported by national funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project PEst-OE/AGR/UI4033/2014 and by the project SUSTAINSYS: Environmental Sustainable Agro-Forestry Systems (NORTE-07-0124-FEDER-000044), financed by the North Portugal Regional Operational Programme (ON.2 - O Novo Norte), under the National Strategic Reference Framework (QREN), through the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER), as well as by National Funds (PIDDAC) through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT/MEC).

  4. Thermal X-ray composites as an effect of projection

    E-print Network

    O. Petruk

    2001-03-21

    A new possibility to explain the nature of thermal X-ray composites (TXCs), i.e. a class of supernova remnants (SNRs) with a thermal X-ray centrally-filled morphology within a radio shell, as a projection effect of the 2- or 3-dimensional shell-like SNR evolved in a nonuniform medium with scale-height <10 pc is proposed. Both X-ray and radio morphologies, as well as the basic theoretical features of this kind of SNR and the surrounding medium, are considered. Theoretical properties of a shell-like SNR evolved at the edge of a molecular cloud correspond to the observed properties of TXCs if the gradient of the ambient density does not lie in the projection plane and the magnetic field is nearly aligned with the line of sight. So, at least a part of objects from the class may be interpreted within the framework of the considered effect. The proposed model suggests that SNRs with barrel-like radio and centrally-brightened thermal X-ray morphologies should exist. The model allows us to consider TXCs as prospective sources of proton origin gamma-rays.

  5. Optical Effects at projection measurements for Terahertz tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahm, A.; Wilms, A.; Tymoshchuk, M.; Grossmann, C.; Notni, G.; Tünnermann, A.

    2014-10-01

    Optical effects like refraction, diffraction and edge effects have an influence on Terahertz measurements. They can result in image artifacts which makes it difficult to detect and resolve material defects inside the samples. We used a geometrical optical ray tracing approach to analyze the optical effects at Terahertz projection measurements which can be used to perform 2D or 3D THz images. We measured rectangular and cylindrical samples made of PEEK (Polyetheretherketon), POM (Polyoxymethylen), and PMMA (Polymethylmethacrylat) and compared the results to simulations that are realized with the software ZEMAX. We were able to simulate the measured Fresnel refraction and transmission behavior for rectangular cuboids with a length of 25 mm and cylinders with diameter of 25 mm. We showed the influence of diffraction and edge effects at samples with different sizes made of PMMA. Thus, the optical effect of refraction was significant and observable for cylinders with diameters greater than 1.5 mm and holes with diameter greater than 2.5 mm.

  6. Predicting effectiveness of construction project management: Decision-support tool for competitive bidding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rasa Apanaviciene; Arvydas Juodis

    2006-01-01

    This article presents construction project management effectiveness modelling from the construction management organization\\u000a perspective. The paper reports on construction project performance data collected from construction management companies in\\u000a Lithuania and the United States of America. Construction project management effectiveness model (CPMEM) was established by\\u000a applying artificial neural networks (ANN) methodology. The discussions of project management effectiveness (success) factors\\u000a identified in

  7. The effects of a regional telepathology project: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Telepathology, which is an emerging form of telemedicine in Canada, is defined as the electronic transmission of pathological images, usually derived from microscopes, from one location to another. There are various applications of telepathology, including case referral for an expert opinion, provision of an emergency service in the absence of a resident pathologist, and education. Until now, there has been relatively little use of telepathology for core diagnostic services in the absence of a local pathologist, but this practice is likely to increase in the future. The Laval University Integrated Health Network is in the process of deploying a telepathology system, primarily to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to small hospitals in sparsely populated areas which are experiencing a severe shortage of on-site pathologists. The telepathology project involves 17 hospitals located in five regions of eastern Quebec, Canada. This paper describes the study protocol that will be used to evaluate the benefits associated with the project. Methods/Design A panel of experts was first assembled by Canada Health Infoway to agree on a set of benefits indicators that could be applied to all telepathology projects across Canada. Using the set of indicators as an input, we have developed a three-step study protocol. First, a survey questionnaire will be distributed to appraise the way pathologists, pathology technologists and surgeons perceive the telepathology system and its impacts. Second, a series of semi-structured interviews will be conducted with project leaders and telepathology users at sites that are representative of all the hospitals in the Laval University Integrated Health Network. The overall aim is to better understand the expected and unexpected effects of telepathology on health care professionals and patients as well as on the regional organization and delivery of care services. Finally, a pre-post design using secondary data is proposed to evaluate a wide array of tangible benefits to the patients, the health care providers, the hospitals, and the region as a whole. Discussion The Laval University Integrated Health Network's telepathology project is expected to yield positive and significant results that are relevant internationally. Our findings will provide valuable information on the nature and extent of benefits associated with telepathology systems intended to provide an intraoperative frozen section service to remote hospitals experiencing a shortage of specialists. PMID:22420301

  8. The effect of systemic errors on optimal project buffers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Trietsch

    2005-01-01

    Existing mathematical models for setting buffers for time or cost in project management assume that project activities are statistically independent. This leads to a highly counterintuitive and damaging conclusion that project buffers should become relatively negligible for projects with long chains of activities. We present a model that considers the statistical dependence between activities caused by estimation bias. We show

  9. Effect of a Collective Project on Group Cohesion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipley, Robert H.

    Immediately before their second group therapy session, 10 newly formed inpatient therapy groups were randomly assigned to complete either collective or individual art projects. The members of a group in the collective-project condition completed a single art project as a group. Each member of a group assigned to the individual project condition…

  10. Acid rain in Europe and the United States: an update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredric C. Menz; Hans M. Seip

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of science and policies to control acid rain in Europe and the United States over the past several decades. Acid rain gained prominence in the late 1960s because of its perceived effects on ecosystem integrity. Extensive research efforts in both Europe and the United States, however, have concluded that the effects of acid rain—at least

  11. New Races of Puccinia striiformis Found in Europe Reveal Race Specificity of Long-Term Effective Adult Plant Resistance in Wheat.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Chris K; Hovmøller, Mogens S; Leconte, Marc; Dedryver, Françoise; de Vallavieille-Pope, Claude

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT Resistance to Puccinia striiformis was examined in nine wheat recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between 'Camp Rémy' (resistant parent) and 'Récital' (susceptible parent) using an isolate of a strain common to the northwestern European population before 2011 (old) and two additional isolates, one representing an aggressive and high-temperature-adapted strain (PstS2) and another representing a virulence phenotype new to Europe since 2011 (new). The RILs carried different combinations of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to P. striiformis. Under greenhouse conditions, the three isolates gave highly contrasting results for infection type, latent period, lesion length, and diseased leaf area. The PstS2 isolate revealed Yr genes and QTL which conferred complete resistance in adult plants. Six QTL had additive effects against the old isolate whereas the effects of these QTL were significantly lower for the new isolate. Furthermore, the new isolate revealed previously undetected resistance in the susceptible parent. Disease severity under field conditions agreed with greenhouse results, except for Camp Rémy being fully resistant to the new isolate and for two RILs being susceptible in the field. These results stress the need of maintaining high genetic diversity for disease resistance in wheat and of using pathogen isolates of diverse origin in studies of host resistance genetics. PMID:24624957

  12. Tempo Effects in the Fertility Decline in Eastern Europe: Evidence from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimiter Philipov; Hans-Peter Kohler

    2001-01-01

    A recent formula due to Bongaarts and Feeney allows us todisentangle tempo and quantum effects in changes of the totalfertility rate. This article applies the TFR adjustment toBulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Russia.Substantial differences between the adjusted and the observed TFRindicate important tempo effects in the recent decline offertility. Moreover, these five countries differ in the relativeimportance of

  13. Education and ethnic prejudice in Europe : explanations for cross-national variances in the educational effect on ethnic prejudice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn Hello; Peer Scheepers; Mérove Gijsberts

    2002-01-01

    Education is often found to be a strong determinant of ethnic pre judice. However, there is preliminary evidence that this educational effect varies across countries. Moreover, there are also theoretical arguments to expect cross-national variances in the educational effect on ethnic pre judice. From both a cultural and structural perspective, we set out to explain these cross-national variances in the

  14. Endemic syphilis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lipozen?i?, Jasna; Marinovi?, Branka; Gruber, Franjo

    2014-01-01

    Nonvenereal syphilis (endemic syphilis) has existed in Europe since the 16th century. Main characteristics of the disease are its presence for a longer time in a specific territory and its transmission regardless of age and sex, mainly extragenitally in unsanitary living conditions. Nonvenereal syphilis was described under different names in almost all regions of Europe. The primary genital chancre was absent, and lesions were most frequently found in the mouth and affected mostly children. The disease spread in rural areas with poor economic and hygienic conditions. The disease was eradicated in Europe in the 20th century, but it is still present in some rural regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Southwest Asia, and North Africa. PMID:24559557

  15. The effects of the Colorado River project on longshore sediment transport at Matagorda Peninsula, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Heilman, Daniel Jon

    1995-01-01

    is performed within this study to determine the effectiveness of the project at preserving an open, navigable channel while preventing accelerated shoreline erosion. Evaluation is done through inspection of project impacts to longshore sediment transport...

  16. One Europe, one neurologist?

    PubMed

    Grisold, W; Galvin, R; Lisnic, V; Lopes Lima, J; Mueller, E; Oberndorfer, St; Vodusek, D B

    2007-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a major shift in emphasis within neurology from being a largely diagnostic discipline to one much more actively involved in treating disease. There have been major scientific advances leading to new and effective treatments. There is also a much greater awareness of the burden of neurological disease (Olesen J, Leonardi M. European Journal of Neurology 2003; 10: 471) and informed sufferers are requesting specific intervention. There is wide variation in the delivery of neurological services throughout Europe. This is reflected in manpower levels, the place of neurology related to other medical specialties and different mixes of hospital and private office practice. These differences have been thrown into sharper focus by the recent expansion of the European Union (EU). Initial training in neurology is given to undergraduate/pre-graduate students. Post-graduate education is delivered within a residency program leading to specialist qualification and certification. We now recognize that this is only the beginning of a life long program of continuous education and development (CME/CPD). National and international exchange programs facilitate the growth of knowledge and promote professional harmony and cooperation. The free migration of medical specialists has been an aspiration but remains limited by cultural, linguistic, personal, professional, political and economic factors. Two bodies, the European Board of Neurology (EBN-UEMS) http://www.uems-neuroboard.org (Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes) and the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) http://www.efns.org are actively involved in harmonising and developing neurology at the European level. PMID:17355542

  17. Broadcast satellites in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigand, R. T.

    1983-04-01

    The way in which nationalist sentiment has impeded the development of a pan-European television service is discussed. It is pointed out that many nations are moving individually to implement their own satellite services, services that can be received in other countries as well. The systems being developed separately by the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Italy, Scandinavia, Switzerland, and Austria are described, with attention also given to the plans in Eastern Europe. A table is included listing the TV satellites in Western Europe that are in operation or under development.

  18. Doctoring in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Henry

    1983-01-01

    Health care in Eastern Europe has not achieved world standards nor the goals of planners of socialist societies. With luck, perseverance, bribes or good connections, it is possible to obtain good medical and surgical care in Eastern Europe for a major illness. Primary and even secondary care usually are substandard, however, and often completely unacceptable to most Western foreigners. The reasons for this are complex but mainly rooted in different attitudes of health workers towards their patients, poor physical plants, poor salary structures, inadequate advancement opportunities for health care workers, poor social status and professional recognition for nurses and almost complete isolation of the average primary care doctor from hospital medicine. PMID:6659504

  19. Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nussli, Christos.

    This seventh edition of the Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe, available in English and French, was posted on the Web in September 2001. The atlas, a project of Christos Nussli, consists of maps "depicting with accuracy the states of this continent every first day of each centennial year from AD 1 to AD 2000." A legend helps users understand each of the maps, which are presented as expandable thumbnails. The site also links to a bibliography and maps from De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. Though the site functions in part as an advertisement for Nussli's CD version of the atlas, it is nonetheless a useful stop in its own right.

  20. Uromyces Scutellatus as a keystone species affecting Euphorbia spp. in Europe as shown by effects on density in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearest neighbor spatial analysis was used to assess the effect of systemic rust caused by Uromyces scutellatus on stands density of Euphorbia esula/virgata, a highly invasive deep-rooted perennial weed of rangelands and natural areas in North America. ANOVA applied to nearest neighbor measurements ...

  1. Structural control and 3D modelling of a wrench rift basin: the Upper Rhine Graben of NW Europe as a case study - Contribution of the EU GeORG project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaletto, Laurent; Nitsch, Edgar; Anders, Birte; Dressmann, Horst; Rupf, Isabel; Tesch, Jörg; Zumsprekel, Heiko; Cruz-Mermy, Davy; Capar, Laure; GeORG Team

    2013-04-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) of NW Europe is a Cenozoic wrench rift basin about 300 km long and 30 to 40 km wide, with syn- to post-rift Eocene to Quaternary sedimentary fill up to 4 km thick. The EU transnational GeORG project aims to give a detailed knowledge of its deep geological structure, in order to assist the safe and successful use of its great geological potential (e.g. geothermal energy, CO2 sequestration...). Products are based on a Gocad 3D geological model of the URG (from the Variscan basement to the surface), mostly based on the interpretation of about 5400 km of reprocessed seismic lines (3900 km in Germany and 1500 km in France), and a database of about 2150 wells, from oil, mining and thermal water exploration. It's the first time that such an amount of subsurface data is gathered, studied and modelled in the URG. We put the emphasis on the inventory of the various observed structural features (e.g., normal and strike-slip faults, salt domes), and their implication regarding the structural evolution the URG. We demonstrate the predominant role of the Miocene-to-present NNE-SSW strike-slip regime of the URG, which is characterized by the development of transtensional faults and flower structures, local transpression and inversion of older normal fault planes. A remarkable feature is also the offset of reactivated Paleozoic basement faults, known outside the basin. Thus, the Neogene strike-slip deformation tends to obliterate the initial rift structure as well as its basement structural heritage, giving a distorted view of pre-Miocene structural styles. We finally present a new tectonic map of the subsurface of the URG, which unravels the imbricated structural pattern of the graben, and highlights the newly defined tectonic blocks, faults and fault zones.

  2. A Reflection on the Effects of the 985 Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Cheng

    2011-01-01

    China's 985 Project, which came after the 211 Project, is a key program of the Chinese government to create world-class universities and high-level research universities. The central government invested a total of RMB32.9 billion in special funds for phase I (1999-2001) and phase II (2004-2007) of the project, assisting thirty-nine universities.…

  3. The Manhattan Project and its Effects on American Women Scientists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Fletcher

    2008-01-01

    There have been many detailed historical accounts of the Manhattan Project, but few have recognized the technical role women scientists and engineers crucially played in the Project's success. Despite their absence from these prominent accounts, recent studies have revealed that, in fact, women participated in every non-combat operation associated with the Manhattan Project. With such extensive participation of women and

  4. Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Müller, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ˜273?800 km2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus-Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and biodiversity, and for increasing agricultural production on previously cultivated lands.

  5. A meta-analysis of the effects of agricultural management on soil physical quality for different farm typologies across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Gema; Sáenz de Rodrigáñez, Marta; Laguna, Ana; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Vanderlinden, Karl; Ten Berge, Hein

    2014-05-01

    Despite important research efforts directed towards increasing our understanding of the links between agricultural management practices and environmental degradation and crop yield decline, current knowledge is still insufficient to provide an integrated approach for untangling relationships with soil quality from a chemical, biological and physical perspective. (Davis et al. 2012). Within the European project CATCH-C (ten Berge 2011) a practical tool is being developed for analyzing the sustainability of soil management practices for a wide range of farm typologies across European. As a partner of CATCH-C, the Spanish team aims at assessing physical soil quality by using meta-analysis techniques, previously used to assess other aspects of agricultural management (van den Putte et al. 2010; González et al. 2012; Quemada et al. 2013). As a first step, key indicators for characterizing soil physical quality such as bulk density, resistance to penetration, hydraulic conductivity, runoff and sediment yield have been identified. A literature review of the performance of these indicators was carried out. Data extracted from literature, was integrated in an online database developed by Plant Research International (Wageningen, UR). After an exploratory data analysis, a meta-analysis of the indicators with baseline treatments allowed a proper interpretation of the indicators to elucidate relationships between agricultural management and soil physical quality. References: Davis A.S. et al. 2012. Plos ONE 7(10): e4719. doi:10.1371/journalpone.0047149. González-Sánchez E.J.et al. 2012. Soil Till. Res. 122: 52-60. Quemada M. et al. 2013. Agric. Ecosyst. Environm. 174: 1-10. ten Berge, H.F.T.M. coord. 2011. Compatibility of Agricultural Management Practices and Types of Farming in the EU to enhance Climate Change Mitigation and Soil Health. KBBE.2011.1.2-01, GA 289782. van den Putte A.et al. 2010. Eur. J. Agron. 33: 231-41.

  6. Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects ANN DENISE FISSEKIS

    E-print Network

    Lund, Jay R.

    Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects By ANN DENISE FISSEKIS B of Climate Change on Storms...............................................33 Effects of Climate Change Appendix A: Climate Change Scenario Effects on New Bullards Bar................73 Appendix B: Climate

  7. Effective Monitoring and Control of Outsourced Software Development Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponisio, Laura; Vruggink, Peter

    In our study of four outsourcing projects we discover mechanisms to support managerial decision making during software development processes. We report on Customer Office, a framework used in practice that facilitates reasoning about projects by highlighting information paths and making co-ordination issues explicit. The results suggest a key role of modularisation and standardisation to assist in value creation, by facilitating information flow and keeping the overview of the project. The practical implications of our findings are guidelines for managing outsourcing projects such as to have a modularised view of the project based on knowledge domains and to standardise co-ordination operations.

  8. Work Absence in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lusine Lusinyan; Leo Bonato

    2007-01-01

    Work absence is a part of an individual's decision concerning hours worked. This paper focuses on sickness absence in Europe and builds on an analytical framework in which absence enters both labor supply and demand considerations, with sickness insurance provisions and labor market institutions affecting the costs of absence. The results from a panel of 18 European countries indicate that

  9. Financial Patenting in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bronwyn H. Hall; Grid Thoma; Salvatore Torrisi

    2009-01-01

    We take a first look at financial patents at the European Patent Office (EPO). As is the case at the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the number of financial patents in Europe has increased significantly in parallel with significant changes in payment and financial systems. Scholars have argued that financial patents, like other business methods patents, have low value

  10. Electives in Europe.

    PubMed

    Claveirole, A; Watt, S

    Student nurses at Napier University in Edinburgh have the opportunity to study extracurricular French or German and to gain experience of working in Europe. The authors of this article suggest that this gives students the skill and confidence to practise abroad, and to influence nursing policy and development in the European Union. PMID:9823191

  11. CNN.com Europe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Recently launched, this new CNN site offers users interested or living in Europe easy and quick access to headlines and news stories from the region. In addition to the major political news, the page supplies regional weather and European sports and business news. Italian, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, and Spanish versions of the site are also available.

  12. OCLC in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Christine

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the early days of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) in Europe, and developments in its usage. Highlights include negotiations between OCLC and France; retrospective conversion; reorganization and restructuring; the gradual approach to international use of OCLC; problems facing European libraries using OCLC; and benefits. (AEF)

  13. Changes in continental Europe water cycle in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouholahnejad, Elham; Schirmer, Mario; Abbaspour, Karim

    2015-04-01

    Changes in atmospheric water vapor content provide strong evidence that the water cycle is already responding to a warming climate. According to IPCC's last report on Climate Change (AR5), the water cycle is expected to intensify in a warmer climate as the atmosphere can hold more water vapor. This changes the frequency of precipitation extremes, increases evaporation and dry periods, and effects the water redistribution in land. This process is represented by most global climate models (GCMs) by increased summer dryness and winter wetness over large areas of continental mid to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, associated with a reduction in water availability at continental scale. Observing changes in precipitation and evaporation directly and at continental scale is difficult, because most of the exchange of fresh water between the atmosphere and the surface happens the oceans. Long term precipitation records are available only from over the land and there are no measurement of evaporation or redistribution of precipitation over the land area. On the other hand, understanding the extent of climate change effects on various components of the water cycle is of strategic importance for public, private sectors, and policy makers when it comes to fresh water management. In order to better understand the extent of climate change impacts on water resources of continental Europe, we developed a distributed hydrological model of Europe at high spatial and temporal resolution using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The hydrological model was calibrated for 1970 to 2006 using daily observation of streamflow and nitrate loads from 360 gauging stations across Europe. A vegetation growth routine was added to the model to better simulate evapotranspiration. The model results were calibrated with available agricultural crop yield data from other sources. As of future climate scenarios, we used the ISI-MIP project results which provides bias-corrected climate data from the GCMs participating in the CMIP5 at 0.5° x 0.5° resolution. Data cover the time period from 1901 to 2099, i.e. the historical period, and future projections for all Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0, and RCP 8.5). We used four different models output (GFDL, HADGEMES, MIROC, and IPSL) for all RCPs for near (2006-2035) and far (3065-2099) future. Multi-model ensembles (16 scenarios) are then used to study the potential impacts of future climate change on fresh water availability across Europe.

  14. Working with Teachers to Develop Fair and Reliable Measures of Effective Teaching. MET Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to develop and test multiple measures of teacher effectiveness. The goal of the MET project is to improve the quality of information about teaching effectiveness available to education professionals within states and districts--information…

  15. Does Europe Have Cosmopolitan Borders?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Rumford

    2007-01-01

    Current thinking on Europe's borders is characterised by a tension between, on the one hand, the idea of ‘network Europe’, in which the importance of internal borders is much reduced as a result of the flows and mobilities characteristic of the single market and the ‘four freedoms’, and, on the other, the idea that Europe is being ‘rebordered’ as the

  16. Logistics Performance in Europe: The Challenge of 1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Cooper; Michael Browne; Melvyn Peters

    1990-01-01

    The market for logistics services in Europe is undergoing unprecedented change. Not only is it being affected by world- scale developments, such as the globalization of manufacturing industry and the genesis of internationalisation in retailing, but there are major impacts within Europe itself. Numbered amongst these are; the effects of 1992 and the Single European Market on logistics users (e.g.

  17. CENTRALE PARIS SUMMER SCHOOL 2011 DOING BUSINESS IN EUROPE

    E-print Network

    Paragios, Nikos

    of the culture in management situations How to manage in an international context ? Effective communicateCENTRALE PARIS SUMMER SCHOOL 2011 DOING BUSINESS IN EUROPE Instructor: Laurence de Gueyer Co cultures around the world and particularly in Europe. Course description: With the enlargement of the Union

  18. Mapping cost-effective farmland preservation priorities A project funded the USDA NRI Rural Development Program

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Mapping cost-effective farmland preservation priorities A project funded the USDA NRI Rural Development Program Project Director: Frank Davis, University of California Santa Barbara Project Staff: David-35401-15320), we are developing a mapping tool to help public agencies and private land conservancies locate

  19. Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Petersen; J. Ali-Adeeb; T. Cerling; M. Chan; D. Chapman; L. Cohen; M. Davis; D. Chapmandearing; S. Hill; S. Hynek; L. Millward; S. O'Grady; L. Richards; K. Solomon; S. Sampson; J. Schafer; L. Zanno; E. Zipser

    2004-01-01

    Project WEST (Water, the Environment, Science, and Teaching) is a graduate student fellowship program funded by a GK-12 grant from the National Science Foundation. WEST links the University of Utah, the Utah Museum of Natural History, and the Salt Lake City school district in enhancing inquiry based science teaching in grades 4, 8, and 9 and the interdisciplinary training of

  20. Principal land use changes anticipated in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bouma; G. Varallyay; N. H. Batjes

    1998-01-01

    Major changes in land use may be anticipated in Europe in the decades to come as a result of technological, socio-economic and political developments as well as global environmental change. The type and effects of these changes will strongly depend on policy decisions which are governed, amongst others, by: (i) an increasing agricultural productivity; (ii) an increasing realization of the

  1. Tagging Time in Prolog: The Temporality Effect Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Christoph Meister

    2005-01-01

    This article combines a brief introduction into a particular philosophical theory of 'time' with a demonstration of how this theory has been implemented in a Literary Studies oriented Humanities Computing project. The aim of the project was to create a model of text-based time cognition and design customized markup and text analysis tools that help to understand ''how time works'':

  2. Satellite broadcasting in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholome, P.

    1984-05-01

    Three main communications services are recognized by the International Telecommunications Union: the Fixed Service, the Mobile Service and the Broadcasting Service. In Europe, EUTELSAT has just begun to exploit the first ECS satellite. The ESA-launched satellite was originally designed to provide an international public telecommunication service, however, the satellite will be used now almost exclusively for TV program distribution, while a second ECS satellite will be used for telephony. Despite plans for the launch of a third, countries in Europe are looking to other organizations such as INTELSAT for greater satellite capacity. Other organizations include Unisat, DFS/Copernicus, GDL, and Videosat. Both satellite and cable networks will increase the program-viewing audience, thus encouraging plans for a pan-European television service intended for an international audience. Although the combination of cable networks and distribution satellites looks promising, high-power broadcasting satellites will play an important role because of flexibility and additional program distribution.

  3. Europe Targets the Moon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amos, Jonathan.

    2003-01-01

    Tentatively set for a July 2003 launch, the Smart-1 spacecraft will host Europe's first lunar mission. A news article from the BBC outlines the objectives of this pioneering mission. The Smart-1 is incorporating many new technologies and testing them for the first time in space. One of the most notable is the ion thruster, but several other novel items used in the Smart-1, if successful, will end up in a mission to Mercury around 2010.

  4. Regulating Telecommunications in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cave, Martin

    This chapter describes and assesses the new regime for regulating electronic communications services, which came into force in Europe in July 2003. The first two sections describe, respectively, the previous regime (the 1998 package) and the new regime. The third section discusses experience of the new system up to the end of 2007,1 whereas the fourth evaluates its operation and the plans, already in place, to reform it.

  5. HIV in Europe.

    PubMed

    Põder, Airi; Haldre, Madli

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the estimated number of people living with HIV in Europe and Central Asia was 2.3 million. This is more than twice the 2001 figure. At the same time, approximately 50% of the infected people may not know their HIV status. The Europe/Central Asia region is one of only two regions in which HIV infections continue to increase. The estimated prevalence rate in the west and center of the region, however, has remained stable at 0.2%. The HIV epidemics in Eastern Europe and Central Asia are typically driven by unsafe drug injection and by onward transmission to the sexual partners of people who inject drugs. In the western part of the region, the epidemic remains concentrated among men who have sex with men and migrants from countries with generalized epidemics. Means of preventing and fighting HIV should, first and foremost, be directed to those parts of the population that are most exposed to the risk of the infection. Proceeding from the data presented, recommendations are given for ways of decreasing HIV prevalence in the region, such as promoting dialogue and awareness among multistakeholders, including policy makers, donors, and population groups most exposed to the infection. PMID:24559564

  6. Mineral facilities of Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  7. The MESH Manual for Inclusive Schools. Project MESH: Making Effective Schools Happen for All Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallucci, Chrysan

    This manual is a guide to Project MESH (Making Effective Schools Happen), a project which blends the "effective schools" research and change process with the values of the movement to include all students with disabilities in general education programs. The manual is based on the experience of two elementary schools in Washington State. The manual…

  8. "Project ALERT's" Effects on Adolescents' Prodrug Beliefs: A Replication and Extension Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Hanley, Sean; Shamblen, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    This article represents a replication and extension of previous studies of the effects of "Project ALERT", a school-based substance use prevention program, on the prodrug beliefs of adolescents. Specifically, the authors' research examined "Project ALERT's" effects on adolescents' intentions to use substances in the future, beliefs about substance…

  9. Adria/Europe collision effects

    SciTech Connect

    Balla, Z.

    1988-08-01

    In the Senonian, the Adriatic promontory of the African plate lay between two transform faults which joined the north-vergent Alpine-Carpathian front with the south-vergent Apenninic and Hellenic fronts. In the late Eocene it collided with the European continent. The head of the promontory was crushed by compression in the Oligocene and lengthened in a west-east direction. This initiated formation of the West Alpine and West Carpathian arcs. A bay of thin European crust in the area now occupied by the Carpathians facilitated a more pronounced advance of the eastern arc. A wedge-shaped body with the Bakony Mountains in its rigid core was pressed out from the Alpine region. The eastern Alps and the West Carpathians as well as the Southern Alps and the middle Pannonian units suffered sinistral and dextral shear, respectively, which resulted in their lengthening and zonality. In the early-middle Miocene in the Adriatic promontory was broken up. Its northern part suffered counterclockwise rotation in connection with the opening of the Ligurian Sea while the southern part only shifted relative to Africa. Rotation of the northern microplate forced the Dinaric-Hellenic arc to change its shape from convex to concave, and the intra-Carpathian units advanced toward the northeast and rotated toward each other. This completed the Carpathian arc and initiated subsidence in the Pannonian basin. Since the late Miocene the Adriatic promontory has acted again as a part of Africa with a maximum 60-km shift toward the west, caused by the escaping Turkish microplate.

  10. Project Career REACH: Marketing Strategies for Effective Guidance Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollendorf, Marsha; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the practical marketing strategies used to implement Project Career REACH, a career development program for high school freshmen. Marketing basics for guidance programs are discussed, including mission analysis, market analysis, resource analysis, strategic planning, and evaluation. (TE)

  11. Migrant Culture in a Changing Society: Multicultural Europe by the Year 2000. Colloquy (Strasbourg, France, January 18-20, 1983). The CDCC's Project No. 7: "The Education and Cultural Development of Migrants."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Micheline

    The 3-day colloquy was held to discuss educational and cultural problems with a view to what European society might be like in the year 2000. Participants divided into three working groups, each focusing on one of three major themes: multicultural Europe in 2000, the role of the school in a changing society, and migrant culture and its educational…

  12. New fire-prone areas in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thonicke, Kirsten; Knorr, Wolfgang; Wu, Minchao; Arneth, Almut

    2014-05-01

    With climate change, fire risk is projected to increase in many parts of Europe. Under severe climate change this could also lead to an increase of fire in ecosystems, which are not dominated by fires under current climate. In that case, fire risk would cause area and biomass burnt to increase, i.e. keep the linear relationship, and lead to an enormous increase in fire severity. We have developed an algorithm to map new fire-prone areas in Europe. It identifies grid points where large-scale fires, yet rare, are becoming the mean at the end of the 21st century. We applied this algorithm to simulation results from experiments where the dynamic vegetation-fire models LPJ-GUESS-SIMFIRE and LPJmL-SPITFIRE model were applied to scenarios of climate change and human population. Since both models simulate bi-directional feedbacks of vegetation dynamics and fire, simulated changes in fire regimes inherently reflect changes in fuel composition and fuel availability. Changes in future fire regimes and resulting new fire-prone areas as projected for the 21st century using CMIP5 climate scenarios (RCP8.5 vs. RPC2.6) will be presented. First results indicate that the new fire-prone areas would be found in eastern Europe. Depending on the climate scenario and vegetation-fire model used, it could also extend to central and south-eastern Europe. What this implies for vegetation composition and dynamics in the affected areas and how fire and climate change interact to lead to such changes will be shown.

  13. Europe is going to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    The Agency's Science Programme Committee (SPC) approved Mars Express after ESA's Council, meeting at ministerial level in Brussels on 11 and 12 May, had agreed the level of the science budget for the next 4 years, just enough to make the mission affordable. "Mars Express is a mission of opportunity and we felt we just had to jump in and do it. We are convinced it will produce first-rate science", says Hans Balsiger, SPC chairman. As well as being a first for Europe in Mars exploration, Mars Express will pioneer new, cheaper ways of doing space science missions. "With a total cost of just 150 million euros, Mars Express will be the cheapest Mars mission ever undertaken", says Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science. Mars Express will be launched in June 2003. When it arrives at the red planet six months later, it will begin to search for water and life. Seven instruments, provided by space research institutes throughout Europe, will make observations from the main spacecraft as it orbits the planet. Just before the spacecraft arrives, it will release a small lander, provided by research institutes in the UK, that will journey on to the surface to look for signs of life. The lander is called Beagle 2 after the ship in which Charles Darwin sailed round the world in search of evidence supporting his theory of evolution. But just as Darwin had to raise the money for his trip, so the search is on for public and private finance for Beagle 2. "Beagle 2 is an extremely important element of the mission", says Bonnet. Europe's space scientists have envisaged a mission to Mars for over fifteen years. But limited funding has prevented previous proposals from going ahead. The positioning of the planets in 2003, however, offers a particularly favourable passage to the red planet - an opportunity not to be missed. Mars Express will be joined by an international flotilla of spacecraft that will also be using this opportunity to work together on scientific questions and pave the way for future exploration. ESA is now able to afford Mars Express because it will be built more quickly and cheaply than any other comparable mission. It will be the first of the Agency's new flexible missions, based on maximum reuse of technology off-the-shelf and from other missions (the Rosetta cometary mission in this case). Mars Express will explore the extent to which innovative working practices, now made possible by the maturity of Europe's space industry, can cut mission costs and the time from concept to launch : a new kind of relationship with industrial partners is starting. "We are adopting a new approach to management by delegating to Matra Marconi Space (the prime contractor) responsibility for the whole project. This means we can reduce the ESA's management costs" says Bonnet. Despite the knock-down price, however, the future of Mars Express has hung in the balance because of the steady erosion of ESA's space science budget since 1995. Last November, the SPC said the mission could go ahead only if it could be afforded without affecting missions already approved, especially the FIRST infra-red observatory and the Planck mission to measure the cosmic microwave background. On 19/20 May, the SPC, which has the ultimate decision over the Agency's science missions, agreed that the level of resources allowed was just sufficient to allow Mars Express to go ahead. "To do such an ambitious mission for so little money is a challenge and we have decided to meet", says Balsiger.

