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Sample records for european community programme

  1. European Community.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  2. Commission Work Programme Relating to the Promotion of Innovation in Secondary Education in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

    The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) has proposed a program for practical cooperation among Member States in secondary education. The strategies and methods of cooperation developed in two previous action programs must be adapted to the evolving situation of the 1990s. Factors of particular importance are continuing structural change…

  3. European Community Experiences from the Coalface: Some Lessons from the COMETT Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Ed, Durando, Marc

    1992-01-01

    COMETT (Community program for Education and Training for Technology) supports practical cooperation between universities and industry in training for technology, through consortia, exchanges, and joint training projects. It stresses the need for strategic thinking in cooperative efforts and the fragility of cooperation and management. Program…

  4. The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons of the community, 1987-2013: From agricultural policy to social inclusion policy?

    PubMed

    Caraher, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons (MDP) of the community ran from 1987 until 2013. It was funded from Common Agricultural Policy budgets. The programme initially made use of surplus foods from the food mountains resulting from intervention stocks. This food was then distributed through aid agencies within member states, coordinated at a national government level. Reform of the CAP and global rises in food prices resulted in an increase in budget from €300 to €500 million Euros in 2010 with the added power to buy food on the open market. This led to a formal challenge to the scheme on the basis that buying goods on the open market shifted the emphasis from an agricultural/financial basis to a social one. A court ruling found that because the program was no longer used for removing surpluses the link to agriculture policy has become tenuous and therefore had no basis in community law. As a result of this legal challenge a number of policy compromises ensured the MDP would continue until the end of 2013 with a reduced budget. The scheme has been superseded by a new scheme in March 2014 called the Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD). This is seen as a social programme. The way that policy and politics developed and changed the MDP programme are set out. The article tracks its move from being an agricultural policy to a social welfare one. The key policy players and actors in this move are set out as are the changing context and policy frameworks. The replacement of the MDP by FEAD is discussed as is how intensive lobbying in 2012/13 resulted in the development of a new Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD). PMID:26001298

  5. The European Community ITER Home Team Organization: January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, W.R.

    1994-09-01

    The European Community (EC) Fusion Programme embraces all work carried out in the field of thermonuclear fusion by magnetic confinement in the 12 Member States and in two extra-Community countries, Sweden and Switzerland (which are fully associated with this Programme). The long-term objective of the EC Fusion Programme is the joint creation of safe, environmentally sound prototype reactors. This Programme presents itself as a single body in its relation with other Fusion Programmes in the world.

  6. Sea & Space: a New European Educational Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    This spring, teachers across Europe will enjoy support for exciting, novel educational projects on astronomy, navigation and environmental observations. The largely web-based and highly interactive SEA & SPACE programme makes it possible for pupils to perform field experiments and astronomical observations and to obtain and process satellite images. A contest will take the best pupils for one week to Lisbon (Portugal), to Europe's space port in Kourou (French Guyana) where the European launcher lifts off or to ESO's Very Large Telescope at the Cerro Paranal Observatory in Chile, the largest optical telescope in the world. The SEA & SPACE project is a joint initiative of the European Space Agency (ESA) , the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). It builds on these organisations' several years' successful participation in the European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture organised by the European Commission that they intend to continue in 1998. The 1998 World Exhibition EXPO98 in Lisbon will focus on the oceans. This is why the umbrella theme of SEA & SPACE is concerned with the many relations between the oceans and the space that surrounds us, from ancient times to present days. Under the new programme, teaching resources are offered for three major areas, Remote Sensing of Europe's Coastal Environment, Navigation and Oceans of Water. Remote Sensing of Europe's Coastal Environment : observations of the Earth from Space are made accessible to pupils who will appreciate their usefulness through interactive image processing and field observations; Navigation : the capabilities and functioning of different navigation techniques are explored through experiments using navigation by the stars, with GPS, and via satellite images/maps; Oceans of Water : What is the role of water in Nature? How can one detect water from satellites or with telescopes? How much water is there in rivers and floods, in an ocean

  7. Ethical Issues for Community College Student Programmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Discusses examples of unique ethical issues faced by community college student programmers: member commitment, poor program attendance and lack of programming board diversity, and conflicts of interest (EV)

  8. European Space Science gets new Programme Director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    Prof. Southwood, born on 30 June 1945, holds a BA in Mathematics and a Ph.D in Physics from Imperial College, London. He has spent most of his career at Imperial College, apart from two periods at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles), as Postdoctoral Fellow and later as Visiting Professor. In 1997 he joined ESA as Earth Observation Future Programme Strategy Manager. He is currently Imperial College Pro Rector responsible for external academic affairs. Prof. Southwood has received five awards/honours and held many chairmanships, including those of the Science Programme Committee and Space Science Advisory Committee at ESA. His role as Principal Investigator for the Cassini Saturn Orbiter Magnetometer is his most recent project. He has been active over the years, both in Europe and in the United States, in public outreach on space science. He has around 200 publications and 100 invited papers to his name. "David Southwood ranks among the most prominent space science experts in Europe", said ESA's Director General, Antonio Rodotà, welcoming Prof. Southwood's appointment, "and I am sure that he, like his predecessor, Prof. Bonnet, will do a first-rate job for the excellent scientific community in our member states".

  9. European Community Databases: Online to Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Colin

    1989-01-01

    Describes three groups of databases sponsored by the European Communities Commission: Eurobases, a textual database of the contents of the "Official Journal" of the European Community; the European Community Host Organization (ECHO) databases, which offer multilingual information about Europe; and statistical databases. Information on access and…

  10. European Community`s program in marine resources development

    SciTech Connect

    Lenoble, J.P.; Jarmache, E.

    1995-12-01

    The European Community launched already several research program in the different fields of social and industrial activities. The Fourth Framework Programme is divided into 4 main activities comporting a total of 18 programs. These programs are dealing with general topics as information and communication, industrial technologies, environment, life sciences and technologies, energy, transport and socioeconomic research. One line is devoted to marine sciences and technology, but offshore activities could also be included in the other topics as offshore oil and gas in energy, ship building and harbor in transport, aquaculture and fisheries in life sciences and technology, etc. In order to maintain a coherent approach toward offshore activities, the European maritime industries met intensively front 1991 to 1994 and recommended a series of proposal for Research and Development of marine resources. The methodology and content of these proposals is exposed.

  11. The ESA contribution to the European Satellite Navigation Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, R.; Lo Galbo, P.; de Mateo, M. L.; Steciw, A.; Ashford, E.

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes the ESA ARTES-9 programme on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). This programme will be the ESA contribution to the wider European Satellite Navigation Programme which is to be implemented as a joint effort of the European Union, Eurocontrol and ESA with the support of other European bodies such as telecommunication operators, national civil aviation authorities, national space agencies, industry, universities and R&D institutes in general. In fact, in view of the geographical area concerned, the large number of parties interested, the experience required and the global nature of GNSS, the proposed initiative can only be successful if based on a strong cooperation at a European and international scale. The ESA ARTES-9 programme will consist on one side, of the design, development and validation of the European complement to the GPS and GLONASS systems (GNSS1), and on the other side of the study, design and pre-development of the European contribution to follow-on systems: GNSS2.

  12. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  13. Inland Water Quality Assessment--A Joint European Masters Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waara, K. -O.; Petersen, A.; Lanaras, T.; Paulauskas, V.; Kleiven, S.; Crosa, G.; Penttinen, O. -P.; Quesada, A.; Kovats, N.; Galinou-Mitsoudi, S.; Lapinska, M.; Newton, A.; Balode, M.; Hindak, F.; Marsalek, B.

    2006-01-01

    At present, there is a European shortage of personnel qualified to adequately address the comprehensive scientific and regulatory requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The joint Masters programme described in this paper will provide students with the requisite expert knowledge and skills to progress the implementation of the WFD.…

  14. The European space exploration programme: current status of ESA's plans for Moon and Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Messina, Piero; Vennemann, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    After a large consultation with the scientific and industrial communities in Europe, the Aurora Space Exploration Programme was unanimously approved at the European Space Agency (ESA) Council at ministerial level in Edinburgh in 2001. This marked the start of the programme's preparation phase that was due to finish by the end of 2004. Aurora features technology development robotic and crewed rehearsal missions aimed at preparing a human mission to Mars by 2033. Due to the evolving context, both international and European, ESA has undertaken a review of the goals and approach of its exploration programme. While maintaining the main robotic missions that had been conceived during Aurora, the European Space Exploration Programme that is currently being proposed to the Aurora participating states and other ESA Member States has a reviewed approach and will feature a greater synergy with other ESA programmes. The paper will present the process that led to the revision of ESA's plans in the field of exploration and will give the current status of the programme. PMID:16010757

  15. The Life Sciences Programme of the European Space Agency, and opportunities for radiation biology experiments.

    PubMed

    Oser, H

    1984-01-01

    With the advent of Europe's commitment to contribute the European Space Agency (ESA) to the NASA Space Transportation System (STS) by means of the Spacelab programme, a new area for research opportunities on Life Sciences has been created for the European scientific community. Although considered as a young and new discipline, the goals of Life Sciences research in space had soon been defined by the ESA advising Life Sciences Working Group in the beginning of 1977. The programme proposals of the various subdisciplines concentrated on the advantageous use of the microgravity environment, to study in more depth the gravity relevance of biological systems. It included, however, also the use of other factors during space flight which cannot be reproduced or adequately simulated on the ground: cosmic radiation in its total spectrum, particularly HZE particles, solar and UV radiation, vacuum, and the combination of radiation and weightlessness, etc. On this basis, call for proposals in the various subdisciplines resulted in experiments also in the field of radiation biology which were flown on the Spacelab 1 mission and which were selected for later missions. In particular, ESA is providing the science community with mission opportunities on Spacelab, either European or International, with platforms to be launched by STS, and with so called multi-user facilities (e.g. Biorack). Typically, the experiments will be the responsibility of the scientists, the integration and mission phase the responsibility of ESA. Both mission definition and experiment selection rests with the ultimate decision of the responsible ESA Programme Board. A further description of missions envisioned, the Spacelab facility, platforms, multi-user facilities and areas of research applicable to radiobiology will be given. ESA's continuing interaction with the scientific community through the Life Sciences Working Group, and the advice on future programmes will be stressed as a vital factor

  16. What promotes sustainability in Safe Community programmes?

    PubMed Central

    Nordqvist, Cecilia; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-01-01

    Background The theory and practice of safety promotion has traditionally focused on the safety of individuals. This study also includes systems, environments, and organizations. Safety promotion programmes are designed to support community health initiatives taking a bottom-up approach. This is a long-term and complex process. The aim of this study was to try to empirically identify factors that promote sustainability in the structures of programmes that are managed and coordinated by the local government. Methods Four focus group sessions with local government politicians and administrators in designated Safe Communities were conducted and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Collaboration was found to be the basis for sustainability. Networks, enabling municipalities to exchange ideas, were reported to positively influence the programmes. Personal contacts rather than organizations themselves, determine whether collaboration is sustained. Participants reported an increase in cross-disciplinary collaboration among staff categories. Administrators and politicians were reported to collaborate well, which was perceived to speed up decision-making and thus to facilitate the programme work. Support from the politicians and the county council was seen as a prerequisite. Participants reported an increased willingness to share information between units, which, in their view, supports sustainability. A structure in which all local authorities' offices were located in close proximity to one another was considered to support collaboration. Appointing a public health coordinator responsible for the programme was seen as a way to strengthen the relational resources of the programme. Conclusion With a public health coordinator, the 'external' negotiating power was concentrated in one person. Also, the 'internal' programme strength increased when the coordination was based on a bureaucratic function rather than on one individual. Increased relational resources

  17. Nature and impact of European anti-stigma depression programmes.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Neil; Knifton, Lee; Goldie, Isabella; van Bortel, Tine; Dowds, Julie; Lasalvia, Antonio; Scheerder, Gert; Boumans, Jenny; Svab, Vesna; Lanfredi, Mariangela; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-09-01

    Stigma associated with depression is a major public health issue in the EU, with over 20 million people experiencing depression and its associated personal distress each year. While most programmes against stigma related to mental health problems are of a general nature, the knowledge about programmes tackling stigma against people with depression is limited. This study therefore aims to assess the nature and impact of depression-specific programmes in EU countries. Using a web-based tool, 26 programmes were identified across the 18 EU countries taking part in the study. Most were universal and targeted the whole population, while many also targeted specific population groups or settings, such as young people or health professionals. The most common programme aim was improving literacy, although reducing stigmatizing attitudes and discriminatory behaviour and promoting help-seeking were also common. Most programmes originated from professional bodies, or as grassroots initiatives from service user groups/NGOs, rather than as part of national and local policy. The approaches used were primarily different forms of education/information, with some, but very limited, use of positive personal contact. Overall, the quality and extent of impact of the programmes was limited, with few leading to peer-reviewed publications. Specific programmes were identified with evidence of positive impact, and we drew on these examples to develop a framework to be used for future programmes against stigma and discrimination associated with depression. These findings are provided in full in the Anti-Stigma Partnership European Network Toolkit available at www.antistigma.eu. PMID:23349322

  18. Accreditation of Engineering Programmes: European Perspectives and Challenges in a Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augusti, Giuliano

    2007-01-01

    The EUR-ACE Socrates-Tempus project (September 2004/March 2006) proposed a decentralized European system for accreditation of engineering programmes in the "Bologna process" area (European Higher Education Area) at the First and Second Cycle (FC and SC) level (but including "Integrated Programmes", i.e. programmes leading directly to a SC degree).…

  19. The European New Car Assessment Programme: A historical review.

    PubMed

    van Ratingen, Michiel; Williams, Aled; Lie, Anders; Seeck, Andre; Castaing, Pierre; Kolke, Reinhard; Adriaenssens, Guido; Miller, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Established in 1997, the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) provides consumers with a safety performance assessment for the majority of the most popular cars in Europe. Thanks to its rigorous crash tests, Euro NCAP has rapidly become an important driver safety improvement to new cars. After ten years of rating vehicles, Euro NCAP felt that a change was necessary to stay in tune with rapidly emerging driver assistance and crash avoidance systems and to respond to shifting priorities in road safety. A new overall rating system was introduced that combines the most important aspects of vehicle safety under a single star rating. The overall rating system has allowed Euro NCAP to continue to push for better fitment and higher performance for vehicles sold on the European market. In the coming years, the safety rating is expected to play an important role in the support of the roll-out of highly automated vehicles. PMID:27140211

  20. Towards a European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network: the ECRIN programme.

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the interconnection of national networks of clinical research centres (CRCs) and clinical trials units (CTUs), the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) programme aims to develop an infrastructure allowing for bottom-up harmonisation of the support and training for, and practice of, clinical research, and to provide public sponsors for biotechnology small and medium-sized companies (SMEs) with support for translational research and multicentre clinical studies in Europe. This will be achieved through an application to the next FP6 'Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives' call. However, prior work is required to improve the reciprocal knowledge of partners in the ECRIN consortium and, as a first step, country-specific workshops will be organised by national networks in order to address the organisation of CRC/CTUs and national networks, and their interaction with the national environment of clinical research; this will enable in-depth discussion addressing the bottlenecks hampering transnational studies. PMID:15199684

  1. European Union Framework Programme 7 Building the Europe of Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkaş, Nuri

    In March 2000, the Lisbon European Council set the goal of becoming by 2010 "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion". This was called the Lisbon Strategy. The project of creating a European Research Area (ERA) was endorsed as a central element of the Lisbon Strategy to achieve this goal. However, EU still invests too little in R & D. In 2003, top 500 private R & D spenders in EU decreased their R & D investment by 2.0%. Top 500 private R & D spenders outside EU increased their R & D investment by 3.9%. Overall R &D investments are as follows: EU: 1.96%; US: 2.59%; S. Korea: 2.91%; Japan: 3.12%. ERA is implemented through so-called Framework Programmes (FP). FP7 is proposed on the basis of a doubling of funds and the duration is 7 years (2007-13). FP7 will fund R& D projects of immediate industrial relevance & needs of industry. Projects will include both public research institutions and private companies (PPP).

  2. The photovoltaic pilot projects of the European Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, W.

    The Commission of the European Communities has started in 1980 a programme for the design and construction of a series of photovoltaic pilot projects in the range of 30-300 kWp. Virtually all important industries and other development organisations in Europe working on photovoltaic cells and systems are involved in this programme. The different technologies which are being developed concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include powering of an island, villages, recreation centres, water desalination and disinfection, powering of radio transmitters, emergency power plants, dairy farm, training school, cooling, water pumping, powering of a solar heated swimming pool and last but not least, hydrogen production.

  3. PRM Programmes of Care and PRM Care Pathways: European Approach, Developments in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Korvin, Georges; Yelnik, Alain P.; Ribinik, Patricia; Calmels, Paul; Le Moine, Francis; Delarque, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The development of European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) physical and rehabilitation medicine programmes of care (PRMPC) and physical and rehabilitation medicine care pathways (PRMCP) in France is a good example of the positive interaction between European and national organizations. PRMPC were defined at the European level to offer a…

  4. The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe. PMID:24243874

  5. [Innovative ways of occupational integration of handicapped patients--results of the European Community Initiative HORIZON].

