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1

Effect of Soviet cancellation of petrochemical plant projects on east and west Europe and Malaysia  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union has scaled down plans to build four petrochemical projects, each worth more than US $1 billion, over the next five years because it is giving priority to the re-equipment of plants. The project to build a polyvinyl plant on the shores of Lake Baikal in Siberia has been cancelled. Another scheme to build a nylon plant at Kursk has been delayed, but might still be resurrected during the present five-year plan (1986-1990). The two projects still going ahead, or which British companies are bidding, are a polyolefin plant in the north Caucasus and a polyester plant in the Urals. Despite the investment priority given by the Soviet leadership to high technology and re-equipment, diplomats in Moscow do not expect a surge of orders for Western companies. They say there are two reasons for this; Moscow wants to rely as much as possible on imports of machinery from Eastern Europe, notably East Germany and Czechoslovakia, in return for its exports of oil and gas. Senior officials say that where they cannot obtain high technology from West because of restrictive legislation they will not be prepared to accept less efficient equipment. The level of Soviet imports from hard currency supplies will be limited by the fall in Soviet exports revenues. These have been hit by a decline of some four per cent in oil exports last year and the drop in the world oil price. The Soviet Union needs to keep its customers for gas which has given increased leverage to consumers such as West Germany, Italy and France in the award of contracts. This was exemplified by the visit of Mme. Edith Cresson, the French Foreign Trade Minister, to Moscow to discuss increasing trade. Paris wants the Soviet Union to redress the adverse trade balance with France with amounted to 4.5 billion francs (L 410 million) in the first 11 months of last year.

Cockburn, P.

1985-02-01

2

Improving Environmental Projections in Nonboreal Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional Aspects of Climate-Terrestrial-Hydrologic Interactions in Non-boreal Eastern Europe; Odessa, Ukraine, 23-28 August 2008; Ecosystems in Eastern Europe, in particular environments such as grasslands and semiarid regions, have undergone significant changes during the entire twentieth century due to warming climate and socioeconomic impacts. As a result, the biome boundaries between forests and steppes and between steppes and semideserts have become increasingly volatile, with dramatic changes in phenology and land fertility. Compounding these problems is a dense rural population engaging in intense land use, a population that suffers socioeconomic hardships resulting from recent and still unsettled political changes. Such political problems combined with a lack of local funds have limited the amount of observational data collected in Eastern Europe, leaving climate modelers unable to validate regional climate projections.

Groisman, Pavel; Ivanov, Sergiy; Gutman, Garik; Simmer, Clemens

2009-02-01

3

Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project  

PubMed Central

Background European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. Methods/Design This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating coherent messages to consumers in Europe. Discussion The FoodRisC project offers a unique approach to the investigation of food risk/benefit communication. The effective spread of food risk/benefit information will assist initiatives aimed at reducing the burden of food-related illness and disease, reducing the economic impact of food crises and ensuring that confidence in safe and nutritious food is fostered and maintained in Europe. PMID:21569458

2011-01-01

4

Ensemble projections of future streamflow droughts in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is growing concern in Europe about the possible rise in the severity and frequency of extreme drought events as a manifestation of global change. In order to plan suitable adaptation strategies it is important for decision makers to know how drought conditions will develop at regional scales. This paper therefore addresses the issue of future developments in streamflow drought characteristics across Europe. Through off-line coupling of a hydrological model with an ensemble of bias-corrected climate simulations (IPCC SRES A1B) and a water use scenario (Economy First), long term (1961-2100) ensemble streamflow simulations are generated that account for changes in climate, and the uncertainty therein, and in water consumption. Using extreme value analysis we derive minimum flow and deficit indices and evaluate how the magnitude and severity of low flow conditions may evolve throughout the 21st century. This analysis shows that streamflow droughts will become more severe and persistent in many parts of Europe due to climate change, except for northern and northeastern parts of Europe. Especially southern regions will face strong reductions in low flows. Future water use will aggravate the situation by 10-30% in Southern Europe, whereas in some sub-regions in Western, Central and Eastern Europe a positive climate signal may be reversed due to intensive water use. The multi-model ensemble projections of more frequent and severe streamflow droughts in the south and decreasing drought hazard in the north are highly significant, while the projected changes are more dissonant in a transition zone in between.

Forzieri, G.; Feyen, L.; Rojas, R.; Flörke, M.; Wimmer, F.; Bianchi, A.

2013-08-01

5

How many dementia cases in France and Europe? Alternative projections and scenarios 2010-2050  

E-print Network

How many dementia cases in France and Europe? Alternative projections and scenarios 2010:Claudine.berr@inserm.fr Running title: Future numbers of dementia cases Key words: dementia; forecast; projection; burden; Europe: The objective of this study is to estimate the number of dementia cases expected to occur in France and Europe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

Projected changes in clear-sky erythemal and vitamin D effective UV doses for Europe over the period 2006 to 2100.  

PubMed

The benefits and the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure have been well discussed. Most studies show concern for the solar overexposure in the tropics and low latitude sites and its scarcity at higher latitudes. Both cases are of concern, the first for diseases such as skin cancer and the second for the lack of vitamin D production in the skin. In this study, we evaluate the influence of climate change scenarios on the total ozone content (TOC) and typical aerosol properties, such as the optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA), over Europe. From these parameters, we estimate the erythemal and the vitamin D effective UVR doses from 2006 to 2100. Our results indicate a small reduction of the UVR daily doses caused by the ozone layer recovery and partially compensated by an AOD diminution through this century. The attenuation will be larger at high latitudes, during the springtime and for more polluted scenarios during this century. However, this diminution should not be sufficient to provide a protection condition for erythema. On the other hand, at higher latitudes, it possibly contributes to a relevant increase in the exposure time necessary for the synthesis of vitamin D, mainly during autumn and spring seasons. PMID:23549360

Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Haeffelin, Martial; Bekki, Slimane; Saiag, Philippe; Badosa, Jordi; Jégou, Fabrice; Pazmiño, Andrea; Mahé, Emmanuel

2013-06-01

7

Effects of climate change on landslide hazard in Europe (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslides represent a major threat to human life, property and constructed facilities, infrastructure and natural environment in most mountainous and hilly regions of the world. As a consequence of climatic changes and potential global warming, an increase of landslide activity is expected in some parts of the world in the future. This will be due to increased extreme rainfall events, changes of hydrological cycles, meteorological events followed by sea storms causing coastal erosion and melting of snow and of frozen soils in the high mountains. During the past century, Europe experienced many fatalities and significant economic losses due to landslides. Since in many parts of Europe landslides are the most serious natural hazard, several recent European research projects are looking into the effects of climate change on the risk associated with landslides. Examples are the recently initiated SafeLand project, which looks into this problem across the continent, and GeoExtreme, which focused on Norway. The ongoing project SafeLand (www.safeland-fp7.eu) is a large, integrating project financed by the European Commission. It involves close to 30 organizations from 13 countries in Europe, and it looks into the effects of global change (mainly changes in demography and climate change) on the pattern of landslide risk in Europe. The SafeLand objectives are to (1) provide policy-makers, public administrators, researchers, scientists, educators and other stakeholders with improved harmonized framework and methodology for the assessment and quantification of landslide risk in Europe's regions; (2) evaluate the changes in risk pattern caused by climate change, human activity and policy changes; and (3) provide guidelines for choosing the most appropriate risk management strategies, including risk mitigation and prevention measures. To assess the changes in the landslide risk pattern in Norway over the next 50 years, the four-year integrated research project GeoExtreme (www.geoextreme.no) was executed. Different modules of the project established the database of landslide and avalanche events in Norway, investigated the coupling between climatic parameters and the occurrence of avalanches and landslides, developed regional, down-scaled climate scenarios for the next 50 years, and simulated a picture of possible future geohazards risk in Norway. The socioeconomic implications of geohazards in Norway, both in the past, and under the predicted future climate scenarios were also studied in the project. The latter study considered the costs related to damage by natural disasters and mitigation measures, ability to learn by experience, changes in preparedness, and impact of policy decisions. The main conclusion of the GeoExtreme project was that in a country with large climatic variation like Norway, the effects of climate change on the geohazard situation will vary significantly from location to location. Over a short time interval of 50 years, the largest increase in the direct socio-economic costs will most likely be in the transport sector. However, better adaptation to the present climate and geohazard problems would also require large investments, and this would in fact be the most important step in preparing for the expected changes during the next 50 years.

Nadim, F.; Solheim, A.

2009-12-01

8

Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, the need to protect people and property, the reality for society in Europe to live with hazard and risk and the need to manage risk were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). It started on 1 May 2009 and will go on for 3 years, ending on 30 April 2012. There project involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://www.safeland-fp7.eu/ . SafeLand is an ongoing project, which results will be finalized in 2012. This lecture summarizes the SafeLand's activities and achievements until November 2011. The main results achieved so far include: - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots by an objective, GIS-based analysis for Europe. The results show clearly where landslides pose the largest hazard in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional climate model simulations over Europe (from the EU FP6 project ENSEMBLES) at a spatial resolution of 25 x 25 km have been used to perform an extreme value analysis for trends in heavy precipitation events. In winter a general trend towards more heavy precipitation events across all analyzed regional climate model simulations is found. For summer, a slight increase of heavy precipitation in Northern Europe and a general decrease in southern Europe is found in all regional climate model simulations. - The prototype of a web-based "toolbox" of innovative and technically appropriate prevention and mitigation measures was developed. The toolbox does a preliminary assessment and ranking of up to 60 structural and non-structural landslide risk mitigation options. - Development of an empirical model for assessing the changes in landslide frequency (hazard) as a function of changes in the demography and population density. - Case histories and "hotspots" of European Land¬slides have been collected and documented. Data for 41 potential case study sites have been compiled and summarized. These comprise 39 sites in Europe located in Italy, France, Norway, Switzerland, Austria, Andorra, and Romania; as well as one site in Canada and one in India. Almost every type of landslide and every type of movement is represented in these sites. - Research on stakeholder workshops and participatory processes to involve the population exposed to landslide risk in the decision-making process for choosing the most appropriate risk mitigation measure(s).

Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B. G.; SafeLand Research Consortium

2011-12-01

9

Atmospheric dynamics InfraStructure in Europe: The ARISE project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARISE proposes to design a new infrastructure that integrates different station networks in order to provide a new "3D" image of the atmospheric dynamics from the ground up to the mesosphere with unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. The implied networks are: - the International infrasound network developed for the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This system is unique by its quality for infrasound and atmospheric wave observations, - the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes (NDACC) which uses Lidar to measure stratospheric dynamics, - the Network for the Detection of Mesopause Changes (NDMC), dedicated to airglow layer measurements in the mesosphere, and additional complementary stations and satellite data. The infrastructure extends across Europe and outlying regions, including polar and equatorial regions. The measurements will be used to improve the parameterization of gravity waves in the stratosphere to better resolve climate models. Such description is crucial to estimate the impact of stratospheric climate forcing on the troposphere. In the long term, data will be used for monitoring changes in the occurrence of extreme events and trends in the middle atmosphere climate. The project impact also concerns civil applications related to monitoring of natural hazards as volcanoes. The presentation will focus on the first results obtained using three technologies during specific events as stratospheric warming, volcanic eruptions and severe weather. The benefits of using the three technologies will be discussed.

Blanc, Elisabeth

2013-04-01

10

The SAFER-Project and Seismic Early Warning in Europe (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SAFER (Seismic EArly Warning For EuRope) is the first large scale scientific project in Europe on earthquake early warning. It is funded by the European Commission in the context of Framework Program 6 under the theme Sustainable Development, Global Change and Ecosystems. Its general objective is to develop knowledge and tools for increasing the capability of effective earthquake early warning in Europe and to implement and test these tools in selected European cities. The SAFER project was carried out between 2006 and 2009 by a consortium formed by 20 institutes from 11 European and Mediterranean countries (Germany, Italy, Greece, Romania, Switzerland, Norway, France, the Netherlands, Iceland, Turkey and Egypt) and one each from Japan, Taiwan and USA. Five major earthquake prone cities were chosen as test areas: Athens, Bucharest, Cairo, Istanbul and Naples. The combined population of these cities is about 40 million inhabitants and all have experienced severe earthquakes in recent years. SAFER is strongly multi-disciplinary, calling upon expertise in seismology, structural and geotechnical engineering, informatics and statistics. Some of the specific problems addressed are related to - the rapid determination of earthquake size, complex earthquake features, and damage potential; - the implementation of a fully probabilistic framework for applications of earthquake early warning based on cost-benefit analysis; - the development of a new generation of early warning systems being decentralised and people-centred, and - the implementation of the real-time “shake map”-technology in large European cities. The presentation will review the major scientific findings, comment on the improvements of the earthquake early warning capabilities achieved by SAFER in the five test cities, and present some ideas for the future development of earthquake early warning in Europe.

Zschau, J.; Gasparini, P.

2009-12-01

11

Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to protect people and property with a changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, and the reality for societies in Europe to live with the risk associated with natural hazards, were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). The project started on 1 May 2009 and will end on 30 April 2012. It involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://safeland-fp7.eu/. Main results achieved in SafeLand include: - Various guidelines related to landslide triggering processes and run-out modelling. - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides, and development of an empirical model for assessing the changes in landslide frequency (hazard) as a function of changes in the demography and population density. - Guideline for landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment and zoning. - New methodologies for physical and societal vulnerability assessment. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots for Europe. The results show clearly where areas with the largest landslide risk are located in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional and local climate model simulations over selected regions of Europe at spatial resolutions of 10x10 km and 2.8x2.8 km. These simulations were used to perform an extreme value analysis for trends in heavy precipitation events, and subsequent effects on landslide hazard and risk trends. - Guidelines for use of remote sensing techniques, monitoring and early warning systems. - Development of a prototype web-based "toolbox" of innovative and technically appropriate prevention and mitigation measures. The toolbox does a preliminary assessment and ranking of up to 60 structural and non-structural landslide risk mitigation options. - Case histories and "hotspots" of European Land¬slides have been collected and documented. Data for close to fifty potential case study sites have been compiled and summarized. Most of the case study sites are located in Europe (Italy, France, Norway, Switzerland, Austria, Andorra, and Romania); but they also include one site in Canada and one in India. Almost every type of landslide and every type of movement is represented in these sites. - Research on stakeholder workshops and participatory processes to involve the population exposed to landslide risk in the decision-making process for choosing the most appropriate risk mitigation measure(s).

Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B.

2012-04-01

12

Winter in Northern Europe (WINE). The project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE): Introduction and outlook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) comprised a multinational study of the structure, dynamics and composition of the middle atmosphere in winter at high latitudes. Coordinated field measurements were performed during the winter 1983 to 1984 by a large number of ground-based, air-borne, rocket-borne and satellite-borne instruments. Many of the individual experiments were performed in the European sector of the high latitude and polar atmosphere. Studies of the stratosphere, were, in addition, expanded to hemispheric scales by the use of data obtained from remotely sensing satellites. Beyond its direct scientific results, which are reviewed, MAP/WINE has stimulated quite a number of follow-on experiments and projects which address the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere at high and polar latitudes.

Vonzahn, U.

1989-01-01

13

Critical levels for ozone effects on vegetation in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence of detrimental effects of ozone on vegetation in Europe, and the need to develop international control policies to reduce ozone exposures which are based on the effects of the pollutant, has led to attempts to define so-called critical levels of ozone above which adverse effects on trees, crops and natural vegetation may occur. This review is a critical

J. Fuhrer; L. Skärby; M. R. Ashmore

1997-01-01

14

Modelling the effects of past and future climate on the risk of bluetongue emergence in Europe.  

PubMed

Vector-borne diseases are among those most sensitive to climate because the ecology of vectors and the development rate of pathogens within them are highly dependent on environmental conditions. Bluetongue (BT), a recently emerged arboviral disease of ruminants in Europe, is often cited as an illustration of climate's impact on disease emergence, although no study has yet tested this association. Here, we develop a framework to quantitatively evaluate the effects of climate on BT's emergence in Europe by integrating high-resolution climate observations and model simulations within a mechanistic model of BT transmission risk. We demonstrate that a climate-driven model explains, in both space and time, many aspects of BT's recent emergence and spread, including the 2006 BT outbreak in northwest Europe which occurred in the year of highest projected risk since at least 1960. Furthermore, the model provides mechanistic insight into BT's emergence, suggesting that the drivers of emergence across Europe differ between the South and the North. Driven by simulated future climate from an ensemble of 11 regional climate models, the model projects increase in the future risk of BT emergence across most of Europe with uncertainty in rate but not in trend. The framework described here is adaptable and applicable to other diseases, where the link between climate and disease transmission risk can be quantified, permitting the evaluation of scale and uncertainty in climate change's impact on the future of such diseases. PMID:21697167

Guis, Helene; Caminade, Cyril; Calvete, Carlos; Morse, Andrew P; Tran, Annelise; Baylis, Matthew

2012-02-01

15

Projections of heat waves with high impact on human health in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change will result in more intense, more frequent and longer lasting heat waves. The most hazardous conditions emerge when extreme daytime temperatures combine with warm night-time temperatures, high humidities and light winds for several consecutive days. Here, we assess present and future heat wave impacts on human health in Europe. Present daily physiologically equivalent temperatures (PET) are derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. PET allows to specifically focus on heat-related risks on humans. Regarding projections, a suite of high-resolution regional climate models - run under SRES A1B scenario - has been used. A quantile-quantile adjustment is applied to the daily simulated PET to correct biases in individual model climatologies and a multimodel ensemble strategy is adopted to encompass model errors. Two types of heat waves differently impacting human health - strong and extreme stress - are defined according to specified thresholds of thermal stress and duration. Heat wave number, frequency, duration and amplitude are derived for each type. Results reveal relatively strong correlations between the spatial distribution of strong and extreme heat wave amplitudes and mortality excess for the 2003 European summer. Projections suggest a steady increase and a northward extent of heat wave attributes in Europe. Strong stress heat wave frequencies could increase more than 40 days, lasting over 20 days more by 2075-2094. Amplitudes might augment up to 7 °C per heat wave day. Important increases in extreme stress heat wave attributes are also expected: up to 40 days in frequency, 30 days in duration and 4 °C in amplitude. We believe that with this information at hand policy makers and stakeholders on vulnerable populations to heat stress can respond more effectively to the future challenges imposed by climate warming.

Amengual, A.; Homar, V.; Romero, R.; Brooks, H. E.; Ramis, C.; Gordaliza, M.; Alonso, S.

2014-08-01

16

The Eurolight project: the impact of primary headache disorders in Europe. Description of methods.  

PubMed

The Eurolight project is the first at European Union level to assess the impact of headache disorders, and also the first of its scale performed by collaboration between professional and lay organizations and individuals. Here are reported the methods developed for it. The project took the form of surveys, by structured questionnaire, conducted in ten countries of Europe which together represented 60% of the adult population of the European Union. In Lithuania, the survey was population-based. Elsewhere, truly population-based studies were impractical for reasons of cost, and various compromises were developed. Closest to being population-based were the surveys in Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain. In Austria, France and UK, samples were taken from health-care settings. In addition in the Netherlands, Spain and Ireland, samples were drawn from members of national headache patient organizations and their relatives. Independent double data-entry was performed prior to analysis. Returned questionnaires from 9,269 respondents showed a moderate female bias (58%); of respondents from patients' organizations (n = 992), 61% were female. Mean age of all respondents was 44 years; samples from patients' organizations were slightly older (mean 47 years). The different sampling methods worked with differing degrees of effectiveness, as evidenced by the responder-rates, which varied from 10.8 to 90.7%. In the more population-based surveys, responder-rates varied from 11.3 to 58.8%. We conclude that the methodology, although with differences born of necessity in the ten countries, was sound overall, and will provide robust data on the public ill-health that results from headache in Europe. PMID:21660430

Andrée, C; Stovner, L J; Steiner, T J; Barré, J; Katsarava, Z; Lainez, J M; Lanteri-Minet, M; Mick, G; Rastenyte, D; Ruiz de la Torre, E; Tassorelli, C; Vriezen, P; Lampl, C

2011-10-01

17

Obesity and other health determinants across Europe: The EURALIM Project  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE—EURALIM (EURope ALIMentation), a European collaborative study, aimed to determine and describe the extent to which European data on risk factor distributions from different populations could be pooled and harmonised in a common database for international comparisons.?SETTING—Seven independent population-based surveys from six European countries (France, Italy, Northern Ireland/United Kingdom, Spain, Switzerland, the Netherlands). ?METHODS—Data for 18 381 women and 12 908 men aged 40-59 were pooled in a common database. Central statistical analyses on major cardiovascular risk factors were conducted with careful consideration of methodological issues, including differences in study designs, data assessment tools, and analytic techniques used.?MAIN RESULTS—Because of the detected variability among methods used, direct comparisons of risk factor distributions and prevalences between studies were problematic. None the less, comparisons of within population contrasts by sex, age group, and other health determinants were considered to be meaningful and apt, as illustrated here for obesity. Results were targeted and disseminated to both the general public and public health professionals and framed in the context of a European information campaign.?CONCLUSIONS—International and national comparisons between existing locally run studies are feasible and useful, but harmonisation methods need improvement. Development of an international risk factor surveillance programme based on decentralised data collection is warranted. In the meantime, risk factor contrasts across populations can be used as a basis for targeting needed public health intervention programmes.???Keywords: comparative study; obesity; risk factor surveillance PMID:10818117

Beer-Borst, S; Morabia, A; Hercberg, S; Vitek, O; Bernstein, M; Galan, P; Galasso, R; Giampaoli, S; Houterman, S; McCrum, E; Panico, S; Pannozzo, F; Preziosi, P; Ribas, L; Serra-Majem, L; Verschuren, W; Yarnell, J; Northridge, M

2000-01-01

18

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: Europe Albers Equal Area  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 ´Projection: Europe Albers Equal Area 0 500 Kilometers Amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell computed by fusing global maps of harvested areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use

Columbia University

19

Future scenarios for viticultural zoning in Europe: ensemble projections and uncertainties.  

PubMed

Optimum climate conditions for grapevine growth are limited geographically and may be further challenged by a changing climate. Due to the importance of the winemaking sector in Europe, the assessment of future scenarios for European viticulture is of foremost relevance. A 16-member ensemble of model transient experiments (generated by the ENSEMBLES project) under a greenhouse gas emission scenario and for two future periods (2011-2040 and 2041-2070) is used in assessing climate change projections for six viticultural zoning indices. After model data calibration/validation using an observational gridded daily dataset, changes in their ensemble means and inter-annual variability are discussed, also taking into account the model uncertainties. Over southern Europe, the projected warming combined with severe dryness in the growing season is expected to have detrimental impacts on the grapevine development and wine quality, requiring measures to cope with heat and water stress. Furthermore, the expected warming and the maintenance of moderately wet growing seasons over most of the central European winemaking regions may require a selection of new grapevine varieties, as well as an enhancement of pest/disease control. New winemaking regions may arise over northern Europe and high altitude areas, when considering climatic factors only. An enhanced inter-annual variability is also projected over most of Europe. All these future changes pose new challenges for the European winemaking sector. PMID:23306774

Fraga, H; Malheiro, A C; Moutinho-Pereira, J; Santos, J A

2013-11-01

20

Leaving the Academic Towers: The Council of Europe and the Education for Democratic Citizenship Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Council of Europe's Education for Democratic Citizenship Project created "Sites of Citizenship" in 12 countries. These grassroots initiatives attempted to involve individuals in creating democratic culture. Preliminary evaluation indicated that informal and nonformal learning at these sites was a challenging but innovative feature. (Contains…

Forrester, Keith

2003-01-01

21

An Infrastructure Project for Climate Research in Europe OASIS3 User Guide  

E-print Network

PRISM An Infrastructure Project for Climate Research in Europe OASIS3 User Guide prism 2-5 Edited by: S. Valcke, CERFACS PRISM­Support Initiative Report No 3 CERFACS TR/CMGC/06/73 September 2006 #12? Assistence can be obtained as listed below. PRISM documentations can be downloaded from the WWW PRISM web

22

Projections of heat waves with high impact on human health in Europe  

E-print Network

Projections of heat waves with high impact on human health in Europe A. Amengual1, V. Homar1, R will result in more intense, more frequent and longer lasting heat waves. The most hazardous conditions emerge and light winds for several consecutive days. Here, we assess present and future heat wave impacts on human

Romero, Romu

23

Strategies for Reforming Initial Vocational Education and Training in Europe. Final Report of the Project. Leonardo da Vinci/Transnational Pilot Projects: Multiplier Effect, Strand III.3.a. Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking (1997-2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 24 papers examining strategies for reforming initial vocational education and training (VET) in Europe. The following papers are included: "Reassessing VET Reform Strategies in a New Context: Implementation of the SPES-NET (Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking) Project" (Marja-Leena…

Stenstrom, Marja-Leena, Ed.; Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

24

Trends in the mortality effects of hot spells in central Europe: adaptation to climate change?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Europe has recently been affected by several long-lasting and severe heat waves, particularly in July-August 2003 (western Europe), June-July 2006 (central Europe), July 2007 (southeastern Europe) and July 2010 (western Russia). The heat waves influenced many sectors of human activities, with enormous socio-economic and environmental impacts. With estimated death tolls exceeding 50,000, the 2003 and 2010 heat waves were the worst natural disasters in Europe over the last 50 years, yielding an example of how seriously may also high-income societies be affected by climate change. The present study examines temporal changes in mortality associated with spells of large positive temperature anomalies (hot spells) in the population of the Czech Republic (around 10 million inhabitants, central Europe). Declining trends in the mortality impacts since 1986 are found, in spite of rising temperature trends. The findings remain unchanged if possible confounding effects of within-season acclimatization to heat and the mortality displacement effect are taken into account, and they are similar for all-cause mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Recent positive socio-economic development, following the collapse of communism in central and eastern Europe in 1989, and better public awareness of heat-related risks are likely the primary causes of the declining vulnerability in the examined population (Kyselý and Plavcová, 2012). The results are also consistent with those reported for other developed regions of the world (the US, western Europe, Australia) and suggest that climate change may have relatively little influence on heat-related deaths, since changes in other factors that affect vulnerability of the population are dominant instead of temperature trends. It is essential to better understand the observed non-stationarity of the temperature-mortality relationship and the role of adaptation and its limits, both physiological and technological, and to address associated uncertainties in studies dealing with climate change projections of temperature-related mortality. However, it is also obvious that impacts of major and unprecented heat waves such as the 2003 heat wave in western Europe and the 2010 heat wave in Russia may far exceed estimates extrapolated from the observed relationships between thermal environment and human morbidity and mortality, and ';broke' the observed (positive) changes in time. Reference: Kyselý J., Plavcová E., 2012: Declining impacts of hot spells on mortality in the Czech Republic, 1986-2009: adaptation to climate change? Climatic Change 113: 437-453, doi 10.1007/s10584-011-0358-4.

Kysely, J.; Plavcova, E.

2013-12-01

25

Employment and Occupations in Europe in the 1980s. Effects of Technical and Economic Changes on the Employment Situation. Project No. 1 of the CCC: "Preparation for Life." Preparation for Working Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is an attempt to forecast for 1990 the following: (1) employment structures in the member countries of the Council of Europe for all three major sectors of the economy; and (2) employment structures in the Council of Europe for the nine major sectors of the manufacturing industry (food, textiles, leather and clothing, wood and…

Cacace, Nicole

26

Projection of climatic suitability for Aedes albopictus Skuse (Culicidae) in Europe under climate change conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus ( Ae. albopictus) has rapidly spread around the globe. The spread of this species raises serious public health concerns. Here, we model the present distribution and the future climatic suitability of Europe for this vector in the face of climate change. In order to achieve the most realistic current prediction and future projection, we compare the performance of four different modelling approaches, differentiated by the selection of climate variables (based on expert knowledge vs. statistical criteria) and by the geographical range of presence records (native range vs. global range). First, models of the native and global range were built with MaxEnt and were either based on (1) statistically selected climatic input variables or (2) input variables selected with expert knowledge from the literature. Native models show high model performance (AUC: 0.91-0.94) for the native range, but do not predict the European distribution well (AUC: 0.70-0.72). Models based on the global distribution of the species, however, were able to identify all regions where Ae. albopictus is currently established, including Europe (AUC: 0.89-0.91). In a second step, the modelled bioclimatic envelope of the global range was projected to future climatic conditions in Europe using two emission scenarios implemented in the regional climate model COSMO-CLM for three time periods 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100. For both global-driven models, the results indicate that climatically suitable areas for the establishment of Ae. albopictus will increase in western and central Europe already in 2011-2040 and with a temporal delay in eastern Europe. On the other hand, a decline in climatically suitable areas in southern Europe is pronounced in the Expert knowledge based model. Our projections appear unaffected by non-analogue climate, as this is not detected by Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis. The generated risk maps can aid in identifying suitable habitats for Ae. albopictus and hence support monitoring and control activities to avoid disease vector establishment.

Fischer, Dominik; Thomas, Stephanie Margarete; Niemitz, Franziska; Reineking, Björn; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

2011-07-01

27

Effects of large-scale distribution of wind energy in and around Europe  

E-print Network

Effects of large-scale distribution of wind energy in and around Europe Gregor Giebel Niels Gylling energy in Europe? · Distribution of wind energy all over Europe leads to smoothing of the wind power energy can easily supply up to ~20% of the European demand. At this stage, · Less than 13% of the wind

28

Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America  

E-print Network

Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America on surface ozone in Europe and North America by using a 5-year (1993­1997) simulation with the GEOS emissions from North America. North American influence on surface ozone in Europe is particularly strong

Palmer, Paul

29

Oceanography Vol.22, No.460 AbstrAct. The European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA) is Europe's  

E-print Network

Oceanography Vol.22, No.460 AbstrAct. The European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA) is Europe acidification. More than 100 scientists from 27 institutes and nine countries bring their expertise 1974 1982 1990 Year Frequency(%) european project on Ocean Acidification (epOcA) ObJectiVes, pr

Fortunat, Joos

30

Probabilistic Projection of Climatic and Agroclimatic Characteristics for Sites in Europe and U.S.A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the possible approaches (employed also in this contribution) to downscale the low-resolution output from Global Climate Model (GCM) into spatial and temporal scales required by impact models consists in using the stochastic weather generator (WG), whose parameters are modified according to the GCM-based climate change scenario. In the first part, we present a methodology for probabilistic climate change impact assessment based on daily and monthly outputs from multiple GCMs and two step stochastic weather generator M&Rfi. In the second part, we apply this methodology for assessing the impacts on selected climatic and agroclimatic characteristics in Europe and U.S.A. Methodology: to account for the changes in variability on various time scales, the daily WG (dWG) is coupled to the monthly WG (mWG). Parameters of dWG and mWG are derived from the observed series and then modified according to the GCM based climate change scenarios. To obtain more comprehensive scenarios, we merge information from GCM outputs at two temporal resolutions: monthly (benefiting from the length of the available output series) and daily (benefiting from the finer temporal resolution allowing to determine changes in climatic characteristics not derivable from the monthly series). The monthly GCM data (1961-2100) are used to derive changes in means, and standard deviations and intermonthly variability of monthly averages of temperature, precipitation and solar radiation. The daily GCM series (1961-1990 and 2081-2100) are used to derive changes in interdiurnal weather variability, daily temperature range and probability of precipitation occurrence. The climate change scenarios for a given future period, emission scenario and climate sensitivity are then defined by the pattern scaling method, in which the standardised changes (related to 1K rise in global mean temperature) derived from the GCM outputs are multiplied by the change in global mean temperature projected by simple climate model MAGICC. The experiment will (i) show impact of the climate change on selected climatic and agroclimatic characteristics in multiple European and US stations, and (ii) demonstrate effect of merging information extracted from monthly and daily GCM series (effect of changes in characteristics derived from the daily data will be assessed). The probabilistic impact assessment will be based on comparison of probability distribution functions of the climatic and agroclimatic characteristics derived from present vs. future climate synthetic weather series and assuming scenarios derived from multiple GCMs (IPCC-AR4 database). The climatic characteristics will include extreme precipitation and temperature characteristics and characteristics of wet/dry/hot/cold spells. The agroclimatic characteristics will include characteristics related to vegetation period (temperature sums over 5 and 10°C, sum of effective global solar radiation, number of effective growing days, number of days with low evapotranspiration) and the date of last frost day. Acknowledgements: The study is supported by the GAAV Grant Agency (project IAA300420806), Minstry of Education (KONTAKT project ME10128) and National Agency for Agric. Research (QI91C054).

Dubrovsky, M.; Trnka, M.; Balek, J.; Zalud, Z.

2010-12-01

31

Identifying critical nutrient intake in groups at risk of poverty in Europe: the CHANCE project approach.  

PubMed

The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project's objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe. PMID:24699195

Nikoli?, Marina; Glibeti?, Maria; Gurinovi?, Mirjana; Mileševi?, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

2014-04-01

32

Analyses of climate and extreme indices in Central and Eastern Europe within the CECILIA project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EU-project CECILIA (Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and VulnerabiLIty Assessment) aims at delivering a climate change impacts and vulnerability assessment in targeted areas of Central and Eastern Europe. This region appears particularly vulnerable with regard to future changes in extremes (Christensen and Christensen 2003, Schär et al. 2004), likely due to regional specificities such as highly varying topography and continentality, and due to changes in soil moisture content (Seneviratne et al. 2006). In the project, emphasis is given to applications of regional climate modeling studies at a resolution of 10 km for local impact studies in key sectors of the region. The project includes the analysis of extreme weather events in present day and future climate in the target region. For this purpose, an extensive list of precipitation and temperature indices was defined. Observational data used for the indices calculation comes from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset project (ECA&D, Klein Tank et al. 2002), from the ENSEMBLES gridded observations (E-Obs, Haylock et al. 2008), and from station data of the local partners in Central and Eastern Europe. Moreover, the same indices were calculated consistently for a selection of pre-existing RCM datasets (PRUDENCE, ENSEMBLES), and for the CECILIA driving models. Later on, the 10 km high-resolution climate simulations from CECILIA will be included in the analysis. Here we focus on the analysis of a selection of temperature indices, and on the validation of the model-derived indices with the observations. Generally, the spatial agreement between the models and the observations is very good for mean, maximum and minimum temperature (both in terms of the spatial variability and the spatial correlation). The spread between the models is larger for the daily temperature range, with most models showing larger spatial variability compared to the observations. When it comes to heat and cold wave indices, the models perform relatively well for the mean heat and cold wave occurrence, although the spread between the models is large. The results are worse for the percentile-based heat and cold wave durations. In these cases, the spatial correlations between the models and E-Obs decrease to around zero, with some models even showing negative correlations. References: Christensen, J. H., and O. B. Christensen (2003). Severe Summer Flooding in Europe. Nature, 421, 805-806. Haylock, M. R., N. Hofstra, A. M. G. Klein Tank, E. J. Klok, P. D. Jones, and M. New (2008). A European daily high-resolution gridded dataset of surface temperature and precipitation for 1950-2006. J. Geophys. Res., 113(D20119):doi:10.1029/2008JD010201. Klein Tank, A. M. G., et al. (2002). Daily dataset of 20th-century surface air temperature and precipitation series for the European Climate Assessment. Int. J. Climatol., 22, 1441-1453. Schär, C., P. L. Vidale, D. Luthi, C. Frei, C. Haberli, M. A. Liniger, and C. Appenzeller (2004). The role of increasing temperature variability in European summer heat waves. Nature, 427, 332-336. Seneviratne, S. I., D. Lüthi, M. Litschi, and C. Schär (2006). Land-atmosphere coupling and climate change in Europe. Nature, 443, 205-209.

Hirschi, M.; Boberg, F.; Christensen, O. B.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Stepanek, P.; Wp4 Members, Cecilia

2009-04-01

33

Descriptive epidemiology of Kaposi sarcoma in Europe. Report from the RARECARE project.  

PubMed

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a virus-related malignancy which most frequently arises in skin, though visceral sites can also be involved. Infection with Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV or HHV-8) is required for development of KS. Nowadays, most cases worldwide occur in persons who are immunosuppressed, usually because of HIV infection or as a result of therapy to combat rejection of a transplanted organ, but classic Kaposi sarcoma is predominantly a disease of the elderly without apparent immunosuppression. We analyzed 2667 KS incident cases diagnosed during 1995-2002 and registered by 75 population-based European cancer registries contributing to the RARECARE project. Total crude and age-standardized incidence rate was 0.3 per 100,000 per year with an estimated 1642 new cases per year in the EU27 countries. Age-standardized incidence rate was 0.8 per 100,000 in Southern Europe but below 0.3 per 100,000 in all other regions. The elevated rate in southern Europe was attributable to a combination of classic Kaposi sarcoma in some Mediterranean countries and the relatively high incidence of AIDS in several countries. Five-year relative survival for 2000-2002 by the period method was 75%. More than 10,000 persons were estimated to be alive in Europe at the beginning of 2008 with a past diagnosis of KS. The aetiological link with suppressed immunity means that many people alive following diagnosis of KS suffer comorbidity from a pre-existing condition. While KS is a rare cancer, it has a relatively good prognosis and so the number of people affected by it is quite large. Thus it provides a notable example of the importance of networking in diagnosis, therapy and research for rare cancers. PMID:25454979

Stiller, C A; Trama, A; Brewster, D H; Verne, J; Bouchardy, C; Navarro, C; Chirlaque, M D; Marcos-Gragera, R; Visser, O; Serraino, D; Weiderpass, E; Dei Tos, A P; Ascoli, V

2014-12-01

34

The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) Project: Design and First Results  

PubMed Central

Background : The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) project aims to build up a set of indicators to collect and monitor children's mental health in an efficient and comparable methodology across the EU countries. It concerns primary schools children aged 6 to 11 years a range where few data are available whereas school interventions are promising. Methods : Three informants were used: parents, teachers and children. In selecting instruments language, instruments were selected according to the easiness to translate them: SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) for parents and teachers and DI (Dominic Interactive). A two-step procedure was used: schools randomization then six children by class in each grade. Results : 9084 children from seven countries (Italy, Netherlands, Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Turkey) completed the Dominic Interactive in their own language. 6563 teachers and 6031 parents completed their questionnaire, and a total of 5574 interviews have been completed by the 3 informants. The participation rate of the children with parents in the participating schools was about 66.4%. As expected teachers report more externalised problems and less internalised problems than parents. Children report more internalised problems than parents and teachers. Boys have consistently more externalised problems than girls and this is the reverse for internalised problems. Combining the diverse informants and impairment levels children with problems requiring some sort of mental health care were about 9.9%: 76% did not see any mental health professional: 78.7% In Eastern countries 63.1% in Western Europe.

Kovess, Viviane; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Koç, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy

2015-01-01

35

Advanced reprocessing developments in Europe contribution of European projects ACSEPT and ACTINET-I3  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear energy has more than ever to demonstrate that it can contribute safely and on a sustainable way to answer the international increase in energy needs. Actually, in addition to an increased safety of the reactors themselves, its acceptance is still closely associated to our capability to reduce the lifetime of the nuclear waste, to manage them safely and to propose options for a better use of the natural resources. Spent fuel reprocessing can help to reach these objectives. But this cannot be achieved only by optimizing industrial processes through engineering studies. It is of a primary importance to increase our fundamental knowledge in actinide sciences in order to build the future of nuclear energy on reliable and scientifically-founded results, and therefore meet the needs of the future fuel cycles in terms of fabrication and performance of fuels, reprocessing and waste management. At the European level, both the collaborative project ACSEPT and the Integrated Infrastructure Initiative ACTINET-I3 work together to improve our knowledge in actinides chemistry and therefore develop advanced separation processes. These tools are complementary and work in close connection on some specific issues such as the understanding of the selectivity of extracting organic ligands. By offering trans-national access to the main nuclear research facility in Europe, ACTINET-I3 aims at increasing the knowledge in actinide sciences by gathering all the expertise available in European nuclear research institutes or university and giving them the opportunity to come and work in hot-labs (ITU, Atalante...) or beamlines (ESFR, ANKA, PSI) ACSEPT is focused on the development of advanced separation processes, both aqueous and pyrochemical. Head-end steps, fuel re-fabrication, solvent treatment, waste management are also taken into account. In aqueous process development, the SANEX and innovative SANEX flowsheets demonstration were successfully achieved. Chemical systems were selected for GANEX and a hot-test under finalization thanks to an important collaboration between European teams. In pyrometallurgy, studies on actinide back-extraction from aluminium and exhaustive electrolysis allowed the validation of two flowsheets developed from more then 10 years in Europe. In addition, efforts were made to increase collaborations, mutualize and homogenise procedures and share good practices. A training and education program including seminars, workshops, brainstorming meeting but also student exchanges and support to post-doctorate fellowships was a key point for maintaining and increasing a high expertise level in actinide separation sciences in Europe. The second ACSEPT International workshop, organised as a specific session of the next Atalante 2012 International Conference, will conclude the ACSEPT project. (authors)

Bourg, S.; Poinssot, C. [CEA DEN, Nuclear Energy Div., RadioChemistry and Processes Dept., F-30207Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Geist, A. [KIT-INE (Germany); Cassayre, L. [CIEMAT (Spain); Rhodes, C. [NNL-UK (United Kingdom); Ekberg, C. [CHALMERS (Sweden)

2012-07-01

36

Project INTEGRATE - a common methodological approach to understand integrated health care in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background The use of case studies in health services research has proven to be an excellent methodology for gaining in-depth understanding of the organisation and delivery of health care. This is particularly relevant when looking at the complexity of integrated healthcare programmes, where multifaceted interactions occur at the different levels of care and often without a clear link between the interventions (new and/or existing) and their impact on outcomes (in terms of patients health, both patient and professional satisfaction and cost-effectiveness). Still, integrated care is seen as a core strategy in the sustainability of health and care provision in most societies in Europe and beyond. More specifically, at present, there is neither clear evidence on transferable factors of integrated care success nor a method for determining how to establish these specific success factors. The drawback of case methodology in this case, however, is that the in-depth results or lessons generated are usually highly context-specific and thus brings the challenge of transferability of findings to other settings, as different health care systems and different indications are often not comparable. Project INTEGRATE, a European Commission-funded project, has been designed to overcome these problems; it looks into four chronic conditions in different European settings, under a common methodology framework (taking a mixed-methods approach) to try to overcome the issue of context specificity and limited transferability. The common methodological framework described in this paper seeks to bring together the different case study findings in a way that key lessons may be derived and transferred between countries, contexts and patient-groups, where integrated care is delivered in order to provide insight into generalisability and build on existing evidence in this field. Methodology To compare the different integrated care experiences, a mixed-methods approach has been adopted with the creation of a common methodological framework (including data collection tools and case study template report) to be used by the case studies for their analyses. Methods of analysis The four case studies attempt to compare health care services before and after the ‘integration’ of care, while triangulating the findings using quantitative and qualitative data, and provide an in-depth description of the organisation and delivery of care, and the impact on outcomes. The common framework aims to allow for the extraction of key transferable learning from the cases, taking into account context-dependency. Conclusion The application and evaluation of the common methodological approach aim to distill and identify important elements for successful integrated care, in order to strengthen the evidence base for integrated care (by facilitating cross-context comparisons), increase the transferability of findings from highly context-specific to other settings and lead to concrete and practical policy and operational recommendations. PMID:25550690

Cash-Gibson, Lucinda; Rosenmoller, Magdalene

2014-01-01

37

The range of regional climate change projections in central Europe: How to deal with the spread of climate model results?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regional climate change projections for central Europe in the 21st century show a large spread of simulated temperature and precipitation trends due to natural variability and modelling uncertainties. The questions are how to extract robust climate change signals and how to transfer the range of possible temperature and precipitation trends to climate change impact studies and adaptation strategies? Within

D. Rechid; D. Jacob; R. Podzun

2010-01-01

38

Comparative study of Regional Urban Growth (RUG) model projections for new EU members in central Europe and the Baltic States   

E-print Network

Urban modelling and land-cover changes are well discussed in literature and are in a focal point of many researches. Regional urban growth (RUG) model for central Europe and the Baltic States projects land-cover changes and their volume...

Langner, Pawel

2009-11-26

39

Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe: The ARISE Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARISE proposes to design a new infrastructure that integrates different station networks in order to provide a new "3D" image of the atmospheric dynamics from the ground up to the mesosphere with unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. These networks are: - the International infrasound network developed for the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This system is unique by its quality for infrasound and atmospheric wave observations, - the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes (NDACC) which uses Lidar to measure stratospheric dynamics, - the Network for the Detection of Mesopause Changes (NDMC), dedicated to airglow layer measurements in the mesosphere, and additional complementary stations and satellite data. The infrastructure extends across Europe and outlying regions, including polar and equatorial regions. The measurements will be used to improve the parameterization of gravity waves in the stratosphere to better resolve climate models. The project also concerns civil applications related to monitoring of natural hazards as volcanoes. The presentation will highlight the first results obtained in the frame of the project.

Blanc, E.; Bittner, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Ceranna, L.; Charlton-Perez, A. J.; Ripepe, M.; Evers, L.; Kvaerna, T.; Lastovicka, J.; Eliasson, L.; Crosby, N. B.; Blanc-Benon, P.; Le Pichon, A.; Marchetti, E.; Pilger, C.; Keckhut, P.; Schmidt, C.; Lee, C.; Smets, P.

2013-12-01

40

Review of EuCARD project on accelerator infrastructure in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of big infrastructural and research programs (like pan-European Framework Programs) and individual projects realized inside these programs in Europe is to structure the European Research Area - ERA in this way as to be competitive with the leaders of the world. One of this projects in EuCARD (European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development) with the aim to structure and modernize accelerator, (including accelerators for big free electron laser machines) research infrastructure. This article presents the periodic development of EuCARD which took place between the annual meeting, April 2012 in Warsaw and SC meeting in Uppsala, December 2012. The background of all these efforts are achievements of the LHC machine and associated detectors in the race for new physics. The LHC machine works in the regime of p-p, Pb-p, Pb-Pb (protons and lead ions). Recently, a discovery by the LHC of Higgs like boson, has started vivid debates on the further potential of this machine and the future. The periodic EuCARD conference, workshop and meetings concern building of the research infrastructure, including in this advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such systems like: measurement - control networks of large geometrical extent, multichannel systems for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution. The aim of the discussion is not only summarize the current status but make plans and prepare practically to building new infrastructures. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. Accelerator technology is intensely developed in all developed nations and regions of the world. The EuCARD project contains a lot of subjects related directly and indirectly to photon physics and photonics, as well as optoelectronics, electronics and integration of these with large research infrastructure.

Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

2013-01-01

41

Projected Changes in Northern Europe Storm and Precipitation Characteristics: Uncertainty and the Implications for Climate Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future changes in storm characteristics and storm tracks over the eastern North Atlantic may have profound implications for energy providers, coastal communities and water resources availability across the European sector. Shifts in the storm tracks and the amount and intensity of precipitation are of particular concern to local/ municipal governments as they contemplate climate change adaptation/ mitigation strategies. Communicating the latest science to these end users is a two-pronged problem. On one prong the scientific community still has some way to go before fully understanding the physical mechanisms driving projected changes at local to regional scales and their associated uncertainties (which can be quite large). On the other prong planners require up-to-date, reliable information at just these scales as they seek to make decisions, which will resonate for decades. The present study investigates projected changes to storms and precipitation over Northern Europe and decomposes the sources of uncertainty surrounding these changes. Strategies for communicating these changes and uncertainties with planners are also discussed. The city of Bergen, which is a participant in the ECLISE project, is employed as a case study for how complex and often counterintuitive climate information can be made useful for end users. Some large-scale, robust changes in storm track statistics have been identified in the ensemble mean climate change response. However, there are often widely varying responses between models and little analysis on the role intra-model variability. A focus on the multi model ensemble mean response is useful in that it isolates externally forced (i.e. climate change) aspects of future variability. However, this approach underestimates the influence of internal variability (weather-related "noise") and its contribution to total uncertainty. Recent research suggests that internal variability can make a large contribution to overall uncertainty with clear implications for future prediction efforts. The present study investigates projected regional changes to seasonal storm characteristics and precipitation over the eastern North Atlantic and Northern Europe using a high-resolution, stretched grid, AGCM (ARPEGE). An extra-tropical cyclone-tracking algorithm is applied to simulations for present (1980-1999) and future (2020-2060) periods and NCEP reanalysis data (1980-1999). Two present day simulations are carried out: one with spectral nudging toward the large-scale circulation (Nudged) and one without (Free). Four future realizations are run that differ only in their SST specifications, which are taken from four A1B AOGCM simulations from different modeling groups. Storm track statistics are computed for all months with winter (DJF) and summer (JJA) shown. Future changes are evaluated by subtracting the 20th century seasonal mean of the Free run from the ensemble mean of the (2041-2060) 21st century runs. The multiple future realizations allow for the decomposition of total future variability into parts due to forced and internal variability. Despite the dominance of internal variability in the seasonal storm response, robust precipitation signals are identified. These results suggest that, in these simulations at least, the changes in the precipitation come mainly from the thermodynamic rather than the dynamic response of the atmosphere to global warming.