  14. Generating effective project scheduling heuristics by abstraction and reconstitution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janakiraman, Bhaskar; Prieditis, Armand

    1992-01-01

    A project scheduling problem consists of a finite set of jobs, each with fixed integer duration, requiring one or more resources such as personnel or equipment, and each subject to a set of precedence relations, which specify allowable job orderings, and a set of mutual exclusion relations, which specify jobs that cannot overlap. No job can be interrupted once started. The objective is to minimize project duration. This objective arises in nearly every large construction project--from software to hardware to buildings. Because such project scheduling problems are NP-hard, they are typically solved by branch-and-bound algorithms. In these algorithms, lower-bound duration estimates (admissible heuristics) are used to improve efficiency. One way to obtain an admissible heuristic is to remove (abstract) all resources and mutual exclusion constraints and then obtain the minimal project duration for the abstracted problem; this minimal duration is the admissible heuristic. Although such abstracted problems can be solved efficiently, they yield inaccurate admissible heuristics precisely because those constraints that are central to solving the original problem are abstracted. This paper describes a method to reconstitute the abstracted constraints back into the solution to the abstracted problem while maintaining efficiency, thereby generating better admissible heuristics. Our results suggest that reconstitution can make good admissible heuristics even better.

  15. Cost Containment in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Culyer, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Health care cost containment is not in itself a sensible policy objective, because any assessment of the appropriateness of health care expenditure in aggregate, as of that on specific programs, requires a balancing of costs and benefits at the margin. International data on expenditures can, however, provide indications of the likely impact on costs and expenditures of structural features of health care systems. Data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for both European countries and a wider set are reviewed, and some current policies in Europe that are directed at controlling health care costs are outlined. PMID:10313433

  16. Effective Communication. The Port of Baltimore Workplace Skills Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumner, Ellen

    This set of learning modules was developed during a project to deliver workplace literacy instruction to individuals employed in the more than 50 businesses related to the activities of the Port of Baltimore. It is intended to help office staff of port businesses develop basic interpersonal communication and time and stress management skills. The…

  17. POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF PROJECT CHARIOT ON LOCAL WATER SUPPLIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1961-01-01

    An order-of-magnitude appraisal of the concentrations of radioactive ; nuclides that might be introduced into local water supplies by execution of ; Project Chariot near Cape Thompson, Alaska is presented. Summaires are given of ; the following environmental characteristics of the area: wind movement, air ; temperature and permafrost, precipitation, stream flow, evapo-transpiration and ; soil water, ground-water movement, sediment

  18. Projection Effects and the Needs-Press Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    The article criticizes the reasoning that Stern uses -- that "there is no evidence that the mechanism of projection plays any significant role in determining responses to the College Characteristics Index" -- with the use of data measuring relationships between pupil needs, environmental press, and pupil attitudes to various aspects of a high…

  19. Extreme Thinking: Transforming Traditional Student Projects into Effective Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Annette

    2003-01-01

    Provides practical ideas for "raising the bar" on student, technology-rich projects as teachers and learners work together to transform the learning environment. Explores levels of complexity in student products and determines what is realistic in terms of matching standards and activities with time and resources. (Author/AEF)

  20. The effect of the Standard Nomenclature for Air Pollution (SNAP) categories on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni P.; Gounaris, Nikos; Andronopoulos, Spyros; Vlachogiannis, Diamando

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the contribution of different anthropogenic emission sources on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over Europe since anthropogenic activities (and the related emissions) are the reason of air quality degradation. Gridded yearly averaged anthropogenic emissions for the year 2006 over Europe are provided by TNO at a 0.1×0.1 degree resolution. Emission sources have been classified into different activities according to the Standard Nomenclature for Air Pollution (SNAP). The available data include annual total emissions of CH4, CO, NH3, NMVOC, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and SO2 for both area and point sources in ten (10) SNAP categories: power generation, residential-commercial and other combustion, industrial combustion, industrial processes, extraction distribution of fossil fuels, solvent use, road transport, other mobile sources, waste treatment and disposal, agriculture. Mobile sources and road transport are the major sources of NOx emissions followed by power generation units. Power generation is also the major source for SO2 emissions followed by mobile sources. Agricultural activities dominate NH3 emissions while combustion sources followed by mobile sources and road transport are the main sources for primary PM2.5. Emissions are processed by the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) v2.6 modeling system to convert their resolution to the resolution needed by the air quality model The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) v4.7 Modeling System with the Carbon Bond mechanism (CB05) is used for the regional air quality modeling over Europe at 35km grid spacing. Results quantify the contribution of each SNAP category on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations, locally, across Europe.

  1. Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Colette, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common Ragweed) is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. This study is realised within the framework of the ATOPICA project (https://www.atopica.eu/) which is designed to provide first steps in tools and estimations of the fate of allergies in Europe due to changes in climate, land use and air quality. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. Models have been developed or adapted for simulating the phenology (PMP phonological modelling platform), inter-annual production (ORCHIDEE vegetation model), release and airborne processes (CHIMERE chemical transport model) of ragweed pollen. Airborne pollens follow processes similar to air quality pollutants in CHIMERE with some adaptations. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations (2000 - 2012) driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, 20-year long historical simulations (1986 - 2005) are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe. The spatial distribution is well captured with correlation equal to 0.7, but the daily variability of pollen counts remains to be improved with correlations varying between 0.1 and 0.75. The model chain captures reasonably well the inter-annual variability of pollen yearly mean concentrations, correlations, even not statistically significant due to the short length of time series, are positive for about 80% of sites. The main uncertainty in ambrosia pollen modelling is linked to the uncertainty in the plant density distribution. Preliminary results of the impact of environmental changes on pollen concentrations in the future will also be shown.

  2. 2-D Numerical Simulation of Flooding Effects Caused by South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-po SUN; Hai XUE; Peng-tao WANG; Rui-li LU; Xiao-long LIAO

    2008-01-01

    Since the General Channel designed for the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China has to cross many rivers and streams flowing from west to east, there are potentially serious effects additional flooding on the western side of the project alignment. Therefore, a 2-D numerical model for forecasting basin flood disasters was established and verified using historical flood data. The model

  3. The Effects of a Comprehensive Early Literacy Project on Preschoolers' Language and Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yaoying; Chin, Christopher; Reed, Evelyn; Hutchinson, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a federally funded early literacy project that aimed to promote the school readiness skills of preschool-age children from low income families. Through daily, explicit, and systematic instruction, the project targeted to improve preschoolers' oral language skills, phonological awareness,…

  4. Student Teacher Candidates' Effect on Student Learning as Measured through Action Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, David W.; Reid, Barbara K.; Zhou, Yunfang

    2008-01-01

    The unit determined that "Assessment 5: Effect on Student Learning" would be best measured by student teachers and interns utilizing an action research activity in their clinical experience. Twenty four action research projects were evaluated by the Director of Student Teaching. Interraters blind to the Director's scores evaluated the projects.…

  5. Project-Based Learning in Primary Schools: Effects on Pupils' Learning and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldi, Stavroula; Filippatou, Diamanto; Govaris, Christos

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses upon the effectiveness of project-based learning on primary school pupils regarding their content knowledge and attitudes towards self-efficacy, task value, group work, teaching methods applied and peers from diverse ethnic backgrounds. A cross-curricular project was implemented within the curriculum area of environmental…

  6. European Language Portfolio ELC/CEL Council of Europe/Conseil de l'Europe

    E-print Network

    Zürich, Universität

    European Language Portfolio ELC/CEL © Council of Europe/Conseil de l'Europe Self BIOGRAPHY 3.1 Level A1 European Language Portfolio ELC/CEL © Council of Europe/Conseil de l'Europe Spoken Portfolio ELC/CEL © Council of Europe/Conseil de l'Europe Self-assessment Checklist Lang

  7. Projecting the climatic effects of increasing carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, M C; Luther, F M [eds.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents the current knowns, unknowns, and uncertainties regarding the projected climate changes that might occur as a result of an increasing atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. Further, the volume describes what research is required to estimate the magnitude and rate of a CO/sub 2/-induced clamate change with regional and seasonal resolution. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  8. Reforming Doctoral Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitusikova, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Doctoral education in Europe has been undergoing a major transformation in the last decade. This transformation has occurred in response to several challenges: the changing nature of the labor market in the globalized economy; the European Union's common agenda in research and education, which seeks to make Europe the most competitive…

  9. Vulnerability to abrupt climate change in Europe Nigel Arnell, Emma Tompkins,

    E-print Network

    Watson, Andrew

    Vulnerability to abrupt climate change in Europe Nigel Arnell, Emma Tompkins, Neil Adger and Kate to abrupt climate change in Europe Nigel Arnell1 , Emma Tompkins2 , Neil Adger2 and Kate Delaney1 Tyndall Arnell, Emma Tompkins, Neil Adger and Kate Delaney Section 1 Overview of project work and outcomes

  10. OPEN DISTANCE INTER-UNIVERSITY SYNERGIES BETWEEN EUROPE, AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    621 OPEN DISTANCE INTER-UNIVERSITY SYNERGIES BETWEEN EUROPE, AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST (ODISEAME and the Middle East (ODISEAME). Sixth International Conference on Computer Based Learning in Science, CBLIS 2003-university Synergies between Europe, Africa and Middle East) is a project related to the fifth sector of application

  11. EUROPE Gateway: Bulgaria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The European Institute is committed to providing high quality information about a wide variety of European Union countries, and this particular site deals with the nation of Bulgaria. On the site, visitors can view recent news highlights drawn from a wide range of media outlets, and then move on to the "Analyses" area. Here they will find editorial pieces and other items that address everything from human rights to the current state of economic affairs in Bulgaria. The "Interview" area includes talks and discussions with various policy leaders, journalists, and commentators on issues of the day facing Bulgaria. Finally, visitors can also use the "Navigation" tools along the left-hand side of the homepage to learn about the rest of the Gateway Europe site.

  12. THE EFFECT OF THE BALLOONSAT PROJECT ON MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS' ATTITUDE TOWARD SCIENCE

    E-print Network

    Verhage, Lloyd Paul

    2012-08-31

    This study measured the effect of completing a BalloonSat project on student attitude toward science. Seven categories of student attitudes toward science were measured using the Test of Science Relate Attitudes survey ...

  13. 76 FR 76153 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Caney River Wind Project, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ...Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Caney River Wind Project, LLC, Mesquite Solar 1, LLC, Copper Crossing Solar LLC, Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC, Pinnacle Wind, LLC, Bellevue Solar, LLC, Yamhill Solar, LLC, Osage...

  14. Dispersal time for ancient human migrations: Americas and Europe colonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, J. C.

    2007-07-01

    I apply the recently proposed intermittence strategy to investigate the ancient human migrations in the world. That is, the Americas colonization (Bering-bridge and Pacific-coast theories) and Neanderthal replacement in Europe around 45000 years before the present. Using a mathematical equation related to diffusion and ballistic motion, I calculate the colonization time in all these cases in good agreement with archeological data (including Neolithic transition in Europe). Moreover, to support these calculations, I obtain analytically the effective speed of colonization in Europe veff=0.62 [km/yr] and related to the Aurignacian culture propagation.

  15. MEDAWARE project for wastewater reuse in the Mediterranean countries: An innovative compact biological wastewater treatment system for promoting wastewater reclamation in Cyprus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Fatta; S. Anayiotou

    2007-01-01

    The MEDAWARE project (which is funded by the Europe Aid program of EU) aims at addressing the significant issue of sustainable urban wastewater treatment and reuse in the agricultural production through the promotion of effective technologies and safe practices. The general objective of this project is to facilitate the change of the current situation in the Mediterranean countries in respect

  16. Typical Cool Storage Air-Conditioning Projects Spot Measuring Operation Effect Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang He; Huang Shulin; Zhang Yi

    2009-01-01

    Cool storage technology is an effective measure of peak-load shifting. On the basis of spot measuring of partial cool storage air-conditioning projects, this article analyzes peak-load shifting effect and economic benefit of four typical projects, and proposes the definition and mathematics model of maximal peak-load shifting. In the end, combining with the problems discovered in the analysis, this paper put

  17. Using Open Plan with integrated Xbase applications for effective project management solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Freier, K.D.; Hirschi, E.J.

    1994-04-01

    Open Plan`s open architecture allows the user many advantages that are not available from other project management software. One of these advantages is its ability to interface with various database management systems, thereby allowing the user to develop a project management system tailored to their specific needs. This open architecture offers maximum flexability to the user to personalize reports, screens, data structures, and develop customized management systems. Using Xbase, applications can be developed for every facet of a complete project management system including baseline development, performance measurement, reporting, and analysis. These applications can range from simple routines such as user-defined status worksheets, milestone logs and other reports, to complex cost,and schedule control systems. The combined power of Xbase and Open Plan can be used to produce effective project management solutions. Customized applications are easily obtainable allowing the user to gather information more timely and efficiently, produce customized reports, and analyze project management information more effectively.

  18. Significance and Effect of Ecological Rehabilitation Project in Inland River Basins in Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Feng, Qi; Chen, Lijuan; Yu, Tengfei

    2013-07-01

    The Ecological Water Transfer and Rehabilitation Project in the arid inland area of northwest China is an important measure in restoring a deteriorated ecosystem. However, the sustainability of the project is affected by many socio-economic factors. This article examines the attitudes of the local populace toward the project, its impact on the livelihood of the people, and the positive effects of water-efficient agricultural practices in Ejina County. Related data were collected through questionnaire surveys and group discussions. The results identified three critical issues that may influence the sustainability of the project in the study area. The first issue relates to the impact of the project on the livelihood of local herdsmen. The potential for the sustainability of the project is compromised because the livelihood of the herdsmen greatly depends on the compensation awarded by the project. The second issue is that the project did not raise the water resource utilization ratio, which may undermine its final purpose. Finally, the compensation provided by the project considers losses in agriculture, but neglects the externalities and public benefit of eco-water. Thus, appropriate compensation mechanisms should be established and adopted according to local economic, environmental, and social conditions. Some recommendations for improving the sustainability of the project are provided based on the results of this study.

  19. The Rockefeller Foundation and Central Europe: a Reconsideration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benhamin B. Page

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues that the health-related work of the RockefellerFoundation in Central Europe following the First World War flowed not somuch from geopolitical concerns as from the Foundation's ambition tocreate a global network in scientific medicine. It examines theassumptions and values that underpinned this project, and indicates someof the questions that these pose for today's world.

  20. Hardwood Markets and Marketing AHEC American Hardwood in Europe Convention

    E-print Network

    Hardwood Markets and Marketing AHEC American Hardwood in Europe Convention Venice, Italy 20-22 October 2004 Hardwood Markets in 2003-2005 American Hardwood Export Council 12th Annual Convention Venice, Italy 20-22 October 2004 by Ed Pepke, Project Leader Forest Products Marketing Programme UN Economic

  1. Dental Education in Europe: The Challenges of Variety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, John

    2003-01-01

    Finds that dental education varies considerably across Europe, with differing traditions of stomatology and odontology. The European Union's Dental Directives are often poorly followed by individual schools, and differences will likely intensify as Eastern/Central European countries join. The DentEd Thematic Network Project, which aims to promote…

  2. Goodbyes and Hellos: Effective Strategies for Bridging Early Services. Project APPLES. Bridging Early Services Transition Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkoetter, Sharon; Shotts, Cynthia

    This packet of information items presents a variety of resources for the effective transition of young children with disabilities from one program or service to another. Typical items include: challenges and truths of transition; six key points of transition; regulations from relevant federal laws; a flowchart of interagency transition planning; a…

  3. Detailed Studies of Radio Power Selection Effects, Projections Effects, and Redshift Evolution of Key Parameters of Classical Double Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Lin

    1997-12-01

    A sample of about 20 classical double radio sources with redshifts between zero and two was compiled to study the properties of powerful FRII sources and their gaseous environments. A detailed investigation of radio power selection effects suggests that these selection effects are unlikely to be significant for most of the derived parameters, such as the ambient gas density and characteristic size of a source. Projection effects are also studied in detail. It is found that projection effects typically do not have a significant impact on derived properties for sources with projection angles greater than about 60(deg) , measured with respect to the line of sight to the observer. At small projection angle, parameters such as the ambient gas density and the luminosity in directed kinetic energy of the jet (i.e. the beam power) are sensitive to projection effects, while parameters such as the lobe width and the radio spectral index are rather insensitive. Comparisons between radio galaxies and radio loud quasars suggest that the average projection angle of the radio loud quasars in the sample studied is likely to be greater than about 35(deg) to 40(deg) . A careful study of Cygnus A suggests that its projection angle is probably greater than about 40(deg) to 55(deg) , consistent with independent estimates. The data also suggest that the low-redshift radio loud quasars in the sample have lower radio surface brightness and lower non-thermal pressure than radio galaxies; the difference is so large, it can not be explained by projection effects. The beam power, the density, temperature and thermal pressure of the ambient gas, and the gravitational mass of the surrounding cluster are also estimated for each source in the sample. The redshift evolution of these parameters are discussed. One interesting result is that, for radio loud quasars, the beam power is strongly correlated with the optical luminosity of the quasar.

  4. Effects of declining aerosols on projections of zonally averaged tropical precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotstayn, L. D.; Collier, M. A.; Luo, J.-J.

    2015-04-01

    All of the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) assume that future emissions of aerosols and aerosol precursors will decline sharply. There is considerable evidence that historically increasing aerosols have substantially affected tropical precipitation, but the effects of projected aerosol declines have received little attention. We compare projections forced by the medium-low RCP4.5 pathway in two subsets of models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5): one group (HiForc) includes treatments of indirect aerosol effects on cloud albedo and cloud lifetime as well as direct aerosol effects, while the other group (LoForc) only treats direct aerosol effects. In this scenario we find that models in the HiForc group consistently project larger increases in both the mean and inter-hemispheric (north minus south) asymmetry of tropical sea-surface temperature (SST) and precipitation than do models in the LoForc group. Earlier projections from CMIP3, in which future aerosol declines were assumed to be smaller, behave more like the CMIP5 LoForc group. These results show that projected tropical SST and precipitation changes are sensitive to assumptions about aerosol emissions and indirect aerosol effects. If the real world resembles the HiForc group, then future aerosol changes are likely to be an important (even dominant) driver of tropical precipitation changes under low to moderate forcing scenarios.

  5. Growth effects of major land use projects. Volume II. Compilation of land use based emission factors. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benesh

    1976-01-01

    Growth Effects of Major Land Use Projects is a research program whose goal is to formulate a methodology to predict air pollutant emissions resulting from the construction and operation of two types of major land use projects, large residential projects and large concentrations of employment (i.e., office parks and industrial parks). Emissions are quantified from the major project, from land

  6. Integrated forest study on effects of atmospheric deposition. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Lindberg, S.E.

    1985-07-01

    The forest effects research is divided into two major sections: atmospheric deposition and forest nutrient dynamics. Atmospheric deposition tasks will provide estimates of the rates of deposition to the canopy by precipitation, dry deposition of vapors and particles, and by cloud and fog interception, and also the wetfall return to the forest floor. The forest nutrient effects tasks will provide estimates of element fluxes in litter and soil systems, estimates of internal H/sup +/ production, and characterization of key processes leading to S, N, and H saturation in soils. The results of these tasks will be combined in assessments of atmospheric deposition effects on forest nutrient cycles, which can in turn be applied to assessments of nutritional causes of forest dieback and long-term effects on productivity.

  7. Performance projections for ballistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Guo; Mark Lundstrom; Supriyo Datta

    2002-01-01

    The performance limits of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) are examined theoretically by extending a one-dimensional treatment used for silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Compared to ballistic MOSFETs, ballistic CNTFETs show similar I-V characteristics but the channel conductance is quantized. For low-voltage, digital applications, the CNTFET with a planar gate geometry provides an on-current that is comparable to that expected

  8. OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

    2010-05-01

    OneGeology-Europe is making geological spatial data held by the geological surveys of Europe more easily discoverable and accessible via the internet. This will provide a fundamental scientific layer to the European Plate Observation System Rich geological data assets exist in the geological survey of each individual EC Member State, but they are difficult to discover and are not interoperable. For those outside the geological surveys they are not easy to obtain, to understand or to use. Geological spatial data is essential to the prediction and mitigation of landslides, subsidence, earthquakes, flooding and pollution. These issues are global in nature and their profile has also been raised by the OneGeology global initiative for the International Year of Planet Earth 2008. Geology is also a key dataset in the EC INSPIRE Directive, where it is also fundamental to the themes of natural risk zones, energy and mineral resources. The OneGeology-Europe project is delivering a web-accessible, interoperable geological spatial dataset for the whole of Europe at the 1:1 million scale based on existing data held by the European geological surveys. Proof of concept will be applied to key areas at a higher resolution and some geological surveys will deliver their data at high resolution. An important role is developing a European specification for basic geological map data and making significant progress towards harmonising the dataset (an essential first step to addressing harmonisation at higher data resolutions). It is accelerating the development and deployment of a nascent international interchange standard for geological data - GeoSciML, which will enable the sharing and exchange of the data within and beyond the geological community within Europe and globally. The geological dataset for the whole of Europe is not a centralized database but a distributed system. Each geological survey implements and hosts an interoperable web service, delivering their national harmonized geological data. These datasets are registered in a multilingual catalogue, who is one the main part of this system. This catalogue and a common metadata profile allows the discovery of national geological and applied geological maps at all scapes, Such an architecture is facilitating re-use and addition of value by a wide spectrum of users in the public and private sector and identifying, documenting and disseminating strategies for the reduction of technical and business barriers to re-use. In identifying and raising awareness in the user and provider communities, it is moving geological knowledge closer to the end-user where it will have greater societal impact and ensure fuller exploitation of a key data resource gathered at huge public expense. The project is providing examples of best practice in the delivery of digital geological spatial data to users, e.g. in the insurance, property, engineering, planning, mineral resource and environmental sectors. The scientifically attributed map data of the project will provide a pan-European base for science research and, importantly, a prime geoscience dataset capable of integration with other data sets within and beyond the geoscience domain. This presentation will demonstrate the first results of this project and will indicate how OneGeology-Europe is ensuring that Europe may play a leading role in the development of a geoscience spatial data infrastructure (SDI) globally.

  9. MUSE from Europe to the Chilean Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillier, P.; Accardo, Mateo; Adjali, L.; Anwand, H.; Bacon, R.; Boudon, D.; Capoani, L.; Daguisé, E.; Dupieux, M.; Dupuy, C.; François, M.; Glindemann, A.; Gojak, D.; Gonté, F.; Haddad, N.; Hansali, G.; Hahn, T.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, Kristof; Kosmalski, Johan; Laurent, F.; Larrieu, M.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Migniau, J. E.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Piqueras, L.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Rupprecht, G.; Streicher, O.; Stuik, R.; Valentin, H.; Vernet, J.; Weilbacher, P.; Zins, G.

    2014-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument, built for ESO (European Southern Observatory) and dedicated to the VLT (Very Large Telescope). This instrument is an innovative integral field spectrograph (1x1 arcmin2 Field of View), operating in the visible wavelength range, from 465 nm to 930 nm. The MUSE project is supported by a European consortium of 7 institutes. After the finalisation of its integration and test in Europe validated by its Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, the MUSE instrument has been partially dismounted and shipped to the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in Chile. From October 2013 till February 2014, it has then been reassembled, tested and finally installed on the telescope its final home. From there it will collect its first photons coming from the outer limit of the visible universe. To come to this achievement, many tasks had to be completed and challenges overcome. These last steps in the project life have certainly been ones of the most critical. Critical in terms of risk, of working conditions, of operational constrains, of schedule and finally critical in terms of outcome: The first light and the final performances of the instrument on the sky.

  10. 3-DTV research and development in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, Ruediger

    1991-08-01

    An overview on the state of the art of 3-DTV in Europe is given, and the new European Co- operation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST) project and its objectives are described. The paper starts with a report on 3-DTV broadcast transmissions in 1982 using the simple anaglyph technique, which in many European countries found enthusiastic public interest. Following that, in three international audio and video fairs in 1983, 1985, and 1987 in Berlin, presentations of a high-quality two-channel 3-DTV system using large screen projection, showing professionally produced demonstration programs, attracted about 50,000 visitors. Meanwhile, several 3-DTV activities for advertising, information, and special applications such as medical imaging are to be found. In the broadcast domain, research and development aim to transmit 3-DTV within a high-definition TV channel.

  11. Rainfall-induced landslides in Europe: hotspots and thresholds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda, J.; Jaedicke, C.; Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B.

    2010-12-01

    This contribution presents preliminary results of the European project SafeLand. SafeLand is a large-scale integrating collaborative research project on landslide risks in Europe, funded by the Seventh Framework Programme for research and technological development (FP7) of the European Commission. SafeLand was launched in May 2009 and will run for three years. The project team, which comprises 27 institutions from 12 European countries, is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) in Norway. SafeLand aims to develop and implement an integrated and comprehensive approach to help and guide decision-making in connection with mitigation of landslide risks. Quantifying the effects of global change (changes in demography and climate change) on evolution of landslide risk in Europe is one of the main goals of SafeLand. The methodologies are tested in selected hazard and risk "hotspots” in Europe, in turn improving knowledge, methodologies and integration strategies for the management of landslide risk. The present contribution is focused on two components of SafeLand: (1) the identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots and (2) the estimation and assessment of rainfall thresholds for triggering of landslides. Hotspots of landslide hazard and risk were identified by an objective GIS-based analysis. The results show clearly where landslide pose the largest hazard in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. In absolute numbers, Italy is the country with the highest amount of area and population exposed. Relative to absolute number of inhabitants and area, small alpine countries such as Lichtenstein and Montenegro score highest where as much as 40% of the population could be exposed. It is obvious that the type and quality of the input data are decisive for the quality of the results. Especially the estimation of extreme precipitation events needs improvement. These preliminary results are based only on one of three applied hazard models. The two other models are currently being evaluated. Empirical rainfall thresholds for landslide triggering have been estimated in selected locations in Italy, France, Switzerland and Norway. Six different empirical models were used. The datasets included landslide inventories as well as hourly or daily observations of precipitation. The types of events were predominantly soil slides and debris flows, a few rock slides and rock falls, and the acceleration of a slowly-moving landslide. The results indicate that the occurrence of soil slides and debris flows can be predicted using precipitation observations. On the other hand, empirical models based on rainfall characteristics fail to predict rock falls and rock slides, presumably due to the predominant influence of other triggering factors. Soil slides are controlled by a combination of antecedent precipitation for short and long periods (1-10 days and 1-5 months, respectively). Debris flows are controlled by short duration precipitation lasting less than 12 hours. Since the inventories contain events with uncertainty in time of occurrence (from a few hours to several days), an innovative procedure was implemented for the inclusion of this uncertainty in the estimation of thresholds.

  12. Have We Identified Effective Teachers? Validating Measures of Effective Teaching Using Random Assignment. Research Paper. MET Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Miller, Trey; Staiger, Douglas O.

    2013-01-01

    To develop, reward, and retain great teachers, school systems first must know how to identify them. The authors designed the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to test replicable methods for identifying effective teachers. In past reports, the authors described three approaches to measuring different aspects of teaching: student surveys,…

  13. Effect of projective viewpoint in detecting temporal density changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raundahl, Jakob; Nielsen, Mads; Olsen, Ole F.; Bagger, Yu Z.

    2004-05-01

    An important question in mammographic image analysis is the importance of the projected view of the breast. Can temporal changes in density be detected equally well using either one of the commonly available views Medio-Lateral (ML) and Cranio-Caudal (CC) or a combination of the two? Two sets of mammograms of 50 patients in a double-blind, placebo controlled hormone replacement therapy (HRT) experiment were used. One set of ML and CC view from 1999 and one from 2001. HRT increases density which means that the degree of separation of the populations (one group receiving HRT and the other placebo) can be used as a measure of how much density change information is carried in a particular view or combination of views. Earlier results have shown a high correlation between CC and ML views leading to the conclusion that only one of them is needed for density assessment purposes. A similar high correlation coefficient was observed in this study (0.85), while the correlation between changes was a bit lower (0.71). Using both views to separate the patients receiving hormones from the ones receiving placebo increased the area under corresponding ROC curves from 0.76 +/- 0.04 to 0.79 +/- 0.04.

  14. Tackling important issues in Europe.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Karin

    2014-06-14

    Forthcoming animal health legislation, antimicrobial resistance and corporate practice were all discussed at the recent general assembly of the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe. Karin de Lange reports. PMID:24924965

  15. Curriculum Alignment: Topic Summary Report. Research on School Effectiveness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savard, William G.; Cotton, Kathleen

    Curriculum alignment means determining precisely what is intended to be taught, teaching that specifically, and measuring specifically what was taught. This paper contends that the alignment of objectives, actual teaching, and the means and content of testing are essential to effective schooling. The logical arguments of three authorities--Wilbur…

  16. Social-Emotional Effects of Day Care. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Marcia Z.; Grote, Barbara H.

    This study compared the effects of group day care, family day care, and full parental care on such aspects of children's social-emotional adjustment as curiosity, attachment, self-concept, sex role, achievement motivation, impulse control, cooperation, and sharing. Initial differences between groups were controlled by matching on race, sex, number…

  17. Inference on Peer Effects with Missing Peer Data: Evidence from Project STAR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sojourner, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    This paper contributes empirically to the literature on peer effects in first-grade classrooms. The paper examines peer effects on academic achievement among first graders randomly assigned to their classrooms and to their teachers as part of Tennessee's Project STAR, America's largest ever education experiment. The analysis draws on previously…

  18. Effects of Implementing STEM-I Project-Based Learning Activities for Female High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Shih, Ru-Chu

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the application of STEM-I (STEM-Imagination) project-based learning activities and its effects on the effectiveness, processes, and characteristics of STEM integrative knowledge learning and imagination development for female high school students. A total of 72 female high school students were divided into 18 teams.…

  19. Experimental investigation of the Coulomb effect in electron projection lithography (EPL)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiro Yamamoto; Fumio Murai; Akemi Moniwa

    2002-01-01

    Electron projection lithography (EPL) is a promising tool for next-generation lithography. However, beam blur due to the Coulomb effect becomes significant and degrades resolution when a high beam current is used to improve throughput. Suppressing the impact of the Coulomb effect is thus necessary to make EPL a practical tool for fabricating ULSI devices. We discuss the influence of the

  20. Europe: Insights from the Outside An Introduction

    E-print Network

    Stein, Oliver

    9 Europe: Insights from the Outside ­ An Introduction Caroline Y. Robertson-von Trotha I the title 'My Europe ­ Your Europe'. The Karlsruhe Dia- logues were initiated in 1997 by the ZAK | Centre on the basis of a concept that goes beyond a thematically organised panorama of Europe's socio-cultural make

  1. Using Project Performance to Measure Effectiveness of Quality Management System Maintenance and Practices in Construction Industry

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Tiong Kung; Ariff, Mohd. Shoki Md.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed seven existing and new performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of quality management system (QMS) maintenance and practices in construction industry. This research is carried out with a questionnaire based on QMS variables which are extracted from literature review and project performance indicators which are established from project management's theory. Data collected was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings indicate that client satisfaction and time variance have positive and significant relationship with QMS while other project performance indicators do not show significant results. Further studies can use the same project performance indicators to study the effectiveness of QMS in different sampling area to improve the generalizability of the findings. PMID:24701182

  2. NCEC -Network-Training Collaboration in Europe and China: Developing the Infrastructure

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zhangxi

    @chinatelecom.cninfo.net #12;2 1. Introduction In this paper we describe a project, Network -Training Collaboration in Europe education and training. The project will contribute to, and aim at making use of the results of parallel European and Chinese projects, in which the partners are involved. The NCEC will improve the utilisation

  3. A Detailed Investigation of Projection Effects Relevant to the Study of Powerful Classical Double Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Lin; Daly, Ruth A.