    PubMed

    Gmelin, A

    1996-02-01

    A European Commission programme aimed at occupational integration of disabled, disadvantaged and migrant persons, the HORIZON Community initiative had been implemented in the Federal Republic of Germany between 1991 and 1994. Along with an overview of project participants, exemplary innovative approaches to and potential for integrating disabled persons in employment are presented that have been developed and implemented under the programme. Also, the labour market effects achieved for the disability target group are set out. PMID:8693188

  6. Thirty years of European biotechnology programmes: from biomolecular engineering to the bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Alfredo; Magnien, Etienne; Thomas, Daniel

    2013-06-25

    This article traces back thirty years of biotechnology research sponsored by the European Union (EU). It outlines the crucial role played by De Nettancourt, Goffeau and Van Hoeck to promote and prepare the first European programme on biotechnology (1982-1986) run by the European Commission. Following this first biotechnology programme, others followed until the current one, part of the seventh Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (2007-2013) (FP7). Particular attention is given to the statutory role of the European institutions in the design and orientation of the successive biotechnology programmes, compared to the more informal-yet visionary-role of key individuals upstream to any legislative decision. Examples of success stories and of the role of the biotechnology programmes in addressing societal issues and industrial competitiveness are also presented. Finally, an outline of Horizon 2020, the successor of FP7, is described, together with the role of biotechnology in building the bioeconomy. PMID:23195849

  7. Community Environmental Education as a Model for Effective Environmental Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Morag

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of community environmental education outlined in environmental education literature are supported by the findings and implications of a research study undertaken in New Zealand. Evidence from a two-case case study suggests that environmental programmes guided by the key principles and practices of community environmental education,…

  8. Photovoltaic pilot projects in the European community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treble, F. C.; Grassi, G.; Schnell, W.

    The paper presents proposals received for the construction of photovoltaic pilot plants as part of the Commission of the European Communities' second 4-year solar energy R and D program. The proposed plants range from 30 to 300 kWp and cover a variety of applications including rural electrification, water pumping, desalination, dairy farming, factories, hospitals, schools and vacation centers. Fifteen projects will be accepted with a total generating capacity of 1 MWp, with preference given to those projects involving the development of new techniques, components and systems.

  9. Medical training in the European Community.

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, A. H.

    1990-01-01

    The free movement of doctors within the European Community demands harmonization of standards of medical practice and carries major implications of an undergraduate and postgraduate educational kind. These have begun to be addressed by the first three Medical Directives and also by a series of reports produced by the Advisory Committee on Medical Training to the European Community. This Committee was established in 1975 in order to provide informed agreed advice to the Commission. Many tasks remain to be tackled. A system of mutual inspection of the examination processes and standards in Member States should be established. Control must be exercised over the numbers of doctors produced since educational resources, including numbers of patients available for study, are limited. Thus, excellent standards of medical practice can only be developed and maintained if the primacy of clinical skills derived from the study of patients is recognized as essential in this respect. In some Member States at the present time there are many unemployed and therefore presumably deskilled doctors. PMID:2217031

  10. Partnership Working in Community Alcohol Prevention Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastache, Claudia; Mistral, Willm; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2008-01-01

    The National Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England places much emphasis on creating partnerships at both national and local levels between government, the drinks industry, health services, police, individuals and communities to tackle alcohol misuse and associated harm and disorder. This article describes the characteristic structures and…

  11. The Revised European Social Fund and Action to Combat Unemployment in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandamme, Francois

    1984-01-01

    The tasks of the European Social Fund, the European Economic Community's social policy instrument, were reviewed in l983 in the light of the worsening unemployment situation and the priority placed on employment and vocational training policies. (Author/SSH)

  12. Heart Wellness Programme: a pilot community-based cardiac rehabilitation programme in a multiethnic society

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Yu Heng; Ong, Kheng Yong; Tay, Hung Yong; Chang, Joanne Yeh

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Community-based exercise programmes have been shown to be effective in the Western world. However, there is a dearth of literature on their effectiveness in Asia. This pilot study aims to assess the effectiveness of the Asian community-based Health Wellness Programme (HWP) in Singapore. The HWP provides community cardiac rehabilitation services. METHODS A retrospective database analysis was conducted on cardiac rehabilitation patients who had completed the one-year wellness programme from 2010 to 2011. Patients were included in the programme if they had an underlying cardiac disease such as ischaemic heart disease and were deemed as stable by their cardiologist. Patients with New York Heart Association Class III or IV heart failure were excluded from this programme. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical and laboratory data was recorded. Changes between the baseline and final measurements were analysed. RESULTS Complete data from a total of 136 patients was analysed. Improvements were noted in body fat percentage (change [Δ] –1.3%, p < 0.01), distance walked (Δ 9.7 m, p = 0.01), total cholesterol (Δ –7.8 mg/dL, p = 0.03), low-density lipoprotein (Δ –7.8 mg/dL, p = 0.03) and triglyceride (Δ –17.8 mg/dL, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION The low-to-moderate intensity HWP seems to be effective in a multiethnic community setting. To confirm the quality and effectiveness of such a programme in secondary cardiovascular prevention, more evidence from prospective controlled trials with suitable controls is needed. PMID:27075576

  13. Initial analysis of a community-based bereavement programme.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kate

    2015-11-01

    It is well evidenced that childhood bereavement has a negative impact upon a range of psychological and educational outcomes. This article describes a service evaluation of the national child bereavement charity, Winston's Wish SWITCH programme. SWITCH is a community outreach bereavement programme targeted at children that are at risk of antisocial and self-destructive behaviour. A preliminary evaluation of baseline to follow up of parent (n=31) and young person (n=96) Strength and Difficulties (SDQ) data suggests that the programme contributes to a positive impact upon emotional distress, relationships, and concentration. Further, more robust evaluation needs to be conducted to understand the long-term implications of the programme on vulnerable young people. PMID:26749616

  14. A Community Engaged Dental Curriculum: A Rural Indigenous Outplacement Programme

    PubMed Central

    Abuzar, Menaka A.; Owen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous people worldwide suffer from poor oral health as compared to non-Indigenous citizens. One of the approaches to bring about improvement in Indigenous oral health is to enhance the service provision by implementing oral health outplacement programmes. A case study of such a programme for dental students in Australia reports how an educational institution can successfully engage with an Indigenous oral health service to provide learning experiences to the students as well as deliver much needed services to the community. Design and Methods The assessment of this ongoing outplacement programme over the period of 2008-14, based on students’ feedback, highlights some of the key beneficial outcomes. Students agreed that the Indigenous outplacement programme improved their understanding of Indigenous issues (mean ± SD: 4.10±0.8; 5 refers to strongly agree on 5-point scale) and increased the possibility that they will practise in Indigenous health (3.66±1.0). They were pleased with the assistance received by clinical supervisors and clinic staff at the Indigenous dental clinic (4.28±0.8). Conclusions This programme has demonstrated that structured student outplacements are valuable in building relations across cultures especially with Indigenous communities. It has also shown that university engagement with the public health sector can be beneficial to both institutions. Significance for public health An oral health outreach programme is one of the suggested approaches to effectively address the endemic issues of poor oral health among Indigenous people around the world. An Indigenous dental clinical outplacement in Australia provides an example of beneficial outcomes of such an approach. It provides dental students with an opportunity to experience the health issues related to Australian Indigenous communities and prepare future graduates to work comfortably in the public health care system. Indigenous people also develop trust and feel

  15. Reconciling Energy Use with Environmental Protection in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Regina S.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the energy and environmental policymaking strategies of the European Community to regulate the consumption of energy. Strategies include the stabilization of carbon dioxide emissions, the creation of the European Environmental Agency, the implementation of the European Energy Charter, the SAVE Program, and economic and fiscal instruments…

  16. Barriers Impact U.S. Marketing to the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Leila

    For a quarter of a century, the United States has been gradually losing market share in the European Community, which accounts for about one-fifth of world trade. The European Community consumes about one-fourth of United States exports, but this represents only about eight percent of its total imports. Three of the barriers contributing to…

  17. SILEX: Overview on the European optical communications programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, B.

    1995-10-01

    SILEX (Semi-Conducteur Intersatellite Link Experiment) is the first civilian optical communications programme (in the frame of ESA DRTM). It will demonstrate in 1997 high data rate transmission between a Low Earth Orbit Satellite (SPOT IV, built by MMS for CNES) and a Geostationnary spacecraft (ARTEMIS, realized by ALENIA for ESA). After the opto/mechanical/thermal qualification obtained mid of 1994, the SILEX programme is entered in an intensive phase with: — the integration/validation for the LEO flight model (PASTEL)— the preparation of integration of the GEO qualification STM and electrical/SW models (OPALE) The article describes the overall development status including the major terminal validation steps as well as the significant technological progress obtained through the qualification at equipment/terminal level.

  18. Education: Guide to European Organizations and Programmes. A Guide to European Organizations Involved in Education, including Individual Programmes and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Heledd

    This report presents a guide to European organizations involved in education, including individual programs and projects. Entries are brief as they are intended as simple outlines of the organizations or programs, but full addresses and telephone numbers are provided. Divided into four categories, the organizations listed are as follows: (1)…

  19. How Europe Shapes Academic Research: Insights from Participation in European Union Framework Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primeri, Emilia; Reale, Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the effects of participating in European Union Framework Programmes (EUFPs) at the level of research units and researchers. We consider EUFPs as policy instruments that contribute to the Europeanisation of academic research and study the changes they produce with respect to: 1) the organisation and activities of Departments,…

  20. [Fundamental ethical principles in the European framework programmes for research and development].

    PubMed

    Hirsch, François; Karatzas, Isidoros; Zilgalvis, Pēteris

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission is one of the most important international funding bodies for research conducted in Europe and beyond, including developing countries and countries in transition. Through its framework programmes for research and development, the European Union finances a vast array of projects concerning fields affecting the citizens' health, as well as the researchers' mobility, the development of new technologies or the safeguard of the environment. With the agreement of the European Parliament and of the Council of Ministers, the two decisional authorities of the European Union, the 7th framework programmes was started on December 2006. This program has a budget of 54 billion Euros to be distributed over a 7-year period. Therefore, the European Union aims to fully address the challenge as stated by the European Council of Lisbon (of March 2000) which declared the idea of providing 3% of the GDP of all the Member States for the purpose of research and development. One of the important conditions stated by the Members of the European Parliament to allocate this financing is to ensuring that "the funding research activities respect the fundamental ethical principles". In this article, we will approach this aspect of the evaluation. PMID:19765393

  1. Cooperation and Community: The European Community--A Community of Nations. A Curriculum Unit Recommended for Grades 6-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbeck, Reinhold

    This resource packet introduces students to the notion of community within a European context. Students examine the European Community as a community of independent countries and will become aware of some of the key characteristics of a community. The eight activities focus on developing multiple perspectives through the analysis of European…

  2. Coccolithophorid dynamics: The European Emiliania huxleyi programme, EHUX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Roger P.

    1996-10-01

    The achievements of the MAST II funded EHUX project, an interdisciplinary study of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi are briefly reviewed. A collection of over 300 clones of E. huxleyi has been maintained to support research on coccolithophorid morphology, physiology, molecular genetics, and the life cycle. Laboratory cultures have also been used for investigations of calcification and calcification gene identification. The photobiology of E. huxleyi, interactions between productivity and the environment, and coccolithophorid growth and production have been studied both in the laboratory and in the Northern North Sea, the latter work being guided by remote sensing. Integrated investigations have been made of the synthesis and degradation of lipid biomarkers produced by E. huxleyi, the formation and microbial degradation of aggregates, and zooplankton grazing and mortality. An extensive programme of mesocosm studies has been carried out with special etophasis on the population dynamics of E. huxleyi, the coupling between calcification and nutrient supply, and the role of viruses in population dynamics. Mathematical simulation models of mesocosm bloom dynamics have been developed, first attempts have been made to develop cell biological models of E. huxleyi, and a model which predicts the timing and magnitudes of blooms of E. huxleyi with particular reference to the seasonal succession in the North Atlantic has been developed.

  3. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  4. Information Policy in the European Community: Balancing Protection and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillince, J. A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses European Community policy relating to information technology and the information industry. Topics addressed include the information services industry; transborder information flow, including electronic mail, data owner responsibility, and software piracy; digital data networks; electronic data interchange; telecommunications; information…

  5. Breast cancer in European Union: an update of screening programmes as of March 2014 (review).

    PubMed

    Altobelli, E; Lattanzi, A

    2014-11-01

    Breast cancer, a major cause of female morbidity and mortality, is a global health problem; 2008 data show an incidence of ~450,000 new cases and 140,000 deaths (mean incidence rate 70.7 and mortality rate 16.7, world age-standardized rate per 100,000 women) in European Union Member States. Incidence rates in Western Europe are among the highest in the world. We review the situation of BC screening programmes in European Union. Up to date information on active BC screening programmes was obtained by reviewing the literature and searching national health ministries and cancer service websites. Although BC screening programmes are in place in nearly all European Union countries there are still considerable differences in target population coverage and age and in the techniques deployed. Screening is a mainstay of early BC detection whose main weakness is the rate of participation of the target population. National policies and healthcare planning should aim at maximizing participation in controlled organized screening programmes by identifying and lowering any barriers to adhesion, also with a view to reducing healthcare costs. PMID:25174328

  6. Technology-Enhanced Physics Programme for Community-Based Science Learning: Innovative Design and Programme Evaluation in a Theme Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tho, Siew Wei; Chan, Ka Wing; Yeung, Yau Yuen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new physics education programme is specifically developed for a famous theme park in Hong Kong to provide community-based science learning to her visitors, involving her three newly constructed rides. We make innovative use of digital technologies in this programme and incorporate a rigorous evaluation of the learning…

  7. Community Capacity Development in Universities: Empowering Communities through Education Management Programmes in Strathmore University (A Pilot Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitawi, Alfred Kirigha

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the issue of community capacity development in a university. The main way communities were empowered was through the education management programmes offered at Strathmore University in Nairobi, Kenya. The research is among the first to examine the issue of community capacity development through university programmes. The…

  8. Medical ethics in the European Community.

    PubMed Central

    Riis, P

    1993-01-01

    Increasing European co-operation must take place in many areas, including medical ethics. Against the background of common cultural norms and pluralistic variation within political traditions, religion and lifestyles, Europe will have to converge towards unity within the field of medical ethics. This article examines how such convergence might develop with respect to four major areas: European research ethics committees, democratic health systems, the human genome project and rules for stopping futile treatments. PMID:8459444

  9. Community-based livestock breeding programmes: essentials and examples.

    PubMed

    Mueller, J P; Rischkowsky, B; Haile, A; Philipsson, J; Mwai, O; Besbes, B; Valle Zárate, A; Tibbo, M; Mirkena, T; Duguma, G; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M

    2015-04-01

    Breeding programmes described as community-based (CBBP) typically relate to low-input systems with farmers having a common interest to improve and share their genetic resources. CBBPs are more frequent with keepers of small ruminants, in particular smallholders of local breeds, than with cattle, pigs or chickens with which farmers may have easier access to alternative programmes. Constraints that limit the adoption of conventional breeding technologies in low-input systems cover a range of organizational and technical aspects. The analysis of 8 CBBPs located in countries of Latin-America, Africa and Asia highlights the importance of bottom-up approaches and involvement of local institutions in the planning and implementation stages. The analysis also reveals a high dependence of these programmes on organizational, technical and financial support. Completely self-sustained CBBPs seem to be difficult to realize. There is a need to implement and document formal socio-economic evaluations of CBBPs to provide governments and other development agencies with the information necessary for creating sustainable CBBPs at larger scales. PMID:25823840

  10. European MEDIA Programme: the role of 'language' and 'visual images' in the processes of constructing European culture and identity.

    PubMed

    Bozić-Vrbancić, Senka; Vrbancić, Mario; Orlić, Olga

    2008-12-01

    fields from economic, social and political issues, on the contrary "culture" and "identity" are constructed through social, economic and political relations. Issues of "language" and "images" are central to both of them. By questioning the role that "language" and "visual images play in the construction of European identity and culture, we are considering "language" as well as "visual images" not just as representations, but also as forms of social action. In addition to that, inspired by discourse theory (Laclau 1985, 1994, 2007) and psychoanalysis (Zizek 1989, 1993, 1994; Stavrakakis 1999, 2005, 2007) we explore the libidinal dimension of identification processes. We focus on the European MEDIA Programme in order to analyse how different languages and images are being used to create a sense of "European unity in diversity". Along with Stavrakakis we argue that due to the lack of libidinal investment into discourses of Europeanness, Europe is failing to create a strong supranational identity. However we also show that there have been recent attempts by European policy makers to try and fill this gap through various projects which focus entirely on emotions; which appears to reinforce new possibilities of identification with Europe. PMID:19149204

  11. Emerging technologies and perspectives for nutrition research in European Union 7th Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    de Froidmont-Görtz, Isabelle B M

    2009-12-01

    Nutrition trends in Europe are driven by taste, health and convenience. The possibilities of research using new technologies and tools such as nutrigenomics, imaging techniques, nanotechnology, bioinformatics, cognitive sciences, innovative processes are very promising to support these nutrition trends and in particular their health aspects. This is supported by European Union research. The opportunities offered in the 7th Framework Programme (FP7), among other innovations, will contribute to the general aim of improving nutrition policy as well as improving products from the food industry in accordance with the Lisbon strategy to create employment and improve the quality of life of the European citizens. PMID:19937440

  12. European Community legislation and intergovernmental cooperation on migration.

    PubMed

    Niessen, J

    1992-01-01

    Recent trends in migration policy in the European Community are outlined. The focus is on the need to increase cooperation between the member states and to increase the power of the Community's Court of Justice in decision-making about migration and refugee policy. PMID:12285278

  13. Establishing the European Research Area in Ageing: a network of national research programmes.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Gerda

    2005-10-01

    The following paper gives a summary of the European Commission's research policy with regard to the ERA-NET scheme and especially with regard to the ERA-AGE project that was launched in March 2004. All the partner institutions in the ERA-AGE project are main national funding agencies, research councils or ministries. Some selected examples of programme funding by the partner institutions may demonstrate their different ways of funding research and show the great variety of programmes. The long-term objective of the ERA-AGE project is to create a sustainable basis for the planning, implementation and exploitation of transnational research. In future, the European Research Area in Ageing could gain an added value from research investments by integrating existing funding mechanisms and research infrastructures, by commonly deciding on research priorities for funding activities in order to reduce fragmentation and duplication, and by the recruitment of young researchers. PMID:16154308

  14. Teaching nanoscience across scientific and geographical borders A European Master programme in nanoscience and nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesneau, A.; Groeseneken, G.; Heremans, P.; Rep, D.; Rudquist, P.; Schwille, P.; Sluijter, B.; Wendin, G.