Sobolowski, S.; Mesquita, M.; Keay, K.

2012-04-01

42

First Steps toward Harmonized Human Biomonitoring in Europe: Demonstration Project to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale  

PubMed Central

Background For Europe as a whole, data on internal exposure to environmental chemicals do not yet exist. Characterization of the internal individual chemical environment is expected to enhance understanding of the environmental threats to health. Objectives We developed and applied a harmonized protocol to collect comparable human biomonitoring data all over Europe. Methods In 17 European countries, we measured mercury in hair and cotinine, phthalate metabolites, and cadmium in urine of 1,844 children (5–11 years of age) and their mothers. Specimens were collected over a 5-month period in 2011–2012. We obtained information on personal characteristics, environment, and lifestyle. We used the resulting database to compare concentrations of exposure biomarkers within Europe, to identify determinants of exposure, and to compare exposure biomarkers with health-based guidelines. Results Biomarker concentrations showed a wide variability in the European population. However, levels in children and mothers were highly correlated. Most biomarker concentrations were below the health-based guidance values. Conclusions We have taken the first steps to assess personal chemical exposures in Europe as a whole. Key success factors were the harmonized protocol development, intensive training and capacity building for field work, chemical analysis and communication, as well as stringent quality control programs for chemical and data analysis. Our project demonstrates the feasibility of a Europe-wide human biomonitoring framework to support the decision-making process of environmental measures to protect public health. Citation Den Hond E, Govarts E, Willems H, Smolders R, Casteleyn L, Kolossa-Gehring M, Schwedler G, Seiwert M, Fiddicke U, Castaño A, Esteban M, Angerer J, Koch HM, Schindler BK, Sepai O, Exley K, Bloemen L, Horvat M, Knudsen LE, Joas A, Joas R, Biot P, Aerts D, Koppen G, Katsonouri A, Hadjipanayis A, Krskova A, Maly M, Mørck TA, Rudnai P, Kozepesy S, Mulcahy M, Mannion R, Gutleb AC, Fischer ME, Ligocka D, Jakubowski M, Reis MF, Namorado S, Gurzau AE, Lupsa IR, Halzlova K, Jajcaj M, Mazej D, Snoj Tratnik J, López A, Lopez E, Berglund M, Larsson K, Lehmann A, Crettaz P, Schoeters G. 2015. First steps toward harmonized human biomonitoring in Europe: demonstration project to perform human biomonitoring on a European scale. Environ Health Perspect 123:255–263;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408616 PMID:25493439

Den Hond, Elly; Govarts, Eva; Willems, Hanny; Smolders, Roel; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Seiwert, Margarete; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M.; Schindler, Birgit K.; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Bloemen, Louis; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Joas, Anke; Joas, Reinhard; Biot, Pierre; Aerts, Dominique; Koppen, Gudrun; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Krskova, Andrea; Maly, Marek; Mørck, Thit A.; Rudnai, Peter; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Mulcahy, Maurice; Mannion, Rory; Gutleb, Arno C.; Fischer, Marc E.; Ligocka, Danuta; Jakubowski, Marek; Reis, M. Fátima; Namorado, Sónia; Gurzau, Anca Elena; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Halzlova, Katarina; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; López, Ana; Lopez, Estrella; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre

2014-01-01

43

Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP): a collaborative research project of the TopoEurope initiative of ESF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With elevations of several kilometers, low local relief and pronounced relief contrasts with surrounding regions, orogenic plateaus are first-order tectonic and topographic features of several Cenozoic mountain belts. The morphologic characteristics of plateaus may result from efficient tectonic uplift of mountain ranges that successively incorporate foreland domains into intermontane sedimentary environments. This process may ultimately lead to leeward aridification and a reduction of erosional power and inability of the fluvial network to keep pace with uplift. The combination of tectonic uplift and the decreasing ability of the fluvial system to keep pace with the tectonic processes causes a transition from externally to internally drained basins that eventually become overfilled and coalesce, causing low local relief at high elevations in the orogen interior. Although many studies are being carried out on the Tibetan and Puna-Altiplano plateaus, very little attention has been devoted to the development of the smaller Central Anatolia Plateau (CAP). With its low local relief located at high elevations and with an arid interior compared to deeply incised, humid flanks, the CAP fulfills all characteristics of orogenic plateaus. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanisms controlling the topographic development of this region and to quantify the competing tectonic, geomorphic and climatic processes, we have developed a multidisciplinary project (VAMP) under the umbrella of the TopoEurope initiative of ESF. Our project integrates 11 research institutions from 7 countries. We study a ~400-km-wide strip from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean that includes CAP and its flanks, the offshore basins and Cyprus. The semi-arid CAP interior has a subdued topography at elevations of ~1500m. The plateau interior comprises internally drained sedimentary basins that have helped reduce the refielf contrasts between individual ranges and intervening depressions. Infilling by Miocene to Quaternary continental sediments has created low local relief, where large shallow lakes occur. However, several basins have been captured by headward erosion and major rivers (Göksu River in the S and K?z?l?rmak River in the N) now expose basin-fill sediments and drain large areas of the CAP and form deeply incised gorges along the northern and southern margins, respectively. Miocene marine sediments, locally up to 2 km thick and deposited in a basin stretching, at least, from Antalya to Adana unconformably overlie rocks of the Taurus orogen in S Turkey. Northward, these units grade into a partly preserved erosional surface. To the south, correlative Miocene marine sediments are found in the Cilicia offshore basin and in the N Cyprus thrust-belt. These sediments provide a topographic datum for the beginning of plateau development. In addition these units provide information on the behavior of the Anatolian crust during subsidence. The end of marine sedimentation (~Tortonian) provides a maximum age for the onset of CAP uplift. Thereafter, uplift was coeval with, and tectonically linked to subsidence in the offshore basins. Interestingly, other important events occurred at this time as well. This includes the Messinian salinity crisis and the onset of fragmentation of the Tethyan slab. In our study, an interdisciplinary approach with a wide range of temporal and spatial scales of is adopted to (1) better constrain the kinematics of plateau (de)formation; (2) the timing of associated climatic changes; (3) to quantify patterns of sediment routing and deposition; and to (4) reconstruct the (deep) geometry of Anatolia and surrounding sedimentary basins. We furthermore assess the importance of crustal shortening, magmatic underplating and possible lithospheric segmentation and delamination with respect to plateau uplift and analyze the nature of the interactions between tectonic forcing and changing climate. We will perform structural, geomorphological and sedimentological studies and will apply low-T geochronology, cosmogenic exposure dating of geomor

Strecker, M.; Bertotti, G.; Echtler, H.; Ciner, A.; Dirik, E. Aydar (4), K.; Rojay, B.; Mulch, A.; Ková?ová, M.; Govers, R.; Gliozzi, E.; Simpson, G.; Aksu, A.

2009-04-01

44

Project EARTH-13-TM1: Understanding CO2 emissions from Europe's restless caldera-forming volcanoes  

E-print Network

(Italy) and Santorini (Greece), Europe hosts 2 major caldera-forming volcanic systems capable (~15 ka BP) at Campi Flegrei and the Minoan (~1600 BC) at Santorini. Since then both systems have to the degassing CO2 at both Campi Flegrei and Santorini (Chiodini et al., 2011) and at systems

Henderson, Gideon

45

Eur J Neurol . Author manuscript How many dementia cases in France and Europe? Alternative projections  

E-print Network

Eur J Neurol . Author manuscript Page /1 9 How many dementia cases in France and Europe Background The objective of this study is to estimate the number of dementia cases expected to occur using the European incidence data for dementia by age and sex, the relative mortality risks related

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

46

Enabling the Use of Research Evidence within Educational Policymaking in Europe: Lessons from the EIPEE Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a political climate demanding evidence-informed decision making in education both within individual countries and at the international level, empirically grounded European research in this field is scarce. This paper reports on a European Commission-funded study that sought to identify and analyze different initiatives across Europe aimed…

Tripney, Janice; Kenny, Caroline; Gough, David

2014-01-01

47

Europe and US to Collaborate on the Design and Development of a Giant Radio Telescope Project in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Goals for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Representatives from the U.S. and Europe signed an agreement today in Washington to continue collaboration on the first phase of a giant new telescope project. The telescope will image the Universe with unprecedented sensitivity and sharpness at millimeter wavelengths (between the radio and infrared spectral regions). It will be a major step for astronomy, making it possible to study the origins of galaxies, stars and planets. This project is a prime example of a truly global project, an essential development in view of the ever-increasing complexity and cost of front-line astronomical facilities. The U.S. side of the project is run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) , operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The European side of the project is a collaboration between the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) , the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) , the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy (NFRA) and Nederlandse Onderzoekschool Voor Astronomie (NOVA) , and the United Kingdom Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC). The Europe-U.S. agreement signed today may be formally extended in the very near future to include Japan, following an already existing tripartite declaration of intent. Dr. Robert Eisenstein, NSF's Assistant Director Mathematical and Physical Sciences, called the project "a path-breaking international partnership that will open far-reaching opportunities for astronomical observations. This array would enable astronomers to explore the detailed processes through which the stars and planets form and give us a vastly improved understanding of the formation of the first galaxies in the very early universe." Eisenstein welcomed the collaboration with Europe and Japan's interest in becoming a major partner. Speaking on behalf of the European Signatories, Prof. Riccardo Giacconi, Director General of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , one of the signatories to the new astronomy project, described the new project as "absolutely fantastic and farsighted - a major ground-based astronomical observatory for the 21st century. It will open up a key region of the electromagnetic spectrum to study the very early universe and the interstellar clouds where the stars and planets are born". The new telescope will be located in the Atacama desert of northern Chile, and has been given the name ALMA, for "Atacama Large Millimeter Array". This land has been given in concession to CONICYT (The Chilean National Commission for Science and Technology) last year by the "Ministerio de Bienes Nacionales" (Ministry of National Assets). It has also been declared a national reserve for science by President Frei because of its unique capabilities for astronomical research. ALMA will be a revolutionary telescope, operating at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths and comprised of an array of individual antennas each 12 meters in diameter that work together to make precision images of astronomical objects. The goal of the ALMA Project is an array of 64 antennas that can be positioned as needed over an area 10 km in diameter so as to give the array a zoom-lens capability. Dr. Paul Vanden Bout, Director of the U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory , emphasized the technical capabilities needed for the array: "The ALMA Project involves development of a variety of fundamental technologies including amplification of faint cosmic signals using superconducting receivers and ultrafast digital data processing, technologies that will enhance many related areas of scientific research". This MOU commits the Signatories to collaborate in a three-year Design and Development Phase 1 for a joint project. In the U.S., an amount of US $26 million has been approved for this phase, and in Europe, DM 28 million (15 million EURO). Two prototype 12-meter antennas will be cons

1999-06-01

48

Systemic lupus erythematosus in Europe at the change of the millennium: lessons from the "Euro-Lupus Project".  

PubMed

The "Euro-Lupus Cohort" is composed by 1000 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that have been followed prospectively since 1991. These patients have been gathered by a European consortium--the "Euro-Lupus Project Group". This consortium was originated as part of the network promoted by the "European Working Party on SLE", a working group created in 1990 in order to promote research in Europe on the different problems related to this disease. The "Euro-Lupus Cohort" provides an updated information on the SLE morbidity and mortality characteristics in the present decade as well as defines several clinical and immunological prognostic factors. PMID:16483917

Cervera, Ricard; Abarca-Costalago, M; Abramovicz, D; Allegri, F; Annunziata, P; Aydintug, A O; Bacarelli, M R; Bellisai, F; Bernardino, I; Biernat-Kaluza, E; Blockmans, D; Boki, K; Bracci, L; Campanella, V; Camps, M T; Carcassi, C; Cattaneo, R; Cauli, A; Cervera, R; Chwalinska-Sadowska, H; Contu, L; Cosyns, J P; Danieli, M G; DCruz, D; Depresseux, G; Direskeneli, H; Domènech, I; Espinosa, G; Fernández-Nebro, A; Ferrara, G B; Font, J; Frutos, M A; Galeazzi, M; Garcìa-Carrasco, M; García Iglesias, M F; García-Tobaruela, A; George, J; Gil, A; González-Santos, P; Grana, M; Gül, A; Haga, H J; de Haro-Liger, M; Houssiau, F; Hughes, G R V; Ingelmo, M; Jedryka-Góral, A; Khamashta, M A; Lavilla, P; Levi, Y; López-Dulpa, M; López-Soto, A; Maldykowa, H; Marcolongo, R; Mathieu, A; Morozzi, G; Nicolopoulou, N; Papasteriades, C; Passiu, G; Perelló, I; Petera, P; Petrovic, R; Piette, J C; Pintado, V; de Pita, O; Popovic, R; Pucci, G; Puddu, P; de Ramón, E; Ramos-Casals, M; Rodríguez-Andreu, J; Ruiz-Irastorza, G; Sanchez-Lora, J; Sanna, G; Scorza, R; Sebastiani, G D; Sherer, Y; Shoenfeld, Y; Simpatico, A; Sinico, R A; Smolen, J; Tincani, A; Tokgöz, G; Urbano-Márquez, A; Vasconcelos, C; Vázquez, J J; Veronesi, J; Vianna, J; Vivancos, J

2006-03-01

49

Quantifying nitrogen fluxes and their influence on the greenhouse gas balance - recent findings of the NitroEurope Integrated Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of reactive nitrogen (Nr) by human activities to stimulate agricultural productivity and the unintended formation of Nr in combustion processes both have major impacts on the global environment. Effects of excess Nr include the deterioration of air quality, water quality, soil quality and a decline in biodiversity. One of the most controversial impacts of nitrogen, however, is on the greenhouse gas balance. While recent papers have highlighted a possible benefit of nitrogen in enhancing rates of carbon sequestration, there remain many trade-offs between nitrogen and greenhouse gas exchange. The result is that the net effect of Nr on the global radiative balance has yet to be fully quantified. To better understand these relationships requires intense measurement and modelling of Nr fluxes at various temporal and spatial scales in order to make the link between different nitrogen forms and their fate in the environment. It is essential to measure fluxes for a wide range of ecosystems considering the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of the Nr components and greenhouse gases, as well as the fixation of di-nitrogen and its creation by denitrification. Long-term observations are needed for representative ecosystems, together with results from experiments addressing the responses of the key nitrogen and greenhouse gas fluxes to different global change drivers. The NitroEurope Integrated Project (in short NEU IP), funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission, has developed and applied a strategy for quantifying these different terms on multiple scales. With the project nearing completion, this presentation reports selected preliminary findings. It highlights the first estimates of Nr inputs and net green-house gas exchange for a series of 13 flux ‘supersites’, complemented by the emerging results of Nr concentrations and related N inputs at a network of 58 ‘inferential sites’, which extend the European representativity of the results. In addition, new low cost methods to measure nitrogen fluxes will be reported, which have been extensively tested at those sites. Results from this 3-tier flux network are underpinned by emerging findings from an extensive network of manipulation sites. A combination of modelling at plot, landscape and European scales is used to upscale the results. Finally the talk will illustrate how nitrogen mitigation techniques are being considered at the European scale, including an estimation of the scale of costs involved in simultaneously mitigating nitrous oxide, ammonia and nitrate losses.

Reis, S.; Sutton, M. A.; Nemitz, E.; Beier, C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Cellier, P.; de Vries, W.; Erisman, J.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Bleeker, A.; Nitroeurope Ip Consortium

2010-12-01

50

Acute Effects of Ambient Particulate Matter on Mortality in Europe and North America: Results from the APHENA Study  

PubMed Central

Background The APHENA (Air Pollution and Health: A Combined European and North American Approach) study is a collaborative analysis of multicity time-series data on the effect of air pollution on population health, bringing together data from the European APHEA (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach) and U.S. NMMAPS (National Morbidity, Mortality and Air Pollution Study) projects, along with Canadian data. Objectives The main objective of APHENA was to assess the coherence of the findings of the multicity studies carried out in Europe and North America, when analyzed with a common protocol, and to explore sources of possible heterogeneity. We present APHENA results on the effects of particulate matter (PM) ? 10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) on the daily number of deaths for all ages and for those < 75 and ? 75 years of age. We explored the impact of potential environmental and socioeconomic factors that may modify this association. Methods In the first stage of a two-stage analysis, we used Poisson regression models, with natural and penalized splines, to adjust for seasonality, with various degrees of freedom. In the second stage, we used meta-regression approaches to combine time-series results across cites and to assess effect modification by selected ecologic covariates. Results Air pollution risk estimates were relatively robust to different modeling approaches. Risk estimates from Europe and United States were similar, but those from Canada were substantially higher. The combined effect of PM10 on all-cause mortality across all ages for cities with daily air pollution data ranged from 0.2% to 0.6% for a 10-?g/m3 increase in ambient PM10 concentration. Effect modification by other pollutants and climatic variables differed in Europe and the United States. In both of these regions, a higher proportion of older people and higher unemployment were associated with increased air pollution risk. Conclusions Estimates of the increased mortality associated with PM air pollution based on the APHENA study were generally comparable with results of previous reports. Overall, risk estimates were similar in Europe and in the United States but higher in Canada. However, PM10 effect modification patterns were somewhat different in Europe and the United States. PMID:19057700

Samoli, Evangelia; Peng, Roger; Ramsay, Tim; Pipikou, Marina; Touloumi, Giota; Dominici, Francesca; Burnett, Rick; Cohen, Aaron; Krewski, Daniel; Samet, Jon; Katsouyanni, Klea

2008-01-01

51

The efficiency effects of a single market for financial services in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the potential efficiency effects of a single market for financial services in Europe. The topics covered include universal banking, the merger and acquisition process itself, cross-border ownership and management of financial institutions, and the effects of consolidation of financial institutions on the supply of relationship lending services to informationally opaque small businesses. The research reviewed here suggests

Allen N. Berger

2003-01-01

52

Impact of headache in Europe: a review for the Eurolight project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent health economic survey in Europe has suggested that migraine is the costliest among the neurological disorders. According\\u000a to many studies, migraine and other disorders lead to widespread suffering, reduction of quality of life, and marked impairment\\u000a of participation, both in work and social activities. The present literature survey was made in order to summarize what is\\u000a known on

Lars Jacob Stovner; Colette Andrée

2008-01-01

53

Summer Heat Waves in Western Europe, Their Past Change and Future Projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summer heat waves and extremely hot temperatures are a serious threat to society, the environment and the economy of Europe.\\u000a In this chapter we present an overview of selected recent literature which looks specifically at European heat waves and extreme\\u000a temperature events, their past change and expected future change from 1880 to 2100. Della-Marta et al. (2007b) show that over

P. M. Della-Marta; M. Beniston

54

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: Europe Albers Equal Area  

E-print Network

Amount of phosphorus fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell for each crop. Europe Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Publication Date: 1/24/2011 Copyright 2011-and-manure Kg/ha of Phosphorus Fertilizer applied per grid cell: 0 0.1 -2 2.1 -5 5.1 -10 10.1 -2020.1 -4040

Columbia University

55

Assessing river flood risk and adaptation in Europe—review of projections for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood damages have exhibited a rapid upward trend, both globally and in Europe, faster than population and economic growth.\\u000a Hence, vigorous attempts of attribution of changes have been made. Flood risk and vulnerability tend to change over many areas,\\u000a due to a range of climatic and nonclimatic impacts whose relative importance is site-specific. Flooding is a complex phenomenon\\u000a and there

Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz; Nicola Lugeri; Rutger Dankers; Yukiko Hirabayashi; Petra Döll; Iwona Pi?skwar; Tomasz Dysarz; Stefan Hochrainer; Piotr Matczak

2010-01-01

56

Comparing emission inventories and model-ready emission datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper highlights the similarities and differences in how emission inventories and datasets were developed and processed across North America and Europe for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) project and then characterizes the emissions for the two domains. We focus specifically on the creation of “model-ready” gridded emission datasets for 2006 across the two continental study domains. The practice of creating and processing the two inventories is discussed with a focus on emission factors, spatial allocation, temporal variability, speciation of PM and VOCs, and the mechanics of distributing the data and supporting emission algorithms to the modeling community. The spatial and temporal distribution on common scales is compared for the pollutants of primary concern: NOx, VOCs, SO2, PM2.5, CO, and NH3. Because of differences of population distribution, emissions across North America tend to be more heterogeneous in spatial coverage than in Europe. The temporal patterns in the estimated emissions are largely the result of assumptions used to characterize human activity, with the exception of “natural” emissions, which are modulated by meteorological variability, and emissions from large electric generating units in the U.S., which have the benefit of continuous emission monitors that provide hourly resolved profiles. Emission estimates in both study domains are challenged by several important but poorly characterized emission source sectors, notably road dust, agricultural operations, biomass burning, and road transport. Finally, this paper provides insight on the strengths and weaknesses of emission inventory preparation practices on both continents. One important outcome of this comparison of 2006 emissions between Europe and North America is the greater understanding provided into how the emission estimates developed for the AQMEII project impact regional air quality model performance.

Pouliot, George; Pierce, Thomas; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Schaap, Martijn; Moran, Michael; Nopmongcol, Uarporn

2012-06-01

57

Climatic suitability of Aedes albopictus in Europe referring to climate change projections: comparison of mechanistic and correlative niche modelling approaches.  

PubMed

The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is capable of transmitting a broad range of viruses to humans. Since its introduction at the end of the 20th century, it has become well established in large parts of southern Europe. As future expansion as a result of climate change can be expected, determining the current and projected future climatic suitability of this invasive mosquito in Europe is of interest. Several studies have tried to detect the potential habitats for this species, but differing data sources and modelling approaches must be considered when interpreting the findings. Here, various modelling methodologies are compared with special emphasis on model set-up and study design. Basic approaches and model algorithms for the projection of spatio-temporal trends within the 21st century differ substantially. Applied methods range from mechanistic models (e.g. overlay of climatic constraints based on geographic information systems or rather process-based approaches) to correlative niche models. We conclude that spatial characteristics such as introduction gateways and dispersal pathways need to be considered. Laboratory experiments addressing the climatic constraints of the mosquito are required for improved modelling results. However, the main source of uncertainty remains the insufficient knowledge about the species' ability to adapt to novel environments. PMID:24556349

Fischer, D; Thomas, S M; Neteler, M; Tjaden, N B; Beierkuhnlein, C

2014-01-01

58

The History of European Health Project: a history of health in Europe from the late Paleolithic era to the present.  

PubMed

The United States National Science Foundation has recently funded a large collaborative project on "A History of Health in Europe from the Late Paleolithic Era to the Present," whose goal is to measure and analyzes the evolution of skeletal health by combining data from human remains with information gathered from sources in archaeology, climate history, geography, and history. The goal of this international collaborative project is to create a series of database that will allow researchers to reinterpret the history of human health in Europe from the late Paleolithic era to the early twentieth century. During this period, human health and welfare were transformed enormously by the transition from foraging to farming; the rise of cities and complex forms of social and political organization; European colonization; and industrialization. With a trans-Atlantic network of collaborators, we will undertake large-scale comparative studies of the causes and health consequences of these and other dramatic changes in arrangements for work, living, and human interaction. PMID:20063662

Steckel, Richard H; Larsen, Clark S; Sciulli, Paul W; Walker, Philip L

2009-01-01

59

SHORT REPORT Open Access Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air  

E-print Network

SHORT REPORT Open Access Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing: The main long-term purpose of the GERIE study is to improve the health of elderly who permanently reside of housing and social integration) or in nursing homes (quality of healthcare and manage- ment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

60

THE EFFECTS OF DREISSENA POLYMORPHA (PALLAS) INVASION ON AQUATIC COMMUNITIES IN EASTERN EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dreissena polymorpha has been invading fresh waterbodies of eastern and western Europe since the beginning of the 19th century and is still invading. A long history of monitoring and experimental studies conducted in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) has provided us with an understanding of the effects of zebra mussels on waterbodies they invade. However, this work has not been

ALEXANDER Y. KARATAYEV

1997-01-01

61

Returns to education in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research teams from 15 European countries, including some of Europe's leading labor-market economists, have recently completed an EU-funded research project yielding empirical estimates of the effect of education on wages in different European labor markets. Readers approaching the book in which this collaboration culminated might be interested in two kinds of questions: First, what is the return to education in

Ludger Wößmann

2003-01-01

62

Short-term Associations between Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and Hospitalizations in Southern Europe: Results from the MED-PARTICLES Project  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence on the short-term effects of fine and coarse particles on morbidity in Europe is scarce and inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to estimate the association between daily concentrations of fine and coarse particles with hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in eight Southern European cities, within the MED-PARTICLES project. Methods: City-specific Poisson models were fitted to estimate associations of daily concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), ? 10 ?m (PM10), and their difference (PM2.5–10) with daily counts of emergency hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. We derived pooled estimates from random-effects meta-analysis and evaluated the robustness of results to co-pollutant exposure adjustment and model specification. Pooled concentration–response curves were estimated using a meta-smoothing approach. Results: We found significant associations between all PM fractions and cardiovascular admissions. Increases of 10 ?g/m3 in PM2.5, 6.3 ?g/m3 in PM2.5–10, and 14.4 ?g/m3 in PM10 (lag 0–1 days) were associated with increases in cardiovascular admissions of 0.51% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.90%), 0.46% (95% CI: 0.10, 0.82%), and 0.53% (95% CI: 0.06, 1.00%), respectively. Stronger associations were estimated for respiratory hospitalizations, ranging from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.21, 2.11%) for PM10 to 1.36% (95% CI: 0.23, 2.49) for PM2.5 (lag 0–5 days). Conclusions: PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 were positively associated with cardiovascular and respiratory admissions in eight Mediterranean cities. Information on the short-term effects of different PM fractions on morbidity in Southern Europe will be useful to inform European policies on air quality standards. Citation: Stafoggia M, Samoli E, Alessandrini E, Cadum E, Ostro B, Berti G, Faustini A, Jacquemin B, Linares C, Pascal M, Randi G, Ranzi A, Stivanello E, Forastiere F, the MED-PARTICLES Study Group. 2013. Short-term associations between fine and coarse particulate matter and hospitalizations in Southern Europe: results from the MED-PARTICLES project. Environ Health Perspect 121:1026–1033; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206151 PMID:23777832

Samoli, Evangelia; Alessandrini, Ester; Cadum, Ennio; Ostro, Bart; Berti, Giovanna; Faustini, Annunziata; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Linares, Cristina; Pascal, Mathilde; Randi, Giorgia; Ranzi, Andrea; Stivanello, Elisa; Forastiere, Francesco

2013-01-01

63

Economic effects of multi-project management  

E-print Network

This thesis discusses various approaches to project management. In particular, it focuses on the effects of functional and project coordination when inter-project interactions exist. Various organizational structures and ...

Dominguez, Eric Anthony, 1980-

2004-01-01

64

Sharing knowledge to advance healthcare policies in Europe for people living with dementia and their carers: the ALCOVE project  

PubMed Central

Background Alzheimer’s disease and other related dementias are public health priorities in the European Union due to their prevalence, cost and profound impact on society. Because of these pressing implications, the European Union decided to create a Joint Action to share knowledge about dementia and health policy in order to preserve the health, quality of life, autonomy and dignity of people living with dementia and their carers in Europe. Methods ALCOVE is a European Community-funded Joint Action coordinated by the HAS (French National Authority for Health) with a 24-month duration. The project’s life cycle has been divided into the following four steps: (1) collection of existing information, (2) analysis of existing information and making comparisons across Member States, (3) identifying Evidence, Needs, and Priorities, (4) drafting recommendations and disseminating them. Results 19 countries are participating in the ALCOVE initiative. The project will publish its final findings in 2013. The project’s objectives, participants, method, on-going procedures and work plans are already available on the ALCOVE website: http://www.alcove-project.eu/. Preliminary results show that recommendations will need to focus on clinical and epidemiological data collection, diagnostic system assessment, outstanding approaches for treating behavioural disorders, limiting antipsychotic use, and competence assessment in this vulnerable population. Conclusions The European Member States involved are mobilized to share best health policy practices in order to tackle the challenge of dementia’s threat on European health and social systems and to improve the quality of life and care for individuals and their family carers. PMID:22958544

2012-01-01

65

Earnings management within Europe: the effects of member state audit environment, audit firm quality and international capital markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies earnings management in a European context. More specifically, the effects of three factors on earnings management within Europe are studied: member state audit environment, audit firm quality and presence in international capital markets. The national audit environments within Europe vary strongly in terms of independence rules and auditor liability. Hence, it can be expected that the restrictions

Steven J. Maijoor; Ann Vanstraelen

2006-01-01

66

Observed and simulated impacts of the summer NAO in Europe: implications for projected drying in the Mediterranean region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate models predict substantial summer precipitation reductions in Europe and the Mediterranean region in the twenty-first century, but the extent to which these models correctly represent the mechanisms of summertime precipitation in this region is uncertain. Here an analysis is conducted to compare the observed and simulated impacts of the dominant large-scale driver of summer rainfall variability in Europe and the Mediterranean, the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO). The SNAO is defined as the leading mode of July-August sea level pressure variability in the North Atlantic sector. Although the SNAO is weaker and confined to northern latitudes compared to its winter counterpart, with a southern lobe located over the UK, it significantly affects precipitation in the Mediterranean, particularly Italy and the Balkans (correlations of up to 0.6). During high SNAO summers, when strong anticyclonic conditions and suppressed precipitation prevail over the UK, the Mediterranean region instead is anomalously wet. This enhanced precipitation is related to the presence of a strong upper-level trough over the Balkans—part of a hemispheric pattern of anomalies that develops in association with the SNAO—that leads to mid-level cooling and increased potential instability. Neither this downstream extension nor the surface influence of the SNAO is captured in the two CMIP3 models examined (HadCM3 and GFDL-CM2.1), with weak or non-existent correlations between the SNAO and Mediterranean precipitation. Because these models also predict a strong upward SNAO trend in the future, the error in their representation of the SNAO surface signature impacts the projected precipitation trends. In particular, the attendant increase in precipitation that, based on observations, should occur in the Mediterranean and offset some of the non-SNAO related drying does not occur. Furthermore, the fact that neither the observed SNAO nor summer precipitation in Europe/Mediterranean region exhibits any significant trend so far (for either the full century or the recent half of the record) does not increase our confidence in these model projections.

Bladé, Ileana; Liebmann, Brant; Fortuny, Didac; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan

2012-08-01

67

The range of regional climate change projections in central Europe: How to deal with the spread of climate model results?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional climate change projections for central Europe in the 21st century show a large spread of simulated temperature and precipitation trends due to natural variability and modelling uncertainties. The questions are how to extract robust climate change signals and how to transfer the range of possible temperature and precipitation trends to climate change impact studies and adaptation strategies? Within the BMBF funded research priority "KLIMZUG - Managing Climate Change in the Regions of the Future", innovative strategies for adaptation to climate change are developed. The funding activity particularly stresses the regional aspect since the global problem climate change must be tackled by measures at regional and local level. The focus of the joint project "KLIMZUG-NORD - Strategic Approaches to Climate Change Adaptation in the Hamburg Metropolitan Region" is to establish an interdisciplinary network between the research, administrative and economic sectors in this region. The regional climate change information is provided by the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology as input for climate change impact assessments. The cross-sectional task "climate change" is to prepare consistent regional climate data and to advise on its reasonable use. The project benefits from the results of the ENSEMBLES EU project, in which an extensive set of regional climate change simulations at 50 km horizontal resolution were performed for 1950 to 2100. For impact studies, higher horizontal resolutions are required. With the regional climate model REMO, three global climate change scenarios from ECHAM5-MPIOM were downscaled to 50 km with three ensemble members each. In a second step, some members were further downscaled to 10 km for central Europe. For the global and regional simulations, the trends were analysed and indicate a strong internal climate variability, which further increases the range of climate change simulation results. This all recommends the application of 1. several RCMs to consider the uncertainty of downscaling methods, 2. different ensemble members of a certain climate change scenario to consider internal climate variability, 3. different global climate change scenarios to consider the influence of greenhouse gas emissions. The spread of climate change information needs to be transported into impact assessments in order to develop flexible adaptation strategies.

Rechid, D.; Jacob, D.; Podzun, R.

2010-09-01

68

The relative age effect in youth soccer across Europe.  

PubMed

The potential asymmetries in the birth-date distributions of youth soccer players across ten European countries (2175 age citations) were considered. First, we examined the birth-dates of players representing national youth teams in international competitions. Second, the birth-dates of players representing professional club teams in international youth tournaments were analysed. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to assess differences between observed and expected birth-date distributions. Regression analyses were employed to examine the relationship between month of birth and number of players in the different samples. The results showed an over-representation of players born in the first quarter of the selection year (from January to March) for all the national youth selections at the under-15 (U-15), U-16, U-17 and U-18 age categories, as well as for the UEFA U-16 tournaments and Meridian Cup. Players with a greater relative age are more likely to be identified as "talented" because of the likely physical advantages they have over their "younger" peers. Some options for reducing the relative age effect are offered. PMID:16195011

Helsen, Werner F; van Winckel, Jan; Williams, A Mark

2005-06-01

69

Clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing effects based on multi-site AERONET observations over Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  One of the great unknowns in climate research is the contribution of aerosols to climate forcing and climate perturbation.\\u000a In this study, retrievals from AERONET are used to estimate the direct clear-sky aerosol top-of-atmosphere and surface radiative\\u000a forcing effects for 12 multi-site observing stations in Europe. The radiative transfer code sdisort in the libRadtran environment is applied to accomplish these

S. Gonzi; O. Dubovik; D. Baumgartner; E. Putz

2007-01-01

70

Comenius Project: Are e-Learning Collaborations of High School Students across Europe in Maths Possible?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overall aim of the project is to allow for the collaboration of high school students of different European countries on small, selected maths topics. This involves the use of technology, student mobility and English language competency. Benefits are also expected to accrue to teachers of mathematics by providing the opportunity to work with…

Simonovits, Reinhard; McElroy, Jim; O'Loughlin, James; Townsend, Colin

2013-01-01

71

Transatlantic Student Exchange between Canada and Europe: Experiences from the CEIHPAL Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International student mobility amongst and between countries has become increasingly common and forms a central feature of the global higher education system. This paper examines the key learning experiences relating to the student mobility component of the Canadian-European Initiative for Health Promotion Advanced Learning (CEIHPAL) project.…

Sherriff, Nigel Stuart; Jeffery, Amanda; Davies, John Kenneth; Hills, Marcia; Carroll, Simon; Jackson, Suzanne; Krupa, Gene; Goepel, Eberhard; Hofmeister, Arnd; Tountas, Yannis; Attorp, Adrienne

2012-01-01

72

Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe: The ARISE project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARISE proposes to design a new infrastructure that integrates different station networks in order to provide a new "3D" image of the atmospheric dynamics from the ground up to the mesosphere with unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. The implied networks are: -the International infrasound network developed for the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). This system is unique by its quality for infrasound and atmospheric wave observations, -the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes (NDACC) which uses Lidar to measure stratospheric dynamics, -the Network for the Detection of Mesopause Changes (NDMC), dedicated to airglow layer measurements in the mesosphere, and additional complementary stations and satellite data. The infrastructure extends across Europe and outlying regions, including polar and equatorial regions. Atmospheric waves play a key role in atmospheric mixing and global circulation in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Planetary waves can lead to sudden stratospheric warming while gravity waves generate predictable tropical oscillations of mean wind, which can lead to enhanced predictability of climate. Parameterization of gravity waves is needed for accurate simulation of mean climate and variability, but parameters are uncertain due to lack of long-term high-resolution observations. ARISE expected benefits would be a better description of the atmosphere, leading to an improved accuracy in short and medium range weather forecasts. The measurements will be used to improve the parameterization of gravity waves in the stratosphere to better resolve climate models. Such description is crucial to estimate the impact of stratospheric climate forcing on the troposphere. In the long term, data will be used for monitoring changes in the occurrence of extreme events and trends in the middle atmosphere climate. The benefits also include civil applications related to monitoring of natural hazards as volcanoes.

Blanc, E.; Bittner, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Ceranna, L.; Charlton-Perez, A.; Ripepe, M.; Evers, L.; Kvaerna, T.; Lastovicka, J.; Eliasson, L.; Crosby, N.; Blanc-Benon, P.; Bernonville, S.; Le Pichon, A.; Keckhut, P.; Marchetti, E.; Wust, S.; Brachet, N.; Heinrich, P.; Pilger, C.

2012-04-01

73

School-based interventions promoting both physical activity and healthy eating in Europe: a systematic review within the HOPE project.  

PubMed

It is the purpose of this study to systematically review the evidence of school-based interventions targeting dietary and physical activity behaviour in primary (6-12 years old) and secondary school (12-18 years old) children in Europe. Eleven studies (reported in 27 articles) met the inclusion criteria, six in primary school and five in secondary school children. Interventions were evaluated in terms of behavioural determinants, behaviour (diet and physical activity) and weight-related outcomes (body mass index [BMI] or other indicators of obesity). The results suggest that combining educational and environmental components that focus on both sides of the energy balance give better and more relevant effects. Furthermore, computer-tailored personalized education in the classroom showed better results than a generic classroom curriculum. Environmental interventions might include organized physical activities during breaks, or before and after school; improved availability of physical activity opportunities in and around the school environment; increased physical education lesson time; improved availability or accessibility of healthy food options; and restricted availability and accessibility of unhealthy food options. More high-quality studies are needed to assess obesity-related interventions in Europe. PMID:20122137

De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Van Cauwenberghe, E; Spittaels, H; Oppert, J-M; Rostami, C; Brug, J; Van Lenthe, F; Lobstein, T; Maes, L

2011-03-01

74

Meteorology and photochemical air pollution in Southern Europe: Experimental results from EC research projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MECAPIP project of EC has served to document the summer atmospheric circulations and the related air pollution dynamics over Spain and the Western Mediterranean. The first includes surface wind convergence over the Iberian peninsula, large-scale compensatory subsidence over the surrounding coastal areas, and the formation of re-circulatory cells as a result of the sea breezes combining with up-slope winds

B. Artnano

1996-01-01

75

Jet fuel property changes and their effect on producibility and cost in the U.S., Canada, and Europe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of changes in properties and blending stocks on the refinery output and cost of jet fuel in the U.S., Canada, and Europe were determined. Computerized refinery models that minimize production costs and incorporated a 1981 cost structure and supply/demand projections to the year 2010 were used. Except in the West U.S., no changes in jet fuel properties were required to meet all projected demands, even allowing for deteriorating crude qualities and changes in competing product demand. In the West U.S., property changes or the use of cracked blendstocks were projected to be required after 1990 to meet expected demand. Generally, relaxation of aromatics and freezing point, or the use of cracked stocks produced similar results, i.e., jet fuel output could be increased by up to a factor of three or its production cost lowered by up to $10/cu m. High quality hydrocracked stocks are now used on a limited basis to produce jet fuel. The conversion of U.S. and NATO military forces from wide-cut to kerosene-based jet fuel is addressed. This conversion resulted in increased costs of several hundred million dollars annually. These costs can be reduced by relaxing kerosene jet fuel properties, using cracked stocks and/or considering the greater volumetric energy content of kerosene jet fuel.

Varga, G. M., Jr.; Avella, A. J., Jr.; Cunningham, A. R.; Featherston, C. D.; Gorgol, J. F.; Graf, A. J.; Lieberman, M.; Oliver, G. A.

1985-01-01

76

The New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe (MATRIX) Project - An overview of its major findings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent major natural disasters, such as the 2011 T?hoku earthquake, tsunami and subsequent Fukushima nuclear accident, have raised awareness of the frequent and potentially far-reaching interconnections between natural hazards. Such interactions occur at the hazard level, where an initial hazard may trigger other events (e.g., an earthquake triggering a tsunami) or several events may occur concurrently (or nearly so), e.g., severe weather around the same time as an earthquake. Interactions also occur at the vulnerability level, where the initial event may make the affected community more susceptible to the negative consequences of another event (e.g., an earthquake weakens buildings, which are then damaged further by windstorms). There is also a temporal element involved, where changes in exposure may alter the total risk to a given area. In short, there is the likelihood that the total risk estimated when considering multiple hazard and risks and their interactions is greater than the sum of their individual parts. It is with these issues in mind that the European Commission, under their FP7 program, supported the New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe or MATRIX project (10.2010 to 12.2013). MATRIX set out to tackle multiple natural hazards (i.e., those of concern to Europe, namely earthquakes, landslides, volcanos, tsunamis, wild fires, storms and fluvial and coastal flooding) and risks within a common theoretical framework. The MATRIX work plan proceeded from an assessment of single-type risk methodologies (including how uncertainties should be treated), cascade effects within a multi-hazard environment, time-dependent vulnerability, decision making and support for multi-hazard mitigation and adaption, and an assessment of how the multi-hazard and risk viewpoint may be integrated into current decision making and risk mitigation programs, considering the existing single-hazard and risk focus. Three test sites were considered during the project: Naples, Cologne, and the French West Indies. In addition, a software platform, the MATRIX-Common IT sYstem (MATRIX-CITY), was developed to allow the evaluation of characteristic multi-hazard and risk scenarios in comparison to single-type analyses. This presentation therefore outlines the more significant outcomes of the project, in particular those dealing with the harmonization of single-type hazards, cascade event analysis, time-dependent vulnerability changes and the response of the disaster management community to the MATRIX point of view.

Fleming, Kevin; Zschau, Jochen; Gasparini, Paolo

2014-05-01

77

Advection from the North Atlantic as the Forcing of Winter Greenhouse Effect Over Europe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface skin temperature are observed over central Europe: we observe a difference of 9.8 K comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996 for the region 50-60 degrees N; 5-35 degrees E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index I(sub na), the average of the ocean-surface wind speed over the eastern North Atlantic when the direction is from the southwest (when the wind is from another direction, it counts as a zero speed to the average). Average Ina for February 1990 was 10.6 in s(exp -1), but for February 1996 I(sub na) was only 2.4 m s(exp -1). A large value of I(sub na) means a strong southwesterly flow which brings warm and moist air into Europe at low level, producing a steeper tropospheric lapse rate. Strong ascending motions result, which we observe in February 1990 at 700 mb. The near-surface moisture rises to higher (and cooler) levels, producing clouds and precipitation. Total preciptable water and cloud-cover fraction have larger values in February 1990 than in 1996. The difference in the greenhouse effect between these two scenarios can be translated into a virtual irradiating source of 2.6 W m(exp -2) above the February 1990 atmosphere, which, as an order of magnitude estimate, contributes to the warming of the surface by 2.6 K. If we accept this estimate as numerically pertinent, the direct effect stands as 7.2 K (9.8 K - 2.6 K), and therefore its greenhouse-effect reinforcement is by 36%. This constitutes a substantial positive feedback to the direct effect, which is the inflow of warm air to the low troposphere over Europe.

Otterman, Jay; Angell, J.; Atlas, Robert; Bungato, D.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Susskind, J.; Wu, M.-L. C.

2001-01-01

78

Future snowfall in western and central Europe projected with a high-resolution regional climate model ensemble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snowfall frequency and intensity are influenced strongly by climate change. Here we separate the basic frequency change resulting from a gradually warming climate, from the intensity changes, by focusing on snowfall on days where the mean temperature is below freezing (Hellmann days). Using an ensemble of simulations, obtained with the high-resolution regional climate model KNMI-RACMO2 driven by the EC-EARTH global climate model and RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 forcing scenarios, we show that in addition to the strong decrease in the number of Hellmann days, also a substantial reduction in the mean Hellmann-day snowfall can be expected over large parts of western and central Europe. Moreover, seasonal snowfall extremes display trends that are comparable or even larger. Projected intensity reductions are locally as large as -30% per degree warming, thus being in sharp contrast to mean winter precipitation, which increases in most future climate scenarios. Exceptions are the high Alps and parts of Scandinavia, which may see an increase of up to +10% per degree warming.

Vries, Hylke; Lenderink, Geert; Meijgaard, Erik

2014-06-01

79

Linking climate and air quality over Europe: effects of meteorology on PM2.5 concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of various meteorological parameters such as temperature, wind speed, absolute humidity, precipitation and mixing height on PM2.5 concentrations over Europe were examined using a three-dimensional chemical transport model, PMCAMx-2008. Our simulations covered three periods, representative of different seasons (summer, winter, and fall). PM2.5 appears to be more sensitive to temperature changes compared to the other meteorological parameters in all seasons. PM2.5 generally decreases as temperature increases, although the predicted changes vary significantly in space and time, ranging from -700 ng m-3 K-1 (-8% K-1) to 300 ng m-3 K-1 (7% K-1). The predicted decreases of PM2.5 are mainly due to evaporation of ammonium nitrate, while the higher biogenic emissions and the accelerated gas-phase reaction rates increase the production of organic aerosol (OA) and sulfate, having the opposite effect on PM2.5. The predicted responses of PM2.5 to absolute humidity are also quite variable, ranging from -130 ng m-3 %-1 (-1.6% %-1) to 160 ng m-3 %-1 (1.6% %-1) dominated mainly by changes in inorganic PM2.5 species. An increase in absolute humidity favors the partitioning of nitrate to the aerosol phase and increases the average PM2.5 during summer and fall. Decreases in sulfate and sea salt levels govern the average PM2.5 response to humidity during winter. A decrease of wind speed (keeping the emissions constant) increases all PM2.5 species (on average 40 ng m-3 %-1) due to changes in dispersion and dry deposition. The wind speed effects on sea salt emissions are significant for PM2.5 concentrations over water and in coastal areas. Increases in precipitation have a negative effect on PM2.5 (decreases up to 110 ng m-3 %-1) in all periods due to increases in wet deposition of PM2.5 species and their gas precursors. Changes in mixing height have the smallest effects (up to 35 ng m-3 %-1) on PM2.5 . Regarding the relative importance of each of the meteorological parameters in a changed future climate, the projected changes in precipitation are expected to have the largest impact on PM2.5 levels during all periods (changes up to 2 ?g m-3 in the fall). The expected effects in future PM2.5 levels due to wind speed changes are similar in all seasons and quite close to those resulting from future precipitation changes (up to 1.4 ?g m-3). The expected increases in absolute humidity in the future can lead to large changes in PM2.5 levels (increases up to 2 ?g m-3) mainly in the fall due to changes in particulate nitrate levels. Despite the high sensitivity of PM2.5 levels to temperature, the small expected increases of temperature in the future will lead to modest PM2.5 changes and will not dominate the overall change.

Megaritis, A. G.; Fountoukis, C.; Charalampidis, P. E.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S. N.