    1998-05-01

    A detailed investigation of projection effects involved in the study of classical double sources is presented here. Theoretical calculations of the way projection effects enter empirically determined parameters are studied. It is shown that some parameters, such as the lobe width, are rather insensitive to the projection angle, while other parameters, such as the ambient gas density, are more sensitive. The deviation of the observed value from the true value of any given parameter is usually not significant when the projection angle is greater than about 60° and is significant only at very small projection angle, at which the symmetry axis of the source is pointing close to the line of sight to the observer. Applications of the theoretical model to a sample of classical double radio sources yield the following principal results: 1. A comparison between the radio-loud quasars and the radio galaxies in the sample suggests that their average projection angles are very similar. The average projection angle of the radio-loud quasars in the sample is greater than 35°-40° at the 3 ? level, assuming that the average projection angle of radio galaxies is 70° or above. 2. On average, the low-redshift radio-loud quasars in the sample have much lower lobe surface brightness and lower nonthermal pressure than the low-redshift radio galaxies, a result which cannot be explained by projection effects. This is consistent with the fact that the radio-loud quasars appear to be ``fatter'' than the radio galaxies, as previously noted by Leahy, Muxlow, & Stephens. 3. The study of departures of the magnetic field strength from that estimated using the minimum-energy conditions suggests that the projection angle of Cygnus A is greater than about 40° (at 3 ?) to 55° (at 2 ?), in agreement with the independent results of Sorathia et al. These departures also indicate that the projection angles of most of the sources in the sample, including galaxies and quasars, are likely to be greater than about 30° (at 3 ?) to 40° (at 2 ?). This result does not depend on any assumptions about the average projection angle of radio galaxies and is consistent with result 1 stated above. Thus, it is very unlikely that projection significantly affects key parameters, such as the ambient gas temperature and density, for the sources studied here.

  4. Life+ EnvEurope DEIMS - improving access to long-term ecosystem monitoring data in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliment, Tomas; Peterseil, Johannes; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pugnetti, Alessandra; Blankman, David

    2013-04-01

    Long-term ecological (LTER) studies aim at detecting environmental changes and analysing its related drivers. In this respect LTER Europe provides a network of about 450 sites and platforms. However, data on various types of ecosystems and at a broad geographical scale is still not easily available. Managing data resulting from long-term observations is therefore one of the important tasks not only for an LTER site itself but also on the network level. Exchanging and sharing the information within a wider community is a crucial objective in the upcoming years. Due to the fragmented nature of long-term ecological research and monitoring (LTER) in Europe - and also on the global scale - information management has to face several challenges: distributed data sources, heterogeneous data models, heterogeneous data management solutions and the complex domain of ecosystem monitoring with regard to the resulting data. The Life+ EnvEurope project (2010-2013) provides a case study for a workflow using data from the distributed network of LTER-Europe sites. In order to enhance discovery, evaluation and access to data, the EnvEurope Drupal Ecological Information Management System (DEIMS) has been developed. This is based on the first official release of the Drupal metadata editor developed by US LTER. EnvEurope DEIMS consists of three main components: 1) Metadata editor: a web-based client interface to manage metadata of three information resource types - datasets, persons and research sites. A metadata model describing datasets based on Ecological Metadata Language (EML) was developed within the initial phase of the project. A crosswalk to the INSPIRE metadata model was implemented to convey to the currently on-going European activities. Person and research site metadata models defined within the LTER Europe were adapted for the project needs. The three metadata models are interconnected within the system in order to provide easy way to navigate the user among the related resources. 2) Discovery client: provides several search profiles for datasets, persons, research sites and external resources commonly used in the domain, e.g. Catalogue of Life , based on several search patterns ranging from simple full text search, glossary browsing to categorized faceted search. 3) Geo-Viewer: a map client that portrays boundaries and centroids of the research sites as Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Each layer provides a link to both Metadata editor and Discovery client in order to create or discover metadata describing the data collected within the individual research site. Sharing of the dataset metadata with DEIMS is ensured in two ways: XML export of individual metadata records according to the EML schema for inclusion in the international DataOne network, and periodic harvesting of metadata into GeoNetwork catalogue, thus providing catalogue service for web (CSW), which can be invoked by remote clients. The final version of DEIMS will be a pilot implementation for the information system of LTER-Europe, which should establish a common information management framework within the European ecosystem research domain and provide valuable environmental information to other European information infrastructures as SEIS, Copernicus and INSPIRE.

  5. Europe's rendezvousp Arturo Russo

    E-print Network

    1 N vember 1980November 1980 #12;TitanTitan Rhea Tethys Enceladus Dione #12;Project Cassini November of decision (Bruges, 25-27 October 1988) Cassini Saturn and Titan Vesta Asteroids and comets Quasat Radio Cassini / Titan probe #12;The choice of the SSACSSAC GRASP Cassini / Titan probep #12;The Huygens

  6. Optimizing Suicide Prevention Programs and Their Implementation in Europe (OSPI Europe): an evidence-based multi-level approach

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour are significant public health issues in Europe requiring effective preventive interventions. However, the evidence for effective preventive strategies is scarce. The protocol of a European research project to develop an optimized evidence based program for suicide prevention is presented. Method The groundwork for this research has been established by a regional community based intervention for suicide prevention that focuses on improving awareness and care for depression performed within the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD). The EAAD intervention consists of (1) training sessions and practice support for primary care physicians,(2) public relations activities and mass media campaigns, (3) training sessions for community facilitators who serve as gatekeepers for depressed and suicidal persons in the community and treatment and (4) outreach and support for high risk and self-help groups (e.g. helplines). The intervention has been shown to be effective in reducing suicidal behaviour in an earlier study, the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression. In the context of the current research project described in this paper (OSPI-Europe) the EAAD model is enhanced by other evidence based interventions and implemented simultaneously and in standardised way in four regions in Ireland, Portugal, Hungary and Germany. The enhanced intervention will be evaluated using a prospective controlled design with the primary outcomes being composite suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal), and with intermediate outcomes being the effect of training programs, changes in public attitudes, guideline-consistent media reporting. In addition an analysis of the economic costs and consequences will be undertaken, while a process evaluation will monitor implementation of the interventions within the different regions with varying organisational and healthcare contexts. Discussion This multi-centre research seeks to overcome major challenges of field research in suicide prevention. It pools data from four European regions, considerably increasing the study sample, which will be close to one million. In addition, the study will gather important information concerning the potential to transfer this multilevel program to other health care systems. The results of this research will provide a basis for developing an evidence-based, efficient concept for suicide prevention for EU-member states. PMID:19930638

  7. Projection imaging of photon beams by the ?erenkov effect

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Adam K.; Davis, Scott C.; McClatchy, David M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W.; Gladstone, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A novel technique for beam profiling of megavoltage photon beams was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced ?erenkov emission in water, as a potential surrogate for the imparted dose in irradiated media. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire 2D projection images of ?erenkov emission from a 4 × 4 cm2 6 MV linear accelerator (LINAC) x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 400 MU/min incident on a water tank with transparent walls. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the LINAC sync pulse to reduce background light artifacts, and the measurement quality was investigated by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and measurement repeatability as a function of delivered dose. Monte Carlo simulations were used to derive a calibration factor for differences between the optical images and deposited dose arising from the anisotropic angular dependence of ?erenkov emission. Finally, ?erenkov-based beam profiles were compared to a percent depth dose (PDD) and lateral dose profile at a depth of dmax from a reference dose distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system (TPS). Results: The signal to noise ratio was found to be 20 at a delivered dose of 66.6 cGy, and proportional to the square root of the delivered dose as expected from Poisson photon counting statistics. A 2.1% mean standard deviation and 5.6% maximum variation in successive measurements were observed, and the Monte Carlo derived calibration factor resulted in ?erenkov emission images which were directly correlated to deposited dose, with some spatial issues. The dose difference between the TPS and PDD predicted by ?erenkov measurements was within 20% in the buildup region with a distance to agreement (DTA) of 1.5–2 mm and ±3% at depths beyond dmax. In the lateral profile, the dose difference at the beam penumbra was within ±13% with a DTA of 0–2 mm, ±5% in the central beam region, and 2%–3% in the beam umbra. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of ?erenkov emission imaging to profile x-ray photon LINAC beams in water. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method. PMID:23298103

  8. The PRISM project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Guilyardi

    2003-01-01

    The European Union's PRISM infrastructure project (PRogram for Integrated earth System Modelling) aims at designing a flexible environment to easily assemble and run Earth System Models (http:\\/\\/prism.enes.org). Europe's widely distributed modelling expertise is both a strength and a challenge. Recognizing this, the PRISM project aims at developing an efficient shared modelling software infrastructure for climate scientists, providing them with an

  9. Household water demand and welfare loss for future Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Jeroen; Reynaud, Arnaud; Lanzanova, Denis; de Roo, Ad

    2015-04-01

    Matching the availability of water to its demand in Europe is a major challenge for the future due to expected economic and demographic developments and climate change. This means there is a growing need to estimate future water demand and to optimize the water allocation to all end users to counteract welfare loss. At the European scale it is currently not possible to assess the impact of social and economic changes on future water demand or to prioritize water allocation amongst different sectors based on economic damage without extensive use of assumptions and generalizations. Indeed, our review of existing regional optimization models for Europe reveals that the social-economic component of the water use system needs to be improved by complementing them with detailed water use estimates and cost/benefit functions in order to determine the optimal situation. Our study contributes to closing this knowledge gap for the European household sector by quantifying future water demand and the effect of water pricing, as well as providing a method for the calculation of monetary damage due to unmet demand at the highest spatial resolution possible. We used a water demand function approach in which household water consumption depends upon some exogenous drivers including water price, household income, population and household characteristics and climate conditions. For each European country, the annual water consumption per capita was calculated at regional level (NUTS3) and subsequently disaggregated to five kilometer grid level based on a population density map. In order to produce estimates of water demand, the evolution of the explanatory variables of the water demand functions and population density map were simulated until 2050 based on related variables such as GDP and demographic projections. The results of this study will be integrated into the JRC hydro-economic modelling framework for an assessment of the Water-Agriculture-Energy-Ecosystems Nexus.

  10. Towards better implementation of cancer screening in Europe through improved monitoring and evaluation and greater engagement of cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Anttila, Ahti; Lönnberg, Stefan; Ponti, Antonio; Suonio, Eero; Villain, Patricia; Coebergh, Jan Willem; von Karsa, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Proposals to improve implementation, monitoring and evaluation of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes have been developed in a European project involving scientists and professionals experienced in cancer registration (EUROCOURSE). They call for a clear and more active role for cancer registries through better interfaces with cancer screening programmes and adapting data contents of cancer registries for evaluation purposes. Cancer registries are recognised as essential for adequate evaluation of cancer screening programmes, but they are not involved in screening evaluation in several European countries. This is a key barrier to improving the effectiveness of programmes across Europe. The variation in Europe in the implementation of cancer screening offers a unique opportunity to learn from best practices in collaboration between cancer registries and screening programmes. Population-based cancer registries have experience and tools in collecting and analysing relevant data, e.g. for diagnostic and therapeutic determinants of mortality. In order to accelerate improvements in cancer control we argue that cancer registries should take co-responsibility in promoting effective screening evaluation in Europe. Additional investments are vital to further development of infrastructures and activities for screening evaluation and monitoring in the national settings and also at the pan-European level. The EUROCOURSE project also aimed to harmonise implementation of the European quality assurance guidelines for cancer screening programmes across Europe through standardising routine data collection and analysis, and definitions for key performance indicators for screening registers. Data linkage between cancer and screening registers and other repositories of demographic data and cause of death and where available clinical registers is key to implementing the European screening standards and thereby reducing the burden of disease through early detection. Greater engagement of cancer registries in this collaborative effort is also essential to develop adequate evaluation of innovations in cancer prevention and care. PMID:25483785

  11. Rainfall erosivity in Europe.

    PubMed

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Klik, Andreas; Rousseva, Svetla; Tadi?, Melita Per?ec; Michaelides, Silas; Hrabalíková, Michaela; Olsen, Preben; Aalto, Juha; Lakatos, Mónika; Rymszewicz, Anna; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Beguería, Santiago; Alewell, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall is one the main drivers of soil erosion. The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the R-factor in the USLE model and its revised version, RUSLE. At national and continental levels, the scarce availability of data obliges soil erosion modellers to estimate this factor based on rainfall data with only low temporal resolution (daily, monthly, annual averages). The purpose of this study is to assess rainfall erosivity in Europe in the form of the RUSLE R-factor, based on the best available datasets. Data have been collected from 1541 precipitation stations in all European Union (EU) Member States and Switzerland, with temporal resolutions of 5 to 60 min. The R-factor values calculated from precipitation data of different temporal resolutions were normalised to R-factor values with temporal resolutions of 30 min using linear regression functions. Precipitation time series ranged from a minimum of 5 years to a maximum of 40 years. The average time series per precipitation station is around 17.1 years, the most datasets including the first decade of the 21st century. Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) has been used to interpolate the R-factor station values to a European rainfall erosivity map at 1 km resolution. The covariates used for the R-factor interpolation were climatic data (total precipitation, seasonal precipitation, precipitation of driest/wettest months, average temperature), elevation and latitude/longitude. The mean R-factor for the EU plus Switzerland is 722 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1), with the highest values (>1000 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1)) in the Mediterranean and alpine regions and the lowest (<500 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1)) in the Nordic countries. The erosivity density (erosivity normalised to annual precipitation amounts) was also the highest in Mediterranean regions which implies high risk for erosive events and floods. PMID:25622150

  12. Investigating organizational quality improvement systems, patient empowerment, organizational culture, professional involvement and the quality of care in European hospitals: the 'Deepening our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe (DUQuE)' project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hospitals in European countries apply a wide range of quality improvement strategies. Knowledge of the effectiveness of these strategies, implemented as part of an overall hospital quality improvement system, is limited. Methods/Design We propose to study the relationships among organisational quality improvement systems, patient empowerment, organisational culture, professionals' involvement with the quality of hospital care, including clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient involvement. We will employ a cross-sectional, multi-level study design in which patient-level measurements are nested in hospital departments, which are in turn nested in hospitals in different EU countries. Mixed methods will be used for data collection, measurement and analysis. Hospital/care pathway level constructs that will be assessed include external pressure, hospital governance, quality improvement system, patient empowerment in quality improvement, organisational culture and professional involvement. These constructs will be assessed using questionnaires. Patient-level constructs include clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient involvement, and will be assessed using audit of patient records, routine data and patient surveys. For the assessment of hospital and pathway level constructs we will collect data from randomly selected hospitals in eight countries. For a sample of hospitals in each country we will carry out additional data collection at patient-level related to four conditions (stroke, acute myocardial infarction, hip fracture and delivery). In addition, structural components of quality improvement systems will be assessed using visits by experienced external assessors. Data analysis will include descriptive statistics and graphical representations and methods for data reduction, classification techniques and psychometric analysis, before moving to bi-variate and multivariate analysis. The latter will be conducted at hospital and multilevel. In addition, we will apply sophisticated methodological elements such as the use of causal diagrams, outcome modelling, double robust estimation and detailed sensitivity analysis or multiple bias analyses to assess the impact of the various sources of bias. Discussion Products of the project will include a catalogue of instruments and tools that can be used to build departmental or hospital quality and safety programme and an appraisal scheme to assess the maturity of the quality improvement system for use by hospitals and by purchasers to contract hospitals. PMID:20868470

  13. Patterns of Smoking Prevalence among the Elderly in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boccia, Stefania; Murisic, Bojana; Gallus, Silvano

    2013-01-01

    Scant information is available on determinants of smoking prevalence in the vulnerable population of the elderly, particularly in Europe. Therefore, we analyzed smoking patterns among older adults (?65 years old), using data from a representative survey based on 3,071 elderly, conducted in 17 European countries in 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project. Overall smoking prevalence in 17 European countries was 11.5% (15.3% in men and 8.6% in women). An inverse relation with level of education was observed among men, while no specific pattern was evident among women. Smoking prevalence was highest in eastern/central Europe for men (20.3%) and northern Europe for women (13.1%). In both sexes combined, smokers were more frequent in countries with low implementation of tobacco control activities (14.9%). Anti-tobacco campaigns and smoking cessation interventions specifically targeted to the elderly are urgently needed in Europe. PMID:24048208

  14. The Effect of Sonophoresis on Topical Anesthesia: A Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Joseph L.; Krall, Barry; Makki, Ali; Torabinejad, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    The dental anesthesia sonophoresis device (DASD) is a novel device that is intended to reduce the discomfort associated with intraoral mucosa needle puncture. The DASD produces ultrasonic energy that provides a sonophoretic effect on the oral mucosa, generating microchannels through the lipids between the keratinized cells that make up the stratum corneum. Once the topical anesthetic has permeated the stratum corneum, it quickly diffuses through the soft tissue, desensitizing the nerve endings and reducing the perception of pain caused by needle penetration. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether topical anesthesia applied using the DASD will reduce the discomfort of the needle puncture when compared to the control device. A split-mouth model, using 50 healthy subjects with puncture site at the maxillary canine vestibule, was used for this study. Subjects received a needle puncture on both sides of the mouth. Prior to the needle puncture, there was randomized application of 5% lidocaine with the DASD and a control device. Subjects rated their discomfort after needle punctures utilizing the visual analog scale pain scoring system. There was no statistically significant difference in the pain perception using the DASD versus the control device. PMID:23763557

  15. Improving Tsunami Resilience in Europe - ASTARTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Maria Ana; Yalciner, Ahmet; Canals, Miquel; Behrens, Joern; Fuhrman, David; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Harbitz, Carl; Kanoglu, Utku; Karanci, Nurai; Lavigne, Franck; Lorito, Stefano; Meghraoui, Mustafa; Melis, Nikolaos S.; Necmioglu, Ocal; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Rudloff, Alexander; Schindele, François; Terrinha, Pedro; Tinti, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The North East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Adjacent Seas (called NEAM by IOC-UNESCO) is known to be exposed to tsunamis and, like other regions of the world, faces increasing levels of risk due to i) the continuous development of coastal areas with critical infrastructures and accumulated values, and ii) the year-round presence of millions of tourists. In recent years, European researchers have greatly advanced knowledge of tsunami hazards and implementation of operational infrastructures, such as the creation of a regional system of candidate tsunami watch providers (CTWP) and national tsunami warning centers (NTWC). However, significant gaps remain and intensified efforts are needed. The ASTARTE (Assessment STrategy And Risk for Tsunami in Europe) is a three-year long EU-funded project, started in November 2013, that aims to develop a comprehensive strategy to mitigate tsunami impact in the NEAM region. To achieve this goal, an interdisciplinary consortium has been assembled. It includes all NEAM CTWPs and expert institutions across Europe and worldwide. ASTARTE will improve i) the basic knowledge on tsunami generation and recurrence with novel empirical data and new statistical analyses for assessing long-term recurrence and hazards of large events in sensitive areas within NEAM, ii) numerical techniques for tsunami simulation focusing on real-time codes, novel statistical emulation approaches, and experiments on damage analysis, and iii) methods for the assessment of hazard, vulnerability, and risk. ASTARTE will also provide i) guidelines for tsunami Eurocodes, ii) better forecasting and warning tools for CTWPs and NTWCs, and iii) guidelines for decision makers to increase the sustainability and resilience of coastal communities. In summary, ASTARTE will develop basic scientific and technical elements allowing for a significant enhancement of the Tsunami Warning System in the NEAM region in terms of monitoring, early warning,forecast, and resilience, with specific implementation in 9 tsunami test sites. Overall, this will lead to the goal of the European/NEAM Horizon 2020 strategy: to foster tsunami resilient communities. www.astarte-project.eu This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3).

  16. A Process-Based Approach to Predicting the Effect of Climate Change on the Distribution of an Invasive Allergenic Plant in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Storkey, Jonathan; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Chapman, Daniel S.; Vidotto, Francesco; Semenov, Mikhail A.

    2014-01-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia is an invasive weed in Europe with highly allergenic pollen. Populations are currently well established and cause significant health problems in the French Rhône valley, Austria, Hungary and Croatia but transient or casual introduced populations are also found in more Northern and Eastern European countries. A process-based model of weed growth, competition and population dynamics was used to predict the future potential for range expansion of A.artemisiifolia under climate change scenarios. The model predicted a northward shift in the available climatic niche for populations to establish and persist, creating a risk of increased health problems in countries including the UK and Denmark. This was accompanied by an increase in relative pollen production at the northern edge of its range. The southern European limit for A.artemisiifolia was not expected to change; populations continued to be limited by drought stress in Spain and Southern Italy. The process-based approach to modelling the impact of climate change on plant populations has the advantage over correlative species distribution models of being able to capture interactions of climate, land use and plant competition at the local scale. However, for this potential to be fully realised, additional empirical data are required on competitive dynamics of A.artemisiifolia in different crops and ruderal plant communities and its capacity to adapt to local conditions. PMID:24533071

  17. A process-based approach to predicting the effect of climate change on the distribution of an invasive allergenic plant in Europe.

    PubMed

    Storkey, Jonathan; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Chapman, Daniel S; Vidotto, Francesco; Semenov, Mikhail A

    2014-01-01

    Ambrosia artemisiifolia is an invasive weed in Europe with highly allergenic pollen. Populations are currently well established and cause significant health problems in the French Rhône valley, Austria, Hungary and Croatia but transient or casual introduced populations are also found in more Northern and Eastern European countries. A process-based model of weed growth, competition and population dynamics was used to predict the future potential for range expansion of A.artemisiifolia under climate change scenarios. The model predicted a northward shift in the available climatic niche for populations to establish and persist, creating a risk of increased health problems in countries including the UK and Denmark. This was accompanied by an increase in relative pollen production at the northern edge of its range. The southern European limit for A.artemisiifolia was not expected to change; populations continued to be limited by drought stress in Spain and Southern Italy. The process-based approach to modelling the impact of climate change on plant populations has the advantage over correlative species distribution models of being able to capture interactions of climate, land use and plant competition at the local scale. However, for this potential to be fully realised, additional empirical data are required on competitive dynamics of A.artemisiifolia in different crops and ruderal plant communities and its capacity to adapt to local conditions. PMID:24533071

  18. Taking Europe To The Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    The first step in this ESA initiated programme is a unique project called 'Euromoon 2000' which is currently being studied by ESA engineers/ scientists and key European Space Industries. The project is intended to celebrate Europe's entry into the New Millennium; and to promote public awareness and interest in science, technology and space exploration. Euromoon 2000 has an innovative and ambitious implementation plan. This includes a 'partnership with industry' and a financing scheme based on raising part of the mission's budget from sponsorship through a dynamic public relations strategy and marketing programme. The mission begins in earnest with the small (approx. 100 kg) LunarSat orbiter satellite, to be designed and built by 50 young scientists and engineers from across Europe. Scheduled for launch in 2000 as a secondary payload on a European Ariane 5 rocket, it will then orbit the Moon, mapping the planned landing area in greater detail in preparation of the EuroMoon Lander in 2001. The Lander's 40 kg payload allocation will accommodate amongst others scientific instrumentation for in-situ investigation of the unique site. Elements of specific support to the publicity and fund-raising campaign will also be considered. The Lander will aim for the 'Peak of Eternal Light' on the rim of the 20 km-diameter, 3 km-deep Shackleton South Pole crater - a site uniquely suited for establishing a future outpost. This location enjoys almost continuous sunlight thus missions can rely on solar power instead of bulky batteries or costly and potentially hazardous nuclear power generation. As a consequence of the undulating South Pole terrain there are also permanently shadowed areas - amongst the coldest in the Solar System resulting in conditions highly favourable for the formation of frozen volatiles (as suggested by the Clementine mission in 1994). Earlier this year (7th January 1998), NASA launched its Lunar Prospector satellite which is currently performing polar lunar orbits surveying areas of the moon's surface rarely documented in previous missions. The data now being received back from Prospector strongly suggests the presence of the suspected volatiles (water ice?). Understandably the presence of billions-of-years-old frozen water in proximity to Euromoon's planned landing site would provide a tremendous boost for the implementation of the EuroMoon project now in its 10th month of study. The in-situ analysis of such rare substances will provide an invaluable scientific window back in time (the Moon is believed to have been formed over 3.5 billion years ago from elements of the earth's mantel). The water's constituent elements of hydrogen and oxygen have also the possibility of offering an essentially free supply of rocket propellant and oxygen for exploitation during future activities. EuroMoon is the only mission being studied that can investigate this ice in-situ, while the US satellite will remain in a orbit. The mission is particularly challenging because of the required landing precision (within 100 m2) in terrain varying between +6 km and -5 km in altitude. Achieving the required pinpoint touchdown capability would allow the future exploitation of other interesting sites. One such site is the 6 km-high Malapert Mountain, 120 km from the pole from which the Earth can always be seen thus allowing continuous communications with the home planet for any future outpost in the region. The 'Peak of Eternal Light' (described above) is in direct view of Malapert, the twin peaks offer the tantalising possibility of both of uninterrupted power and communications. Euromoon can be seen as be the initial step in founding the first extraterrestrial outpost, founding the infrastructure for a 'robotic village' controlled by a 'virtual community' of Earth-based operators using telescience. This would indeed mark the beginning of an expansion of the human domain beyond Earth without the risk or cost of manned space travel. This concept also forms an essential element of the fund-raising campaign which will create an exciting media opport

  19. Occupational Health in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Malan, R. M.

    1963-01-01

    Progress may be fostered as much by spreading information as by research. The aim of this review is to add to the existing knowledge of the pattern of occupational health services in the socialist countries of Eastern Europe. The work consists of two main parts. Part I is based on official information issued by government departments or typewritten reports prepared by government officials, and relates mostly to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and to Czechoslovakia. Part II is largely based on direct observation, discussion, and comparison of the occupational health services in Czechoslovakia, of which I have more extensive knowledge than of the other countries of Eastern Europe. This part embodies a number of conclusions and is followed by a list of bibliographical references. Throughout the review I have endeavoured to show how problems which exist all over the world are dealt with in Eastern Europe. PMID:13932439

  20. The non-coplanar baselines effect in radio interferometry: The W-Projection algorithm

    E-print Network

    T. J. Cornwell; K. Golap; S. Bhatnagar

    2008-07-25

    We consider a troublesome form of non-isoplanatism in synthesis radio telescopes: non-coplanar baselines. We present a novel interpretation of the non-coplanar baselines effect as being due to differential Fresnel diffraction in the neighborhood of the array antennas. We have developed a new algorithm to deal with this effect. Our new algorithm, which we call "W-projection", has markedly superior performance compared to existing algorithms. At roughly equivalent levels of accuracy, W-projection can be up to an order of magnitude faster than the corresponding facet-based algorithms. Furthermore, the precision of result is not tightly coupled to computing time. W-projection has important consequences for the design and operation of the new generation of radio telescopes operating at centimeter and longer wavelengths.

  1. The Choptank Watershed Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project: Monitoring the Effect of Wetland Conservation Practices on Water Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Choptank Watershed Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) brings together an interdisciplinary group of experts and resources from multiple federal agencies and the University of Maryland to assess the ability of native, restored, and prior-converted wetlands on cropland to impro...

  2. Genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Europe: genotyping methods in forensic and epidemiologic investigations.

    PubMed

    Derzelle, Sylviane; Thierry, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, a zoonosis relatively common throughout the world, can be used as an agent of bioterrorism. In naturally occurring outbreaks and in criminal release of this pathogen, a fast and accurate diagnosis is crucial to an effective response. Microbiological forensics and epidemiologic investigations increasingly rely on molecular markers, such as polymorphisms in DNA sequence, to obtain reliable information regarding the identification or source of a suspicious strain. Over the past decade, significant research efforts have been undertaken to develop genotyping methods with increased power to differentiate B. anthracis strains. A growing number of DNA signatures have been identified and used to survey B. anthracis diversity in nature, leading to rapid advances in our understanding of the global population of this pathogen. This article provides an overview of the different phylogenetic subgroups distributed across the world, with a particular focus on Europe. Updated information on the anthrax situation in Europe is reported. A brief description of some of the work in progress in the work package 5.1 of the AniBioThreat project is also presented, including (1) the development of a robust typing tool based on a suspension array technology and multiplexed single nucleotide polymorphisms scoring and (2) the typing of a collection of DNA from European isolates exchanged between the partners of the project. The know-how acquired will contribute to improving the EU's ability to react rapidly when the identity and real origin of a strain need to be established. PMID:23971802

  3. The Winds of Change: Higher Education Management Programmes in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pausits, Attila; Pellert, Ada

    2009-01-01

    Amid the Bologna Process and as a direct effect of it, European higher education institutions have to rethink their core institutional policies in order to effectively deal with the increasing demands and needs of their "customers" and society at large. The higher education management programmes across Europe, with some specific needs and…

  4. Approved Module Information for BN3385, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Effective Project Delivery Module Code: BN3385

    E-print Network

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for BN3385, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Effective Project Delivery Module Module Aims: The aim of this module is to develop informed future project management practitioners who delivering projects. Module Learning Outcomes: Upon successful completion of this module, students

  5. ESD around the world: Europe.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Horst

    2014-04-01

    In Europe, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is widely accepted as an appropriate diagnostic approach to obtain specimens for accurate histopathologic evaluation, which may change grading and local staging of early neoplasia determined by prior biopsies and imaging. In contrast to EMR, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allows resection of even large lesions in a single piece. Evidence on the clinical value of ESD is still limited and mainly based on data from Japan, and may not be directly applicable to Europe, where the outcome of ESD may be less favorable because of the limited Western expertise in this challenging technique. PMID:24679240

  6. HTR Fuel Development in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Languille, Alain [CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance BP1 (France); Conrad, R. [CEC/JRC/IE Petten (Netherlands); Guillermier, P. [Framatome-ANP/ Lyon (France); Nabielek, H. [FZJ/Juelich (Germany); Bakker, K. [NRG/Petten (Netherlands); Abram, T. [BNFL UK (United Kingdom); Haas, D. [JRC/ITU/Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    In the frame of the European Network HTR-TN and in the 5. EURATOM RTD Framework Programme (FP5) European programmes have been launched to consolidate advanced modular HTR technology in Europe. This paper gives an overall description and first results of this programme. The major tasks covered concern a complete recovery of the past experience on fuel irradiation behaviour in Europe, qualification of HTR fuel by irradiating of fuel elements in the HFR reactor, understanding of fuel behaviour with the development of a fuel particle code and finally a recover of the fuel fabrication capability. (authors)

  7. The Role of Distribution Network Operators in Promoting Cost-Effective Distributed Generation: Lessons from the United States of America for Europe

    E-print Network

    Anaya, Karim L.; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2015-06-19

    the final assessment of the bid scoring and the final shortlist selection, comprised of seven projects [24]. PGE selected the Lower Snake River Phase 2 wind farm12 (with a nameplate capacity of 266.8 MW), which had the lowest cost and lowest risk project... and reinforcement costs, if applicable). The bid price is usually non-negotiable in order to guarantee a fair treatment among all bidders and to simplify the process; however, negotiations were allowed by PGE only on the top-rated bid. Following [25...

  8. The effects of hydraulic projects and their management on water quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GRAS R; Electricité de France

    Various types of hydraulic project are reviewed in order to examine the extent to which altering flow characteristics or other associated quantitative factors can effect water quality and more generally aquatic life. Particular attention is paid to the canalization of streams or rivers and to the construction of dams for navigation or electricity generation; a section covers reservoirs and pump

  9. Spencerport Central Schools More Effective Schools/Teaching Project Documents, Second Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencerport Central Schools, NY.

    During the 1982-83 school year the Spencerport (New York) Central School District began a comprehensive project to study the effective schools research and its implications at all levels of a suburban school system. A leadership planning team (consisting of teachers, principals, and district personnel) participated in a series of workshops and…

  10. Project Title: Effects of Biosolid Land Application on Pathogens in Irrigation Return Flow

    E-print Network

    Fay, Noah

    Project Title: Effects of Biosolid Land Application on Pathogens in Irrigation Return Flow in irrigation return flow from fields applied with biosolids. The results of this study showed that during the first irrigation cycle, return flow becomes contaminated with E. Coli, while the return flow

  11. The Life Interventions for Family Effectiveness (LIFE) Project: Preliminary Findings on Alternative School Intervention for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Donnie W.; Mouttapa, Michele; Reiber, Chris; McCuller, William Jason; Arancibia, Ruben; Kavich, Julia A.; Nieves, Elena; Novgrod, Judith; Mai, Noemi; Bisesi, Lorrie; Sim, Tiffanie

    2007-01-01

    A non-randomized control trial was conducted to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the Life Interventions for Family Effectiveness (LIFE) project: a family-based, evidence-based comprehensive substance abuse intervention for at-risk adolescents and their families. The Matrix Adolescent Treatment Model of program delivery was utilized in the…

  12. The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

  13. Classroom Climate Properties for the Memphis Effective Schools Project on the Learning Environment Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervetti, Michael J.