    2008-03-01

    Within the Erasmus Mundus Master (EMM) Programme, five European Universities (KU Leuven, Belgium, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, Delft University of Technology and Leiden University, the Netherlands, and the University of Dresden, Germany) have joined forces to offer a unique master programme in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 'EMM-nano', at the cutting edge of state-of-the-art research. The students design and build their individual area of specialisation within nanophysics, nanotechnology, biophysics, biotechnology through their choice of trajectory between the partners. We discuss some of the challenges related to the crossdisciplinary nature of the field, educational activities in cleanrooms, and issues related to the integration of teaching programmes across the borders within Europe.

  15. Relating the bivalve shellfish harvesting area classification criteria in the United States and European Union programmes.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Reese, R A

    2014-06-01

    Estimation of the level of risk of faecal contamination of shellfish harvesting areas is undertaken by monitoring faecal indicator bacteria in seawater samples under the United States programme and shellfish flesh samples under the European Union (EU) programme. Determining the relationship between the two approaches is important for assessing the relative level of public health protection and regulating international trade. The relationship was investigated using both statistical modelling and simple compliance assessment on large international data sets of paired seawater and shellfish samples. The two approaches yielded the same conclusions: EU class A is more stringent than the US Approved category for all species; the US Restrictive standard is more restrictive than EU class B for some bivalve species. Therefore, the classifications under the two programmes are not exactly equivalent. PMID:24937222

  16. The role of SEA in integrating and balancing high policy objectives in European cohesion funding programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Jiricka, Alexandra Proebstl, Ulrike

    2013-01-15

    Funding programmes for European cohesion policy are a crucial tool to support the sustainability goals of the European Union and national policies of its member states. All these funding programmes require a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to enhance sustainable development. This article compares five first SEA applications at cohesion policy level to discuss challenges, limitations and benefits of this instrument. In order to support the SEA-process a 'Handbook on SEA for Cohesion Policy 2007-13' (GRDP 2006) was developed. The paper examines the special requirements and challenges at the programme level given the special conditions for stakeholder involvement, integration of SEA in the programme development process and strategies to cope with uncertainties to ensure real compatibility with policy goals. Using action research and in-depth interviews with SEA planners and programme managers enabled us to analyse the suitability of the methodology proposed by the handbook. The results show that some recommendations of the handbook should be changed in order to increase the transparency and to enhance the standard and comparability of the SEA-documents. Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals at the EU and national policy levels. Its particular strengths emerged as the process makes uncertainties visible and leads to possible redefinitions while maintaining actual policy goals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparing five case studies of first applications of SEA at cohesion policy level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study makes uncertainties visible and shows how SEA could lead to possible redefinitions.

  17. Technology-Enhanced Physics Programme for Community-Based Science Learning: Innovative Design and Programme Evaluation in a Theme Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tho, Siew Wei; Chan, Ka Wing; Yeung, Yau Yuen

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a new physics education programme is specifically developed for a famous theme park in Hong Kong to provide community-based science learning to her visitors, involving her three newly constructed rides. We make innovative use of digital technologies in this programme and incorporate a rigorous evaluation of the learning effectiveness of the programme. A total of around 200 students from nine local secondary schools participated in both the physics programme and its subsequent evaluation which consists of a combination of research and assessment tools, including pre- and post-multiple-choice tests, a questionnaire survey and an interview as specifically developed for this programme, or adopted from some well-accepted research instruments. Based on the evaluation of students' academic performance, there are two educationally significant findings on enhancing the students' physics learning: (a) traditionally large gender differences in physics performance and interest of learning are mostly eliminated; and (b) a less-exciting ride called the aviator (instead of the most exciting roller-coaster ride) can induce the largest learning effect (or gain in academic performance) amongst teenagers. Besides, findings from the questionnaire survey and interviews of participants are reported to reveal their views, perceptions, positive and negative comments or feedback on this programme which could provide valuable insights for future development of other similar community-based programmes.

  18. Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning with Communities: A Critical Account of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Elena; Bates, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the process of critically evaluating Dublin Institute of Technology's Programme for Students Learning With Communities after its first year of operation. The programme supports and promotes community-based learning/service-learning across DIT. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is presented in the form of a…

  19. Special Preparatory Programme for the European Social Fund. A Composite Report on the Study Visits--Phase I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document reports on phase 1 of the Special Preparatory Programme for the European Social Fund (SPP-ESF), which was undertaken to gather information on the transfer and exchange of experiences from the European Union (EU) to the 10 accession countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The 2 chapters constituting the first 15% of the report…

  20. Community-based preparedness programmes and the 2009 Australian bushfires: policy implications derived from applying theory.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Colin; Gibbs, Lisa; Clark, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    The Victorian Country Fire Authority in Australia runs the Community Fireguard (CFG) programme to assist individuals and communities in preparing for fire. The objective of this qualitative research was to understand the impact of CFG groups on their members' fire preparedness and response during the 2009 Australian bushfires. Social connectedness emerged as a strong theme, leading to an analysis of data using social capital theory. The main strength of the CFG programme was that it was driven by innovative community members; however, concerns arose regarding the extent to which the programme covered all vulnerable areas, which led the research team to explore the theory of diffusion of innovation. The article concludes by stepping back from the evaluation and using both applied theories to reflect on broad options for community fire preparedness programmes in general. The exercise produced two contrasting options for principles underlying community fire preparedness programmes. PMID:24601916

  1. Commission of the European Communities and Its Information Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Eric

    1978-01-01

    Following a brief outline of the library/documentation services available to the various departments of the European Communities located in Brussels and Luxembourg, the current information services provided by the main library of the commission are described. Plans for automation and conversion to microfiche format are outlined. (Author/JAB)

  2. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the context of…

  3. Good on paper: the gap between programme theory and real-world context in Pakistan's Community Midwife programme

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Z; Levay, A; Bhatti, A; Salway, S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand why skilled birth attendance—an acknowledged strategy for reducing maternal deaths—has been effective in some settings but is failing in Pakistan and to demonstrate the value of a theory-driven approach to evaluating implementation of maternal healthcare interventions. Design Implementation research was conducted using an institutional ethnographic approach. Setting and population National programme and local community levels in Pakistan. Methods Observations, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews were conducted with 38 Community Midwives (CMWs), 20 policymakers, 45 healthcare providers and 136 community members. A critical policy document review was conducted. National and local level data were brought together. Main outcomes Alignment of programme theory with real-world practice. Results Data revealed gaps between programme theory, assumptions and reality on the ground. The design of the programme failed to take into account: (1) the incongruity between the role of a midwife and dominant class and gendered norms that devalue such a role; (2) market and consumer behaviour that prevented CMWs from establishing private practices; (3) the complexity of public–private sector cooperation. Uniform deployment policies failed to consider existing provider density and geography. Conclusions Greater attention to programme theory and the ‘real-world’ setting during design of maternal health strategies is needed to achieve consistent results in different contexts. PMID:25315837

  4. Lone Parent Families in the European Community. The 1992 Report to the European Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Jo

    This report provides an overview of the numbers, characteristics, and economic situation of lone-parent families in the European Community. The report aims to take at least a first step toward providing information that would enable policy-makers to address the problems faced by single-parent families. The report concludes that women's…

  5. Social acceptability and perceived impact of a community-led cash transfer programme in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cash transfer programmes are increasingly recognised as promising and scalable interventions that can promote the health and development of children. However, concerns have been raised about the potential for cash transfers to contribute to social division, jealousy and conflict at a community level. Against this background, and in our interest to promote community participation in cash transfer programmes, we examine local perceptions of a community-led cash transfer programme in Eastern Zimbabwe. Methods We collected and analysed data from 35 individual interviews and three focus group discussions, involving 24 key informants (community committee members and programme implementers), 24 cash transfer beneficiaries, of which four were youth, and 14 non-beneficiaries. Transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis and coding to generate concepts. Results Study participants described the programme as participatory, fair and transparent – reducing the likelihood of jealousy. The programme was perceived to have had a substantial impact on children’s health and education, primarily through aiding parents and guardians to better cater for their children’s needs. Moreover, participants alluded to the potential of the programme to facilitate more transformational change, for example by enabling families to invest money in assets and income generating activities and by promoting a community-wide sense of responsibility for the support of orphaned and vulnerable children. Conclusion Community participation, combined with the perceived impact of the cash transfer programme, led community members to speak enthusiastically about the programme. We conclude that community-led cash transfer programmes have the potential to open up for possibilities of participation and community agency that enable social acceptability and limit social divisiveness. PMID:23587136

  6. Transboundary effects on health care services in the European Community.

    PubMed

    du Pré, F M

    1993-01-01

    This article deals with the rights that community law gives to the medical and allied professions to exercise their professional activities in a member state other than their state of origin. Firstly, the scope of the general economic provisions of the European Community (EC) Treaty is broadly described. Secondly, the specific rules of the EC secondary legislation concerning the harmonization of the national legislations on professional qualifications in the health care sector are reviewed. Lastly, an example is given of the application of these rules in the health care sector by the Court of Justice of the European Community. It is submitted that the exercise of these rights can contribute to transboundary cooperation within the EC in the rendering of health care services to patients in the member states. This is specially relevant in frontier areas. PMID:8377626

  7. The long-term effectiveness of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) implemented as a community-wide parenting programme

    PubMed Central

    Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Clucas, Claudine; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Short-term effectiveness of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) for parents in the general population has been studied. The aim of this paper was to investigate the longer term impact of the ICDP programme on parents looking for sustained changes 6–12 months after the programme. For this, a non-clinical caregiver group attending the ICDP programme (N = 79) and a non-attending comparison group (N = 62) completed questionnaires on parenting, psychosocial functioning, and child difficulties before, on completion and 6–12 months after the ICDP programme. Analyses compare changes in scores over time. The results revealed that the ICDP group showed significantly improved scores on parenting measures, less loneliness, and trends towards improved self-efficacy compared to the comparison group 6–12 months after programme completion. The ICDP group also reported that their children spent significantly less time on television and computer games and a trend towards fewer child difficulties. Key positive effects sustained over time but at a somewhat lower level, supporting community-wide implementation of ICDP as a general parenting programme. It is concluded that more intensive training with follow-up sessions should be considered to sustain and boost initial gains. PMID:25431603

  8. [Analysis of the Hungarian participation in the 6th European Union Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration in the thematic priority area of the life sciences].

    PubMed

    Pörzse, Gábor; Temesi, Alfréda

    2007-07-22

    The European Union launched the 6th Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration in 2002. Initially, Hungary participated in the 6th Framework Programme as an associate member, but since 2004 it has taken part as a Member State. Besides mobilizing their own resources, research organizations entering winning bids to framework programme tenders enjoy considerable financial support from the European Union, while participating states also contribute to the costs of the cooperation from their national budgets. Therefore, it is very important to recognize and evaluate the achievements of domestic participation. By collecting, processing and analyzing available data, the authors evaluate the bid activity and the successfulness of Hungarian research organizations in the thematic priority area covering life sciences of the 6th Framework Programme. When judging success, the authors not only consider the level of Community financial contribution, but also the participation of Hungarian researchers in international research networks. The article contains an analysis of the submitted and supported works from various aspects such as by year, calls for bids, research fields etc. for projects in the implementation of which Hungarian partners were also involved. The authors present the cost settlement methodologies applied, and traditional and new project types. They analyse the activity of coordinators and outline European expectations with regard to the participation of small and medium-sized enterprises and women. One of the important objectives of the analysis is to draw conclusions so that participants will be able to adapt them during the 7th Framework Programme, 2007-2013. PMID:17631471

  9. European seaweeds under pressure: Consequences for communities and ecosystem functioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineur, Frédéric; Arenas, Francisco; Assis, Jorge; Davies, Andrew J.; Engelen, Aschwin H.; Fernandes, Francisco; Malta, Erik-jan; Thibaut, Thierry; Van Nguyen, Tu; Vaz-Pinto, Fátima; Vranken, Sofie; Serrão, Ester A.; De Clerck, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Seaweed assemblages represent the dominant autotrophic biomass in many coastal environments, playing a central structural and functional role in several ecosystems. In Europe, seaweed assemblages are highly diverse systems. The combined seaweed flora of different European regions hold around 1550 species (belonging to nearly 500 genera), with new species continuously uncovered, thanks to the emergence of molecular tools. In this manuscript we review the effects of global and local stressors on European seaweeds, their communities, and ecosystem functioning. Following a brief review on the present knowledge on European seaweed diversity and distribution, and the role of seaweed communities in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, we discuss the effects of biotic homogenization (invasive species) and global climate change (shifts in bioclimatic zones and ocean acidification) on the distribution of individual species and their effect on the structure and functioning of seaweed communities. The arrival of new introduced species (that already account for 5-10% of the European seaweeds) and the regional extirpation of native species resulting from oceans' climate change are creating new diversity scenarios with undetermined functional consequences. Anthropogenic local stressors create additional disruption often altering dramatically assemblage's structure. Hence, we discuss ecosystem level effects of such stressors like harvesting, trampling, habitat modification, overgrazing and eutrophication that impact coastal communities at local scales. Last, we conclude by highlighting significant knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to anticipate the combined effects of global and local stressors on seaweed communities. With physical and biological changes occurring at unexpected pace, marine phycologists should now integrate and join their research efforts to be able to contribute efficiently for the conservation and management of coastal systems.

  10. Professional Development on an International Scale: Council of Europe--Pestalozzi Programme Virtual Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mompoint Gaillard, Pascale; Rajic, Višnja

    2014-01-01

    Communities of practice as organisations of learning have developed different forms as: task-based, practice-based or knowledge based communities (Barab et al., 2004). The paper presents a case study of a successful community of practice developed under the umbrella of Council of Europe Pestalozzi programme for teacher development. The programme…

  11. School Building Design for Feeding Programmes and Community Outreach: Insights from Ghana and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uduku, Ola

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how school building design can support primary school feeding programmes in low- and middle-income countries. Furthermore it argues for schools to become community "development hubs"; incorporating both local access to education and also to programmes for nutrition, ICT, health education and other services, outside of…

  12. Using Community Radio in a Rural Women's Post-Literacy Programme in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaoka, Chizuko; Karki, Manohar

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the literacy and post-literacy needs of rural women in Nepal, describes a pilot study in using community radio to supplement a classroom-based post-literacy programme for these women, analyses the findings of this intervention and considers the implications for similar programmes in other settings.

  13. Moving on the Continuum between Teaching and Learning: Communities of Practice in a Student Support Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Luzelle; Bezuidenhout, Hannemarie

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the experiences of staff members involved in a student support programme. The experiential, social, and student-centred approaches incorporated in this programme provided not only students, but also academics with pathways to lifelong learning. Functioning in a community of practice (CoP) (with students and also…

  14. PRM programmes of care and PRM care pathways: European approach, developments in France.

    PubMed

    de Korvin, Georges; Yelnik, Alain P; Ribinik, Patricia; Calmels, Paul; Le Moine, Francis; Delarque, Alain

    2013-03-01

    The development of European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) physical and rehabilitation medicine programmes of care (PRMPC) and physical and rehabilitation medicine care pathways (PRMCP) in France is a good example of the positive interaction between European and national organizations. PRMPC were defined at the European level to offer a robust template for the description and assessment of physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) clinical activity in various fields and contexts. An accreditation procedure was organized as a peer review. It has started to provide very informative documents. In France, discussions on this topic began in 2000. At the end of the same decade, the European approach fostered the interest of French PRM organizations in a period of negotiating with public authorities about two crucial issues: specifications required for reimbursement of functional instrumental assessments in PRM practice and funding of PRM care in postacute facilities. The French Society of PRM (SOFMER) decided to describe the PRM scope in a systematic way, emphasizing the best balance between patient needs, rehabilitation goals, relevant means and justified funding. Nine 'PRMCP' have been published since 2010 and others are in progress. PRMPC and PRMCP share the same concern about the best response offered by PRM to patients' needs. The first approach is the description of a local organization with respect to both scientific evidence and local conditions. The latter is an outline of PRM intervention related to a multidimensional pattern of patients' situations. Both enhance the role of PRM doctors, whose expertise is necessary for making a synthesis of medical diagnosis and functional assessment, for setting up a patient-centred care strategy and for supervising the rehabilitation team's intervention. PMID:23377230

  15. COPERNICUS - The European Union Earth Observation Programme - State of play and way ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Astrid-Christina

    2015-04-01

    Copernicus is the new name of the European Earth Observation Programme, GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security). Copernicus or rather its predecessor was established as an EU programme. It covers all the activities for ensuring an uninterrupted provision of accurate and reliable data and information on environmental issues and security matters to users in charge of policy making, implementation and monitoring, in the EU and its Member States. Copernicus aims at providing Europe with a continuous, independent and reliable access to observation data and information. The EU investment aims at filling the observation gaps, providing access to existing assets and developing operational services. The data policy of the Copernicus programme supports an open, full and free of charge data access that is in line with the data sharing principles of the Group for Earth Observation (GEO). Copernicus is structured in six Services: Marine, Atmosphere, Land and Climate change monitoring as well as support to Emergency and Security. Copernicus uses data from satellites and in-situ sensors such as buoys, balloons or air sensors to provide timely and reliable added-value information and forecasting to support for example, agriculture and fisheries, land use and urban planning, the fight against forest fires, disaster response, maritime transport or air pollution monitoring. The need for continuing such observations is becoming critical, considering the increasing political pressure on public authorities to take informed decisions in the field of environment, security and climate change and the need to respect international agreements. Copernicus also contributes to economic stability and growth by boosting commercial applications (the so-called downstream services) in many different sectors through a full and open access to Copernicus observation data and information products. KEY WORDS: Sentinels, big data, data access, Emergency, Marine, Atmosphere.