2014-09-01

80

Economics of chronic diseases protocol: cost-effectiveness modelling and the future burden of non-communicable disease in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of chronic disease is caused by risk factors which are mostly preventable. Effective interventions to reduce these risks are known and proven to be applicable to a variety of settings. Chronic disease is generally developed long before the fatal outcome, meaning that a lot of people spend a number of years in poor health. Effective prevention measures can prolong lives of individuals and significantly improve their quality of life. However, the methods to measure cost-effectiveness are a subject to much debate. The Economics of Chronic Diseases project aims to establish the best possible methods of measuring cost-effectiveness as well as develop micro-simulation models apt at projecting future burden of chronic diseases, their costs and potential savings after implementation of cost-effective interventions. Method This research project will involve eight European countries: Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Lithuania, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom (UK). A literature review will be conducted to identify scientific articles which critically review the methods of cost-effectiveness. Contact will be made health economists to inform and enrich this review. This evidence will be used as a springboard for discussion at a meeting with key European stakeholders and experts with the aim of reaching a consensus on recommendations for cost-effectiveness methodology. Epidemiological data for coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be collected along with data on time trends in three major risk factors related to these diseases, specifically tobacco consumption, blood pressure and body mass index. Economic and epidemiological micro-simulation models will be developed to asses the future distributions of risks, disease outcomes, healthcare costs and the cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in Europe. Discussion This work will help to establish the best methods of measuring cost-effectiveness of health interventions as well as test a variety of scenarios to reduce the risk factors associated with selected chronic diseases. The modelling projections could be used to inform decisions and policies that will implement the best course of action to curb the rising incidence of chronic diseases. PMID:24886110

2014-01-01

81

Improved appreciation of the functioning and importance of biological soil crusts in Europe: the Soil Crust International Project (SCIN).  

PubMed

Here we report details of the European research initiative "Soil Crust International" (SCIN) focusing on the biodiversity of biological soil crusts (BSC, composed of bacteria, algae, lichens, and bryophytes) and on functional aspects in their specific environment. Known as the so-called "colored soil lichen community" (Bunte Erdflechtengesellschaft), these BSCs occur all over Europe, extending into subtropical and arid regions. Our goal is to study the uniqueness of these BSCs on the regional scale and investigate how this community can cope with large macroclimatic differences. One of the major aims of this project is to develop biodiversity conservation and sustainable management strategies for European BSCs. To achieve this, we established a latitudinal transect from the Great Alvar of Öland, Sweden in the north over Gössenheim, Central Germany and Hochtor in the Hohe Tauern National Park, Austria down to the badlands of Tabernas, Spain in the south. The transect stretches over 20° latitude and 2,300 m in altitude, including natural (Hochtor, Tabernas) and semi-natural sites that require maintenance such as by grazing activities (Öland, Gössenheim). At all four sites BSC coverage exceeded 30 % of the referring landscape, with the alpine site (Hochtor) reaching the highest cyanobacterial cover and the two semi-natural sites (Öland, Gössenheim) the highest bryophyte cover. Although BSCs of the four European sites share a common set of bacteria, algae (including cyanobacteria) lichens and bryophytes, first results indicate not only climate specific additions of species, but also genetic/phenotypic uniqueness of species between the four sites. While macroclimatic conditions are rather different, microclimatic conditions and partly soil properties seem fairly homogeneous between the four sites, with the exception of water availability. Continuous activity monitoring of photosystem II revealed the BSCs of the Spanish site as the least active in terms of photosynthetic active periods. PMID:24954978

Büdel, Burkhard; Colesie, Claudia; Green, T G Allan; Grube, Martin; Lázaro Suau, Roberto; Loewen-Schneider, Katharina; Maier, Stefanie; Peer, Thomas; Pintado, Ana; Raggio, José; Ruprecht, Ulrike; Sancho, Leopoldo G; Schroeter, Burkhard; Türk, Roman; Weber, Bettina; Wedin, Mats; Westberg, Martin; Williams, Laura; Zheng, Lingjuan

2014-01-01

82

The Virtual Earthquake and seismology Research Community e-science environment in Europe (VERCE): a European Research Infrastructure project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of science in seismology is changing - new discoveries will emerge from statistical analysis and modeling (inversion, assimilation) of large amounts of data generated from dense observational and monitoring networks and from large-scale wave propagation simulations. In many cases our ability to acquire observational and synthetic data outpaces today our ability to process and analyze them. Addressing these challenges requires a new and holistic approach with important augmented societal applications in seismic hazard assessment and monitoring, and exploration geophysics. VERCE is a four-year FP7-INFRASTRUCTURE project, with a consortium of ten partners from seismology and computer science, and contributes to the e-science infrastructure of the European Plate Observatory System (EPOS), the ESFRI initiative of the solid Earth community in Europe. We report here the progress of VERCE toward a service-oriented architecture and a platform of services and tools - integrating European computing and data infrastructures with the distributed seismological data archives - in support for data-intensive analysis and modeling applications. Two prototype applications were selected within VERCE: a data-intensive analysis application based on seismic-noise correlation; and a data-intensive HPC wave simulation application. Both applications consist of multiple phases where ingestion interleaves with data processing and analysis, generating highly parallel and asynchronous data workflows together with massively parallel data access. VERCE efforts are devoted in particular to providing efficient scalable and transparent distributed data management and data transfer services, together with execution models that enable data processing and analysis computation to overlap with data transfer and I/O operations, thereby achieving high throughput under heavy asynchronous access to data. We discuss the current progress of VERCE in enabling the application prototypes, and in developing a scientific gateway that will provide them as a service to the seismology community. We will also discuss elements of the next phase plan and implementation roadmap.

Vilotte, J.; Atkinson, M.; Van Eck, T.; Bossu, R.; Michelini, A.; Igel, H.; Rietbrock, A.; Frank, A.; Schwichtenberg, H.; Erbacci, G.

2013-12-01

83

Review of recent studies from central and Eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to "traditional" air pollutants.  

PubMed Central

The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review focuses on epidemiologic evidence regarding health effects of poor air quality in Central and Eastern Europe. It appears that short-term high levels of air pollutants (primarily particulates and SO2) may increase mortality in sensitive parts of the population. Associations were also seen between air pollution levels and prevalence of respiratory diseases as well as lung function disturbances in adults and children. One study indicated that urban air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer. Several investigations pointed to strong interactions between risk factors. The poor scientific standard of the studies often makes it difficult to evaluate the findings. Several steps should be taken to develop environmental epidemiology in Central and Eastern Europe, including international collaboration in research projects and training. PMID:7614938

Jedrychowski, W

1995-01-01

84

Advection from the North Atlantic as the Forcing of Winter Greenhouse Effect Over Europe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface temperature are observed over central Europe. Comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996, a satellite-retrieved surface (skin) temperature difference of 9.8 K is observed for the region 50-60 degrees N; 5-35 degrees E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index I(sub na), the average of the ocean-surface wind speed over the eastern North Atlantic when the direction is from the southwest (when the wind is from another direction, it counts as a zero speed to the average). Average I(sub na) for February 1990 was 10.6 m/s, but for February 1996 I(sub na) was only 2.4 m/s. A large value of I(sub na) means a strong southwesterly flow which brings warm and moist air into central Europe at low level, producing a steeper tropospheric lapse rate. Strong ascending motions at 700 mb are observed in association with the occurrence of enhanced warm, moist advection from the ocean in February 1990 producing clouds and precipitation. Total precipitable water and cloud-cover fraction have larger values in February 1990 than in 1996. The difference in the greenhouse effect between these two scenarios, this reduction in heat loss to space, can be translated into a virtual radiative heating of 2.6 W/square m above the February 1990 surface/atmosphere system, which contributes to a warming of the surface on the order of 2.6 K. Accepting this estimate as quantitatively meaningful, we evaluate the direct effect, the rise in the surface temperature in Europe as a result of maritime-air inflow, as 7.2 K (9.8 K-2.6 K). Thus, fractional reinforcement by the greenhouse effect is 2.6/7.2, or 36%, a substantial positive feedback.

Otterman, J.; Angell, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Shubert, S.; Starr, David OC.; Susskind, J.; Wu, M.-L. C.

2002-01-01

85

Procedures for Research on School Effectiveness Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unique feature of the Research on School Effectiveness Project (part of a larger program for school effectiveness initiated by the State of Alaska) is an intention to base the development of new standards for effective schooling upon documented research findings. First, a list of variables affecting some part of the educational community was…

Savard, William G.

86

Operational Model Evaluation for Particulate Matter in Europe and North America in the Context of the AQMEII Project  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten state-of-the-science regional air quality (AQ) modeling systems have been applied to continental scale domains in North America and Europe for full-year simulations of 2006 in the context of Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII), whose main goals are ...

87

Project Title: Prisoner Counselling Effectiveness  

E-print Network

to be evaluated. Based on a review of literature surrounding designing self- assessment survey methods, a review methods and applications of survey methods to evaluate a programmes effectiveness (comparison across review on applications of survey methods to evaluate a programme's effectiveness 12 March ­ 5 April

Hickman, Mark

88

Mind the Gap: The Effectiveness of Incentives to boost Retirement Saving in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pension reforms all across Europe have a common theme: to reduce the generosity of the pay-as-you-go public pension pillar threatened by population aging, and to build up new pillars by private saving through occupational and individual pension plans. The extent of such retirement saving varies a great deal across Europe. This variation reflects, among other factors, the differences in public

Axel Börsch-Supan

2004-01-01

89

Common summertime total cloud cover and aerosol optical depth weekly variabilities over Europe: Sign of the aerosol indirect effects?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the summer total cloud cover (TCC) weekly cycle over Europe is investigated using MODIS and ISCCP satellite data in conjunction with aerosol optical depth (AOD) MODIS data. Spatial weekly patterns are examined at a 1° × 1° (MODIS) and 250 × 250 km2 (ISCCP) resolution. Despite the noise in the TCC weekly cycle patterns, their large-scale features show similarities with the AOD550 patterns. Regions with a positive (higher values during midweek) weekly cycle appear over Central Europe, while a strong negative (higher values during weekend) weekly plume appears over the Iberian Peninsula and the North-Eastern Europe. The TCC weekly variability exhibits a very good agreement with the AOD550 weekly variability over Central, South-Western Europe and North-Eastern Europe and a moderate agreement for Central Mediterranean. The MODIS derived TCC weekly variability shows reasonable agreement with the independent ISCCP observations, thus supporting the credibility of the results. TCC and AOD550 correlations exhibit a strong slope for the total of the 6 regions investigated in this work with the slopes being higher for regions with common TCC-AOD550 weekly variabilities. The slope is much stronger for AOD550 values less than 0.2 for Central and South-Western Europe, in line with previous studies around the world. Possible scenarios that could explain the common weekly variability of aerosols and cloud cover through the aerosol indirect effects are discussed here also taking into account the weekly variability appearing in ECA&D E-OBS rainfall data.

Georgoulias, A. K.; Kourtidis, K. A.; Alexandri, G.; Rapsomanikis, S.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.

2015-02-01

90

Modeling of aerosol indirect effects with WRF/Chem over Europe  

E-print Network

Counters (CPC3010, CPC3025), a Cloud Condensation Nuclei Chamber (CCNC), a custom scanning mobility and cloud issued in frame European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions shows a bias of +15%. Predicted cloud droplet number concentration is overestimated and radius effective

Curci, Gabriele

91

Satellite-derived trends in phenology over Europe: real trends or algorithmic effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in the length of the growing season as a result of climate change, have raised many questions about the effects on plant and animal populations. Using Remote Sensing, analysis of Vegetation Index (VI) time-series can help to understand the behavior of plant phenology through the years. Large datasets of satellite images are available to study phenology changes but the interpretation of data to get information can be difficult and different approaches give different answers about changes in the phenological cycle over Europe. In this study 21 years of GIMMS NDVI data was analyzed using two approaches to derive indicators for start, end and length of growing season. Quality control procedures showed clear limitations in the applicability of the two approaches. While there was significant correlation between indicators derived from them, trends detected in start, end or length of growing season for the two approaches often do not agree. This leaves room for questions whether trends are real or due to algorithmic effects.

de Wit, A.; Mücher, S.

2009-04-01

92

Climate change effects on Chikungunya transmission in Europe: geospatial analysis of vector’s climatic suitability and virus’ temperature requirements  

PubMed Central

Background Chikungunya was, from the European perspective, considered to be a travel-related tropical mosquito-borne disease prior to the first European outbreak in Northern Italy in 2007. This was followed by cases of autochthonous transmission reported in South-eastern France in 2010. Both events occurred after the introduction, establishment and expansion of the Chikungunya-competent and highly invasive disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) in Europe. In order to assess whether these outbreaks are indicative of the beginning of a trend or one-off events, there is a need to further examine the factors driving the potential transmission of Chikungunya in Europe. The climatic suitability, both now and in the future, is an essential starting point for such an analysis. Methods The climatic suitability for Chikungunya outbreaks was determined by using bioclimatic factors that influence, both vector and, pathogen. Climatic suitability for the European distribution of the vector Aedes albopictus was based upon previous correlative environmental niche models. Climatic risk classes were derived by combining climatic suitability for the vector with known temperature requirements for pathogen transmission, obtained from outbreak regions. In addition, the longest potential intra-annual season for Chikungunya transmission was estimated for regions with expected vector occurrences. In order to analyse spatio-temporal trends for risk exposure and season of transmission in Europe, climate change impacts are projected for three time-frames (2011–2040, 2041–2070 and 2071–2100) and two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). These climatic projections are based on regional climate model COSMO-CLM, which builds on the global model ECHAM5. Results European areas with current and future climatic suitability of Chikungunya transmission are identified. An increase in risk is projected for Western Europe (e.g. France and Benelux-States) in the first half of the 21st century and from mid-century onwards for central parts of Europe (e.g. Germany). Interestingly, the southernmost parts of Europe do not generally provide suitable conditions in these projections. Nevertheless, many Mediterranean regions will persist to be climatically suitable for transmission. Overall, the highest risk of transmission by the end of the 21st century was projected for France, Northern Italy and the Pannonian Basin (East-Central Europe). This general tendency is depicted in both, the A1B and B1 climate change scenarios. Conclusion In order to guide preparedness for further outbreaks, it is crucial to anticipate risk as to identify areas where specific public health measures, such as surveillance and vector control, can be implemented. However, public health practitioners need to be aware that climate is only one factor driving the transmission of vector-borne disease. PMID:24219507

2013-01-01

93

Project ABLE: Academic Bridges to Learning Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes Project ABLE (Academic Bridges to Learning Effectiveness), a program of the Longview Community College in Kansas City, Missouri, to provide college students with learning disabilities or brain injuries with the skills needed to succeed in college and the workplace. Each student in the program takes a basic core of classes…

Jenison, Mary Ellen

94

Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project: cross-national comparison of smoking prevalence in 18 European countries.  

PubMed

Limited data on smoking prevalence allowing valid between-country comparison are available in Europe. The aim of this study is to provide data on smoking prevalence and its determinants in 18 European countries. In 2010, within the Pricing Policies And Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project, we conducted a face-to-face survey on smoking in 18 European countries (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and Sweden) on a total of 18 056 participants, representative for each country of the population aged 15 years or older. Overall, 27.2% of the participants were current smokers (30.6% of men and 24.1% of women). Smoking prevalence was highest in Bulgaria (40.9%) and Greece (38.9%) and lowest in Italy (22.0%) and Sweden (16.3%). Smoking prevalence ranged between 15.7% (Sweden) and 44.3% (Bulgaria) for men and between 11.6% (Albania) and 38.1% (Ireland) for women. Multivariate analysis showed a significant inverse trend between smoking prevalence and the level of education in both sexes. Male-to-female smoking prevalence ratios ranged from 0.85 in Spain to 3.47 in Albania and current-to-ex prevalence ratios ranged from 0.68 in Sweden to 4.28 in Albania. There are considerable differences across Europe in smoking prevalence, and male-to-female and current-to-ex smoking prevalence ratios. Eastern European countries, lower income countries and those with less advanced tobacco control policies have less favourable smoking patterns and are at an earlier stage of the tobacco epidemic. PMID:24441832

Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo; Chaloupka, Frank J; Colombo, Paolo; Currie, Laura; Fernandez, Esteve; Fischbacher, Colin; Gilmore, Anna; Godfrey, Fiona; Joossens, Luk; Leon, Maria E; Levy, David T; Nguyen, Lien; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Ross, Hana; Townsend, Joy; Clancy, Luke

2014-05-01

95

Europe Note Europe note number  

E-print Network

1 Europe Note Europe note number: E/2012/05 Date 23 April 2012 Distribution Vice HE International Unit European Activity Survey of UK HEIs - Wales Introduction 1. This E-note reports the survey was collected from November 2011 to December 2011 using an online survey tool. Separate E-notes

Müller, Jens-Dominik

96

Europe Note Europe note number  

E-print Network

Europe Note Europe note number: E/2012/04 Date 23 April 2012 Distribution Vice of the 2011 UK HE International Unit European Activity Survey of UK HEIs - Scotland Introduction 1. This E-note using an online survey tool. Separate E-notes have been developed with results for the UK as a whole

Müller, Jens-Dominik

97

Europe Note Europe note number  

E-print Network

1 Europe Note Europe note number: E/2012/02 Date 23 April 2012 Distribution Vice HE International Unit European Activity Survey of UK HEIs - UK Introduction 1. This E-note informs UK to December 2011 using an online survey tool. Separate E-notes have been developed with results for England

Müller, Jens-Dominik

98

Europe Note Europe note number  

E-print Network

1 Europe Note Europe note number: E/2012/03 Date 15 April 2012 Distribution Vice 1. This E-note reports on the outcomes for England and Northern Ireland of the UK HE International was collected from November 2011 to December 2011 using an online survey tool. Separate E-notes have been

Müller, Jens-Dominik

99

Projective invariance and the kinetic depth effect.  

PubMed

Seven experiments test the assumption that, in the kinetic depth effect, observers have reliable and direct access to the equivalence of shapes in projective geometry. The assumption is implicit in 'inverse optics' approaches to visual form perception. Observers adjusted a comparison shape to match a standard shape; both standard and comparison were portrayed as in continuous rotation in space, using a graphics computer. The shapes were either plane quadrilaterals or solid prisms. The angular difference of the planes of the shapes was varied, as was the dot density of a texture in those planes. Departure from projective equivalence was measured in six studies by measuring the planar analogue of cross ratio, and in a seventh by measuring the cross ratio for points in space. Projective equivalence was not found to be perceived uniformly, except in one experiment that did not involve rotation in depth. Otherwise changes in orientation of up to 180 degrees about a single coordinate axis had no significant effect on matches in shape, while changes in orientation about more than one coordinate axis produced significant effects. The addition of texture and a change in rotation speed did not correct departures from projective equivalence. PMID:1481702

Niall, K K

1992-11-01

100

The school nutrition environment and its association with soft drink intakes in seven countries across Europe--the ENERGY project.  

PubMed

The school is an important setting for promoting healthy eating especially at the transition from childhood to adolescence. This study contributes to the literature by describing practices within physical, political and sociocultural aspects of the school nutrition environment in seven countries across Europe based on questionnaires to the school management, and exploring their associations with soft drink consumption reported on questionnaires by 10-12 year olds. Several of the commonly self-reported practices could be supportive of a healthy diet (time to eat, access to water, restriction on marketing), but some practices were underutilized (i.e. discussion with stakeholders, healthy foods at events). Only a few associations of practices with the pupils? soft drink consumption were found. PMID:25190681

Lien, Nanna; van Stralen, Maartje M; Androutsos, Odysseas; Bere, Elling; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; van Lippevelde, Wendy; Manios, Yannis; Te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

2014-11-01

101

Characterization of Saharan dust properties transported towards Europe in the frame of the FENNEC project: a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the FENNEC experiment (6 to 30 June 2011) an effort has been dedicated to characterize Saharan dust plumes transported towards southern Europe. Hence, a multi instrumented field campaign has been conducted. Ground based nitrogen Raman LIDAR (GBNRL) has been deployed in southern Spain close to Marbella, simultaneously with airborne lidar (AL) performing measurements over both the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the western Africa (from 2 to 23 June). The GBNRL was equipped with co-polar and cross-polar channels to perform continuous measurements of the dust aerosols trapped in the troposphere. It was developed by LSCE with the support of the LEOSPHERE Company. The French FALCON 20 research aircraft operated by SAFIRE (Service des Avions Francais Instrumentés pour la Recherche en Environnement) carried the AL Leandre Nouvelle Generation (LNG) as well as a dropsonde releasing system and radiometers. A major, one week long, dust event has been sampled over Spain from 25 June to 1 July with high optical depth (>0.5 at 355nm) and particular depolarization ratios (15 to 25%). Backtrajectory studies suggest that the dust particles observed were from dust uplifts that occurred in Southern Morocco and Northern Mauritania. The event has been also documented 3 days before by the AL flying over Mauritania. AERONET sunphotometer measurements of aerosol properties, along the dust plume transport path appear to be coherent with both the lidar and the backtrajectory analysis. These analysis exhibit a likely major contribution from the Western Sahara sources to the Southern Europe. Such a contribution may impact the visibility and then the airtrafic, modify the tropospheric chemistry, and add nutrients to both the Mediterranean Sea and the continental surfaces. It can also affect the health of European populations. We will present strategy of the experiment and the case study built from measurements performed at the end of June.

Marnas, F.; Chazette, P.; Flamant, C.; Royer, P.; Sodemman, H.; Derimian, Y.

2012-04-01

102

Workforce development and effective evaluation of projects.  

PubMed

The success of a project or programme is typically determined in relation to outputs. However, there is a commitment among UK public services to spending public funds efficiently and on activities that provide the greatest benefit to society. Skills for Health recognised the need for a tool to manage the complex process of evaluating project benefits. An integrated evaluation framework was developed to help practitioners identify, describe, measure and evaluate the benefits of workforce development projects. Practitioners tested the framework on projects within three NHS trusts and provided valuable feedback to support its development. The prospective approach taken to identify benefits and collect baseline data to support evaluation was positively received and the clarity and completeness of the framework, as well as the relevance of the questions, were commended. Users reported that the framework was difficult to complete; an online version could be developed, which might help to improve usability. Effective implementation of this approach will depend on the quality and usability of the framework, the willingness of organisations to implement it, and the presence or establishment of an effective change management culture. PMID:25039638

Dickerson, Claire; Green, Tess; Blass, Eddie

103

The Effects of Economic Factors in Determining the Transition Process in Europe and Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how economic determinants affect foreign direct investment into a sample of Western European and transition countries from 1990 to 2003. The observed differences in the flow of foreign investment into the transition countries, relative to those in Western Europe, provokes the question of whether this phenomenon was determined by the economic factors present in those countries. Using

David A. Lopez

2010-01-01

104

CNBC Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CNBC EuropeEBN Interactive is the web site of the European Business News (EBN) channel. The site posts the latest business news from all over Europe. Visitors can also listen to EBN's live broadcast of European news or specific programs. The Markets section provides continuous updates of European stock markets and daily market reports for each stock exchange. The Features section holds a collection of video clips from EBN programs such as "The Big Game," "Automotive," and "Your Money," among others.

1998-01-01

105

Methods for the drug effectiveness review project.  

PubMed

The Drug Effectiveness Review Project was initiated in 2003 in response to dramatic increases in the cost of pharmaceuticals, which lessened the purchasing power of state Medicaid budgets. A collaborative group of state Medicaid agencies and other organizations formed to commission high-quality comparative effectiveness reviews to inform evidence-based decisions about drugs that would be available to Medicaid recipients. The Project is coordinated by the Center for Evidence-based Policy (CEbP) at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU), and the systematic reviews are undertaken by the Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) at OHSU and at the University of North Carolina. The reviews adhere to high standards for comparative effectiveness reviews. Because the investigators have direct, regular communication with policy-makers, the reports have direct impact on policy and decision-making, unlike many systematic reviews. The Project was an innovator of methods to involve stakeholders and continues to develop its methods in conducting reviews that are highly relevant to policy-makers. The methods used for selecting topics, developing key questions, searching, determining eligibility of studies, assessing study quality, conducting qualitative and quantitative syntheses, rating the strength of evidence, and summarizing findings are described. In addition, our on-going interactions with the policy-makers that use the reports are described. PMID:22970848

McDonagh, Marian S; Jonas, Daniel E; Gartlehner, Gerald; Little, Alison; Peterson, Kim; Carson, Susan; Gibson, Mark; Helfand, Mark

2012-01-01

106

Vertical cultural transmission effects on demic front propagation: Theory and application to the Neolithic transition in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that Lotka-Volterra interaction terms are not appropriate to describe vertical cultural transmission. Appropriate interaction terms are derived and used to compute the effect of vertical cultural transmission on demic front propagation. They are also applied to a specific example, the Neolithic transition in Europe. In this example, it is found that the effect of vertical cultural transmission can be important (about 30%). On the other hand, simple models based on differential equations can lead to large errors (above 50%). Further physical, biophysical, and cross-disciplinary applications are outlined.

Fort, Joaquim

2011-05-01

107

Adult Education Research in the Countries in Transition. Adult Education Research Trends in the Former Socialist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic Region. Research Project Report. Studies and Researches 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents results of an investigation into the state of the art of research on the education of adults in Central and Eastern European and Baltic countries. The first section discusses the background and implementation of the research. Section 2 is "Adult Education Research Trends in Central and Eastern Europe: Research Project

Jelenc, Zoran

108

[Long-term health effects of air pollution: results of the European project ESCAPE].  

PubMed

Air pollution has been recently classified among the top ten risk factors for mortality worldwide. The evidence on the long-term effects of air pollutants is mounting, mostly from multi-centre American studies or longitudinal studies conducted in single European cohorts. Recently, the EU-funded project ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) involved more than 30 cohort studies with the aim of producing pooled estimates of the long-term health effects of ambient air pollution at European level. The project developed a standardized and flexible methodology to estimate chronic exposure to several air pollutants, applied such estimates to existing cohorts in Europe, and analyzed the exposure-response relationships with different health endpoints, including adverse pregnancy outcomes, respiratory diseases among children, cardio-respiratory diseases among adults, cause-specific mortality and lung cancer incidence. One of the most important results has been the detection of relevant health effects of particulate matter at concentrations below the current air quality limit values in Europe. PMID:25533231

Stafoggia, Massimo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Galassi, Claudia; Badaloni, Chiara; Forastiere, Francesco

2014-12-01

109

Effectiveness of design projects in teaching Telecommunications Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effectiveness of design projects in teaching Telecommunications Engineering to undergraduate students. The projects consisted in designing and prototyping of relatively complex electronic or optoelectronic devices. The distinctive feature of these projects was their real-world interdisciplinary nature. We discuss the requirements for educationally effective projects and describe the technical and educational results that we achieved. The recommendations that

A. Beltran-Hernandez; V. Dolores-Calzadilla; V. Garcia-Garduno; M. Moctezuma-Flores; S. Perez-Garcia; S. Khotiaintsev

2012-01-01

110

Masculinities in Organizational Cultures in Engineering Education in Europe: Results of the European Union Project WomEng  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes elements of engineering organizational cultures and structures in higher engineering education from the European project WomEng. Hypotheses, based on state of the art, refer to: women friendly presentation, attractiveness of interdisciplinary teaching methods, single sex education, perceptions of minority status, feelings of…

Sagebiel, F.; Dahmen, J.

2006-01-01

111

Oceanography Vol.22, No.4190 AbstrAct. The European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA) is Europe's  

E-print Network

Oceanography Vol.22, No.4190 AbstrAct. The European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA acidification. More than 100 scientists from 27 institutes and nine countries bring their expertise Acidification (epOcA) ObJectiVes, prOducts, ANd scieNtiFic HiGHliGHts Oceanography Vol.22, No.4190

Rodgers, Keith

112

Advection from the North Atlantic as the forcing of winter greenhouse effect over Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface temperature are observed over central Europe. Comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996, a satellite-retrieved surface (skin) temperature difference of 9.8 K is observed for the region 50–60°N; 5–35°E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index Ina,

J. Otterman; J. Angell; R. Atlas; D. Bungato; S. Schubert; D. Starr; J. Susskind; M.-L. C. Wu

2002-01-01

113

Advection from the North Atlantic as the forcing of winter greenhouse effect over Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In winter, large interannual fluctuations in the surface temperature are observed over central Europe. Comparing warm February 1990 with cold February 1996, a satellite-retrieved surface (skin) temperature difference of 9.8 K is observed for the region 50-60°N 5-35°E. Previous studies show that advection from the North Atlantic constitutes the forcing to such fluctuations. The advection is quantified by Index Ina,

J. Otterman; J. Angell; R. Atlas; D. Bungato; S. Schubert; D. Starr; J. Susskind; M.-L. C. Wu

2002-01-01

114

The effects of drug market regulation on pharmaceutical prices in Europe: overview and evidence from the market of ACE inhibitors  

PubMed Central

This study provides an overview of policy measures targeting pharmaceutical expenditure in Europe and analyses their impact on originator pharmaceutical prices. Panel data methods are used to examine the market of ACE Inhibitors in six European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom) over period 1991-2006. We find that although some measures are effective in reducing originator prices, others appear to have an insignificant effect. Results suggest that supply side measures such as mandatory generic substitution, regressive pharmacy mark-ups and claw-backs are effective in reducing pharmaceuticals prices. Results are not as strong for demand side measures. Profit controls and the use of cost-effectiveness analysis appear to have a negative effect on prices, while results on reference pricing are inconclusive. Findings also indicate that, although originator prices are not immediately affected by generic entry, they may be influenced by changes in generic prices post patent expiry. PMID:22828053

2011-01-01

115

Assessment of extreme precipitation over Northern Europe using WRF as a regional climate model within the RiskChange-project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is likely that one of the most damaging impacts of climate change may be an increase in the frequency and/or intensity of extreme precipitation events. Understanding the patterns of these changes is crucial for the design and adaptation of critical infrastructure. However, the magnitude, location and timing of these changes are largely unknown at the local to regional scales that stakeholders most care about. Further, the physical mechanisms underlying extreme events at regional scales are not well understood and the range of uncertainty is high. The main objective of the RiskChange project is to establish a consistent scientifically based framework for risk-based design using state-of-the-art knowledge of future changes in climate extreme statistics. Within the project a major part is to dynamical downscale from global and regional climate model projections to local scales of applications which will provide a data basis for the assessment of future changes in climate extreme statistics. Associated with this task is the quantification of uncertainties in the projected future climate extremes and associated variables for extreme environmental load. Concretely, the Weather Research and Forecasting model WRF is used as a regional climate model to downscale global climate model data from the models NORESM (met.no/BCCR) and EC-Earth (DMI) to a horizontal grid of 8 km for the cities Copenhagen, Denmark and Oslo, Norway. Results from preliminary test runs are presented to evaluate the performance of the chosen WRF model set up; in particular, we focus on the choice of physical parameterizations. First results addressing the representation of extreme rainfall events and extreme winds in a 20-years hindcast of the ERA-interim (1989-2009) period are shown. RiskChange results will contribute to the development of planning and decision support tools for local and central authorities and form the basis for establishing design guidelines and associated tools for the industry.

Mayer, S.; Sobolowski, S.; Outten, S.

2012-04-01

116

Leadership behaviors of effective project managers in construction project organizations in Texas  

E-print Network

A study involving twenty-six construction firms, which practice project management in Texas, examined whether thirteen leadership behaviors could be associated with effective project managers. The data indicated that supervisors and subordinates...

Haney, Harvey Joe

1989-01-01

117

The SAFE project: 'plant food allergies: field to table strategies for reducing their incidence in Europe' an EC-funded study.  

PubMed

The true prevalence of food allergy as an IgE mediated reaction is still under discussion. Using apple as a model allergen source a multidisciplinary consortium worked together at developing various strategies for reducing the incidence of fruit allergies in an EC-funded project. Patient allergen profiles were established using in vitro and in vivo tests with respect to geographic area and mild or severe symptoms. Apple allergens (Mal d 1-Mal d 4) were characterised, variants identified, cloned and sequenced. These individual allergens were used to increase the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis. Furthermore, they provided better prognosis of disease severity. RT-PCR and ELISA were developed for determining the allergen specific mRNA and expressed allergenic protein in a large number of apple cultivars. Similarly, changes in allergen characteristics from harvest through storage to processing and the impact of agronomic practices were investigated. Allergen genes were mapped on a molecular linkage map of apple. The biological function of Mal d 1 was studied using the RNA interference strategy. Finally, consumer attitudes in Northern, Central and Southern Europe were gauged on the acceptability of low allergen cultivars or a GMO and its impact on product quality. PMID:15727573

Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K

2005-04-01

118

Satellite-delivered medical education and training for central Europe: a TEMPUS project. Trans-European Mobility Programme for University Students.  

PubMed

This paper reports the experience gained in delivering continuing and postgraduate medical education by satellite to update medical teachers in Central Europe. An infrastructure of receiving sites was established in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary. The sites participated in regular, live interactive broadcasts on a range of medical education topics. Over three years a network of sites was established incrementally and a national coordinator identified for each country, who fed back from national coordinating committees to an overall steering body. In the final year a formal evaluation revealed high satisfaction levels and maintenance of activity during the grant period. The major problems related to a lack of telephone lines to facilitate interactivity, the timing of the programmes, and the need for training in medical English language. Video libraries were established, and the majority continued to be active at the end of the project grant. Material was incorporated into both undergraduate and postgraduate education. It is calculated that continuing professional development can be delivered at less than 18 ECU per participant per country. PMID:9375037

Young, H L

1996-01-01

119

Estimates of Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe, 2009–2010: Results of Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) Multicentre Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background A multicentre case-control study based on sentinel practitioner surveillance networks from seven European countries was undertaken to estimate the effectiveness of 2009–2010 pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines against medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1). Methods and Findings Sentinel practitioners swabbed ILI patients using systematic sampling. We included in the study patients meeting the European ILI case definition with onset of symptoms >14 days after the start of national pandemic vaccination campaigns. We compared pH1N1 cases to influenza laboratory-negative controls. A valid vaccination corresponded to >14 days between receiving a dose of vaccine and symptom onset. We estimated pooled vaccine effectiveness (VE) as 1 minus the odds ratio with the study site as a fixed effect. Using logistic regression, we adjusted VE for potential confounding factors (age group, sex, month of onset, chronic diseases and related hospitalizations, smoking history, seasonal influenza vaccinations, practitioner visits in previous year). We conducted a complete case analysis excluding individuals with missing values and a multiple multivariate imputation to estimate missing values. The multivariate imputation (n?=?2902) adjusted pandemic VE (PIVE) estimates were 71.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 45.6–85.5) overall; 78.4% (95% CI 54.4–89.8) in patients <65 years; and 72.9% (95% CI 39.8–87.8) in individuals without chronic disease. The complete case (n?=?1,502) adjusted PIVE were 66.0% (95% CI 23.9–84.8), 71.3% (95% CI 29.1–88.4), and 70.2% (95% CI 19.4–89.0), respectively. The adjusted PIVE was 66.0% (95% CI ?69.9 to 93.2) if vaccinated 8–14 days before ILI onset. The adjusted 2009–2010 seasonal influenza VE was 9.9% (95% CI ?65.2 to 50.9). Conclusions Our results suggest good protection of the pandemic monovalent vaccine against medically attended pH1N1 and no effect of the 2009–2010 seasonal influenza vaccine. However, the late availability of the pandemic vaccine and subsequent limited coverage with this vaccine hampered our ability to study vaccine benefits during the outbreak period. Future studies should include estimation of the effectiveness of the new trivalent vaccine in the upcoming 2010–2011 season, when vaccination will occur before the influenza season starts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21379316

Valenciano, Marta; Kissling, Esther; Cohen, Jean-Marie; Oroszi, Beatrix; Barret, Anne-Sophie; Rizzo, Caterina; Nunes, Baltazar; Pitigoi, Daniela; Larrauri Cámara, Amparro; Mosnier, Anne; Horvath, Judith K.; O'Donnell, Joan; Bella, Antonino; Guiomar, Raquel; Lupulescu, Emilia; Savulescu, Camelia; Ciancio, Bruno C.; Kramarz, Piotr; Moren, Alain

2011-01-01

120

Thematic Network E4: An Effective Tool to Improve EE in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among all TN projects approved and running under SOCRATES II, E4 offers the widest perspective over all Engineering/Technology education fields covering relevant and transversal issues, which are definitely not branch specific. The paper first introduces the general aim of the project, underlining the meaning of the European Dimension of EE…

Borri, Claudio; Maffioli, Francesco

2003-01-01

121

Numerical quantization effects in KHILS projection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Honeywell resistor arrays produce radiance outputs, which are observed to have a strong non-linear dependence on the voltage out of the digital-to-analog-converters (DACs). In order for the projection system to run in a radiometrically calibrated mode, the radiances in the image generator must be transformed with exactly the inverse of the resistor array response function before they are sent to the DACs. Representing the image values out of the image generator and the values into the DACs with quantized, digital values introduces errors in the radiance out of the resistor array. Given the functional form of the emitter array response and the number of bits used to represent the image values, these errors in the radiometric output due to the quantization effects can be calculated. This paper describes the calculations and presents results for WISP, MSSP, and the new extended range and standard range BRITE II arrays.

Flynn, David S.; Thompson, Rhoe A.; Goldsmith, George C.

2002-07-01

122

Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded ‘Project Star’ report  

PubMed Central

Background Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report (‘Project Star’, PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Methods Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18?056). Findings Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. Conclusions PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and use of independent data. PMID:24335339

Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

2014-01-01

123

Learning about Teaching: Initial Findings from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project. Research Paper. MET Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to test new approaches to measuring effective teaching. The goal of the MET project is to improve the quality of information about teaching effectiveness available to education professionals within states and districts--information that will…

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

2010-01-01

124

On the Effects of Projection on Morphology  

E-print Network

We study the effects of projection of three-dimensional (3D) data onto the plane of the sky by means of numerical simulations of turbulence in the interstellar medium including the magnetic field, parameterized cooling and diffuse and stellar heating, self-gravity and rotation. We compare the physical-space density and velocity distributions with their representation in position-position-velocity (PPV) space (``channel maps''), noting that the latter can be interpreted in two ways: either as maps of the column density's spatial distribution (at a given line-of-sight (LOS) velocity), or as maps of the spatial distribution of a given value of the LOS velocity (weighted by density). This ambivalence appears related to the fact that the spatial and PPV representations of the data give significantly different views. First, the morphology in the channel maps more closely resembles that of the spatial distribution of the LOS velocity component than that of the density field, as measured by pixel-to-pixel correlations between images. Second, the channel maps contain more small-scale structure than 3D slices of the density and velocity fields, a fact evident both in subjective appearance and in the power spectra of the images. This effect may be due to a pseudo-random sampling (along the LOS) of the gas contributing to the structure in a channel map: the positions sampled along the LOS (chosen by their LOS velocity) may vary significantly from one position in the channel map to the next.

Bárbara Pichardo; Enrique Vázquez-Semadeni; Adriana Gazol; Thierry Passot; Javier Ballesteros-Paredes

1999-11-05

125

Prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle intervention in primary health care setting in Poland: Diabetes in Europe Prevention using Lifestyle, physical Activity and Nutritional intervention (DE-PLAN) project  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo find out whether diabetes prevention via a lifestyle intervention programme is feasible in a primary healthcare setting in Poland.MethodsThe intervention (Diabetes in Europe: Prevention using Lifestyle, physical Activity and Nutritional intervention; DE-PLAN project) was completed by 175 middle-aged, slightly obese participants in nine primary healthcare centres in Krakow, Poland. The inclusion criterion was diabetes risk (Finnish Diabetes Risk score

Aleksandra Gilis-Januszewska; Zbigniew Szybinski; Katarzyna Kissimova-Skarbek; Beata Piwonska-Solska; Dorota Pach; Roman Topor-Madry; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Jaana Lindström; Markku Peltonen; Peter Eh Schwarz; Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk

2011-01-01

126

Reforming Upper Secondary Education in Europe. The Leonardo da Vinci Project Post-16 Strategies. Surveys of Strategies for Post-16 Education To Improve the Parity of Esteem for Initial Vocational Education in Eight European Educational Systems. Theory into Practice 92. Institute for Educational Research Publication Series B.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the following papers on the Leonardo da Vinci project: "Looking for Post-16 Education Strategies for Parity of Esteem in Europe" (Lasonen); "Improving Parity of Esteem as a Policy Goal" (Makinen, Volanen); "Alternative Strategies for Parity of Esteem between General/Academic and Vocational Education in Europe" (Kamarainen);…

Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

127

Effects of Climate Change on Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Europe  

PubMed Central

Zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in Europe and there is speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vector biology and disease transmission. Data on the vector tick Ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change may also be partly responsible for the change in distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus. Increased winter activity of I. ricinus is probably due to warmer winters and a retrospective study suggests that hotter summers will change the dynamics and pattern of seasonal activity, resulting in the bulk of the tick population becoming active in the latter part of the year. Climate suitability models predict that eight important tick species are likely to establish more northern permanent populations in a climate-warming scenario. However, the complex ecology and epidemiology of such tick-borne diseases as Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis make it difficult to implicate climate change as the main cause of their increasing prevalence. Climate change models are required that take account of the dynamic biological processes involved in vector abundance and pathogen transmission in order to predict future tick-borne disease scenarios. PMID:19277106

Gray, J. S.; Dautel, H.; Estrada-Peña, A.; Kahl, O.; Lindgren, E.

2009-01-01

128

Designing and Fostering Effective Online Group Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative learning is a hallmark of adult education and a popular instructional strategy. For over a decade, as an educator of adult learners, the author has integrated group work into courses. Group projects require the contribution and evaluation from all group members and often reflect a collective grade at the end of the project. However,…

Scherling, Sarah E.

2011-01-01

129

Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond  

PubMed Central

With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

2014-01-01

130

Eighth USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2009) Effects of Fuel Prices and Slot Controls on Air  

E-print Network

1 Eighth USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2009) Effects of Fuel Prices and Slot Controls on Air Transportation Performance at New York Airports John Ferguson@gmu.edu; lsherry@gmu.edu; akara@gmu.edu; gcaldero@gmu.edu Center for Air Transportation Systems Research, George

131

Atmospheric black carbon and warming effects influenced by the source and absorption enhancement in Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles containing black carbon (BC), a strong absorbing substance, exert a rather uncertain direct and indirect radiative forcing in the atmosphere. To investigate the mass concentration and absorption properties of BC particles over Central Europe, the model WRF-Chem was used at a resolution of 12 km in conjunction with a high resolution BC emission inventory (EUCAARI 42-Pan-European Carbonaceous Aerosol Inventory; 1/8° × 1/16°). The model simulation was evaluated using measurements of equivalent soot carbon, absorption coefficients and particle number concentrations at 7 sites within the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network, PM10 mass concentrations from the dense measurement network of the German Federal Environmental Agency at 392 monitoring stations, and aerosol optical depth from MODIS and AERONET. A distinct time period (25 March to 10 April 2009) was chosen, during which the clean marine air mass prevailed in the first week and afterwards the polluted continental air mass mainly from south-east dominated with elevated daily average BC concentration up to 4 ?g m-3. The simulated PM10 mass concentration, aerosol number concentration and optical depth were in a good agreement with the observations, while the modelled BC mass concentrations were found to be a factor of 2 lower than the observations. Together with backtrajectories, detailed model bias analyses suggested that the current BC emission in countries to the east and south of Germany might be underestimated by a factor of 5, at least for the simulation period. Running the model with upscaled BC emissions in these regions led to a smaller model bias and a better correlation between model and measurement. On the contrary, the particle absorption coefficient was positively biased by about 20% even when the BC mass concentration was underestimated by around 50%. This indicates that the internal mixture treatment of BC in the WRF-Chem optical calculation is unrealistic in our case, which over amplifies the light absorption by BC containing particles. By adjusting the modeled mass absorption cross-section towards the measured values, the simulation of particle light absorption of BC was improved as well. Finally, the positive direct radiative forcing of BC particles at top of the atmosphere was estimated to be in the range of 0 to +4 W m-2 over Germany for the model run with improved BC mass concentration and adjusted BC light absorption cross-section. This treatment lowered the positive forcing of BC by up to 70%, compared with the internal mixing treatment of BC in the model simulation.

Nordmann, S.; Cheng, Y. F.; Carmichael, G. R.; Yu, M.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Zhang, Q.; Saide, P. E.; Pöschl, U.; Su, H.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.

2014-06-01

132

Atmospheric black carbon and warming effects influenced by the source and absorption enhancement in central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles containing black carbon (BC), a strong absorbing substance, exert a rather uncertain direct and indirect radiative forcing in the atmosphere. To investigate the mass concentration and absorption properties of BC particles over central Europe, the model WRF-Chem was used at a resolution of 12 km in conjunction with a high-resolution BC emission inventory (EUCAARI 42-Pan-European Carbonaceous Aerosol Inventory; 1/8° × 1/16°). The model simulation was evaluated using measurements of equivalent soot carbon, absorption coefficients and particle number concentrations at seven sites within the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network, PM

Nordmann, S.; Cheng, Y. F.; Carmichael, G. R.; Yu, M.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Zhang, Q.; Saide, P. E.; Pöschl, U.; Su, H.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.

2014-12-01

133

Occupational cancer in europe  

PubMed

This monograph summarizes the current research on the epidemiology and prevention of occupational cancer in Europe. Eleven peer-reviewed articles offer a composite view of the current status and future perspectives of this discipline at a time of major economic and political changes in Europe. The monograph includes a brief history of occupational cancer research in Europe and the current burden of cancer from occupational exposure. A large portion of the monograph is devoted to reviews of occupational cancer in various European countries or groups of countries. The first two reviews describe those regions with the strongest tradition of research in the field: the Nordic countries and the United Kingdom. These countries are characterized by high-quality cancer registries and routinely collected information on occupation, e.g., on the occasion of censuses, allowing record linkage studies. Four articles address the situation in the remaining large Western European countries--France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Although these countries have a strong tradition in occupational health research, with the possible exception of Spain, their epidemiologic research dates back only to the 1970s and 1980s; in recent years, however, research on occupational cancer has expanded considerably. The last two articles of the geographic overview describe the occupational cancer research in the Central European countries and the European territories of the Commonwealth of Independent States. The authors of these two articles critically review the available data on occupational cancer from former Socialist countries and provide reliable information on the extent and amount of occupational exposure to carcinogens. The two final articles of the monograph address specific thematic issues: the importance of asbestos as an occupational carcinogen in Europe and the use of routinely collected data to investigate occupational cancer in women, based on the experience in England and Wales. Despite the heterogeneity of these articles, which reflects to a large extent the differences in quality and completeness of the available data on occupational cancer, they represent an original attempt to provide a systematic overview of occupational cancer research in Europe. This publication is originally a partial result of two projects on occupational cancer in Europe funded by the European Commission, Directorate General XII (grants BMH1-CT92-1110 and BMH1-CT95-1100) and has been expanded to include non-European Union countries. PMID:10350503

Boffetta; Kogevinas

1999-05-01

134

Communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care in Europe: the case for improvement. The rationale for the RESTORE FP 7 project.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to substantiate the importance of research about barriers and levers to the implementation of supports for cross-cultural communication in primary care settings in Europe. After an overview of migrant health issues, with the focus on communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care and the importance of language barriers, we highlight the fact that there are serious problems in routine practice that persist over time and across different European settings. Language and cultural barriers hamper communication in consultations between doctors and migrants, with a range of negative effects including poorer compliance and a greater propensity to access emergency services. It is well established that there is a need for skilled interpreters and for professionals who are culturally competent to address this problem. A range of professional guidelines and training initiatives exist that support the communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care. However, these are commonly not implemented in daily practice. It is as yet unknown why professionals do not accept or implement these guidelines and interventions, or under what circumstances they would do so. A new study involving six European countries, RESTORE (REsearch into implementation STrategies to support patients of different ORigins and language background in a variety of European primary care settings), aims to address these gaps in knowledge. It uses a unique combination of a contemporary social theory, normalisation process theory (NPT) and participatory learning and action (PLA) research. This should enhance understanding of the levers and barriers to implementation, as well as providing stakeholders, with the opportunity to generate creative solutions to problems experienced with the implementation of such interventions. PMID:23601205

van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Burns, Nicola; O'Donnell, Catherine; Mair, Frances; Spiegel, Wolfgang; Lionis, Christos; Dowrick, Chris; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; de Brun, Tomas; MacFarlane, Anne

2014-04-01

135

Agricultural impacts: Europe's diminishing bread basket  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global demand for wheat is projected to increase significantly with continuing population growth. Currently, Europe reliably produces about 29% of global wheat supply. However, this might be under threat from climate change if adaptive measures are not taken now.