    The purpose of the Memphis Effective Schools Project (MESP), first initiated in the fall of 1982, is to help alleviate educational deficits that black students have acquired over the years of segregated schooling. The philosophy behind the MESP is that all students can learn in a conducive learning environment; this study assesses students'…

  14. 3D Downtown Phoenix Modeling This project is to develop the efficient and effective method for

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    3D Downtown Phoenix Modeling ABSTRACT This project is to develop the efficient and effective method for creating 3D city models that will be used with GIS (Geographical Information Systems) data in VR (Virtual Reality) environment. Here introduces the modeling process to create 3D city model from aerial photos

  15. Fundamental remote sensing science research program. Part 1: Scene radiation and atmospheric effects characterization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, R. E.; Deering, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Brief articles summarizing the status of research in the scene radiation and atmospheric effect characterization (SRAEC) project are presented. Research conducted within the SRAEC program is focused on the development of empirical characterizations and mathematical process models which relate the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted from a scene to the biophysical parameters of interest.

  16. The Effect of Project-Based Learning on Students' Statistical Literacy Levels for Data Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koparan, Timur; Güven, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    The point of this study is to define the effect of project-based learning approach on 8th Grade secondary-school students' statistical literacy levels for data representation. To achieve this goal, a test which consists of 12 open-ended questions in accordance with the views of experts was developed. Seventy 8th grade secondary-school students, 35…

  17. SUITABILITY OF SWAT FOR THE CONSERVATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT: COMPARISON ON USDA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE WATERSHEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent interest in tracking environmental benefits of conservation practices on agricultural watersheds throughout the United States has led to the development of the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). The purpose of CEAP is to assess environmental...

  18. The ALTEA/ALTEINO projects: studying functional effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation

    E-print Network

    Morselli, Aldo

    for human neurophysiological, electrophysiological and psychophysics experiments, studies on particle fluxes experiments, while providing novel information on the radiation environment onboard the ISS and on the brainThe ALTEA/ALTEINO projects: studying functional effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation L

  19. Satellite Magnetic Anomalies of Africa and Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (principal investigators); Olivier, R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary MAGSAT scalar magnetic anomaly data of Africa, Europe, and adjacent marine areas were reduced to the pole assuming a constant inducing Earth's magnetic field of 60,000 nT. This process leads to a consistent anomaly data set free from marked variations in directional and intensity effects of the Earth's magnetic field over this extensive region. The resulting data are correlated with long wave length-pass filtered free-air gravity anomalies; regional heat flow, and tectonic data to investigate magatectonic elements and the region's geologic history. Magnetic anomalies are related to both ancient as well as more recent Cenozoic structural features.

  20. Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities: results from the APHEA project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Anderson; C. Spix; S. Medina; J. P. Schouten; J. Castellsague; G. Rossi; D. Zmirou; G. Touloumi; B. Wojtyniak; A. Ponka; L. Bacharova; J. Schwartz; K. Katsouyanni

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. As part of a European project (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach (APHEA)), we analysed data from the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, London, Milan, Paris and Rotterdam, using a standardized approach to data eligibility and statistical analysis. Relative risks for

  1. Vegetation and soil biota response to experimentally-changed nitrogen inputs in coniferous forest ecosystems of the NITREX project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andries W. Boxman; Kai Blanck; Tor-Erik Brandrud; Bridget A. Emmett; Per Gundersen; Rene F. Hogervorst; O. Janne Kjønaas; Hans Persson; Volkmar Timmermann

    1998-01-01

    Enhancement of the atmospheric N deposition is a serious threat for the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we evaluate the ecological effects of excess N with respect to changes in vegetation and soil biota in a series of experiments along a N gradient across Europe. The aim of this project (NITREX: N saturation EXperiments) is to assess the risk

  2. Estimation of ozone dry deposition over Europe for the period 2071-2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komjáthy, Eszter; Gelybó, Györgyi; László Lagzi, István.; Mészáros, Róbert

    2010-05-01

    Ozone in the lower troposphere is a phytotoxic air pollutant which can cause injury to plant tissues, causing reduction in plant growth and productivity. In the last decades, several investigations have been carried out for the purpose to estimate ozone load over different surface types. At the same time, the changes of atmospheric variables as well as surface/vegetation parameters due to the global climate change could also strongly modify both temporal and spatial variations of ozone load over Europe. In this study, the possible effects of climate change on ozone deposition are analyzed. Using a sophisticated deposition model, ozone deposition was estimated on a regular grid over Europe for the period 2071-2100. Our aim is to determine the uncertainties and the possible degree of change in ozone deposition velocity as an important predictor of total ozone load using climate data from multiple climate models and runs. For these model calculations, results of the PRUDENCE (Predicting of Regional Scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining European Climate Change Risks and Effects) climate prediction project were used. As a first step, seasonal variations of ozone deposition over different vegetation types in case of different climate scenarios are presented in this study. Besides model calculations, in the frame of a sensitivity analyses, the effects of surface/vegetation parameters (e.g. leaf area index or stomatal resistance) on ozone deposition under a modified climate regime have also been analyzed.

  3. Electronic Signatures for Public Procurement across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ølnes, Jon; Andresen, Anette; Arbia, Stefano; Ernst, Markus; Hagen, Martin; Klein, Stephan; Manca, Giovanni; Rossi, Adriano; Schipplick, Frank; Tatti, Daniele; Wessolowski, Gesa; Windheuser, Jan

    The PEPPOL (Pan-European Public Procurement On-Line) project is a large scale pilot under the CIP programme of the EU, exploring electronic public procurement in a unified European market. An important element is interoperability of electronic signatures across borders, identified today as a major obstacle to cross-border procurement. PEPPOL will address use of signatures in procurement processes, in particular tendering but also post-award processes like orders and invoices. Signature policies, i.e. quality requirements and requirements on information captured in the signing process, will be developed. This as well as technical interoperability of e-signatures across Europe will finally be piloted in demonstrators starting late 2009 or early 2010.

  4. Fine Ambient Particles from Various Sites in Europe Exerted a Greater IgE Adjuvant Effect than Coarse Ambient Particles in a Mouse Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torunn Alberg; Flemming R. Cassee; Else-Carin Groeng; Erik Dybing; Martinus Løvik

    2008-01-01

    In the European Union (EU)-funded project Respiratory Allergy and Inflammation due to Ambient Particles (RAIAP), coarse and fine ambient particulate matter (PM) was collected at traffic dominated locations in Oslo, Rome, Lodz, and Amsterdam, in the spring, summer, and winter 2001\\/2002. PM was also collected in de Zilk, a rural seaside background location in the Netherlands. The aim of this

  5. Effects of trkB knockout on topography and ocular segregation of uncrossed retinal projections.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Jennifer; Frost, Douglas O

    2009-05-01

    TrkB is an important receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and NT4, members of the neurotrophin family. TrkB signaling is crucial in many activity-dependent and activity-independent processes of neural development. Here, we investigate the role of trkB signaling in the development of two distinct, organizational features of retinal projections--the segregation of crossed and uncrossed retinal inputs along the "lines of projection" that represent a single point in the visual field and the "retinotopic" mapping of retinofugal axons within their cerebral targets. Using anterograde tracing, we obtained quantitative measures of the distribution of retinal projections in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral geniculate body (LGd) and superior colliculus (SC) of wild-type mice and mice homozygous for constitutive null mutation (knockout) of the full-length trkB receptor (trkB(FL)(-/-)). In trkB(FL)(-/-) mice, uncrossed retinal projections cluster normally but there is a topographic expansion in the distribution of these clusters across the SC. By contrast, the absence of trkB signaling has no significant effect on the segregation of crossed and uncrossed retinal projections along the lines of projection in LGd or SC. We conclude that the normal topographic organization of uncrossed retinal projections depends upon trkB signaling, whereas the segregation of crossed and uncrossed retinal projections is trkB-independent. We also found that in trkB(FL)(-/-) mice, neuronal number was reduced in the LGd and SC and in the caudate-putamen. Previous studies by ourselves and others have shown that the number of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is unchanged in trkB(FL)(-/-) mice. Together, these results demonstrate that there is no matching of the numbers of RGCs with neuronal numbers in the LGd or SC. PMID:19283373

  6. Projected changes in erythemal and vitamin D effective irradiance over northern-hemisphere high latitudes.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, I; Bais, A F

    2015-07-01

    Simulations of the monthly mean noon UV index and the effective dose for the production of vitamin D in the human skin have been performed for local noon for the latitude band 55°N-85°N using a radiative transfer model. The magnitude and spatial distribution of the changes estimated for the two quantities between the past (1955-1965 mean), the present (2010-2020 mean) and the future (2085-2095 mean) are discussed and the main drivers for these changes are identified. The irradiance simulations are based on simulations and projections of total ozone, surface reflectivity and aerosol optical depth derived from models used in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP-5). The cloud modification factor is also derived from the CMIP-5 models and used to account for the effects of cloudiness. Simulations have been derived for two socioeconomic scenarios: the moderate RCP 4.5 and the extreme RCP 8.5. For the future, the two quantities are projected to be generally lower than in the past and the present, mainly due to the projected super-recovery of stratospheric ozone and reduced surface reflectivity. Although the greatest changes are projected over the Arctic Ocean and do not directly affect humans, the changes over land are also important. Over land, the greatest changes are found in northern Asia, Greenland and the north-east shores of Canada and Alaska. The greatest reductions over land are projected for April under all skies, locally reaching ?30% for the noon UV index and ?50% for the noon effective UV dose for the production of vitamin D. PMID:26053952

  7. The first hominin of Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eudald Carbonell; José M. Bermúdez de Castro; Josep M. Parés; Alfredo Pérez-González; Gloria Cuenca-Bescós; Andreu Ollé; Marina Mosquera; Rosa Huguet; Jan van der Made; Antonio Rosas; Robert Sala; Josep Vallverdú; Nuria García; Darryl E. Granger; María Martinón-Torres; Xosé P. Rodríguez; Greg M. Stock; Josep M. Vergès; Ethel Allué; Francesc Burjachs; Isabel Cáceres; Antoni Canals; Alfonso Benito; Carlos Díez; Marina Lozano; Ana Mateos; Marta Navazo; Jesús Rodríguez; Jordi Rosell; Juan L. Arsuaga

    2008-01-01

    The earliest hominin occupation of Europe is one of the most debated topics in palaeoanthropology. However, the purportedly oldest of the Early Pleistocene sites in Eurasia lack precise age control and contain stone tools rather than human fossil remains. Here we report the discovery of a human mandible associated with an assemblage of Mode 1 lithic tools and faunal remains

  8. Home Health Visiting in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B.; Kahn, Alfred J.

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of home health visiting programs in Europe, with special emphasis on Denmark and Great Britain, where home health visiting has been in place for decades. Concludes that European home health visiting programs have been successful because they are an integral part of comprehensive, universal maternal and child health systems.…

  9. Enterprise reform in Eastern Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sweder van Wijnbergen

    1993-01-01

    Enterprise reform is emerging as the core economic problem in Eastern Europe. As privatization has been delayed, a new problem has emerged, largely unanticipated by outside advisers: It is probably possible to run a clear-cut state enterprise efficiently, and it is certainly possible to get efficient performance from a private enterprise. But it is utterly impossible to get anything like

  10. Detailed Studies of Projection Effects, Radio Power Selection Effects, and Key Physical Parameters of Classical Double Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Lin

    1998-11-01

    A sample of classical double radio sources with redshifts between zero and two was compiled to study the properties of these sources and their gaseous environments. A detailed theoretical investigation of projection effects shows that different derived parameters have different sensitivities to the projection angle /theta, but in general, projection effects are not significant for ?sbsp~>60o. Several potential diagnoses of the projection angle are provided by the theoretical studies. Results obtained using one of these methods suggest that the projection angle of Cygnus A is greater than ~40o to 55o, consistent with independent estimates; and the projection angles of other sources in the sample are likely to be greater than 30o to 40o. This is consistent with independent results obtained here by comparing radio galaxies with radio-loud quasars. The data also suggest that low-redshift radio-loud quasars have lower radio surface brightness and non-thermal pressure than radio galaxies, which cannot be explained by pure projection effects. Detailed studies of radio power selection effects suggest that these selection effects are unlikely to be significant for most derived parameters, such as the ambient gas density of the radio source. Results on several key parameters of FRII sources are presented. Studies of the beam power suggest that it remains roughly constant over a source's lifetime. An increase of the beam power with redshift is observed, and it appears that radio power is not an accurate measure of the beam power. Thermal pressures typical of clusters of galaxies are found for the gaseous environments of the FRII sources, which would lead to an appreciable amount of microwave diminution from some of these clusters. The data hint of different pressure gradients at high and low redshift, which may be explained by an increase of cluster core radius with redshift. Preliminary results on the gravitational mass of the surrounding cluster are presented. The redshift evolution of the cluster mass is not well determined. However, the current data do not indicate significant negative evolution of the cluster mass, contrary to what is expected in a high density universe.

  11. Does Information Matter? The Effect of the Meth Project on Meth Use among Youths*

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Are demand-side interventions effective at curbing drug use? To the extent demand-side programs are successful, their cost effectiveness can be appealing from a policy perspective. Established in 2005, the Montana Meth Project (MMP) employs a graphic advertising campaign to deter meth use among teens. Due to the MMP’s apparent success, seven other states have adopted Meth Project campaigns. Using data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS), this paper investigates whether the MMP reduced methamphetamine use among Montana’s youth. When accounting for a preexisting downward trend in meth use, effects on meth use are statistically indistinguishable from zero. These results are robust to using related changes of meth use among individuals without exposure to the campaign as controls in a difference-in-difference framework. A complementary analysis of treatment admissions data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) confirms the MMP has had no discernable impact on meth use. PMID:20638737

  12. Cancer survival increases in Europe, but international differences remain wide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Sant; R Capocaccia; M. P Coleman; F Berrino; G Gatta; A Micheli; A Verdecchia; J Faivre; T Hakulinen; J. W. W Coebergh; C Martinez-Garcia; D Forman; A Zappone

    2001-01-01

    The EUROCARE project analysed cancer survival data from 45 population-based cancer registries in 17 European countries, revealing wide international differences in cancer survival. We calculated 5-year relative survival for 1?836?287 patients diagnosed with one of 13 cancers during the period 1978–1989. The data, from 20 cancer registries in 13 countries, were grouped into four regions: Finland, Sweden, Iceland (Northern Europe);

  13. Alien Birds, Amphibians and Reptiles of Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salit Kark; Wojciech Solarz; François Chiron; Philippe Clergeau; Susan Shirley

    DAISIE aims to integrate information on current invasions across Europe through an online freely available database of alien\\u000a species (www.europe-aliens. org, Shirley and Kark 2006). Overall, the DAISIE database includes 55 islands or countries in\\u000a Europe (including European Russia), Israel and the Macaronesian islands (hereby referred to as Europe). Patterns of alien\\u000a introductions, their impacts and management tools differ for

  14. Europe in Transition -2013 SYLLABUS--International Study, SAEUR 301, Europe in Transition

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    Europe in Transition - 2013 SYLLABUS--International Study, SAEUR 301, Europe in Transition hours of the program Europe in Transition is an international study program combining study and field will be observed. The group will learn how to travel in Europe. An appreciation and acceptance of cultural

  15. Europe for citizens-Programme Guide final version -January 2007 `Europe for Citizens' PROGRAMME

    E-print Network

    De Cindio, Fiorella

    Europe for citizens- Programme Guide ­ final version - January 2007 `Europe for Citizens' PROGRAMME Education and Culture EUROPEAN COMMISSION EUROPE FOR CITIZENS PROGRAMME 2007-2013 PROGRAMME GUIDE http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/activecitizenship/index_en.htm http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/static/index.htm #12;Europe for citizens- Programme Guide ­ final version

  16. Antenna standards and laboratories in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lemanczyk

    1995-01-01

    This paper sets out to present an overview of antenna standards and laboratories within Europe. In this context, Europe is limited geographically to the member nations of the European Union (EU), formerly the European Community, and the European Space Agency (ESA). In addition to these two organizations, there exists several organs within Europe whose aims are to define, coordinate and

  17. CENTRAL EUROPE MANAGING AUTHORITY CITY OF VIENNA

    E-print Network

    Genova, Università degli Studi di

    CENTRAL EUROPE MANAGING AUTHORITY CITY OF VIENNA Municipal Department for European affairs (MA 27) A - 1080 Wien, Schlesingerplatz 2 Telefax: 0043-1-4000-7215 Reference number: MA27-266/13 CENTRAL EUROPE PROGRAMME Thematic study: Cultural heritage and creative resources in the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme Request

  18. CENTRAL EUROPE MANAGING AUTHORITY CITY OF VIENNA

    E-print Network

    Genova, Università degli Studi di

    CENTRAL EUROPE MANAGING AUTHORITY CITY OF VIENNA Municipal Department for European affairs (MA 27) A - 1080 Wien, Schlesingerplatz 2 Telefax: 0043-1-4000-7215 Reference number: MA27-266/13 CENTRAL EUROPE PROGRAMME Thematic study: Energy efficiency and renewable energies in the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme Request

  19. CENTRAL EUROPE MANAGING AUTHORITY CITY OF VIENNA

    E-print Network

    Genova, Università degli Studi di

    CENTRAL EUROPE MANAGING AUTHORITY CITY OF VIENNA Municipal Department for European affairs (MA 27) A - 1080 Wien, Schlesingerplatz 2 Telefax: 0043-1-4000-7215 Reference number: MA27-266/13 CENTRAL EUROPE PROGRAMME Thematic study: Demographic change and knowledge development in the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme

  20. Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Barnett; Aine McConnon; Jean Kennedy; Monique Raats; Richard Shepherd; Wim Verbeke; Jon Fletcher; Margôt Kuttschreuter; Luisa Lima; Josephine Wills; Patrick Wall

    2011-01-01

    Background  European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the\\u000a consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent\\u000a in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always\\u000a be

  1. The Effect of the BalloonSat Project on Middle and High School Students' Attitude toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhage, L. Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study measured the effect of completing a BalloonSat project on student attitude toward science. Seven categories of student attitudes toward science were measured using the Test of Science Relate Attitudes survey (TOSRA). The research anticipated that the BalloonSat project would have similar effects on student attitudes as found in robotics…

  2. The Self-Sufficiency Project at 36 Months: Effects of a Financial Work Incentive on Employment and Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalopoulos, Charles; Card, David; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Harknett, Kristen; Robins, Philip K.

    This report previews the Self-Sufficiency Project's (SSP's) longer-term effects by looking at these four related issues: wage progression, job retention, marital status, and attitudes toward work. A companion report, available separately, examines SSP's effects on children. Chapter 1 discusses the SSP research and demonstration project that…

  3. The Self-Sufficiency Project at 36 Months: Effects on Children of a Program That Increased Parental Employment and Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Pamela; Michalopoulos, Charles

    This report examines effects of the Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP) for three age groups of children (younger cohort aged 3-5, middle cohort aged 6-11, and older cohort aged 12-18) at the 36-month interview. A companion report on effects of the SSP on adults is available separately. Chapter 1 describes the SSP incentive, project design, and SSP…

  4. Climate change track in river floods in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2015-06-01

    A holistic perspective on changing river flood risk in Europe is provided. Economic losses from floods have increased, principally driven by the expanding exposure of assets at risk. Climate change (i.e. observed increase in precipitation intensity, decrease of snowpack and other observed climate changes) might already have had an impact on floods. However, no gauge-based evidence had been found for a climate-driven, widespread change in the magnitude/frequency of floods during the last decades. There are strong regional and sub-regional variations in the trends. Moreover, it has not been generally possible to attribute rain-generated peak streamflow trends to anthropogenic climate change. Physical reasoning suggests that projected increases in the frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall would contribute to increases in rain-generated local floods, while less snowmelt flooding and earlier spring peak flows in snowmelt-fed rivers are expected. However, there is low confidence in future changes in flood magnitude and frequency resulting from climate change. The impacts of climate change on flood characteristics are highly sensitive to the detailed nature of those changes. Discussion of projections of flood hazard in Europe is offered. Attention is drawn to a considerable uncertainty - over the last decade or so, projections of flood hazard in Europe have largely changed.

  5. Effect of soil property uncertainties on permafrost thaw projections: a calibration-constrained analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, D. R.; Atchley, A. L.; Painter, S. L.; Coon, E. T.; Wilson, C. J.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Rowland, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of soil property uncertainties on permafrost thaw projections are studied using a three-phase subsurface thermal hydrology model and calibration-constrained uncertainty analysis. The Null-Space Monte Carlo method is used to identify soil hydrothermal parameter combinations that are consistent with borehole temperature measurements at the study site, the Barrow Environmental Observatory. Each parameter combination is then used in a forward projection of permafrost conditions for the 21st century (from calendar year 2006 to 2100) using atmospheric forcings from the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 greenhouse gas concentration trajectory. A 100-year projection allows for the evaluation of intra-annual uncertainty due to soil properties and the inter-annual variability due to year to year differences in CESM climate forcings. After calibrating to borehole temperature data at this well-characterized site, soil property uncertainties are still significant and result in significant intra-annual uncertainties in projected active layer thickness and annual thaw depth-duration even with a specified future climate. Intra-annual uncertainties in projected soil moisture content and Stefan number are small. A volume and time integrated Stefan number decreases significantly in the future climate, indicating that latent heat of phase change becomes more important than heat conduction in future climates. Out of 10 soil parameters, ALT, annual thaw depth-duration, and Stefan number are highly dependent on mineral soil porosity, while annual mean liquid saturation of the active layer is highly dependent on the mineral soil residual saturation and moderately dependent on peat residual saturation. By comparing the ensemble statistics to the spread of projected permafrost metrics using different climate models, we show that the effect of calibration-constrained uncertainty in soil properties, although significant, is less than that produced by structural climate model uncertainty for this location.

  6. Genetic, geographic, and linguistic distances in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Sokal, R.R.

    1988-03-01

    Genetic and taxonomic distances were computed for 3466 samples of human populations in Europe based on 97 allele frequencies and 10 cranial variables. Since the actual samples employed differed among the genetic systems studied, the genetic distances were computed separately for each system, as were matrices of geographic distances and of linguistic distances based on membership in the same language family of phylum. Significant matrix correlations between genetics and geography were found for the majority of systems; somewhat less frequent are significant correlations between genetics and language. The effects of the two factors can be separated by means of partial matrix correlations. These show significant values for both genetics and geography, language kept constant, and genetics and language, geography kept constant, with a tendency for the former to be higher. These findings demonstrate that speakers of different language families in Europe differ genetically and that this difference remains even after geographic differentiation is allowed for. The greater effect of geography than of language may be due to the several factors that bring about spatial differentiation in human populations.

  7. Long-Term Internal Variability Effects on Centennial Dynamic Sea Level Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi Bordbar, Mohammad; Martin, Thomas; Park, Wonsun; Latif, Mojib

    2015-04-01

    The Earth's surface is warming in response to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2). Sea level rise is one of the most pressing aspects of global warming with far-reaching consequences for coastal societies. However, sea level rise did and will strongly vary from coast to coast. Here we investigate the long-term internal variability effects on centennial projections of dynamic sea level (DSL), the local departure from the globally averaged sea level. A large ensemble of global warming integrations was conducted with a climate model, where each ensemble member was forced by identical CO2-increase but started from different atmospheric and oceanic initial conditions taken from an unforced millennial control run. In large parts of the mid- and high latitudes, the ensemble spread of the projected centennial DSL trends is of the same order of magnitude as the globally averaged steric sea level rise, suggesting internal variability cannot be ignored when assessing 21st century DSL changes. This conclusion is also supported by analyzing projections with other climate models. The ensemble spread is strongly reduced in the mid- to high latitudes if only the atmospheric initial conditions are perturbed; suggesting uncertainty in the projected centennial DSL trends there is largely due to the lack of ocean information. Thus climate model projections of regional sea level would benefit from ocean initialization.

  8. EurEnDel - Technology and Social Visions for Europe's Energy Future - a Europe-wide Delphi Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birte Holst Joergensen; Poul Erik Morthorst; Lukasz Jaworski; Augusto Ninni; Oliviero Bernardini; Monica Bonacina; Daniela Velte; Oliver Nielsen; Wolfram Joerss

    The paper reports on the results from the EURENDEL project supported by the EU Fifth Framework Programme. EurEnDel is the first Europe-wide Delphi survey on the energy sector. With a time horizon of 2030 it provides information on long-term developments of energy technologies. In addition to this technology-push perspective, a normative, social-pull perspective has been included in order to identify

  9. [A survey on the effects of "Dietary Guideline" nutrition education project].

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Zhai, F; Li, D; Li, Y

    2001-05-01

    A survey on the nutrition knowledge, attitude and behavior of 5145 persons from five cities of four provinces, Shandong, Guangdong, Sichuan and Heilongjiang, before and after the nutritional education project on "Dietary Guideline" has been effectively conducted. An obviously good effect has been achieved among the residents, middle and primary school students and elderly people. Before the nutritional educational project has been carried out, the people who understanding the "Dietary Guideline" was only 12.0%, 29.2% and 15.2% of residents, the elderly and students respectively. But after education, the rates raised to 93.4%, 99.0% and 91.9% respectively. Nearly 90% of residents and the elderly got to know the "Dietary Guideline" through the materials distributed from the project. The nutrition knowledge score was improved greatly after the project was conducted. The attitude towards learning nutrition knowledge was good. At the same time, some dietary behavior and the life style of people had been modified. These results indicated that nutrition education is very important on improving people's nutrition knowledge level, changing people's unhealthy living attitudes and dietary habits. PMID:12525095

  10. Managed Pollinator Coordinated Agricultural Project—The First Two Years of the Stationary Hive Project: Abiotic Site Effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : A stationary hive project was initiated in the spring of 2009. This research project will run through 2013 and consists of two replicate two-year trials (2009-2011 and 2011–2013). The objective of the study was to conduct a longitudinal study of colonies through a two-year period. In this article...

  11. Monsanto Europe: Monsanto Introduces GMOs To Europe With Unexpected Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Werhane; Michael Gorman; Jenny Mead; Michael Hertz; Dean Nieusma

    This case, which can be used in conjunction with the other Monsanto cases (UVA-E-0216, UVA-E-0220, and UVA-E-0263), details Monsanto's efforts to introduce genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into Europe in the mid-1990s. Monsanto did not anticipate the European resistance and public outcry, based on a number of factors, and company officials ultimately admitted their mistakes in the introduction process. Additionally, the

  12. Projected effects of declining aerosols in RCP4.5: unmasking global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotstayn, L. D.; Collier, M. A.; Chrastansky, A.; Jeffrey, S. J.; Luo, J.-J.

    2013-11-01

    All the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) include declining aerosol emissions during the 21st century, but the effects of these declines on climate projections have had little attention. Here we assess the global and hemispheric-scale effects of declining anthropogenic aerosols in RCP4.5 in CSIRO-Mk3.6, a model from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Results from this model are then compared with those from other CMIP5 models. We calculate the aerosol effective radiative forcing (ERF, including indirect effects) in CSIRO-Mk3.6 relative to 1850, using a series of atmospheric simulations with prescribed sea-surface temperatures (SST). Global-mean aerosol ERF at the top of the atmosphere is most negative in 2005 (-1.47 W m-2). Between 2005 and 2100 it increases by 1.46 W m-2, i.e., it approximately returns to 1850 levels. Although increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and declining aerosols both exert a positive ERF at the top of the atmosphere during the 21st century, they have opposing effects on radiative heating of the atmosphere: increasing GHGs warm the atmosphere, whereas declining aerosols cool the atmosphere due to reduced absorption of shortwave radiation by black carbon (BC). We then compare two projections for 2006-2100, using the coupled atmosphere-ocean version of the model. One (RCP45) follows the usual RCP4.5; the other (RCP45A2005) has identical forcing, except that emissions of anthropogenic aerosols and precursors are fixed at 2005 levels. The global-mean surface warming in RCP45 is 2.3 °C per 95 yr, of which almost half (1.1 °C) is caused by declining aerosols. The warming due to declining aerosols is almost twice as strong in the Northern Hemisphere as in the Southern Hemisphere, whereas that due to increasing GHGs is similar in the two hemispheres. For precipitation changes, the effects of declining aerosols are larger than those of increasing GHGs due to decreasing atmospheric absorption by black carbon: 63% of the projected global-mean precipitation increase of 0.16 mm per day is caused by declining aerosols. In the Northern Hemisphere, precipitation increases by 0.29 mm per day, of which 72% is caused by declining aerosols. Comparing 13 CMIP5 models, we find a correlation of -0.54 (significant at 5%) between aerosol ERF in the present climate and projected global-mean surface warming in RCP4.5; thus, models that have more negative aerosol ERF in the present climate tend to project stronger warming during 2006-2100. A similar correlation (-0.56) is found between aerosol ERF and projected changes in global-mean precipitation. These results suggest that aerosol forcing substantially modulates projected climate response in RCP4.5. In some respects, the effects of declining aerosols are quite distinct from those of increasing GHGs. Systematic efforts are needed to better quantify the role of declining aerosols in climate projections.

  13. Europe's space photovoltaics programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogus, Klaus P.

    1994-01-01

    The current space PV (photovoltaic) technology development program of ESA is described. The program is closely coupled to the European space mission scenario for the next 10 year period and has as its main objective to make the most effective use of the limited resources available for technology in the present economical climate. This requires a well-balanced approach between concentration on very few options and keeping the competition alive if more than one promising technology exists. The paper describes ESA's main activities in the areas of solar array technology, solar cell technology, solar cell assembly technology, and special test and verification activities including the in-orbit demonstration of new technologies.

  14. Inventory of pesticide emissions into the air in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarigiannis, D. A.; Kontoroupis, P.; Solomou, E. S.; Nikolaki, S.; Karabelas, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Creation of a reliable and comprehensive emission inventory of the pesticides used in Europe is a key step towards quantitatively assessing the link between actual pesticide exposure and adverse health effects. An inventory of pesticide emissions was generated at a 1 × 1 km grid, for the year 2000. The emission model comprises three components: estimates of active substance (AS) wind drift taking into account crop type, volatilization during pesticide application and volatilization from the crop canopy. Results show that atmospheric emission of pesticides varies significantly across Europe. Different pesticide families are emitted from different parts of Europe as a function of the main crop(s) cultivated, agro-climatic conditions and production intensity. The pesticide emission inventory methodology developed herein is a valuable tool for assessing air quality in rural and peri-urban Europe, furnishing the necessary input for atmospheric modelling at different scales. Its estimates have been tested using global sensitivity and Monte Carlo analysis for uncertainty assessment and they have been validated against national and local surveys in four European countries; the results demonstrate the robustness and reliability of the inventory. The latter may therefore be readily used for exposure and health risk assessment studies targeting farmers, applicators, but also bystanders and the general population in Europe.