  16. Assessing participation in a community-based health planning and services programme in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Community participation is increasingly seen as a pre-requisite for successful health service uptake. It is notoriously difficult to assess participation and little has been done to advance tools for the assessment of community participation. In this paper we illustrate an approach that combines a ‘social psychology of participation’ (theory) with ‘spider-grams’ (method) to assess participation and apply it to a Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) programme in rural Ghana. Methods We draw on data from 17 individual in-depth interviews, two focus group discussions and a community conversation with a mix of service users, providers and community health committee members. It was during the community conversation that stakeholders collectively evaluated community participation in the CHPS programme and drew up a spider-gram. Results Thematic analysis of our data shows that participation was sustained through the recognition and use of community resources, CHPS integration with pre-existing community structures, and alignment of CHPS services with community interests. However, male dominance and didactic community leadership and management styles undermined real opportunities for broad-based community empowerment, particularly of women, young people and marginalised men. Conclusion We conclude that combining the ‘spider-gram’ tool and the ‘social psychology of participation’ framework provide health professionals with a useful starting point for assessing community participation and developing recommendations for more participatory and empowering health care programmes. PMID:23803140

  17. European Community research on environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Sors, A I

    1993-01-01

    Within the 12 Member States of the European Community (EC), environmental policy is now formulated primarily at Community level. As a result, the EC has important regulatory responsibilities for the protection of workers, consumers, and the general public from risks that may arise from environmental chemicals, foremost among them potential carcinogens and mutagens. An important part of EC environmental research and development is intended to provide a scientific basis for these regulations as well as increasing understanding of the basic mechanisms involved in environmental carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. This paper contains a brief introduction to EC environment policy and research, followed by an overview of EC chemicals control activities that are of particular relevance to the research and development program. Community-level research on environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis is then reviewed in some detail, including the achievements of recent projects, the scientific content of the current program, and perspectives for the future. PMID:8143645

  18. Sustaining international partnerships: the European Master of Science Programme in Occupational Therapy, a case study.

    PubMed

    Ilott, Irene; Kottorp, Anders; la Cour, Karen; van Nes, Fenna; Jonsson, Hans; Sadlo, Gaynor

    2013-06-01

    International partnerships are a mechanism for supporting the academic development of occupational therapy and promoting cultural competence. This case study describes the factors that have helped to sustain a post-qualifying programme implemented by five higher education institutions in Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK since 1999. Data collection methods were documentary analysis and the reflections of a purposive sample of six key informants. Cohort and outcome data, from 193 students from 31 countries who enrolled between 1999 and 2011, are reported. Each cohort comprises students from an average of eight countries to optimize inter-cultural dialogue. Four factors support sustainability. These are 1) supportive professional European networks; 2) timeliness and alignment with European higher education policy; 3) partnership structures and processes that emphasize joint decision making and accountability; and 4) the stimulus and satisfaction associated with internationalization. The main limitations are considering the OT-EuroMaster as an intrinsic case study and using opportunistic data collection that undermines the rigor and transferability of the findings. Future opportunities include doctoral networks, transnational research and sharing our curricula design with other Regions to spread the collaborative, capacity building endeavours more widely. PMID:23559568

  19. Family health consequences of modernisation programmes in Black Thai communities.

    PubMed

    Oosterhoff, Pauline; White, Joanna; Nguyen, Thi Huong

    2011-12-01

    Southeast Asian governments implement ambitious programmes to reduce population growth and maternal mortality in areas with large minority ethnic populations. Although some of these programmes introduce new social and health practices that meet their broader aims, they may pay inadequate attention to the protective and medically beneficial aspects of traditional practices. This study examined the decline of temporary matrilocality (zu kuay) among the Black Thai in Dien Bien, Vietnam, as a response to policies adopted under the government programme of Doi Moi ('modernisation'). The patrilocal, patrilinear cultural norms of the majority ethnic Kinh people were promoted and zu kuay discouraged at a time when heroin availability increased dramatically but harm reduction programmes were not yet in place. This historical coincidence appears to have heightened certain Thai women's vulnerability to marriages with HIV-positive injecting drug users. Policies and guidelines on marriage and reproductive health should take into account the role of minority ethnic traditions, as well as local health-seeking practices, in order not only to improve reproductive programmes but also to reduce HIV vulnerability. PMID:21491273

  20. Value and Benefits of European Student Mobility for Romanian Students: Experiences and Perspectives of Participants in the ERASMUS Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.; Chiper, Sorina

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the experiences and perspectives of Romanian students participating in the ERASMUS Programme, regarding the benefits and value of academic mobility. It situates their accounts in the framework of internationalization and Europeanization processes occurring in Romanian higher education. The study draws on primary data…

  1. Understanding geographic origins and history of admixture among chimpanzees in European zoos, with implications for future breeding programmes

    PubMed Central

    Hvilsom, C; Frandsen, P; Børsting, C; Carlsen, F; Sallé, B; Simonsen, B T; Siegismund, H R

    2013-01-01

    Despite ample focus on this endangered species, conservation planning for chimpanzees residing outside Africa has proven a challenge because of the lack of ancestry information. Here, we analysed the largest number of chimpanzee samples to date, examining microsatellites in >100 chimpanzees from the range of the species in Africa, and 20% of the European zoo population. We applied the knowledge about subspecies differentiation throughout equatorial Africa to assign origin to chimpanzees in the largest conservation management programme globally. A total of 63% of the genotyped chimpanzees from the European zoos could be assigned to one of the recognized subspecies. The majority being of West African origin (40%) will help consolidate the current breeding programme for this subspecies and the identification of individuals belonging to the two other subspecies so far found in European zoos can form the basis for breeding programmes for these. Individuals of various degree of mixed ancestry made up 37% of the genotyped European zoo population and thus highlight the need for appropriate management programmes guided by genetic analysis to preserve maximum genetic diversity and reduce hybridization among subspecies. PMID:23531981

  2. Understanding geographic origins and history of admixture among chimpanzees in European zoos, with implications for future breeding programmes.

    PubMed

    Hvilsom, C; Frandsen, P; Børsting, C; Carlsen, F; Sallé, B; Simonsen, B T; Siegismund, H R

    2013-06-01

    Despite ample focus on this endangered species, conservation planning for chimpanzees residing outside Africa has proven a challenge because of the lack of ancestry information. Here, we analysed the largest number of chimpanzee samples to date, examining microsatellites in >100 chimpanzees from the range of the species in Africa, and 20% of the European zoo population. We applied the knowledge about subspecies differentiation throughout equatorial Africa to assign origin to chimpanzees in the largest conservation management programme globally. A total of 63% of the genotyped chimpanzees from the European zoos could be assigned to one of the recognized subspecies. The majority being of West African origin (40%) will help consolidate the current breeding programme for this subspecies and the identification of individuals belonging to the two other subspecies so far found in European zoos can form the basis for breeding programmes for these. Individuals of various degree of mixed ancestry made up 37% of the genotyped European zoo population and thus highlight the need for appropriate management programmes guided by genetic analysis to preserve maximum genetic diversity and reduce hybridization among subspecies. PMID:23531981

  3. The European Register for Clinical Chemists. (European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry, Working Group on Registration).

    PubMed

    Sanders, G T; Kelly, A M; Breuer, J; Kohse, K P; Mocarelli, P; Sachs, C

    1997-10-01

    To ensure freedom of movement in the European Union, a limited number of professions is regulated by a so-called Sectorial Directive; all other disciplines, including clinical chemistry, fall under a General Directive. However, clinical chemists in the EU wish their specialty to be more specifically regulated; this means that common standards of education, training, experience and compliance with continuing professional developments must be guaranteed. Therefore, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry (EC4) is about to implement the European Register for clinical chemists, and has composed a guide to this Register. The document describes the conditions for entry to specialty training, the minimum standards for registration (university education and postgraduate vocational training with a minimum total of eight years), the competencies of those qualifying for registration, and the operation of the register. Registration guarantees professional and managerial competencies; the title conferred is "European Clinical Chemist". EC4 recognises the existing national registers as far as they are based on the minimal requirements as indicated. An EC4 Register Commission (EC4RC) will maintain and control the European Register, supported by National Clinical Chemistry Registration Committees (NCCRC). An NCCRC controls the quality of the education in each country and assesses candidates. An individual (EU citizen or non-EU citizen trained in an EU country) applies privately for the European Register to EC4RC and, where applicable, the application is accompanied by a document from the NCCRC of the country of registration, stating that the applicant has the necessary qualifications. For EU citizens trained outside the EU the final decision is with EC4RC; non-EU citizens not trained in an EU country are not eligible for registration. Registration is renewed once every five years. PMID:9368800

  4. Education and Vocational Training within the European Community. Activities of the Commission of the European Communities in 1983 and 1984. Report from the Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    This report discusses activities directly linked with the implementation of the education action program set up in February 1976 by the Council of the European Communities and Ministers of Education. Activities relating to the pursuit of the European Community's vocational training policies are also addressed. Chapter I gives an account of the…

  5. Completing the Internal Market: Or Making the European Community a Common Market!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, F. E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the rationale and major economic and political effects of turning the European Community into a true common market. Outlines the proposals of the European Commission on how to achieve this goal and states that implementation will result in large scale adjustment problems for the nations of the European Community. (GEA)

  6. 77 FR 23539 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding European Communities and Certain Member States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... European Union (``EU'') member state governments of France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom to... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding European Communities and Certain Member... dispute European Communities and Certain Member States--Measures Affecting Trade in Large Civil...

  7. Energy regimes and the development of the European Community

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjilambrinos, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    Energy policy has historically played an important role in the development of the European Community (EC). This study examines the reasons for the choice of coal and atomic energy as regimes of integration, analyzes their impact on the institutions and political traditions of the EC, and evaluates their consistency with the principles of democratic governance. Functionalist theory has provided the idealogical foundations for the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Atomic Energy Community. Functionalist theorists advocate technocracy as the means for overcoming the conflicts inherent in traditional political processes. Coal and atomic energy were chosen as regimes of integration because of their technocratic character and the importance attached to them as the dominant energy source of the time and the perceived source of energy abundance in the near future. Energy regimes could not be removed from the political context of national governance. Hard energy regimes, which include coal and atomic energy, are technocratic policies which exclude ordinary citizens from the exercise of power and intensify international conflict. An institutional analysis of the French and Danish electricity regimes demonstrates that their political characteristics are incompatible with the principles of democratic governance. It is also demonstrated that the characteristics of soft energy regimes (e.g., conservation and renewables) are compatible with these principles and are based on cooperation. An analysis of the EC's energy policy demonstrates that a soft energy path represents a concept of integration which distributes decision-making power among various levels of governance. A hard energy path would concentrate power in the hands of a technocratic elite. The pursuit of a soft energy path by the EC would enhance significantly the opportunities for political integration.

  8. Teachers' Perceptions of a Community Participation Programme for Preschoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Candice; Zhang, Kaili Chen

    2013-01-01

    Preschoolers with autism face a number of challenges in integrating into different community activities owing to behavioural, communication and emotional concerns. Since the year 2009, the Hong Kong Heep Hong Society has developed a training programme for enhancing community participation among individuals with autism. The current project reports…

  9. Critical Pedagogy in the Community Music Education Programmes of Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Paulo Freire (1970) developed critical pedagogy to teach oppressed Brazilian adults to read. Freire documented his ideas in a landmark publication entitled Pedagogy of the Oppressed. This article discusses and reports my findings on Freirean methods evident in music education programmes in Rio de Janeiro, Alvorada, Recife and Sao Caetano.

  10. Physical and rehabilitation medicine section and board of the European Union of Medical Specialists. Community context; history of European medical organizations; actions under way.

    PubMed

    De Korvin, G; Delarque, A

    2009-01-01

    The European Community is based on a series of treaties and legal decisions, which result from preliminary documents prepared long before by different organizations and lobbies. The European union of medical specialists (Union européenne des médecins specialists [UEMS]) came into being in order to address the questions raised by European directives (e.g., free circulation of people and services, reciprocal recognition of diplomas, medical training, quality improvements). The specialty sections of the UEMS contribute actively to this work. The physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) section is composed of three committees: the PRM board is devoted to initial and continuing education and has published a harmonized teaching programme and organized a certification procedure, which can be considered as a European seal of quality; the Clinical Affairs Committee is concerned with the quality of PRM care, and it has set up a European accreditation system for PRM programs of care, which will help to describe PRM clinical activity more concretely; and the Professional Practice Committee works on the fields of competence in our specialty. This third committee has already published a White Book, and further documents are being prepared, based on both the International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and reference texts developed by the French Federation of PRM. PMID:19709941

  11. Review of performance-based incentives in community-based family planning programmes

    PubMed Central

    Bellows, Nicole M; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background One strategy for improving family planning (FP) uptake at the community level is the use of performance-based incentives (PBIs), which offer community distributors financial incentives to recruit more users of FP. This article examines the use of PBIs in community-based FP programmes via a literature search of the peer-reviewed and grey literature conducted in April 2013. Results A total of 28 community-based FP programmes in 21 countries were identified as having used PBIs. The most common approach was a sales commission model where distributors received commission for FP products sold, while a referral payment model for long-term methods was also used extensively. Six evaluations were identified that specifically examined the impact of the PBI in community-based FP programmes. Overall, the results of the evaluations are mixed and more research is needed; however, the findings suggest that easy-to-understand PBIs can be successful in increasing the use of FP at the community level. Conclusion For future use of PBIs in community-based FP programmes it is important to consider the ethics of incentivising FP and ensuring that PBIs are non-coercive and choice-enhancing. PMID:25037703

  12. Programme of the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza to improve Influenza Surveillance in Europe.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Adam; Brown, Caroline; Hungnes, Olav; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Valette, Martine; van der Werf, Sylvie; Zambon, Maria

    2006-11-10

    All laboratories participating in the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza in Europe (CNRL) co-ordinated by the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS) should be able to perform a range of influenza diagnostics. This includes direct detection, culture, typing, subtyping and strain characterisation of influenza viruses, diagnostic serology and the creation of archives for clinical specimens and virus isolates. To improve the capacity and quality of the laboratories of the CNRL and to increase the consistency in performance among all 25 European Union countries plus Norway, Romania, and Switzerland, five task groups were set up in February 2005. These task groups developed work programmes in the areas of virus isolation, antibodies, molecular virology, quality control assessment and antiviral susceptibility testing. This report outlines the programmes and the results achieved in the first half-year of operation of the task groups. The action plans are challenging and it is expected that these efforts will lead to considerable improvements in the performance of the laboratories and in the standardisation of methods employed in Europe with regard to routine influenza surveillance and early warning for emerging viruses. PMID:16782242

  13. Teenagers and young adults with cancer in Europe: from national programmes to a European integrated coordinated project.