Meinke, Holger

2014-07-01

136

Requirement Changes and Project Success: The Moderating Effects of Agile Approaches in System Engineering Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the findings of an empirical study on the influence agile development methods exert on the success of projects. The goal is to determine whether agile methods are able to mitigate negative effects requirement changes have on the performance of Systems Engineering projects, i.e. projects where systems consisting of hard- and software are developed. Agile methods have been proven to successfully support development projects in the field of traditional software engineering, but with an ever expending market of integrated systems manufacturers their usability for those complex projects has yet to be examined. This study focuses on 16 specific agile practices and their ability to improve the success of complex hard- and software projects.

Maierhofer, Sabine; Stelzmann, Ernst; Kohlbacher, Markus; Fellner, Björn

137

Public health in Europe.  

PubMed

Any attempt to describe public health in Europe faces the twin problems of defining Europe and of dealing with the diversity of health and health systems it contains. Health status varies considerably between countries. In some, health is improving, with substantial decreases in heart disease in many western and central European countries. In others, especially in the former Soviet Union, there is concern about the rapid increase in tuberculosis and AIDS. A national analysis does, however, conceal a substantial variation within countries, between regions, and between social classes. The responses to these threats to health are also diverse. A few countries have developed effective mechanisms to design and implement appropriate policies but, in many countries, the public-health community is weak. In particular, public health has largely failed in its role as an advocate of the health of the population. There are, however, many encouraging signs that this may change in the future. PMID:10968451

McKee, M; Jacobson, B

2000-08-19

138

Local and regional effects of large scale atmospheric circulation patterns on winter wind power output in Western Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies (Brayshaw, 2009, Garcia-Bustamante, 2010, Garcia-Bustamante, 2013) have drawn attention to the sensitivity of wind speed distributions and likely wind energy power output in Western Europe to changes in low-frequency, large scale atmospheric circulation patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Wind speed variations and directional shifts as a function of the NAO state can be larger or smaller depending on the North Atlantic region that is considered. Wind speeds in Ireland and the UK for example are approximately 20 % higher during NAO + phases, and up to 30 % lower during NAO - phases relative to the long-term (30 year) climatological means. By contrast, in southern Europe, wind speeds are 15 % lower than average during NAO + phases and 15 % higher than average during NAO - phases. Crucially however, some regions such as Brittany in N.W. France have been identified in which there is negligible variability in wind speeds as a function of the NAO phase, as observed in the ERA-Interim 0.5 degree gridded reanalysis database. However, the magnitude of these effects on wind conditions is temporally and spatially non-stationary. As described by Comas-Bru and McDermott (2013) for temperature and precipitation, such non-stationarity is caused by the influence of two other patterns, the East Atlantic pattern, (EA), and the Scandinavian pattern, (SCA), which modulate the position of the NAO dipole. This phenomenon has also implications for wind speeds and directions, which has been assessed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and the indices obtained from the PC analysis of sea level pressure over the Atlantic region. In order to study the implications for power production, the interaction of the NAO and the other teleconnection patterns with local topography was also analysed, as well as how these interactions ultimately translate into wind power output. The objective is to have a better defined relationship between wind speed and power output at a local level and a tool that wind farm developers could use to inform site selection. A particular priority was to assess how the potential wind power outputs over a 25-30 year windfarm lifetime in less windy, but resource-stable regions, compare with those from windier but more variable sites.

Zubiate, Laura; McDermott, Frank; Sweeney, Conor; O'Malley, Mark

2014-05-01

139

A Meta-Analysis on the Effectiveness of Bilingual Programs in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of bilingual programs for promoting academic achievement of language minority children in the United States has been examined in six meta-analyses. The present meta-analytic study investigates this topic for the first time in the European context. Thorough literature searches uncovered 101 European studies, with only 7 meeting…

Reljic, Gabrijela; Ferring, Dieter; Martin, Romain

2015-01-01

140

Secondary Transfer Effects of Intergroup Contact: A Cross-National Comparison in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines so-called secondary transfer effects of intergroup contact, a phenomenon whereby positive intergroup contact experiences can influence attitudes not only toward encountered (primary) outgroups but also toward other (secondary) outgroups that were not initially involved in the intergroup encounter. The current study relies on…

Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles; Kupper, Beate; Zick, Andreas; Wagner, Ulrich

2012-01-01

141

Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca travelling from Africa to breed in Europe: differential effects of winter and  

E-print Network

to predict how well species can adapt to climate change. In this paper we analyse effects of vegetation;INTRODUCTION Long-distance migrant birds may be particularly vulnerable to climate change, because prior at the right time on their breeding grounds. However such cues are unaltered by climate change (unlike food

Potti, Jaime

142

North America Europe Central &  

E-print Network

1 North America Western Europe Central & Eastern Europe Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & Central Asia Asia Pacific Africa Population (100 millions) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 North America Western Europe Central & Eastern Europe Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & Central Asia Asia Pacific Africa

Johnson, Matthew

143

Effective Teaching Methods--Project-based Learning in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents results of the research of new effective teaching methods in physics and science. It is found out that it is necessary to educate pre-service teachers in approaches stressing the importance of the own activity of students, in competences how to create an interdisciplinary project. Project-based physics teaching and learning…

Holubova, Renata

2008-01-01

144

PERMEABLE TREATMENT WALL EFFECTIVENESS MONITORING PROJECT, NEVADA STEWART MINE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 39, Permeable Treatment Wall Effectiveness Monitoring Project, implemented and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. De...

145

Assessing the Human Genome Project: Effects on world agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Human Genome Project is the attempt to sequence the complement of human DNA. Its ultimate purpose is to understand and control human genetics. The social and ethical concerns raised by this attempt have been much debated, especially fears concerning human genetic engineering and eugenics. An almost completely neglected aspect of the genome project's potential effects is its impact on

M. S. Lesney; V. B. Smocovitis

1994-01-01

146

The Effect of Group Projects on Content-Related Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business schools often assign student group projects to enhance student learning of course content and to build teamwork skills. However, the characteristics of effective collaborative learning tasks, including group goals and individual accountability, are often not found in student group projects assigned in business classes. The current…

Bacon, Donald R.

2005-01-01

147

Health Effects of High Radon Environments in Central Europe: Another Test for the LNT Hypothesis?  

PubMed Central

Among the various “natural laboratories” of high natural or technical enhanced natural radiation environments in the world such as Kerala (India), Brazil, Ramsar (Iran), etc., the areas in and around the Central European Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge) in the southern parts of former East Germany, but also including parts of Thuringia, northern Bohemia (now Czech Republic), and northeastern Bavaria, are still relatively little known internationally. Although this area played a central role in the history of radioactivity and radiation effects on humans over centuries, most of the valuable earlier results have not been published in English or quotable according to the current rules in the scientific literature and therefore are not generally known internationally. During the years 1945 to 1989, this area was one of the world’s most important uranium mining areas, providing the former Soviet Union with 300,000 tons of uranium for its military programs. Most data related to health effects of radon and other carcinogenic agents on miners and residents became available only during the years after German reunification. Many of the studies are still unpublished, or more or less internal reports. By now, substantial studies have been performed on the previously unavailable data about the miners and the population, providing valuable insights that are, to a large degree, in disagreement with the opinion of various international bodies assuming an increase of lung cancer risk in the order of 10% for each 100 Bq/m3 (or doubling for 1000 Bq/m3), even for small residential radon concentrations. At the same time, other studies focusing on never-smokers show little or no effects of residential radon exposures. Experiments in medical clinics using radon on a large scale as a therapeutic against various rheumatic and arthritic disease demonstrated in randomized double-blind studies the effectiveness of such treatments. The main purpose of this review is to critically examine, including some historical references, recent results primarily in three areas, namely the possible effects of the inhalation of very high radon concentrations on miners; the effect of increased residential radon concentrations on the population; and the therapeutic use of radon. With many of the results still evolving and/or under intense discussion among the experts, more evidence is emerging that radon, which has been inhaled at extremely high concentrations in the multimillion Bq/m3 range by many of older miners (however, with substantial confounders, and large uncertainties in retrospective dosimetry), was perhaps an important but not the dominating factor for an increase in lung cancer rates. Other factors such as smoking, inhalation of quartz and mineral dust, arsenic, nitrous gases, etc. are likely to be more serious contributors to increased miner lung cancer rates. An extrapolation of miner data to indoor radon situations is not feasible. Concerning indoor radon studies, the by far dominating effect of smoking on the lung cancer incidence makes the results of some studies, apparently showing a positive dose-response relationship, questionable. According to recent studies in several countries, there are no, or beneficial, residential radon effects below about 600 to 1000 Bq/m3 (the extensive studies in the U.S., in particular by B. Cohen, and the discussions about these data, will not be part of this review, because they have already been discussed in detail in the U.S. literature). As a cause of lung cancer, radon seems to rank — behind active and passive smoking, and probably also air pollution in densely populated and/or industrial areas (diesel exhaust soot, etc.) — as a minor contributor in cases of extremely high residential radon levels, combined with heavy smoking of the residents. As demonstrated in an increasing number of randomized double-blind clinical studies for various painful inflammatory joint diseases such as rheumatism, arthritic problems, and Morbus Bechterew, radon treatments are beneficial, with the positiv

Becker, Klaus

2003-01-01

148

Effects of air pollution and climate change on forests of the Tatra Mountains, Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synergistic effects of air pollution, extreme weather conditions and biotic agents related to global climate change have caused\\u000a serious deterioration of forest condition in the Tatra National Park since early 1990s. Atmospheric deposition of sulfate\\u000a (SO4\\u000a 2?), nitrate (NO3\\u000a ?) and acidity (H+) are above the established critical load limits for forests. In addition, ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are also

Peter Fleischer; Barbara Godzik; Svetlana Bicarova; Andrzej Bytnerowicz

149

Adapting wheat in Europe for climate change.  

PubMed

Increasing cereal yield is needed to meet the projected increased demand for world food supply of about 70% by 2050. Sirius, a process-based model for wheat, was used to estimate yield potential for wheat ideotypes optimized for future climatic projections for ten wheat growing areas of Europe. It was predicted that the detrimental effect of drought stress on yield would be decreased due to enhanced tailoring of phenology to future weather patterns, and due to genetic improvements in the response of photosynthesis and green leaf duration to water shortage. Yield advances could be made through extending maturation and thereby improve resource capture and partitioning. However the model predicted an increase in frequency of heat stress at meiosis and anthesis. Controlled environment experiments quantify the effects of heat and drought at booting and flowering on grain numbers and potential grain size. A current adaptation of wheat to areas of Europe with hotter and drier summers is a quicker maturation which helps to escape from excessive stress, but results in lower yields. To increase yield potential and to respond to climate change, increased tolerance to heat and drought stress should remain priorities for the genetic improvement of wheat. PMID:24882934

Semenov, M A; Stratonovitch, P; Alghabari, F; Gooding, M J

2014-05-01

150

A framework for improving the effectiveness of distributed project teams  

E-print Network

Introduction: The focus of this work is on improving the effectiveness of distributed project teams - adopting a widely accepted definition of team as described in "Virtual Teams" as: "A team is a collection of individuals ...

Cherbonneau, Gregg

2005-01-01

151

Effective correlator for RadioAstron project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the implementation of programme FX-correlator for Very Long Baseline Interferometry, adapted for the project "RadioAstron". Software correlator implemented for heterogeneous computing systems using graphics accelerators. It is shown that for the task interferometry implementation of the graphics hardware has a high efficiency. The host processor of heterogeneous computing system, performs the function of forming the data flow for graphics accelerators, the number of which corresponds to the number of frequency channels. So, for the Radioastron project, such channels is seven. Each accelerator is perform correlation matrix for all bases for a single frequency channel. Initial data is converted to the floating-point format, is correction for the corresponding delay function and computes the entire correlation matrix simultaneously. Calculation of the correlation matrix is performed using the sliding Fourier transform. Thus, thanks to the compliance of a solved problem for architecture graphics accelerators, managed to get a performance for one processor platform Kepler, which corresponds to the performance of this task, the computing cluster platforms Intel on four nodes. This task successfully scaled not only on a large number of graphics accelerators, but also on a large number of nodes with multiple accelerators.

Sergeev, Sergey

152

A comparison of the cost-effectiveness of treatment of prolonged acute convulsive epileptic seizures in children across Europe  

PubMed Central

In the majority of children and adolescents with epilepsy, optimal drug therapy adequately controls their condition. However, among the remaining patients who are still uncontrolled despite mono-, bi- or tri-therapy with chronic anti-epileptic treatment, a rescue medication is required. In Western Europe, the licensed medications available for first-line treatment of prolonged acute convulsive seizures (PACS) vary widely, and so comparators for clinical and economic evaluation are not consistent. No European guidelines currently exist for the treatment of PACS in children and adolescents and limited evidence is available for the effectiveness of treatments in the community setting. The authors present cost-effectiveness data for BUCCOLAM® (midazolam oromucosal solution) for the treatment of PACS in children and adolescents in the context of the treatment pathway in seven European countries in patients from 6 months to 18 years. For each country, the health economic model consisted of a decision tree, with decision nodes informed by clinical data and expert opinion obtained via a Delphi methodology. The events modelled are those associated with a patient experiencing a seizure in the community setting. The model assessed the likelihood of medication being administered successfully and of seizure cessation. The associated resource use was also modelled, and ambulance call-outs and hospitalisations were considered. The patient’s quality of life was estimated by clinicians, who completed a five-level EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire from the perspective of a child or adolescent suffering a seizure. Despite differences in current therapy, treatment patterns and healthcare costs in all countries assessed, BUCCOLAM was shown to be cost saving and offered increased health-related benefits for patients in the treatment of PACS compared with the current local standard of care. PMID:24949280

2014-01-01

153

Possible future effects of large-scale algae cultivation for biofuels on coastal eutrophication in Europe.  

PubMed

Biodiesel is increasingly considered as an alternative for fossil diesel. Biodiesel can be produced from rapeseed, palm, sunflower, soybean and algae. In this study, the consequences of large-scale production of biodiesel from micro-algae for eutrophication in four large European seas are analysed. To this end, scenarios for the year 2050 are analysed, assuming that in the 27 countries of the European Union fossil diesel will be replaced by biodiesel from algae. Estimates are made for the required fertiliser inputs to algae parks, and how this may increase concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in coastal waters, potentially leading to eutrophication. The Global NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model has been used to estimate the transport of nitrogen and phosphorus to the European coastal waters. The results indicate that the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in the coastal waters may increase considerably in the future as a result of large-scale production of algae for the production of biodiesel, even in scenarios assuming effective waste water treatment and recycling of waste water in algae production. To ensure sustainable production of biodiesel from micro-algae, it is important to develop cultivation systems with low nutrient losses to the environment. PMID:25058933

Blaas, Harry; Kroeze, Carolien

2014-10-15

154

Pesticide abuse in Europe: effects on the Cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) population in Spain.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out to investigate incidents of pesticide poisoning of the Cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) in Spain during the period 1990-2006. A total of 241 incidents affecting 464 vultures were investigated to establish their causes: approved use, misuse, or deliberate abuse. Other factors studied were compounds, other species affected by the incident, the mode of application, spatial and temporal variation and reasons for the pesticide abuse involved. Approved use was responsible for only a minor fraction (1.3%) of the incidents whereas up to 98% of the investigated incidents were intentional poisonings. Pesticide mortality mainly affects adult individuals (83%) and the implications of this for population dynamics could be important. Eleven different compounds were involved in these incidents although three compounds accounted for up to 88% of the poisoning cases: carbofuran, aldicarb, and strychnine. Most of the pesticide kills seem to be related to the illegal control of predators. Given the minor impact of labeled-use pesticides, currently approved pesticide use does not represent a problem for the Cinereous vulture. Nevertheless, availability of highly toxic pesticides may exacerbate illegal use. As a few compounds, mainly granular insecticides, are responsible for most pesticide kills, stronger regulation and control of these in the EU could result in a decrease of mortality related to pesticide abuse in several endangered species without a significant effect on agriculture. PMID:18274896

Hernández, Mauro; Margalida, Antoni

2008-05-01

155

Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. A Secondary Education for Europe Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph, published as part of the project "A Secondary Education for Europe," makes no claim to deal with all the questions relating to minorities, from either the legal point of view of that of international action. The paper does not aim to suggest recommendations on a theme which has concerned the Council of Europe for years. The…

Foucher, Michel

156

Allelopathic effect of a native species on a major plant invader in Europe.  

PubMed

Biological invasions have become a major global issue in ecosystem conservation. As formalized in the "novel weapon hypothesis", the allelopathic abilities of species are actively involved in invasion success. Here, we assume that allelopathy can also increase the biotic resistance of native species against invasion. We tested this hypothesis by studying the impact of the native species Sambucus ebulus on the colonization of propagules of the invasive species Fallopia x bohemica and the subsequent development of plants from these. Achenes and rhizome fragments from two natural populations were grown in a greenhouse experiment for 50 days. We used an experimental design that involved "donor" and "target" pots in order to separate resource competition from allelopathy. An allelopathic treatment effect was observed for plant growth but not for propagule establishment. Treatment affected, in particular, the growth of Fallopia plants originating from achenes, but there was less influence on plants originating from rhizomes. By day 50, shoot height had decreased by 27 % for plants originating from rhizomes and by 38 % for plants originating from achenes. The number of leaves for plants originating from achenes had only decreased by 20 %. Leaf and above- and below-ground dry masses decreased with treatment by 40, 41 and 25 % for plants originating from rhizomes and 70, 61 and 55 % for plants originating from achenes, respectively. S. ebulus extracts were analysed using high-performance chromatography, and the choice of test molecules was narrowed down. Our results suggest native species use allelopathy as a biotic containment mechanism against the naturalization of invasive species. PMID:25740225

Christina, Mathias; Rouifed, Soraya; Puijalon, Sara; Vallier, Félix; Meiffren, Guillaume; Bellvert, Floriant; Piola, Florence

2015-04-01

157

Allelopathic effect of a native species on a major plant invader in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological invasions have become a major global issue in ecosystem conservation. As formalized in the "novel weapon hypothesis", the allelopathic abilities of species are actively involved in invasion success. Here, we assume that allelopathy can also increase the biotic resistance of native species against invasion. We tested this hypothesis by studying the impact of the native species Sambucus ebulus on the colonization of propagules of the invasive species Fallopia x bohemica and the subsequent development of plants from these. Achenes and rhizome fragments from two natural populations were grown in a greenhouse experiment for 50 days. We used an experimental design that involved "donor" and "target" pots in order to separate resource competition from allelopathy. An allelopathic treatment effect was observed for plant growth but not for propagule establishment. Treatment affected, in particular, the growth of Fallopia plants originating from achenes, but there was less influence on plants originating from rhizomes. By day 50, shoot height had decreased by 27 % for plants originating from rhizomes and by 38 % for plants originating from achenes. The number of leaves for plants originating from achenes had only decreased by 20 %. Leaf and above- and below-ground dry masses decreased with treatment by 40, 41 and 25 % for plants originating from rhizomes and 70, 61 and 55 % for plants originating from achenes, respectively. S. ebulus extracts were analysed using high-performance chromatography, and the choice of test molecules was narrowed down. Our results suggest native species use allelopathy as a biotic containment mechanism against the naturalization of invasive species.

Christina, Mathias; Rouifed, Soraya; Puijalon, Sara; Vallier, Félix; Meiffren, Guillaume; Bellvert, Floriant; Piola, Florence

2015-04-01

158

EURO4M: monitoring weather and climate extremes in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new project called EURO4M: European Reanalysis and Observations for Monitoring (www.euro4m.eu), which is funded under the European Union FP7 programme. The ambitious plans in this project will be illustrated by examples from ongoing work and some early results. EURO4M sets out to develop the capacity for, and deliver the best possible and most complete (gridded) climate change time series and monitoring services covering all of Europe. The focus is on weather and climate extremes. Key questions include: What changes in weather and climate extremes do we observe in Europe over recent decades? How certain are we about these changes? Are our monitoring systems adequate to address these questions? EURO4M addresses the situation of fragmentation and scarcity of long-term climate change monitoring information for Europe. The project will extend, in a cost effective manner, European capacity to systematically monitor climate variability and change on a range of space and time scales. It will do so by combining seamlessly two different but complementary approaches: regional observation datasets of GCOS Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) and newly developed regional reanalysis. EURO4M will reach out with innovative and integrated data products and services to policy-makers, researchers, planners and citizens at European, national and local levels. This will directly address the needs of, for instance, the European Environment Agency for their environmental assessment reports - and even provide online reporting during emerging extreme events. EURO4M intends to become Europe's primary source of timely and reliable information about the state of the climate. The project has the potential to evolve into a future GMES service on climate change monitoring that is fully complimentary and supporting the existing operational GMES services. The EURO4M consortium consists of 9 partners from 8 countries. The project will run from 1 April 2010 until 31 March 2014. Co-ordinator is KNMI, the Netherlands.

Klein Tank, A. M. G.

2010-09-01

159

Energy Balance Related Behaviour: Personal, Home- and Friend-Related Factors among Schoolchildren in Europe Studied in the ENERGY-Project  

PubMed Central

Objective To design interventions that target energy balance-related behaviours, knowledge of primary schoolchildren's perceptions regarding soft drink intake, fruit juice intake, breakfast consumption, TV viewing and physical activity (PA) is essential. The current study describes personal beliefs and attitudes, home- and friend-related variables regarding these behaviours across Europe. Design Cross-sectional study in which personal, family and friend -related variables were assessed by validated questionnaires, and dichotomized as favourable versus unfavourable answers. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate proportions of children giving unfavourable answers and test between-country differences. Setting A survey in eight European countries. Subjects A total of 7903 10–12 year old primary schoolchildren. Results A majority of the children reported unfavourable attitudes, preferences and subjective norms regarding soft drink, fruit juice intake and TV viewing accompanied with high availability and accessibility at home. Few children reported unfavourable attitudes and preferences regarding breakfast consumption and PA. Many children reported unfavourable health beliefs regarding breakfast consumption and TV viewing. Substantial differences between countries were observed, especially for variables regarding soft drink intake, breakfast consumption and TV viewing. Conclusion The surveyed children demonstrated favourable attitudes to some healthy behaviours (PA, breakfast intake) as well as to some unhealthy behaviours (soft drink consumption, TV viewing). Additionally, many children across Europe have personal beliefs and are exposed to social environments that are not supportive to engagement in healthy behaviours. Moreover, the large differences in personal, family and friend-related variables across Europe argue for implementing different strategies in the different European countries. PMID:25372490

te Velde, Saskia J.; Singh, Amika; Chinapaw, Mai; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Natasa; Kovacs, Eva; Bere, Elling; Vik, Froydis N.; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Manios, Yannis; Moreno, Luis; Brug, Johannes

2014-01-01

160

Decline in tropospheric NO2 and the effects of the 2008-09 economic crisis observed by OMI over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a trend analysis of tropospheric NO2 for the time period of 2004-2010. Necessary for monitoring pollution abatement strategies, NO2 trends analyses are often based on surface networks, which suffer from high NO2 biases and spatial representativity issues inherent to the standard monitoring method (thermal reduction of NO2 followed by reaction with ozone and chemiluminescence). Space based NO2 trends are unbiased and self-consistent, but over Europe they have not been as obvious as those observed over North America and East Asia. In this work we exploit the daily NO2 column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in order to isolate long-term (timescales greater than one year) variability in NO2 over Europe without imposing a parametric fit to the data. In general, we find between 2005 and 2008, 1-5% per year declines in NO2 concentration in many polluted regions (e.g. Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Spain), but also 1-5% per year increases over the English Channel and the southern North Sea (a major shipping channel), as well as the United Kingdom, northern France and Eastern Europe. In 2009, NO2 almost exclusively decreased over Europe at a rate of 5-10% per year, coinciding with the abrupt decrease in industrial production and construction prompted by the global economic crisis. By 2010, in many areas the NO2 rate of change returned to pre-2009 levels suggesting economic recovery. We employ a simple fitting model to separate the forcing by meteorological variability, which can influence apparent NO2 trends, from that of NOx emissions. We calculate 1-3% per year NOx emissions reduction rates over most of Europe and an additional 15-30% per year decrease in NOx emissions during the economic crisis time period.

Castellanos, P.; Boersma, F. F.

2011-12-01

161

How to write a history of Europe: Europe, Europes, Eurasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article looks at the history of European culture from three angles, those of European uniqueness, European variety and European consciousness. The first section discusses the question of whether the fundamental unit of study, for cultural as well as economic historians, is not Eurasia. The second section is concerned with cultural divisions within Europe, with Europes in the plural. It asks whether it is more illuminating to distinguish two Europes (like Leopold von Ranke), or three (like Jeno Szucs), or even five (like Hugo Hassinger), and examine both centripetal and centrifugal forces in early modern history. The final section deals with the history of the idea of Europe, or more exactly with the rise of consciousness of being European, as it is revealed in early modern histories, geographies, journals and newspapers.

Burke, Peter

2006-05-01

162

The projected effect of scaling up midwifery.  

PubMed

We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate deaths averted if midwifery was scaled up in 78 countries classified into three tertiles using the Human Development Index (HDI). We selected interventions in LiST to encompass the scope of midwifery practice, including prepregnancy, antenatal, labour, birth, and post-partum care, and family planning. Modest (10%), substantial (25%), or universal (95%) scale-up scenarios from present baseline levels were all found to reduce maternal deaths, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths by 2025 in all countries tested. With universal coverage of midwifery interventions for maternal and newborn health, excluding family planning, for the countries with the lowest HDI, 61% of all maternal, fetal, and neonatal deaths could be prevented. Family planning alone could prevent 57% of all deaths because of reduced fertility and fewer pregnancies. Midwifery with both family planning and interventions for maternal and newborn health could avert a total of 83% of all maternal deaths, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths. The inclusion of specialist care in the scenarios resulted in an increased number of deaths being prevented, meaning that midwifery care has the greatest effect when provided within a functional health system with effective referral and transfer mechanisms to specialist care. PMID:24965814

Homer, Caroline S E; Friberg, Ingrid K; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; ten Hoope-Bender, Petra; Sandall, Jane; Speciale, Anna Maria; Bartlett, Linda A

2014-09-20

163

Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE study) profile: objectives, study protocol and descriptive data  

PubMed Central

Background Indoor air pollution (IAP) constitutes a major global public health problem requiring increasing efforts in research and policymaking that may have special significance for elderly that are likely to spend most of their day indoors and appear to be particularly susceptible to adverse effects of chemical pollutants and bio-contaminants. Yet, evidence existing on the effects of IAP in elderly is scanty. The Geriatric study in Europe on health effects of air quality in nursing homes (GERIE) study aimed to assess health effects of major indoor air pollutants and thermal conditions in elderly (> 70 years) living stably in nursing homes (NH) across Europe. Respiratory effects were particularly considered as airways and lung constitute the first target of air pollutants. Objectives We describe here the rationale and the methods of the GERIE Study. Methods 8 nursing homes were randomly selected in 7 European countries. Twenty individuals were randomly selected in each nursing home. Major indoor and outdoor air chemical pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, PM0.1, formaldehyde, NO2; O3, VOC, CO2) and bio-contaminants (moulds, allergens) were assessed objectively with standardized procedures. Major health status indicators were assessed through a standardized questionnaire, non-invasive clinical tests and blood and urine biomarkers as well as saliva for ADN. Results The GERIE study has given the opportunity to publish two reviews on respiratory health effects of indoor and outdoor air pollution in elderly. In addition it has provided the inventory of air quality and thermal conditions in 50 nursing homes across Europe and data on respiratory health status in 600 elderly aged 82 years in mean. Major future results will include the relationships between NH environment and health in elderly. Conclusions The main long-term purpose of the GERIE study is to improve the health of elderly who permanently reside in nursing homes or of those who are exposed to indoor air pollution because of reduced mobility. PMID:24262306

2013-01-01

164

Impact of biogenic emissions on ozone and fine particles over Europe: Comparing effects of temperature increase and a potential anthropogenic NOx emissions abatement strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of biogenic emissions on ozone and PM2.5 levels over Europe is assessed using CMAQ. Biogenic emissions are predicted to increase Max8hrO3 mixing ratios by 5.7% and to decrease PM2.5 concentrations by 1.9%, increasing PM2.5_OC by 13.6% and decreasing PM2.5_SO4, PM2.5_NO3 and PM2.5_NH4 by 5.6%, 3.7% and 5.6%, respectively, on average over Europe due to their interactions with anthropogenic emissions. A suite of perturbations in temperature is imposed individually on the base case conditions in order to determine the sensitivities to air temperature changes. Temperature increases of 1, 2 or 3° K suggest an average increase in Max8hrO3 mixing ratios of 0.9%, 1.8% or 2.9%, respectively, and an average decrease in daily average PM2.5 concentrations of 2.5%, 4.2% and 5.8%, respectively, increasing PM2.5_OC and decreasing PM2.5_SO4, PM2.5_NO3 and PM2.5_NH4 component concentrations on average over Europe. In order to examine if abatement measures for anthropogenic emissions could offset ozone increases in higher temperatures and their effect on PM2.5 concentrations, a simulation with a domain wide reduction in anthropogenic NOx emissions of 10% is performed. This is estimated to reduce Max8hrO3 mixing ratios by 1.3% on average over Europe. However, NOx reduction is estimated to increase Max8hrO3 in VOCs limited areas. The reduction in anthropogenic NOx emissions is predicted to reduce PM2.5 concentrations by 1.0% enhancing the reduction simulated, here, with temperature increase but further modifying PM2.5 component concentrations.

Tagaris, E.; Sotiropoulou, R. E. P.; Gounaris, N.; Andronopoulos, S.; Vlachogiannis, D.

2014-12-01

165

Which specific causes of death are associated with short term exposure to fine and coarse particles in Southern Europe? Results from the MED-PARTICLES project.  

PubMed

We investigated the short-term effects of particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5?m (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10?m (PM2.5-10) and less than 10?m (PM10) on deaths from diabetes, cardiac and cerebrovascular causes, lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in 10 European Mediterranean metropolitan areas participating in the MED-PARTICLES project during 2001-2010. In the first stage of the analysis, data from each city were analyzed separately using Poisson regression models, whereas in the second stage, the city-specific air pollution estimates were combined to obtain overall estimates. We investigated the effects following immediate (lags 0-1), delayed (lags 2-5) and prolonged exposure (lags 0-5) and effect modification patterns by season. We evaluated the sensitivity of our results to co-pollutant exposures or city-specific model choice. We applied threshold models to investigate the pattern of selected associations. For a 10?g/m(3) increase in two days' PM2.5 exposure there was a 1.23% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): -1.63%, 4.17%) increase in diabetes deaths, while six days' exposure statistically significantly increased cardiac deaths by 1.33% (95% CI: 0.27, 2.40%), COPD deaths by 2.53% (95% CI: -0.01%, 5.14%) and LRTI deaths by 1.37% (95% CI: -1.94%, 4.78%). PM2.5 results were robust to co-pollutant adjustments and alternative modeling approaches. Stronger effects were observed in the warm season. Coarse particles displayed positive, even if not statistically significant, associations with mortality due to diabetes and cardiac causes that were more variable depending on exposure period, co-pollutant and seasonality adjustment. Our findings provide support for positive associations between PM2.5 and mortality due to diabetes, cardiac causes, COPD, and to a lesser degree to cerebrovascular causes, in the European Mediterranean region, which seem to drive the particles short-term health effects. PMID:24657768

Samoli, Evangelia; Stafoggia, Massimo; Rodopoulou, Sophia; Ostro, Bart; Alessandrini, Ester; Basagaña, Xavier; Díaz, Julio; Faustini, Annunziata; Gandini, Martina; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Kelessis, Apostolos G; Le Tertre, Alain; Linares, Cristina; Ranzi, Andrea; Scarinzi, Cecilia; Katsouyanni, Klea; Forastiere, Francesco

2014-06-01

166

The Manhattan Project and its Effects on American Women Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been many detailed historical accounts of the Manhattan Project, but few have recognized the technical role women scientists and engineers crucially played in the Project's success. Despite their absence from these prominent accounts, recent studies have revealed that, in fact, women participated in every non-combat operation associated with the Manhattan Project. With such extensive participation of women and such a former lack of historical attention upon them, little analysis has been done on how the Manhattan Project might have influenced the prospectus of women scientists after the war. This talk has two aims: 1) to recount some of the technical and scientific contributions of women to the Manhattan Project, and 2) to examine what effects these contributions had on the women's careers as scientists. In other words, I intend offer a preliminary explanation of the extent to which the Manhattan Project acted both as a boon and as a detriment to American women scientists. And finally, I will address what this historical analysis could imply about the effects of current efforts to recruit women into science.

Fletcher, Samuel

2008-04-01

167

Wake fields effects for the eRHIC project  

SciTech Connect

An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) with a high peak electron bunch current is proposed for the Electron-Ion collider (eRHIC) project at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The present design is based on the multi-pass electron beam transport in existing tunnel of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). As a result of a high peak current and a very long beam transport, consideration of various collective beam dynamics effects becomes important. Here we summarize effects of the coherent synchrotron radiation, resistive wall, accelerating cavities and wall roughness on the resulting energy spread and energy loss for several scenarios of the eRHIC project.

Fedotov A. V.; Belomestnykh, S.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.; Ptitsyn, V.

2012-05-20

168

Controls on project proponents and environmental impact assessment effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

The degree of effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) for particular projects is associated with the existence of mechanisms of organizational control. Five dimensions of EIA effectiveness are considered: procedural compliance, completeness of EIA documents, methods to assess impacts, influence on project decisions, and weight given to environmental factors. Six mechanisms of control are introduced and illustrated by programs and projects in several countries. Experience in the Philippines under President Marcos demonstrates that procedural control in the form of EIA regulations, when used without other control mechanisms, will lead at most to token compliance. Judicial control, as practiced in the US, yields high procedural compliance. Evaluative control can yield effective EIA, but some systems based on this form of control treat only a small fraction of the major projects proposed. Both control exerted by development assistance organizations and control by professionals have great potential for yielding effective EIA, but that potential has not been fully realized. Control exerted directly by citizens or agencies not otherwise involved in EIA is uncommon, but cases from Taiwan demonstrate that those controls can be significant. An understanding of relationships between control mechanisms and EIA effectiveness is useful in designing EIA policies and programs.

Ortolano, L. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1993-01-01

169

A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic relationships of numerous branches within the core Y-chromosome haplogroup R-M207 support a West Asian origin of haplogroup R1b, its initial differentiation there followed by a rapid spread of one of its sub-clades carrying the M269 mutation to Europe. Here, we present phylogeographically resolved data for 2043 M269-derived Y-chromosomes from 118 West Asian and European populations assessed for the M412 SNP that largely separates the majority of Central and West European R1b lineages from those observed in Eastern Europe, the Circum-Uralic region, the Near East, the Caucasus and Pakistan. Within the M412 dichotomy, the major S116 sub-clade shows a frequency peak in the upper Danube basin and Paris area with declining frequency toward Italy, Iberia, Southern France and British Isles. Although this frequency pattern closely approximates the spread of the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), Neolithic culture, an advent leading to a number of pre-historic cultural developments during the past ?10 thousand years, more complex pre-Neolithic scenarios remain possible for the L23(xM412) components in Southeast Europe and elsewhere. PMID:20736979

Myres, Natalie M; Rootsi, Siiri; Lin, Alice A; Järve, Mari; King, Roy J; Kutuev, Ildus; Cabrera, Vicente M; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Rudan, Pavao; Baldovic, Marian; Herrera, Rene J; Chiaroni, Jacques; Di Cristofaro, Julie; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A

2011-01-01

170

The Conservation Effects Assessment Project—The First Five Years  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) was initiated by USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES) in response to a general call for better accountability of how soci...

171

Fine sediment sources in conservation effects assessment project watersheds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two naturally occurring radionuclides, 7Be and 210Pbxs , were used as tracers to discriminate eroded surface soils from channel-derived sediments in the fine suspended sediment loads of eight Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) benchmark watersheds. Precipitation, source soils, and suspe...

172

Long-Term Effects of a Nursing Home Education Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted by a mental health center to evaluate the effects of a nursing home education project which attempted 1) to teach mental health professionals and nursing home staff how to set up in-service education programs in nursing homes, and 2) to teach nursing home staff mental health principles. (Author/EJT)

Patterson, Robert D.; Gurian, Bennett S.

1976-01-01

173

Projecting the effects of environmental change on Antarctic seals  

E-print Network

Opinion Projecting the effects of environmental change on Antarctic seals DONALD B. SINIFF1 Gatos, CA 95032, USA *sinif001@umn.edu Abstract: We consider how Antarctic seals may respond to changes), Ross (Ommataphoca rossii) and leopard (Hydrurga leptonyx) seal - and the ice-tolerant Antarctic fur

174

1. Quantum Zeno effect (QZE) "proves" projective measurement  

E-print Network

Packet Collapse (WPC), Projection Measurement , Wave Function Reduction, Strong measurement ( )A a a a= a von Neumann 1929 #12;WPC results in quantum Zeno effect 2 2 2n- 0 0 2n 2 2 0 0 ( ) 2 2 P(=n)= 1 1

Sun, Chang-Pu

175

Effects of Applied Strain on Rates of Ageing: Project Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the stated intents of this project has been to make some assessment of effects of strain on rates of ageing of project thermoplastics exposed to project fluids. To this end, certain straining jigs which apply in various modes - tensile, four-point bending and crack growth using compact tension samples - were designed and made for holding samples during fluid exposures. During testing, features of the thermoplastics have been observed which have tended to confuse apparent strain effects on the polymers' aged performance, but recent assessments of the topic and its data have led to considerable progress being made in identifying test procedures necessary for strain and related effects on chemical deterioration to manifest themselves. It is the intent of this report to provide a summary of what has been determined on strain and related effects thus far, and provide recommendations for clarifying them in Phase 2 by means of further test procedures which will increase and focus the severity of the conditions applying. The choice of flexible pipe rather than umbilicals service for assessing service strain conditions reflects the major interest of project members. However, Tefzel data are still provided.

Campion, R. P.

1997-01-01

176

Pastureland Conservation Effects Assessment Project: Status and expected outcomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a multiagency scientific effort to quantify environmental outcomes of conservation practices applied to private agricultural lands. A CEAP effort on pastureland, primarily in the eastern and central United States, began in 2008. In this paper we ...

177

Learning Effects of an International Group Competition Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effects of collaboration and competition on students' learning performance in a course of business statistics. The collaboration involved a simultaneously organised group competition project with analysis of real-life business problems among students. Students from the following schools participated: JAMK…

Akpinar, Murat; del Campo, Cristina; Eryarsoy, Enes

2015-01-01

178

The foot in multistage ultra-marathon runners: experience in a cohort study of 22 participants of the Trans Europe Footrace Project with mobile MRI  

PubMed Central

Objectives 67 runners participated in the Trans Europe FootRace 2009 (TEFR09), a 4487?km (2789 mi) multistage ultra-marathon covering the south of Europe (Bari, Italy) to the North Cape. Reports on ultra-marathons are lacking, but the literature reports overuse injuries in athletes, especially to the Achilles tendon (AT), ankle or hind foot. Bone oedema may be related to exposure and is present in fatigue fractures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine prospectively if sustained maximal load during an ultra-marathon leads to damage to the foot. Design and participants In a cohort study, repeated scanning of the 22 athletes participating in the study was performed before and during (approximately every 1000?km) the race. Using the obtained fat saturated inversion recovery sequence, two experienced readers blinded to the clinical data rated the images regarding foot lesions. Statistical analysis included regression analysis and computation of the inter-rater reliability. Setting The TEFR09 course. MRI scanning was performed according to prearranged schedules for every participant, using a mobile 1.5?Tesla MRI unit on a trailer following the race. Primary outcome measures MRI data such as AT diameter, bone or tendon lesions, subcutaneous, plantar fascia or intraosseous oedema. Results The 22 study participants did not differ significantly from the total of the 67 TEFR09 runners regarding height, weight and age. The AT diameter increased significantly from 6.8 to 7.8?mm as did intraosseous signal, bone lesions and subcutaneous oedema. However, finishers differed only regarding plantar aponeurosis and subcutaneous oedema from participants aborting the TEFR09. Inter-rater reliability was 0.88–0.98. Conclusion Under the extreme stress of the TEFR09, an increase of the AT diameter as well as bone signal are thought to be adaptive since only subcutaneous oedema and plantar fascia oedema were related to abortion of the race. Trial registration number University of Ulm, Germany Ethics Committee Number 78/08-UBB/se. PMID:22619270

Weber, Frank; Billich, Christian; Schuetz, Uwe H

2012-01-01

179

Power plant rehabilitation in Eastern Europe  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in 1989, political revolution in the former Eastern block countries precipitated a period of economic transformation from a centrally planned to a market-oriented economy. Because energy is a vital factor of any economic development, rehabilitation of the region`s aging and polluting energy sector is essential to achieving economic stability and growth. Today Eastern Europe is among the most polluted regions in the world. This is due to the absence of effective environmental responsibility over the last 40 years. The European Community and other Western countries have focused on Eastern Europe as a significant world environmental problem, particularly the Black Triangle area. To meet this challenge the governments of Poland, the Czech Republic, Germany and others have embarked on various programs to rehabilitate the key power stations in the region. This paper will present the various aspects of power plant rehabilitation including the installation of new efficient turbine generators, new digital control systems, renovated power cycle equipment and modern efficient clean coal circulating fluidized bed technology. The paper focuses on this issue by using the Turow 2 x 235 MW rehabilitation project in Bogatynia, Poland as a case study. Included in the paper will be a discussion of a broad range of issues affecting rehabilitation including technical considerations, financial and commercial limitations and political aspects.

Gaglia, B.N. [Pyropower Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Lecesne, E. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

1995-12-31

180

Can cars and trucks coexist peacefully on highways? Analyzing the effectiveness of road safety policies in Europe.  

PubMed

We examine the impact on the traffic accident rate of the interaction between trucks and cars on Europe's roads using a panel data set that covers the period 1999-2010. We find that rising motorization rates for trucks lead to higher traffic fatalities, while rising motorization rates for cars do not. Empirically, the model we build predicts the positive impact of stricter speed limit legislation for trucks in the reduction of road fatalities. These findings lend support to European strategies and aimed at promoting alternative modes of freight transport, including rail and maritime transport. PMID:25703350

Castillo-Manzano, José I; Castro-Nuño, Mercedes; Fageda, Xavier

2015-04-01

181

No effects of Bacillus thuringiensis maize on nontarget organisms in the field in southern Europe: a meta-analysis of 26 arthropod taxa.  

PubMed

Maize with the insecticidal properties of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, known as Bt maize, has been sown in Europe since 1998. For several years, EU and Spanish regulations have required laboratory and field trials to assess risks of genetically modified crops for nontarget organisms prior to their authorization. Thirteen field trials were conducted in Spain to measure the effects of Bt maize on a broad range of arthropod taxa; no effects were found in accordance with most literature records. However, statistical analyses of single trials rarely have the statistical power to detect low effect sizes if they do not have a sufficient sample size. When sample size is low, meta-analysis may improve statistical power by combining several trials and assuming a common measure of effect size. Here we perform a meta-analysis of the results of 13 independent field trials conducted in Spain in which effects of single or stacked Bt traits on several arthropod taxa were measured with no significant results. Since the taxa included in each single trial were not the same for all trials, for the meta-analysis we selected only those taxa recorded in a minimum of six trials, resulting finally in 7, 7, and 12 taxa analyzed in visual counts, pitfall traps and yellow sticky traps, respectively. In comparison with single trial analysis, meta-analysis dramatically increased the detectability of treatment effects for most of the taxa regardless of the sampling technique; of the 26 taxa analyzed, only three showed poorer detectability in the meta-analysis than the best recorded in the 13 single trials. This finding reinforces the conclusion that Bt maize has no effect on the most common herbivore, predatory and parasitoid arthropods found in the maize ecosystems of southern Europe. PMID:23904218

Comas, C; Lumbierres, B; Pons, X; Albajes, R

2014-02-01

182

The Contribution of Local Experiments and Negotiation Processes to Field-Level Learning in Emerging (Niche) Technologies: Meta-Analysis of 27 New Energy Projects in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how local experiments and negotiation processes contribute to social and field-level learning. The analysis is framed within the niche development literature, which offers a framework for analyzing the relation between projects in local contexts and the transfer of local experiences into generally applicable rules. The…

Raven, Rob P. J. M.; Heiskanen, Eva; Lovio, Raimo; Hodson, Mike; Brohmann, Bettina

2008-01-01

183

OneGeology-Europe Plus Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geological Surveys of the European countries hold valuable resources of geological data but, to discover, understand and use this data efficiently, a good level of standardization is essential. The OneGeology-Europe project had the aim of making geological maps at a scale 1:1M from Europe discoverable and accessible, available under a common data license and described by multilingual metainformation. A harmonized specification for basic geological map data was developed so that significant progress towards harmonizing the datasets was achieved. Responsibility for the management of the OneGeology-Europe portal has been taken by EuroGeoSurveys and provided by CGS and BRGM. Of the 34 members of EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), only 20 participated in the OneGeology-Europe project (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Spain, United Kingdom), so the European area was not completely covered. At the 33rd General Meeting and Directors Workshop in 2012 it was therefore decided to establish a successor initiative OneGeology Europe Plus (1G-E+) with the purpose of extending the coverage by geological maps at a scale of 1:1 M to all the EGS member countries (including Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Iceland, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine) and also, if possible, to the other European countries (Belorussia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Faeroe Islands, Kosovo, Latvia, Macedonia, Moldavia, Montenegro, Serbia). In order to achieve the desired result, it has been necessary for the new GSOs who intend to supply the additional 1G-E standardized services to carry out the work using their own staff and resources. The technical guidance and other support have been provided by the 1G-E+ Technical Support Team, funded from the internal budgets of their respective surveys. The team is coordinated by the Czech Geological Survey (CGS) working with the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), the British Geological Survey (BGS), the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the Geological Survey of Slovenia (GeoZS). The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (TNO) decided to provide financial support for the initiative. The Technical Support Team has been providing the technical advice required to enable the inclusion of geological maps from new countries in the 1G-E Portal using the standards developed and accepted for 1G-E. Cookbooks, on-line help and a helpdesk are provided during the work. A technical workshop was organized at which all the technical steps required to reach the target solution were presented and discussed. All newcomers must agree the existing common license that was created for downloading the 1G-E data. It should be emphasized that the results will be displayed as part of the 1G-E project and metadata/portal infrastructures. The process is still ongoing because the harmonization work for most of the countries involved has been a demanding process. Some countries are facing difficulties because of the lack of expert personnel or insufficient resources of data. Despite some problems, the 1G-E+ initiative and the work involved has contributed to effective networking and technical cooperation between the GSOs across the wider European region.