  15. Increasing forest disturbances in Europe and their impact on carbon storage

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Rupert; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Rammer, Werner; Verkerk, Pieter Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances from wind, bark beetles, and wildfires have increased in Europe’s forests throughout the 20th century 1. Climatic changes were identified as a main driver behind this increase 2, yet how the expected continuation of climate change will affect Europe’s forest disturbance regime remains unresolved. Increasing disturbances could strongly impact the forest carbon budget 3,4, and are hypothesized to contribute to the recently observed carbon sink saturation in Europe’s forests 5. Here we show that forest disturbance damage in Europe has continued to increase in the first decade of the 21st century. Based on an ensemble of climate change scenarios we find that damage from wind, bark beetles, and forest fires is likely to increase further in coming decades, and estimate the rate of increase to +0.91·106 m3 of timber per year until 2030. We show that this intensification can offset the effect of management strategies aiming to increase the forest carbon sink, and calculate the disturbance-related reduction of the carbon storage potential in Europe’s forests to be 503.4 Tg C in 2021-2030. Our results highlight the considerable carbon cycle feedbacks of changing disturbance regimes, and underline that future forest policy and management will require a stronger focus on disturbance risk and resilience. PMID:25737744

  16. Glaciers of Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    1993-01-01

    ALPS: AUSTRIAN: An overview is provided on the occurrence of the glaciers in the Eastern Alps of Austria and on the climatic conditions in this area, Historical documents on the glaciers have been available since the Middle Ages. Special glaciological observations and topographic surveys of individual glaciers were initiated as early as 1846. Recent data in an inventory based on aerial photographs taken in 1969 show 925 glaciers in the Austrian Alps with a total area of 542 square kilometers. Present research topics include studies of mass and energy balance, relations of glaciers and climate, physical glaciology, a complete inventory of the glaciers, and testing of remote sensing methods. The location of the glacier areas is shown on Landsat multispectral scanner images; the improved capabilities of the Landsat thematic mapper are illustrated with an example from the Oztaler Alpen group. ALPS: SWISS: According to a glacier inventory published in 1976, which is based on aerial photography of 1973, there are 1,828 glacier units in the Swiss Alps that cover a total area of 1fl42 square kilometers. The Rhonegletscher, currently the ninth largest in the country, was one of the first to be studied in detail. Its surface has been surveyed repeatedly; velocity profiles were measured, and the fluctuations of its terminus were mapped and recorded from 1874 to 1914. Recent research on the glacier has included climatological, hydrological, and massbalance studies. Glaciological research has been conducted on various other glaciers in Switzerland concerning glacier hydrology, glacier hazards, fluctuations of glacier termini, ice mechanics, ice cores, and mass balance. Good maps are available showing the extent of glaciers from the latter decades of the 19th century. More recently, the entire country has been mapped at scales of 1:25,000, 1:50,000, 1:100,000, 1:200,000, and 1:500,000. The 1:25,000-scale series very accurately represents the glaciers as well as locates supraglacial morainic debris and crevasses. The maps are revised every 6 years by use of aerial photogrammetric methods. The possibility of producing a glacier inventory by combining the topographic maps with Landsat digital and visual data is discussed. ALPS: FRENCH: The glaciers of the French Alps are distributed in four main groups and have a total area of 350 square kilometers. The northernmost group, on the Mont Blanc massif, has a glacier area of 110 square kilometers, which includes Met de Glace, which, with an area of 40 square kilometers, is the largest glacier in the Western Alps. Farther south, the Massif de la Vanoise contains 130 glaciers that have a total area of 85 square kilometers. The glaciers of the Grandes Rousses massif have a total area of 11 square kilometers. Lastly, the Massif du Pelvoux has a total glacier area of 120 square kilometers. Studies of glacier variations since 1600 A.D. have shown numerous fluctuations in glacier length. The glaciers on Mont Blanc that appear to show similar fluctuations in fact have different individual response times. Mass-balance measurements are presently being carried out on nine glaciers. The measurements on one of these glaciers, Glacier de Saint Sorlin, have been used to validate a linear statistical model for mass-balance variation. The model seems to give good results when extended over the entire region of French Alpine glaciers. New methods of mass-balance reconstructions by use of a continuity equation are discussed. Current satellite data have limited usefulness for glacier studies in the French Alps, with the exception of the method correlating changes in the elevation of snowline to changes in glacier mass balance. ALPS: ITALIAN: Research carried out by Italian glaciologists in support of the World Glacier Inventory project identified approximately 1,400 glaciers in the mountain groups of the Italian Alps. The total surface area of all glaciers, glacierets, and permanent snow fields in Italy with

  17. Accelerator science and technology in Europe 2008-2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    European Framework Research Projects have recently added a lot of meaning to the building process of the ERA - the European Research Area. Inside this, the accelerator technology plays an essential role. Accelerator technology includes large infrastructure and intelligent, modern instrumentation embracing mechatronics, electronics, photonics and ICT. During the realization of the European research and infrastructure project FP6 CARE 2004-2008 (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe), concerning the development of large accelerator infrastructure in Europe, it was decided that a scientific editorial series of peer-reviewed monographs from this research area will be published in close relation with the projects. It was a completely new and quite brave idea to combine a kind of a strictly research publisher with a transient project, lasting only four or five years. Till then nobody did something like that. The idea turned out to be a real success. The publications now known and valued in the accelerator world, as the (CERN-WUT) Editorial Series on Accelerator Science and Technology, is successfully continued in already the third European project EuCARD2 and has logistic guarantees, for the moment, till the 2017, when it will mature to its first decade. During the realization of the European projects EuCARD (European Coordination for Accelerator R&D 2009-2013 and TIARA (Test Infrastructure of Accelerator Research Area in Europe) there were published 18 volumes in this series. The ambitious plans for the nearest years is to publish, hopefully, a few tens of new volumes. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, published in the monographs of the European Framework Projects (FP) on accelerator technology. The succession of CARE, EuCARD and EuCARD Projects is evidently creating a new quality in the European Accelerator Research. It is consolidating the technical and research communities in a new way, completely different than the traditional ones, for example via the periodic topical conferences.

  18. Status and Perspectives of Astroparticle Physics in Europe

    E-print Network

    Christian Spiering

    2008-04-09

    Astroparticle physics has evolved as an interdisciplinary field at the intersection of particle physics, astronomy and cosmology. Over the last two decades, it has moved from infancy to technological maturity and is now envisaging projects on the 100 Million Euro scale. This price tag requires international coordination, cooperation and convergence to a few flagship projects. The Roadmap Committee of ApPEC (Astroparticle Physics European Coordination) has recently released a roadmap covering the next ten years. This talk describes status and perspectives of astroparticle physics in Europe and reports the recommendations of the Roadmap Committee.

  19. Climate variability and outbreaks of infectious diseases in Europe.

    PubMed

    Morand, Serge; Owers, Katharine A; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; McIntyre, K Marie; Baylis, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Several studies provide evidence of a link between vector-borne disease outbreaks and El Niño driven climate anomalies. Less investigated are the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we test its impact on outbreak occurrences of 13 infectious diseases over Europe during the last fifty years, controlling for potential bias due to increased surveillance and detection. NAO variation statistically influenced the outbreak occurrence of eleven of the infectious diseases. Seven diseases were associated with winter NAO positive phases in northern Europe, and therefore with above-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with the summer or spring NAO negative phases in northern Europe, and therefore with below-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with summer positive or negative NAO phases in southern Mediterranean countries. These findings suggest that there is potential for developing early warning systems, based on climatic variation information, for improved outbreak control and management. PMID:23639950

  20. Climate variability and outbreaks of infectious diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Morand, Serge; Owers, Katharine A.; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; McIntyre, K. Marie; Baylis, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Several studies provide evidence of a link between vector-borne disease outbreaks and El Niño driven climate anomalies. Less investigated are the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, we test its impact on outbreak occurrences of 13 infectious diseases over Europe during the last fifty years, controlling for potential bias due to increased surveillance and detection. NAO variation statistically influenced the outbreak occurrence of eleven of the infectious diseases. Seven diseases were associated with winter NAO positive phases in northern Europe, and therefore with above-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with the summer or spring NAO negative phases in northern Europe, and therefore with below-average temperatures and precipitation. Two diseases were associated with summer positive or negative NAO phases in southern Mediterranean countries. These findings suggest that there is potential for developing early warning systems, based on climatic variation information, for improved outbreak control and management. PMID:23639950

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of the Mpowerment Project, a Community-Level Intervention for Young Gay Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Kahn; Susan M. Kegeles; Robert Hays; Nathalie Beltzer

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: Previous evaluation demonstrated that the Mpowerment Project com- munity-level intervention for young gay men reduces HIV risk behaviors. The current analysis was undertaken to estimate the intervention's health and economic outcomes. Design\\/Methods: We conducted a retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis. We estimated HIV infections averted, the gain in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), cost per infection averted, and net cost. Using a

  2. The effects of the environment and ecology projects on lake management and water quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cengiz Koç

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics, benefits, and effects of the environment and ecology project, which has been implemented\\u000a in Turkey for the first time to restore the natural life that has been spoilt and the ecological balance of Lake Bafa located\\u000a in Great Meander Basin, are searched. Moreover, the water samples taken from the stations that were spotted in the

  3. Projected Clinical Benefits and Cost-effectiveness of a Human Papillomavirus 16\\/18 Vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue J. Goldie; Michele Kohli; Daniel Grima; Milton C. Weinstein; Thomas C. Wright; F. Xavier Bosch; Eduardo Franco

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine may be commercially available in a few years. We explored the clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness of introducing an HPV16\\/18 vaccine in a population with an organized cervical cancer screening program. Methods: A computer-based model of the natural history of HPV and cervical cancer was used to project cancer incidence and mortality, life expect- ancy (adjusted

  4. Trends and fluctuations in the dates of ice break-up of lakes and rivers in Northern Europe: the effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JaeChan Yoo; Paolo D'Odorico

    2002-01-01

    The existence of an ice cover has important effects on the streamflow conditions as well as on the heat transfer between water bodies and the overlying atmosphere. This paper investigates the effects of climate variability on the termination of the ice season in the Baltic region. In particular, trends and fluctuations observed in the cryophenological records from this region are

  5. A Shift in Perception: The Evolution of Satellites in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John

    1985-01-01

    Discusses evolution of communication satellite use and its effect on the commercial television industry in Western Europe to illustrate the pitfalls of misunderstanding telecommunications and aerospace technology. Three stages of progression in European broadcasters' misinformed thinking about television and satellites and their current attitudes…

  6. Finance and development in Southeast Europe in the interwar period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiril Kossev

    2009-01-01

    How do financial systems affect economic growth? How effective were international financial flows in promoting economic development in Southeast Europe in the Interwar Period? A large literature argues that financial systems evaluate prospective entrepreneurs, mobilize savings to finance the most promising productivity-enhancing activities, diversify the risks associated with these innovative activities and reveal the expected profits from engaging in innovation

  7. Democratization of Eastern Europe: Hungary and Poland in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallamore, Nancy A.

    Since the end of the Cold War, those teaching about developing democracies in Central and Eastern Europe have taken on new responsibilities: dispelling cultural attitudes formed and taught during the Cold War, helping students to understand the concept of democracy, and analyzing the effects of these events on the world. This high school lesson…

  8. "Europe in the Round": Principles and Practice of Screen Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megarry, Jacquetta

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development of "Europe in the Round," a CD-ROM that was designed to test the hypothesis that a combination of hypertext with mass storage would make a powerful learning tool. Screen design is discussed, including universal icons and visual effects, and field testing is described. (five references) (LRW)

  9. The challenge of computer graphics in continental western Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD A. GUEDJ

    1974-01-01

    Computer graphics applications, software, and hard-ware research, are examined and evaluated in Continental Western Europe. Growth has been slow. The reasons are the high cost of hardware and the complexity of the required software. The past reveals a rather dim picture. Mechanical engineering applications have shown some promising success. Electrical engineering applications have been effective mainly for PCB and IC

  10. The challenge of computer graphics in Continental Western Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Guedj

    1974-01-01

    Computer graphics applications, software, and hardware research, are examined and evaluated in Continental Western Europe. Growth has been slow. The reasons are the high cost of hardware and the complexity of the required software. The past reveals a rather dim picture. Mechanical engineering applications have shown some promising success. Electrical engineering applications have been effective mainly for PCB and IC

  11. Treasures from Europe's National Libraries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This major exhibition from the Conference of European National Librarians and provided by Gabriel, Gateway to Europe's National Libraries, features almost 100 of the most precious artifacts from the collections of 24 National Libraries. Users may tour the exhibition by document type or topic, view selected highlights, or browse several indices (Library, Creator, Titles, and Date). Entries for each artifact include an image and brief description. Although the exhibit would greatly benefit from the addition of thumbnailed links to full-screen images of the artifacts, it is still a remarkable representation of Europe's cultural heritage over the past 1,000 years. It should also be noted that this is the first of multiple planned versions, and additional treasures will be added as they become available.

  12. [Japanese encephalitis in Southern Europe].

    PubMed

    Cleton, Natalie; Koopmans, Marion; Braks, Marieta; Van Maanen, Kees; Reusken, Chantal

    2014-07-01

    In 2012, a fragment of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genome was isolated from a pool of Culex pipiens mosquitoes caught in 2010 and 2011 in Northern Italy. JEV has a broad geographical distribution in South and Southeast Asia and Oceania, and is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia in humans and also causes encephalitis in horses and fertility problems in pigs. However, recently isolated JEV genome fragments in mosquitoes in Italy could be an indication of repeated introduction of JEV, enzootic circulation of JEV or a related virus in Southern Europe. Until more information is available, Japanese encephalitis remains a travel-related infectious disease for travellers to JEV endemic and epidemic areas outside of Europe. PMID:25090898

  13. Europe's last chance to restructure

    SciTech Connect

    Tattum, L.

    1992-12-23

    Looking back over the year, there has been remarkably little sign of restructuring in the chemical industry in view of the current financial crisis in most companies. But the apparent paralysis in terms of plant closures or ownership changes may be disguising much behind-the-scenes activity. But the pain threshold of companies is proving surprisingly high. Looking at ethylene plants, Shell's Peter Kwant notes that almost half the steam crackers operating in Europe are 20 years old or more. They amount to one-third of capacity, or twice current underutilization. No steps have been taken to close any unit. Meanwhile, five producers collectively will have introduced 2 million m.t./year of extra ethylene capacity between 1991 and 1994. One factor hampering closure is that 40% of ethylene capacity in Europe is at isolated sites not connected to either the Benelux/Germany ARG pipeline or a local network such as those in the UK or France. BP Chemicals chief Bryan Sanderson raised that point at a recent Wertheim Schroder/Chemical Week/Chem Systems conference in New York, arguing that steep price falls occur in times of demand slump because of the inelastic supply curve for monster chemical plants. The industry could manage cycles better, he suggests, if rather than closing its incremental capacity, small, flexible plants were available to open and close as demand warrants, thus flattening the supply curve. In addition, following the US example - where 90% of ethylene capacity is connected to pipeline system should be available in Europe, giving companies greater flexibility to take plants on- and offline. The latter solution, of course, would not work for Europe's 18 loss-making polyethylene (PE) producers, and here straight closures or merging of businesses are the only solution.

  14. Optical satellite communications in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoran Sodnik; Hanspeter Lutz; Bernhard Furch; Rolf Meyer

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes optical satellite communication activities based on technology developments, which started in Europe more than 30 years ago and led in 2001 to the world-first optical inter-satellite communication link experiment (SILEX). SILEX proved that optical communication technologies can be reliably mastered in space and in 2006 the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) joined the optical inter-satellite experiment from their

  15. PIXE pollution studies across Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Innegraeve, O.; Blanchet, X.; Muntele, C. I.; Muntele, I. C.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Popa-Simil, L. (Liviu); Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P. M.; Ila, D.

    2002-01-01

    We collected vegetation and soil samples from various locations along a route covering Eastern and Western Europe. We measured the level of elemental pollution in different places uniformly spread across the continent to determine which of them may have common sources. To achieve these objectives, samples were collected along the main roads from Romania to Portugal and analyzed using in-air PEE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission).

  16. Policy implications of changes in water availability in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrote, Luis; Iglesias, Ana; Sordo-Ward, Álvaro; Granados, Alfredo; Santillan, David

    2015-04-01

    The likely alteration of the hydrologic cycle due to climate change will modify water supply conditions in many regions. Water policy will have to face serious environmental and economic problems due to limited water availability in many regions across Europe and the range of adaptive measures needs to be evaluated. This contribution presents a comparative study of risks of water scarcity across European regions under a range of water policy options. The study was carried out within the BASE European project. The BASE (Bottom-Up climate adaptation strategies towards sustainable Europe) project "supports action for sustainable climate change adaptation in Europe by making experiences and scientific information about adaptation meaningful, transferable and easily accessible to decision-makers at all levels"(http://base-adaptation.eu/). The study is based on a regional assessment of current and future water availability in Europe under different assumptions. The assessment was made using the WAAPA model. The model was built from the river network inferred from the Hydro1K digital elevation maps. Storage volume for regulation was taken from the World Register of Dams of the International Commission on Large Dams. Hydrologic scenarios were taken from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP), where the forcing from five global climate models under the Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios was applied to several hydrologic models. The estimation of water availability was performed by determining the maximum amount of water that can be supplied at any point of the river network satisfying a minimum reliability requirement. Water availability is the combined result of natural processes, which are conditioned by greenhouse gas emissions, and policy, which determines the available hydraulic infrastructure to manage water and establishes water supply conditions. Policy scenarios were devised by identifying several water management practices in different regions of Europe. The main result of the work is a set of local water availability estimates in over a thousand sub-basins across Europe and an assessment of associated uncertainties. The results can be applied to design future European water policy with the aim to ensure future sustainability of water resources under strong socioeconomic forcing while maintaining the strategic ecological and social services of water.

  17. "Towards a Europe of Knowledge and Innovation", the EIROforum paper on science policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Brussels, April 20, 2005 - Today Europe's seven major intergovernmental research organisations, working together in the EIROforum partnership, presented their comprehensive paper on science policy, "Towards a Europe of Knowledge and Innovation", in the presence of the European Commissioner for Science and Research, Mr. Janez Potocnik and the Luxembourg Minister for Culture, Higher Education, Employment and Research, Mr. François Biltgen. Luxembourg currently holds the presidency of the European Union. ESO PR Photo 11/05 ESO PR Photo 11/05 EIROforum Paper on Science Policy Presentation [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 475 pix - 176k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 950 pix - 505k] [Full Res - JPEG: 2023 x 2402 pix - 2.1M] Five years ago, at the meeting of the European Council in Lisbon, the creation of a European Research Area (ERA) was proposed as a means to achieve the ambitious targets necessary to develop a leading, knowledge-based economy in Europe. The ERA intends to make a single market for European research, bringing together scientists from all member states. The EIROforum partners operate some of the largest research infrastructures in the world, possess unique and long-standing expertise in the organisation of pan-European research, bring expert knowledge to discussions about new large facilities in Europe, provide a model for the ERA, and offer their experience and active engagement in creating a true European Research Area. The EIROforum paper on science policy describes their collective vision on the future of European scientific research in order to support the Lisbon Process by working, alongside the Commission, for the implementation of the European Research Area. In combination with the individual success and expertise of each of the EIROforum partners, this provides a strong boost to European Research and thus to the Lisbon Goals of developing a knowledge-based economy. "As the borders of the European Union expand there is a fundamental role for the EIROforum partnership to work with the institutions of the European Union in the evolving environment", emphasizes Jean-Jacques Dordain, the Director General of ESA. ESA currently chairs EIROforum. The EIROforum partners, through their paper on science policy, support the creation of a climate in Europe in which competitive research is undertaken in an efficient, cost-effective and successful manner. The Paper presents many concrete ways in which EIROforum organisations can effectively participate in the consolidation of the ERA. One of the main challenges for society in the years to come is to build a sound recruitment base for jobs and careers in science and technology. Attracting more young people is vital for the future of European research, and the EIROforum paper on science policy offers a series of actions to stimulate the interest of young people in science. These include improving the visibility of European science in the media, creating a "Partnership for Science Education", continuing with their successful "Science on Stage" annual festival and participating in the European Contest for Young Scientists, organised by the European Commission. The EIROforum paper on science policy subscribes to the European Commission strategy to recruit and retain world-leading scientists in Europe. This strategy should be supported by a European Research Council (ERC) acting as an autonomous, science-driven agency endowed with sufficient funds to ensure European research is competitive at a global level. The international character of the seven EIROforum partners makes them ideal to function as scientific, technological and cultural bridges between Europe and other regions of the world. The EIROforum partners could also join European industry in technology platforms or large integrated projects that would enable the development of new scientific instrumentation, an area that needs European suppliers to secure and promote front-line research on our continent and generate important industrial spin-offs. EIROforum is a partnership created in 2002

  18. Status of floriculture in Europe.

    PubMed

    Van Huylenbroeck, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Europe is traditionally the largest producer of floricultural products in the world with an estimated production value of over 12 billion euro in 2006. The Netherlands, Italy, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom and France are the main centres of production. More recently, a significant growth in production area was observed in Poland also. The Dutch auctions remain the world's largest trading system for flowers and plants. Looking at the intra-European trade, Belgium and Denmark are also major exporting countries. The consumption of floricultural products increased strongly within Europe during the last years. Especially, Eastern Europe has a big potential as a new market. In these countries, the demand for ornamentals will increase due to the rise of income and the level of prosperity. In spite of the positive developments in consumption and production, increasing energy costs, growing environmental concern and globalisation of production, trade and markets will form the major challenges European floricultural industry has to deal with in the near future. PMID:20099115

  19. Seismological data networks and services in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, A.; Kamb, L.; Trani, L.; Frobert, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Seismic Data Portal (http://www.seismicportal.eu) provides a collection of tools to discover, visualize, and access a variety of seismological data sets, including earthquake parameters, broadband and accelerometric data, European tomography, and historical earthquake catalogs. The Portal was developed as part of the Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology project, which was funded under the 6th European Framework Programme to integrate data and service resources for the seismological community. The NERIES project brought together 25 participating institutions and organizations under 19 work packages to produce numerous scientific results through coordinated research, development, networking, and integration activities. The Seismic Data Portal provides a single point of access to the heterogeneous and distributed data sets developed or made available through the NERIES project. These tools operate in a coordinated manner to provide a cohesive distributed search environment, linking data search and access across multiple data providers. Through interactive, map-based tools, a researcher is able to build queries linking event parametric data with seismological broadband or accelerometric waveform data. The Portal architecture is based on a suite of standards and standard technologies, allowing interoperability between tools and the integration of new tools as they become available. The data tools are supported by web services running at their respective data centers. These web services provide the programmatic interface between the interactive, web-based tools, and the underlying data archives. Moreover they are in turn available to external applications, allowing direct programmatic queries to the data archives. Work on the Data Portal, access tools, and services architecture will continue under other EU funded projects. The NERA, Network of European Research Infrastructures for Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation project, funded under the 7th European Framework Program, will bring into the Data Portal new extensions to include new data sets and access tools from new partners in the Seismology and Earthquake Engineering communities. We will implement a Common Services Architecture based on OGC services APIs. This services layer API provides Resource-Oriented common interfaces across the data access and processing services to improve interoperability between tools and across projects, enabling the development of higher-level applications that can uniformly access the data and processing services of all participants. The effort for such extensions of the current Data Portal will be conducted jointly with another EU funded project VERCE - Virtual Earthquake and Seismology Research Community for Europe. VERCE aims to enable seismologists to exploit the wealth of seismic data within a data-intensive computation framework, which will be tailored to the specific needs of the community. It will provide a new interoperable infrastructure, as the computational backbone laying behind the publicly available interfaces.

  20. The effect of the BalloonSat project on middle and high school students' attitude toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhage, L. Paul

    This study measured the effect of completing a BalloonSat project on student attitude toward science. Seven categories of student attitudes toward science were measured using the Test of Science Relate Attitudes survey (TOSRA). The research anticipated that the BalloonSat project would have similar effects on student attitudes as found in robotics projects, like FIRST. The researcher also investigated whether gender moderated the effects of the BalloonSat project. This study enrolled 138 students from three states and one Canadian province. Students were free to select membership in either the treatment group or the control group. Student attitude toward science was measured prior to the start of the study and at its completion. Mean scores for the control and treatment group were then compared using an analysis of covariance. The effect of the BalloonSat project only affected one attitude toward science, Leisure Interest in Science. The study did not find gender was a factor in the effects of the BalloonSat project. This study is the first study of the BalloonSat project on grade 7--10 students and provides some evidence that a BalloonSat project can impact middle and high school attitude toward science.

  1. Projected effects of declining aerosols in RCP4.5: unmasking global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotstayn, L. D.; Collier, M. A.; Chrastansky, A.; Jeffrey, S. J.; Luo, J.-J.

    2013-07-01

    All the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) include declining aerosol emissions during the 21st century, but the effects of these declines on climate projections have had little attention. Here we assess the global and hemispheric-scale effects of declining anthropogenic aerosols in RCP4.5 in CSIRO-Mk3.6, a model from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Results from this model are then compared with those from other CMIP5 models. We calculate the aerosol effective radiative forcing (ERF, including indirect effects) in CSIRO-Mk3.6 relative to 1850, using a series of atmospheric simulations with prescribed sea-surface temperatures. Global-mean aerosol ERF at the top of the atmosphere is most negative in 2005 (-1.47 W m-2). Between 2005 and 2100 it increases by 1.46 W m-2, i.e., it approximately returns to 1850 levels. Although increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and declining aerosols both exert a positive ERF at the top of the atmosphere during the 21st century, they have opposing effects on radiative heating of the atmosphere: increasing GHGs warm the atmosphere, whereas declining aerosols cool the atmosphere due to reduced absorption of shortwave radiation by black carbon. We then compare two projections for 2006-2100, using the coupled atmosphere-ocean version of the model. One (RCP45) follows the usual RCP4.5; the other (RCP45A2005) has identical forcing, except that emissions of anthropogenic aerosols and precursors are fixed at 2005 levels. The global-mean surface warming in RCP45 is 2.3 °C per 95 yr, of which almost half (1.1 °C) is caused by declining aerosols. The warming due to declining aerosols is almost twice as strong in the Northern Hemisphere as in the Southern Hemisphere, whereas that due to increasing GHGs is similar in the two hemispheres. For precipitation changes, the effects of declining aerosols are larger than those of increasing GHGs due to decreasing atmospheric absorption by black carbon: 63% of the projected global-mean precipitation increase of 0.16 mm per day is caused by declining aerosols. In the Northern Hemisphere, precipitation increases by 0.29 mm per day, of which 72% is caused by declining aerosols. Using data from 13 CMIP5 models, we find that projected global-mean surface warming in RCP4.5 is systematically larger in models that have more negative aerosol ERF in the present climate (r = -0.54, p = 0.03). A similar correlation is found for global-mean precipitation changes (r = -0.56, p = 0.02). These results suggest that aerosol forcing substantially modulates projected climate response in RCP4.5. In some respects, the effects of declining aerosols are quite distinct from those of increasing GHGs. Systematic efforts are needed to better quantify the role of declining aerosols in climate projections.

  2. Mapping opportunities and challenges for rewilding in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ceau?u, Silvia; Hofmann, Max; Navarro, Laetitia M; Carver, Steve; Verburg, Peter H; Pereira, Henrique M

    2015-08-01

    Farmland abandonment takes place across the world due to socio-economic and ecological drivers. In Europe agricultural and environmental policies aim to prevent abandonment and halt ecological succession. Ecological rewilding has been recently proposed as an alternative strategy. We developed a framework to assess opportunities for rewilding across different dimensions of wilderness in Europe. We mapped artificial light, human accessibility based on transport infrastructure, proportion of harvested primary productivity (i.e., ecosystem productivity appropriated by humans through agriculture or forestry), and deviation from potential natural vegetation in areas projected to be abandoned by 2040. At the continental level, the levels of artificial light were low and the deviation from potential natural vegetation was high in areas of abandonment. The relative importance of wilderness metrics differed regionally and was strongly connected to local environmental and socio-economic contexts. Large areas of projected abandonment were often located in or around Natura 2000 sites. Based on these results, we argue that management should be tailored to restore the aspects of wilderness that are lacking in each region. There are many remaining challenges regarding biodiversity in Europe, but megafauna species are already recovering. To further potentiate large-scale rewilding, Natura 2000 management would need to incorporate rewilding approaches. Our framework can be applied to assessing rewilding opportunities and challenges in other world regions, and our results could guide redirection of subsidies to manage social-ecological systems. PMID:25997361

  3. The cascade of uncertainty in modeling the impacts of climate change on Europe's forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyer, Christopher; Lasch-Born, Petra; Suckow, Felicitas; Gutsch, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Projecting the impacts of global change on forest ecosystems is a cornerstone for designing sustainable forest management strategies and paramount for assessing the potential of Europe's forest to contribute to the EU bioeconomy. Research on climate change impacts on forests relies to a large extent on model applications along a model chain from Integrated Assessment Models to General and Regional Circulation Models that provide important driving variables for forest models. Or to decision support systems that synthesize findings of more detailed forest models to inform forest managers. At each step in the model chain, model-specific uncertainties about, amongst others, parameter values, input data or model structure accumulate, leading to a cascade of uncertainty. For example, climate change impacts on forests strongly depend on the in- or exclusion of CO2-effects or on the use of an ensemble of climate models rather than relying on one particular climate model. In the past, these uncertainties have not or only partly been considered in studies of climate change impacts on forests. This has left managers and decision-makers in doubt of how robust the projected impacts on forest ecosystems are. We deal with this cascade of uncertainty in a structured way and the objective of this presentation is to assess how different types of uncertainties affect projections of the effects of climate change on forest ecosystems. To address this objective we synthesized a large body of scientific literature on modeled productivity changes and the effects of extreme events on plant processes. Furthermore, we apply the process-based forest growth model 4C to forest stands all over Europe and assess how different climate models, emission scenarios and assumptions about the parameters and structure of 4C affect the uncertainty of the model projections. We show that there are consistent regional changes in forest productivity such as an increase in NPP in cold and wet regions while decreasing trends are mostly found in already warm and dry regions despite large differences in model structure, model parameters and climate change scenarios that induce considerable uncertainty into future projections. We also show that there are data assimilation techniques available to assess some types of uncertainties but also that many climate change impact assessment in forest ecosystems (including those presented here as well as observational and experimental studies) have focused to a large extent on testing the response of plants to changes in mean climate rather than climatic extremes. The latter may however ultimately shape the responses to a driving variable in reality. Finally, we highlight how these uncertainties culminate in increasingly complex management of natural resources in coupled social-ecological systems.

  4. Essential levels of health information in Europe: an action plan for a coherent and sustainable infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Carinci, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    The European Union needs a common health information infrastructure to support policy and governance on a routine basis. A stream of initiatives conducted in Europe during the last decade resulted into several success stories, but did not specify a unified framework that could be broadly implemented on a continental level. The recent debate raised a potential controversy on the different roles and responsibilities of policy makers vs the public health community in the construction of such a pan-European health information system. While institutional bodies shall clarify the statutory conditions under which such an endeavour is to be carried out, researchers should define a common framework for optimal cross-border information exchange. This paper conceptualizes a general solution emerging from past experiences, introducing a governance structure and overarching framework that can be realized through four main action lines, underpinned by the key principle of "Essential Levels of Health Information" for Europe. The proposed information model is amenable to be applied in a consistent manner at both national and EU level. If realized, the four action lines outlined here will allow developing a EU health information infrastructure that would effectively integrate best practices emerging from EU public health initiatives, including projects and joint actions carried out during the last ten years. The proposed approach adds new content to the ongoing debate on the future activity of the European Commission in the area of health information. PMID:25481025

  5. Airborne Measurements of CO and Hydrocarbons over Western Europe During ICARTT-ITOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappengluck, B.; Bauerfeind, M.; Huntrieser, H.; Lichtenstern, M.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.

    2005-12-01

    The ICARTT-ITOP mission (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation - Intercontinental Transport of Ozone and Precursors programme) in July/August 2004 focused on the effects of transcontinental transport of chemicals between North America and Europe. While various aircrafts involved in this project collected samples along the north-east US corridor and over the Atlantic the DLR Falcon carried out several flights off the Western European coast. Aboard the aircraft a broad suite of instrumentation was installed for collecting samples in photochemically aged air masses masses reaching the European continent. This contribution focuses on DLR Falcon missions carried out on July 25 and 26, 2004. On both days the same air masses could be sampled. The origin of these air masses were attributed to the main source area of New York and Boston. This presentation shows results of trace gas measurements sampled during both flights and discusses the photochemical processing of this plume.

  6. Modeling microsphere axial displacement in optical projection tomographic microscopy to analyze effects on filtered backprojection reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Ryan L.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2013-02-01

    A computationally efficient method of simulating illumination in Optical Projection Tomographic Microscopy (OPTM) is presented to analyze the effect of microsphere axial displacement on image reconstruction using the filtered backprojection. OPTM reconstructs three-dimensional images of single cells from two-dimensional projection images in a fashion similar to Computed Tomography (CT). Projection images are acquired from circumferential positions around the cell by scanning the objective focal plane through the cell, while the condenser focal plane remains stationary. Unlike CT, the cell rotates between the source and detector in a microcapillary where it is not necessarily positioned at the optical axis. As the cell rotates, its axial position changes relative to the condenser focal plane for every projection. These differences in illumination have an impact on the overall reconstruction that cannot be understood experimentally. The computational model presented in this work relies on an alternative method of calculating illumination using a matrix formalism with near-field Mie theory. This method provides the ability to calculate the response of a microsphere illuminated with plane waves propagating from different directions. The response from each plane wave is subsequently summed to determine the total response. The power of this method is provided by the ability to arbitrarily choose the microsphere position after calculating the plane wave response, meaning illumination for all axial displacements can be computed in approximately the same time as a single position. Projection images are computed for microspheres at intervals away from the optical axis to understand how the axial displacement degrades the reconstructed image.

  7. Atmospheric Effects of Aviation: First Report of the Subsonic Assessment Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M. (Editor); Friedl, Randall R. (Editor); Wesoky, Howard L. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This document is the first report from the Office of Aeronautics Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program's Subsonic Assessment (SASS) Project. This effort, initiated in late 1993, has as its objective the assessment of the atmospheric effects of the current and predicted future aviation fleet. The two areas of impact are ozone (stratospheric and tropospheric) and radiative forcing. These are driven, respectively, by possible perturbations from aircraft emissions of NOX and soot and/or sulfur-containing particles. The report presents the major questions to which project assessments will be directed (Introduction) and the status of six programmatic elements: Emissions Scenarios, Exhaust Characterization, Near-Field Interactions, Kinetics and Laboratory Studies, Global Modeling, and Atmospheric Observations (field studies).