    PubMed

    Stark, D; Bielack, S; Brugieres, L; Dirksen, U; Duarte, X; Dunn, S; Erdelyi, D J; Grew, T; Hjorth, L; Jazbec, J; Kabickova, E; Konsoulova, A; Kowalczyk, J R; Lassaletta, A; Laurence, V; Lewis, I; Monrabal, A; Morgan, S; Mountzios, G; Olsen, P R; Renard, M; Saeter, G; van der Graaf, W T; Ferrari, A

    2016-05-01

    Over 14 000 patients aged 15-24 are estimated to be diagnosed with cancer in the European Union (EU) each year. Teenagers and young adults (TYA) often fall down gaps between children's and adults cancer services. The specific challenges of providing optimal care to them are described, but we present a summary of recent progress. Progress to overcome these challenges is happening at different rates across Europe. We summarise the European national projects in this field but more recently we have seen the beginnings of European coordination. Within the EU 7th Funding Programme (FP7) European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents programme (ENCCA), a specific European Network for Teenagers and Young Adults with Cancer has held a series of scientific meetings, including professionals, patients and caregivers. This group has proposed unanswered research questions and agreed key features of a high-quality service that can improve outcomes for TYA with cancer, including the primacy of collaboration between adult and paediatric services to eliminate the gap in the management of TYA with cancer. PMID:26239724

  14. Community participation: the keynote of integrated population programmes.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The regional Intergovernmental Meeting on Health and Development, convened by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the UN International Childrens Emergency Fund (UNICEF) in 1983, discussed in detail the rationale for community participation in multidimensional health care programs. In reporting on the discussions that occurred, focus is on some experiences in which the community approach is used in selected countries of the ESCAP region. Program implementation is divided into 2 distinct forms of effort to involve the individual, the family, and the community. The first of these is health education which forms an integral part of the activities of all health workers. On their visits to homes and communities, health workers educate the individual and the family to enable them to take voluntary action to prevent disease and maintain health. Health workers also educate individuals and families when the latter visit health centers and outpatient departments or are admitted as impatients. This kind of education is the 1st item in the package of primary health care services prescribed by the Alma Ata Declaration. The 2nd form of effort is organized educational effort to ensure the participation of the larger community in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of health care services. Bangladesh has recognized the need for a strong community organization and has launched a movement for integrated rural development. Here, the responsibility for education concerning prevailing health problems and for community participation is vested in the hands of village level health workers. Other health professionals supervise, guide, and support them. In Maldives the education mechanism is community self development. The responsibility for education concerning prevailing health problems in Mongolia is shared equally by all health personnel at every level of its health organization. Nepal

  15. Hospital-integrated PACS: R&D effort of the European communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottes, Fenno P.; Bakker, Albert R.; Mattheus, Rudy A.; Osteaux, Michel; Kouwenberg, Jef M.

    1990-08-01

    A PACS research project under the name " FOUNDATIONS FOR A HOSPITAL INThGRATED PICTURE ARCHIVING AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEM" is currently conducted. The overall objective is the modular conception of an experimental knowledge-based medical information management and distribution system. Image/text document access and display will be based on an intelligent user interface for diagnostic image workstations. The concept will comprise the integration of PA.S with the functions of the Hospital Information System. It will be based upon standards and be realized by an interactive collaborationbetween 7 european research groups from universities, hospitals and industries. The multi-disciplinary groups will consist of engineers, computer scientists, medical doctors (both radiologists and clinicians) and physicists. The HIPACS project has a budget of ECU 1.3 million, of which 50% is provided by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) within the scope of the exploratory phase of the Advanced Informatics in Medicine (AIM) research programme. HIPACS is directed by Prof. M. Osteaux, the prime contractor. This paper first explains the backgrounds of the AIM program. Next, the objectives of the HIPACS project are reviewed. The cooperating partners and their (scheduled) research activities are listed. Finally, the continuation of HIPACS within scope of the main phase of AIM is discussed.

  16. An occupational therapy programme in a religious community in South Africa: a historical narrative.

    PubMed

    Birkhead, Sylvia

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe an occupational therapy programme that addressed the needs of younger nuns as they faced the difficulties of caring for older nuns in a Dominican old-age home in South Africa. Weekly occupational therapy group sessions with the younger sisters over a 1-year period enabled them to cope with an elderly population who were struggling to adapt to life in an old-age home. Activity groups and individual sessions were run concurrently with the older sisters. Aspects addressed included: dealing with loss, exploring meaningful activity, communication, healthy lifestyles, community involvement and life review. No formal outcome measures were used. Informal evidence of the effectiveness of the programme is the occupationally healthy community observed 20 years later. The younger enablers are now the care receivers and play an integral part in sustaining the programme. Although the Dominican community has specific needs and practices, there is a parallel to other groups of older adults adjusting to a care setting. This programme can serve as a model to facilitate the quality of life of caregivers and residents. The programme outcomes support the principles of occupational science by demonstrating the importance of engaging in meaningful activities to maintain health and well-being. PMID:21308850

  17. Outcomes of a community-based lifestyle programme for adults with diabetes or pre-diabetes.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Chris; Skinner, Margot; Hale, Leigh

    2016-06-01

    INTRODUCTION Diabetes, a long-term condition increasing in prevalence, requires ongoing healthcare management. Exercise alongside lifestyle education and support is effective for diabetes management. AIM To investigate clinical outcomes and acceptability of a community-based lifestyle programme for adults with diabetes/prediabetes at programme completion and 3-month follow-up. METHODS The 12-week community programme included twice-weekly sessions of self-management education and exercise, supervised by a physiotherapist, physiotherapy students and a nurse. Clinical outcomes assessed were cardiorespiratory fitness, waist circumference, exercise behaviour and self-efficacy. A standardised evaluation form was used to assess programme acceptability. RESULTS Clinically significant improvements were found from baseline (n = 36) to programme completion (n = 25) and 3-months follow-up (n = 20) for the six minute walk test (87 m (95%CI 65-109; p ≤ 0.01), 60 m (95%CI 21-100; p ≤ 0.01)), waist circumference (-3 cm (95%CI -6 to -1), -3 cm (95%CI -6 to 1)), exercise behaviour (aerobic exercise 53 min/week (95%CI 26 to 81; p ≤ 0.01), 71 min/week (95%CI 25 to 118; p ≤ 0.01)) and self-efficacy (0.7 (95%CI -0.2 to 1.6), 0.8 (95%CI 0.04 to 1.5)). Good programme acceptability was demonstrated by themes suggesting a culturally supportive, motivating, friendly, informative atmosphere within the programme. The attrition rate was 30% but there were no adverse medical events related to the programme. DISCUSSION The programme was safe and culturally acceptable and outcomes demonstrated clinical benefit to participants. The attrition rate was largely due to medical reasons unrelated to the programme. This model of a community-based lifestyle programme has the potential to be reproduced in other regions and in adults with similar long-term conditions. KEYWORDS Diabetes Mellitus Type II; Prediabetic state; Co-morbidity; Exercise; Self-management. PMID:27477555

  18. Community Screening for Preschool Child Inhibition to Offer the "Cool Little Kids" Anxiety Prevention Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatson, Ruth M.; Bayer, Jordana K.; Perry, Alexandra; Mathers, Megan; Hiscock, Harriet; Wake, Melissa; Beesley, Kate; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Temperamental inhibition has been identified as a key risk factor for childhood anxiety and internalizing problems. An efficacious early prevention programme for shy/inhibited children has been developed; however, accurate, efficient and acceptable screening is needed to support wider implementation. We explore community screening options in the…

  19. Values Infusing UKUSA: A Developmental Community Arts Programme in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oehrle, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of UKUSA, a non-governmental community arts/music programme in Durban, South Africa. At the heart of this project is a desire to enable people who have been historically disadvantaged to develop a more positive sense of self. To this end, UKUSA offers the best possible tuition in music, dance and drama, developing…

  20. Parent Training: Effectiveness of the Parents Plus Early Years Programme in Community Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Sarah-Jane; Sharry, John; Streek, Adrienne

    2016-01-01

    Evidenced based parent training (PT) programmes offer an important intervention strategy to improve early behavioural and emotional difficulties for young children. Initial research highlights the benefits of incorporating PT within local community services such as preschools. The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Parents…

  1. Programmer/Analyst Competency Validation for the Eastern Iowa Community College District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Iowa Community Coll. District, Davenport. Office of Academic Affairs and Planning.

    In August 1992, the Eastern Iowa Community College District convened a 2-day Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) workshop involving a panel of six computer programmer/analysts (CP/A's) in the identification of specific competencies and tasks expected of CP/A's. To validate the entry-level skills identified, a survey was conducted of 96 businesses…

  2. Designing a Community-Based Dance Programme for North Korean Female Refugees in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Na, Kyung-Ah; Park, Hyun-Jung; Han, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a community-based dance programme designed for North Korean female defectors in South Korea, with the aim of promoting their physical, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. We set up four research objectives: to look into social contexts of North Korean female refugees in South Korea, to identify the women's desire…

  3. A Comparison of Agriculture in the United States and the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Mark; And Others

    It is difficult to compare the United States and European Community (EC) agricultural sectors for several reasons. For one thing, the European community is an economic association of 12 independent nations, each of which has its own national methods of data collection and statistical presentation. The problem of comparing the two sectors is…

  4. Employees' Organizations and Their Contribution to the Development of Vocational Training Policy in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Horst

    This document includes eight chapters and an appendix that lists abbreviations and trade union organizations at the European Community (EC) level. Chapter 1 identifies the roles of employers, employee organizations or trade unions, and system conditions in the development of vocational training policies in the European community. Chapter 2…

  5. Community-onset Staphylococcus aureus Surveillance Programme annual report, 2012.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Geoffrey W; Daly, Denise A; Pearson, Julie C; Nimmo, Graeme R; Collignon, Peter J; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Robinson, James O; Turnidge, John D

    2014-03-01

    In 2012, the Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) conducted a community-onset period-prevalence survey of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolated from hospital outpatients and general practice patients including nursing homes, long term care facilities and hospice patients. Day surgery and dialysis patients were excluded. Twenty-nine medical microbiology laboratories from all state and mainland territories participated. Isolates were tested by Vitek2® (AST-P612 card). Results were compared with previous AGAR community surveys. Nationally, the proportion of S. aureus that were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) increased significantly from 11.5% in 2000 to 17.9% in 2012 (P<0.0001). Resistance to the non-ß-lactam antimicrobials varied between regions. No resistance was detected to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. Resistance in methicillin susceptible S. aureus was rare apart from erythromycin (12.8%) and was absent for vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid and daptomycin. The proportion of S. aureus characterised as health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) was 5.1%. Three HA-MRSA clones were characterised, with 72.9% and 26.4% of HA-MRSA classified as ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) and ST239-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA) respectively. Multi-clonal community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) accounted for 12.5% of all S. aureus. Regional variation in resistance in MRSA was primarily due to the differential distribution of the 2 major HA-MRSA clones; ST239-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA), which is resistant to multiple non-ß-lactam antimicrobials, and ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15), which is resistant to ciprofloxacin and typically erythromycin. Although the majority of CA-MRSA were non-multi-resistant, a significant expansion of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positive CA-MRSA clones has occurred nationally. The mean age of patients (31.7 years, 95% CI 28.9-34.5) with a PVL positive CA-MRSA infection was significantly lower (P<0.0001), than the mean age of patients with a PVL

  6. Practical Elements in Danish Engineering Programmes, Including the European Project Semester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jorgen

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, all engineering programmes in HE have practical elements; for instance, at Bachelor's level, an internship is an integrated part of the programme. Furthermore, Denmark has a long-established tradition of problem-based and project-organized learning, and a large part of students' projects, including their final projects, is done in…

  7. Improving maternal and child healthcare programme using community-participatory interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Urochukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla

    2014-10-01

    In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP). The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government's FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers' groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities' health. PMID:25337602

  8. Biogas end-use in the European community

    SciTech Connect

    Constant, M.; Naveau, H.; Nyns, E.J. ); Ferrero, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    In Europe over the past few years the generation of biogas for energy and environmental purposes has been gaining in importance. Industrial wastewaters, cattle manure, sewage sludges, urban wastes, crop residues, algae and aquatic biomass are all typical of the materials being utilized. In contrast to the extensive inventory of biomethanation processes which has been carried out within the EEC, until recently a detailed, up-to-date investigation of the end-sues of biogas had not been undertaken. To supply the necessary information, the Commission of the European Communities and the Belgian Science Policy Office jointly entrusted a study to the Unit of Bioengineering at the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium. This book is record of the study and has the following key features: it gives a broad overview of the ongoing use of biogas in Europe; it summarizes available data on storage, purification and engines using biogas; it draws several conclusions concerning the technical and economic viability of the processes; it discusses the problems of using biogas; and it outlines recommendations and future R and D and demonstration projects in the field.

  9. Empowering communities and strengthening systems to improve transgender health: outcomes from the Pehchan programme in India

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Simran; Mburu, Gitau; Arumugam, Viswanathan; Mattipalli, Naveen; Aher, Abhina; Mehta, Sonal; Robertson, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Transgender populations face inequalities in access to HIV, health and social services. In addition, there is limited documentation of models for providing appropriately tailored services and social support for transgender populations in low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents outcomes of the Global Fund-supported Pehchan programme, which aimed to strengthen community systems and provide HIV, health, legal and social services to transgender communities across 18 Indian states through a rights-based empowerment approach. Methods We used a pre- and post-intervention cross-sectional survey design with retrospective analysis of programmatic data. Using stratified sampling, we identified 268 transgender participants in six Indian states from a total of 48,280 transgender people served by Pehchan through 186 community-based organizations. We quantified the impact of interventions by comparing baseline and end line indicators of accessed health social and legal services. We also assessed end line self-efficacy and collective action with regard to social support networks. Results There were significant increases in community-based demand and use of tailored health, legal, social and psychological services over the time of the Pehchan programme. We report significant increases in access to condoms (12.5%, p<0.001) and condom use at last anal sex with both regular (18.1%, p<0.001) and casual (8.1%, p<0.001) male partners. Access to HIV outreach education and testing and counselling services significantly increased (20.10%, p<0.001; 33.7%, p<0.001). In addition, significant increases in access to emergency crisis response (19.7%, p<0.001), legal support (26.8%, p<0.001) and mental health services (33.0%, p<0.001) were identified. Finally, we note that the Pehchan programme successfully provided a platform for the formation, collectivization and visibility of peer support groups. Conclusions The Pehchan programme's community involvement, rights

  10. What do community football players think about different exercise-training programmes? Implications for the delivery of lower limb injury prevention programmes

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caroline F; Doyle, Tim LA; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Elliott, Bruce C; Twomey, Dara M; White, Peta E; Diamantopoulou, Kathy; Young, Warren; Lloyd, David G

    2014-01-01

    Background Players are the targeted end-users and beneficiaries of exercise-training programmes implemented during coach-led training sessions, and the success of programmes depends upon their active participation. Two variants of an exercise-training programme were incorporated into the regular training schedules of 40 community Australian Football teams, over two seasons. One variant replicated common training practices, while the second was an evidence-based programme to alter biomechanical and neuromuscular factors related to risk of knee injuries. This paper describes the structure of the implemented programmes and compares players’ end-of-season views about the programme variants. Methods This study was nested within a larger group-clustered randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of two exercise-training programmes (control and neuromuscular control (NMC)) for preventing knee injuries. A post-season self-report survey, derived from Health Belief Model constructs, included questions to obtain players’ views about the benefits and physical challenges of the programme in which they participated. Results Compared with control players, those who participated in the NMC programme found it to be less physically challenging but more enjoyable and potentially of more benefit. Suggestions from players about potential improvements to the training programme and its future implementation included reducing duration, increasing range of drills/exercises and promoting its injury prevention and other benefits to players. Conclusions Players provide valuable feedback about the content and focus of implemented exercise-training programmes, that will directly inform the delivery of similar, or more successful, programmes in the future. PMID:24047571

  11. Evaluation of an Australian indigenous housing programme: community level impact on crowding, infrastructure function and hygiene

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Elizabeth L; Stevens, Matthew; Guthridge, Steven; Brewster, David R

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aim Housing programmes in indigenous Australian communities have focused largely on achieving good standards of infrastructure function. The impact of this approach was assessed on three potentially important housing-related influences on child health at the community level: (1) crowding, (2) the functional state of the house infrastructure and (3) the hygienic condition of the houses. Methods A before-and-after study, including house infrastructure surveys and structured interviews with the main householder, was conducted in all homes of young children in 10 remote Australian indigenous communities. Results Compared with baseline, follow-up surveys showed (1) a small non-significant decrease in the mean number of people per bedroom in the house on the night before the survey (3.4, 95% CI 3.1 to 3.6 at baseline vs 3.2, 95% CI 2.9 to 3.4 at follow-up; natural logarithm transformed t test, t=1.3, p=0.102); (2) a marginally significant overall improvement in infrastructure function scores (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2=3.9, p=0.047); and (3) no clear overall improvement in hygiene (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2=0.3, p=0.605). Conclusion Housing programmes of this scale that focus on the provision of infrastructure alone appear unlikely to lead to more hygienic general living environments, at least in this study context. A broader ecological approach to housing programmes delivered in these communities is needed if potential health benefits are to be maximised. This ecological approach would require a balanced programme of improving access to health hardware, hygiene promotion and creating a broader enabling environment in communities. PMID:20466712

  12. Cost–effectiveness of community-based practitioner programmes in Ethiopia, Indonesia and Kenya

    PubMed Central

    McPake, Barbara; Witter, Sophie; Kielmann, Karina; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Dieleman, Marjolein; Vaughan, Kelsey; Gama, Elvis; Kok, Maryse; Datiko, Daniel; Otiso, Lillian; Ahmed, Rukhsana; Squires, Neil; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Cometto, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the cost–effectiveness of community-based practitioner programmes in Ethiopia, Indonesia and Kenya. Methods Incremental cost–effectiveness ratios for the three programmes were estimated from a government perspective. Cost data were collected for 2012. Life years gained were estimated based on coverage of reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health services. For Ethiopia and Kenya, estimates of coverage before and after the implementation of the programme were obtained from empirical studies. For Indonesia, coverage of health service interventions was estimated from routine data. We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate the number of lives saved from changes in reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health-service coverage. Gross domestic product per capita was used as the reference willingness-to-pay threshold value. Findings The estimated incremental cost per life year gained was 82 international dollars ($)in Kenya, $999 in Ethiopia and $3396 in Indonesia. The results were most sensitive to uncertainty in the estimates of life-years gained. Based on the results of probabilistic sensitivity analysis, there was greater than 80% certainty that each programme was cost-effective. Conclusion Community-based approaches are likely to be cost-effective for delivery of some essential health interventions where community-based practitioners operate within an integrated team supported by the health system. Community-based practitioners may be most appropriate in rural poor communities that have limited access to more qualified health professionals. Further research is required to understand which programmatic design features are critical to effectiveness. PMID:26478627