Capova, Dana; Kondrova, Lucie

2014-05-01

184

Physical and economic consequences of climate change in Europe  

PubMed Central

Quantitative estimates of the economic damages of climate change usually are based on aggregate relationships linking average temperature change to loss in gross domestic product (GDP). However, there is a clear need for further detail in the regional and sectoral dimensions of impact assessments to design and prioritize adaptation strategies. New developments in regional climate modeling and physical-impact modeling in Europe allow a better exploration of those dimensions. This article quantifies the potential consequences of climate change in Europe in four market impact categories (agriculture, river floods, coastal areas, and tourism) and one nonmarket impact (human health). The methodology integrates a set of coherent, high-resolution climate change projections and physical models into an economic modeling framework. We find that if the climate of the 2080s were to occur today, the annual loss in household welfare in the European Union (EU) resulting from the four market impacts would range between 0.2–1%. If the welfare loss is assumed to be constant over time, climate change may halve the EU's annual welfare growth. Scenarios with warmer temperatures and a higher rise in sea level result in more severe economic damage. However, the results show that there are large variations across European regions. Southern Europe, the British Isles, and Central Europe North appear most sensitive to climate change. Northern Europe, on the other hand, is the only region with net economic benefits, driven mainly by the positive effects on agriculture. Coastal systems, agriculture, and river flooding are the most important of the four market impacts assessed. PMID:21282624

Ciscar, Juan-Carlos; Iglesias, Ana; Feyen, Luc; Szabó, László; Van Regemorter, Denise; Amelung, Bas; Nicholls, Robert; Watkiss, Paul; Christensen, Ole B.; Dankers, Rutger; Garrote, Luis; Goodess, Clare M.; Hunt, Alistair; Moreno, Alvaro; Richards, Julie; Soria, Antonio

2011-01-01

185

Inpatient Drug Utilization in Europe: Nationwide Data Sources and a Review of Publications on a Selected Group of Medicines (PROTECT Project).  

PubMed

Drug utilization (DU) studies in inpatient settings at a national level are rarely conducted. The main objective of this study was to review the general information on hospital medicine management in Europe and to report on the availability and characteristics of nationwide administrative drug consumption databases. A secondary objective was to perform a review of published studies on hospital DU of a group of selected drugs, focusing on methodological characteristics (ATC/DDD). General information on hospital drug management was retrieved from several websites, nationwide administrative drug consumption databases and reports published by governmental organizations. A PubMed search was conducted using keywords related to the selected group of drugs AND 'hospital drug utilization'. The data sources for hospital DU information varied widely and included 14 databases from 25 reviewed countries. Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Norway and Sweden obtain information on inpatient DU at a national level from wholesalers/manufacturers. In Belgium, Italy and Portugal, drugs dispensed to patients in hospitals are registered at a national level. Data are freely available online only for Denmark and Iceland. From the PubMed search, of a total of 868 retrieved studies, only 13 studies used the ATC/DDD methodology. Although the number of DDD/100 bed-days was used in four studies, other units of measure were also used. The type of information provided for the inpatient sector allowed primarily for conducting DU research at an aggregated data level. The existence of national administrative structures to monitor hospital DU would contribute to promoting the rational use of medicines and improving the safety and quality of prescribing. PMID:25420967

Sabaté, Mònica; Ferrer, Pili; Ballarín, Elena; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Amelio, Justyne; Schmiedl, Sven; Reynolds, Robert; Klungel, Olaf; Ibáñez, Luisa

2015-03-01

186

Crustal structure variation from the Precambrian to Palaeozoic platforms in Europe imaged by the inversion of teleseismic receiver functions-project TOR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TOR experiment (Teleseismic TOmography TORnquist) carried out in winter 1996/97 across the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) in Germany, Denmark and Sweden has collected new data to investigate the transition zone between Precambrian and Palaeozoic Europe. In this study, seismograms of teleseismic earthquakes recorded by the broad-band TOR stations have been used to calculate the receiver functions. The time-domain inversion method has been applied to the receiver functions to compute S-wave velocities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath each station. The results of inversion down to 60 km depth provide new, independent information about the distribution of S-wave velocity in this area. Beneath the Swedish stations on Baltica, the thickness of the crust varies from about 45 to 50 km with mostly gradually increasing S-wave velocity and no sharp discontinuities while for Danish and German stations the crust is thinner (29-38 km) with a sharp Moho discontinuity. A very distinct S-wave low velocity layer was found at depth of 8-16 km in the upper crust of Baltica, supported by the results of refraction/deep seismic sounding experiments using both P and S waves. The map of Vp/Vs ratio beneath the c. 1000 km long TOR `profile' was obtained using the Vp velocity model from previous investigations. The values of Vp/Vs= 1.73 were found in the uppermost crust of Baltica and upper Avalonian crust. The low velocity layer in the upper crust of Baltica is characterized by high value of Vp/Vs= 1.85. Relatively low S-wave velocities are observed in the lower crust of Variscides (Vp/Vs= 1.79), Baltica (Vp/Vs= 1.83) and Avalonia (Vp/Vs= 1.91); in the uppermost mantle Vp/Vs values are 1.77, 1.79 and 1.82, respectively.

Wilde-Piórko, M.; Grad, M.

2002-07-01

187

Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first part of the presentation is devoted to the consequences of the severe accident in the 1986 Chernobyl NPP. It lead to a substantial radioactive contaminated of large parts of Europe and thus raised the awareness for off-site nuclear accident consequences. Spatial patterns of the (transient) contamination of the air and (persistent) contamination of the ground were studied by both measurements and model simulations. For a variety of reasons, ground contamination measurements have variability at a range of spatial scales. Results will be reviewed and discussed. Model simulations, including inverse modelling, have shown that the standard source term as defined in the ATMES study (1990) needs to be updated. Sensitive measurements of airborne activities still reveal the presence of low levels of airborne radiocaesium over the northern hemisphere which stems from resuspension. Over time scales of months and years, the distribution of radionuclides in the Earth system is constantly changing, for example relocated within plants, between plants and soil, in the soil, and into water bodies. Motivated by the permanent risk of transboundary impacts from potential major nuclear accidents, the multidisciplinary project flexRISK (see http://flexRISK.boku.ac.at) has been carried out from 2009 to 2012 in Austria to quantify such risks and hazards. An overview of methods and results of flexRISK is given as a second part of the presentation. For each of the 228 NPPs, severe accidents were identified together with relevant inventories, release fractions, and release frequencies. Then, Europe-wide dispersion and dose calculations were performed for 2788 cases, using the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. Maps of single-case results as well as various aggregated risk parameters were produced. It was found that substantial consequences (intervention measures) are possible for distances up to 500-1000 km, and occur more frequently for a distance range up to 100-300 km, which is in agreement with Chernobyl experiences. However, emergency planning presently is still often focussing on too small areas. In reality, almost all of Europe should be prepared for nuclear disaster. The project investigated also the effect of a simple phase-out scenario. A regional phase-out policy is effective for reducing or even eliminating high damage in the respective regions. It should also be mentioned that risk distribution depends strongly on accident frequency, but this parameter is highly uncertain. The work in flexRISK was funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund (KLI.EN).

Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

2013-04-01

188

In situ bioremediation in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Site remediation activity in Europe is increasing, even if not at the forced pace of the US. Although there is a better understanding of the benefits of bioremediation than of other approaches, especially about in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, relatively few projects have been carried out full-scale in Europe or in the US. Some engineering companies and large industrial companies in Europe are investigating bioremediation and biotreatment technologies, in some cases to solve their internal waste problems. Technologies related to the application of microorganisms to the soil, release of nutrients into the soil, and enhancement of microbial decontamination are being tested through various additives such as surfactants, ion exchange resins, limestone, or dolomite. New equipment has been developed for crushing and mixing or injecting and sparging the microorganisms, as have new reactor technologies (e.g., rotating aerator reactors, biometal sludge reactors, and special mobile containers for simultaneous storage, transportation, and biodegradation of contaminated soil). Some work has also been done with immobilized enzymes to support and restore enzymatic activities related to partial or total xenobiotic decontamination. Finally, some major programs funded by public and private institutions confirm that increasing numbers of firms have a working interest in bioremediation.

Porta, A. [Battelle Europe, Geneva (CH); Young, J.K.; Molton, P.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

1993-06-01

189

Space Radiation Effects on Inflatable Habitat Materials Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Radiation Effects on Inflatable Habitat Materials project provides much needed risk reduction data to assess space radiation damage of existing and emerging materials used in manned low-earth orbit, lunar, interplanetary, and Martian surface missions. More specifically, long duration (up to 50 years) space radiation damage will be quantified for materials used in inflatable structures (1st priority), as well as for habitable composite structures and space suits materials (2nd priority). The data acquired will have relevance for nonmetallic materials (polymers and composites) used in NASA missions where long duration reliability is needed in continuous or intermittent radiation fluxes. This project also will help to determine the service lifetimes for habitable inflatable, composite, and space suit materials.

Waller, Jess M.; Nichols, Charles

2015-01-01

190

I-MOVE Multi-Centre Case Control Study 2010-11: Overall and Stratified Estimates of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background In the third season of I-MOVE (Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe), we undertook a multicentre case-control study based on sentinel practitioner surveillance networks in eight European Union (EU) member states to estimate 2010/11 influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically-attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza. Methods Using systematic sampling, practitioners swabbed ILI/ARI patients within seven days of symptom onset. We compared influenza-positive to influenza laboratory-negative patients among those meeting the EU ILI case definition. A valid vaccination corresponded to > 14 days between receiving a dose of vaccine and symptom onset. We used multiple imputation with chained equations to estimate missing values. Using logistic regression with study as fixed effect we calculated influenza VE adjusting for potential confounders. We estimated influenza VE overall, by influenza type, age group and among the target group for vaccination. Results We included 2019 cases and 2391 controls in the analysis. Adjusted VE was 52% (95% CI 30-67) overall (N?=?4410), 55% (95% CI 29-72) against A(H1N1) and 50% (95% CI 14-71) against influenza B. Adjusted VE against all influenza subtypes was 66% (95% CI 15-86), 41% (95% CI -3-66) and 60% (95% CI 17-81) among those aged 0-14, 15-59 and ?60 respectively. Among target groups for vaccination (N?=?1004), VE was 56% (95% CI 34-71) overall, 59% (95% CI 32-75) against A(H1N1) and 63% (95% CI 31-81) against influenza B. Conclusions Results suggest moderate protection from 2010-11 trivalent influenza vaccines against medically-attended ILI laboratory-confirmed as influenza across Europe. Adjusted and stratified influenza VE estimates are possible with the large sample size of this multi-centre case-control. I-MOVE shows how a network can provide precise summary VE measures across Europe. PMID:22110695

Kissling, Esther; Valenciano, Marta; Cohen, Jean Marie; Oroszi, Beatrix; Barret, Anne-Sophie; Rizzo, Caterina; Stefanoff, Pawel; Nunes, Baltazar; Pitigoi, Daniela; Larrauri, Amparo; Daviaud, Isabelle; Horvath, Judit Krisztina; O'Donnell, Joan; Seyler, Thomas; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona Anna; Pechirra, Pedro; Ivanciuc, Alina Elena; Jiménez-Jorge, Silvia; Savulescu, Camelia; Ciancio, Bruno Christian; Moren, Alain

2011-01-01

191

An Overview of Land Consolidation in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Rural development by land consolidation is used in several countries in the Continent of Europe. At the moment, land consolidation projects are executed broadly in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Switzerland, as well as in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The demand for land consolidation arises from a similar source in all countries: the need for readjusting

Arvo VITIKAINEN

2004-01-01

192

Retirement Age Considerations for Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes the arguments for and possible consequences of an increase in the statutory retirement age in central Europe, including the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. The analysis reflects the current and projected demographic and economic developments, and discerns the long-term trends from the specific aspects of transition. As for the long-term trends, the paper offers a simple

Hana Polackova

1999-01-01

193

Short term effects of air pollution on health: a European approach using epidemiologic time series data: the APHEA protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Results from several studies over the past five years have shown that the current levels of pollutants in Europe and North America have adverse short term effects on health. The APHEA project aims to quantifying these in Europe, using standardised methodology. The project protocol and analytical methodology are presented here. DESIGN: Daily time series data were gathered

K Katsouyanni; J Schwartz; C Spix; G Touloumi; D Zmirou; A Zanobetti; B Wojtyniak; J M Vonk; A Tobias; A Pönkä; S Medina; L Bachárová; H R Anderson

1996-01-01

194

Childhood cancer survivor cohorts in Europe.  

PubMed

With the advent of multimodality therapy, the overall five-year survival rate from childhood cancer has improved considerably now exceeding 80% in developed European countries. This growing cohort of survivors, with many years of life ahead of them, has raised the necessity for knowledge concerning the risks of adverse long-term sequelae of the life-saving treatments in order to provide optimal screening and care and to identify and provide adequate interventions. Childhood cancer survivor cohorts in Europe. Considerable advantages exist to study late effects in individuals treated for childhood cancer in a European context, including the complementary advantages of large population-based cancer registries and the unrivalled opportunities to study lifetime risks, together with rich and detailed hospital-based cohorts which fill many of the gaps left by the large-scale population-based studies, such as sparse treatment information. Several large national cohorts have been established within Europe to study late effects in individuals treated for childhood cancer including the Nordic Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia study (ALiCCS), the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS), the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) LATER study, and the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS). Furthermore, there are other large cohorts, which may eventually become national in scope including the French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (FCCSS), the French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study for Leukaemia (LEA), and the Italian Study on off-therapy Childhood Cancer Survivors (OTR). In recent years significant steps have been taken to extend these national studies into a larger pan-European context through the establishment of two large consortia - PanCareSurFup and PanCareLIFE. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the current large, national and pan-European studies of late effects after childhood cancer. This overview will highlight the strong cooperation across Europe, in particular the EU-funded collaborative research projects PanCareSurFup and PanCareLIFE. Overall goal. The overall goal of these large cohort studies is to provide every European childhood cancer survivor with better care and better long-term health so that they reach their full potential, and to the degree possible, enjoy the same quality of life and opportunities as their peers. PMID:25813473

Winther, Jeanette F; Kenborg, Line; Byrne, Julianne; Hjorth, Lars; Kaatsch, Peter; Kremer, Leontien C M; Kuehni, Claudia E; Auquier, Pascal; Michel, Gérard; de Vathaire, Florent; Haupt, Riccardo; Skinner, Roderick; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura M; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Wesenberg, Finn; Reulen, Raoul C; Grabow, Desiree; Ronckers, Cecile M; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Schindler, Matthias; Berbis, Julie; Holmqvist, Anna S; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; de Fine Licht, Sofie; Bonnesen, Trine G; Asdahl, Peter H; Bautz, Andrea; Kristoffersen, Anja K; Himmerslev, Liselotte; Hasle, Henrik; Olsen, Jørgen H; Hawkins, Mike M

2015-05-01

195

Effect of risk aversion on prioritizing conservation projects.  

PubMed

Conservation outcomes are uncertain. Agencies making decisions about what threat mitigation actions to take to save which species frequently face the dilemma of whether to invest in actions with high probability of success and guaranteed benefits or to choose projects with a greater risk of failure that might provide higher benefits if they succeed. The answer to this dilemma lies in the decision maker's aversion to risk-their unwillingness to accept uncertain outcomes. Little guidance exists on how risk preferences affect conservation investment priorities. Using a prioritization approach based on cost effectiveness, we compared 2 approaches: a conservative probability threshold approach that excludes investment in projects with a risk of management failure greater than a fixed level, and a variance-discounting heuristic used in economics that explicitly accounts for risk tolerance and the probabilities of management success and failure. We applied both approaches to prioritizing projects for 700 of New Zealand's threatened species across 8303 management actions. Both decision makers' risk tolerance and our choice of approach to dealing with risk preferences drove the prioritization solution (i.e., the species selected for management). Use of a probability threshold minimized uncertainty, but more expensive projects were selected than with variance discounting, which maximized expected benefits by selecting the management of species with higher extinction risk and higher conservation value. Explicitly incorporating risk preferences within the decision making process reduced the number of species expected to be safe from extinction because lower risk tolerance resulted in more species being excluded from management, but the approach allowed decision makers to choose a level of acceptable risk that fit with their ability to accommodate failure. We argue for transparency in risk tolerance and recommend that decision makers accept risk in an adaptive management framework to maximize benefits and avoid potential extinctions due to inefficient allocation of limited resources. El Efecto de la Aversión de Riesgo sobre la Priorización de Proyectos de Conservación. PMID:25327837

Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Maloney, Richard F; Joseph, Liana N; Bennett, Joseph R; Di Fonzo, Martina M I; Probert, William J M; O'Connor, Shaun M; Densem, Jodie P; Possingham, Hugh P

2015-04-01

196

Project: Pin down framing effects in situation of risky choice Behavioral data  

E-print Network

Project: Pin down framing effects in situation of risky choice Behavioral data fMRI data Behavioral (London) July 2005 S.Bourgeois-Gironde and Ã?lise Payzan Budapest 07/05 #12;Project: Pin down framing effects in situation of risky choice Behavioral data fMRI data 1 Project: Pin down framing effects

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

197

The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project--design, population and data harmonization of a large-scale, international study.  

PubMed

There is a public health demand to prevent health conditions which lead to increased morbidity and mortality among the rapidly-increasing elderly population. Data for the incidence of such conditions exist in cohort studies worldwide, which, however, differ in various aspects. The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project aims at harmonizing data from existing major longitudinal studies for the elderly whilst focussing on cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancer, fractures and cognitive impairment in order to estimate their prevalence, incidence and cause-specific mortality, and identify lifestyle, socioeconomic, and genetic determinants and biomarkers for the incidence of and mortality from these conditions. A survey instrument assessing ageing-related conditions of the elderly will be also developed. Fourteen cohort studies participate in CHANCES with 683,228 elderly (and 150,210 deaths), from 23 European and three non-European countries. So far, 287 variables on health conditions and a variety of exposures, including biomarkers and genetic data have been harmonized. Different research hypotheses are investigated with meta-analyses. The results which will be produced can help international organizations, governments and policy-makers to better understand the broader implications and consequences of ageing and thus make informed decisions. PMID:25504016

Boffetta, Paolo; Bobak, Martin; Borsch-Supan, Axel; Brenner, Hermann; Eriksson, Sture; Grodstein, Fran; Jansen, Eugene; Jenab, Mazda; Juerges, Hendrik; Kampman, Ellen; Kee, Frank; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Park, Yikyung; Tjonneland, Anne; van Duijn, Cornelia; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wolk, Alicja; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulou, Antonia

2014-12-01

198

Living in Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weblogs on just about every topic imaginable (including a few which no one would have imagined) are now available. And, after some time spent living in the shadows of traditional formats such as television and mainstream periodicals, they have garnered the attention of major media programs. One of the more interesting weblog sites out there is Living in Europe, which consists of a cooperative of bloggers and writers who contribute essays, photographs, personal diaries, and news items from Europe. The perspectives section of the site offers some commentaries on the expansion of the European Union and a diary of a foreigner living in Turkey. The photos section features contributions from various parts of Europe, including some musings and photos from Catalonia and Bristol. Visitors who develop a penchant for the site may sign up to help with the administration of the site, or just offer their own commentaries on life in Europe.

199

Where Europe meets Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from a portion of the imagery acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera during 2000-2002 were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of southwestern Europe and northwestern Morocco and Algeria. The image extends from 48oN, 16oW in the northwest to 32oN, 8oE in the southeast. It is displayed in Albers conic equal-area projection (a projection which is frequently used for equal-area maps of regions that are predominantly east-west in extent).

From the northeast, the image traverses a portion of the Swiss Alps (partially snow-covered) and a small part of Italy's Po Valley. The northern portion of the image also includes the western coast of France and much of southern and southwestern France's undulating terrain, which continues until reaching the hills of the Pyrenees. The Pyrenees act as the natural frontier to the Iberian Peninsula -- a landmass comprised of Spain and Portugal. The Peninsular landscapes are extremely varied, with some almost desert-like, others green and fertile. About half of Spain is situated atop a high plain, known as the Central Plateau, and many mountain ranges, rivers, geological basement rock and vegetation types are found across this great plateau. The largest alluvial plain is Andalusia in the south, where the valley of the Guadalquivir River is shut in by mountain ranges on every side except the southwest, where the valley descends to the Atlantic. The islands of Mallorca, Menorca and Ibiza are Spanish territories in the western Mediterranean. At the Strait of Gibralter, Spain and Morocco very nearly kiss, and Morocco appears relatively verdant along its northern coastal corner. The rugged Atlas Mountain ranges traverse northern Algeria and Morocco.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during 2000-2002. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2005-01-01

200

Quantifying Nitrogen Fluxes and Their Influence on the Greenhouse gas Balance Research Strategy and new Findings From the NitroEurope Integrated Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human-driven production of reactive nitrogen to stimulate agricultural productivity and its unintended formation in combustion processes both have major impacts on the global environment. Effects of excess reactive nitrogen include reductions in air quality, water quality, soil quality and biodiversity. One of the most controversial impacts of nitrogen, however, is on the greenhouse gas balance. While recent papers have

M. Sutton; E. Nemitz; S. Reis; C. Beier; K. Butterbach-Bahl; P. Cellier; M. F. Cotrufo; J. W. Erisman; U. M. Skiba; W. de Vries; S. Zechmeister-Baltenstern; A. Bleeker; P. Calanca; T. Dalgaard; U. Dragosits; J. H. Duyzer; P. Gundersen; A. Hensen; H. Kros; A. Leip; M. Obersteiner; J. E. Olesen; G. Phillips; R. M. Rees; P. E. Smith; J. Soussana; Y. Tang; M. R. Theobald; A. van Amstel; M. van Oijen; M. Bakker; T. Vesala

2008-01-01

201

Forests and Soil Erosion across Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use and climate change threaten the ability of Europe's forests to provide a vital service in limiting soil erosion, e.g. from forest fires and landslides. However, our ability to define the threat and to propose mitigation measures suffers from two deficiencies concerning the forest/erosion interface: 1) While there have been a considerable number of field studies of the relationship between forest cover and erosion in different parts of Europe, the data sets are scattered among research groups and a range of literature outlets. There is no comprehensive overview of the forest/erosion interface at the European scale, essential for considering regional variations and investigating the effects of future changes in land use and climate. 2) Compared with forest/water studies, we have a poorer quantitative appreciation of forest/erosion interactions. In the forest/water area it is possible to make quantitative statements such as that a 20% change in forest cover across a river catchment is needed for the effect on annual water yield to be measurable or that a forested catchment in upland UK has an annual water yield around 15% lower than an otherwise comparable grassland catchment. Comparable statements are not yet possible for forest/erosion interactions and there are uncertainties in the mathematical representation of forest/erosion interactions which limit our ability to make predictions, for example of the impact of forest loss in a given area. This presentation therefore considers the next step in improving our predictive capability. It proposes the integration of existing research and data to construct the "big picture" across Europe, i.e. erosion rates and sediment yields associated with forest cover and its loss in a range of erosion regimes (e.g. post-forest fire erosion or post-logging landslides). This would provide a basis for generalizations at the European scale. However, such an overview would not form a predictive capability. Therefore it is also necessary to identify a range of predictive methods, from empirical guidelines to computer models, which can be recommended for applications such as extrapolating from the local to the regional scale and for planning mitigation strategies. Such developments could help improve efficiency in the integrated management of forest, soil and water resources, benefit local engineering projects ranging from hazard mitigation plans to road culvert design, contribute to the implementation of the EU Water Framework Development, form a more objective basis for cost/benefit analysis of proposed management actions and help in putting a value on forest services.

Bathurst, J. C.

2012-04-01

202

The effect of systemic errors on optimal project buffers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing mathematical models for setting buffers for time or cost in project management assume that project activities are statistically independent. This leads to a highly counterintuitive and damaging conclusion that project buffers should become relatively negligible for projects with long chains of activities. We present a model that considers the statistical dependence between activities caused by estimation bias. We show

Dan Trietsch

2005-01-01

203

Designing Effective Projects: Decision Options for Maximizing Learning and Project Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, more and more business schools have introduced team-based projects into their curricula as a means of addressing corporate, small business, and community-service issues while teaching students a variety of project management skills (technical and sociocultural). In designing a project-oriented course, an instructor has a number of…

Volkema, Roger J.

2010-01-01

204

A New Tool for Effective and Efficient Project Management  

SciTech Connect

Organizations routinely handle thousands of projects per year, and it is difficult to manage all these projects concurrently. Too often, projects do not get the attention they need when they need it. Management inattention can lead to late projects or projects with less than desirable content and/or deliverables. This paper discusses the application of Visual Project Management (VPM) as a method to track and manage projects. The VPM approach proved to be a powerful management tool without the overhead and restrictions of traditional management methods.

Willett, Jesse A.

2011-12-01

205

Diabetes in Europe: an update.  

PubMed

Diabetes is among the leading causes of death in the IDF Europe Region (EUR), continues to increase in prevalence with diabetic macro- and microvascular complications resulting in increased disability and enormous healthcare costs. In 2013, the number of people with diabetes is estimated to be 56 million in EUR with an overall estimated prevalence of 8.5%. However, estimates of diabetes prevalence in 2013 vary widely in the 56 diverse countries in EUR from 2.4% in Moldova to 14.9% in Turkey. Trends in diabetes prevalence also vary between countries with stable prevalence since 2002 for many countries but a doubling of diabetes prevalence in Turkey. For 2035, a further increase of nearly 10 million people with diabetes is projected for the EUR. Prevalence of type 1 has also increased over the past 20 years in EUR and there was estimated to be 129,350 cases in children aged 0-14 years in 2013. Registries provide valid information on incidence of type 1 diabetes with more complete data available for children than for adults. There are large differences in distribution of risk factors for diabetes at the population level in EUR. Modifiable risk factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, smoking behaviour (including secondhand smoking), environmental pollutants, psychosocial factors and socioeconomic deprivation could be tackled to reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Europe. In addition, diabetes management is a major challenge to health services in the European countries. Improved networking practices of health professionals and other stakeholders in combination with empowerment of people with diabetes and continuous quality monitoring need to be further developed in Europe. PMID:24300019

Tamayo, T; Rosenbauer, J; Wild, S H; Spijkerman, A M W; Baan, C; Forouhi, N G; Herder, C; Rathmann, W

2014-02-01

206

Education and ethnic prejudice in Europe : explanations for cross-national variances in the educational effect on ethnic prejudice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education is often found to be a strong determinant of ethnic pre judice. However, there is preliminary evidence that this educational effect varies across countries. Moreover, there are also theoretical arguments to expect cross-national variances in the educational effect on ethnic pre judice. From both a cultural and structural perspective, we set out to explain these cross-national variances in the

Evelyn Hello; Peer Scheepers; Mérove Gijsberts

2002-01-01

207

Education and Ethnic Prejudice in Europe: Explanations for Cross-National Variances in the Educational Effect on Ethnic Prejudice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied cross-national variances in the effect of education on ethnic prejudice using data from11 European countries with a total sample of 11,904 adults. Findings show that a country's democratic tradition and degree of religious heterogeneity are important for the strength of an educational effect on ethnic prejudice, while ethnic composition…

Hello, Evelyn; Scheepers, Peer; Gijsberts, Merove

2002-01-01

208

Tempo Effects in the Fertility Decline in Eastern Europe: Evidence from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent formula due to Bongaarts and Feeney allows us todisentangle tempo and quantum effects in changes of the totalfertility rate. This article applies the TFR adjustment toBulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Russia.Substantial differences between the adjusted and the observed TFRindicate important tempo effects in the recent decline offertility. Moreover, these five countries differ in the relativeimportance of

Dimiter Philipov; Hans-Peter Kohler

2001-01-01

209

The Manhattan Project and its Effects on American Women Scientists  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been many detailed historical accounts of the Manhattan Project, but few have recognized the technical role women scientists and engineers crucially played in the Project's success. Despite their absence from these prominent accounts, recent studies have revealed that, in fact, women participated in every non-combat operation associated with the Manhattan Project. With such extensive participation of women and

Samuel Fletcher

2008-01-01

210

A Reflection on the Effects of the 985 Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China's 985 Project, which came after the 211 Project, is a key program of the Chinese government to create world-class universities and high-level research universities. The central government invested a total of RMB32.9 billion in special funds for phase I (1999-2001) and phase II (2004-2007) of the project, assisting thirty-nine universities.…

Ying, Cheng

2011-01-01

211

Soft Skills and Technical Expertise of Effective Project Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the field of research surrounding project manage ment continues to grow, it is becoming more evident that success in the role of project manager cannot be attained with a technical skill set only. Project managers functioning within a matrix organizational structure and championing large-scale initiatives are in a communication para digm unparalleled by any other management position. Excellent interpersonal,

Sharlett Gillard

212

Endemic syphilis in Europe.  

PubMed

Nonvenereal syphilis (endemic syphilis) has existed in Europe since the 16th century. Main characteristics of the disease are its presence for a longer time in a specific territory and its transmission regardless of age and sex, mainly extragenitally in unsanitary living conditions. Nonvenereal syphilis was described under different names in almost all regions of Europe. The primary genital chancre was absent, and lesions were most frequently found in the mouth and affected mostly children. The disease spread in rural areas with poor economic and hygienic conditions. The disease was eradicated in Europe in the 20th century, but it is still present in some rural regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Southwest Asia, and North Africa. PMID:24559557

Lipozen?i?, Jasna; Marinovi?, Branka; Gruber, Franjo

2014-01-01

213

EPOS: Integrating seismological Research Infrastructures within Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismological data, products and models are currently produced in Europe within individual countries or research organizations, and with the contribution of coordinating organizations like ORFEUS and EMSC. In spite of these partly scattered resources, significant scientific results are obtained, excellent monitoring and information systems are operational and a huge amount of research quality data is being archived and disseminated. The seismological community, however, realizes that an effective European-scale integration of seismological and related geophysical data, products and models, combined with broad and easy access, is needed to facilitate future top level geoscience, for example, to appropriately harness the technological advancements enabling large scale and near-real time data processing. Here we present the technical concepts and developments within European seismology that will build the next generation of integrated services. Within the EPOS initiative and a number of related projects, where seismology infrastructure and IT developments are merging, in depth discussions are on-going on how to realize an effective integration. Concepts and visions addressing the obviously complex challenges resulting from the current highly distributed facilities and resources in Europe are emerging and are already partly being implemented. We will provide an overview of developments within key EU projects (NERA, VERCE, COOPEUS, EUDAT, REAKT, COMMIT, etc) and demonstrate how these are in coherence with EPOS and other on-going global initiatives. Within seismology current focus is on addressing IT related challenges to a) organize distributed data archives, develop metadata attributes for improved data searching, specifically including quality indicators, and define products from data and/or models, and b) define and create(on-line) monitoring, data access and processing tools. While developments to meet those challenges originate partly from within the community itself, it is important to harvest relevant ideas and tools from other scientific communities dealing with similar issues. We will present a short summary of those developments and how they fit within the proposed visions and concepts. These integration developments address a wide framework of seismological services that include: basic seismological data services (waveform data from velocity and acceleration sensors from land and underwater sites); seismological data products (source mechanism and process estimates, earthquake catalogues, structural and tomography model estimations); seismological models (synthetic waveforms, earth and earthquake source models, hazard models).Our aim is to build significantlyimproved seismological services and valuable products for multidisciplinary earth science research.

Eck Van, Torild; Clinton, John; Haslinger, Florian; Michelini, Alberto

2013-04-01

214

Acid rain in Europe and the United States: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the evolution of science and policies to control acid rain in Europe and the United States over the past several decades. Acid rain gained prominence in the late 1960s because of its perceived effects on ecosystem integrity. Extensive research efforts in both Europe and the United States, however, have concluded that the effects of acid rain—at least

Fredric C. Menz; Hans M. Seip

2004-01-01

215

The greying of Europe.  

PubMed Central

About a quarter of the population of Europe is now of pensionable age. Facilities for caring for very old or disabled people differ throughout Europe in scope and means of funding, and the countries of the European Union are far from equity in the status of pensioners. Health expectations have increased in older people--most of the calculated gain in life expectancy is likely to be without disability. Most countries now have specialist geriatric medicine facilities, and international research programmes are under way. Images p1283-a p1285-a PMID:7888855

Dall, J. L.

1994-01-01

216

Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This seventh edition of the Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe, available in English and French, was posted on the Web in September 2001. The atlas, a project of Christos Nussli, consists of maps "depicting with accuracy the states of this continent every first day of each centennial year from AD 1 to AD 2000." A legend helps users understand each of the maps, which are presented as expandable thumbnails. The site also links to a bibliography and maps from De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. Though the site functions in part as an advertisement for Nussli's CD version of the atlas, it is nonetheless a useful stop in its own right.

Nussli, Christos.

217

Religion and Party Choice in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates religiosity in relation to party choice in European Parliament elections. Conventional wisdom tells us that as Europe has secularised, the effect of religion on party choice should also have diminished. Yet, this cross-national and cross-temporal study of religious voting in European elections from 1989 to 2004 paints a more nuanced picture. It shows that a) the effect

Wouter van der Brug; Sara B. Hobolt; Claes H. de Vreese

2009-01-01

218

The effect of total solar eclipse of October 3, 2005, on the total electron content over Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

GPS observations from EUREF permanent GPS network were used to observe the response of TEC (Total Electron Content) to the total solar eclipse on October 3, 2005, under quiet geomagnetic conditions of the daytime ionosphere. The effect of the eclipse was detected in diurnal variations and more distinctly in the variations of TEC along individual satellite passes. The trough-like variations

A. Krankowski; I. I. Shagimuratov; L. W. Baran; G. A. Yakimova

2008-01-01

219

Uromyces Scutellatus as a keystone species affecting Euphorbia spp. in Europe as shown by effects on density in the field  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nearest neighbor spatial analysis was used to assess the effect of systemic rust caused by Uromyces scutellatus on stands density of Euphorbia esula/virgata, a highly invasive deep-rooted perennial weed of rangelands and natural areas in North America. ANOVA applied to nearest neighbor measurements ...

220

The Europe 2020 Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

Pasimeni, Paolo

2013-01-01

221

OCLC in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the early days of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) in Europe, and developments in its usage. Highlights include negotiations between OCLC and France; retrospective conversion; reorganization and restructuring; the gradual approach to international use of OCLC; problems facing European libraries using OCLC; and benefits. (AEF)

Deschamps, Christine

1998-01-01

222

EUROPE'S GEOSTATIONARY METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES  

E-print Network

MISSIONS MFG MISSION MSG MISSION MTG IMAGING MISSION MTG I MTG SOUNDING MISSION MTG S * MSG 4/METEOSAT 11 MTG S 1 MTG S 2 METEOSAT 9 MSG 3/METEOSAT 10 MSG 4/METEOSAT 11* METEOSAT FIRST GENERATION METEOSAT services over Europe and Africa, are now exclusively provided by Meteosat Second Generation (MSG

Stoffelen, Ad

223

A meta-analysis of the effects of agricultural management on soil physical quality for different farm typologies across Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite important research efforts directed towards increasing our understanding of the links between agricultural management practices and environmental degradation and crop yield decline, current knowledge is still insufficient to provide an integrated approach for untangling relationships with soil quality from a chemical, biological and physical perspective. (Davis et al. 2012). Within the European project CATCH-C (ten Berge 2011) a practical tool is being developed for analyzing the sustainability of soil management practices for a wide range of farm typologies across European. As a partner of CATCH-C, the Spanish team aims at assessing physical soil quality by using meta-analysis techniques, previously used to assess other aspects of agricultural management (van den Putte et al. 2010; González et al. 2012; Quemada et al. 2013). As a first step, key indicators for characterizing soil physical quality such as bulk density, resistance to penetration, hydraulic conductivity, runoff and sediment yield have been identified. A literature review of the performance of these indicators was carried out. Data extracted from literature, was integrated in an online database developed by Plant Research International (Wageningen, UR). After an exploratory data analysis, a meta-analysis of the indicators with baseline treatments allowed a proper interpretation of the indicators to elucidate relationships between agricultural management and soil physical quality. References: Davis A.S. et al. 2012. Plos ONE 7(10): e4719. doi:10.1371/journalpone.0047149. González-Sánchez E.J.et al. 2012. Soil Till. Res. 122: 52-60. Quemada M. et al. 2013. Agric. Ecosyst. Environm. 174: 1-10. ten Berge, H.F.T.M. coord. 2011. Compatibility of Agricultural Management Practices and Types of Farming in the EU to enhance Climate Change Mitigation and Soil Health. KBBE.2011.1.2-01, GA 289782. van den Putte A.et al. 2010. Eur. J. Agron. 33: 231-41.

Guzmán, Gema; Sáenz de Rodrigáñez, Marta; Laguna, Ana; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Vanderlinden, Karl; Ten Berge, Hein

2014-05-01

224

Working with Teachers to Develop Fair and Reliable Measures of Effective Teaching. MET Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to develop and test multiple measures of teacher effectiveness. The goal of the MET project is to improve the quality of information about teaching effectiveness available to education professionals within states and districts--information…

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

2010-01-01

225

Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ˜273?800 km2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus-Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and biodiversity, and for increasing agricultural production on previously cultivated lands.

Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Müller, Daniel

2012-06-01

226

Biomass energy in Western Europe to 2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently biomass energy supplies at least 2 EJ\\/yr (47 Mtoe) in OECD Europe, which is about 4% of total primary energy consumption (54.1 EJ). Estimates of the potential for bioenergy in the next century range from 2 to 20 EJ\\/yr. This paper estimates a potential of 9.0–13.5 EJ in 2050, which represents 17–30% of projected total energy requirements. This depends

JI House

1995-01-01

227

The Competencies and Characteristics Required of an Effective Project Manager: A Web-Based Delphi Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we explore the competencies required for a project manager to be effective in the workplace. We used a Web-based Delphi method to lead experienced project managers through an anonymous consensus-building process consisting of two rounds of surveys. The Round I analysis of 147 respondents, all with 20 or more years of project

Brill, Jennifer M.; Bishop, M. J.; Walker, Andrew E.

2006-01-01

228

ASSIGNMENT SHEET GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The objective of this course is to provide students with a knowledge of spatial patterns in Europe (physical, national, urban, cultural, etc.) to be used in the analysis of past and present European affairs. Furthermore, Europe must be understood in the context of an international perspective. I'll use many different forms of information to present Europe as a dynamic

A. J. Lamme III

229

The Effect of a Mathematics-Science Curriculum Integration Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four "fables" from the perspectives of four university collaborators describe the transformation of the original Mathematics and Science Collaborative Project (University of New Hampshire and four Durham, New Hampshire, middle and high schools) as its participants and leaders tried to balance the demands of an externally funded project with the…

Kull, Judith A.; And Others

1995-01-01

230

On the Effectiveness of Projection Methods for Convex Feasibility ...  

E-print Network

Dec 13, 2009 ... building bricks of a projection algorithm are the projections onto the given individual ... algorithm with the parallel architecture at hand; for block-iterative ... problems in sensor networks [14], in radiation therapy treatment planning [21,52], in ..... Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School,.

wei

231

Evaluating the effectiveness of collaborative computer-intensive projects in an undergraduate psychometrics course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undergraduate psychometrics classes often use computer-intensive active learning projects. However, little research has examined active learning or computer-intensive projects in psychometrics courses. We describe two computer-intensive collaborative learning projects used to teach the design and evaluation of psychological tests. Course evaluations were significantly above the department average, and students perceived the projects as effective in meeting course objectives and improving

Kimberly A. Barchard; Larry A. Pace

2010-01-01

232

‘New Europe’: Between Cosmopolitan Dreams and Nationalist Nightmares  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis article seeks to expose some limitations of dominant discourses about European integration. It argues that the attempt to move towards a more federalist Europe underpinned by the ideal of ‘post-national citizenship’ (Habermas) is both unrealistic and undesirable. The populism and ethno-centric nationalism endangering the European project emerged in Europe not despite the cosmopolitan agendas of its elites, but arguably,

STEFAN AUER

2010-01-01

233

Projected effects of proposed chloride-control projects on shallow ground water; preliminary results for the Wichita River basin, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers ' plan to control the natural chloride pollution in Wichita River basin includes construction of Truscott Brine Lake on a tributary of North Wichita River. In connection with the proposed brine lake, the U.S. Geological Survey was requested to define the existing ground-water conditions in the shallow freshwater system of the project area and to project the postconstruction effects of the proposed lake on the freshwater aquifer. The freshwater aquifer in the project area is a shallow water-table system with relatively freshwater that contains approximately 500-5,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids and consists of Permian rocks with very small values of hydraulic conductivity. It overlies a brine system that is even less permeable. Two-dimensional mathematical computer models were developed for aquifer simulation of steady-state conditions in a freshwater system and transient conditions in a brine-freshwater system where density effects of the brine are considered. Main results of the project are: (1) Water-level rises in the aquifer of 5-40 feet would be confined to areas near the proposed dam and along lake shoreline, and (2) migration of saltwater downstream from dam generally would be limited to less than 1 mile and apparently, would not reach equilibrium during the 100-year duration of the project. (USGS)

Garza, Sergio

1983-01-01

234

Europe Targets the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tentatively set for a July 2003 launch, the Smart-1 spacecraft will host Europe's first lunar mission. A news article from the BBC outlines the objectives of this pioneering mission. The Smart-1 is incorporating many new technologies and testing them for the first time in space. One of the most notable is the ion thruster, but several other novel items used in the Smart-1, if successful, will end up in a mission to Mercury around 2010.

Amos, Jonathan.

2003-01-01

235

Europe: tilting toward fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear reactor technology, which has been developing in Europe since World War II, has progressed to the breeder, and is now developing fusion programs. In spite of some safety concerns, Britain is likely to shift its next nuclear effort to the pressurized-water reactor (PWR) after a period of emphasizing the advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGRs). France began in 1959 with gas-cooled

1976-01-01

236

Does information matter? The effect of the Meth Project on meth use among youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are demand-side interventions effective at curbing drug use? To the extent demand-side programs are successful, their cost effectiveness can be appealing from a policy perspective. Established in 2005, the Montana Meth Project (MMP) employs a graphic advertising campaign to deter meth use among teens. Due to the MMP's apparent success, seven other states have adopted Meth Project campaigns. Using data

D. Mark Anderson

2010-01-01

237

"Project ALERT's" Effects on Adolescents' Prodrug Beliefs: A Replication and Extension Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article represents a replication and extension of previous studies of the effects of "Project ALERT", a school-based substance use prevention program, on the prodrug beliefs of adolescents. Specifically, the authors' research examined "Project ALERT's" effects on adolescents' intentions to use substances in the future, beliefs about substance…

Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Hanley, Sean; Shamblen, Stephen R.

2010-01-01

238

New Orleans Effective Schools Project. An Interim Report to the Orleans Parish School Board.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of the Southern Coalition for Educational Equity's New Orleans Effective Schools Project is to improve academic achievement at one middle school, Martin Behrman, in ways that can be replicated by schools facing similar problems. The Project is based on research findings about school improvement from the school effectiveness

David, Jane L.

239

Financial integration and innovation in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of an internal market for financial services by the European Union, along with technological changes in communications and data management, will have a strong impact on banking and financial markets in Europe. This paper presents a selective review of discussions concerning the resulting processes of adjustment and their outcomes. Topics covered include effects on cost efficiency, competition production

Ernst Baltensperger; Andrea Behrends

1994-01-01

240

Generating effective project scheduling heuristics by abstraction and reconstitution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A project scheduling problem consists of a finite set of jobs, each with fixed integer duration, requiring one or more resources such as personnel or equipment, and each subject to a set of precedence relations, which specify allowable job orderings, and a set of mutual exclusion relations, which specify jobs that cannot overlap. No job can be interrupted once started. The objective is to minimize project duration. This objective arises in nearly every large construction project--from software to hardware to buildings. Because such project scheduling problems are NP-hard, they are typically solved by branch-and-bound algorithms. In these algorithms, lower-bound duration estimates (admissible heuristics) are used to improve efficiency. One way to obtain an admissible heuristic is to remove (abstract) all resources and mutual exclusion constraints and then obtain the minimal project duration for the abstracted problem; this minimal duration is the admissible heuristic. Although such abstracted problems can be solved efficiently, they yield inaccurate admissible heuristics precisely because those constraints that are central to solving the original problem are abstracted. This paper describes a method to reconstitute the abstracted constraints back into the solution to the abstracted problem while maintaining efficiency, thereby generating better admissible heuristics. Our results suggest that reconstitution can make good admissible heuristics even better.

Janakiraman, Bhaskar; Prieditis, Armand

1992-01-01

241

Migrant Culture in a Changing Society: Multicultural Europe by the Year 2000. Colloquy (Strasbourg, France, January 18-20, 1983). The CDCC's Project No. 7: "The Education and Cultural Development of Migrants."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 3-day colloquy was held to discuss educational and cultural problems with a view to what European society might be like in the year 2000. Participants divided into three working groups, each focusing on one of three major themes: multicultural Europe in 2000, the role of the school in a changing society, and migrant culture and its educational…

Rey, Micheline

242

Adria/Europe collision effects  

SciTech Connect

In the Senonian, the Adriatic promontory of the African plate lay between two transform faults which joined the north-vergent Alpine-Carpathian front with the south-vergent Apenninic and Hellenic fronts. In the late Eocene it collided with the European continent. The head of the promontory was crushed by compression in the Oligocene and lengthened in a west-east direction. This initiated formation of the West Alpine and West Carpathian arcs. A bay of thin European crust in the area now occupied by the Carpathians facilitated a more pronounced advance of the eastern arc. A wedge-shaped body with the Bakony Mountains in its rigid core was pressed out from the Alpine region. The eastern Alps and the West Carpathians as well as the Southern Alps and the middle Pannonian units suffered sinistral and dextral shear, respectively, which resulted in their lengthening and zonality. In the early-middle Miocene in the Adriatic promontory was broken up. Its northern part suffered counterclockwise rotation in connection with the opening of the Ligurian Sea while the southern part only shifted relative to Africa. Rotation of the northern microplate forced the Dinaric-Hellenic arc to change its shape from convex to concave, and the intra-Carpathian units advanced toward the northeast and rotated toward each other. This completed the Carpathian arc and initiated subsidence in the Pannonian basin. Since the late Miocene the Adriatic promontory has acted again as a part of Africa with a maximum 60-km shift toward the west, caused by the escaping Turkish microplate.

Balla, Z.

1988-08-01

243

The Effects of Mobility: The Rights of the Child in Europe. Report of the Conference (Athens, Greece, April 14-16, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The European Forum for Child Welfare (EFCW) is committed to promoting the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the Convention's views underpin and influence the work program of the EFCW. The 1994 EFCW Conference concentrated on articles within the Convention whereby mobility within Europe may have a…

Williams, Sarah, Ed.

244

The Search for Effective Biological Control Agents in Europe: History and Lessons from Leafy Spurge ( Euphorbia esula L.) and Cypress Spurge ( Euphorbia cyparissias L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During field surveys made in Europe nearly 40 specialized insect species were found and considered as potential biological control agents of leafy spurge and cypress spurge (Euphorbia esula and Euphorbia cyparissias). More insect species were found on the most common and the geographically most widespread spurge species and on those occurring in a wide range of habitat types. The insect

A. Gassmann; D. Schroeder

1995-01-01

245

The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

2013-12-01

246

Modifying effect of HLA haplotypes located trans to DQB1*02-DRB1*03 in celiac patients of Southern Europe.  

PubMed

The DQ2 heterodimer, encoded by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQA1*05-DQB1*02 alleles, is the major genetic susceptibility factor for celiac disease (CD). However, the risk associated to HLA alleles varies among populations. While DRB1*03 is almost the only CD susceptibility allele in Northern Europe with a homozygote frequency of around 30%, CD in south European countries is also associated with the DRB1*07, and DRB1*03 homozygotes patients are rare. Some authors have suggested that DQB1*02-DRB1*03/DQB1*02-DRB1*03 and DQB1*02-DRB1*03/DQB1*02-DRB1*07 may confer different risk susceptibility to CD. This hypothesis, however, has not been demonstrated in a recent family-based study carried out in Finland, suggesting that the proposed differences in risk may be secondary to stratification burdens of case-control studies. To assess this issue, we have investigated the effect of different haplotypes carried trans to DQB1*02-DRB1*03 as additional factors for CD in Spain, using two statistical approaches, a case-control study and a family-based study. We found that DQB1*02-DRB1*03/DQB1*02-DRB1*03 and DQB1*02-DRB1*03/DQB1*02-DRB1*07 were the only combinations that showed a strong and independent association to CD. We did not observe any difference in susceptibility risk conferred by DQB1*02-DRB1*03 and DQB1*02-DRB1*07 when carried trans to DQB1*02-DRB1*03, suggesting that variation in HLA haplotype frequencies among populations may not represent real differences in risk to CD development. We also confirmed a gene dosage effect of the DQB1*02-DRB1*03 haplotype estimating that DQB1*02 homozygotes are at fivefold increased risk for CD compared with DQB1*02 heterozygotes. This risk is conferred by the second copy of the DQB1*02 allele and it seems to be independent of the DQA1. PMID:18257894

Hernández-Charro, B; Donat, E; Miner, I; Aranburu, E; Sánchez-Valverde, F; Ramos-Arroyo, M A

2008-03-01

247

Developing Instructional Technology Products Using Effective Project Management Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Delivering a successful instructional technology (IT) product depends on more than just having an extremely creative instructional solution or following an instructional systems design (ISD) model. Proper planning, direction, and execution of the project are require, as well. We present a model of management that encompasses the ISD process. Five…

Allen, Stephanie; Hardin, Paul C.