  8. Effects of an incinerator project on a healthcare-waste management system.

    PubMed

    Khammaneechan, Patthanasak; Okanurak, Kamolnetr; Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Tantrakarnapa, Kraichat; Norramit, Poonsup

    2011-10-01

    This evaluative research study aimed to assess the effects of the central healthcare incinerator project on waste management in Yala Province. The study data were collected twice: at baseline and during the operational phase. A combination of structured interview and observation were used during data collection. The study covered 127 healthcare facilities: government hospitals, healthcare centres, and private clinics. The results showed 63% of healthcare risk waste (HCRW) handlers attended the HCRW management training. Improvements in each stage of the HCRW management system were observed in all groups of facilities. The total cost of the HCRW management system did not change, however; the costs for hospitals decreased, whereas those for clinics increased significantly. It was concluded that the central healthcare waste incinerator project positively affected HCRW management in the area, although the costs of management might increase for a particular group. However, the benefits of changing to a more appropriately managed HCRW system will outweigh the increased costs. PMID:21690304

  9. Intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity across Europe.

    PubMed

    Tsiafouli, Maria A; Thébault, Elisa; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; de Ruiter, Peter C; van der Putten, Wim H; Birkhofer, Klaus; Hemerik, Lia; de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D; Brady, Mark Vincent; Bjornlund, Lisa; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht; Christensen, Sören; Hertefeldt, Tina D'; Hotes, Stefan; Gera Hol, W H; Frouz, Jan; Liiri, Mira; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; Uteseny, Karoline; Pižl, Václav; Stary, Josef; Wolters, Volkmar; Hedlund, Katarina

    2015-02-01

    Soil biodiversity plays a key role in regulating the processes that underpin the delivery of ecosystem goods and services in terrestrial ecosystems. Agricultural intensification is known to change the diversity of individual groups of soil biota, but less is known about how intensification affects biodiversity of the soil food web as a whole, and whether or not these effects may be generalized across regions. We examined biodiversity in soil food webs from grasslands, extensive, and intensive rotations in four agricultural regions across Europe: in Sweden, the UK, the Czech Republic and Greece. Effects of land-use intensity were quantified based on structure and diversity among functional groups in the soil food web, as well as on community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. We also elucidate land-use intensity effects on diversity of taxonomic units within taxonomic groups of soil fauna. We found that between regions soil food web diversity measures were variable, but that increasing land-use intensity caused highly consistent responses. In particular, land-use intensification reduced the complexity in the soil food webs, as well as the community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. In all regions across Europe, species richness of earthworms, Collembolans, and oribatid mites was negatively affected by increased land-use intensity. The taxonomic distinctness, which is a measure of taxonomic relatedness of species in a community that is independent of species richness, was also reduced by land-use intensification. We conclude that intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity, making soil food webs less diverse and composed of smaller bodied organisms. Land-use intensification results in fewer functional groups of soil biota with fewer and taxonomically more closely related species. We discuss how these changes in soil biodiversity due to land-use intensification may threaten the functioning of soil in agricultural production systems. PMID:25242445

  10. Interactive effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation: in situ photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton from high mountain lakes of Southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbling, E. W.; Carrillo, P.; Medina-Sanchez, J. M.; Durán, C.; Herrera, G.; Villar-Argaiz, M.; Villafañe, V. E.

    2012-07-01

    Global change, together with human activities had resulted in increasing amounts of organic material (including nutrients) received by water bodies. This input further attenuates the penetration of solar radiation leading to the view that opaque lakes are more "protected" from solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than clear ones. Vertical mixing, however, complicates this view as cells are exposed to fluctuating radiation regimes, which effects have in general been neglected. Even more, the combined impacts of mixing, together with those of UVR and nutrients input are virtually unknown. In this study, we carried out in situ experiments in three high mountain lakes of Spain (Lake Enol in Asturias, and lakes Las Yeguas and La Caldera in Granada) to determine the combined effects of these three variables associated to global change on photosynthetic responses of natural phytoplankton communities. The experimentation consisted in all possible combinations of the following treatments: (a) solar radiation: UVR + PAR (280-700 nm) versus PAR alone (400-700 nm); (b) nutrient addition (phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)): ambient versus addition (P to reach to a final concentration of 30 ?g P l-1, and N to reach a N : P molar ratio of 31) and, (c) mixing: mixed (one rotation from surface to 3 m depth (speed of 1 m every 4 min, total of 10 cycles) versus static. Our findings suggest that under in situ nutrient conditions there is a synergistic effect between vertical mixing and UVR, increasing phytoplankton photosynthetic inhibition and EOC from opaque lakes as compared to algae that received constant mean irradiance within the epilimnion. The opposite occurs in clear lakes where antagonistic effects were determined, with mixing partially counteracting the negative effects of UVR. Nutrients input mimicking atmospheric pulses from Saharan dust, reversed this effect and clear lakes became more inhibited during mixing, while opaque lakes benefited from the fluctuating irradiance regime. These climate change-related nutrients input and increased mixing would not only affect photosynthesis and production of lakes, but might also further influence the microbial loop and trophic interactions via enhanced EOC under fluctuating UVR exposure.

  11. Effective use of environmental impact assessments (EIAs) for geothermal development projects

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.

    2000-05-28

    Both the developed and developing nations of the world would like to move toward a position of sustainable development while paying attention to the restoration of natural resources, improving the environment, and improving the quality of life. The impacts of geothermal development projects are generally positive. It is important, however, that the environmental issues associated with development be addressed in a systematic fashion. Drafted early in the project planning stage, a well-prepared Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can significantly add to the quality of the overall project. An EIA customarily ends with the decision to proceed with the project. The environmental analysis process could be more effective if regular monitoring, detailed in the EIA, continues during project implementation. Geothermal development EIAs should be analytic rather than encyclopedic, emphasizing the impacts most closely associated with energy sector development. Air quality, water resources and quality, geologic factors, and socioeconomic issues will invariably be the most important factors. The purpose of an EIA should not be to generate paperwork, but to enable superb response. The EIA should be intended to help public officials make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences and take proper actions. The EIA process has been defined in different ways throughout the world. In fact, it appears that no two countries have defined it in exactly the same way. Going hand in hand with the different approaches to the process is the wide variety of formats available. It is recommended that the world geothermal community work towards the adoption of a standard. The Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)(OLADE, 1993) prepared a guide that presents a comprehensive discussion of the environmental impacts and suggested mitigation alternatives associated with geothermal development projects. The OLADE guide is a good start for providing the geothermal community a standard EIA format. As decision makers may only read the Executive Summary of the EIA, this summary should be well written and present the significant impacts (in order of importance), clarifying which are unavoidable and which are irreversible; the measures which can be taken to mitigate them; the cumulative effects of impacts; and the requirements for monitoring and supervision. Quality plans and Public Participation plans should also be included as part of the environmental analysis process.

  12. Projections of atmospheric mercury levels and their effect on air quality in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, H.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Liang, X.-Z.; Tao, Z.; Olsen, S.; Artz, R.; Ren, X.; Cohen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of global climate change and emissions changes from 2000 to 2050 on atmospheric mercury levels in the United States are investigated by using the global climate-chemistry model, CAM-Chem, coupled with a mercury chemistry-physics mechanism (CAM-Chem/Hg). Three future pathways from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) are considered, with the A1FI, A1B and B1 scenarios representing the upper, middle and lower bounds of potential climate warming, respectively. The anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of mercury are projected from the energy use assumptions in the IPCC SRES report. Natural emissions from both land and ocean sources are projected by using dynamic schemes. TGM concentration increases are greater in the low latitudes than they are in the high latitudes, indicative of a larger meridional gradient than in the present day. In the A1FI scenario, TGM concentrations in 2050 are projected to increase by 2.1-4.0 ng m-3 for the eastern US and 1.4-3.0 ng m-3 for the western US. This spatial difference corresponds to potential increases in wet deposition of 10-14 ?g m-2 for the eastern US and 2-4 ?g m-2 for the western US. The increase in Hg(II) emissions tends to enhance wet deposition and hence increase the risk of higher mercury entering the hydrological cycle and ecosystem. In the B1 scenario, mercury concentrations in 2050 are similar to present level concentrations; this finding indicates that the domestic reduction in mercury emissions is essentially counteracted by the effects of climate warming and emissions increases in other regions. The sensitivity analyses show that changes in anthropogenic emissions contribute 32-53% of projected changes in mercury air concentration, while the independent contribution by climate change and its induced natural emissions change accounts for 47-68%.

  13. Integrated Methods for Pupils To Reinforce Occupational and Verbal Effectiveness (Project IMPROVE). Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guadalupe, Deana R.

    Integrated Methods for Pupils to Reinforce Occupational and Vocational Effectiveness (Project IMPROVE) was a federally funded project in its second year of operation in two Manhattan (New York) high schools in 1992-93. It served limited-English-proficient students, 186 Latino and 13 Asian-American, in grades 9-12. Students received instruction in…

  14. The Effects of Project-Based Learning Activities on Intrinsic Motivation and Skill Acquisition of Rural Middle School Math Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancy, Yuri G.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in a middle school math class and investigated the effects of project-based activities on the middle school math students' skill acquisition and intrinsic motivation. After math-related project activities were implemented and completed, an analysis of how the students were affected in the areas of math skills and…

  15. The Memory-Impairing Effects of Septal GABA Receptor Activation Involve GABAergic Septo-Hippocampal Projection Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Wheeler, Marina G.; Parent, Marise B.

    2007-01-01

    Septal infusions of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA)[subscript A] agonist muscimol impair memory, and the effect likely involves the hippocampus. GABA[subscript A] receptors are present on the perikarya of cholinergic and GABAergic septo-hippocampal (SH) projections. The current experiments determined whether GABAergic SH projections are…

  16. The Effect of a Community Project on Sense of Community among Social Work Students: An Exploratory Evaluative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Amnon; Moin, Victor

    2014-01-01

    This article evaluates the effect of a community project that was adopted by the students of a school of social work in Israel. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used. The pretest was administered during the planning stage of the project and the posttest a year later, during the implementation period. The findings show a significant…

  17. Interactive effects of vertical mixing, nutrients and ultraviolet radiation: in situ photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton from high mountain lakes in Southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbling, E. W.; Carrillo, P.; Medina-Sánchez, J. M.; Durán, C.; Herrera, G.; Villar-Argaiz, M.; Villafañe, V. E.

    2013-02-01

    Global change, together with human activities, has resulted in increasing amounts of organic material (including nutrients) that water bodies receive. This input further attenuates the penetration of solar radiation, leading to the view that opaque lakes are more "protected" from solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than clear ones. Vertical mixing, however, complicates this view as cells are exposed to fluctuating radiation regimes, for which the effects have, in general, been neglected. Furthermore, the combined impacts of mixing, together with those of UVR and nutrient inputs are virtually unknown. In this study, we carried out complex in situ experiments in three high mountain lakes of Spain (Lake Enol in the National Park Picos de Europa, Asturias, and lakes Las Yeguas and La Caldera in the National Park Sierra Nevada, Granada), used as model ecosystems to evaluate the joint impact of these climate change variables. The main goal of this study was to address the question of how short-term pulses of nutrient inputs, together with vertical mixing and increased UVR fluxes modify the photosynthetic responses of phytoplankton. The experimentation consisted in all possible combinations of the following treatments: (a) solar radiation: UVR + PAR (280-700 nm) versus PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) alone (400-700 nm); (b) nutrient addition (phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)): ambient versus addition (P to reach to a final concentration of 30 ?g P L-1, and N to reach N:P molar ratio of 31); and (c) mixing: mixed (one rotation from surface to 3 m depth (speed of 1 m 4 min-1, total of 10 cycles)) versus static. Our findings suggest that under ambient nutrient conditions there is a synergistic effect between vertical mixing and UVR, increasing phytoplankton photosynthetic inhibition and excretion of organic carbon (EOC) from opaque lakes as compared to algae that received constant mean irradiance within the epilimnion. The opposite occurs in clear lakes where antagonistic effects were determined, with mixing partially counteracting the negative effects of UVR. Nutrient input, mimicking atmospheric pulses from Saharan dust, reversed this effect and clear lakes became more inhibited during mixing, while opaque lakes benefited from the fluctuating irradiance regime. These climate change related scenarios of nutrient input and increased mixing, would not only affect photosynthesis and production in lakes, but might also further influence the microbial loop and trophic interactions via enhanced EOC under fluctuating UVR exposure.

  18. Reprint of: Towards better implementation of cancer screening in Europe through improved monitoring and evaluation and greater engagement of cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Anttila, Ahti; Lönnberg, Stefan; Ponti, Antonio; Suonio, Eero; Villain, Patricia; Coebergh, Jan Willem; von Karsa, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    Proposals to improve implementation, monitoring and evaluation of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes have been developed in a European project involving scientists and professionals experienced in cancer registration (EUROCOURSE). They call for a clear and more active role for cancer registries through better interfaces with cancer screening programmes and adapting data contents of cancer registries for evaluation purposes. Cancer registries are recognised as essential for adequate evaluation of cancer screening programmes, but they are not involved in screening evaluation in several European countries. This is a key barrier to improving the effectiveness of programmes across Europe. The variation in Europe in the implementation of cancer screening offers a unique opportunity to learn from best practices in collaboration between cancer registries and screening programmes. Population-based cancer registries have experience and tools in collecting and analysing relevant data, e.g. for diagnostic and therapeutic determinants of mortality. In order to accelerate improvements in cancer control we argue that cancer registries should take co-responsibility in promoting effective screening evaluation in Europe. Additional investments are vital to further development of infrastructures and activities for screening evaluation and monitoring in the national settings and also at the pan-European level. The EUROCOURSE project also aimed to harmonise implementation of the European quality assurance guidelines for cancer screening programmes across Europe through standardising routine data collection and analysis, and definitions for key performance indicators for screening registers. Data linkage between cancer and screening registers and other repositories of demographic data and cause of death and where available clinical registers is key to implementing the European screening standards and thereby reducing the burden of disease through early detection. Greater engagement of cancer registries in this collaborative effort is also essential to develop adequate evaluation of innovations in cancer prevention and care. PMID:26024802

  19. Projections of atmospheric mercury levels and their effect on air quality in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, H.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Liang, X.-Z.; Tao, Z.; Olsen, S.; Artz, R.; Ren, X.; Cohen, M.

    2013-08-01

    The individual and combined effects of global climate change and emissions changes from 2000 to 2050 on atmospheric mercury levels in the US are investigated by using the global climate-chemistry model, CAM-chem, coupled with a mercury chemistry-physics mechanism (CAM-Chem/Hg). Three future pathways from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) are considered, with the A1FI, A1B and B1 scenarios representing the upper, middle and lower bounds of potential climate warming, respectively. The anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of mercury are projected from the energy use assumptions in the IPCC SRES report. Natural emissions from both land and ocean sources are projected using dynamic schemes. The zonal mean surface total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the tropics and mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere are projected to increase by 0.5-1.2 ng m-3 in 2050. TGM concentration increases are greater in the low latitudes than they are in the high latitudes, indicative of a larger meridional gradient than in the present day. In the A1FI scenario, TGM concentrations in 2050 are projected to increase by 2.1-4.0 ng m-3 for the eastern US and 1.4-3.0 ng m-3 for the western US. This pattern corresponds to potential increases in wet deposition of 10-14 ?g m-2 for the eastern US and 2-4 ?g m-2 for the western US. The increase in Hg(II) emissions tends to enhance wet deposition and hence increase the risk of higher mercury entering the hydrological cycle and ecosystems. In the B1 scenario, mercury concentrations in 2050 are similar to present level concentrations; this indicates that the domestic reduction in mercury emissions is essentially counteracted by the effects of climate warming and emissions increases in other regions. The sensitivity analyses presented show that anthropogenic emissions changes contribute 32-53% of projected mercury air concentration changes, while the independent contribution by climate change accounts for 47-68%. In summary, global climate change could have a comparable effect on mercury pollution in the US to that caused by global emissions changes.

  20. [BCG in Europe in 2004].

    PubMed

    Guérin, Nicole

    2005-06-01

    BCG immunization policies are somewhat uniform in eastern Europe. The incidence rates of tuberculosis are already very high, and are increasing. WHO recommendations, ie. BCG immunization by intradermal injection at birth or as soon as possible after birth are implemented. In western countries, the incidence rates of tuberculosis are not clearly related to the local immunization policy. Some countries still immunize all children at birth or later, while others only immunize at-risk groups. The definition of the risk also differs from one country to another Finally, some countries do not offer immunization at all. The reasons for these disparities are examined, together with their implications for future French policy PMID:16433447

  1. Young Musicians for Heritage Project: Can a Music-Based Heritage Project Have a Positive Effect on Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clennon, Ornette; Boehm, Carola

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the intrinsic potential for well-being outcomes in a heritage-related music project. We look at how creative activities that are embedded in a community can serve to enhance the cohesion and well-being of communities through the work of its youth groups. The paper also examines the important roles of partnership working and…

  2. Europe's youth: are they all alike?

    PubMed

    Kapor-stanulovic, N

    1991-04-01

    Adolescents in Europe are viewed in terms of similarities and differences. As adolescents, they all go through emotional and physical changes, suffer identity crises, fight for independence and recognition as adults, and are hurt by double standards. Accidents, suicide, and other causes contribute 50% to teenage death, but as much as 70% in Switzerland and Austria. Compared with less developed countries, the European youth population, 10-24 years, is lower and comprises 20% of the total population. The world population is 30% young adolescent and adults. Only 2% may die before the age of 20. Teenage birth rates vary from 3% in Europe to 2% in Western and Northern Europe and 5% in Eastern Europe with 8% in Bulgaria. 5% of European girls marry between 15-19; Northern and Western European girls 2%, Southern Europe 7%, and Eastern Europe 10%. 85% of teenagers are enrolled in secondary schools (83% men and 86% women), whereas developing countries enroll only 35-45%. Western Europe has enrollments of 92% for males and 83% for females, while Eastern Europe is low at 69% for males and 74% for females. Labor force participation is 45% for males and 36% for females 15-19 years. Northern Europeans employ 54% of males and 47% of females. Eastern Europeans employ only 39-40%, Western Europe 40%, and Southern Europe 37%. Eastern European youth are less well off based on education, employment, teenage pregnancy, and marriage. Life styles and sexuality- related problems vary between countries, although all countries confront the health problems of the young --- smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, and unprotected sex with unwanted pregnancies, STDs, and HIV/AIDS. Nordic smokers, particularly girls, show smoking declines. A 17 year old in Denmark comfortably admits taking the pill while her counterpart in Italy suffers the consequences of illegal abortion. Western Europe provides a healthy environment of exercise, fitness, and good nutrition while Eastern Europe does not. PMID:12222219

  3. Projecting climate effects on birds and reptiles of the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Charles, III; Hatten, James R.; Giermakowski, J. Tomasz; Mattson, David; Holmes, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Nowak, Erika M.; Ironside, Kirsten; Peters, Michael; Heinrich, Paul; Cole, K.L.; Truettner, C.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2014-01-01

    We modeled the current and future breeding ranges of seven bird and five reptile species in the Southwestern United States with sets of landscape, biotic (plant), and climatic global circulation model (GCM) variables. For modeling purposes, we used PRISM data to characterize the climate of the Western United States between 1980 and 2009 (baseline for birds) and between 1940 and 2009 (baseline for reptiles). In contrast, we used a pre-selected set of GCMs that are known to be good predictors of southwestern climate (five individual and one ensemble GCM), for the A1B emission scenario, to characterize future climatic conditions in three time periods (2010–39; 2040–69; and, 2070–99). Our modeling approach relied on conceptual models for each target species to inform selection of candidate explanatory variables and to interpret the ecological meaning of developed probabilistic distribution models. We employed logistic regression and maximum entropy modeling techniques to create a set of probabilistic models for each target species. We considered climatic, landscape, and plant variables when developing and testing our probabilistic models. Climatic variables included the maximum and minimum mean monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation for three time periods. Landscape features included terrain ruggedness and insolation. We also considered plant species distributions as candidate explanatory variables where prior ecological knowledge implicated a strong association between a plant and animal species. Projected changes in range varied widely among species, from major losses to major gains. Breeding bird ranges exhibited greater expansions and contractions than did reptile species. We project range losses for Williamson’s sapsucker and pygmy nuthatch of a magnitude that could move these two species close to extinction within the next century. Although both species currently have a relatively limited distribution, they can be locally common, and neither are presently considered candidates for prospective endangerment. We project range losses of over 40 percent, from its current extent of occurrence, for the plateau striped whiptail, Arizona black rattlesnake, and common lesser earless lizard. Currently, these reptile species are thought to be common or at least locally abundant throughout their ranges. The total contribution of plants in each distribution model was very small, but models that contained at least one plant always outperformed models with only physical variables (climatic or landscape). The magnitude of change in projected range increased further into the future, especially when a plant was in the model. Among bird species, those that had the strongest association with a landscape feature during the breeding season, such as terrain ruggedness and insolation, exhibited the smallest contractions in projected breeding range in the future. In contrast, bird species that had weak associations with landscape features, but strong climatic associations, suffered the greatest breeding range contractions. Thus, landscape effects appeared to buffer some of the negative effects of climate change for some species. Among bird species, magnitude of change in projected breeding range was positively related to the annual average temperature of their baseline distribution, thus species with the warmest breeding ranges exhibited the greatest changes in future breeding ranges. This pattern was not evident for reptiles, but might exist if additional species were included in the model. Our results provide managers with a series of projected range maps that will enable scientists, concerned citizens, and wildlife managers to identify what the potential effects of climate change will be on bird and reptile distributions in the Western United States. We hope that our results can be used in proactive ways to mitigate some of the potential effects of climate change on selected species.

  4. 75 FR 53701 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01); Correction AGENCY: Food...document announced the availability of grant funds for the support of FDA's...Orphan Products Development (OPD) grant program. The document was...

  5. Impact of the agricultural research service watershed assessment studies on the conservation effects assessment project cropland national assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA initiated the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in 2002 to analyze societal and environmental benefits gained from the increased conservation program funding provided in the 2002 Farm Bill. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and...

  6. Effects of baseline conditions on the simulated hydrologic response to projected climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koczot, Kathryn M.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in temperature and precipitation projected from five general circulation models, using one late-twentieth-century and three twenty-first-century emission scenarios, were downscaled to three different baseline conditions. Baseline conditions are periods of measured temperature and precipitation data selected to represent twentieth-century climate. The hydrologic effects of the climate projections are evaluated using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), which is a watershed hydrology simulation model. The Almanor Catchment in the North Fork of the Feather River basin, California, is used as a case study. Differences and similarities between PRMS simulations of hydrologic components (i.e., snowpack formation and melt, evapotranspiration, and streamflow) are examined, and results indicate that the selection of a specific time period used for baseline conditions has a substantial effect on some, but not all, hydrologic variables. This effect seems to be amplified in hydrologic variables, which accumulate over time, such as soil-moisture content. Results also indicate that uncertainty related to the selection of baseline conditions should be evaluated using a range of different baseline conditions. This is particularly important for studies in basins with highly variable climate, such as the Almanor Catchment.

  7. EFFECT OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ON THE SUCCESS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS IN UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. El-Saboni; G. Aouad; A. Sabouni

    Good communication during all phases of the project lifecycle is an important factor for the project suc- cess; in fact it is the prime factor that connects all of the project success factors together. Often, construction projects suffer from the lack of efficient communication due to many reasons, among which are the enormous versatility of stakeholders during project lifecycle, and

  8. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION POLICY APPROACHES IN NORTH AMERICA, EUROPE, AND AUSTRALIA. (R825761)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Soil and water conservation policies and programs in developed countries in North America, Europe, and Australia are examined in the context of their effectiveness for addressing environmental degradation associated with technology-intensive agricultural syste...

  9. Exploring the Effects of Vertical and Lateral Mechanisms in International Knowledge Transfer Projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Ciabuschi; Henrik Dellestrand; Philip Kappen

    2011-01-01

    • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Knowledge is critical for creating and sustaining competitive advantage and in today’s fast-moving international market firms\\u000a need to leverage knowledge globally. Therefore, one important question becomes what effect different transfer mechanisms have\\u000a on transfer success.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This study investigates 169 international knowledge transfer projects in multinational corporations focusing on the role of\\u000a hierarchy, heterarchy and IT in terms of

  10. Effects of long-term variability on projections of twenty-first century dynamic sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordbar, Mohammad H.; Martin, Thomas; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2015-04-01

    Sea-level rise is one of the most pressing aspects of anthropogenic global warming with far-reaching consequences for coastal societies. However, sea-level rise did and will strongly vary from coast to coast. Here we investigate the long-term internal variability effects on centennial projections of dynamic sea level (DSL), the local departure from the globally averaged sea level. A large ensemble of global warming integrations has been conducted with a climate model, where each realization was forced by identical CO2 increase but started from different atmospheric and oceanic initial conditions. In large parts of the mid- and high latitudes, the ensemble spread of the projected centennial DSL trends is of the same order of magnitude as the globally averaged steric sea-level rise, suggesting that internal variability cannot be ignored when assessing twenty-first-century DSL trends. The ensemble spread is considerably reduced in the mid- to high latitudes when only the atmospheric initial conditions differ while keeping the oceanic initial state identical; indicating that centennial DSL projections are strongly dependent on ocean initial conditions.

  11. Origin of the Mutations in the parkin Gene in Europe: Exon Rearrangements Are Independent Recurrent Events, whereas Point Mutations May Result from Founder Effects

    PubMed Central

    Periquet, Magali; Lücking, Christoph B.; Vaughan, Jenny R.; Bonifati, Vincenzo; Dürr, Alexandra; De Michele, Giuseppe; Horstink, Martin W.; Farrer, Matt; Illarioshkin, Sergei N.; Pollak, Pierre; Borg, Michel; Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Denefle, Patrice; Meco, Giuseppe; Gasser, Thomas; Breteler, Monique M. B.; Wood, Nick W.; Agid, Yves; Brice, Alexis

    2001-01-01

    A wide variety of mutations in the parkin gene, including exon deletions and duplications, as well as point mutations, result in autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism. Interestingly, several of these anomalies were found repeatedly in unrelated patients and may therefore result from recurrent, de novo mutational events or from founder effects. In the present study, haplotype analysis, using 10 microsatellite markers covering a 4.7-cM region known to contain the parkin gene, was performed in 48 families, mostly from European countries, with early-onset autosomal recessive parkinsonism. The patients carried 14 distinct mutations in the parkin gene, and each mutation was detected in more than one family. Our results support the hypothesis that exon rearrangements occurred independently, whereas some point mutations, found in families from different geographic origins, may have been transmitted by a common founder. PMID:11179010

  12. A conceptual framework for the evaluation of cost-effectiveness of projects to reduce GHG emissions and sequester carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, J.; Norgaard, R.; Makundi, W.

    1993-07-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for evaluating the cost of projects to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs). The evaluation of cost-effectiveness should account for both the timing of carbon emissions and the damage caused by the atmospheric stock of carbon. We develop a conceptual basis to estimate the cost-effectiveness of projects in terms of the cost of reducing atmospheric carbon (CRAC) and other GHGs. CRAC accounts for the economic discount rate, alternative functional forms of the shadow price, the residence period of carbon in the atmosphere, and the multiple monetary benefits of projects. The last item is of particular importance to the developing countries.

  13. Birds and people in Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kevin J.; Evans, Karl L.

    2004-01-01

    At a regional scale, species richness and human population size are frequently positively correlated across space. Such patterns may arise because both species richness and human density increase with energy availability. If the species-energy relationship is generated through the 'more individuals' hypothesis, then the prediction is that areas with high human densities will also support greater numbers of individuals from other taxa. We use the unique data available for the breeding birds in Europe to test this prediction. Overall regional densities of bird species are higher in areas with more people; species of conservation concern exhibit the same pattern. Avian density also increases faster with human density than does avian biomass, indicating that areas with a higher human density have a higher proportion of small-bodied individuals. The analyses also underline the low numbers of breeding birds in Europe relative to humans, with a median of just three individual birds per person, and 4 g of bird for every kilogram of human. PMID:15306313

  14. Europe discusses role in future space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    Prof. Roger Bonnet said it was important for Europe to make an informed decision in the next few years on whether to support NASA's proposed New Generation Space Telescope (NGST), a follow-on programme to the Hubble Space Telescope. NGST's observing capabilities will far extend the reach of existing ground or space-based telescopes, providing the opportunity for the first time to look back through eons of time to the very first stars and galaxies in the Universe. With an aperture greater than four metres, NGST could also provide European astronomers with a crucial complement to some of ESA's planned future space projects, like FIRST (the Far InfraRed Submillimetre Telescope) and Planck (a mission to study the cosmic background radiation field). NASA and ESA are already involved in preliminary NGST studies but Europe has yet to make a commitment to support the programme. NASA wants to start formal development in 2003, with a launch currently planned for 2007. This week's conference at Liege in Belgium was the first opportunity for many astronomers to exchange ideas and compare technological notes on a Next Generation Space Telescope. It also provided a forum for representatives of Europe's space industry to discuss the technological challenges presented by such a project. Prof. Bonnet said: "From recent experience it is clear that the best scientific results in astronomy and astrophysics are obtained by coordinated observations in different wavelength ranges. "The joint effort of the European space programme and of the various large European ground observatories currently allows European astronomers to be on the front-line of astrophysics research."He said that ESA - if supported programmatically and financially by its member states - is willing to discuss with NASA a mutually fruitful form of NGST participation. But Prof. Bonnet stressed that for this type of collaboration to be approved it remained crucial that the European share contained both scientific and technological "qualifying activities". One possibility is to use one of ESA's "flexi-missions" foreseen in Horizon 2000+, the agency's long term science plan. The Horizon 2000+ report recommends that ESA consider the development of infrared detectors and perform technological studies on lightweight, passively cooled, high optical-quality mirrors for use in the 2-100 micron part of the spectrum. European scientists and astronomers are enthusiastic users of the Hubble Space Telescope, currently occupying some 20 percent of its total observing time. Activities are managed through the European Coordinating Facility (ECF), which was set by ESA at Garching near Munich, Germany, alongside the base of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). In return for a share of Hubble observing time for European astronomers, ESA provided a number of the telescope's key features, including the faint object camera and the solar panels.

  15. Comparison of herbicide regimes and the associated potential environmental effects of glyphosate-resistant crops versus what they replace in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kleter, Gijs A; Harris, Caroline; Stephenson, Gerry; Unsworth, John

    2008-04-01

    While cultivation of transgenic crops takes place in seven of the EU member states, this constitutes a relatively limited part of the total acreage planted to these crops worldwide. The only glyphosate-resistant (GR) crop grown commercially until recently has been soybean in Romania. In addition, large-scale experimental European data exist for GR sugar and fodder beets, and, to a lesser extent, GR oilseed rape. These GR crops are likely to have an impact both on the use of herbicides and on the environmental impact of the latter. From the data on these GR crops, it appears that quantities of herbicides applied to GR beets are decreased while those on GR soybean are slightly increased compared with their conventional counterparts. Depending on the parameters used for prediction or measurement of environmental impacts of GR crops, generally similar or less negative impacts were observed compared with conventional crops. Favourable environmental effects of the glyphosate-containing herbicide regimes on GR crops appear feasible, provided appropriate measures for maintaining biodiversity and prevention of volunteers and gene flow are applied. PMID:18078305

  16. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunovi?, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th.; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA. PMID:25005236

  17. Projected effects of declining anthropogenic aerosols on the southern annular mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotstayn, Leon D.

    2013-12-01

    Declining emissions of anthropogenic aerosols have been shown to contribute to global warming in climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). This study considers the response of the southern annular mode (SAM) in austral summer to declining aerosols in simulations forced by Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) using CSIRO-Mk3.6, a CMIP5-generation model. A ten-member ensemble forced by RCP4.5 for the period 2006-2100 is compared with another experiment, which is identical except that emissions of anthropogenic aerosols are held fixed at their 2005 values. With fixed aerosol emissions, the model simulates a negative (but statistically insignificant) ensemble-mean SAM trend in austral summer, suggesting that the effects of recovering stratospheric ozone slightly outweigh the effects of increasing long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs). In contrast, the standard RCP4.5 experiment (including additional warming due to declining aerosols) simulates a positive ensemble-mean SAM trend, and the difference between the two trends is significant at 5%. The response of Southern Hemisphere zonal-mean atmospheric circulation and temperature to declining aerosols resembles the response to increasing GHGs; this suggests that the positive SAM trend due to declining aerosols may be driven by mechanisms that are similar to those that cause the positive SAM trend in response to increasing GHGs.

  18. Volcanic hazard assessment in western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, David K.; Dibben, Christopher J. L.; Duncan, Angus M.

    2002-06-01

    Volcanology has been in the past and in many respects remains a subject dominated by pure research grounded in the earth sciences. Over the past 30 years a paradigm shift has occurred in hazard assessment which has been aided by significant changes in the social theory of natural hazards and the first-hand experience gained in the 1990s by volcanologists working on projects conceived during the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). Today much greater stress is placed on human vulnerability, the potential for marginalisation of disadvantaged individuals and social groups, and the requirement to make applied volcanology sensitive to the characteristics of local demography, economy, culture and politics. During the IDNDR a methodology, broadly similar to environmental impact analysis, has emerged as the preferred method for studying human vulnerability and risk assessment in volcanically active regions. The characteristics of this new methodology are discussed and the progress which has been made in innovating it on the European Union laboratory volcanoes located in western Europe is reviewed. Furnas (São Miguel, Azores) and Vesuvius in Italy are used as detailed case studies.