  13. Promotion of breast feeding in the community: impact of health education programme in rural communities in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Davies-Adetugbo, A A

    1996-03-01

    Breast feeding has been recognized as a child survival strategy, while breast feeding programmes have been increasingly implemented in many communities. This study assesses the effectiveness of a breast feeding education programme launched through the primary health care programme in the rural communities of Nigeria. Late trimester pregnant women were enrolled into the study and given a questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) about breast feeding. Women in the study group (n = 126) received breast feeding counselling before and after delivery, while those in control group (n = 130) did not receive any counselling. Both groups were monitored after delivery and followed with the KAP questionnaire. The results of the study showed marked improvements in the intervention group for colostrum feeding (p = 0.0000). Moreover, 31.6% of the mothers in the intervention group practised timely initiation of breast feeding compared to 5.6% of the controls, and the prevalence of exclusive breast feeding at 4 months was 39.8% in the intervention group compared to 13.9% for the controls. Multivariate analysis showed that the intervention was a powerful and the only significant predictor of the increase in breast feeding behaviours (p = 0.0000), and that an early initiation of breast feeding is a strong predictor of exclusive breast feeding at 4 months of age. It is concluded that breast feeding promotion in rural communities is feasible and can lead to behavioural changes. PMID:8708336

  14. Implementing criteria-based early switch/early discharge programmes: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Nathwani, D; Lawson, W; Dryden, M; Stephens, J; Corman, S; Solem, C; Li, J; Charbonneau, C; Baillon-Plot, N; Haider, S; Eckmann, C

    2015-09-01

    Early switch (ES) from intravenous (IV) to oral antibiotic therapy programmes is increasingly included as a component of hospital antimicrobial stewardship initiatives that aim to optimize antimicrobial therapy while limiting toxicity and resistance. In terms of prioritizing the most cost-effective stewardship interventions, ES has been seen as a 'low-hanging fruit', which refers to selecting the most obtainable targets rather than confronting more complicated issues. Administration of highly bioavailable oral antibiotics should be considered for nearly all non-critically ill patients and has been recommended as an effective and safe strategy for over two decades. However, to accrue the most benefit from ES, it should be combined with an early discharge (ED) plan, protocol, or care pathway. Benefits of this combined approach include improved patient comfort and mobility, reduced incidence of IV-line-related adverse effects, reduced IV antimicrobial preparation time, decreased hospital stays, reduced antimicrobial purchasing and administration costs, decreased patient deconditioning, and shortened recovery times. Results from published studies document decreases in healthcare resource use and costs following implementation of ES programmes, which in most studies facilitate the opportunity for ED and ED programmes. Barriers to the implementation of these programmes include clinician misconceptions, practical considerations, organizational factors, and a striking lack of awareness of IV to oral switch guidance. These and other barriers will need to be addressed to maximize the effectiveness of ES and ED programmes. As national antimicrobial stewardship programmes dictate the inclusion of ES and ED programmes within healthcare facilities, programmes must be developed and success must be documented. PMID:26198369

  15. Implementing a community-based obesity prevention programme: experiences of stakeholders in the north east of England.

    PubMed

    Middleton, G; Henderson, H; Evans, D

    2014-06-01

    Recent literature indicates the potential of community-based obesity prevention programmes in the endeavour to reduce the prevalence of obesity in developed nations. Considerable suggestion and advocacy come from theoretical standpoints and little is known on actual practical application of this type of multi-component health promotion programme. This article explores the experiences of 'implementation' by stakeholders of a large community-based obesity prevention programme, facilitated by a National Health Service Care Trust in the north-east of England, UK. Three stakeholder groups (senior health officials, public health workers and community members) who had administrated and experienced the programme since its conception in 2006 provide perspectives on the aspects of local delivery and receipt. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with stakeholders (28 participants in total). The participants felt there were three broad aspects which shaped and constrained the delivery and receipt of the programme, namely partnership working, integration of services and quality issues. Data indicated that it had taken time to establish working partnerships between the multi-agencies involved in the community-based obesity programme. Strategic management would aid the processes of communication and collaboration between agencies and also the local community involved in the administration, delivery and participation of interventions in the programme. Secondly, the way in which the programme is justified and sustained will have to be reviewed, with the intention of using a suitable evaluative framework or tool for monitoring purposes. PMID:23297339

  16. Living standards and mortality in the European Community.

    PubMed Central

    Mackenbach, J P; Looman, C W

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The association between living standards and mortality in the European Community (EC) was investigated using regional level data from all EC member countries. DATA AND METHODS--Data covering the 1980s were extracted from various publications. Data on "all cause" mortality (standardised mortality ratios, both sexes, all ages), living standards (gross domestic product, car access, unemployment rates), and some potential confounders (population density, agricultural employment, industrial employment, country) were available for 133 regions. Multiple regression analysis was used for each living standard variable, taking lnSMR as the dependent variable. RESULTS--It is only after taking into account potential confounders that higher living standards are associated with lower mortality. Unemployment rates have the strongest association--each additional percentage in unemployment in the regional population is associated with an increase in mortality by 0.81%. There is important variation between countries in the living standards--mortality relationship. The latter ranges from relatively strong in the UK to absent in Italy. DISCUSSION--The results of this study show that there is an association between living standards and mortality at the regional level in the EC, but that this association comes to light only after controlling for confounding variables. It seems that the mortality increasing effects of urbanisation and industrialization have obscured the mortality lowering effects of high living standards. In addition, factors specific to countries (such as dietary habits) act as confounders. The latter finding is interpreted in the light of differences between countries in the way in which they have gone through the "epidemiologic translation" from infectious diseases to the "western" diseases that currently dominate the mortality pattern. PMID:8189167

  17. Research support for effective state and community tobacco control programme response to electronic nicotine delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Carol L; Lee, Youn Ok; Curry, Laurel E; Farrelly, Matthew C; Rogers, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify unmet research needs of state and community tobacco control practitioners pertaining to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes) that would inform policy and practice efforts at the state and community levels, and to describe ENDS-related research and dissemination activities of the National Cancer Institute-funded State and Community Tobacco Control Research Initiative. Methods To determine specific research gaps relevant to state and community tobacco control practice, we analysed survey data collected from tobacco control programmes (TCPs) in all 50 US states and the District of Columbia (N=51). Survey items covered a range of ENDS issues: direct harm to users, harm of secondhand vapour, cessation, flavours, constituents and youth access. Results There is no ENDS topic on which a majority of state TCP managers feel very informed. They feel least informed about harms of secondhand vapour while also reporting that this information is among the most important for their programme. A majority (N=31) of respondents indicated needs for research on the implications of ENDS products for existing policies. Conclusions TCP managers report that ENDS research is highly important for practice and need research-based information to inform decision making around the inclusion of ENDS in existing tobacco control policies. For optimal relevance to state and community TCPs, research on ENDS should prioritise study of the health effects of ENDS use and secondhand exposure to ENDS vapour in the context of existing tobacco control policies. PMID:24935899

  18. Can local communities 'sustain' HIV/AIDS programmes? A South African example.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine; Maimane, Sbongile

    2015-03-01

    Globally, there is a renewed interest in building the local sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes to ensure that once funders withdraw, local communities can sustain programmes. While the 'local sustainability assumption' is widespread, little research has assessed this. In this article, we assess the sustainability of the Entabeni Project, a community-based intervention that sought to build women's local leadership and capacity to respond to HIV/AIDS through a group of volunteer carers, 3 years after external support was withdrawn. Overall, the sustainability of the Entabeni Project was limited. The wider social and political context undermined volunteer carers' sense that they could affect change, with little external support for them from government and NGOs, who struggled to engage with local community organizations. At the community level, some church leaders and community members recognized the important role of health volunteers, many continued to devalue the work of the carers, especially once there was no external organization to support and validate their work. Within the health volunteer group, despite extensive efforts to change dynamics, it remained dominated by a local male leader who denied others active participation while lacking the skills to meaningfully lead the project. Our case study suggests that the local-sustainability assumption is wishful thinking. Small-scale local projects are unlikely to be able to challenge the broader social and political dynamics hindering their sustainability without meaningful external support. PMID:25351362

  19. Using a centralised database system and server in the European Union Framework Programme 7 project SEPServer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heynderickx, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of the SEPServer project (EU FP7 project 262773) is to produce a new tool, which greatly facilitates the investigation of solar energetic particles (SEPs) and their origin: a server providing SEP data, related electromagnetic (EM) observations and analysis methods, a comprehensive catalogue of the observed SEP events, and educational/outreach material on solar eruptions. The project is coordinated by the University of Helsinki. The project will combine data and knowledge from 11 European partners and several collaborating parties from Europe and US. The datasets provided by the consortium partners are collected in a MySQL database (using the ESA Open Data Interface under licence) on a server operated by DH Consultancy, which also hosts a web interface providing browsing, plotting and post-processing and analysis tools developed by the consortium, as well as a Solar Energetic Particle event catalogue. At this stage of the project, a prototype server has been established, which is presently undergoing testing by users inside the consortium. Using a centralized database has numerous advantages, including: homogeneous storage of the data, which eliminates the need for dataset specific file access routines once the data are ingested in the database; a homogeneous set of metadata describing the datasets on both a global and detailed level, allowing for automated access to and presentation of the various data products; standardised access to the data in different programming environments (e.g. php, IDL); elimination of the need to download data for individual data requests. SEPServer will, thus, add value to several space missions and Earth-based observations by facilitating the coordinated exploitation of and open access to SEP data and related EM observations, and promoting correct use of these data for the entire space research community. This will lead to new knowledge on the production and transport of SEPs during solar eruptions and facilitate the

  20. Factors in the Spread of Continuing Training in the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aventur, Francois; Campo, Christian; Moebus, Martine

    1999-01-01

    A study compared 17 European countries' initial and continuing vocational training systems. Two kinds of continuing training (CT)--that which is initiated by the employer and that which is intiated by the individual--provide an indicator for comparing the different situations observed throughout the European Community. The two forms are mutually…

  1. Amsterdam's STI/HIV Programme: An Innovative Strategy to Achieve and Enhance the Participation of Migrant Community-Based Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagemakers, Annemarie; van Husen, Gwen; Barrett, Jennifer B.; Koelen, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The STI/HIV prevention programme in Amsterdam aims to improve the sexual health of Amsterdam residents of African, Antillean, Aruban and Surinamese origins. The programme strategy is to achieve and enhance the participation of migrant community-based organisations (CBOs) in sexual health promotion through a grant scheme and by providing…

  2. Effect on mortality of community-based maternity-care programme in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Fauveau, V; Stewart, K; Khan, S A; Chakraborty, J

    1991-11-01

    Various community-based interventions have been proposed to improve maternity care, but hardly any studies have reported the effect of these measures on maternal mortality. In this study, the efficacy of a maternity-care programme to reduce maternal mortality has been evaluated in the context of a primary health-care project in rural Bangladesh. Trained midwives were posted in villages, and asked to attend as many home-deliveries as possible, detect and manage obstetric complications at onset, and accompany patients requiring referral for higher-level care to the project central maternity clinic. The effect of the programme was evaluated by comparison of direct obstetric maternal mortality ratios between the programme area and a neighbouring control area without midwives. Random assignment of the intervention was not possible but potentially confounding characteristics, including coverage and use of other health and family planning services, were similar in both areas. Maternal mortality ratios due to obstetric complications were similar in both areas during the 3 years preceding the start of the programme. By contrast, during the following 3 years, the ratio was significantly lower in the programme than in the control area (1.4 vs 3.8 per 1000 live births, p = 0.02). The findings suggest that maternal survival can be improved by the posting of midwives at village level, if they are given proper training, means, supervision, and back-up. The inputs for such a programme to succeed and the constraints of its replication on a large scale should not be underestimated. PMID:1682600

  3. Status on R and D Planning for Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor Systems in the 6. European Framework Programme

    SciTech Connect

    Starflinger, J.; Schulenberg, T.; Aksan, N.; Bittermann, D.; Heikinheimo, L.; Rimpault, G.

    2004-07-01

    On July 30, 2003, EURATOM signed the charter to join the Generation IV International Forum and thus to contribute to innovative reactor design and development. Among other concepts, supercritical water cooled reactor systems shall be foreseen as their contribution. In order to support this international forum, a dedicated budget for R and D of innovative concepts is planned for the 6. European Framework Programme of the European Commission. Currently, a detailed work plan for supercritical water cooled reactor systems is being worked out, in order to be presented and decided by the European Commission thereafter. It shall include: - Design studies of a thermal reactor core, its reactor pressure vessel internals and of the balance of plant. - Study of a fast reactor option for sustainable use of fuel and for Plutonium management. - Study of the corrosion behavior and other performances of candidate materials at supercritical pressures. - Detailed investigations of heat transfer and pressure drop at supercritical pressures and at part load operation conditions of the reactor. - Design code improvements and verifications. - Conceptual design and analyses of a suitable safety system. As a result, the program shall enable a thorough assessment of the supercritical water cooled reactor system with a view to determine its future potential. This summary report shall give an overview of the contributions, which are planned to be provided by the EURATOM partners in France, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Switzerland, The Netherlands and The Czech Republic. (authors)

  4. The role of the Community Bureau of Reference in harmonizing compliance with the laws of the Commission of the European Communities.

    PubMed

    Goenaga, X

    1994-01-01

    While Community Directives provide the legal basis for the harmonization of national regulations (e.g. food quality, quality of plastics in contact with foodstuffs, etc.), their implementation sometimes requires measurements and analyses which are beyond the capabilities of many laboratories. The BCR Programme of the Commission of the European Communities has undertaken a series of actions in order to help with the implementation of Directive 90/128/EEC for plastics materials intended to come into contact with foodstuffs. The certification of the overall migration characteristics of a polyamide material in aqueous food simulants by total immersion is well advanced. This material will be available through the BCR Programme in 1993 and will allow the laboratories to check their correct application of the normalized method and will provide a basis for laboratory quality assurance. A project is in progress for the preparation of a reference material for the measurement of overall migration by total immersion in olive oil. The preparation of a bank of monomers in the positive list of the above Directive and a handbook of physical and spectroscopic data for these monomers has been supported. Projects are being prepared for supporting the development of methods for the analysis of more than thirty monomers with restrictions in the positive list of Directive 90/128/EEC. PMID:8039578

  5. A 3-year community-based periodontal disease prevention programme for adults in a developing nation.

    PubMed

    Cutress, T W; Powell, R N; Kilisimasi, S; Tomiki, S; Holborow, D

    1991-12-01

    A field trail of a community programme for improving periodontal health of adults was carried out in a geographically remote, unsophisticated rural population in the South Pacific islands of Tonga. The 3-year project (1986-89) involved three village communities, each with a population of approximately 1200. Village N received supplies of toothbrushes and toothpaste without charge, health education (videos, talks, posters) and periodic dental scaling (ultrasonic). Village K received the same as N except that dental scaling was not provided. Village E received none of the services provided to the villages N and K. Baseline and final examinations of 20-44-year olds showed that unsupervised self-care promoted at the community level, when supplemented with periodic removal of subgingival calculus, significantly improved periodontal health. Improvement was age dependent. PMID:1800382

  6. From efficacy to effectiveness: selecting indicators for a community-based lactational amenorrhoea method promotion programme.

    PubMed

    Bender, D E; Dusch, E; McCann, M F

    1998-04-01

    This paper reviews the results of clinical trials and community studies of lactational amenorrhoea and its role as a contraceptive method (LAM). Indicators which are used in efficacy trials and effectiveness interventions are compared and sets of indicators of effectiveness appropriate to community-based LAM programmes are recommended. A five-tiered ecological framework is used to facilitate selection of indicators which range from individual to policy level outcomes. The indicator framework is intended as a tool for health practitioners in family planning and maternal and child health service delivery settings who are interested in designing programmatic interventions for the promotion of LAM, particularly among less well-educated women of lower socioeconomic communities. PMID:9746825

  7. The Applicability of Behaviour Change in Intervention Programmes Targeted at Ending Female Genital Mutilation in the EU: Integrating Social Cognitive and Community Level Approaches.