2008-01-01

248

An effective methodology for the stochastic project compression problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider the problem of planning a complex project when task durations are random. Specifically, we consider the problem of deciding how much to compress tasks in order to minimize the expected total cost that is defined by the sum of direct, indirect, and incentive costs. We initially consider this problem under the assumption that task durations

Gary Mitchell; Ted Klastorin

2007-01-01

249

Cheney Lake CEAP Project: Conservation Practice Effects Assessment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

AnnAGNPS was used to analyze Cheney Lake Watershed, a Special Emphasis Watershed, during the Conservation Evaluation Assessment Project (CEAP). Seven (7) best management conservation practice (BMP) scenarios, which would impact sediment and nutrient loading to Cheney Lake, were identified and evalu...

250

Projective Geometry Image Analysis  

E-print Network

Projective Geometry for Image Analysis A Tutorial given at ISPRS, Vienna, July 1996 Roger Mohr A Hierarchy of Geometries 25 4.1 From Projective to Affine Space and Bill Triggs GRAVIR, project MOVI INRIA, 655 avenue de l'Europe F-38330 Montbonnot St Martin France E

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

251

Europe is going to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Agency's Science Programme Committee (SPC) approved Mars Express after ESA's Council, meeting at ministerial level in Brussels on 11 and 12 May, had agreed the level of the science budget for the next 4 years, just enough to make the mission affordable. "Mars Express is a mission of opportunity and we felt we just had to jump in and do it. We are convinced it will produce first-rate science", says Hans Balsiger, SPC chairman. As well as being a first for Europe in Mars exploration, Mars Express will pioneer new, cheaper ways of doing space science missions. "With a total cost of just 150 million euros, Mars Express will be the cheapest Mars mission ever undertaken", says Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science. Mars Express will be launched in June 2003. When it arrives at the red planet six months later, it will begin to search for water and life. Seven instruments, provided by space research institutes throughout Europe, will make observations from the main spacecraft as it orbits the planet. Just before the spacecraft arrives, it will release a small lander, provided by research institutes in the UK, that will journey on to the surface to look for signs of life. The lander is called Beagle 2 after the ship in which Charles Darwin sailed round the world in search of evidence supporting his theory of evolution. But just as Darwin had to raise the money for his trip, so the search is on for public and private finance for Beagle 2. "Beagle 2 is an extremely important element of the mission", says Bonnet. Europe's space scientists have envisaged a mission to Mars for over fifteen years. But limited funding has prevented previous proposals from going ahead. The positioning of the planets in 2003, however, offers a particularly favourable passage to the red planet - an opportunity not to be missed. Mars Express will be joined by an international flotilla of spacecraft that will also be using this opportunity to work together on scientific questions and pave the way for future exploration. ESA is now able to afford Mars Express because it will be built more quickly and cheaply than any other comparable mission. It will be the first of the Agency's new flexible missions, based on maximum reuse of technology off-the-shelf and from other missions (the Rosetta cometary mission in this case). Mars Express will explore the extent to which innovative working practices, now made possible by the maturity of Europe's space industry, can cut mission costs and the time from concept to launch : a new kind of relationship with industrial partners is starting. "We are adopting a new approach to management by delegating to Matra Marconi Space (the prime contractor) responsibility for the whole project. This means we can reduce the ESA's management costs" says Bonnet. Despite the knock-down price, however, the future of Mars Express has hung in the balance because of the steady erosion of ESA's space science budget since 1995. Last November, the SPC said the mission could go ahead only if it could be afforded without affecting missions already approved, especially the FIRST infra-red observatory and the Planck mission to measure the cosmic microwave background. On 19/20 May, the SPC, which has the ultimate decision over the Agency's science missions, agreed that the level of resources allowed was just sufficient to allow Mars Express to go ahead. "To do such an ambitious mission for so little money is a challenge and we have decided to meet", says Balsiger.

1999-06-01

252

Historical eclipses in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of total eclipses is given that have been observed and recorded by astronomers in Europe since antiquity till 20th century. A particular attention is payed to the computations that Kepler carried out in Prague to predict the eclipse 1605, further to some eclipses of 18th century that have been computed and observed by French astronomers (Madame Nicole-Reine Lepaute) and to the book (Elementa Eclipsium ... 1816 -- 1860) that was published by F.I.C. Hallaschka in Prague 1816.

Debarbat, S.

1999-03-01

253

Consolidating peace in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Consolidating Peace in Europe is a collection of essays and discussions by some of the leading experts in the field of international relations and disarmament. Some of the issues raised include: the responsibility of a West divided by peace movements to create a unified diplomatic front; the need for both East and West to understand the contradictory behavior of a Soviet Union that is militarily strong but economically weak; and the development of a new political awareness for a generation of Europeans who have on direct experience of post-World War II political tumult.

Kaplan, M.A

1987-01-01

254

Central Europe Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, a service of the European Internet Network, brings English-language news and background to users each weekday. Central Europe Online covers the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The site offers current headlines (along with the time that they were most recently updated), business news, travel information, and links to local media. New stories are drawn primarily from Reuters. An archive holds back issues. Users who want to stay current on issues affecting these regions will benefit from the professional approach this site brings to coverage.

255

Job quality in Europe  

E-print Network

JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 1 SESS: 49 OUTPUT: Tue Aug 19 17:58:42 2008 /v2503/blackwell/journals/irj_v39_i6/08irj_507 Job quality in Europe Mark Smith, Brendan Burchell, Colette Fagan and Catherine O’Brien ABSTRACT Promoting job quality and gender... in the Lisbon process (Fagan et al., 2006; Rubery et al., 2003; 2004), even though women have a central role to play in achieving the overall employment rate target. ? Mark Smith is Grenoble Ecole de Management; Brendan Burchell and Catherine O’Brien are Faculty...

Burchell, Brendan J.; Smith, Mark; Fagan, Colette; O’Brien, Catherine

2008-01-01

256

Cost Containment in Europe  

PubMed Central

Health care cost containment is not in itself a sensible policy objective, because any assessment of the appropriateness of health care expenditure in aggregate, as of that on specific programs, requires a balancing of costs and benefits at the margin. International data on expenditures can, however, provide indications of the likely impact on costs and expenditures of structural features of health care systems. Data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for both European countries and a wider set are reviewed, and some current policies in Europe that are directed at controlling health care costs are outlined. PMID:10313433

Culyer, A. J.

1989-01-01

257

Working towards healthy air in dwellings in Europe.  

PubMed

Poor indoor air quality has been implicated in the increase in allergic and respiratory diseases seen in industrialized countries in recent decades. Although air pollution in the workplace is well studied, much less is known about the consequences of poor air quality in homes. In an attempt to halt or slow down the increase in allergic and respiratory diseases, the European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA) carried out the EU-funded project entitled 'Towards Healthy Air in Dwellings in Europe' (THADE). The aims were to: compile an overview of evidence-based data about exposure to indoor air pollution and its health effects, particularly in relation to allergies, asthma and other respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; review cost-effective measures and technology to improve indoor air quality; review legislation and guidelines on indoor air pollution; produce maps of pollutants in dwellings; and recommend an integrated strategy that defines appropriate indoor air quality policies for implementation in Europe. This paper summarizes the information about air quality in dwellings and indoor environment-related diseases collected by expert consultants within the framework of THADE and terminates with recommendations for actions aimed at improving air quality in homes. The results of this project confirmed that air pollution in dwellings is a relevant health problem. It is a complex problem that must be addressed at European and international levels, and it involves the medical profession, scientific societies, patients' organizations, lawmakers, architects and the building industry. The complete THADE report is available at http://www.efanet.org/activities/documents/THADEReport.pdf. PMID:16792586

Franchi, M; Carrer, P; Kotzias, D; Rameckers, E M A L; Seppänen, O; van Bronswijk, J E M H; Viegi, G; Gilder, J A; Valovirta, E

2006-07-01

258

Adjoint tomography of Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use spectral-element and adjoint methods to iteratively resolve crustal and upper mantle heterogeneity in Europe, using 159 earthquakes, with magnitudes from 5 to 6.5, and data from 338 stations. Crustal model EPcrust1.0 (Molinari& Morelli, 2010) combined with mantle model S362ANI (Kustowski et al. 2008) comprise the initial 3D model M00. Before the iterative inversion, earthquake source parameters (i.e, centroid moment tensor and location), are recalculated using 3D Green's functions and Fréchet derivatives. Since we concentrate on upper mantle structures, involving significant anisotropy in the asthenosphere, transversely isotropic (frequency-dependent) traveltime sensitivity kernels are employed in the inversion. Long-period surface waves (25 s -- 150 s) and short-period body waves (15 s -- 40 s) are combined to constrain shallow and deep structures simultaneously. With each iteration, higher frequency signals are incorporated in the inversion. Statistical assessments of traveltime anomalies and logarithmic waveform differences enable us to validate the inverted sources and structural parameters. Our current model, M15, shows numerous interesting features, for instance, slabs underneath the Hellenic, Vrancea and Calabria arcs, a slab detachment underneath the Central Apennines, mantle upwelling associated with the Eifel hotspot in Northern German, slow wavespeed structures in several back-arc basins, e.g., the Ponnonian basin and the Tyrrhenian sea, and a sharp transition of the Teisseyre-Tornquist suture zone between central Europe and the East European platform.

Zhu, H.; Bozdag, E.; Peter, D. B.; Tromp, J.

2011-12-01

259

Eastern Europe scenario  

SciTech Connect

The Russian situation is key to Eastern Europe if present trends continue. Its strategy for the establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle was conceived decades ago when the former USSR still existed. It was based on the fuel recycle with attention given to the requirements of the military. The former Warsaw Pact Countries (WPC) were not meant to have independent fuel cycles, and their irradiated fuel elements were scheduled to go back to Russian territory. In 1976 a fuel cycle center was built at Mayak/Chelyabinsk, centered on the RT-1 plant with a nominal capacity of 400 tonnes/yr plant for the reprocessing of spent fuel from VVER-440 reactors, fast reactors (BN-350 and BN-600) icebreaker and submarine transport units, research reactors, and other power units. The plan provided for the reprocessing of spent fuel from the WPC all having VVER-440 reactors. All together, 3000 tonnes of spent fuel have been processed there. Nuclear waste went to vitrification. A new reprocessing facility is under construction in the neighborhood of Krasnoyarsk 26, the RT-2 plant. It is scheduled to operate after 2005, and its design capacity is 1500 tonne/yr. A storage for 6000 tonnes of spent fuel from VVER-1000 reactors is in operation since 1985. A second mixed-oxide plant for VVER-1000 reactors is under consideration. Now, there are no fuel cycle facilities in the newly independent countries. The fuel cycle problems in Eastern Europe and Russia are discussed.

Hafele, W. [Research Center Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

1996-12-31

260

Dust radiative effect over Europe, Mediterranean, Sahara and Middle East from a radiative transfer model using BSC-DREAM8b aerosol optical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arid regions of Saharan desert and Middle East are the world's major dust sources. However, dust particles from these areas are transported to nearby regions, through favourable synoptic conditions, even reaching remote locations in Europe or in the Arctic. This transport is very important in numerous aspects. One of its most important effects is on the radiation budget, and more specifically on solar radiation, through the aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE). Previous studies have shown that this effect is great under dust load conditions. Therefore, it is very important to simulate dust transport processes and associated radiative effects. The simulation of dust production, transport and removal is done by numerical models, which however have their own limitations as to the consideration of physical and dynamical processes as well as their initial conditions. On the other hand, the computation of dust DRE is ideally done with radiative transfer models (RTMs), which however imply uncertainties associated with the input aerosol optical properties. The most important aerosol optical properties used in RTMs and climate models are aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (AP). The main target of the present study is to reduce the uncertainties of dust DRE by using a detailed spectral RTM and an acknowledged regional and meso-scale model describing the distribution of dust. The combined use of these tools is applied to the region covering the deserts of Sahara, Arabian Peninsula and Middle East, and the neighbouring Mediterranean basin and European continent (extending from 15°N to 60°N and from 21°W to 54°E). The computations are performed on a monthly mean basis, refer to the 11-year period 2000-2010, and quantify the effects of dust on the reflected solar radiation at the top of atmosphere (DRETOA), on the absorbed solar radiation within the atmosphere (DREatmab), and on the downwelling and absorbed solar radiation at the surface (DREsurf and DREsurfnet, respectively). The RTM takes into account all physical parameters of the Earth-Atmosphere system that interact with solar radiation, namely ozone, carbon dioxide, methane, water vapour, clouds (low, middle, high), aerosol and atmospheric molecules (Rayleigh scattering) as well as surface reflection. Emphasis is given to aerosol optical properties (AOD, SSA and AP) which are all obtained from the dust regional BSC-DREAM8b model. Detailed analysis is undertaken of the modelled aerosol properties, and the spatial and temporal (seasonal and year by year) variation of these properties and of the model DREs are thoroughly investigated. In addition, the computed DREs are inter-compared with corresponding ones obtained with the same RTM using aerosol data from satellites (e.g. MODIS) or other datasets (e.g. Global Aerosol DataSet, GADS and Hamburg Aerosol Climatology, HAC).

Papadimas, Christos; Gkikas, Antonis; Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Matsoukas, Christos; Kazadzis, Stelios; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, Jose; Vardavas, Ilias

2013-04-01

261

Effective Reconstruction of Data Perturbed by Random Projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random Projection (RP) has raised great concern among the research community of privacy-preserving data mining, due to its high efficiency and utility, e.g., keeping the euclidean distances among the data points. It was shown in (33) that, if the original data set composed of m attributes is multiplied by a mixing matrix of kmð m>k Þ which is random and

Yingpeng Sang; Hong Shen; Hui Tian

2012-01-01

262

Projecting the climatic effects of increasing carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the current knowns, unknowns, and uncertainties regarding the projected climate changes that might occur as a result of an increasing atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. Further, the volume describes what research is required to estimate the magnitude and rate of a CO/sub 2/-induced clamate change with regional and seasonal resolution. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

MacCracken, M C; Luther, F M [eds.

1985-12-01

263

Project DARE: No Effects at 10Year Follow-Up  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the impact of Project DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education), a widespread drug-prevention program, 10 years after administration. A total of 1,002 individuals who in 6th grade had either received DARE or a standard drug-education curriculum, were reevaluated at age 20. Few differences were found between the 2 groups in terms of actual drug use, drug attitudes,

Donald R. Lynam; Richard Milich; Rick Zimmerman; Scott P. Novak; T. K. Logan; Catherine A. Martin; Carl Leukefeld; Richard Clayton

1999-01-01

264

Five Claims about Effective Propagation From the TUES Project, "Increasing the Impact of TUES Projects through Effective  

E-print Network

to influence adoption. 2. Developing awareness of an innovation is only the first stage in adoption decisions different descriptions of the stages through which an adapter reaches the point of using an innovation awareness of an innovation is only the first stage in adoption decisions. TUES project teams face decisions

Henderson, Charles

265

Perspectives on Europe: Language Issues and Language Planning in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers includes the following: "Language Issues and Language Planning in Europe" (Anthony J. Liddicoat and Karis Muller); "Language and National Identity" (Peter M. Hill); "Language Planning, Linguistic Diversity and Democracy in Europe" (Anthony J. Liddicoat); "Language Competition in European Community Institutions" (Karis…

Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Muller, Karis, Ed.

266

The Effect of Web-Based Project Applications on Students' Attitudes towards Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students perform intensive web-based applications during their education. One of these is project-based application. In this study, the effect of web based project applications on students' attitudes towards chemistry has been investigated. 42 students attending Hacettepe University, Faculty of Education, and Department of Chemistry Education have…

Morgil, Inci; Gungor Seyhan, Hatice; Ural Alsan, Evrim; Temel, Senar

2008-01-01

267

The Effects of a Comprehensive Early Literacy Project on Preschoolers' Language and Literacy Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a federally funded early literacy project that aimed to promote the school readiness skills of preschool-age children from low income families. Through daily, explicit, and systematic instruction, the project targeted to improve preschoolers' oral language skills, phonological awareness,…

Xu, Yaoying; Chin, Christopher; Reed, Evelyn; Hutchinson, Cynthia

2014-01-01

268

Collaborative inquiry project-based learning: Effects on reading ability and interests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The academic performance of students has been shown to be associated with reading ability. Inquiry learning can potentially enhance the reading abilities and interests of students. This study verified this proposition by examining the effects of an inquiry approach to group projects on the reading abilities of primary school students. Using a case study design, an inquiry project-based learning (PBL)

Samuel Kai Wah Chu; Shek Kam Tse; Elizabeth Ka Yee Loh; Ken Chow

2011-01-01

269

Distance Education Training for Distance Education Trainers: The "Roadmap to Effective Distance Education Instructional Design" Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of a 6-university collaborative project, "Roadmap to Effective Distance Education Instructional Design." This project developed instructional materials and innovative approaches to better prepare instructional designers at land-grant universities and other universities with agricultural academic programs to…

Telg, Ricky W.; Lundy, Lisa; Irani, Tracy; Bielema, Cheryl; Dooley, Kim E.; Anderson, Erik; Raulerson, Rebekah

2005-01-01

270

Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common Ragweed) is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. This study is realised within the framework of the ATOPICA project (https://www.atopica.eu/) which is designed to provide first steps in tools and estimations of the fate of allergies in Europe due to changes in climate, land use and air quality. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. Models have been developed or adapted for simulating the phenology (PMP phonological modelling platform), inter-annual production (ORCHIDEE vegetation model), release and airborne processes (CHIMERE chemical transport model) of ragweed pollen. Airborne pollens follow processes similar to air quality pollutants in CHIMERE with some adaptations. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations (2000 - 2012) driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, 20-year long historical simulations (1986 - 2005) are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen concentrations found in Europe. The spatial distribution is well captured with correlation equal to 0.7, but the daily variability of pollen counts remains to be improved with correlations varying between 0.1 and 0.75. The model chain captures reasonably well the inter-annual variability of pollen yearly mean concentrations, correlations, even not statistically significant due to the short length of time series, are positive for about 80% of sites. The main uncertainty in ambrosia pollen modelling is linked to the uncertainty in the plant density distribution. Preliminary results of the impact of environmental changes on pollen concentrations in the future will also be shown.

Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Colette, Augustin

2014-05-01

271

Project resumes: biological effects from electric fields associated with high-voltage transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Abstracts of research projects are presented in the following areas: measurements and special facilities; cellular and subcellular studies; physiology; behavior; environmental effects; modeling, scaling and dosimetry; and high voltage direct current. (ACR)

None

1980-01-01

272

THE EFFECT OF THE BALLOONSAT PROJECT ON MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS' ATTITUDE TOWARD SCIENCE  

E-print Network

This study measured the effect of completing a BalloonSat project on student attitude toward science. Seven categories of student attitudes toward science were measured using the Test of Science Relate Attitudes survey ...

Verhage, Lloyd Paul

2012-08-31

273

The effects of the implementation of grey water reuse systems on construction cost and project schedule  

E-print Network

. Implementation of a grey water reuse system has a significant effect on the capital cost of a project. The increase in cost may be attributed to dual sanitary and grey water distribution piping which doubles construction piping costs. Disinfection treatment...

Kaduvinal Varghese, Jeslin

2009-05-15

274

Aurora europe's space exploration programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

What will happen after the ISS in terms of space exploration, specifically to the human presence beyond Earth? What will be the role of Europe in the future international venture to explore space? What are the most immediate actions to be undertaken in Europe in order to best profit from the efforts made through the participation in the ISS and

F. Ongaro; J. P. Swings; R. Condessa

2003-01-01

275

Significance and effect of ecological rehabilitation project in inland river basins in northwest China.  

PubMed

The Ecological Water Transfer and Rehabilitation Project in the arid inland area of northwest China is an important measure in restoring a deteriorated ecosystem. However, the sustainability of the project is affected by many socio-economic factors. This article examines the attitudes of the local populace toward the project, its impact on the livelihood of the people, and the positive effects of water-efficient agricultural practices in Ejina County. Related data were collected through questionnaire surveys and group discussions. The results identified three critical issues that may influence the sustainability of the project in the study area. The first issue relates to the impact of the project on the livelihood of local herdsmen. The potential for the sustainability of the project is compromised because the livelihood of the herdsmen greatly depends on the compensation awarded by the project. The second issue is that the project did not raise the water resource utilization ratio, which may undermine its final purpose. Finally, the compensation provided by the project considers losses in agriculture, but neglects the externalities and public benefit of eco-water. Thus, appropriate compensation mechanisms should be established and adopted according to local economic, environmental, and social conditions. Some recommendations for improving the sustainability of the project are provided based on the results of this study. PMID:23716005

Wang, Yu; Feng, Qi; Chen, Lijuan; Yu, Tengfei

2013-07-01

276

Central Europe Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new weekly online journal from Central and East European New Media Initiative (CEENMI) offers news and analysis of events in politics, society, and culture across the region. With over 45 contributors from 17 countries, the journal provides a surprising amount of coverage each week. In addition to regular columns and weekly news summaries, the journal contains several in-depth articles and special feature pieces, including a number of resources (such as articles, film and book reviews, and related links) grouped around a weekly theme. The journal also offers a weekly list of Central and East European cultural events in the UK, links to related stories from other online news sources, and an archive. Users can read the Central Europe Review at the site or receive free weekly summaries via email.

277

Future scenarios for viticultural bioclimatic indices in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Winemaking has a predominant economic, social and environmental relevance in several European countries. Studies addressing the influence of climate variability and change in viticulture are particularly pertinent, as climate is one of the main conditioning factors of this activity. In this context, bioclimatic indices are a useful zoning tool, allowing the description of the suitability of a particular region for wine production. In this study, we compute climatic indices (concerning to thermal and hydrological conditions) for Europe, characterize regions with different viticultural aptitude, and assess possible variations in these regions under a future climate conditions using a state-of-the-art regional climate model. The indices are calculated from climatic variables (mostly daily maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation) obtained from the NCEP reanalysis dataset. Then, the same indices are calculated for present and future climate conditions using data from the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (Consortium for Small Scale Modelling - Climate Limited-area Modelling). Maps of theses indices for recent-past periods (1961-2008) and for the SRES A1B scenario are considered in order to identify significant changes in their patterns. Results show that climate change is projected to have a significant negative impact in wine quality by increased dryness and cumulative thermal effects during growing seasons in Southern European regions (e.g. Portugal, Spain and Italy). These changes represent an important constraint to grapevine growth and development, making crucial adaptation/mitigation strategies to be adopted. On the other hand, regions of western and central Europe (e.g. southern Britain, northern France and Germany) will benefit from this scenario both in wine quality, and in new potential areas for viticulture. This approach provides a macro-characterization of European areas where grapevines may preferentially grow, as well as their projected changes under human-induced forcing. As such, it can be a useful tool for viticultural zoning in a changing climate.

Santos, João.; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Fraga, Helder; Pinto, Joaquim G.

2010-05-01

278

Using Open Plan with integrated Xbase applications for effective project management solutions  

SciTech Connect

Open Plan`s open architecture allows the user many advantages that are not available from other project management software. One of these advantages is its ability to interface with various database management systems, thereby allowing the user to develop a project management system tailored to their specific needs. This open architecture offers maximum flexability to the user to personalize reports, screens, data structures, and develop customized management systems. Using Xbase, applications can be developed for every facet of a complete project management system including baseline development, performance measurement, reporting, and analysis. These applications can range from simple routines such as user-defined status worksheets, milestone logs and other reports, to complex cost,and schedule control systems. The combined power of Xbase and Open Plan can be used to produce effective project management solutions. Customized applications are easily obtainable allowing the user to gather information more timely and efficiently, produce customized reports, and analyze project management information more effectively.

Freier, K.D.; Hirschi, E.J.

1994-04-01

279

Integration and immigration pressures in western Europe.  

PubMed

"With xenophobia resurgent in Europe, this article addresses some of the complexities of immigration and integration in EC [European Community] and EFTA [European Free Trade Association] countries. The categories of legal and illegal immigrants (including estimates thereof) are first described, as are the necessary ingredients of an integration policy (a framework law, a secure environment, cultural tolerance, demarginalization in housing and the labour market). The author then considers what types of action would help to ease the present immigration pressure, discussing in turn quota policies, project-tied or training migration and, finally, the use of international aid." PMID:12317134

Bohning, W R

1991-01-01

280

Douglas-fir plantations in Europe: a retrospective test of assisted migration to address climate change  

E-print Network

tables; 4 figures #12;2 Abstract1 2 We evaluate genetic test plantations of North American Douglas north-south gradients in western9 Europe, but failed to predict superior performance of coastal North American populations10 under continental climate conditions in eastern Europe. However, model projections

Hamann, Andreas

281

THE PREV AIR SYSTEM, AN OPERATIONAL SYSTEM FOR LARGE SCALE AIR QUALITY FORECASTS OVER EUROPE; APPLICATIONS  

E-print Network

THE PREV AIR SYSTEM, AN OPERATIONAL SYSTEM FOR LARGE SCALE AIR QUALITY FORECASTS OVER EUROPE air quality forecasts over Europe. This is the visible part of a wider collaborative project, in the framework of negotiations on trans-boundary air pollution". (2) Providing large scale national air quality

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

282

Secondary Education in Spain. Guide to Secondary Education in Europe Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains a brief description of secondary education in Spain. It constitutes one part of a series entitled "Guide to Secondary Education in Europe," developed as part of a Council of Europe project. Chapter 1 presents a general overview of the Spanish education system, with a focus on secondary education. Chapter 2 describes…

Ferrer, Alejandro Tiana; And Others

283

Summertime precipitation variability over Europe and its links to atmospheric dynamics and evaporation  

E-print Network

Click Here for Full Article Summertime precipitation variability over Europe and its links precipitation data for 1979­2006 from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project are used to investigate interannual summer precipitation variability over Europe and its links to regional atmospheric circulation

Allan, Richard P.

284

Modelling the risk of ecosystem disruption in Europe with a dynamic vegetation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What will be the European ecosystem responses to future climate? With unprecedented speed and extent, the projected climate change might lead to a disruption of terrestrial plants functioning in many regions. In the framework of the EcoChange project, transient projections over the 1901-2100 period have been performed with a process-based dynamic vegetation model, CARAIB DVM (Dury et al., 2011, iForest 4: 82, 99). The vegetation model was driven by the outputs of four climate models under the SRES A1B scenario: the ARPEGE/Climate model and three regional climate models (KNMI-RACMO2, DMI-HIRHAM5 and HC-HadRM3Q0 RCMs) from the European Union project ENSEMBLES. DVMs are appropriate tools to apprehend potential climate change impacts on ecosystems and identify threatened regions over Europe. CARAIB outputs (soil moisture, runoff, net primary productivity, fire, etc.) were used to characterise the ecosystem evolution. To assess consequences on biodiversity, the evolution of 100 natural common European species (47 herbs, 12 shrubs and 41 trees) has been studied year-to-year over the 1901-2100 period. Under the combined effects of projected changes particularly in temperature and precipitations, CARAIB simulates important reductions in the annual soil water content. The species productivities vary strongly from year to year reaching during the driest years values much lower than present-day average productivities. According to CARAIB, a lot of species might go beyond their water tolerance very frequently, particularly after 2050, due to more intense summer droughts. In the northern part of Europe and in the Alps, with reduced temperature variability and positive soil water anomalies, NPP variability tends to decrease. Regions with more severe droughts might also be affected by an increase of the frequency and intensity of wildfires. With this background, the species distributions might be strongly modified at the end of the century. 15% of tree species and 30% of herb and shrub species (respectively 30% and 60% if the CO2 fertilization effect on species is not taken into account) might experience a loss of 30% or more of their current distribution. Proportions of new species appearance were also studied. Southern Europe might suffer important species extinction while the more suitable climate conditions in northern Europe might lead to a gain in species diversity.

Dury, M.; Hambuckers, A.; Warnant, P.; Jacquemin, I.; Thuiller, W.; François, L.

2012-04-01

285

A follow-up and conclusive report on the attitude towards hydrogen fuel cell buses in the CUTE project—From passengers in Stockholm to bus operators in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the attitude towards the fuel cell bus and the hydrogen technology used in the CUTE project, represented by two passenger surveys performed in Stockholm, a survey performed among drivers in four cities and final statements as well as recommendations for future projects by project partners.Main results are:•The passengers’ willingness to pay for having more fuel cell buses

M. Saxe; A. Folkesson; P. Alvfors

2007-01-01

286

MEDAWARE project for wastewater reuse in the Mediterranean countries: An innovative compact biological wastewater treatment system for promoting wastewater reclamation in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MEDAWARE project (which is funded by the Europe Aid program of EU) aims at addressing the significant issue of sustainable urban wastewater treatment and reuse in the agricultural production through the promotion of effective technologies and safe practices. The general objective of this project is to facilitate the change of the current situation in the Mediterranean countries in respect

D. Fatta; S. Anayiotou

2007-01-01

287

Dispersal time for ancient human migrations: Americas and Europe colonization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I apply the recently proposed intermittence strategy to investigate the ancient human migrations in the world. That is, the Americas colonization (Bering-bridge and Pacific-coast theories) and Neanderthal replacement in Europe around 45000 years before the present. Using a mathematical equation related to diffusion and ballistic motion, I calculate the colonization time in all these cases in good agreement with archeological data (including Neolithic transition in Europe). Moreover, to support these calculations, I obtain analytically the effective speed of colonization in Europe veff=0.62 [km/yr] and related to the Aurignacian culture propagation.

Flores, J. C.

2007-07-01

288

Performance projections for ballistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance limits of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) are examined theoretically by extending a one-dimensional treatment used for silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Compared to ballistic MOSFETs, ballistic CNTFETs show similar I-V characteristics but the channel conductance is quantized. For low-voltage, digital applications, the CNTFET with a planar gate geometry provides an on-current that is comparable to that expected

Jing Guo; Mark Lundstrom; Supriyo Datta

2002-01-01

289

The Rockefeller Foundation and Central Europe: a Reconsideration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that the health-related work of the RockefellerFoundation in Central Europe following the First World War flowed not somuch from geopolitical concerns as from the Foundation's ambition tocreate a global network in scientific medicine. It examines theassumptions and values that underpinned this project, and indicates someof the questions that these pose for today's world.

Benhamin B. Page

2002-01-01

290

IR 250 International Relations in the New Europe Spring 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europe today appears to have entered a new era. The old nationalist and ideological rivalries that plunged the continent into a disastrous conflict three times during the twentieth century (WW I, WW II and the Cold War) appear to have been tamed. A bold new project, the European Union, has demonstrated its ability to hold together the fractious nations of

Thomas U. Berger

291

Status of Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae in Europe1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the recognition that Phytophthora ramorum (the cause of sudden oak death in the U.S.) was present in Europe as well as America, emergency European Community (EC) phytosanitary measures were put in place in September 2002 to prevent spread of P. ramorum, and also to stop introductions of the pathogen from elsewhere. A 3 year European project then started in

Joan F. Webber

292

Dental Education in Europe: The Challenges of Variety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds that dental education varies considerably across Europe, with differing traditions of stomatology and odontology. The European Union's Dental Directives are often poorly followed by individual schools, and differences will likely intensify as Eastern/Central European countries join. The DentEd Thematic Network Project, which aims to promote…

Scott, John

2003-01-01

293

LAND CONSOLIDATION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There is growing inequality between rural and urban areas in Central and Eastern Europe. This situation occurs for many reasons and efforts to enhance the quality of rural life must include improvements to agricultural production, employment, infrastructure, environment and housing. The success of projects to improve rural areas will depend to a large extent on how they address the

David Palmer; Paul Munro-Faure; Fritz Rembold

294

Exploiting TV white spaces in Europe: The COGEU approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulatory scenario in Europe is very diverse, and hence innovative solutions to address harmonization and co- existence issues become crucial for the successful exploitation of the TV white spaces (TVWS) among member states. This paper introduces the approach of the European Commission funded COGEU (COgnitive radio systems for efficient sharing of TV white spaces in EUropean context) project in

Joseph W. Mwangoka; Paulo Marques; Jonathan Rodriguez

2011-01-01

295

Quantifying Observational Projection Effects Using Molecular Cloud Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical properties of molecular clouds are often measured using spectral-line observations, which provide the only probes of the clouds' velocity structure. It is hard, though, to assess whether and to what extent intensity features in position-position-velocity (PPV) space correspond to "real" density structures in position-position-position (PPP) space. In this paper, we create synthetic molecular cloud spectral-line maps of simulated molecular clouds, and present a new technique for measuring the reality of individual PPV structures. Using a dendrogram algorithm, we identify hierarchical structures in both PPP and PPV space. Our procedure projects density structures identified in PPP space into corresponding intensity structures in PPV space and then measures the geometric overlap of the projected structures with structures identified from the synthetic observation. The fractional overlap between a PPP and PPV structure quantifies how well the synthetic observation recovers information about the three-dimensional structure. Applying this machinery to a set of synthetic observations of CO isotopes, we measure how well spectral-line measurements recover mass, size, velocity dispersion, and virial parameter for a simulated star-forming region. By disabling various steps of our analysis, we investigate how much opacity, chemistry, and gravity affect measurements of physical properties extracted from PPV cubes. For the simulations used here, which offer a decent, but not perfect, match to the properties of a star-forming region like Perseus, our results suggest that superposition induces a ~40% uncertainty in masses, sizes, and velocity dispersions derived from 13CO (J = 1-0). As would be expected, superposition and confusion is worst in regions where the filling factor of emitting material is large. The virial parameter is most affected by superposition, such that estimates of the virial parameter derived from PPV and PPP information typically disagree by a factor of ~2. This uncertainty makes it particularly difficult to judge whether gravitational or kinetic energy dominate a given region, since the majority of virial parameter measurements fall within a factor of two of the equipartition level ? ~ 2.

Beaumont, Christopher N.; Offner, Stella S. R.; Shetty, Rahul; Glover, Simon C. O.; Goodman, Alyssa A.

2013-11-01

296

QUANTIFYING OBSERVATIONAL PROJECTION EFFECTS USING MOLECULAR CLOUD SIMULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The physical properties of molecular clouds are often measured using spectral-line observations, which provide the only probes of the clouds' velocity structure. It is hard, though, to assess whether and to what extent intensity features in position-position-velocity (PPV) space correspond to 'real' density structures in position-position-position (PPP) space. In this paper, we create synthetic molecular cloud spectral-line maps of simulated molecular clouds, and present a new technique for measuring the reality of individual PPV structures. Using a dendrogram algorithm, we identify hierarchical structures in both PPP and PPV space. Our procedure projects density structures identified in PPP space into corresponding intensity structures in PPV space and then measures the geometric overlap of the projected structures with structures identified from the synthetic observation. The fractional overlap between a PPP and PPV structure quantifies how well the synthetic observation recovers information about the three-dimensional structure. Applying this machinery to a set of synthetic observations of CO isotopes, we measure how well spectral-line measurements recover mass, size, velocity dispersion, and virial parameter for a simulated star-forming region. By disabling various steps of our analysis, we investigate how much opacity, chemistry, and gravity affect measurements of physical properties extracted from PPV cubes. For the simulations used here, which offer a decent, but not perfect, match to the properties of a star-forming region like Perseus, our results suggest that superposition induces a ?40% uncertainty in masses, sizes, and velocity dispersions derived from {sup 13}CO (J = 1-0). As would be expected, superposition and confusion is worst in regions where the filling factor of emitting material is large. The virial parameter is most affected by superposition, such that estimates of the virial parameter derived from PPV and PPP information typically disagree by a factor of ?2. This uncertainty makes it particularly difficult to judge whether gravitational or kinetic energy dominate a given region, since the majority of virial parameter measurements fall within a factor of two of the equipartition level ? ? 2.

Beaumont, Christopher N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Offner, Stella S.R. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Shetty, Rahul; Glover, Simon C. O. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Goodman, Alyssa A., E-mail: beaumont@ifa.hawaii.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-11-10

297

"europe Towards the Stars"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

YOUNG EUROPEANS AND THEIR TEACHERS TO OBSERVE WITH SUPER-TELESCOPE With the above title, and following the very successful events of the past two years [1], ESO again organises an "educational adventure" in 1995. It takes place within the framework of the "Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture", initiated and supported by the European Commission. This time ESO will invite about fifty 17-18 year old grammar school pupils with their teachers to try their skills at one of the world's most advanced astronomical telescopes. The young people are the winners of a Europe-wide astronomy contest that will take place during the summer and early autumn. The main event involves a free, week-long stay at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory in November this year. During this time, the participants will experience modern astronomy and astrophysics at one of the world's foremost international centres and also have the opportunity to perform remote observations via a satellite link with two telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory in Chile. THE CONTEST This year's programme will begin with national competitions in sixteen European countries. It is devised as a contest between joint teams of pupils and teachers. Each team is expected to consist of (up to) three pupils and their teacher. They can choose between four different subjects requiring either practical or theoretical work. Each subject has a strong scientific and technological component. Here are short descriptions: At the telescope - Catching and interpreting the signals. "You observe with an existing telescope and instrument of your own choice. In your observational report you describe the scientific goal, the capability of your equipment, the execution of the observation. You discuss the observational data including an error analysis, and describe the conclusions." Technology for Science - Building an Instrument. "You build an astronomical instrument (e.g. a photometer or a spectrograph, fitted with the associated detector). In the instrument documentation, you describe the instrument, its design, construction and the test results." A Future Space Mission - Designing an on-board Instrument. "You design an instrument for a future space mission to the outer Solar System. The purpose is to carry out observations of Pluto and Transneptunian Objects. Describe the design, the physical/chemical principles of the instrument and the observations to be made with it. Give examples of some possible results." Theory - Looking into the Future. "You describe a stable planetary system around another star. Your report contains a description of the conditions (inner structure, composition, surface features, atmosphere) of the planets. What are the technical requirements for observing this system from the Earth? Which kind of observations of these objects can be done with available instruments?" None of these subjects are easy to treat, but experience has shown that thanks to very dedicated teachers, the teaching of astronomy takes place at a surprisingly high level at many of Europe's schools. The establishment of the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) last year has also resulted in a Europe-wide, increasing interest in these matters and many EAAE members actively promote the present contest and participate in the organisation. Many good entries are therefore expected. The participation is open to pupils in their last or second-to-last year before baccalaureate. In each country, a National Committee has been established that will organise the contest and evaluate the responses. In most cases, the closing date is early October 1995, and the national award ceremonies will take place in early November. Detailed information about this programme may be obtained from the National Committees at the addresses below. A VISIT TO ESO The members of the winning teams from each country will be invited to spend an exciting and informative week at the ESO Headquarters in Garching near Munich (

1995-06-01

298

Effect of projective viewpoint in detecting temporal density changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important question in mammographic image analysis is the importance of the projected view of the breast. Can temporal changes in density be detected equally well using either one of the commonly available views Medio-Lateral (ML) and Cranio-Caudal (CC) or a combination of the two? Two sets of mammograms of 50 patients in a double-blind, placebo controlled hormone replacement therapy (HRT) experiment were used. One set of ML and CC view from 1999 and one from 2001. HRT increases density which means that the degree of separation of the populations (one group receiving HRT and the other placebo) can be used as a measure of how much density change information is carried in a particular view or combination of views. Earlier results have shown a high correlation between CC and ML views leading to the conclusion that only one of them is needed for density assessment purposes. A similar high correlation coefficient was observed in this study (0.85), while the correlation between changes was a bit lower (0.71). Using both views to separate the patients receiving hormones from the ones receiving placebo increased the area under corresponding ROC curves from 0.76 +/- 0.04 to 0.79 +/- 0.04.

Raundahl, Jakob; Nielsen, Mads; Olsen, Ole F.; Bagger, Yu Z.

2004-05-01

299

Performance Limits Projection of Black Phosphorous Field-Effect Transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ballistic device performance of monolayer black phosphorous (BP) field-effect transistors (FET) is investigated in this work. Due to the anisotropic effect mass of the carriers, the ON-state current is dependent on the transport direction. The effective masses are lower in the "armchair" direction which provides higher drive current at the same biasing. The degree of anisotropy is higher for the holes, which improves the performance of p-type devices. The intrinsic delay of 20 nm BP FETs is in the range of 50 fs at ON-/OFF-current ratio of 4 orders. Monolayer BP FETs outperform both MoS$_2$ and Si FETs for both n- and p-type devices in terms of ballistic performance limits, due to highly anisotropic band structure.

Lam, Kai-Tak; Dong, Zhipeng; Guo, Jing

2014-09-01

300

Potential effects of the projected increase in coal use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of an expected return to the use of coal for many energy needs that are now met by oil and gas are considered. Air pollution by new coal-fired equipment is discussed, along with relatively clean ways to burn coal for electric power generation, household space heating, and district heating. It is suggested that chicken farmers be targeted for

Arthur M. Squires

1980-01-01

301

Using 'Science across Europe' as Part of an Advanced GNVQ Science Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a unit on drinking water from the Association for Science Education's (ASE) project, Science across Europe, is used as the basis for incorporating assessable key skills into GNVQ Science assignments. Provides examples of worksheets and data analysis. (DDR)

Taylor, Rosemary

1997-01-01

302

Weakened thermohaline circulation will increase snow cover over Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A high resolution regional climate model nested into a global climate model was used to perform a Thermohaline Circulation (THC) slowdown experiment. Freshwater corresponding to one-sixth of the Greenland ice sheet melting over 100 years was introduced into the northern Atlantic. This reduced THC strength by half, changing atmospheric circulation and enhancing maritime climate influences over Europe. Implications of weakened thermohaline circulation's effects on specific locations in Europe are discussed.

Jacob et al.

303

Trends in phenological phases in Europe between 1951 and 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increases in air temperature due to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect can be detected easily in the phenological data of\\u000a Europe within the last four decades because spring phenological events are particularly sensitive to temperature. Our new\\u000a analysis of observational data from the International Phenological Gardens in Europe for the 1959–1996 period revealed that\\u000a spring events, such as leaf unfolding, have

A. Menzel

2000-01-01

304

Using Project Performance to Measure Effectiveness of Quality Management System Maintenance and Practices in Construction Industry  

PubMed Central

This paper proposed seven existing and new performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of quality management system (QMS) maintenance and practices in construction industry. This research is carried out with a questionnaire based on QMS variables which are extracted from literature review and project performance indicators which are established from project management's theory. Data collected was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings indicate that client satisfaction and time variance have positive and significant relationship with QMS while other project performance indicators do not show significant results. Further studies can use the same project performance indicators to study the effectiveness of QMS in different sampling area to improve the generalizability of the findings. PMID:24701182

Leong, Tiong Kung; Ariff, Mohd. Shoki Md.

2014-01-01

305

Fundamental remote sensing science research program: The Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Effects Characterization Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Effects Characterization (SRAEC) Project was established within the NASA Fundamental Remote Sensing Science Research Program to improve our understanding of the fundamental relationships of energy interactions between the sensor and the surface target, including the effect of the atmosphere. The current studies are generalized into the following five subject areas: optical scene modeling, Earth-space radiative transfer, electromagnetic properties of surface materials, microwave scene modeling, and scatterometry studies. This report has been prepared to provide a brief overview of the SRAEC Project history and objectives and to report on the scientific findings and project accomplishments made by the nineteen principal investigators since the project's initiation just over three years ago. This annual summary report derives from the most recent annual principal investigators meeting held January 29 to 31, 1985.

Deering, D. W.

1985-01-01

306

Preservation Map of Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an effort to stimulate international information exchange, cooperative projects, and research, the European Commission on Preservation and Access (ECPA) has created an online directory of European organizations working in the preservation field. This directory is based on a survey conducted over the past year. For each of the twenty-five countries currently listed there is a section on national policy as it relates to preservation in libraries and archives, followed by background information on individual organizations, projects, and training courses. Background information includes contacts, email or web access if available, and a brief description of activities. Users can search the preservation map database by organization name, project focus, training availability, or by keyword.

307

Effects of Implementing STEM-I Project-Based Learning Activities for Female High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to explore the application of STEM-I (STEM-Imagination) project-based learning activities and its effects on the effectiveness, processes, and characteristics of STEM integrative knowledge learning and imagination development for female high school students. A total of 72 female high school students were divided into 18 teams.…

Lou, Shi-Jer; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Shih, Ru-Chu

2014-01-01

308

Comprehensive health effects testing program for Denver's potable water reuse demonstration project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Health Effects Testing Program for the Denver Water Department's Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project is designed to evaluate the relative health effects of highly treated reclaimed water derived from secondary wastewater compared to Denver's present high?quality drinking water. The 1 million gallon per day (1 mgd) demonstration plant provides water to be evaluated in the studies treating unchlorinated

William C. Lauer; Frank J. Johns; Gary W. Wolfe; Barbara A. Myers; Lyman W. Condie; Joseph F. Borzelleca

1990-01-01

309

Inference on Peer Effects with Missing Peer Data: Evidence from Project STAR  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contributes empirically to the literature on peer effects in first-grade classrooms. The paper examines peer effects on academic achievement among first graders randomly assigned to their classrooms and to their teachers as part of Tennessee's Project STAR, America's largest ever education experiment. The analysis draws on previously…

Sojourner, Aaron

2009-01-01

310

Semester in Environmental Science, Independent Project, 2011 Effects of warming on soil respiration  

E-print Network

Semester in Environmental Science, Independent Project, 2011 Effects of warming on soil respiration;Abstract Soil respiration plays a significant role on global carbon cycle as the primary path that releases focuses on the effects of warming on soil respiration on three different types of soil. Soil from Harvard

Vallino, Joseph J.

311

Projection imaging of photon beams by the Cerenkov effect  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A novel technique for beam profiling of megavoltage photon beams was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced Cerenkov emission in water, as a potential surrogate for the imparted dose in irradiated media. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire 2D projection images of Cerenkov emission from a 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 cm{sup 2} 6 MV linear accelerator (LINAC) x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 400 MU/min incident on a water tank with transparent walls. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the LINAC sync pulse to reduce background light artifacts, and the measurement quality was investigated by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and measurement repeatability as a function of delivered dose. Monte Carlo simulations were used to derive a calibration factor for differences between the optical images and deposited dose arising from the anisotropic angular dependence of Cerenkov emission. Finally, Cerenkov-based beam profiles were compared to a percent depth dose (PDD) and lateral dose profile at a depth of d{sub max} from a reference dose distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system (TPS). Results: The signal to noise ratio was found to be 20 at a delivered dose of 66.6 cGy, and proportional to the square root of the delivered dose as expected from Poisson photon counting statistics. A 2.1% mean standard deviation and 5.6% maximum variation in successive measurements were observed, and the Monte Carlo derived calibration factor resulted in Cerenkov emission images which were directly correlated to deposited dose, with some spatial issues. The dose difference between the TPS and PDD predicted by Cerenkov measurements was within 20% in the buildup region with a distance to agreement (DTA) of 1.5-2 mm and {+-}3% at depths beyond d{sub max}. In the lateral profile, the dose difference at the beam penumbra was within {+-}13% with a DTA of 0-2 mm, {+-}5% in the central beam region, and 2%-3% in the beam umbra. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of Cerenkov emission imaging to profile x-ray photon LINAC beams in water. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method.