  19. RECARE - Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe through Landcare.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Elsen, Erik; Hessel, Rudi; Verzandvoort, Simone; Ritsema, Coen; Geissen, Violette

    2015-04-01

    Although there is a large body of knowledge available on soil threats in Europe, this knowledge is fragmented and incomplete, in particular regarding the complexity and functioning of soil systems and their interaction with human activities. The main aim of the RECARE project is to develop effective prevention, remediation and restoration measures using an innovative trans-disciplinary approach, actively integrating and advancing knowledge of stakeholders and scientists in 17 Case Studies, covering a range of soil threats in different bio-physical and socio-economic environments across Europe. Within these Case Study sites, i) the current state of degradation and conservation will be assessed using a new methodology, based on the WOCAT mapping procedure, ii) impacts of degradation and conservation on soil functions and ecosystem services will be quantified in a harmonized, spatially explicit way, accounting for costs and benefits, and possible trade-offs, iii) prevention, remediation and restoration measures selected and implemented by stakeholders in a participatory process will be evaluated regarding efficacy, and iv) the applicability and impact of these measures at the European level will be assessed using a new integrated bio-physical and socio-economic model, accounting for land use dynamics as a result of for instance economic development and policies. Existing national and EU policies will be reviewed and compared to identify potential incoherence, contradictions and synergies. Policy messages will be formulated based on the Case Study results and their integration at European level. A comprehensive dissemination and communication strategy, including the development of a web-based Dissemination and Communication Hub, will accompany the other activities to ensure that project results are disseminated to a variety of stakeholders at the right time and in the appropriate formats to stimulate renewed care for European soils.

  20. Increasing Teaching Productivity with EuropeMMM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helic, Denis; Scherbackov, Nick; Sheridan, Don

    EuropeMMM (Efficient Use of Remote and Online Publications of Electronic Multi-Media Materials) addresses the challenge of custom-publishing of multi-media on the Internet. A EuropeMMM catalog is designed especially for teachers and trainers who need to save time and effort in developing courses which include multi-media elements. Authors and…

  1. Inventorying emissions from nature in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Simpson; Wilfried Winiwarter; Gunnar Börjesson; Steve Cinderby; Antonio Ferreiro; Alex Guenther; C. Nicholas Hewitt; Robert Janson; M. Aslam K. Khalil; Susan Owen; Tom E. Pierce; Hans Puxbaum; Martha Shearer; Ute Skiba; Rainer Steinbrecher; Leonor Tarrasón; Mats G. Öquist

    1999-01-01

    As part of the work of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations Task Force on Emission Inventories, a new set of guidelines has been developed for assessing the emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, NH3, CH4, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) from biogenic and other natural sources in Europe. This paper gives the background to these guidelines,

  2. Violence and democracy in Eastern Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Korbonski

    2000-01-01

    This discussion between violence and democracy in Eastern Europe excludes the regions of the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. In the interwar period, ethnic animosities were aggravated by the demands of treaties imposing the protection of minority rights. After World War II, however, tensions were eased by the reduction of the minority element in states throughout Eastern Europe. In addition,

  3. Regional labor market dynamics in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg Decressin; Antonio Fatás

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates regional labor market dynamics in Europe and compares the results to those obtained for the US. It analyzes to what extent regional employment dynamics are common to all regions in Europe and to all states in the US. It finds that a larger proportion of movements in employment growth is common to all US states than to

  4. Religious Education in Europe: Approaches and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Sara

    1978-01-01

    Investigates religious education in American armed forces installations in Europe. Improvements are suggested in various areas of religious education, including cooperation and coordination in educational endeavors among denominations, intergenerational activities, and organization of religious field study trips within Europe. Journal available…

  5. Vocational and Adult Education in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wieringen, Fons, Ed.; Attwell, Graham, Ed.

    This book contains 25 papers on vocational and adult education in Europe and the United States. The following papers are included: "Vocational and Adult Education in Europe: Introduction to the Volume" (Fons van Wieringen, Graham Attwell); "Introduction to Section 1: Markets and Institutions in Vocational and Adult Education" (Fons van Wieringen);…

  6. Key Data on Education in Europe 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranguelov, Stanislav; de Coster, Isabelle; Forsthuber, Bernadette; Noorani, Sogol; Ruffio, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    This seventh edition of "Key Data on Education in Europe" retains its main special feature which is the combination of statistical data and qualitative information to describe the organisation and functioning of education systems in Europe. The present 2009 edition maintains the subject-based structure defined by the previous one but uses new…

  7. ROAMER: roadmap for mental health research in Europe.

    PubMed

    Haro, Josep Maria; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Bitter, Istvan; Demotes-Mainard, Jacques; Leboyer, Marion; Lewis, Shôn W; Linszen, Donald; Maj, Mario; McDaid, David; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Robbins, Trevor W; Schumann, Gunter; Thornicroft, Graham; Van Der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina; Van Os, Jim; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Wykes, Til; Arango, Celso; Bickenbach, Jerome; Brunn, Matthias; Cammarata, Pamela; Chevreul, Karine; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Finocchiaro, Carla; Fiorillo, Andrea; Forsman, Anna K; Hazo, Jean-Baptiste; Knappe, Susanne; Kuepper, Rebecca; Luciano, Mario; Miret, Marta; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Pagano, Grazia; Papp, Szilvia; Walker-Tilley, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high impact of mental disorders in society, European mental health research is at a critical situation with a relatively low level of funding, and few advances been achieved during the last decade. The development of coordinated research policies and integrated research networks in mental health is lagging behind other disciplines in Europe, resulting in lower degree of cooperation and scientific impact. To reduce more efficiently the burden of mental disorders in Europe, a concerted new research agenda is necessary. The ROAMER (Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe) project, funded under the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme, aims to develop a comprehensive and integrated mental health research agenda within the perspective of the European Union (EU) Horizon 2020 programme, with a translational goal, covering basic, clinical and public health research. ROAMER covers six major domains: infrastructures and capacity building, biomedicine, psychological research and treatments, social and economic issues, public health and well-being. Within each of them, state-of-the-art and strength, weakness and gap analyses were conducted before building consensus on future research priorities. The process is inclusive and participatory, incorporating a wide diversity of European expert researchers as well as the views of service users, carers, professionals and policy and funding institutions. PMID:24375532

  8. Risk Analysis and Forecast Service for Geomagnetically Induced Currents in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wik, Magnus; Pirjola, Risto; Viljanen, Ari; Lundstedt, Henrik

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC), occurring during magnetic storms, pose a widespread natural disaster risk to the reliable operation of electric power transmission grids, oil and gas pipelines, telecommunication cables and railway systems. The solar magnetic activity is the cause of GIC. Solar coronal holes can cause recurrent inter-vals of raised geomagnetic activity, and coronal mass ejections (CME) at the Sun, sometimes producing very high speed plasma clouds with enhanced magnetic fields and particle densities, can cause the strongest geomagnetic storms. When the solar wind interacts with the geomag-netic field, energy is transferred to the magnetosphere, driving strong currents in the ionosphere. When these currents change in time a geoelectric field is induced at the surface of the Earth and in the ground. Finally, this field drives GIC in the ground and in any technological conductor systems. The worst consequence of a severe magnetic storm within a power grid is a complete blackout, as happened in the province of Québec, Canada, in March 1989, and in the city of Malmü, Sweden, in October 2003. Gas and oil pipelines are not regarded as vulnerable to the immediate impact of GIC, but the corrosion rate of buried steel pipes can increase due to GIC, which may thus shorten the lifetime of a pipe. European Risk from Geomagnetically Induced Currents (EURISGIC) is an EU project, that, if approved, will produce the first European-wide real-time prototype forecast service of GIC in power systems, based on in-situ solar wind observations and comprehensive simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere. This project focuses on high-voltage power transmission networks, which are probably currently the most susceptible to GIC effects. Geomagnetic storms cover large geographical regions, at times the whole globe. Consequently, power networks are rightly described as being European critical infrastructures whose disruption or destruction could have a significant impact. The project includes six research institutes and one SME, within Europe and US. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Swedish civil contingencies agency (MSB), and representatives from the European Commission are collaborating with the NOAA National Weather Service and other research institutes on various space weather scenarios -geomagnetic storms with widespread blackouts and disruptions in communications. The aim of this new project is to conduct a risk analysis from GIC on critical infrastructure. Large amounts of natural gas are transported from Russia to Central Europe. Those long pipelines are prone to GIC impacts, which should also be evaluated quantitatively. We will use the EURISGIC project to inform the pipeline community of present European capability in GIC modelling, forecasting and in developing mitigation measures.

  9. Effects of Resource Allocation Policies for Reducing Project Durations: A Systems Modelling Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zee Woon Lee; David N. Ford; Nitin Joglekar

    2007-01-01

    Minimizing duration is critical to success in many development projects. Resource allocation policies during such projects determine the fractions of resources that are to be assigned to constituent tasks. The choice of allocation policy can strongly influence project durations. But policies for reduced project duration are difficult to design and implement because of closed loop flows of work that generate

  10. Maritime route of colonization of Europe.

    PubMed

    Paschou, Peristera; Drineas, Petros; Yannaki, Evangelia; Razou, Anna; Kanaki, Katerina; Tsetsos, Fotis; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha Sampath; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Renda, Maria C; Pavlovic, Sonja; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Kidd, Kenneth K; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    2014-06-24

    The Neolithic populations, which colonized Europe approximately 9,000 y ago, presumably migrated from Near East to Anatolia and from there to Central Europe through Thrace and the Balkans. An alternative route would have been island hopping across the Southern European coast. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed genome-wide DNA polymorphisms on populations bordering the Mediterranean coast and from Anatolia and mainland Europe. We observe a striking structure correlating genes with geography around the Mediterranean Sea with characteristic east to west clines of gene flow. Using population network analysis, we also find that the gene flow from Anatolia to Europe was through Dodecanese, Crete, and the Southern European coast, compatible with the hypothesis that a maritime coastal route was mainly used for the migration of Neolithic farmers to Europe. PMID:24927591

  11. Secular Variations of the Geomagnetic Field in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sas-Uhrynowski, A.; Welker, E.

    2009-09-01

    The international project MagNetE (Magnetic Net For Europe) was undertaken in 2003. The project has been accepted by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy of the IUGG. The common research on the geomagnetic field space and time distribution in Europe, as well as collecting data and its analysis, constitutes the grounds for theoretical works on geomagnetic field models and their parameters. It is also the basis for studying the genesis of the geomagnetic field secular variations and its mechanism. The results of the project enable to increase the accuracy of models on the global, regional, and also on local scale. It has a vital meaning for the regions where the geomagnetic data are not available or, where the existing data, because of their low accuracy, cannot be used. Information about the secular variations of the geomagnetic field makes it possible to update the magnetic data, which is needed in navigation, topography, telecommunication, geology and geophysics and other domains. The enclosed maps of isopors presented have been compiled using the results of measuring campaigns in the years 2004-2006 together with the archive data. They show the secular variations of the magnetic declination D, the length H of the horizontal intensity vector and the lenght F of the total intensity vector of the geomagnetic field, in the intervals 1995-2000 and 2000-2005. The maps of isopors for Europe have been worked out using data from not only the magnetic observatories, but also from some hundred magnetic secular variation stations (repeated stations), located in 23 European countries. The secular variation differences between data obtained from terrestrial surveys and data from the IGRF model (International Geomagnetic Reference Field) have been presented in the form of maps and histograms. In several regions of Europe the unexpectedly large secular variation anomalies are visible. Anomalies of so high frequency and large amplitude cannot exist. They are probably caused by data errors, which may have different sources. Their existence cannot be explained by now. Therefore the MagNetE project should be continued.

  12. Commercial satellite broadcasting for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, J. R.

    1988-12-01

    A review is presented of the current television broadcasting situation in European countries, which involves a varied mix of terrestrial VHF or UHF systems and cable networks. A small market has emerged in Europe for receivers using the low-power telecommunications satellite transmission between the program providers and cable network companies. This is expected to change with the launch of medium-power pan-European telecommunication satellites (e.g. ASTRA, EUTELSAT II), which are now directly addressing the market of home reception. DBS (direct broadcast satellite) in the UK, using the D-MAC transmission standard, will offer three additional television channels, data broadcasting services, and a planned evolution to compatible forms of wide-screen, high-definition television. Comments are given on receiver and conditional access system standardization. Some views are expressed on satellite broadcasting as part of an overall broadcasting framework for the future.

  13. Nanoscience and nanotechnology in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolles, William A.

    1994-12-01

    The subject of nanoscience and/or nanotechnology is of considerable interest as a rapidly expanding frontier of research. This report documents information gathered at 44 laboratories in Europe by the author over a six month period. Research activities in physics, electronics, materials, chemistry, and biotechnology are included. Fundamental advances in fabrication, characterization, and utilization of nanostructures are presented. Areas of greatest interest include nanostructures for electronic and optical materials and devices, sensors, and other applications envisioned. Research programs covered include lithography, materials, self-assembly, local probes, transport properties, quantum dots and wires, surface film behavior, some magnetic and optical behavior, including nonlinear spectroscopy, high frequency device behavior, and mechanical measurements at nanodimensions. A short description of the environment at each laboratory visited is included.

  14. Colorectal cancer screening in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zavoral, Miroslav; Suchanek, Stepan; Zavada, Filip; Dusek, Ladislav; Muzik, Jan; Seifert, Bohumil; Fric, Premysl

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most frequent malignant disease in Europe. Every year, 412?000 people are diagnosed with this condition, and 207?000 patients die of it. In 2003, recommendations for screening programs were issued by the Council of the European Union (EU), and these currently serve as the basis for the preparation of European guidelines for CRC screening. The manner in which CRC screening is carried out varies significantly from country to country within the EU, both in terms of organization and the screening test chosen. A screening program of one sort or another has been implemented in 19 of 27 EU countries. The most frequently applied method is testing stool for occult bleeding (fecal occult blood test, FOBT). In recent years, a screening colonoscopy has been introduced, either as the only method (Poland) or the method of choice (Germany, Czech Republic). PMID:20014454

  15. Arctic haze over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintzenberg, Jost; Tuch, Thomas; Wehner, Birgit; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Wex, Heike; Ansmann, Albert; Mattis, Ina; Müller, Detlef; Wendisch, Manfred; Eckhardt, Sabine; Stohl, Andreas

    2003-07-01

    An extraordinary aerosol situation over Leipzig, Germany in April 2002 was investigated with a comprehensive set of ground-based volumetric and columnar aerosol data, combined with aerosol profiles from lidar, meteorological data from radiosondes and air mass trajectory calculations. Air masses were identified to stem from the Arctic, partly influenced by the greater Moscow region. An evaluation of ground-based measurements of aerosol size distributions during these periods showed that the number concentrations below about 70 nm in diameter were below respective long-term average data, while number, surface and volume concentrations of the particles larger than about 70 nm in diameter were higher than the long-term averages. The lidar aerosol profiles showed that the imported aerosol particles were present up to about 3 km altitude. The particle optical depth was up to 0.45 at 550 nm wavelength. With a one-dimensional spectral radiative transfer model top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of the aerosol layer was estimated for a period with detailed vertical information. Solar aerosol radiative forcing values between -23 and -38 W m-2 were calculated, which are comparable to values that have been reported in heavily polluted continental plumes outside the respective source regions. The present report adds weight to previous findings of aerosol import to Europe, pointing to the need for attributing the three-dimensional aerosol burden to natural and anthropogenic sources as well as to aerosol imports from adjacent or distant source regions. In the present case, the transport situation is further complicated by forward trajectories, indicating that some of the observed Arctic haze may have originated in Central Europe. This aerosol was transported to the European Arctic before being re-imported in the modified and augmented form to its initial source region.

  16. Project Year Project Team

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    they are accomplishing in the lab. Technologies Used Digital Video, Digital Audio, Flash Animation, Adobe After Effects of Arts and Sciences, Biology Department, Fellow Project Title Video and Animations for Organic Chemistry the steps of the technique, a series of videos and animated clips will be developed. The videos

  17. Project Year Project Team

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    of particles that it is not possible to directly calculate the effects of each particle. Instead, statistical Used JAVA Project Abstract Our classroom experience shows that the teaching and understanding to the public and is highlighted on Martindale's Online Physics Calculator site (http://www.martindalecenter.com/Calculators

  18. Modelling recent and future climatic suitability for fasciolosis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Caminade, Cyril; van Dijk, Jan; Baylis, Matthew; Williams, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic worm responsible for fasciolosis in grazed ruminants in Europe. The free-living stages of this parasite are sensitive to temperature and soil moisture, as are the intermediate snail hosts the parasite depends on for its life-cycle. We used a climate-driven disease model in order to assess the impact of recent and potential future climate changes on the incidence of fasciolosis and to estimate the related uncertainties at the scale of the European landmass. The current climate appears to be highly suitable for fasciolosis throughout the European Union with the exception of some parts of the Mediterranean region. Simulated climatic suitability for fasciolosis significantly increased during the 2000s in central and northwestern Europe, which is consistent with an observed increased in ruminant infections. The simulation showed that recent trends are likely to continue in the future with the estimated pattern of climate change for northern Europe, possibly extending the season suitable for development of the parasite in the environment by up to four months. For southern Europe, the simulated burden of disease may be lower, but the projected climate change will increase the risk during the winter months, since the simulated changes in temperature and moisture support the development of the free-living and intra-molluscan stages between November and March. In the event of predicted climate change, F. hepatica will present a serious risk to the health, welfare and productivity of all ruminant livestock. Improved, bespoke control programmes, both at farm and region levels, will then become imperative if problems, such as resistance of the parasite associated with increased drug use, are to be mitigated. PMID:25826311

  19. Working Group 7.0 Environmental Transport and Health Effects, Chernobyl Studies Project. Progress report, October 1994 -- March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Hendrickson, S.M. [eds.] [eds.

    1995-06-01

    This document presents the details from the working group 7.0 Chernobyl Studies Project. This working group looked at the environmental transport and health effects from the fallout due to the meltdown of Chernobylsk-4 reactor. Topics include: hydrological transport; chromosome painting dosimetry; EPR, TL and OSL dosimetry; stochastic effects; thyroid studies; and leukemia studies.

  20. Corporate Governance Convergence: Evidence from Takeover Regulation Reforms in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Goergen; Marina Martynova; L. D. R. Renneboog

    2005-01-01

    This paper contributes to the research on corporate governance by predicting the effects of European takeover regulation.In particular, we investigate whether the recent reforms of takeover regulation in Europe are leading to a harmonization of the national legislations.With the help of 150 corporate governance lawyers from 30 European countries, we collected the main changes in takeover regulation.We assess whether a

  1. Carbon sequestration in the agricultural soils of Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Freibauer; Mark D. A Rounsevell; Pete Smith; Jan Verhagen

    2004-01-01

    In this review, technical and economically viable potentials for carbon sequestration in the agricultural soils of Europe by 2008–2012 are analysed against a business-as-usual scenario. We provide a quantitative estimation of the carbon absorption potential per hectare and the surface of agricultural land that is available and suitable for the implementation of those measures, their environmental effects as well as

  2. Effects of heavy ions on visual function and electrophysiology of rodents: the ALTEA-MICE project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sannita, W. G.; Acquaviva, M.; Ball, S. L.; Belli, F.; Bisti, S.; Bidoli, V.; Carozzo, S.; Casolino, M.; Cucinotta, F.; De Pascale, M. P.; Di Fino, L.; Di Marco, S.; Maccarone, R.; Martello, C.; Miller, J.; Narici, L.; Peachey, N. S.; Picozza, P.; Rinaldi, A.; Ruggieri, D.; Saturno, M.; Schardt, D.; Vazquez, M.; Lowenstein, D. (Principal Investigator)

    2004-01-01

    ALTEA-MICE will supplement the ALTEA project on astronauts and provide information on the functional visual impairment possibly induced by heavy ions during prolonged operations in microgravity. Goals of ALTEA-MICE are: (1) to investigate the effects of heavy ions on the visual system of normal and mutant mice with retinal defects; (2) to define reliable experimental conditions for space research; and (3) to develop animal models to study the physiological consequences of space travels on humans. Remotely controlled mouse setup, applied electrophysiological recording methods, remote particle monitoring, and experimental procedures were developed and tested. The project has proved feasible under laboratory-controlled conditions comparable in important aspects to those of astronauts' exposure to particle in space. Experiments are performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratories [BNL] (Upton, NY, USA) and the Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbH [GSI]/Biophysik (Darmstadt, FRG) to identify possible electrophysiological changes and/or activation of protective mechanisms in response to pulsed radiation. Offline data analyses are in progress and observations are still anecdotal. Electrophysiological changes after pulsed radiation are within the limits of spontaneous variability under anesthesia, with only indirect evidence of possible retinal/cortical responses. Immunostaining showed changes (e.g. increased expression of FGF2 protein in the outer nuclear layer) suggesting a retinal stress reaction to high-energy particles of potential relevance in space. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Disentangling effects of uncertainties on population projections: climate change impact on an epixylic bryophyte.

    PubMed

    Ruete, Alejandro; Yang, Wei; Bärring, Lars; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Snäll, Tord

    2012-08-01

    Assessment of future ecosystem risks should account for the relevant uncertainty sources. This means accounting for the joint effects of climate variables and using modelling techniques that allow proper treatment of uncertainties. We investigate the influence of three of the IPCC's scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (special report on emission scenarios (SRES)) on projections of the future abundance of a bryophyte model species. We also compare the relative importance of uncertainty sources on the population projections. The whole chain global climate model (GCM)-regional climate model-population dynamics model is addressed. The uncertainty depends on both natural- and model-related sources, in particular on GCM uncertainty. Ignoring the uncertainties gives an unwarranted impression of confidence in the results. The most likely population development of the bryophyte Buxbaumia viridis towards the end of this century is negative: even with a low-emission scenario, there is more than a 65 per cent risk for the population to be halved. The conclusion of a population decline is valid for all SRES scenarios investigated. Uncertainties are no longer an obstacle, but a mandatory aspect to include in the viability analysis of populations. PMID:22456878

  4. The Role of NGOs in Environmental Education in South-Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnock, David

    2004-01-01

    Environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs) are playing an important role in environmental education in South-eastern Europe. Although some organisations appeared to compromise themselves by becoming political parties, others did useful work in debating ecological issues, working on environmental projects and increasing public awareness.…

  5. mLearning in a Europe-Wide Network of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granic, Andrina; Cukusic, Maja; Walker, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a European Community supported project which investigated whether the use of electronic and mobile technologies in the hands of young learners might engage them in learning activities and start to change their attitudes towards learning. The mLearning system was implemented in a Europe-wide network of 14 schools with over 500…

  6. Language and Area Studies: East Central and Southeastern Europe. A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelavich, Charles, Ed.

    East Central and Southeastern Europe, considered as "Eastern Eruope," are the subject of a three-year survey of language and area studies undertaken by several committees of specialists of the American Council of Learned Societies. Four basic goals of the project include: (1) a survey of graduate training and research needs, (2) an evaluation of…

  7. THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING ASKED: THE RESCUE OF JEWS IN NAZI EUROPE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federico Varese; Meir Yaish

    2000-01-01

    * We are grateful to Diego Gambetta for encouraging us to pursue this research and for his many suggestions. Samuel P. Oliner, the director of the'Altruistic Personality Project', has shared with us the data he collected on rescuers of Jews during the Nazi occupation of Europe. Without his generous act, this paper would have never been written. We are indebted

  8. Community-Based Art Studios in Europe and the United States: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Randy M.; Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    This survey research compares the structure and practices of 7 community studio art programs for artists with disabilities in Europe to 8 studio art therapy programs in the United States. Art therapy and disability arts literature was reviewed to establish a theoretical context for this project. A survey research method was used, with statistical…

  9. The Training of Foreign Language Teachers: Recent Developments in Europe. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell, Michael

    This research project examined the training of foreign language teachers in Europe. Data were collected from 32 European countries from February to June 2002. Information was also gathered from published documents, ministries of education, higher education institutions, cultural organizations, UNESCO, and teacher associations. Data were fed into a…

  10. Understanding and assessing European mineral resources - a new approach using GIS Central Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Cassard; Andor L. W. Lips; Jean-Marc Leistel; Yann Itard; Nicole Debeglia-Marchand; Laurent Guillou-Frottier; Wim Spakman; Gilbert Stein; Yves Husson

    2004-01-01

    The GIS (Geographic Information System) Central Europe, in support of the Alpine-Balkan-Carpathian-Dinarides (ABCD) GEODE Project, is composed of spatially referenced geographical, geological, geophysical, geochemical and mineral deposit thematic layers, and their respective attribute data. It has been created to establish insights in the region's mineral potential and its past and future mining activities, and to determine parameter combinations that control

  11. Design, Implementation and Validation of a Europe-Wide Pedagogical Framework for E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granic, Andrina; Mifsud, Charles; Cukusic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    Within the context of a Europe-wide project UNITE, a number of European partners set out to design, implement and validate a pedagogical framework (PF) for e- and m-Learning in secondary schools. The process of formulating and testing the PF was an evolutionary one that reflected the experiences and skills of the various European partners and…

  12. River Systems as Providers of Goods and Services: A Basis for Comparing Desired and Undesired Effects of Large Dam Projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANNA BRISMAR

    2002-01-01

    In developing countries, large dam projects continue to be launched, primarily to secure a time-stable freshwater supply and\\u000a to generate hydropower. Meanwhile, calls for environmentally sustainable development put pressure on the dam-building industry\\u000a to integrate ecological concerns in project planning and decision-making. Such integration requires environmental impact statements\\u000a (EISs) that can communicate the societal implications of the ecological effects in

  13. Factors contributing to the effectiveness of newly posted Peace Corps Volunteers in the Rural Aquaculture Promotion Project in Zambia

    E-print Network

    Trant, Clay Allen

    2004-09-30

    FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE EFFECTIVENESS OF NEWLY POSTED PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEERS IN THE RURAL AQUACULTURE PROMOTION PROJECT IN ZAMBIA A Thesis by CLAY ALLEN TRANT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... POSTED PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEERS IN THE RURAL AQUACULTURE PROMOTION PROJECT IN ZAMBIA A Thesis by CLAY ALLEN TRANT Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

  14. The prehistoric and preindustrial deforestation of Europe Jed O. Kaplan a,b,*, Kristen M. Krumhardt a

    E-print Network

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    The prehistoric and preindustrial deforestation of Europe Jed O. Kaplan a,b,*, Kristen M. Krumhardt deforestation at numerous individual sites, to study the effect that prehistoric and preindustrial deforestation of anthropogenic deforestation in Europe over the past three millennia by 1) digi- tizing and synthesizing

  15. European Works Councils in Central and Eastern Europe: varieties of institution building among French service sector multinationals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie Contrepois; Steve Jefferys

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTEuropean Works Councils (EWCs) were launched as important institutions capable of helping workers coordinate responses to multinational corporations (MNCs). Euro-optimists hoped they might help the transfer of the European social model to Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Euro-pessimists believed they lacked the capacity to be effective and suggested EU enlargement might encourage ‘a race to the bottom’ in Western Europe.

  16. Methodology Of PACS Effectiveness Evaluation As Part Of A Technology Assessment. The Dutch PACS Project Extrapolated.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriessen, J. H. T. H.; van der Horst-Bruinsma, I. E.; ter Haar Romeny, B. M.

    1989-05-01

    The present phase of the clinical evaluation within the Dutch PACS project mainly focuses on the development and evaluation of a PACSystem for a few departments in the Utrecht University hospital (UUH). A report on the first clinical experiences and a detailed cost/savings analysis of the PACSystem in the UUH are presented elsewhere. However, an assessment of the wider fmancial and organizational implications for hospitals and for the health sector is also needed. To this end a model for (financial) cost assessment of PACSystems is being developed by BAZIS. Learning from the actual pilot implementation in UUH we realized that general Technology Assessment (TA) also calls for an extra-polation of the medical and organizational effects. After a short excursion into the various approaches towards TA, this paper discusses the (inter) organizational dimensions relevant to the development of the necessary exttapolationmodels.

  17. AUPHEP—Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulates—general overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, H.; Berner, A.; Frischer, T.; Gomiscek, B.; Kundi, M.; Neuberger, M.; Puxbaum, H.; Preining, O.; Auphep-Team

    AUPHEP was started in 1999 as a 5 years program to investigate the situation of the atmospheric aerosol with respect to effects on human health. At four different sites in Austria (3 urban and one rural site) an extended monitoring program was conducted for PM 1, PM 2.5 and PM 10 as well as particle number concentration for 12 months each. Beside continuous measurements using TEOM and beta attenuation high-volume sampling of PM 2.5 and PM 10 provided samples for chemical analyses of various ions, heavy metals and organic compounds. Furthermore, carbonaceous material (TC, EC, OC) year round and PAHs on selected days were analyzed. From collocated public monitoring stations also pollutant gases (SO 2, NO, NO 2, O 3, CO) and meteorological components are available. In winter and summer campaigns aerosol size spectra including chemical components were measured for at least one week each. All data are collected in a project data base (CD-ROM). While extensive data analysis will be presented in following papers, some general results are presented within this paper: annual averages for PM 1 are between 10 and 20 ?g m -3, for PM 2.5 between 15 and 26 mg m -3 and for PM 10 between 20 and 38 ?g m -3. Number concentrations are between 10,000 and 30,000 cm -3. Urban concentrations are usually higher in winter, rural concentrations in summer. PM 2.5 is in average around 70% of PM 10, for PM 1 this fraction is about 57%. Several studies on health effects are included in this project: a cross-sectional study on preschool and school children regarding lung function measurements and questionnaires about respiratory impairment in the surrounding area of the monitoring sites as well as time series studies on mortality and respiratory morbidity on the general population.

  18. Corticofugal projections induce long-lasting effects on somatosensory responses in the trigeminal complex of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Malmierca, Eduardo; Chaves-Coira, Irene; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Nuñez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    The sensory information flow at subcortical relay stations is controlled by the action of topographic connections from the neocortex. To determinate the functional properties of the somatosensory corticofugal projections to the principal (Pr5) and caudal spinal (Sp5C) trigeminal nuclei, we performed unitary recordings in anesthetized rats. To examine the effect of these cortical projections we used tactile stimulation of the whisker and electrical stimulation of somatosensory cortices. Corticofugal anatomical projections to Pr5 and Sp5C nuclei were detected by using retrograde fluorescent tracers. Neurons projecting exclusively to Pr5 were located in the cingulate cortex while neurons projecting to both Sp5C and Pr5 nuclei were located in the somatosensory and insular cortices (>75% of neurons). Physiological results indicated that primary somatosensory cortex produced a short-lasting facilitating or inhibiting effects (<5 min) of tactile responses in Pr5 nucleus through activation of NMDA glutamatergic or GABAA receptors since effects were blocked by iontophoretically application of APV and bicuculline, respectively. In contrast, stimulation of secondary somatosensory cortex did not affect most of the Pr5 neurons; however both cortices inhibited the nociceptive responses in the Sp5C nucleus through activation of glycinergic or GABAA receptors because effects were blocked by iontophoretically application of strychnine and bicuculline, respectively. These and anatomical results demonstrated that the somatosensory cortices projects to Pr5 nucleus to modulate tactile responses by excitatory and inhibitory actions, while projections to the Sp5C nucleus control nociceptive sensory transmission by only inhibitory effects. Thus, somatosensory cortices may modulate innocuous and noxious inputs simultaneously, contributing to the perception of specifically tactile or painful sensations. PMID:24904321

  19. World Antibody Drug Conjugate Summit Europe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The World Antibody Drug Conjugate Summit Europe, organized by Biorbis/Hanson Wade was held in Frankfurt, Germany February 21–23, 2011. Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), also called immunoconjugates, are becoming an increasingly important class of therapeutics as demonstrated by the attendance of nearly 100 delegates at this highly focused meeting. Updates on three ADCs that are in late-stage clinical development, trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), brentuximab vedotin (SGN-35) and inotuzumab ozogamicin (CMC-544), were presented by speakers from ImmunoGen, Genentech, Roche, Seattle Genetics and Pfizer. These ADCs have shown encouraging therapeutic effects against solid tumors (T-DM1) and hematological malignancies (SGN-35, CMC-544). The key feature of the new generation of ADCs is the effective combination of the cytotoxicity of natural or synthetic highly potent antineoplastic agents, tumor selective monoclonal antibodies and blood-stable optimized linkers. Early clinical data for ADCs were showcased by Progenics Pharmaceuticals (PSMA ADC), Celldex (CDX-011) and Biotest (BT-062). Takeda, MedImmune and sanofi-aventis outlined their strategies for process development and analytical characterization. In addition, presentations on duocarmycin based-ADCs, ? emitting immunoconjugates and antibody-conjugated nanoparticles were given by representatives from Syntarga, Algeta and the University of Stuttgart, respectively. PMID:21691144

  20. Pipeline projects off Europe to focus on gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-31

    This paper reports that pipeline construction in the North Sea and Mediterranean for the next 5 years will focus almost exclusively on natural gas systems. The next 5 years will be generally active, but there will be adequate lay barge capacity every year with the possible exception of 1995. There are now five third generation North Sea vessels, with a combined pipelay capacity under normal North Sea conditions of about 2,000 km/year. The five vessels work during a lay season from April to October without the need to lay down and pick up pipe when bad weather intervenes. Capacity can be increased by mobilizing some of the secondary capacity vessels of an earlier generation.