    PubMed

    Brown, Katherine; Beecham, David; Barrett, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    With increased migration, female genital mutilation (FGM) also referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting is no longer restricted to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The European Parliament estimates that up to half a million women living in the EU have been subjected to FGM, with a further 180,000 at risk. Aware of the limited success of campaigns addressing FGM, the World Health Organization recommended a behavioural change approach be implemented in order to end FGM. To date, however, little progress has been made in adopting a behaviour change approach in strategies aimed at ending FGM. Based on research undertaken as part of the EU's Daphne III programme, which researched FGM intervention programmes linked to African communities in the EU (REPLACE), this paper argues that behaviour change has not been implemented due to a lack of understanding relating to the application of the two broad categories of behaviour change approach: individualistic decision-theoretic and community-change game-theoretic approaches, and how they may be integrated to aid our understanding and the development of future intervention strategies. We therefore discuss how these can be integrated and implemented using community-based participatory action research methods with affected communities. PMID:23983698

  8. The Applicability of Behaviour Change in Intervention Programmes Targeted at Ending Female Genital Mutilation in the EU: Integrating Social Cognitive and Community Level Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katherine; Barrett, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    With increased migration, female genital mutilation (FGM) also referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting is no longer restricted to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The European Parliament estimates that up to half a million women living in the EU have been subjected to FGM, with a further 180,000 at risk. Aware of the limited success of campaigns addressing FGM, the World Health Organization recommended a behavioural change approach be implemented in order to end FGM. To date, however, little progress has been made in adopting a behaviour change approach in strategies aimed at ending FGM. Based on research undertaken as part of the EU's Daphne III programme, which researched FGM intervention programmes linked to African communities in the EU (REPLACE), this paper argues that behaviour change has not been implemented due to a lack of understanding relating to the application of the two broad categories of behaviour change approach: individualistic decision-theoretic and community-change game-theoretic approaches, and how they may be integrated to aid our understanding and the development of future intervention strategies. We therefore discuss how these can be integrated and implemented using community-based participatory action research methods with affected communities. PMID:23983698

  9. Coverage of Community-Based Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition Programmes in Twenty-One Countries, 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Eleanor; Myatt, Mark; Woodhead, Sophie; Guerrero, Saul; Alvarez, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper reviews coverage data from programmes treating severe acute malnutrition (SAM) collected between July 2012 and June 2013. Design This is a descriptive study of coverage levels and barriers to coverage collected by coverage assessments of community-based SAM treatment programmes in 21 countries that were supported by the Coverage Monitoring Network. Data from 44 coverage assessments are reviewed. Setting These assessments analyse malnourished populations from 6 to 59 months old to understand the accessibility and coverage of services for treatment of acute malnutrition. The majority of assessments are from sub-Saharan Africa. Results Most of the programmes (33 of 44) failed to meet context-specific internationally agreed minimum standards for coverage. The mean level of estimated coverage achieved by the programmes in this analysis was 38.3%. The most frequently reported barriers to access were lack of awareness of malnutrition, lack of awareness of the programme, high opportunity costs, inter-programme interface problems, and previous rejection. Conclusions This study shows that coverage of CMAM is lower than previous analyses of early CTC programmes; therefore reducing programme impact. Barriers to access need to be addressed in order to start improving coverage by paying greater attention to certain activities such as community sensitisation. As barriers are interconnected focusing on specific activities, such as decentralising services to satellite sites, is likely to increase significantly utilisation of nutrition services. Programmes need to ensure that barriers are continuously monitored to ensure timely removal and increased coverage. PMID:26042827

  10. Accreditation and Quality Assurance for Professional Degree Programmes: Comparing Approaches in Three European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Andrea; Kurth, Detlef; Mironowicz, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been made in establishing and implementing robust, comparable quality assurance processes throughout much of the European higher education sector. However, concerns persist over degree portability and recognition as current systems are rooted in national contexts. In particular, specialised…

  11. ENVRI Cluster - a community-driven platform of European environmental research infrastructures for providing common solution for science and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorvari, Sanna; Kutsch, Werner; Laj, Paolo; Asmi, Ari; Brus, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    European long-term environmental research infrastructures (often referred as ESFRI RIs) are the core facilities for providing services for scientists in their quest for understanding and predicting the complex Earth system and its functioning that requires long-term efforts to identify environmental changes (trends, thresholds and resilience, interactions and feedbacks). Many of the research infrastructures originally have been developed to respond to the needs of their specific research communities, however, it is clear that strong collaboration among research infrastructures is needed to serve the trans-boundary research requires exploring scientific questions at the intersection of different scientific fields, conducting joint research projects and developing concepts, devices, and methods that can be used to integrate knowledge. European Environmental research infrastructures have already been successfully worked together for many years and have established a cluster - ENVRI cluster - for their collaborative work. ENVRI cluster act as a collaborative platform where the RIs can jointly agree on the common solutions for their operations, draft strategies and policies and share best practices and knowledge. Supporting project for the ENVRI cluster, ENVRIplus project, brings together 21 European research infrastructures and infrastructure networks to work on joint technical solutions, data interoperability, access management, training, strategies and dissemination efforts. ENVRI cluster act as one stop shop for multidisciplinary RI users, other collaborative initiatives, projects and programmes and coordinates and implement jointly agreed RI strategies.

  12. Perceptions of Participants in a Group, Community, Exercise Programme for People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Rosemary; Coote, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of people with multiple sclerosis of a community based, group exercise programme. Method. A pragmatic programme evaluation approach using qualitative research design was adopted. Focus groups were used to gather data from 14 participants who had taken part in a RCT of community based exercise interventions for PwMS who used at most a stick to walk outdoors. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was used to first identify categories and then to group them into themes. Results. Three themes emerged, psychological benefits, physical benefits, and knowledge gained. The psychological benefits included the role of the group as a social and motivational factor, empowerment, confidence, hope, sense of achievement, and pride. Physical benefits were improved energy and reduced fatigue and improved ability and participation. Knowledge gained caused a shift from thoughts that exercise might do harm, to sufficient knowledge that would give participants confidence to exercise themselves. The role of the group was a key element in the positive outcomes. Conclusions. The qualitative analysis supports the findings of the main trial confirming positive effects of community exercise interventions by reducing the impact of MS and fatigue and improving participation. PMID:26491567

  13. Addressing the social determinants of health: a case study from the Mitanin (community health worker) programme in India.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Sulakshana; Schneider, Helen

    2014-09-01

    The Mitanin Programme, a government community health worker (CHW) programme, was started in Chhattisgarh State of India in 2002. The CHWs (Mitanins) have consistently adopted roles that go beyond health programme-specific interventions to embrace community mobilization and action on local priorities. The aim of this research was to document how and why the Mitanins have been able to act on the social determinants of health, describing the catalysts and processes involved and the enabling programmatic and organizational factors. A qualitative comparative case study of successful action by Mitanin was conducted in two 'blocks', purposefully selected as positive exemplars in two districts of Chhattisgarh. One case focused on malnutrition and the other on gender-based violence. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews and 10 group interviews with the full range of stakeholders in both blocks, including community members and programme team. Thematic analysis was done using a broad conceptual framework that was further refined. Action on social determinants involved raising awareness on rights, mobilizing women's collectives, revitalizing local political structures and social action targeting both the community and government service providers. Through these processes, the Mitanins developed identities as agents of change and advocates for the community, both with respect to local cultural and gender norms and in ensuring accountability of service providers. The factors underpinning successful action on social determinants were identified as the significance of the original intent and vision of the programme, and how this was carried through into all aspects of programme design, the role of the Mitanins and their identification with village women, ongoing training and support, and the relative autonomy of the programme. Although the results are not narrowly generalizable and do not necessarily represent the situation of the Mitanin Programme as a whole, the

  14. Addressing the social determinants of health: a case study from the Mitanin (community health worker) programme in India

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Mitanin Programme, a government community health worker (CHW) programme, was started in Chhattisgarh State of India in 2002. The CHWs (Mitanins) have consistently adopted roles that go beyond health programme-specific interventions to embrace community mobilization and action on local priorities. The aim of this research was to document how and why the Mitanins have been able to act on the social determinants of health, describing the catalysts and processes involved and the enabling programmatic and organizational factors. A qualitative comparative case study of successful action by Mitanin was conducted in two ‘blocks’, purposefully selected as positive exemplars in two districts of Chhattisgarh. One case focused on malnutrition and the other on gender-based violence. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews and 10 group interviews with the full range of stakeholders in both blocks, including community members and programme team. Thematic analysis was done using a broad conceptual framework that was further refined. Action on social determinants involved raising awareness on rights, mobilizing women’s collectives, revitalizing local political structures and social action targeting both the community and government service providers. Through these processes, the Mitanins developed identities as agents of change and advocates for the community, both with respect to local cultural and gender norms and in ensuring accountability of service providers. The factors underpinning successful action on social determinants were identified as the significance of the original intent and vision of the programme, and how this was carried through into all aspects of programme design, the role of the Mitanins and their identification with village women, ongoing training and support, and the relative autonomy of the programme. Although the results are not narrowly generalizable and do not necessarily represent the situation of the Mitanin Programme as a whole, the

  15. The use of a modified pairwise comparison method in evaluating critical success factors for community-based rural homestay programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, Shahidah Md; Ramli, Razamin; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2014-12-01

    Tourism industry has become the highlighted sector which has amazingly increased the national income level. Despite the tourism industry being one of the highest income generating sectors, Homestay Programme as a Community-Based Tourism (CBT) product in Malaysia does not absorbed much of the incoming wealth. Homestay Programme refers to a programme in a community where a tourist stays together with a host family and experiences the everyday way of life of the family in both direct and indirect manner. There are over 100 Homestay Programme currently being registered with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Malaysia which mostly are located in rural areas, but only a few excel and enjoying the fruit of the booming industry. Hence, this article seeks to identify the critical success factors for a Community-Based Rural Homestay Programme in Malaysia. A modified pairwise method is utilized to further evaluate the identified success factors in a more meaningful way. The findings will help Homestay Programme function as a community development tool that manages tourism resources. Thus, help the community in improving local economy and creating job opportunities.

  16. Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework to develop community-driven health programmes in an Indigenous community in Canada.

    PubMed

    Willows, Noreen; Dyck Fehderau, David; Raine, Kim D

    2016-09-01

    Indigenous First Nations people in Canada have high chronic disease morbidity resulting in part from enduring social inequities and colonialism. Obesity prevention strategies developed by and for First Nations people are crucial to improving the health status of this group. The research objective was to develop community-relevant strategies to address childhood obesity in a First Nations community. Strategies were derived from an action-based workshop based on the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework. Thirteen community members with wide-ranging community representation took part in the workshop. They combined personal knowledge and experience with community-specific and national research to dissect the broad array of environmental factors that influenced childhood obesity in their community. They then developed community-specific action plans focusing on healthy eating and physical activity for children and their families. Actions included increasing awareness of children's health issues among the local population and community leadership, promoting nutrition and physical activity at school, and improving recreation opportunities. Strengthening children's connection to their culture was considered paramount to improving their well-being; thus, workshop participants developed programmes that included elders as teachers and reinforced families' acquaintance with First Nations foods and activities. The research demonstrated that the ANGELO framework is a participatory way to develop community-driven health programmes. It also demonstrated that First Nations people involved in the creation of solutions to health issues in their communities may focus on decolonising approaches such as strengthening their connection to indigenous culture and traditions. External funds were not available to implement programmes and there was no formal follow-up to determine if community members implemented programmes. Future research needs to examine the

  17. Evaluating community-based medical education programmes in Africa: A workshop report

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Rebecca J; Baingana, Rhona K; Couper, Ian D; Deery, Christopher B; Nestel, Debra; Ross, Heather; Sagay, Atiene Solomon; Talib, Zohray M

    2015-01-01

    Background The Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) supports medical schools in Africa to increase the capacity and quality of medical education, improve retention of graduates, and promote regionally relevant research. Many MEPI programmes include elements of community-based education (CBE) such as: community placements; clinical rotations in underserved locations, community medicine, or primary health; situational analyses; or student-led research. Methods CapacityPlus and the MEPI Coordinating Center conducted a workshop to share good practices for CBE evaluation, identify approaches that can be used for CBE evaluation in the African context, and strengthen a network of CBE collaborators. Expected outcomes of the workshop included draft evaluation plans for each school and plans for continued collaboration among participants. The workshop focused on approaches and resources for evaluation, guiding exploration of programme evaluation including data collection, sampling, analysis, and reporting. Participants developed logic models capturing inputs, activities, outputs, and expected outcomes of their programmes, and used these models to inform development of evaluation plans. This report describes key insights from the workshop, and highlights plans for CBE evaluation among the MEPI institutions. Results Each school left the workshop with a draft evaluation plan. Participants agreed to maintain communication and identified concrete areas for collaboration moving forward. Since the workshop’s conclusion, nine schools have agreed on next steps for the evaluation process and will begin implementation of their plans. Conclusion This workshop clearly demonstrated the widespread interest in improving CBE evaluation efforts and a need to develop, implement, and disseminate rigorous approaches and tools relevant to the African context. PMID:26523230

  18. Burden & pattern of illnesses among the tribal communities in central India : A report from a community health programme.

    PubMed

    Jain, Yogesh; Kataria, Raman; Patil, Sushil; Kadam, Suhas; Kataria, Anju; Jain, Rachna; Kurbude, Ravindra; Shinde, Sharayu

    2015-05-01

    Tribals are the most marginalised social category in the country and there is little and scattered information on the actual burden and pattern of illnesses they suffer from. This study provides information on burden and pattern of diseases among tribals, and whether these can be linked to their nutritional status, especially in particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PVTG) seen at a community health programme being run in the tribal areas of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh States of India. This community based programme, known as Jan Swasthya Sahyog (JSS) has been serving people in over 2500 villages in rural central India. It was found that the tribals had significantly higher proportion of all tuberculosis, sputum positive tuberculosis, severe hypertension, illnesses that require major surgery as a primary therapeutic intervention and cancers than non tribals. The proportions of people with rheumatic heart disease, sickle cell disease and epilepsy were not significantly different between different social groups. Nutritional levels of tribals were poor. Tribals in central India suffer a disproportionate burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases amidst worrisome levels of undernutrition. There is a need for universal health coverage with preferential care for the tribals, especially those belonging to the PVTG. Further, the high level of undernutrition demands a more augmented and universal Public Distribution System. PMID:26139787

  19. Staff perceptions of change resulting from participation in a European cancer accreditation programme: a snapshot from eight cancer centres

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Abinaya; Wind, Anke; Saghatchian, Mahasti; Thonon, Frederique; Boomsma, Femke; van Harten, Wim H

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare accreditation is considered to be an essential quality improvement tool. However, its effectiveness has been critiqued. Methods Twenty-four interviews were conducted with clinicians (five), nurses (six), managers (eight), and basic/translational researchers (five) from eight European cancer centres on changes observed from participating in a European cancer accreditation programme. Data were thematically analysed and verified with participants and checked against auditor’s feedback. Results Four change categories emerged: (i) the growing importance of the nursing and supportive care field (role change). Nurses gained more autonomy/clarity on their daily duties. Importance was given to the hiring and training of supportive care personnel (ii) critical thinking on data integration (strategic change). Managers gained insight on how to integrate institutional level data (iii) improved processes within multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings (procedural change). Clinical staff experienced improved communication between MDTs (iv) building trust (organisational change). Accreditation improved the centre’s credibility with its own staff and externally with funders and patients. No motivational changes were perceived. Researchers perceived no changes. The auditor’s feedback included changes in 13 areas: translational research, biobanks, clinical trials, patient privacy and satisfaction, cancer registries, clinical practice guidelines, patient education, screening, primary prevention, role of nurses, MDT, supportive care, and data integration. However, our study revealed that staff perceived changes only in the last four areas. Conclusion Staff perceived changes in data integration, nursing and supportive care, and in certain clinical aspects. Accreditation programmes must pay attention to the needs of different stakeholder groups, track changes, and observe how/why change happens. PMID:26180546

  20. Germany's Social Movement Sector, the Greens, and the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankowski, Carl

    1993-01-01

    Argues that a new political culture has developed since the 1960s in West Germany. Discusses the interest in issues related to the environment, women's rights, peace, and similar issues. Describes the development of the Green Party and its impact on mainstream political parties and the movement toward European unity. (CFR)

  1. Ethical review of projects involving non-human primates funded under the European Union's 7th Research Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula; Phillips, Barry; Reid, Kirsty; Schmit, Véronique; Jennings, Maggy

    2013-09-01

    Internet searches were performed on projects involving non-human primates ('primates') funded under the European Union (EU) 7th Research Framework Programme (FP7), to determine how project proposals are assessed from an ethical point of view. Due to the incompleteness of the information publicly available, the types and severity of the experiments could not be determined with certainty, although in some projects the level of harm was considered to be 'severe'. Information was scarce regarding the numbers of primates, their sourcing, housing, care and fate, or the application of the Three Rs within projects. Project grant holders and the relevant Commission officer were consulted about their experiences with the FP7 ethics review process. Overall, it was seen as meaningful and beneficial, but some concerns were also noted. Ethical follow-up during project performance and upon completion was recognised as a valuable tool in ensuring that animal welfare requirements were adequately addressed. Based upon the outcome of the survey, recommendations are presented on how to strengthen the ethical review process under the upcoming Framework Programme 'Horizon 2020', while adequately taking into account the specific requirements of Directive 2010/63/EU, with the aim of limiting the harms inflicted on the animals and the numbers used, and ultimately, replacing the use of primates altogether. PMID:24168134

  2. The European Schoolnet. An Online European Community for Teachers? A Valuable Professional Resource?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Marilyn; Younie, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Describes successes and problems of the European Schoolnet Multimedia Project, highlighting one project, the Learning School, which researched teachers' needs and uses of information and communication technology in the classroom in Portugal, Belgium, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The article examines issues related to pedagogy, demands on…

  3. Impact on mortality of a community-based programme to control acute lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed Central

    Fauveau, V.; Stewart, M. K.; Chakraborty, J.; Khan, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    Acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRIs) are a major cause of death among young children in developing countries. A targeted programme designed to treat children with ALRI was implemented in 1988 in a primary health care project in rural Bangladesh. In the 2 years preceding the introduction of the programme (1986-87), non-ALRI-specific health services were provided, including promotion of oral rehydration therapy, family planning, immunization of children and mothers, distribution of vitamin A, referral of severely sick children to field clinics, and nutritional rehabilitation of malnourished children. The targeted ALRI programme, which was in place in 1988-89, was based on systematic ALRI case detection and management by community health workers, who were linked to a referral system for medical support. These two levels of intervention have been evaluated by comparing the ALRI-specific mortality in the programme area and a neighbouring control area during the two periods. During the first phase (1986-87), the ALRI mortality among under-5-year-olds was 28% lower in the intervention than in the comparison area (P less than 0.01). During the second phase (1988-89), the ALRI mortality was 32% lower in the intervention area than during the preceding phase, while there was no significant difference for the comparison area. These findings suggest that in the study region the combination of specific and nonspecific interventions can reduce ALRI mortality by as much as 50% and the overall mortality among under-5-year-olds by as much as 30%. PMID:1568275

  4. Policy Goals of European Integration and Competitiveness in Academic Collaborations: An Examination of Joint Master's and Erasmus Mundus Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papatsiba, Vassiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines policy goals pertaining to joint Master's in Europe as presented in Bologna-related and Erasmus Mundus (EM) policy texts. The profile of joint programmes has risen in the aftermath of the Bologna Process (BP), together with the launch of the EU EM. Despite a European policy tradition of cooperation in higher education…

  5. Essential elements of treatment: a comparative study between European and American therapeutic communities for addiction.