Glaser, Adam K.; Davis, Scott C.; McClatchy, David M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W.; Gladstone, David J. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Thayer School of Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States)

2013-01-15

312

Projection imaging of photon beams by the ?erenkov effect  

PubMed Central

Purpose: A novel technique for beam profiling of megavoltage photon beams was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced ?erenkov emission in water, as a potential surrogate for the imparted dose in irradiated media. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire 2D projection images of ?erenkov emission from a 4 × 4 cm2 6 MV linear accelerator (LINAC) x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 400 MU/min incident on a water tank with transparent walls. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the LINAC sync pulse to reduce background light artifacts, and the measurement quality was investigated by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and measurement repeatability as a function of delivered dose. Monte Carlo simulations were used to derive a calibration factor for differences between the optical images and deposited dose arising from the anisotropic angular dependence of ?erenkov emission. Finally, ?erenkov-based beam profiles were compared to a percent depth dose (PDD) and lateral dose profile at a depth of dmax from a reference dose distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system (TPS). Results: The signal to noise ratio was found to be 20 at a delivered dose of 66.6 cGy, and proportional to the square root of the delivered dose as expected from Poisson photon counting statistics. A 2.1% mean standard deviation and 5.6% maximum variation in successive measurements were observed, and the Monte Carlo derived calibration factor resulted in ?erenkov emission images which were directly correlated to deposited dose, with some spatial issues. The dose difference between the TPS and PDD predicted by ?erenkov measurements was within 20% in the buildup region with a distance to agreement (DTA) of 1.5–2 mm and ±3% at depths beyond dmax. In the lateral profile, the dose difference at the beam penumbra was within ±13% with a DTA of 0–2 mm, ±5% in the central beam region, and 2%–3% in the beam umbra. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of ?erenkov emission imaging to profile x-ray photon LINAC beams in water. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method. PMID:23298103

Glaser, Adam K.; Davis, Scott C.; McClatchy, David M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W.; Gladstone, David J.

2013-01-01

313

Inequality, Unemployment and Contemporary Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unemployment has social costs such as psychological harm, social exclusion, family breakdown, and loss of political voice. It can exacerbate inequality and technological conservatism. Reducing unemployment would contribute to solving many of Europe's social ills. (SK)

Sen, Amartya

1997-01-01

314

Electric railway traction in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a survey of the state-of-the-art and innovational trends of electric railway technology in Europe. Subjects discussed include power supply systems, motor drive concepts, locomotives, power convertors and vehicle bus systems

A. Steimel

1996-01-01

315

Adjoint tomography of Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use spectral-element and adjoint methods to image crustal and upper mantle heterogeneity in Europe. The study area involves the convergent boundaries of the Eurasian, African and Arabian plates and the divergent boundary between the Eurasian and North American plates, making the tectonic structure of this region complex. Our goal is to iteratively fit observed seismograms and improve crustal and upper mantle images by taking advantage of 3D forward and inverse modeling techniques. We use data from 200 earthquakes with magnitudes between 5 and 6 recorded by 262 stations provided by ORFEUS. Crustal model Crust2.0 combined with mantle model S362ANI comprise the initial 3D model. Before the iterative adjoint inversion, we determine earthquake source parameters in the initial 3D model by using 3D Green functions and their Fréchet derivatives with respect to the source parameters (i.e., centroid moment tensor and location). The updated catalog is used in the subsequent structural inversion. Since we concentrate on upper mantle structures which involve anisotropy, transversely isotropic (frequency-dependent) traveltime sensitivity kernels are used in the iterative inversion. Taking advantage of the adjoint method, we use as many measurements as can obtain based on comparisons between observed and synthetic seismograms. FLEXWIN (Maggi et al., 2009) is used to automatically select measurement windows which are analyzed based on a multitaper technique. The bandpass ranges from 15 second to 150 second. Long-period surface waves and short-period body waves are combined in source relocations and structural inversions. A statistical assessments of traveltime anomalies and logarithmic waveform differences is used to characterize the inverted sources and structure.

Zhu, H.; Bozdag, E.; Peter, D. B.; Tromp, J.

2010-12-01

316

Rainfall erosivity in Europe.  

PubMed

Rainfall is one the main drivers of soil erosion. The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the R-factor in the USLE model and its revised version, RUSLE. At national and continental levels, the scarce availability of data obliges soil erosion modellers to estimate this factor based on rainfall data with only low temporal resolution (daily, monthly, annual averages). The purpose of this study is to assess rainfall erosivity in Europe in the form of the RUSLE R-factor, based on the best available datasets. Data have been collected from 1541 precipitation stations in all European Union (EU) Member States and Switzerland, with temporal resolutions of 5 to 60min. The R-factor values calculated from precipitation data of different temporal resolutions were normalised to R-factor values with temporal resolutions of 30min using linear regression functions. Precipitation time series ranged from a minimum of 5years to a maximum of 40years. The average time series per precipitation station is around 17.1years, the most datasets including the first decade of the 21st century. Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) has been used to interpolate the R-factor station values to a European rainfall erosivity map at 1km resolution. The covariates used for the R-factor interpolation were climatic data (total precipitation, seasonal precipitation, precipitation of driest/wettest months, average temperature), elevation and latitude/longitude. The mean R-factor for the EU plus Switzerland is 722MJmmha(-1)h(-1)yr(-1), with the highest values (>1000MJmmha(-1)h(-1)yr(-1)) in the Mediterranean and alpine regions and the lowest (<500MJmmha(-1)h(-1)yr(-1)) in the Nordic countries. The erosivity density (erosivity normalised to annual precipitation amounts) was also the highest in Mediterranean regions which implies high risk for erosive events and floods. PMID:25622150

Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Klik, Andreas; Rousseva, Svetla; Tadi?, Melita Per?ec; Michaelides, Silas; Hrabalíková, Michaela; Olsen, Preben; Aalto, Juha; Lakatos, Mónika; Rymszewicz, Anna; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Beguería, Santiago; Alewell, Christine

2015-04-01

317

Headache yesterday in Europe  

PubMed Central

Background Surveys enquiring about burden of headache over a prior period of time (eg, 3 months) are subject to recall bias. To eliminate this as far as possible, we focused on presence and impact of headache on the preceding day (“headache yesterday”). Methods Adults (18-65 years) were surveyed from the general populations of Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, from a work-force population in Spain and from mostly non-headache patient populations of Austria, France and UK. A study of non-responders in some countries allowed detection of potential participation bias where initial participation rates were low. Results Participation rates varied between 11% and 59% (mean 27%). Non-responder studies suggested that, because of participation bias, headache prevalence might be overestimated in initial responders by up to 2% (absolute). Across all countries, 1,422 of 8,271 participants (15-17%, depending on correction for participation bias) had headache yesterday lasting on average for 6 hours. It was bad or very bad in 56% of cases and caused absence from work or school in 6%. Among those who worked despite headache, 20% reported productivity reduced by >50%. Social activities were lost by 24%. Women (21%) were more likely than men (12%) to have headache yesterday, but impact was similar in the two genders. Conclusions With recall biases avoided, our findings indicate that headache costs at least 0.7% of working capacity in Europe. This calculation takes into account that most of those who missed work could make up for this later, which, however, means that leisure and social activities are even more influenced by headache. PMID:24884765

2014-01-01

318

The Pentalfa project. 3: participant evaluations of the interactivity of the educational videoconferences and the effectiveness of project promotion.  

PubMed

A distance continuing medical education programme was established at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven using multipoint videoconferencing via ISDN lines at 384 kbit/s. During each academic year, 24-26 sessions were organized. The interactivity afforded by the videoconferencing was investigated during the first three years of the project. More than 60% of the participants rated the interactivity as good or very good. No differences were found between the sites or over the three years of the project, but female participants were more positive (66% making ratings of good or very good) in this regard than male participants (57%). Also, the effectiveness of the various types of publicity used to promote the programme was analysed. A brochure was the main source of information (62% of participants heard of the programme by this means), followed by direct mailings (27%), posters (15%), personal contact (14%) and the programme's Website (1%). The proportions of participants who heard of the programme through these different means varied with age and gender. PMID:12877779

Himpens, B

2003-01-01

319

Life+ EnvEurope DEIMS - improving access to long-term ecosystem monitoring data in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term ecological (LTER) studies aim at detecting environmental changes and analysing its related drivers. In this respect LTER Europe provides a network of about 450 sites and platforms. However, data on various types of ecosystems and at a broad geographical scale is still not easily available. Managing data resulting from long-term observations is therefore one of the important tasks not only for an LTER site itself but also on the network level. Exchanging and sharing the information within a wider community is a crucial objective in the upcoming years. Due to the fragmented nature of long-term ecological research and monitoring (LTER) in Europe - and also on the global scale - information management has to face several challenges: distributed data sources, heterogeneous data models, heterogeneous data management solutions and the complex domain of ecosystem monitoring with regard to the resulting data. The Life+ EnvEurope project (2010-2013) provides a case study for a workflow using data from the distributed network of LTER-Europe sites. In order to enhance discovery, evaluation and access to data, the EnvEurope Drupal Ecological Information Management System (DEIMS) has been developed. This is based on the first official release of the Drupal metadata editor developed by US LTER. EnvEurope DEIMS consists of three main components: 1) Metadata editor: a web-based client interface to manage metadata of three information resource types - datasets, persons and research sites. A metadata model describing datasets based on Ecological Metadata Language (EML) was developed within the initial phase of the project. A crosswalk to the INSPIRE metadata model was implemented to convey to the currently on-going European activities. Person and research site metadata models defined within the LTER Europe were adapted for the project needs. The three metadata models are interconnected within the system in order to provide easy way to navigate the user among the related resources. 2) Discovery client: provides several search profiles for datasets, persons, research sites and external resources commonly used in the domain, e.g. Catalogue of Life , based on several search patterns ranging from simple full text search, glossary browsing to categorized faceted search. 3) Geo-Viewer: a map client that portrays boundaries and centroids of the research sites as Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Each layer provides a link to both Metadata editor and Discovery client in order to create or discover metadata describing the data collected within the individual research site. Sharing of the dataset metadata with DEIMS is ensured in two ways: XML export of individual metadata records according to the EML schema for inclusion in the international DataOne network, and periodic harvesting of metadata into GeoNetwork catalogue, thus providing catalogue service for web (CSW), which can be invoked by remote clients. The final version of DEIMS will be a pilot implementation for the information system of LTER-Europe, which should establish a common information management framework within the European ecosystem research domain and provide valuable environmental information to other European information infrastructures as SEIS, Copernicus and INSPIRE.

Kliment, Tomas; Peterseil, Johannes; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pugnetti, Alessandra; Blankman, David

2013-04-01

320

Influence of projection effects on the observed differential rotation rate in the UV corona  

PubMed Central

Following previous investigations by Giordano and Mancuso [1] and Mancuso and Giordano [2,3] on the differential rotation of the solar corona as obtained through the analysis of the intensity time series of the O VI 1032 Å spectral line observed by the UVCS/SOHO telescope during solar cycle 23, we analysed the possible influence of projection effects of extended coronal structures on the observed differential rotation rate in the ultraviolet corona. Through a simple geometrical model, we found that, especially at higher latitudes, the differential rotation may be less rigid than observed, since features at higher latitudes could be actually linked to much lower coronal structures due to projection effects. At solar maximum, the latitudinal rigidity of the UV corona, with respect to the differential rotating photosphere, has thus to be considered as an upper limit of the possible rigidity. At solar minimum and near the equatorial region throughout the solar cycle, projection effects are negligible. PMID:25685430

Mancuso, Salvatore; Giordano, Silvio

2012-01-01

321

Influence of projection effects on the observed differential rotation rate in the UV corona.  

PubMed

Following previous investigations by Giordano and Mancuso [1] and Mancuso and Giordano [2,3] on the differential rotation of the solar corona as obtained through the analysis of the intensity time series of the O VI 1032 Å spectral line observed by the UVCS/SOHO telescope during solar cycle 23, we analysed the possible influence of projection effects of extended coronal structures on the observed differential rotation rate in the ultraviolet corona. Through a simple geometrical model, we found that, especially at higher latitudes, the differential rotation may be less rigid than observed, since features at higher latitudes could be actually linked to much lower coronal structures due to projection effects. At solar maximum, the latitudinal rigidity of the UV corona, with respect to the differential rotating photosphere, has thus to be considered as an upper limit of the possible rigidity. At solar minimum and near the equatorial region throughout the solar cycle, projection effects are negligible. PMID:25685430

Mancuso, Salvatore; Giordano, Silvio

2013-05-01

322

SOLAR-PERIODIC FULL MOON EFFECT IN THE FOURMILAB RETROPSYCHOKINESIS PROJECT EXPERIMENT DATA: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radin and Rebman (1998) claimed evidence of psychokinesis effects in casino payout rates depending on lunar phases. They found the peak effect in the full-moon interval. This paper reports on an experimental data evaluation of 199,632 retroPK experiment trials, covering eight years. The hypothesis of a full moon effect is tested with the large database of the Fourmilab RetroPsychoKinesis Project.

Eckhard Etzold

323

Assessing the cumulative effects of projects using geographic information systems  

SciTech Connect

Systems that allow users to store and retrieve spatial data, provide for analyses of spatial data, and offer highly detailed display of spatial data are referred to as geographic information systems, or more typically, GIS. Since their initial usage in the 1960s, GISs have evolved as a means of assembling and analyzing diverse data pertaining to specific geographical areas, with spatial locations of the data serving as the organizational basis for the information systems. The structure of GISs is built around spatial identifiers and the methods used to encode data for storage and manipulation. This paper examines how GIS has been used in typical environmental assessment, its use for cumulative impact assessment, and explores litigation that occurred in the United States Federal court system where GIS was used in some aspect of cumulative effects. The paper also summarizes fifteen case studies that range from area wide transportation planning to wildlife and habitat impacts, and draws together a few lessons learned from this review of literature and litigation.

Atkinson, Samuel F., E-mail: atkinson@unt.edu [Institute of Applied Science, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle 310559, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Canter, Larry W., E-mail: envimptr@aol.com [Environmental Impact Training, P.O. Box 9143, Horseshoe Bay, TX 78657 (United States)

2011-09-15

324

The effect of sonophoresis on topical anesthesia: a pilot project.  

PubMed

The dental anesthesia sonophoresis device (DASD) is a novel device that is intended to reduce the discomfort associated with intraoral mucosa needle puncture. The DASD produces ultrasonic energy that provides a sonophoretic effect on the oral mucosa, generating microchannels through the lipids between the keratinized cells that make up the stratum corneum. Once the topical anesthetic has permeated the stratum corneum, it quickly diffuses through the soft tissue, desensitizing the nerve endings and reducing the perception of pain caused by needle penetration. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether topical anesthesia applied using the DASD will reduce the discomfort of the needle puncture when compared to the control device. A split-mouth model, using 50 healthy subjects with puncture site at the maxillary canine vestibule, was used for this study. Subjects received a needle puncture on both sides of the mouth. Prior to the needle puncture, there was randomized application of 5% lidocaine with the DASD and a control device. Subjects rated their discomfort after needle punctures utilizing the visual analog scale pain scoring system. There was no statistically significant difference in the pain perception using the DASD versus the control device. PMID:23763557

Packer, Joseph L; Krall, Barry; Makki, Ali; Torabinejad, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

325

The Effect of Sonophoresis on Topical Anesthesia: A Pilot Project  

PubMed Central

The dental anesthesia sonophoresis device (DASD) is a novel device that is intended to reduce the discomfort associated with intraoral mucosa needle puncture. The DASD produces ultrasonic energy that provides a sonophoretic effect on the oral mucosa, generating microchannels through the lipids between the keratinized cells that make up the stratum corneum. Once the topical anesthetic has permeated the stratum corneum, it quickly diffuses through the soft tissue, desensitizing the nerve endings and reducing the perception of pain caused by needle penetration. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether topical anesthesia applied using the DASD will reduce the discomfort of the needle puncture when compared to the control device. A split-mouth model, using 50 healthy subjects with puncture site at the maxillary canine vestibule, was used for this study. Subjects received a needle puncture on both sides of the mouth. Prior to the needle puncture, there was randomized application of 5% lidocaine with the DASD and a control device. Subjects rated their discomfort after needle punctures utilizing the visual analog scale pain scoring system. There was no statistically significant difference in the pain perception using the DASD versus the control device. PMID:23763557

Packer, Joseph L.; Krall, Barry; Makki, Ali; Torabinejad, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

326

The HLA-net GENE[RATE] pipeline for effective HLA data analysis and its application to 145 population samples from Europe and neighbouring areas.  

PubMed

In this review, we present for the first time an integrated version of the Gene[rate] computer tools which have been developed during the last 5 years to analyse human leukocyte antigen (HLA) data in human populations, as well as the results of their application to a large dataset of 145 HLA-typed population samples from Europe and its two neighbouring areas, North Africa and West Asia, now forming part of the Gene[va] database. All these computer tools and genetic data are, from now, publicly available through a newly designed bioinformatics platform, HLA-net, here presented as a main achievement of the HLA-NET scientific programme. The Gene[rate] pipeline offers user-friendly computer tools to estimate allele and haplotype frequencies, to test Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), selective neutrality and linkage disequilibrium, to recode HLA data, to convert file formats, to display population frequencies of chosen alleles and haplotypes in selected geographic regions, and to perform genetic comparisons among chosen sets of population samples, including new data provided by the user. Both numerical and graphical outputs are generated, the latter being highly explicit and of publication quality. All these analyses can be performed on the pipeline after scrupulous validation of the population sample's characterisation and HLA typing reporting according to HLA-NET recommendations. The Gene[va] database offers direct access to the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1 and -DPB1 frequencies and summary statistics of 145 population samples having successfully passed these HLA-NET 'filters', and representing three European subregions (South-East, North-East and Central-West Europe) and two neighbouring areas (North Africa, as far as Sudan, and West Asia, as far as South India). The analysis of these data, summarized in this review, shows a substantial genetic variation at the regional level in this continental area. These results have main implications for population genetics, transplantation and epidemiological studies. PMID:24738646

Nunes, J M; Buhler, S; Roessli, D; Sanchez-Mazas, A

2014-05-01

327

Community wind power ownership schemes in Europe and their relevance to the United States  

SciTech Connect

With varying success, the United States and Europe have followed a more or less parallel path of policies to support wind development over the past twenty years. Feed-in laws and tax incentives first popularized in California in the early 1980s and greatly expanded upon in Europe during the 1990s are gradually giving way to market-based support mechanisms such as renewable portfolio standards, which are being implemented in one form or another in ten US states and at least three European nations. At the same time, electricity markets are being liberalized in both the US and Europe, and many electricity consumers are being given the choice to support the development of renewable energy through higher tariffs, both in traditionally regulated and newly competitive markets. One notable area in which wind development in Europe and United States has not evolved in common, however, is with respect to the level of community ownership of wind turbines or clusters. While community ownership of wind projects is unheard of in the United States, in Europe, local wind cooperatives or other participatory business schemes have been responsible for a large share of total wind development. In Denmark, for example, approximately 80% of all wind turbines are either individually or cooperatively owned, and a similar pattern holds in Germany, the world leader in installed wind capacity. Sweden also has a strong wind cooperative base, and the UK has recently made forays into community wind ownership. Why is it that wind development has evolved this way in Europe, but not in the United States? What incremental effect have community-owned wind schemes had on European wind development? Have community-owned wind schemes driven development in Europe, or are they merely a vehicle through which the fundamental driving institutions have been channeled? Is there value to having community wind ownership in the US? Is there reason to believe that such schemes would succeed in the US? If so, which model seems most appropriate, and what barriers--legal, regulatory, tax, market, or investment--stand in the way of implementing such a scheme? These are the questions this report seeks to address. The report begins with a discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of community wind ownership, as opposed to the large commercially-owned projects that have so far dominated US wind development. Next, four detailed case studies relate community-owned wind experience in Denmark, Sweden, the UK, Germany, focusing primarily on the different participatory models employed in each country. The report then categorizes the various models into three main groupings--community-led, developer-led, and investment funds--and draws general conclusions about the success of each category in Europe, and the conditions that dictate the effective use of one approach over another. Finally, the focus shifts to the US, where the report discusses the domestic barriers facing each model category, and identifies the category offering the most value with the fewest barriers to implementation. The report concludes with a high-level introduction to potential applications for community wind ownership within the United States.

Bolinger, Mark

2001-05-15

328

Offshore northern Europe activity begins a slow recovery  

SciTech Connect

The offshore industry in northwest Europe has begun its recovery. Investment in new oil projects has resumed, reflecting growing confidence that the $18/bbl crude price is sustainable. Renewed spending on oil projects has also been helped by revamping offshore projects to reduce costs and make new development viable at lower prices. Industry confidence in the North Sea was also given a boost by the decision to proceed with the $7.8 billion development of the Troll and Sleipner gas fields. Drilling activity is also starting to recover. Since the beginning of this year, 14 rigs have been brought back into service and there are now 50 semisubmersibles and jack ups active on exploration and appraisal work. There were 88 rigs operating at the start of 1986, and there are still 61 rigs stacked in northwest Europe.

Vielvoye, R.

1987-06-29

329

Institutional challenges for space activities in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooperation between the EU and ESA in the development of Galileo marked a first decisive step in collaboration between these two communities. Current work on space programmes beyond Galileo, such as GMES, shows the need for clear institutional solutions and responses to what should become more than a mere framework space agenda. If Europe is to fulfil its space ambitions and adopt a common approach, institutional competences and abilities require clarification and formulation. The Commission's White Paper lays out an action plan designed to support space technology and activities within the EU. The EU is seen as providing the most appropriate political forum alongside optimal investment conditions for the space industry, developing the social, economic and commercial potential. If Europe wants to pursue its space ambitions effectively, institutional challenges will have to be tackled sooner rather than later. Whilst recognising current limitations on the EU's competence to legislate specifically on space matters, the White Paper seeks to address primary space issues and looks towards a future European governmental agenda that includes space activities. This paper analyses the current legal framework governing the relationship between the respective inter-governmental institutional agency (The European Space Agency) and the specific supranational community of the European Union. It argues that ad hoc models of support for specific programmes, such as the establishment of the Joint Undertaking for the Galileo programme, serve only as an interim step towards realigning competence within the institutional landscape to facilitate and benefit Europe's future activities in space.

Smith, Lesley Jane; Hörl, Kay-Uwe

2007-02-01

330

Extreme hydrometeorological events and climate change predictions in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field meteorological data collected in several European Commission projects (from 1974 to 2011) were re-analysed in the context of a perceived reduction in summer storms around the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The findings reveal some hitherto overlooked processes that raise questions about direct impacts on European hydrological cycles, e.g., extreme hydrometeorological events, and about the role of feedbacks on climate models and climate predictions. For instance, the summer storms are affected by land-use changes along the coasts and mountain slopes. Their loss triggers a chain of events that leads to an Accumulation Mode (AM) where water vapour and air pollutants (ozone) become stacked in layers, up to 4000(+) m, over the WMB. The AM cycle can last 3-5 consecutive days, and recur several times each month from mid May to late August. At the end of each cycle the accumulated water vapour can feed Vb track events and generate intense rainfall and summer floods in Central Europe. Venting out of the water vapour that should have precipitated within the WMB increases the salinity of the sea and affects the Atlantic-Mediterranean Salinity valve at Gibraltar. This, in turn, can alter the tracks of Atlantic Depressions and their frontal systems over Atlantic Europe. Another effect is the greenhouse heating by water vapour and photo-oxidants (e.g., O3) when layered over the Basin during the AM cycle. This increases the Sea Surface Temperature (SST), and the higher SST intensifies torrential rain events over the Mediterranean coasts in autumn. All these processes raise research questions that must be addressed to improve the meteorological forecasting of extreme events, as well as climate model predictions.

Millán, Millán M.

2014-10-01

331

Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

this study we present an assessment of the impact of future climate change on total fire probability, burned area, and carbon (C) emissions from fires in Europe. The analysis was performed with the Community Land Model (CLM) extended with a prognostic treatment of fires that was specifically refined and optimized for application over Europe. Simulations over the 21st century are forced by five different high-resolution Regional Climate Models under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B. Both original and bias-corrected meteorological forcings is used. Results show that the simulated C emissions over the present period are improved by using bias corrected meteorological forcing, with a reduction of the intermodel variability. In the course of the 21st century, burned area and C emissions from fires are shown to increase in Europe, in particular in the Mediterranean basins, in the Balkan regions and in Eastern Europe. However, the projected increase is lower than in other studies that did not fully account for the effect of climate on ecosystem functioning. We demonstrate that the lower sensitivity of burned area and C emissions to climate change is related to the predicted reduction of the net primary productivity, which is identified as the most important determinant of fire activity in the Mediterranean region after anthropogenic interaction. This behavior, consistent with the intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis, limits the sensitivity of future burned area and C emissions from fires on climate change, providing more conservative estimates of future fire patterns, and demonstrates the importance of coupling fire simulation with a climate driven ecosystem productivity model.

Migliavacca, Mirco; Dosio, Alessandro; Camia, Andrea; Hobourg, Rasmus; Houston-Durrant, Tracy; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Krasovskii, Andrey A.; Marcolla, Barbara; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Ward, Daniel S.; Cescatti, Alessandro

2013-12-01

332

Distortionary effects of a production-sharing fiscal system in a sequential modular offshore petroleum project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research examines the distortionary effects of a discovered and undeveloped sequential modular offshore project under five different designs for a production-sharing agreement (PSA). The model differs from previous research by looking at the effect of taxation from the perspective of a host government, where the objective is to maximize government utility over government revenue generated by the project and the non-pecuniary benefits to society. This research uses Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) theory, which is able to provide a good measure of the asset value accruing to various stakeholders in the project combined with the optimal decision rule for the development of the investment opportunity. Monte Carlo simulation was also applied to incorporate into the model the most important sources of risk associated with the project and to account for non-linearity in the cash flows. For a complete evaluation of how the fiscal system affects the project development, an investor's behavioral model was constructed, incorporating three operational decisions: investment timing, capacity size and early abandonment. The model considers four sources of uncertainty that affect the project value and the firm's optimal decision: the long run oil price and short-run deviations from that price, cost escalation and the reservoir recovery rate. The optimizations outcomes show that all fiscal systems evaluated produce distortion over the companies' optimal decisions, and companies adjust their choices to avoid taxation in different ways according to the fiscal system characteristics. Moreover, it is revealed that fiscal systems with tax provisions that try to capture additional project profits based on production profitability measures leads to stronger distortions in the project investment and output profile. It is also shown that a model based on a fixed percentage rate is the system that creates the least distortion. This is because companies will be subjected to the same government share of profit oil independently of any operational decision which they can make to change the production profile to evade taxation.

Neves de Campos, Thiago

333

The Effect of Personality Type on Team Performance in Engineering Materials Term Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most of long-term engineering class projects require teamwork. Often, conducting projects increase the quality of classroom life and facilitate student learning. Sometimes, team projects hinder student learning and create disharmony and dissatisfaction with classroom life. In many cases, the mixture of each individuals personality determines team dynamics. The Introduction to Engineering Materials course for junior level students encompasses a semester-long term project, which heavily requires teamwork. The term project should focus on a component of existing manufactured products and show why a particular material is used for a particular application. The experiments chosen should prove or disprove this. Each team will chose a topic, determine how to evaluate that topic, devise relevant experiments, evaluate the results of these experiments and formulate a conclusion. Finally, the students will present their results to the class at the end of the semester. The goal of this study is to see how the team performance can be affected by each individual students personality type in the term projects of the engineering material course. The personality test used in this study was the DISC test, which is the oldest, most validated, and reliable personality assessment tool. DISC stands for Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, and Conscientiousness, which are the four dimensions in the personality characteristics. For the term project, six teams were formulated. The instructor assigned four or five students to a team. Students with similar personality types were assigned to work with each other in three of the teams. The other three teams have students with well-mixed dimensions in their personality characteristics. This paper presents the effectiveness of using student personality on team building for the semester-long team projects. Overall student experience and lessons learned in organizing such a project are also discussed.

Jang, Jaesoon

334

Student Lead Nanosatellite Design/Build Projects: making a cost effective approach to Earth and Space Observational Science even more cost efficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advancement of technologies and the miniaturization of sensors and electrical/computational components satellites are also undergoing miniaturization. With lower manufacturing cost and a decreased design/build cycle (~2 years from start to launch), compared to conventional large scale satellites, nanosatellites have become a cost effective alternative for satellite Earth and Space Observations. The University of Alberta student nanosatellite (10x10x30cm; <4kg) design/build team, AlbertaSat-1, is a participant in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CSDC) implemented by the CSA and Geocentrix Ltd. in addition to 15 other Universities from across Canada. AlbertaSat-1 will be launched in early 2013, after a 2 year design/build process and environmental testing. AlbertaSat-1 will be an Earth Observation satellite monitoring GHG (CO2, H2O & CH4) concentrations over many regions of the earth with the use of a NIR spectrometer. Here we present the planning, design and future manufacturing of AlbertaSat-1 with a focus on budget and cost effective solutions. Since this is a student project, AlbertaSat-1 will incur certain benefits making them exempt from certain financial requirements and obtaining services and equipment at very low or no cost. The largest cost benefit of AlbertaSat-1 is the virtual elimination of labor costs by having a team consisting of only unpaid students. Labor costs of typical satellite missions can be a very costly component. The educational components of such projects offer more indirect benefits to effective development of this industry/discipline, nevertheless just as important, by developing skills and knowledge that can only be learned through realistic hands on design/build projects. Student lead projects and student design/build initiatives such as CSDC (among many others in the U.S. and Europe lead by NASA and ESA, respectively) will have a major impact on shaping the future of Space and Earth Observational Sciences. We will present the future implications of such student projects and initiatives for the development of research and engineering in Space and Earth Observational Sciences.

Bottoms, J.; Lange, B. A.; AlbertaSat

2011-12-01

335

Towards better implementation of cancer screening in Europe through improved monitoring and evaluation and greater engagement of cancer registries.  

PubMed

Proposals to improve implementation, monitoring and evaluation of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes have been developed in a European project involving scientists and professionals experienced in cancer registration (EUROCOURSE). They call for a clear and more active role for cancer registries through better interfaces with cancer screening programmes and adapting data contents of cancer registries for evaluation purposes. Cancer registries are recognised as essential for adequate evaluation of cancer screening programmes, but they are not involved in screening evaluation in several European countries. This is a key barrier to improving the effectiveness of programmes across Europe. The variation in Europe in the implementation of cancer screening offers a unique opportunity to learn from best practices in collaboration between cancer registries and screening programmes. Population-based cancer registries have experience and tools in collecting and analysing relevant data, e.g. for diagnostic and therapeutic determinants of mortality. In order to accelerate improvements in cancer control we argue that cancer registries should take co-responsibility in promoting effective screening evaluation in Europe. Additional investments are vital to further development of infrastructures and activities for screening evaluation and monitoring in the national settings and also at the pan-European level. The EUROCOURSE project also aimed to harmonise implementation of the European quality assurance guidelines for cancer screening programmes across Europe through standardising routine data collection and analysis, and definitions for key performance indicators for screening registers. Data linkage between cancer and screening registers and other repositories of demographic data and cause of death and where available clinical registers is key to implementing the European screening standards and thereby reducing the burden of disease through early detection. Greater engagement of cancer registries in this collaborative effort is also essential to develop adequate evaluation of innovations in cancer prevention and care. PMID:25483785

Anttila, Ahti; Lönnberg, Stefan; Ponti, Antonio; Suonio, Eero; Villain, Patricia; Coebergh, Jan Willem; von Karsa, Lawrence

2015-01-01

336

18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition...whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition...requirement that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in §...

2010-04-01

337

Improving Tsunami Resilience in Europe - ASTARTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Adjacent Seas (called NEAM by IOC-UNESCO) is known to be exposed to tsunamis and, like other regions of the world, faces increasing levels of risk due to i) the continuous development of coastal areas with critical infrastructures and accumulated values, and ii) the year-round presence of millions of tourists. In recent years, European researchers have greatly advanced knowledge of tsunami hazards and implementation of operational infrastructures, such as the creation of a regional system of candidate tsunami watch providers (CTWP) and national tsunami warning centers (NTWC). However, significant gaps remain and intensified efforts are needed. The ASTARTE (Assessment STrategy And Risk for Tsunami in Europe) is a three-year long EU-funded project, started in November 2013, that aims to develop a comprehensive strategy to mitigate tsunami impact in the NEAM region. To achieve this goal, an interdisciplinary consortium has been assembled. It includes all NEAM CTWPs and expert institutions across Europe and worldwide. ASTARTE will improve i) the basic knowledge on tsunami generation and recurrence with novel empirical data and new statistical analyses for assessing long-term recurrence and hazards of large events in sensitive areas within NEAM, ii) numerical techniques for tsunami simulation focusing on real-time codes, novel statistical emulation approaches, and experiments on damage analysis, and iii) methods for the assessment of hazard, vulnerability, and risk. ASTARTE will also provide i) guidelines for tsunami Eurocodes, ii) better forecasting and warning tools for CTWPs and NTWCs, and iii) guidelines for decision makers to increase the sustainability and resilience of coastal communities. In summary, ASTARTE will develop basic scientific and technical elements allowing for a significant enhancement of the Tsunami Warning System in the NEAM region in terms of monitoring, early warning,forecast, and resilience, with specific implementation in 9 tsunami test sites. Overall, this will lead to the goal of the European/NEAM Horizon 2020 strategy: to foster tsunami resilient communities. www.astarte-project.eu This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3).

Baptista, Maria Ana; Yalciner, Ahmet; Canals, Miquel; Behrens, Joern; Fuhrman, David; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Harbitz, Carl; Kanoglu, Utku; Karanci, Nurai; Lavigne, Franck; Lorito, Stefano; Meghraoui, Mustafa; Melis, Nikolaos S.; Necmioglu, Ocal; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Rudloff, Alexander; Schindele, François; Terrinha, Pedro; Tinti, Stefano

2014-05-01

338

Taking Europe To The Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first step in this ESA initiated programme is a unique project called 'Euromoon 2000' which is currently being studied by ESA engineers/ scientists and key European Space Industries. The project is intended to celebrate Europe's entry into the New Millennium; and to promote public awareness and interest in science, technology and space exploration. Euromoon 2000 has an innovative and ambitious implementation plan. This includes a 'partnership with industry' and a financing scheme based on raising part of the mission's budget from sponsorship through a dynamic public relations strategy and marketing programme. The mission begins in earnest with the small (approx. 100 kg) LunarSat orbiter satellite, to be designed and built by 50 young scientists and engineers from across Europe. Scheduled for launch in 2000 as a secondary payload on a European Ariane 5 rocket, it will then orbit the Moon, mapping the planned landing area in greater detail in preparation of the EuroMoon Lander in 2001. The Lander's 40 kg payload allocation will accommodate amongst others scientific instrumentation for in-situ investigation of the unique site. Elements of specific support to the publicity and fund-raising campaign will also be considered. The Lander will aim for the 'Peak of Eternal Light' on the rim of the 20 km-diameter, 3 km-deep Shackleton South Pole crater - a site uniquely suited for establishing a future outpost. This location enjoys almost continuous sunlight thus missions can rely on solar power instead of bulky batteries or costly and potentially hazardous nuclear power generation. As a consequence of the undulating South Pole terrain there are also permanently shadowed areas - amongst the coldest in the Solar System resulting in conditions highly favourable for the formation of frozen volatiles (as suggested by the Clementine mission in 1994). Earlier this year (7th January 1998), NASA launched its Lunar Prospector satellite which is currently performing polar lunar orbits surveying areas of the moon's surface rarely documented in previous missions. The data now being received back from Prospector strongly suggests the presence of the suspected volatiles (water ice?). Understandably the presence of billions-of-years-old frozen water in proximity to Euromoon's planned landing site would provide a tremendous boost for the implementation of the EuroMoon project now in its 10th month of study. The in-situ analysis of such rare substances will provide an invaluable scientific window back in time (the Moon is believed to have been formed over 3.5 billion years ago from elements of the earth's mantel). The water's constituent elements of hydrogen and oxygen have also the possibility of offering an essentially free supply of rocket propellant and oxygen for exploitation during future activities. EuroMoon is the only mission being studied that can investigate this ice in-situ, while the US satellite will remain in a orbit. The mission is particularly challenging because of the required landing precision (within 100 m2) in terrain varying between +6 km and -5 km in altitude. Achieving the required pinpoint touchdown capability would allow the future exploitation of other interesting sites. One such site is the 6 km-high Malapert Mountain, 120 km from the pole from which the Earth can always be seen thus allowing continuous communications with the home planet for any future outpost in the region. The 'Peak of Eternal Light' (described above) is in direct view of Malapert, the twin peaks offer the tantalising possibility of both of uninterrupted power and communications. Euromoon can be seen as be the initial step in founding the first extraterrestrial outpost, founding the infrastructure for a 'robotic village' controlled by a 'virtual community' of Earth-based operators using telescience. This would indeed mark the beginning of an expansion of the human domain beyond Earth without the risk or cost of manned space travel. This concept also forms an essential element of the fund-raising campaign which will create an exciting media opport

1998-03-01

339

Fundamental remote sensing science research program. Part 1: Scene radiation and atmospheric effects characterization project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief articles summarizing the status of research in the scene radiation and atmospheric effect characterization (SRAEC) project are presented. Research conducted within the SRAEC program is focused on the development of empirical characterizations and mathematical process models which relate the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted from a scene to the biophysical parameters of interest.

Murphy, R. E.; Deering, D. W.

1984-01-01

340

SUITABILITY OF SWAT FOR THE CONSERVATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT: COMPARISON ON USDA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE WATERSHEDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent interest in tracking environmental benefits of conservation practices on agricultural watersheds throughout the United States has led to the development of the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). The purpose of CEAP is to assess environmental...

341

Hierarchy of Study Designs for Evaluating the Effectiveness of a STEM Education Project or Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains a narrative overview of the hierarchy, followed by a one-page graphic summary. The purpose of the hierarchy is to help agency/program officials assess which study designs are capable of producing scientifically-valid evidence on the effectiveness of a STEM education project or practice ("intervention"). More specifically,…

Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2007

2007-01-01

342

Project Title: Effects of Biosolid Land Application on Pathogens in Irrigation Return Flow  

E-print Network

Project Title: Effects of Biosolid Land Application on Pathogens in Irrigation Return Flow in irrigation return flow from fields applied with biosolids. The results of this study showed that during the first irrigation cycle, return flow becomes contaminated with E. Coli, while the return flow

Fay, Noah

343

Effects of projected climate change on the hydrology in the Mono Lake Basin, California  

E-print Network

for the city of Los Angeles, California. Climatic Change DOI 10.1007/s10584-012-0566-6 This article is partEffects of projected climate change on the hydrology in the Mono Lake Basin, California Darren L Science+Business Media B.V. 2012 Abstract The Californian Mono Lake Basin (MLB) is a fragile ecosystem

Maurer,. Edwin P.

344

The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

2014-01-01

345

Effect of Irrigation to River Water Quality at Thamaka Irrigation Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the analysis of effect of irrigation to water quality of Mae Klong River. Thamaka irrigation project was selected as the representative for the basin, two water samplings from both irrigation and drainage canals were collected fortnightly from April 1998 to February 1999. The 12 indexes namely, temperature, EC, turbidity, pH, concentration of nitrate, ammonia, phosphate, and

Bancha Kwanyuen; Nimit Cherdchanpipat; Masayoshi Satoh

346

The Measures of Effective Teaching Project: An Experiment to Build Evidence and Trust  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Measures of Effective Teaching project has collected performance data using multiple indicators from over three thousand teachers across six urban districts. In the second year of the study, classes of students were randomly assigned to teachers in order to assess the impact of assignment bias on performance judgments. This article discusses…

Cantrell, Steven M.

2012-01-01

347

Investigating the Urban Heat Island Effect with a Collaborative Inquiry Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a collaborative research project in which students study a phenomenon known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect which is a measure of the near-surface air temperature contrast between urbanized and adjoining rural areas. Includes background content and literature review, preliminary studies, development of research questions,…

George, Linda A.; Becker, William G.

2003-01-01

348

CME projection effects studied with STEREO/COR and SOHO/LASCO  

E-print Network

CME projection effects studied with STEREO/COR and SOHO/LASCO M. TEMMER, S. PREISS, A.M. VERONIG edge features in the plane-of-sky (tradi- tional CME tracking) from combined STEREO/SECCHI-SOHO- craft pairs SOHO-LASCO/STEREO-A and SOHO-LASCO/STEREO-B allows us to study the reliability of the method

Temmer Manuela

349

The "termination effect" in experiment G2 of the1 Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project2  

E-print Network

The "termination effect" in experiment G2 of the1 Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project2 have examined changes in climate which result from the sudden ter-5 mination of geoengineering after 50, as simulated7 by 11 different climate models in experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model8 Intercomparison

Robock, Alan

350

A practical use of key success factors to improve the effectiveness of project management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world where change is becoming increasingly important, tools such as project management, if used properly, can provide a useful way for organisations to manage that change effectively. Whilst there is a clear understanding of the need to achieve the required cost, time and quality objectives, surprisingly little is published on how these objectives can practically be met. Furthermore,

Angela Clarke

1999-01-01

351

Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects ANN DENISE FISSEKIS  

E-print Network

Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects By ANN DENISE FISSEKIS B.A. (University of Southern California) 2002 THESIS Submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements to affect flood control operations in the Sacramento Valley. Snowpack storage will decrease and the fraction

Lund, Jay R.

352

The Choptank Watershed Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project: Monitoring the Effect of Wetland Conservation Practices on Water Quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Choptank Watershed Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) brings together an interdisciplinary group of experts and resources from multiple federal agencies and the University of Maryland to assess the ability of native, restored, and prior-converted wetlands on cropland to impro...

353

A Process-Based Approach to Predicting the Effect of Climate Change on the Distribution of an Invasive Allergenic Plant in Europe  

PubMed Central

Ambrosia artemisiifolia is an invasive weed in Europe with highly allergenic pollen. Populations are currently well established and cause significant health problems in the French Rhône valley, Austria, Hungary and Croatia but transient or casual introduced populations are also found in more Northern and Eastern European countries. A process-based model of weed growth, competition and population dynamics was used to predict the future potential for range expansion of A.artemisiifolia under climate change scenarios. The model predicted a northward shift in the available climatic niche for populations to establish and persist, creating a risk of increased health problems in countries including the UK and Denmark. This was accompanied by an increase in relative pollen production at the northern edge of its range. The southern European limit for A.artemisiifolia was not expected to change; populations continued to be limited by drought stress in Spain and Southern Italy. The process-based approach to modelling the impact of climate change on plant populations has the advantage over correlative species distribution models of being able to capture interactions of climate, land use and plant competition at the local scale. However, for this potential to be fully realised, additional empirical data are required on competitive dynamics of A.artemisiifolia in different crops and ruderal plant communities and its capacity to adapt to local conditions. PMID:24533071

Storkey, Jonathan; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Chapman, Daniel S.; Vidotto, Francesco; Semenov, Mikhail A.

2014-01-01

354

A process-based approach to predicting the effect of climate change on the distribution of an invasive allergenic plant in Europe.  

PubMed

Ambrosia artemisiifolia is an invasive weed in Europe with highly allergenic pollen. Populations are currently well established and cause significant health problems in the French Rhône valley, Austria, Hungary and Croatia but transient or casual introduced populations are also found in more Northern and Eastern European countries. A process-based model of weed growth, competition and population dynamics was used to predict the future potential for range expansion of A.artemisiifolia under climate change scenarios. The model predicted a northward shift in the available climatic niche for populations to establish and persist, creating a risk of increased health problems in countries including the UK and Denmark. This was accompanied by an increase in relative pollen production at the northern edge of its range. The southern European limit for A.artemisiifolia was not expected to change; populations continued to be limited by drought stress in Spain and Southern Italy. The process-based approach to modelling the impact of climate change on plant populations has the advantage over correlative species distribution models of being able to capture interactions of climate, land use and plant competition at the local scale. However, for this potential to be fully realised, additional empirical data are required on competitive dynamics of A.artemisiifolia in different crops and ruderal plant communities and its capacity to adapt to local conditions. PMID:24533071

Storkey, Jonathan; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Chapman, Daniel S; Vidotto, Francesco; Semenov, Mikhail A

2014-01-01

355

Shakeout gathers momentum in Europe`s refining sector  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the decline and restructuring of the petroleum refining industry in Europe which is facing increased competition from foreign operators and more stringent environmental compliance laws. The excess production capacity has forced mergers between companies and consolidation of plants. The paper reviews the production and capacity of each of the major European petroleum producing countries.

Knott, D.

1996-03-25

356

Electronic Signatures for Public Procurement across Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PEPPOL (Pan-European Public Procurement On-Line) project is a large scale pilot under the CIP programme of the EU, exploring electronic public procurement in a unified European market. An important element is interoperability of electronic signatures across borders, identified today as a major obstacle to cross-border procurement. PEPPOL will address use of signatures in procurement processes, in particular tendering but also post-award processes like orders and invoices. Signature policies, i.e. quality requirements and requirements on information captured in the signing process, will be developed. This as well as technical interoperability of e-signatures across Europe will finally be piloted in demonstrators starting late 2009 or early 2010.

Ølnes, Jon; Andresen, Anette; Arbia, Stefano; Ernst, Markus; Hagen, Martin; Klein, Stephan; Manca, Giovanni; Rossi, Adriano; Schipplick, Frank; Tatti, Daniele; Wessolowski, Gesa; Windheuser, Jan

357

Climate change and infectious diseases in Europe.  

PubMed

Concerted action is needed to address public health issues raised by climate change. In this Review we discuss infections acquired through various routes (arthropod vector, rodent, water, food, and air) in view of a changing climate in Europe. Based on an extensive review of published work and expert workshops, we present an assessment of the infectious disease challenges: incidence, prevalence, and distribution are projected to shift in a changing environment. Due to the high level of uncertainty on the rate of climate change and its impact on infectious diseases, we propose to mount a proactive public health response by building an integrated network for environmental and epidemiological data. This network would have the capacity to connect epidemic intelligence and infectious disease surveillance with meteorological, entomological, water quality, remote sensing, and other data, for multivariate analyses and predictions. Insights from these analyses could then guide adaptation strategies and protect population health from impending threats related to climate change. PMID:19467476

Semenza, Jan C; Menne, Bettina

2009-06-01

358

Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe  

PubMed Central

We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

Suk, Jonathan E.

2011-01-01

359

The Winds of Change: Higher Education Management Programmes in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amid the Bologna Process and as a direct effect of it, European higher education institutions have to rethink their core institutional policies in order to effectively deal with the increasing demands and needs of their "customers" and society at large. The higher education management programmes across Europe, with some specific needs and…

Pausits, Attila; Pellert, Ada

2009-01-01

360

Does Information Matter? The Effect of the Meth Project on Meth Use among Youths*  

PubMed Central

Are demand-side interventions effective at curbing drug use? To the extent demand-side programs are successful, their cost effectiveness can be appealing from a policy perspective. Established in 2005, the Montana Meth Project (MMP) employs a graphic advertising campaign to deter meth use among teens. Due to the MMP’s apparent success, seven other states have adopted Meth Project campaigns. Using data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS), this paper investigates whether the MMP reduced methamphetamine use among Montana’s youth. When accounting for a preexisting downward trend in meth use, effects on meth use are statistically indistinguishable from zero. These results are robust to using related changes of meth use among individuals without exposure to the campaign as controls in a difference-in-difference framework. A complementary analysis of treatment admissions data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) confirms the MMP has had no discernable impact on meth use. PMID:20638737

Anderson, D. Mark

2010-01-01

361

Projected Land Cover Change Effects on East African Rainfall Under Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land cover/Land Use Change (LCLUC) and greenhouse gas concentrations (GHG) have both been shown to influence regional climate, albeit at different spatial scales. In east Africa, climate changes due to changing greenhouse gas concentrations are broadly projected to be warmer and wetter, while LCLUC is trending towards both agricultural intensification as well as agricultural expansion into savannas, causing complex climate impacts. This study seeks to identify locations likely to witness strong responses to future GHG, LCLUC, or their combined effects, and to better understand how hydrometeorological mechanisms might be altered by LCLUC in future scenarios. Here we present high-resolution decadal simulations from a regional climate model that compare the relative and combined effects of projected LCLUC and GHG. Our research shows that taken separately, these two climate forcings are expected to significantly alter precipitation patterns both temporally and spatially but in different ways. In combination, some regions exhibit responses dominated by either LCLUC or GHG effects, but certain regions show complex effects resulting from the combined influence of these two forcings. Perhaps most importantly, projected precipitation changes around major population areas are as strongly influenced by LCLUC as by GHG effects.