  1. The FAZIA project in Europe: R&D phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougault, R.; Poggi, G.; Barlini, S.; Borderie, B.; Casini, G.; Chbihi, A.; Le Neindre, N.; Pârlog, M.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.; Sosin, Z.; Ademard, G.; Alba, R.; Anastasio, A.; Barbey, S.; Bardelli, L.; Bini, M.; Boiano, A.; Boisjoli, M.; Bonnet, E.; Borcea, R.; Bougard, B.; Brulin, G.; Bruno, M.; Carboni, S.; Cassese, C.; Cassese, F.; Cinausero, M.; Ciolacu, L.; Cruceru, I.; Cruceru, M.; D'Aquino, B.; De Fazio, B.; Degerlier, M.; Desrues, P.; Di Meo, P.; Dueñas, J. A.; Edelbruck, P.; Energico, S.; Falorsi, M.; Frankland, J. D.; Galichet, E.; Gasior, K.; Gramegna, F.; Giordano, R.; Gruyer, D.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guerzoni, M.; Hamrita, H.; Huss, C.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Korcyl, K.; Kordyasz, A.; Kozik, T.; Kulig, P.; Lavergne, L.; Legouée, E.; Lopez, O.; ?ukasik, J.; Maiolino, C.; Marchi, T.; Marini, P.; Martel, I.; Masone, V.; Meoli, A.; Merrer, Y.; Morelli, L.; Negoita, F.; Olmi, A.; Ordine, A.; Paduano, G.; Pain, C.; Pa?ka, M.; Passeggio, G.; Pastore, G.; Paw?owski, P.; Petcu, M.; Petrascu, H.; Piasecki, E.; Pontoriere, G.; Rauly, E.; Rivet, M. F.; Rocco, R.; Rosato, E.; Roscilli, L.; Scarlini, E.; Salomon, F.; Santonocito, D.; Seredov, V.; Serra, S.; Sierpowski, D.; Spadaccini, G.; Spitaels, C.; Stefanini, A. A.; Tobia, G.; Tortone, G.; Twaróg, T.; Valdré, S.; Vanzanella, A.; Vanzanella, E.; Vient, E.; Vigilante, M.; Vitiello, G.; Wanlin, E.; Wieloch, A.; Zipper, W.

    2014-02-01

    The goal of the FAZIA Collaboration is the design of a new-generation 4 ? detector array for heavy-ion collisions with radioactive beams. This article summarizes the main results of the R&D phase, devoted to the search for significant improvements of the techniques for charge and mass identification of reaction products. This was obtained by means of a systematic study of the basic detection module, consisting of two transmission-mounted silicon detectors followed by a CsI(Tl) scintillator. Significant improvements in ?E- E and pulse-shape techniques were obtained by controlling the doping homogeneity and the cutting angles of silicon and by putting severe constraints on thickness uniformity. Purposely designed digital electronics contributed to identification quality. The issue of possible degradation related to radiation damage of silicon was also addressed. The experimental activity was accompanied by studies on the physics governing signal evolution in silicon. The good identification quality obtained with the prototypes during the R&D phase, allowed us to investigate also some aspects of isospin physics, namely isospin transport and odd-even staggering. Now, after the conclusion of the R&D period, the FAZIA Collaboration has entered the demonstrator phase, with the aim of verifying the applicability of the devised solutions for the realization of a larger-scale experimental set-up.

  2. Europe's communications satellite system takes shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    Europe's current satellite system and impending additions are discussed, with emphasis on improvements in Europe's communications service. The first transponder for the ECS has been recently delivered from AEG-Telefunken to the French space flight center for the assembly of the AEG solar generator and integration into the satellite body. The communications satellite will be stationed at a height of 36,000 km in the spring of 1982, which should result in 24,500 new telephone connections and two new television channels for the people of Europe.

  3. Chernobyl Studies Project - working group 7.0 environmental transport and health effects. Progress report, October 1993--January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, S.M. [ed.

    1994-03-01

    The DOE-funded Chernobyl Studies Project was begun as part of a cooperative agreement between the US and the former USSR, (quote) To develop jointly methods to project rapidly the health effects of any future reactor accident (quote). Most of the initial tasks for this project are completed or near completion. The focus has now turned primarily to the issue of health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Currently, we are extensively engaged in case-control and cohort studies of thyroid diseases among Belarussian children and in the Ukraine. A major part of the effort is providing methods and applications of dose reconstruction and providing support and equipment for the medical teams. This document contains reports on progress in the following task areas: Management; External Dose; Hydrological Transport; Chromosome Painting Dosimetry; Stochastic Effects; Thyroid Studies; and Leukemia Studies.

  4. The Extremely Warm Early Winter 2000 in Europe: What is the Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Angell, J. K.; Atlas, R.; Ardizzone, J.; Demaree, G.; Jusem, J. C.; Koslowsky, D.; Terry, J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High variability characterizes the winter climate of central Europe: interannual fluctuations in the surface-air temperature as large as 18 C over large areas are fairly common. The extraordinary early-winter 2000 in Europe appears to be a departure to an unprecedented extreme of the existing climate patterns. Such anomalous events affect agriculture, forestry, fuel consumption, etc., and thus deserve in-depth analysis. Our analysis indicates that the high anomalies of the surface-air temperature are predominantly due to the southwesterly flow from the eastern North Atlantic, with a weak contribution by southerly flow from the western Mediterranean. Backward trajectories based on the SSM/I and NCEP Reanalysis datasets traced from west-central Europe indicate that the warm air masses flowing into Europe originate in the southern North Atlantic, where the surface-air temperatures exceed by 15c or more the climatic norms in Europe for late-November or early-December. Because such large ocean-to-continent temperature differences characterize the winter conditions, we refer to this episode which started in late November as occurring in the early winter. In this season, with the sun low over the horizon in Europe, absorption of insolation by the surface has little significance. The effect of cloudiness, a corollary to the low-level maritime-air advection, is a warming by a reduction of heat loss (greenhouse effect). In contrast, in the summer, clouds, by reducing absorption of insolation, produce a cooling, effect at the surface.

  5. The Effect of Project-Based Activities on Intermediate EFL Students' Reading Comprehension Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiraz, Mona Poorverdi; Larsari, Ebrahim Ezati

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between the use of Project-based activities and intermediate EFL students' reading comprehension. The study addresses the questions of whether students' reading comprehension differs after implementing Project-based activities, and whether different projects lead to different degrees of reading…

  6. The Effects of a Marine Science Curriculum and Training Project on Collegiality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrin, Elise Trumbull; Lash, Andrea A.

    This paper reports some of the results of an evaluation of Project OCEAN (Oceanic Classroom Education and Networking), a teacher training and curriculum reform project. The paper focuses on results that suggest that Project OCEAN was able to stimulate important collegial behaviors among teachers in all participating schools, and attempts to…

  7. Electronic communication systems effects on the success of construction projects in United Arab Emirates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. El-saboni; G. Aouad; A. Sabouni

    2009-01-01

    This research investigates the use of modern electronic communication management systems, and how these systems affect the success of construction projects in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The research starts with a literature survey, and a brief background on how the communication mechanism works; how using these systems influence relationships amongst the project stakeholders, and consequently the projects success. Two

  8. Hydroelectric potential and environmental effects of multidam hydropower projects in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Berkun

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the installation objectives and impacts of Turkey's two major multidam transboundary hydropower projects, Southeastern Anatolia (Euprathes and Tigris Rivers) and Northeastern Anatolia (Coruh River) Projects, are discussed. Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) having 22 dams and 19 hydropower plants is the large-scale water management program aiming to increase the domestic electricity production and develop vast irrigation schemes for

  9. Being an Effective, Engaged Owner during a Design and Construction Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalina, David

    2007-01-01

    This article explains how a project owner can be an active participant during the design and construction of his/her facility. The author discusses the two levels of participation the project owner needs to actively work with the design and construction team. And he further states that a project owner can enrich his/her personal experience and…

  10. Climate Services for Thermoelectric Power in Europe and the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, M. T. H.; Yearsley, J. R.; Ludwig, F.; Vögele, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.

    2012-04-01

    Thermoelectric (nuclear and fossil fueled) power plants currently produce 91% of all electricity in the United States and 78% in Europe. These power plants directly depend on the availability and temperature of water resources for cooling. During recent warm, dry summers several thermoelectric power plants in Europe and the Southeastern U.S. were forced to reduce production due to cooling water scarcity. Due to climate change, periods with low flows in combination with high water temperatures could increase, causing significant reductions in cooling water availability during summer. To be able to anticipate and adapt to changes in cooling water availability, it is important for the electricity sector to have realistic projections of both daily water availability and water temperature under future climate. As part of the EU FP7 ECLISE project, we developed climate services for the thermoelectric power sector in the U.S. and Europe. We used a newly developed physically-based hydrological and river water temperature modeling framework in combination with an electricity production model. Our modeling framework was forced with different socio-economic and climate change scenarios to quantify how climate change will affect daily water availability, river water temperature, and subsequently electricity production potential over the next 20-50 years. A total number of 96 existing nuclear and fossil fueled power plants (with different cooling systems) in the Southeast U.S. and in Europe were included in our analyses. Our results show considerable decreases in summer average capacity of thermoelectric power plants in particular in Southern and Southeastern Europe, and the Southeastern U.S. In addition, probabilities of extreme (>90%) reductions in thermoelectric power production are projected to increase substantially. The thermoelectric power sector in Europe and the U.S. can use these results to develop improved climate adaptation strategies in order to assure future energy security.

  11. Harmonizing and supporting infection control training in Europe.

    PubMed

    Brusaferro, S; Arnoldo, L; Cattani, G; Fabbro, E; Cookson, B; Gallagher, R; Hartemann, P; Holt, J; Kalenic, S; Popp, W; Privitera, G; Prikazsky, V; Velasco, C; Suetens, C; Varela Santos, C

    2015-04-01

    Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI), patient safety, and the harmonization of related policies and programmes are the focus of increasing attention and activity in Europe. Infection control training for healthcare workers (HCWs) is a cornerstone of all patient safety and HCAI prevention and control programmes. In 2009 the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) commissioned an assessment of needs for training in infection control in Europe (TRICE), which showed a substantial increase in commitment to HCAI prevention. On the other hand, it also identified obstacles to the harmonization and promotion of training in infection control and hospital hygiene (IC/HH), mostly due to differences between countries in: (i) the required qualifications of HCWs, particularly nurses; (ii) the available resources; and (iii) the sustainability of IC/HH programmes. In 2013, ECDC published core competencies for infection control and hospital hygiene professionals in the European Union and a new project was launched ['Implementation of a training strategy for infection control in the European Union' (TRICE-IS)] that aimed to: define an agreed methodology and standards for the evaluation of IC/HH courses and training programmes; develop a flexible IC/HH taxonomy; and implement an easily accessible web tool in 'Wiki' format for IC/HH professionals. This paper reviews several aspects of the TRICE and the TRICE-IS projects. PMID:25777079

  12. OneGeology-Europe: architecture, portal and web services to provide a European geological map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellez-Arenas, Agnès.; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Tertre, François; Laxton, John

    2010-05-01

    OneGeology-Europe is a large ambitious project to make geological spatial data further known and accessible. The OneGeology-Europe project develops an integrated system of data to create and make accessible for the first time through the internet the geological map of the whole of Europe. The architecture implemented by the project is web services oriented, based on the OGC standards: the geological map is not a centralized database but is composed by several web services, each of them hosted by a European country involved in the project. Since geological data are elaborated differently from country to country, they are difficult to share. OneGeology-Europe, while providing more detailed and complete information, will foster even beyond the geological community an easier exchange of data within Europe and globally. This implies an important work regarding the harmonization of the data, both model and the content. OneGeology-Europe is characterised by the high technological capacity of the EU Member States, and has the final goal to achieve the harmonisation of European geological survey data according to common standards. As a direct consequence Europe will make a further step in terms of innovation and information dissemination, continuing to play a world leading role in the development of geosciences information. The scope of the common harmonized data model was defined primarily by the requirements of the geological map of Europe, but in addition users were consulted and the requirements of both INSPIRE and ‘high-resolution' geological maps were considered. The data model is based on GeoSciML, developed since 2006 by a group of Geological Surveys. The data providers involved in the project implemented a new component that allows the web services to deliver the geological map expressed into GeoSciML. In order to capture the information describing the geological units of the map of Europe the scope of the data model needs to include lithology; age; genesis and metamorphic character. For high resolution maps physical properties, bedding characteristics and weathering also need to be added. Furthermore, Geological data held by national geological surveys is generally described in national language of the country. The project has to deal with the multilingual issue, an important requirement of the INSPIRE directive. The project provides a list of harmonized vocabularies, a set of web services to deal with them, and a web site for helping the geoscientists while mapping the terms used into the national datasets into these vocabularies. The web services provided by each data provider, with the particular component that allows them to deliver the harmonised data model and to handle the multilingualism, are the first part of the architecture. The project also implements a web portal that provides several functionalities. Thanks to the common data model implemented by each web service delivering a part of the geological map, and using OGC SLD standards, the client offers the following option. A user can request for a sub-selection of the map, for instance searching on a particular attribute such as "age is quaternary", and display only the parts of the map according to the filter. Using the web services on the common vocabularies, the data displayed are translated. The project started September 2008 for two years, with 29 partners from 20 countries (20 partners are Geological Surveys). The budget is 3.25 M€, with a European Commission contribution of 2.6 M€. The paper will describe the technical solutions to implement OneGeology-Europe components: the profile of the common data model to exchange geological data, the web services to view and access geological data; and a geoportal to provide the user with a user-friendly way to discover, view and access geological data.

  13. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Europe, 1999–2002

    PubMed Central

    Bronzwaer, Stef L.A.M.; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Degener, John E.; Schrijnemakers, Paul; Bruinsma, Nienke; Monen, Jos; Witte, Wolfgang; Grundmann, Hajo

    2004-01-01

    We explored the variation in proportions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) between and within countries participating in the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System and temporal trends in its occurrence. This system collects routine antimicrobial susceptibility tests for S. aureus. We examined data collected from January 1999 through December 2002 (50,759 isolates from 495 hospitals in 26 countries). MRSA prevalence varied almost 100-fold, from <1% in northern Europe to >40% in southern and western Europe. MRSA proportions significantly increased in Belgium, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, and decreased in Slovenia. Within countries, MRSA proportions varied between hospitals with highest variance in countries with a prevalence of 5% to 20%. The observed trends should stimulate initiatives to control MRSA at national, regional, and hospital levels. The large differences between hospitals indicate that efforts may be most effective at regional and hospital levels. PMID:15498166

  14. Enhancing nurse mobility in Europe: a case for language skills.

    PubMed

    Ludvigsen, C

    1997-04-01

    The recognition of professional qualifications in all European Union (EU) member states for nurses is covered by both sectoral and general systems directives, yet in reality, few nurses take up their rights as European citizens to live and work in another EU country. One of the main reasons for this is a lack of linguistic skills. This article argues that the nursing profession should be taking a more active role in enabling nurses to move freely around Europe by encouraging language acquisition. It is argued that there are political, social, economic, professional and individual reasons why this should be so. The author gives a brief account of a pilot project which is currently under way to help improve (albeit in a small way) this situation. The project, which has been granted financial support of 100,000 ECU from the European Commission's new training programme, Leonardo da Vinci, will create a multimedia language pack in four languages aimed specifically at nurses. PMID:9165811

  15. The rabies situation in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Wandeler, A I

    2008-01-01

    This analysis of the present rabies situation in Western Europe is based on completed questionnaires from 16 countries. The questionnaire focuses on the years 2005 and 2006. Additional information was obtained from the Rabies Bulletin Europe, and from the OIE's publication on "Historical Perspective of Rabies in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin". Rabies in domestic animals and wild carnivores has become very rare in Western Europe. Only Germany reported a low number of rabid foxes for 2005. Bat rabies was observed in four countries. One imported human case was seen in the UK, while Germany reported four cases in transplant recipients. Wildlife vaccination campaigns were conducted by Austria, Germany and France. Reporting of human post-exposure prophylaxis is inconsistent due the lack of information. Similarly, data on domestic animal rabies prophylaxis seem to be difficult to collect. PMID:18634462

  16. Phylogeography of Daphnia magna in Europe.

    PubMed

    De Gelas, K; De Meester, L

    2005-03-01

    The phylogeographical structure of the water flea Daphnia magna in Europe was analysed using a 609-bp fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Only moderate overall genetic divergence was detected within Europe. We detected four genetically and, to a large extent, geographically distinct phylogroups within Europe. Our results suggest that these groups recolonized large parts of Europe around 100,000 BP from different refugia. Overall, the pattern suggests a high degree of provincialism with a patchy occurrence of specific lineages, thus confirming the highly subdivided genetic structure usually observed in freshwater zooplankton populations. Although the region around the Mediterranean Sea was only sampled patchily, we obtained strong indications for the occurrence of more divergent genetic lineages in this region. Comparing our European samples to samples from North America and Japan revealed a higher level of differentiation, reflecting limited intercontinental dispersal. PMID:15723667

  17. Reinvigorating Europe's Mediterranean Partnership: Priorities and Policies.

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    to the developing countries bordering on the southern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. This anonymity demonstrates offers both shores of the Mediterranean Sea an unprecedented opportunity for sustained, mutuallyReinvigorating Europe's Mediterranean Partnership: Priorities and Policies. I. Introduction

  18. A fully reusable launch vehicle for Europe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, A.

    It is argued in this paper that Europe should make a serious attempt to lead the commercial launcher field by building a fully reusable space transporter based on advanced propulsion concepts and structures. By analogy with the history of commercial aircraft it is postulated that such a development would not only enable traffic growth to be forced but also guarantee a major fraction of the 21st century world market for Europe, initially in spacecraft launches and later in launch vehicle sales.

  19. Towards a modern gender gap in Europe?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Giger

    2009-01-01

    This article examines electoral gender differences in Western Europe. It describes the electoral gender gap in a longitudinal cross-national design (1974–2000, 12 countries) with EuroBarometer data. The analysis shows that gender differences in voting in Europe follow a similar movement to what has been described for the USA. Women tended to vote more for conservative parties in the 1970s, while

  20. Trends in Europe and North America

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Published by the Statistical Division of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE), Trends in Europe and North America provides statistical profiles of the ECE's 55 member countries with data derived from the 1998 UN/ECE Statistical Yearbook. Tables and graphs clearly present information for the following categories: official languages, date joined UN, population, population density, life expectancy, infant mortality, unemployment, expenditure on education and health care, GDP, consumer price index, exports, imports, and exchange rate.

  1. Reflections on the future of democracy in Europe

    E-print Network

    Franz, Sven Oliver

    Reflections on the future of democracy in Europe Contributions to The Future of Democracy in Europe of the Publishing Division, Directorate of Communication and Research The Green Paper, The future of democracy in Europe ­ trends, analyses and reforms and Developing democracy in Europe ­ an analytical summary

  2. EUROPE-ASIA STUDIES, Vol. 54, No. 6, 2002, 841866

    E-print Network

    Stoiciu, Mihai

    EUROPE-ASIA STUDIES, Vol. 54, No. 6, 2002, 841­866 FIFTH EUROPE-ASIA LECTURE `Between the Holes and legacies left over after the collapse of the socialist regimes in Russia and Eastern Europe. Both of This is the text of the Fifth Annual Europe-Asia/Osteuropa Lecture, which was delivered in Aachen on 10 May

  3. Cost Action E47 Forest vegetation management in Europe

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    i Cost Action E47 Forest vegetation management in Europe Current practices and future needs Edited Forest vegetation management in Europe Current practices and future needs First published 2008 management in Europe. COST Office, Brussels. Keywords: ecosystems, Europe, forest certification, forest

  4. The Anthropogenic/Lightning Effects Around Houston: The Houston Environmental Aerosol Thunderstorm (HEAT) Project - 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orville, R. E.

    2004-12-01

    A major field program will occur in summer 2005 to determine the sources and causes for the enhanced cloud-to-ground lightning over Houston, Texas. This program will be in association with simultaneous experiments supported by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), formally the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC). Recent studies covering the period 1989-2002 document a 60 percent increase of cloud-to-ground lightning in the Houston area as compared to surrounding background values, which is second in flash density only to the Tampa Bay, Florida area. We suggest that the elevated flash densities could result from several factors, including 1) the convergence due to the urban heat island effect and complex sea breeze (thermal hypothesis), and 2) the increasing levels of air pollution from anthropogenic sources producing numerous small cloud droplets and thereby suppressing mean droplet size (aerosol hypothesis). The latter effect would enable more cloud water to reach the mixed phase region where it is involved in the formation of precipitation and the separation of electric charge, leading to an enhancement of lightning. The primary goals of HEAT are to examine the effects of (1) pollution, (2) the urban heat island, and (3) the complex coastline on storms and lightning characteristics in the Houston area. The transport of air pollutants by Houston thunderstorms will be investigated. In particular, the relative amounts of lightning-produced and convectively transported NOx into the upper troposphere will be determined, and a comparison of the different NOx sources in the urban area of Houston will be developed. The HEAT project is based on the observation that there is an enhancement in cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning. Total lightning (intracloud (IC) and CG) will be measured using a lightning mapping system (LDAR II) to observe if there is an enhancement in intracloud lightning as well.

  5. The spread of modern humans in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hoffecker, John F.

    2009-01-01

    The earliest credible evidence of Homo sapiens in Europe is an archaeological proxy in the form of several artifact assemblages (Bohunician) found in South-Central and possibly Eastern Europe, dating to ?48,000 calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal BP). They are similar to assemblages probably made by modern humans in the Levant (Emiran) at an earlier date and apparently represent a population movement into the Balkans during a warm climate interval [Greenland Interstadial 12 (GI 12)]. A second population movement may be represented by a diverse set of artifact assemblages (sometimes termed Proto-Aurignacian) found in the Balkans, parts of Southwest Europe, and probably in Eastern Europe, and dating to several brief interstadials (GI 11–GI 9) that preceded the beginning of cold Heinrich Event 4 (HE4) (?40,000 cal BP). They are similar to contemporaneous assemblages made by modern humans in the Levant (Ahmarian). The earliest known human skeletal remains in Europe that may be unequivocally assigned to H. sapiens (Peçstera cu Oase, Romania) date to this time period (?42,000 cal BP) but are not associated with artifacts. After the Campanian Ignimbrite volcanic eruption (40,000 cal BP) and the beginning of HE4, artifact assemblages assigned to the classic Aurignacian, an industry associated with modern human skeletal remains that seems to have developed in Europe, spread throughout the continent. PMID:19571003

  6. Heat tolerance around flowering in wheat identified as a key trait for increased yield potential in Europe under climate change.

    PubMed

    Stratonovitch, Pierre; Semenov, Mikhail A

    2015-06-01

    To deliver food security for the 9 billon population in 2050, a 70% increase in world food supply will be required. Projected climatic and environmental changes emphasize the need for breeding strategies that delivers both a substantial increase in yield potential and resilience to extreme weather events such as heat waves, late frost, and drought. Heat stress around sensitive stages of wheat development has been identified as a possible threat to wheat production in Europe. However, no estimates have been made to assess yield losses due to increased frequency and magnitude of heat stress under climate change. Using existing experimental data, the Sirius wheat model was refined by incorporating the effects of extreme temperature during flowering and grain filling on accelerated leaf senescence, grain number, and grain weight. This allowed us, for the first time, to quantify yield losses resulting from heat stress under climate change. The model was used to optimize wheat ideotypes for CMIP5-based climate scenarios for 2050 at six sites in Europe with diverse climates. The yield potential for heat-tolerant ideotypes can be substantially increased in the future (e.g. by 80% at Seville, 100% at Debrecen) compared with the current cultivars by selecting an optimal combination of wheat traits, e.g. optimal phenology and extended duration of grain filling. However, at two sites, Seville and Debrecen, the grain yields of heat-sensitive ideotypes were substantially lower (by 54% and 16%) and more variable compared with heat-tolerant ideotypes, because the extended grain filling required for the increased yield potential was in conflict with episodes of high temperature during flowering and grain filling. Despite much earlier flowering at these sites, the risk of heat stress affecting yields of heat-sensitive ideotypes remained high. Therefore, heat tolerance in wheat is likely to become a key trait for increased yield potential and yield stability in southern Europe in the future. PMID:25750425

  7. Heat tolerance around flowering in wheat identified as a key trait for increased yield potential in Europe under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Stratonovitch, Pierre; Semenov, Mikhail A.

    2015-01-01

    To deliver food security for the 9 billon population in 2050, a 70% increase in world food supply will be required. Projected climatic and environmental changes emphasize the need for breeding strategies that delivers both a substantial increase in yield potential and resilience to extreme weather events such as heat waves, late frost, and drought. Heat stress around sensitive stages of wheat development has been identified as a possible threat to wheat production in Europe. However, no estimates have been made to assess yield losses due to increased frequency and magnitude of heat stress under climate change. Using existing experimental data, the Sirius wheat model was refined by incorporating the effects of extreme temperature during flowering and grain filling on accelerated leaf senescence, grain number, and grain weight. This allowed us, for the first time, to quantify yield losses resulting from heat stress under climate change. The model was used to optimize wheat ideotypes for CMIP5-based climate scenarios for 2050 at six sites in Europe with diverse climates. The yield potential for heat-tolerant ideotypes can be substantially increased in the future (e.g. by 80% at Seville, 100% at Debrecen) compared with the current cultivars by selecting an optimal combination of wheat traits, e.g. optimal phenology and extended duration of grain filling. However, at two sites, Seville and Debrecen, the grain yields of heat-sensitive ideotypes were substantially lower (by 54% and 16%) and more variable compared with heat-tolerant ideotypes, because the extended grain filling required for the increased yield potential was in conflict with episodes of high temperature during flowering and grain filling. Despite much earlier flowering at these sites, the risk of heat stress affecting yields of heat-sensitive ideotypes remained high. Therefore, heat tolerance in wheat is likely to become a key trait for increased yield potential and yield stability in southern Europe in the future. PMID:25750425

  8. Mytilus trossulus in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Väinölä, Risto; Strelkov, Petr

    2011-01-01

    From data on allozyme, nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA markers, we show that the originally North Pacific/Northwest Atlantic mussel Mytilus trossulus is widespread on North European coasts, earliM. trossuluser thought to be inhabited only by Mytilus edulis. Several local occurrences of , interspersed with a dominant M. edulis, were recorded on the North Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea coasts of Norway and the Barents and White Sea coasts of Kola Peninsula in Russia. The proportion of M. trossulus genetic background observed at any one site varied from 0 to 95%. These new occurrences are not related to the previously known, introgressed M. trossulus population that occupies the Baltic Sea. The new northern occurrences retain both the F and M M. trossulus mitochondria, which have been lost from the Baltic stock. While hybridization takes place wherever M. trossulus and M. edulis meet, the extent of hybrization varies between the different contact areas. Hybrids are rare, and the hybrid zones are bimodal in the northern areas; more interbreeding has taken place further south in Norway, but even there genotypic disequilibria are higher than those in the steep transition zone between the Baltic mussel and M. edulis: there is no evidence of a collapse toward a hybrid swarm unlike in the Baltic. The Barents and White Sea M. trossulus are genetically slightly closer to the NW Atlantic than NE Pacific populations, while the Baltic mussel has unique features distinguishing it from the others. We postulate that the presence of M. trossulus in Northern Europe is a result of repeated independent inter- or transoceanic cryptic invasions of various ages, up to recent times. PMID:24391261

  9. Avenue de l'Europe Avenue Jean Monnet

    E-print Network

    Herrmann, Samuel

    Avenue de l'Europe Avenue Jean Monnet Rue Jules Guesde Rue Jean Jaurès Avenuedel'Europe Avenue de l'Europe FonderieFonderieRue de laRue de la Avenuedel'Europe Bus mon REZO IUT Bus mon REZO Campus Sud Bourgogne Rue J. Jaurès Av. de l'Europe de Longwy Allée P. de Coubertin Av.F.Mitterand RuedelaChaise Ruedel

  10. World Beach Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sometimes visiting a website makes you want to dash out, leave your computer behind, and get busy doing whatever the site's talking about. The World Beach Project is one of those sites. It's a gallery of art made by all kinds of people, using stones gathered on beaches all over the world. Visitors to this site can browse images of these creations, and read a little bit about how each work came about. For example, there are 64 projects in North America, and 232 in Europe and visitors can travel (via the artwork) from the beaches of England to Malaysia to Mexico in seconds. The World Beach Project was devised by artist-in-residence Sue Lawty in association with the Victoria & Albert Museum. Detailed instructions are provided so that anyone can participate in the World Beach Project, or, from the map, simply click the button labeled "I want to add my beach project to the map".

  11. AppleTREE Teacher Resources for Effective Education You are invited to participate in an exciting project provided through the

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    AppleTREE Teacher Resources for Effective Education You are invited to participate in an exciting in their first year of teaching are eligible to participate in a beginning teacher assistance project as determined by beginning teachers. The web site provides participants the opportunity to communicate

  12. To Evaluate the Overall Effectiveness of Project Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Programs (Nationally). Final Report. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner (E.J.) and Associates, Washington, DC.

    This report consists primarily of an executive summary of the findings of a study undertaken from July 1974 to September 1975 by Kirschner Associates, Inc., for the Office of Child Development, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, in order to assess the overall effectiveness of the Project Head Start Training and Technical Assistance…

  13. Effects of Multiple Intelligences Supported Project-Based Learning on Students' Achievement Levels and Attitudes towards English Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Gökhan; Beyhan, Ömer

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effects of multiple intelligences supported project-based learning and traditional foreign language-teaching environment on students' achievement and their attitude towards English lesson. The research was carried out in 2009-2010 education-instruction year in Karatli Sehit Sahin Yilmaz…

  14. The Choptank Watershed Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project: Monitoring the Delivery of Wetland Services across the Landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Choptank Watershed Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) brings together an interdisciplinary group of experts and resources from multiple federal agencies and the University of Maryland to assess the ability of “natural,” restored, and prior-converted wetlands on cropland to im...

  15. Educator's Guide to Effective Special Education Materials (As Reported through the Indiana Teacher-Initiated Material Evaluation [TIME] Project).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Paul

    Results of the Indiana TIME (Teacher Initiated Materials Evaluation) Project are presented to assist teachers and administrators with instructional materials selection. Teachers were surveyed about materials they owned, used on a daily basis, and believed effective. The resulting guide is separated into the following sections (title and publisher…

  16. Are Substance Use Prevention Programs More Effective in Schools Making Adequate Yearly Progress? A Study of Project ALERT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Hanley, Sean M.; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to determine if a popular school-based drug prevention program might be effective in schools that are making adequate yearly progress (AYP). Thirty-four schools with grades 6 through 8 in 11 states were randomly assigned either to receive Project ALERT (n = 17) or to a control group (n = 17); of these, 10 intervention…

  17. Going and Passing through Community Colleges: Examining the Effectiveness of Project Lead The Way in STEM Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starobin, Soko S.; Schenk, Tom, Jr.; Laanan, Frankie Santos; Rethwisch, David G.; Moeller, Darin

    2013-01-01

    Project Lead The Way (PLTW), which aims to create a seamless pathway from secondary education to college and career success in STEM fields, was first implemented in the state of Iowa in 2005. As a part of a statewide, longitudinal research in PLTW, this study explores the effectiveness of PLTW in college persistence by analyzing multiple data…

  18. The Meaning of Gardening and the Effects on Perceived Well Being of a Gardening Project on Diverse Populations of Elders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Heliker; Audrey Chadwick; Theresa OConnell

    2001-01-01

    This pilot pre- and post-test study sought to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of horticulture therapy and the perceived meaning and outcome on well being of a structured gardening intervention on two groups of elders in two culturally diverse settings. The total sample of 24 volunteers (age range 63-90) participated in a three month gardening project. The personal meaning framework

  19. 75 FR 47602 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ...FDA-2010-N-0394] Clinical Studies of Safety and...Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01...program is to support the clinical development of products...people per year. B. Research Objectives The goal...program is to support the clinical development of...

  20. 77 FR 46764 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ...FDA-2012-N-0011] Clinical Studies of Safety and...Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01...program is to support the clinical development of products...States per year. B. Research Objectives The goal...program is to support the clinical development of...