Moore, N.; Andresen, J.; Pijanowski, B. C.; Lofgren, B. M.

2011-12-01

362

Managed Pollinator Coordinated Agricultural Project—The First Two Years of the Stationary Hive Project: Abiotic Site Effects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

: A stationary hive project was initiated in the spring of 2009. This research project will run through 2013 and consists of two replicate two-year trials (2009-2011 and 2011–2013). The objective of the study was to conduct a longitudinal study of colonies through a two-year period. In this article...

363

Pesticides in rainfall in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers and published reports investigating the presence of pesticides in rainfall in Europe were reviewed. Approximately half of the compounds that were analysed for were detected. For those detected, most concentrations were below about 100 ng\\/l, but larger concentrations, up to a few thousand nanograms per litre, were detected occasionally at most monitoring sites. The most frequently detected compounds were

I. G. Dubus; J. M. Hollis; C. D. Brown

2000-01-01

364

The Otherness of Eastern Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses an extensive corpus of texts from the German media and existing studies of German perspectives on Poland, Russia, the Czech Republic and Slovenia in order to demonstrate that there are two idealised culture cognitive models (ICCMs) that function as overarching categories for Europe: the ICCM west (the members of the European…

Hudabiunigg, Ingrid

2004-01-01

365

Promoting entrepreneurship in Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past decade has seen a revival of entrepreneurship in the modern industrial economies, characterized by a wave of enterprise restructuring and of new developments in business and technology. In this paper, we argue that market transitions of the post-socialist economies of Eastern Europe cannot be successful without similar entrepreneurial restructuring. To address the massive structural distortions that still plague

Laura d'Andrea Tyson; Tea Petrin; Halsey Rogers

1994-01-01

366

Remaking Education in Western Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes a contribution to discussion on the neo-liberal reshaping of education in Western Europe. It argues for a greater attentiveness on the part of education researchers to collective social actors such as trade unions and social movements. Making use of concepts from Gramsci and from Poulantzas, it suggests that such actors had a…

Jones, Ken

2005-01-01

367

Free electron laser infrastructure in Europe 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a digest of chosen research centers, subjects and results in the domain of free electron lasers and accelerator science and technology in Europe. Some of these issues were shown during the annual meeting of the EU FP7 project EuCARD - European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development (2009-2013) [13-14]. The project concerns building of the research infrastructure, including in this advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics and FEL experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such infrastructures, networks and systems like: POLFEL, FLASH, SPARC, LIFE, CFEL, IRFEL, IRVUX, ELBE, FELIX, LCLS, E-XFEL along with some subsystems like seeding lasers, beam diagnostics, high field magnets, superconducting structures, multichannel measurement - control networks for FELs for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution. A digest of references on FEL and HEP was included [1-133], with emphasis on work in Poland on the Polfel project.

Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

2013-01-01

368

New Approaches to Teaching European Politics: Reintroducing Central Europe. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators in high schools and colleges have taught about European history and politics in the context of the Cold War and the division of Europe into two blocs. The revolutionary changes in 1989 and the collapse of the Soviet Union have made obsolete the superpower spheres of influence that divided Europe. This curriculum project contributes…

Wittman, Phillip M.

369

Towards a single seismological service infrastructure in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last five year services and data providers, within the seismological community in Europe, focused their efforts in migrating the way of opening their archives towards a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). This process tries to follow pragmatically the technological trends and available solutions aiming at effectively improving all the data stewardship activities. These advancements are possible thanks to the cooperation and the follow-ups of several EC infrastructural projects that, by looking at general purpose techniques, combine their developments envisioning a multidisciplinary platform for the earth observation as the final common objective (EPOS, Earth Plate Observation System) One of the first results of this effort is the Earthquake Data Portal (http://www.seismicportal.eu), which provides a collection of tools to discover, visualize and access a variety of seismological data sets like seismic waveform, accelerometric data, earthquake catalogs and parameters. The Portal offers a cohesive distributed search environment, linking data search and access across multiple data providers through interactive web-services, map-based tools and diverse command-line clients. Our work continues under other EU FP7 projects. Here we will address initiatives in two of those projects. The NERA, (Network of European Research Infrastructures for Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation) project will implement a Common Services Architecture based on OGC services APIs, in order to provide Resource-Oriented common interfaces across the data access and processing services. This will improve interoperability between tools and across projects, enabling the development of higher-level applications that can uniformly access the data and processing services of all participants. This effort will be conducted jointly with the VERCE project (Virtual Earthquake and Seismology Research Community for Europe). VERCE aims to enable seismologists to exploit the wealth of seismic data within a data-intensive computation framework, which will be tailored to the specific needs of the community. It will provide a new interoperable infrastructure, as the computational backbone laying behind the publicly available interfaces. VERCE will have to face the challenges of implementing a service oriented architecture providing an efficient layer between the Data and the Grid infrastructures, coupling HPC data analysis and HPC data modeling applications through the execution of workflows and data sharing mechanism. Online registries of interoperable worklflow components, storage of intermediate results and data provenance are those aspects that are currently under investigations to make the VERCE facilities usable from a large scale of users, data and service providers. For such purposes the adoption of a Digital Object Architecture, to create online catalogs referencing and describing semantically all these distributed resources, such as datasets, computational processes and derivative products, is seen as one of the viable solution to monitor and steer the usage of the infrastructure, increasing its efficiency and the cooperation among the community.

Spinuso, A.; Trani, L.; Frobert, L.; Van Eck, T.

2012-04-01

370

Recent trends of persistent organic pollutants in air in central Europe - Air monitoring in combination with air mass trajectory statistics as a tool to study the effectivity of regional chemical policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use air mass back trajectory analysis of persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels monitored at a regional background site, Košetice, Czech Republic, as a tool to study the effectiveness of emission reduction measures taken in the last decade in the region. The representativity of the chosen trajectory starting height for air sampling near ground was ensured by excluding trajectories starting at time of inversions lower than their starting height. As the relevant pollutant sources are exclusively located in the atmospheric boundary layer, trajectory segments above this layer were also excluded from the analysis. We used a linear time weight to account for the influence of dispersion and deposition on trace components abundances and to quantify the ground source loading, a continuous measure for the influence of surface emissions. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and two time periods, the years 1997-1999 and 2004-2006, were studied. The pollutant levels transported to Košetice decreased for all substances except HCB. Except for lindane seasonal emissions were insignificant. Increasing emissions of HCB were at least partly linked to the 2002 floods in the Danube basin. Major emissions of 1997-1999 which decreased significantly were in France (lindane), western Poland, Hungary and northern ex-Yugoslavia (technical HCH), and the Czech Republic (DDT). Emissions remaining in 2004-2006 include HCB and DDT in the northern Czech Republic, HCB and PCBs in Germany. Besides changes in emission strength meteorological factors influence the level of transported pollutant concentrations. The prevailing air flow pattern limits the geographic coverage of this analysis to central Europe and parts of western Europe. However, no POP monitoring stations exist in areas suitable for a possible extension of the study area.

Dvorská, A.; Lammel, G.; Holoubek, I.

371

Hamburg, Germany's second largest city, is home to two of the most important urban development areas in Europe: HafenCity  

E-print Network

areas in Europe: HafenCity and the International Building Exhibition (IBA). Both projects embrace and character. HafenCity, Europe's largest inner-city development project, is setting new standards. The International Building Exhibition (IBA) is applying experimental design and urban planning to a neglected inner

District of Columbia, University of the

372

Let’s give Europe a vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current economic crisis has wrought havoc on Europe. However, the crisis has also given the leaders of Europe an opportunity\\u000a to re-evaluate European society and the process of European integration. The time is at hand for Europe to create a new strategic\\u000a outlook for the future. The Europe 2020 strategy could provide the impetus to create a more prosperous

José Manuel Barroso

2010-01-01

373

Alien Birds, Amphibians and Reptiles of Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

DAISIE aims to integrate information on current invasions across Europe through an online freely available database of alien\\u000a species (www.europe-aliens. org, Shirley and Kark 2006). Overall, the DAISIE database includes 55 islands or countries in\\u000a Europe (including European Russia), Israel and the Macaronesian islands (hereby referred to as Europe). Patterns of alien\\u000a introductions, their impacts and management tools differ for

Salit Kark; Wojciech Solarz; François Chiron; Philippe Clergeau; Susan Shirley

374

Effect of acquisition parameters on digital breast tomosynthesis: Total angular range and number of projection views  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different acquisition parameters and to determine the optimal set of acquisition parameters of projection views (PVs) for the new developed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system. The DBT imaging parameters were optimized using 32 different acquisition sets with six angular ranges (±5°, ±10°, ±13°, ±17°, ±21°, and ±25°) and eight projection views (5, 11, 15, 21, 25, 31, 41, and 51 prjections). In addition to the contrastto-noise ratio (CNR), the artifact spread function (ASF) was used to quantify the in-focus plane artifacts along the z-direction in order to explore the relationship between the acquisition parameters and the image quality. A commercially, available breast-mimicking phantom was imaged to qualitatively verify our results. Our results show that a wide angular range improved the reconstructed image quality in the z-direction. If a large number of projections are acquired, then the electronic noise may dominate the CNR due to reduce the radiation dose per projection. Although increasing angular range was found to improve the vertical resolution, due to greater effective breast thickness, the image quality of microcalcifications in the in-focus plane was also found not to be improved by increasing the noise. Therefore, potential trade-offs of these physical imaging properties must be considered to optimize the acquisition configuration of a DBT system. Our results suggest possible directions for further improvements in DBT systems for high quality imaging.

Choi, Young-Wook; Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Ye-seul; Kim, Hee-Joung; Choi, Jae-Gu

2012-12-01

375

[A survey on the effects of "Dietary Guideline" nutrition education project].  

PubMed

A survey on the nutrition knowledge, attitude and behavior of 5145 persons from five cities of four provinces, Shandong, Guangdong, Sichuan and Heilongjiang, before and after the nutritional education project on "Dietary Guideline" has been effectively conducted. An obviously good effect has been achieved among the residents, middle and primary school students and elderly people. Before the nutritional educational project has been carried out, the people who understanding the "Dietary Guideline" was only 12.0%, 29.2% and 15.2% of residents, the elderly and students respectively. But after education, the rates raised to 93.4%, 99.0% and 91.9% respectively. Nearly 90% of residents and the elderly got to know the "Dietary Guideline" through the materials distributed from the project. The nutrition knowledge score was improved greatly after the project was conducted. The attitude towards learning nutrition knowledge was good. At the same time, some dietary behavior and the life style of people had been modified. These results indicated that nutrition education is very important on improving people's nutrition knowledge level, changing people's unhealthy living attitudes and dietary habits. PMID:12525095

Zhao, L; Zhai, F; Li, D; Li, Y

2001-05-01

376

Projected effects of declining aerosols in RCP4.5: unmasking global warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) include declining aerosol emissions during the 21st century, but the effects of these declines on climate projections have had little attention. Here we assess the global and hemispheric-scale effects of declining anthropogenic aerosols in RCP4.5 in CSIRO-Mk3.6, a model from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Results from this model are then compared with those from other CMIP5 models. We calculate the aerosol effective radiative forcing (ERF, including indirect effects) in CSIRO-Mk3.6 relative to 1850, using a series of atmospheric simulations with prescribed sea-surface temperatures (SST). Global-mean aerosol ERF at the top of the atmosphere is most negative in 2005 (-1.47 W m-2). Between 2005 and 2100 it increases by 1.46 W m-2, i.e., it approximately returns to 1850 levels. Although increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and declining aerosols both exert a positive ERF at the top of the atmosphere during the 21st century, they have opposing effects on radiative heating of the atmosphere: increasing GHGs warm the atmosphere, whereas declining aerosols cool the atmosphere due to reduced absorption of shortwave radiation by black carbon (BC). We then compare two projections for 2006-2100, using the coupled atmosphere-ocean version of the model. One (RCP45) follows the usual RCP4.5; the other (RCP45A2005) has identical forcing, except that emissions of anthropogenic aerosols and precursors are fixed at 2005 levels. The global-mean surface warming in RCP45 is 2.3 °C per 95 yr, of which almost half (1.1 °C) is caused by declining aerosols. The warming due to declining aerosols is almost twice as strong in the Northern Hemisphere as in the Southern Hemisphere, whereas that due to increasing GHGs is similar in the two hemispheres. For precipitation changes, the effects of declining aerosols are larger than those of increasing GHGs due to decreasing atmospheric absorption by black carbon: 63% of the projected global-mean precipitation increase of 0.16 mm per day is caused by declining aerosols. In the Northern Hemisphere, precipitation increases by 0.29 mm per day, of which 72% is caused by declining aerosols. Comparing 13 CMIP5 models, we find a correlation of -0.54 (significant at 5%) between aerosol ERF in the present climate and projected global-mean surface warming in RCP4.5; thus, models that have more negative aerosol ERF in the present climate tend to project stronger warming during 2006-2100. A similar correlation (-0.56) is found between aerosol ERF and projected changes in global-mean precipitation. These results suggest that aerosol forcing substantially modulates projected climate response in RCP4.5. In some respects, the effects of declining aerosols are quite distinct from those of increasing GHGs. Systematic efforts are needed to better quantify the role of declining aerosols in climate projections.

Rotstayn, L. D.; Collier, M. A.; Chrastansky, A.; Jeffrey, S. J.; Luo, J.-J.

2013-11-01

377

"Physics and Life" for Europe's Science Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EIROforum Contribution to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 [Physics on Stage 3 Logo] What do you know about modern science? Was your school science teacher inspiring and enthusiastic? Or was physics class a good time to take a nap? Unfortunately, many young Europeans don't have the fondest memories of science in school, and the result is a widespread disinterest and lack of understanding of science among adults. This has become a real problem - especially at a time when science is having a growing impact on our daily lives, and when society needs more scientists than ever! What can be done? Some of Europe's leading research organisations, scientists and teachers have put their heads together and come up with a unique approach called "Physics on Stage" . This will be the third year that these institutes, with substantial support from the European Commission, are running this project - attacking the problem at its roots. EIROforum and "Physics on Stage 3" [EIROforum Logo] "Physics On Stage 3" is based on the very successful "Physics On Stage" concept that was introduced in 2000. It is directed towards science teachers and students in Europe's secondary schools. It is a part of the year-long build-up to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 (3-9 November), an initiative by the European Commission, and is run by seven of Europe's leading Intergovernmental Research Organizations (the EIROforum) [1]. The project addresses the content and format of science teaching in European schools , seeking to improve the quality of teaching and to find new ways to stimulate pupils to take an interest in science. Innovative and inspirational science teaching is seen as a key component to attract young people to deal with scientific issues, whether or not they finally choose a career in science. Hence, "Physics On Stage 3" aims to stimulate the interest of young people through the school teachers, who can play a key role in reversing the trend of falling interest in science and current scientific research. The goals of "Physics On Stage 3" [EWST Logo] "Physics on Stage 3" also aims to facilitate the exchange of good practice and innovative ideas among Europe's science teachers and to provide a forum for a broad debate among educators, administrators and policy-makers about the key problems in science education today. Moreover, it will make available the considerable, combined expertise of the EIROforum organisations to the European scientific teaching community, in order to promote the introduction of "fresh" science into the curricula and thus to convey a more realistic image of modern science to the pupils. "Physics on Stage 3" is concerned with basic science and also with the cross-over between different science disciplines - a trend becoming more and more important in today's science, which is not normally reflected in school curricula. A key element of the programme is to give teachers an up-to-date "insiders'" view of what is happening in science and to tell them about new, highly-diverse and interesting career opportunities for their pupils. Theme of the activities The theme of "Physics on Stage" this year is "Physics and Life" , reflecting the decision to broaden the Physics on Stage activities to encompass all the natural sciences. Including other sciences will augment the already successful concept, introducing a mixture of cross-over projects that highlight the multidisciplinary aspects of modern science. Among the many subjects to be presented are radiation, physics and the environment, astrobiology (the search for life beyond earth), complex systems, self-organising systems, sports science, the medical applications of physics, mathematics and epidemiology, etc. The main elements National activities "Physics on Stage 3" has already started and National Steering Committees in 22 countries, composed of eminent science teachers, scientists, administrators and others involved in se

2003-04-01

378

Retailing in Europe: 20 years on  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews retail change in Europe over the past 20 years. The sociocultural context of retailing in Europe is briefly discussed before macro level changes in the relative scale of Europe's largest retail organizations over this period are explored. Three underlying themes to retail change are then discussed – the emergence of new markets, in relation to geographical, product,

Steve Burt

2010-01-01

379

Pour une Europe multilingue...Mais lequelle (Toward a Multilingual Europe...but Which Europe)?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The European Community is facing the dilemma of respecting and maintaining Europe's traditional national languages and cultures while facilitating communication. This objective can be met by expecting all citizens to speak in their native languages but understand several others, placing emphasis on comprehension in second-language instruction.…

Le Feal, Karla Dejean

1991-01-01

380

Appraising the sustainability of project alternatives: An increasing role for cumulative effects assessment  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating and comparing development alternatives with regard to sustainability is an important goal for comprehensive project appraisal. In the United States, this component has been largely missing from standard environmental impact assessment practice. Cumulative effects assessment provides a way to appraise the sustainability of project alternatives in terms of their probable contributions to long-term trends affecting the condition of valued environmental components. Sustainability metrics and predictors are being developed as criteria for rating systems and evaluation processes that are applied to community planning, building design, and transportation infrastructure. Increasing interest in adaptive management is also providing cost-effective solutions to optimizing safety and function throughout the long-term operation of a facility or infrastructure. Recent federal legislation is making it easier to integrate sustainability features into development alternatives through early, community-based planning.

Senner, Robert, E-mail: robin.senner@ch2m.com

2011-09-15

381

Assessment of the effectiveness of the advanced programmatic risk analysis and management model (apram) as a decision support tool for construction projects  

E-print Network

and implement measures that can mitigate the effects of project risks. Several risk analysis techniques have been developed over the years to enable construction project managers to make useful decisions that can improve the chances of project success...

Imbeah, William Kweku Ansah

2007-09-17

382

On the effectiveness of projection methods for convex feasibility problems with linear inequality constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of projection methods for solving systems of linear inequalities is investigated. It is shown that they\\u000a often have a computational advantage over alternatives that have been proposed for solving the same problem and that this\\u000a makes them successful in many real-world applications. This is supported by experimental evidence provided in this paper on\\u000a problems of various sizes (up

Yair Censor; Wei Chen; Patrick L. Combettes; Ran Davidi; Gabor T. Herman

2012-01-01

383

Effects of a physical activity intervention on body image in university seniors: Project GRAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project GRAD (Graduate Ready for Activity Daily) was a randomized controlled study to teach university seniors behavioral\\u000a skills necessary for increasing and\\/or maintaining physical activity habits in preparation for the transition to working adult\\u000a roles after graduation. This study examines the secondary effects of this intervention on body image concerns among college-aged\\u000a men and women. Three hundred thirty-eight undergraduates (54%

Marion F. Zabinski; Karen J. Calfas; Christine A. Gehrman; Denise E. Wilfley; James F. Sallis

2001-01-01

384

ArcFuel methodology for mapping forest fuels in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ArcFuel project aims to develop a generic methodology, which will enable the regular production of consistent forest vegetation fuel maps over Europe. Such maps can be used to simulate fire scenarios and support the design and implementation of effective prevention and mitigation measures against fires. ArcFuel uses the results of a recent effort of JRC Ispra, which aimed to create a standardized scheme of fuel types, representative of the vegetation occurring in the European forest regions. Based on this approach and using existing European spatial datasets and multi-temporal remotely sensed images ArcFuel defines a methodology for producing vegetation fuel maps compatible with the relevant scheme of JRC. The choice of input material was mainly driven by the need of keeping the production cost low and updating regularly the European vegetation fuel map. The proposed methodology can be applied in all EU regions and is currently tested and validated in pilot areas in Greece, Portugal, Spain and Italy.

Toukiloglou, Pericles; Eftychidis, George; Gitas, Ioannis; Tompoulidou, Maria

2013-08-01

385

Working project title: " Dendrochronological analyzes for climate changes in South East  

E-print Network

1 Working project title: " Dendrochronological analyzes for climate changes in South East Europe East Europe (SEE) The climate change assessment will be done through dendrochronological analyses and LAMs atmospheric data. WORK PAKAGE 3 - Dendrochronological research and evaluation of non- climatic

University of Forestry (Bulgaria)

386

Report on the planning workshop on cost-effective ceramic machining. Ceramic Technology Project  

SciTech Connect

A workshop on ``Cost Effective Ceramic Machining`` (CECM) was held at Oak Ridge Associated Universities Pollard Auditorium, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, May 1991. The purpose of this workshop was to present a preliminary project plan for industry critique and to identify specific components and cost-reduction targets for a new project on Cost Effective Ceramic Machining. The CECM project is an extension of the work on the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Program sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Materials. The workshop consisted of fifteen invited papers, discussions, a survey of the attendee`s opinions, and a tour of the High Temperature Materials Laboratory at ORNL. The total number of registrants was sixty-seven, including thirty-three from industry or private sector organizations, seven from universities, three from industry groups, fourteen from DOE laboratories (including ORNL, Y-12, and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory), three from trade associations, and three from other government organizations. Forty- one survey forms, which critiqued the proposed project plan, were completed by attendees, and the results are presented in this report. Valves, cam roller followers, water pump seals, and diesel engine head plates were rated highest fro application of ceramic machining concepts to reduce cost. Coarse grinding, abrasives and wheel technology, and fine grinding were most highly rated as regards their impact on cost reduction. Specific cost-reduction targets for given parts varied greatly in the survey results and were not felt to be useful for the purposes for the CECM plan development. A range of individual comments were obtained and are listed in an appendix. As a result of the workshop and subsequent discussions, a modified project plan, different in certain aspects from the original CECM plan, has been developed.

Blau, P.J.

1991-11-01

387

Explaining Foreign Direct Investment in Central and Eastern Europe: an Extended Gravitiy Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we question whether there is a catch-up effect or announcement effectin Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from the European Union (EU) to the ten EU accession countries. We study FDI outflows from the Netherlands, a small open economy with few historical ties to Eastern Europe, and compare FDI in the transition countries in Central and Eastern Europe to

Jaap Bos; Mindel van de Laar

2004-01-01

388

Air pollution, forest condition and forest decline in Southern Europe: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decades much of the work on the impact of air pollution on forests in Europe has concentrated on central and northern countries. The southern part of Europe has received far less attention, although air pollutants—especially the photochemical ones—can reach concentrations likely to have adverse effects on forest vegetation. Although international forest condition surveys present serious problems where

F. Bussotti; M. Ferretti

1998-01-01

389

Accelerator science and technology in Europe 2008-2017  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

European Framework Research Projects have recently added a lot of meaning to the building process of the ERA - the European Research Area. Inside this, the accelerator technology plays an essential role. Accelerator technology includes large infrastructure and intelligent, modern instrumentation embracing mechatronics, electronics, photonics and ICT. During the realization of the European research and infrastructure project FP6 CARE 2004-2008 (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe), concerning the development of large accelerator infrastructure in Europe, it was decided that a scientific editorial series of peer-reviewed monographs from this research area will be published in close relation with the projects. It was a completely new and quite brave idea to combine a kind of a strictly research publisher with a transient project, lasting only four or five years. Till then nobody did something like that. The idea turned out to be a real success. The publications now known and valued in the accelerator world, as the (CERN-WUT) Editorial Series on Accelerator Science and Technology, is successfully continued in already the third European project EuCARD2 and has logistic guarantees, for the moment, till the 2017, when it will mature to its first decade. During the realization of the European projects EuCARD (European Coordination for Accelerator R&D 2009-2013 and TIARA (Test Infrastructure of Accelerator Research Area in Europe) there were published 18 volumes in this series. The ambitious plans for the nearest years is to publish, hopefully, a few tens of new volumes. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, published in the monographs of the European Framework Projects (FP) on accelerator technology. The succession of CARE, EuCARD and EuCARD Projects is evidently creating a new quality in the European Accelerator Research. It is consolidating the technical and research communities in a new way, completely different than the traditional ones, for example via the periodic topical conferences.

Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

2013-10-01

390

Shale Gas in Europe: pragmatic perspectives and actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas will continue to play a key role in the EU's energy mix in the coming years, with unconventional gas' role increasing in importance as new resources are exploited worldwide. As far as Europe's own shale gas resources are concerned, it is especially the public's perception and level of acceptance that will make or break shale gas in the near-term. Both the pros and cons need to be discussed based on factual argument rather than speculation. Research organizations such as ours (GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences) have an active and defining role to play in remedying this deficiency. As far as science and technology developments are concerned, the project "Gas Shales in Europe" (GASH) and the shale gas activities of "GeoEnergie" (GeoEn) are the first major initiatives in Europe focused on shale gas. Basic and applied geoscientific research is conducted to understand the fundamental nature and interdependencies of the processes leading to shale gas formation. When it comes to knowledge transfer, the perceived and real risks associated with shale gas exploitation need immediate evaluation in Europe using scientific analysis. To proactively target these issues, the GFZ and partners are launching the European sustainable Operating Practices (E-SOP) Initiative for Unconventional Resources. The web-based Shale Gas Information Platform (SHIP) brings these issues into the public domain.

Hübner, A.; Horsfield, B.; Kapp, I.

2012-10-01

391

[Japanese encephalitis in Southern Europe].  

PubMed

In 2012, a fragment of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genome was isolated from a pool of Culex pipiens mosquitoes caught in 2010 and 2011 in Northern Italy. JEV has a broad geographical distribution in South and Southeast Asia and Oceania, and is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia in humans and also causes encephalitis in horses and fertility problems in pigs. However, recently isolated JEV genome fragments in mosquitoes in Italy could be an indication of repeated introduction of JEV, enzootic circulation of JEV or a related virus in Southern Europe. Until more information is available, Japanese encephalitis remains a travel-related infectious disease for travellers to JEV endemic and epidemic areas outside of Europe. PMID:25090898

Cleton, Natalie; Koopmans, Marion; Braks, Marieta; Van Maanen, Kees; Reusken, Chantal

2014-07-01

392

The knowledge economy of Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For regional development specialists and those concerned with local economies, the world of the so-called knowledge economy is tremendously important. Specifically, the knowledge economy is meant to be those segments of the economy that include financial and business services, health care, and education. In Europe, the subject is debated a great deal, and this latest 23-page report by The Work Foundation will no doubt add to that ongoing debate. In their report examining the knowledge economy in Europe (and its recent growth) they note that while the Continent continues to experience some growth in this sector of the economy, future growth may be hindered by a lack of significant investment in its knowledge base. The report also includes an extended definition of this notion of a knowledge economy for those who remain puzzled.

Brinkley, Ian

2006-01-01

393

Treasures from Europe's National Libraries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This major exhibition from the Conference of European National Librarians and provided by Gabriel, Gateway to Europe's National Libraries, features almost 100 of the most precious artifacts from the collections of 24 National Libraries. Users may tour the exhibition by document type or topic, view selected highlights, or browse several indices (Library, Creator, Titles, and Date). Entries for each artifact include an image and brief description. Although the exhibit would greatly benefit from the addition of thumbnailed links to full-screen images of the artifacts, it is still a remarkable representation of Europe's cultural heritage over the past 1,000 years. It should also be noted that this is the first of multiple planned versions, and additional treasures will be added as they become available.

394

Projected effects of climate and development on California wildfire emissions through 2100.  

PubMed

Changing climatic conditions are influencing large wildfire frequency, a globally widespread disturbance that affects both human and natural systems. Understanding how climate change, population growth, and development patterns will affect the area burned by and emissions from wildfires and how populations will in turn be exposed to emissions is critical for climate change adaptation and mitigation planning. We quantified the effects of a range of population growth and development patterns in California on emission projections from large wildfires under six future climate scenarios. Here we show that end-of-century wildfire emissions are projected to increase by 19-101% (median increase 56%) above the baseline period (1961-1990) in California for a medium-high temperature scenario, with the largest emissions increases concentrated in northern California. In contrast to other measures of wildfire impacts previously studied (e.g., structural loss), projected population growth and development patterns are unlikely to substantially influence the amount of projected statewide wildfire emissions. However, increases in wildfire emissions due to climate change may have detrimental impacts on air quality and, combined with a growing population, may result in increased population exposure to unhealthy air pollutants. PMID:24443984

Hurteau, Matthew D; Westerling, Anthony L; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Bryant, Benjamin P

2014-02-18

395

Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute for Earth Sciences and Astronomy (INSU) of the CNRS. To build consensus on priorities in a very diverse community, the Science Vision and Roadmap were developed in an open process involving intensive interaction with the community through large open meetings and feedback via e-mail and the web. The result is a plan now backed by astronomers in 28 Member and Associated States of the EU, with over 500 million inhabitants. Over 60 selected experts from across Europe contributed to the construction of the ASTRONET Roadmap, ensuring that European astronomy has the tools to compete successfully in answering the challenges of the Science Vision. They identified and prioritised a set of new facilities to observe the Universe from radio waves to gamma rays, to open up new ways of probing the cosmos, such as gravitational waves, and to advance in the exploration of our Solar System. In the process, they considered all the elements needed by a successful scientific enterprise, from global-scale cooperation on the largest mega-project to the need for training and recruiting skilled young scientists and engineers. One of two top-priority large ground-based projects is ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope. Its 42-metre diameter mirror will make the E-ELT the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world -- "the biggest eye on the sky". The science to be done with the E-ELT is extremely exciting and includes studies of exoplanets and discs, galaxy formation and dark energy. ESO Director General Tim de Zeeuw says: "The top ranking of the E-ELT in the Roadmap is a strong endorsement from the European astronomical community. This flagship project will indisputably raise the European scientific, technological and industrial profile". Among other recommendations, the Roadmap considers how to maximise the future scientific impact of existing facilities in a cost-effective manner. It also identifies a need for better access to state-of-the art computing and laboratory facilities, and for a stronger involvement of European high-tech industry in the deve

2008-11-01

396

Investigating organizational quality improvement systems, patient empowerment, organizational culture, professional involvement and the quality of care in European hospitals: the 'Deepening our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe (DUQuE)' project  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hospitals in European countries apply a wide range of quality improvement strategies. Knowledge of the effectiveness of these strategies, implemented as part of an overall hospital quality improvement system, is limited. METHODS\\/DESIGN: We propose to study the relationships among organisational quality improvement systems, patient empowerment, organisational culture, professionals' involvement with the quality of hospital care, including clinical effectiveness, patient

Oliver Groene; Niek Klazinga; Cordula Wagner; Onyebuchi A Arah; Andrew Thompson; Charles Bruneau; Rosa Suñol

2010-01-01

397

Europe's last chance to restructure  

SciTech Connect

Looking back over the year, there has been remarkably little sign of restructuring in the chemical industry in view of the current financial crisis in most companies. But the apparent paralysis in terms of plant closures or ownership changes may be disguising much behind-the-scenes activity. But the pain threshold of companies is proving surprisingly high. Looking at ethylene plants, Shell's Peter Kwant notes that almost half the steam crackers operating in Europe are 20 years old or more. They amount to one-third of capacity, or twice current underutilization. No steps have been taken to close any unit. Meanwhile, five producers collectively will have introduced 2 million m.t./year of extra ethylene capacity between 1991 and 1994. One factor hampering closure is that 40% of ethylene capacity in Europe is at isolated sites not connected to either the Benelux/Germany ARG pipeline or a local network such as those in the UK or France. BP Chemicals chief Bryan Sanderson raised that point at a recent Wertheim Schroder/Chemical Week/Chem Systems conference in New York, arguing that steep price falls occur in times of demand slump because of the inelastic supply curve for monster chemical plants. The industry could manage cycles better, he suggests, if rather than closing its incremental capacity, small, flexible plants were available to open and close as demand warrants, thus flattening the supply curve. In addition, following the US example - where 90% of ethylene capacity is connected to pipeline system should be available in Europe, giving companies greater flexibility to take plants on- and offline. The latter solution, of course, would not work for Europe's 18 loss-making polyethylene (PE) producers, and here straight closures or merging of businesses are the only solution.

Tattum, L.

1992-12-23

398

PIXE pollution studies across Europe  

SciTech Connect

We collected vegetation and soil samples from various locations along a route covering Eastern and Western Europe. We measured the level of elemental pollution in different places uniformly spread across the continent to determine which of them may have common sources. To achieve these objectives, samples were collected along the main roads from Romania to Portugal and analyzed using in-air PEE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission).

Innegraeve, O.; Blanchet, X.; Muntele, C. I.; Muntele, I. C.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Popa-Simil, L. (Liviu); Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P. M.; Ila, D.

2002-01-01

399

Leisure and Consumption in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Household expenditure and time diary data are used to explore the changing socio-geographical patterns of leisure-related\\u000a consumption in Europe. Robust comparative data restricted the analysis to change since the late 1970 s. The chapter begins\\u000a with an outline of the key theoretical debates regarding changing European practices of leisure and consumption. This is followed\\u000a by two sections detailing geographical patterns, differences

Jukka Gronow; Dale Southerton

400

Water Management Technologies from Europe  

E-print Network

introduce a promising niche technology, and a number of U.S. firms with other promising technologies. The first wastewater applications of the Niro freeze concentration technology are described. It is anticipated that when appropriate, the EPRIl... concentration of hazardous wastewater upstream of incinerators. That application was commercialized at the 50 ton per hour level in Asia in 1997, and the 100 ton per hour level in Europe in 1999. EPRI and Niro continue to cooperate in the introduction...

Woinsky, S. G.

401

TV White Space in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the availability of TV white spaces in Europe. Specifically, we focus on the 470-790 MHz UHF band, which will predominantly remain in use for TV broadcasting after the analog-to-digital switch-over and the assignment of the 800 MHz band to licensed services have been completed. The expected number of unused, available TV channels in any location

Jaap van de Beek; Janne Riihijarvi; Andreas Achtzehn; Petri Mahonen

2012-01-01

402

MODIS Snow Cover over Europe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides data in 36 spectral bands, some of which are used in an algorithm to map global snow cover. The animation shows the dynamic behavior of the advance and retreat of continental snow cover over Europe for the winter of 2001-02 from MODIS-derived 8-day composite snow maps with a spatial resolution of about 5 km.

Cindy Starr

2002-07-04

403

Increasing forest disturbances in Europe and their impact on carbon storage  

PubMed Central

Disturbances from wind, bark beetles, and wildfires have increased in Europe’s forests throughout the 20th century 1. Climatic changes were identified as a main driver behind this increase 2, yet how the expected continuation of climate change will affect Europe’s forest disturbance regime remains unresolved. Increasing disturbances could strongly impact the forest carbon budget 3,4, and are hypothesized to contribute to the recently observed carbon sink saturation in Europe’s forests 5. Here we show that forest disturbance damage in Europe has continued to increase in the first decade of the 21st century. Based on an ensemble of climate change scenarios we find that damage from wind, bark beetles, and forest fires is likely to increase further in coming decades, and estimate the rate of increase to +0.91·106 m3 of timber per year until 2030. We show that this intensification can offset the effect of management strategies aiming to increase the forest carbon sink, and calculate the disturbance-related reduction of the carbon storage potential in Europe’s forests to be 503.4 Tg C in 2021-2030. Our results highlight the considerable carbon cycle feedbacks of changing disturbance regimes, and underline that future forest policy and management will require a stronger focus on disturbance risk and resilience. PMID:25737744

Seidl, Rupert; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Rammer, Werner; Verkerk, Pieter Johannes

2015-01-01

404

Trends and fluctuations in the dates of ice break-up of lakes and rivers in Northern Europe: the effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of an ice cover has important effects on the streamflow conditions as well as on the heat transfer between water bodies and the overlying atmosphere. This paper investigates the effects of climate variability on the termination of the ice season in the Baltic region. In particular, trends and fluctuations observed in the cryophenological records from this region are

JaeChan Yoo; Paolo D'Odorico

2002-01-01

405

Intravenous Artesunate for Severe Malaria in Travelers, Europe  

PubMed Central

Multicenter trials in Southeast Asia have shown better survival rates among patients with severe malaria, particularly those with high parasitemia levels, treated with intravenous (IV) artesunate than among those treated with quinine. In Europe, quinine is still the primary treatment for severe malaria. We conducted a retrospective analysis for 25 travelers with severe malaria who returned from malaria-endemic regions and were treated at 7 centers in Europe. All patients survived. Treatment with IV artesunate rapidly reduced parasitemia levels. In 6 patients at 5 treatment centers, a self-limiting episode of unexplained hemolysis occurred after reduction of parasitemia levels. Five patients required a blood transfusion. Patients with posttreatment hemolysis had received higher doses of IV artesunate than patients without hemolysis. IV artesunate was an effective alternative to quinine for treatment of malaria patients in Europe. Patients should be monitored for signs of hemolysis, especially after parasitologic cure. PMID:21529383

Junghanss, Thomas; Kapaun, Annette; Gjørup, Ida; Richter, Joachim; Hugo-Persson, Mats; Mørch, Kristine; Foroutan, Behruz; Suttorp, Norbert; Yürek, Salih; Flick, Holger

2011-01-01

406

Projected effects of declining aerosols in RCP4.5: unmasking global warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) include declining aerosol emissions during the 21st century, but the effects of these declines on climate projections have had little attention. Here we assess the global and hemispheric-scale effects of declining anthropogenic aerosols in RCP4.5 in CSIRO-Mk3.6, a model from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Results from this model are then compared with those from other CMIP5 models. We calculate the aerosol effective radiative forcing (ERF, including indirect effects) in CSIRO-Mk3.6 relative to 1850, using a series of atmospheric simulations with prescribed sea-surface temperatures. Global-mean aerosol ERF at the top of the atmosphere is most negative in 2005 (-1.47 W m-2). Between 2005 and 2100 it increases by 1.46 W m-2, i.e., it approximately returns to 1850 levels. Although increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and declining aerosols both exert a positive ERF at the top of the atmosphere during the 21st century, they have opposing effects on radiative heating of the atmosphere: increasing GHGs warm the atmosphere, whereas declining aerosols cool the atmosphere due to reduced absorption of shortwave radiation by black carbon. We then compare two projections for 2006-2100, using the coupled atmosphere-ocean version of the model. One (RCP45) follows the usual RCP4.5; the other (RCP45A2005) has identical forcing, except that emissions of anthropogenic aerosols and precursors are fixed at 2005 levels. The global-mean surface warming in RCP45 is 2.3 °C per 95 yr, of which almost half (1.1 °C) is caused by declining aerosols. The warming due to declining aerosols is almost twice as strong in the Northern Hemisphere as in the Southern Hemisphere, whereas that due to increasing GHGs is similar in the two hemispheres. For precipitation changes, the effects of declining aerosols are larger than those of increasing GHGs due to decreasing atmospheric absorption by black carbon: 63% of the projected global-mean precipitation increase of 0.16 mm per day is caused by declining aerosols. In the Northern Hemisphere, precipitation increases by 0.29 mm per day, of which 72% is caused by declining aerosols. Using data from 13 CMIP5 models, we find that projected global-mean surface warming in RCP4.5 is systematically larger in models that have more negative aerosol ERF in the present climate (r = -0.54, p = 0.03). A similar correlation is found for global-mean precipitation changes (r = -0.56, p = 0.02). These results suggest that aerosol forcing substantially modulates projected climate response in RCP4.5. In some respects, the effects of declining aerosols are quite distinct from those of increasing GHGs. Systematic efforts are needed to better quantify the role of declining aerosols in climate projections.

Rotstayn, L. D.; Collier, M. A.; Chrastansky, A.; Jeffrey, S. J.; Luo, J.-J.

2013-07-01

407

Environmental cadmium in Europe.  

PubMed

The present article reviews information from the latest 10 years concerning fate and exposure of cadmium in the environment, on ecotoxicological effects, and on critical pathways leading to human and environmental exposure. It emphasizes the situation within the Community of European Countries by referring to limit values used in the EEC and some of its member states for emissions to water, air and soil. Estimates have been made on total emission balances for the Netherlands, Denmark, and for the EEC as a whole. The balances show that 70-90% of all cadmium circulating in the Community is disposed of as waste in solid waste deposits. Production and use patterns are presently changing, as indicated by reduced consumption in recent years of cadmium for plating, stabilizers and pigments in several countries as a result of regulations. However, significant increases in consumption for cadmium-containing batteries have occurred, resulting globally in increasing trends for the total consumption and production. Cadmium in sediments is more mobile than described earlier. Aquatic organisms can be classified in order of decreasing accumulation: algae greater than molluscs greater than crustaceans greater than fish. There is no evidence of biomagnification of cadmium within marine or fresh water food webs. Cadmium may enter into plants via roots or by foliar adsorption following atmospheric deposition. Biomagnification in terrestrial food chains is not observed. The uptake into plants is plant specific. Within plants significant variations are seen with concentrations generally decreasing in the order: roots greater than leaves greater than fruiting parts greater than seeds. A compilation of cadmium in air, in the aquatic environment and in soil is given. A downward trend during the 1970s to mid-1980s seems to be evidenced from various Northern European studies on cadmium air concentrations as well as for deposition rates of cadmium. In rivers, the dissolved cadmium concentrations are generally found to be relatively low (10-500 ng/L). In seawater, cadmium concentrations are found at 0.5-10 ng/L in oceanic or open marine areas, while elevated concentrations are reported in more closed marine areas and especially in coastal zones close to polluted estuaries. In fresh water, lake sediments concentrations 3-30 times higher than the background concentrations are reported in the surface layers of sediments. A significant decrease in such pollution has been observed within the recent 10 years. For marine sediments, enrichment factors of two are found in sediments from open areas and locally even 5-10 times.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1509176

Jensen, A; Bro-Rasmussen, F

1992-01-01

408

The effect of the BalloonSat project on middle and high school students' attitude toward science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study measured the effect of completing a BalloonSat project on student attitude toward science. Seven categories of student attitudes toward science were measured using the Test of Science Relate Attitudes survey (TOSRA). The research anticipated that the BalloonSat project would have similar effects on student attitudes as found in robotics projects, like FIRST. The researcher also investigated whether gender moderated the effects of the BalloonSat project. This study enrolled 138 students from three states and one Canadian province. Students were free to select membership in either the treatment group or the control group. Student attitude toward science was measured prior to the start of the study and at its completion. Mean scores for the control and treatment group were then compared using an analysis of covariance. The effect of the BalloonSat project only affected one attitude toward science, Leisure Interest in Science. The study did not find gender was a factor in the effects of the BalloonSat project. This study is the first study of the BalloonSat project on grade 7--10 students and provides some evidence that a BalloonSat project can impact middle and high school attitude toward science.

Verhage, L. Paul

409

Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI High Capacity Power Project  

SciTech Connect

The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

Shwarze, G.E. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Niedra, J.M. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States) Lewis Research Center Group; Frasca, A.J. [Wittenberg Univ., Springfield, OH (United States); Wieserman, W.R. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, Johnstown, PA (United States)

1994-09-01

410

Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) high capacity power project are presented: (1) neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Frasca, Albert J.; Wieserman, William R.

1993-01-01

411

Transnationalization of Television in West Europe. Working Paper No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based primarily on data from public service broadcasting, this study had two major purposes: to develop a framework for understanding, conceptualizing, and measuring international television flows and the effects associated with these flows; and to establish a background of facts on international television flows in Western Europe. Secondary…

Sepstrup, Preben

412

Emerging Issues for Natech Disaster Risk Management in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing concern about the potential effects of natural disaster?triggered technological (natech) disasters. The chlorine releases in the Czech Republic following the floods that swept across Europe in the summer of 2002 and the multiple hazardous materials releases triggered by the Turkey earthquake of August 1999 were examples which showed the potential danger of a natech disaster occurring near

Ana Maria Cruz; Laura J. Steinberg

2006-01-01

413

A Proposal for Multicultural Media Monitoring in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers suggestions for multicultural media monitoring in Europe. Argues that besides practical suggestions, a new theoretical framework needs to elaborated about the forms and functions of news and other media messages so that practical recommendations, critique, and monitoring will have the desired effects. (SR)

van Dijk, Teun A.

1995-01-01

414

Marine pollution control in Europe : Regional approaches, 1972-80  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates the effectiveness of four regional pollution agreements concluded during the 1970s: The Bonn Agreement, the Oslo Convention, the Paris Convention and the Helsinki Convention. The treaties are described and their implementation to 1980 outlined. The issue of EEC participation in environmental protection in Europe is analysed and problems of overlap with the treaties under discussion are pointed

Sonia Boehmer-Christiansen

1984-01-01

415

Assessing the sustainability of pension reforms in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spurred by the ageing transition, many governments have made wide-ranging reforms, dramatically changing Europe's pensions landscape. Nevertheless there remain concerns about future costs, while unease about adequacy is growing. This study develops a comprehensive framework to assess pension system sustainability. It captures the effects of reforms on the ability of systems to alleviate poverty and maintain living standards, while setting

Aaron George Grech

2010-01-01

416

Democratization of Eastern Europe: Hungary and Poland in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the end of the Cold War, those teaching about developing democracies in Central and Eastern Europe have taken on new responsibilities: dispelling cultural attitudes formed and taught during the Cold War, helping students to understand the concept of democracy, and analyzing the effects of these events on the world. This high school lesson…

Hallamore, Nancy A.

417

The Effectiveness of Modified Vertical Dome Division Technique in Reducing Nasal Tip Projection in Rhinoplasty  

PubMed Central

Background: The technique of vertical dome division or tip defining, involves incising the lateral crura and vestibular skin at or lateral to the dome or tip defining point. The incision divides the lower lateral cartilage into a lateral segment and a medial segment, which are advanced anteriorly and sutured together to increase tip projection. The present study aimed at assessing a new vertical dome division, which is a modified version of vertical dome technique to decrease nasal tip projection, and increase or decrease nasal tip rotation and other tip deformities. Methods: The medical files of patients undergone rhinoplasty from 2003 to 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The files were selected from a computerized rhinoplasty database of patients, who had been operated using a modified vertical dome technique and followed-up for one year or more after the surgery. Results: A total of 3756 patients were operated. Complications related to the nasal tip such as bossae, bifidity, persistent tip projection or tip asymmetry was seen in 81 patients (2.1%). Revisions for tip-related problems were performed in 42 patients (1.1%). Conclusions: The findings suggest that the modified vertical dome technique is an effective method for nasal tip deprojection and narrowing via an open approach. The length of follow-up and the large sample size support effectiveness of the technique. PMID:23359623

Gandomi, Behrooz; Arzaghi, Mohammad Hossein; Rafatbakhsh, Mohammad

2011-01-01

418

Using IT To Run IT Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

European education projects in which exploitation of Information Technology has been a means as well as a goal are described. (1) The Council of Europe has begun a series of workshops, number 7 of which was on using information and communication technologies in modern language teaching and learning in Europe. Themes for further development…

Kornum, Lis