    PubMed

    Goethals, Ilse; Soyez, Veerle; Melnick, Gerald; De Leon, George; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether European and American therapeutic communities (TCs) for addiction, both traditional and modified, share a common perspective on what is essential in treatment using the Survey of Essential Elements Questionnaire (SEEQ). The European sample (N = 19) was gathered in 2009. For the American sample (N = 19), we used previously published research data. Despite comparable perspectives, European traditional TCs (N = 11) scored significantly higher than their American predecessors (N = 11) on four SEEQ domains. Cluster differences were more pronounced in Europe than in America. PMID:21235341

  6. Neutronics R&D efforts in support of the European breeder blanket development programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, U.; Batistoni, P.; Klix, A.; Kodeli, I.; Leichtle, D.; Perel, R. L.

    2009-06-01

    The recent progress in the R&D neutronics efforts spent in the EU to support the development of the HCLL and HCPB breeder blankets is presented. These efforts include neutronic design activities performed in the framework of the European DEMO reactor study, validation efforts by means of neutronics mock-up experiments using 14 MeV neutron generators and the development of dedicated computational tools such as the conversion software McCad for the automatic generation of a Monte Carlo geometry model from available CAD data, and the MCSEN code for Monte Carlo based calculations of sensitivities and uncertainties by using the track length estimator. The supporting validation effort is devoted to the capability of the neutronics tools and data to predict the tritium production and other nuclear responses of interest in neutronics mock-up experiments. Such an experiment has been conducted on a HCPB mock-up while another on a HCLL mock-up is in progress.

  7. Listening to those on the frontline: lessons for community-based tuberculosis programmes from a qualitative study in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Escott, Sarah; Walley, John

    2005-10-01

    This study explored the experience of people involved in a new community-based tuberculosis (TB) programme in rural Swaziland. Patients have their treatment observed in the community after choosing a treatment supporter (either community health worker or family member) in dialogue with the TB nurse. Interviews were conducted with TB patients, treatment supporters, clinic nurses, nurses working in the hospital-based TB team and medical staff. The study generated two main themes: (1) issues relating to the TB programme and (2) wider societal issues. Both are important, however this paper reports only the issues directly related to the TB programme. The study found that community-based care is preferred to hospital care, which should be retained only for the very ill patients. The importance of selecting suitable patients and ensuring individualised and flexible arrangements was highlighted. Although treatment outcomes are known to have improved since introducing the new TB programme a number of issues require further attention. Communication between different levels of the health service needs to be improved and consultation communication skills, taught prior to introducing the programme, need to be refreshed. All relevant staff must be trained on the TB programme and patient education (on TB, HIV and treatment adherence) needs to be reinforced throughout TB treatment. Health education of the wider community is also needed. Ongoing support of treatment supporters must recognise that their role is not simply treatment observation. In this context, where the large majority of TB patients are HIV positive, better co-ordination with the HIV/AIDS services is required, including treatment of other HIV-related infections and home-based care for TB patients who deteriorate. Although the findings and recommendations of this study are context specific they are likely to be of relevance to other programmes. PMID:15967558

  8. The Copernicus programme and its Climate Change Service (C3S): a European answer to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinty, Bernard; Thepaut, Jean-Noel; Dee, Dick

    2016-07-01

    In November 2014, The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) signed an agreement with the European Commission to deliver two of the Copernicus Earth Observation Programme Services on the Commission's behalf. The ECMWF delivered services - the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) - will bring a consistent standard to how we measure and predict atmospheric conditions and climate change. They will maximise the potential of past, current and future earth observations - ground, ocean, airborne, satellite - and analyse these to monitor and predict atmospheric conditions and in the future, climate change. With the wealth of free and open data that the services provide, they will help business users to assess the impact of their business decisions and make informed choices, delivering a more energy efficient and climate aware economy. These sound investment decisions now will not only stimulate growth in the short term, but reduce the impact of climate change on the economy and society in the future. C3S is in its proof of concept phase and through its climate data store will provide global and regional climate data reanalyses; multi-model seasonal forecasts; customisable visual data to enable examination of wide range of scenarios and model the impact of changes; access to all the underlying data, including climate data records from various satellite and in-situ observations. In addition, C3S will provide key indicators on climate change drivers (such as carbon dioxide) and impacts (such as reducing glaciers). The aim of these indicators will be to support European adaptation and mitigation policies in a number of economic sectors. The presentation will provide an overview of this newly created Service, its various components and activities, and a roadmap towards achieving a fully operational European Climate Service at the horizon 2019-2020. It will focus on the requirements for quality-assured Observation

  9. Multi-Scale Analysis of the European Airspace Using Network Community Detection

    PubMed Central

    Gurtner, Gérald; Vitali, Stefania; Cipolla, Marco; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario Nunzio; Miccichè, Salvatore; Pozzi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We show that the European airspace can be represented as a multi-scale traffic network whose nodes are airports, sectors, or navigation points and links are defined and weighted according to the traffic of flights between the nodes. By using a unique database of the air traffic in the European airspace, we investigate the architecture of these networks with a special emphasis on their community structure. We propose that unsupervised network community detection algorithms can be used to monitor the current use of the airspace and improve it by guiding the design of new ones. Specifically, we compare the performance of several community detection algorithms, both with fixed and variable resolution, and also by using a null model which takes into account the spatial distance between nodes, and we discuss their ability to find communities that could be used to define new control units of the airspace. PMID:24809991

  10. [Demographic and ideational change in the European Community].

    PubMed

    Lesthaeghe, R; Meekers, D

    1987-01-01

    "It is argued in this article that family formation is conditioned not only by economic factors (more particularly changes in opportunity structures for the two sexes), but also by ideational trends. The economic factors could be seen as responsible for period fluctuations that are superimposed on a long term ideationally driven trend with marked cohort contrasts. Value orientations are explored and compared across countries and age groups using the international data set of the European Values Studies. The analysis identifies a scale for the degree of tolerance towards non-conformism (e.g. divorce, abortion, one-parent family, rejection of marriage as an institution...) and the meaning of parenthood. Both are related to a set of other scales (religiosity, morality, leftism, nationalism, materialism, etc.). Theoretical links are also established with the theories of, respectively, Easterlin and Simons concerning the reasons for the recent fertility decline in the West." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12280761

  11. Coffee, Cake & Culture: Evaluation of an art for health programme for older people in the community.

    PubMed

    Roe, Brenda; McCormick, Sheila; Lucas, Terri; Gallagher, Wendy; Winn, Andrea; Elkin, Sophie

    2016-07-01

    Arts for health initiatives and networks are being developed in a number of countries and an international literature is emerging on the evidence of their benefits to people's health, wellbeing and quality of life. Engagement in cultural and creative arts by older people can increase their morale and self-confidence and provides opportunities for social connection. Museums and galleries are increasingly required to justify their expenditure, reach and impact and some are working in partnership with local councils, hospitals, schools and communities to improve access to their collections. There is a body of literature emerging that describes such initiatives but empirical evidence of their benefits is less developed. This article reports an evaluation of an art for health initiative - Coffee, Cake & Culture organised and delivered by Whitworth Art Gallery and Manchester Museum in 2012 for older people living in a care home and a supported living facility. The study has identified the benefits and impacts of the arts for health programme and its feasibility for older people, with or without diagnosed memory loss - dementia, living in a care home or supported living facility and their care staff. The findings demonstrate there were benefits to the older people and their care staff in terms of wellbeing, social engagement, learning, social inclusion and creativity. These benefits were immediate and continued in the short term on their return home. The majority of older people and care staff had not previously been to the art gallery or museum and the programme encouraged creative arts and cultural appreciation which promoted social inclusion, wellbeing and quality of life. The programme is feasible and important lessons were identified for future planning. Further research involving partnerships of researchers, arts for health curators, artists, care staff, older people and their families is warranted. PMID:24686287

  12. A community pain service solution-focused pain management programme: delivery and preliminary outcome data

    PubMed Central

    Iddon, Joanne; Barker, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Summary points 1. This article introduces a rationale for a solution-focused approach to a community-based pain management programme (PMP), describing delivery and preliminary outcome data. 2. It suggests PMPs can be feasibly run in the community without necessity for hospital care setting. 3. A community setting is also advantageous in that it allows maintenance of social networks and close third-sector links to support long-term, sustained mental well-being. 4. Solution-focused psychological approaches help the clinician tap into patient expertise and develop rich descriptions of the patient’s preferred future, enhancing self-efficacy and empowerment. 5. Evaluation found significant statistical and clinical improvements in pre–post pain self-efficacy, mental well-being and function (but findings were limited by internal and external validity and no significant effect was found on pain levels). 6. Statistically significant change was maintained at 10 weeks for self-efficacy and function (and for the latter, clinically significant change was also maintained); improvements in mental well-being showed maintenance at all measured time points (up to 12 months) in terms of both statistical and clinical significant changes. PMID:26516534

  13. Human factors requirements for telerobotic command and control: The European Space Agency experimental programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Space Telerobotics research, performed under contract to the European Space Agency (ESA), concerning the execution of human factors experiments, and ultimately leading to the development of a telerobotics test bed, has been carried out since 1985 by a British Consortium consisting of British Aerospace, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and, more recently, the UK National Advanced Robotics Research Centre. The principal aim of the first study of the series was to derive preliminary requirements for a teleoperation servicing system, with reference to two mission model scenarios. The first scenario introduced the problem of communications time delays, and their likely effect on the ground-based operator in control of a manipulator system on board an unmanned servicing vehicle in Low Earth Orbit. In the second scenario, the operator was located on the NASA Orbiter aft flight deck, supervising the control of a prototype manipulator in the 'servicing' of an experimental payload in the cargo bay area. Human factors analyses centered on defining the requirements for the teleoperator workstation, such as identifying basic ergonomic requirements for workstation and panel layouts, defining teleoperation strategies, developing alphanumeric and graphic screen formats for the supervision or direct control of the manipulator, and the potential applications of expert system technology. The second study for ESA involved an experimental appraisal of some of the important issues highlighted in the first study, for which relevant human factors data did not exist. Of central importance during the second study was the issue of communications time delays and their effect on the manual control of a teleoperated manipulator from a ground-based command and control station.

  14. Agriculture, Communities, and New Social Movements: East European Ruralities in the Process of Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorlach, Krzysztof; Lostak, Michal; Mooney, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the usefulness of the new social movements (NSMs) paradigm in the changing context of East European post-communist societies and their agricultural systems and rural communities. Starting with statements formulated in Western sociology in the context of Western democratic societies about NSMs as a protest against modernity, the…

  15. The European Schools: Perspectives of Parents as Participants in a Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, María A.; Hetterschijt, Caroline; Iglesias, Marcos J.

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of schools as communities of learning and practice, the purpose of the research upon which this article is based has been to analyze the perceptions of families with respect to the strengths, weaknesses, and challenges of the European Schools. The findings of the research show that parents value highly the existence of the…

  16. The emergence of community health worker programmes in the late apartheid era in South Africa: An historical analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Ginneken, Nadja; Lewin, Simon; Berridge, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    There is re-emerging interest in community health workers (CHWs) as part of wider policies regarding task-shifting within human resources for health. This paper examines the history of CHW programmes established in South Africa in the later apartheid years (1970s–1994) – a time of innovative initiatives. After 1994, the new democratic government embraced primary healthcare (PHC), however CHW initiatives were not included in their health plan and most of these programmes subsequently collapsed. Since then a wide array of disease-focused CHW projects have emerged, particularly within HIV care. Thirteen oral history interviews and eight witness seminars were conducted in South Africa in April 2008 with founders and CHWs from these earlier programmes. These data were triangulated with written primary sources and analysed using thematic content analysis. The study suggests that 1970s–1990s CHW programmes were seen as innovative, responsive, comprehensive and empowering for staff and communities, a focus which respondents felt was lost within current programmes. The growth of these earlier projects was underpinned by the struggle against apartheid. Respondents felt that the more technical focus of current CHW programmes under-utilise a valuable human resource which previously had a much wider social and health impact. These prior experiences and lessons learned could usefully inform policy-making frameworks for CHWs in South Africa today. PMID:20638169

  17. The Community Structure of the European Network of Interlocking Directorates 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Heemskerk, Eelke M.; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer. PMID:23894318

  18. The community structure of the European network of interlocking directorates 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Eelke M; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer. PMID:23894318

  19. Relaunch of the official community health worker programme in Mozambique: is there a sustainable basis for iCCM policy?

    PubMed Central

    Chilundo, Baltazar GM; Cliff, Julie L; Mariano, Alda RE; Rodríguez, Daniela C; George, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Mozambique, integrated community case management (iCCM) of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia is embedded in the national community health worker (CHW) programme, mainstreaming it into government policy and service delivery. Since its inception in 1978, the CHW programme has functioned unevenly, was suspended in 1989, but relaunched in 2010. To assess the long-term success of iCCM in Mozambique, this article addresses whether the current CHW programme exhibits characteristics that facilitate or impede its sustainability. Methodology: We undertook a qualitative case study based on document review (n = 54) and key informant interviews (n = 21) with respondents from the Ministry of Health (MOH), multilateral and bilateral agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Maputo in 2012. Interviews were mostly undertaken in Portuguese and all were coded using NVivo. A sustainability framework guided thematic analysis according to nine domains: strategic planning, organizational capacity, programme adaptation, programme monitoring and evaluation, communications, funding stability, political support, partnerships and public health impact. Results: Government commitment was high, with the MOH leading a consultative process in Maputo and facilitating successful technical coordination. The MOH made strategic decisions to pay CHWs, authorize their prescribing abilities, foster guidance development, support operational planning and incorporate previously excluded ‘old’ CHWs. Nonetheless, policy negotiations excluded certain key actors and uncertainty remains about CHW integration into the civil service and their long-term retention. In addition, reliance on NGOs and donor funding has led to geographic distortions in scaling up, alongside challenges in harmonization. Finally, dependence on external funding, when both external and government funding are declining, may hamper sustainability. Conclusions: Our analysis represents a nuanced assessment of the

  20. Impact of a District-Wide Diabetes Prevention Programme Involving Health Education for Children and the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeladevi, Sethu; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pujari, Siddharth; Rani, Padmaja Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present results from a district-wide diabetes prevention programme involving health education for school children and the local community. Method: The model of health education that was utilized aimed to secure lifestyle changes and the identification of diabetes risk by school children (aged 9-12 years). The children acted as health…

  1. Sex and Relationships Education in Schools--Evaluation of a Pilot Programme for the Certification of Community Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, Helen; Tyrer, Paul; Aggleton, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Objective: In support of the UK Government's teenage pregnancy and sexual health strategies, a certificated programme of professional development for school nurses and other community nurses was developed to provide support for personal, social and health education (PSHE) work, including sex and relationships education (SRE), for young people.…

  2. Community Development Workers Programme: Mentoring for Social Transformation in the Public Service in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Hilary; Motlhake, Bona

    2008-01-01

    The new public sector community development workers (CDWs) programme was established in 2004 following ineffective service delivery through chronic under-spending on annual budgets in post-apartheid South Africa. CDWs receive training in learnerships within the National Skills Development Strategy to ensure access to and spending of local…

  3. Community participation and sustainability – evidence over 25 years in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme

    PubMed Central

    Norberg, Margareta; Blomstedt, Yulia; Lönnberg, Göran; Nyström, Lennarth; Stenlund, Hans; Wall, Stig; Weinehall, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background Selection bias and declining participation rates are of concern in many long-term epidemiological studies. The Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) was launched in 1985 as a response to alarming reports on elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in Västerbotten County in Northern Sweden. The VIP invites women and men to a health examination and health counselling during the year of their 40th, 50th, and 60th birthdays. Objective To evaluate trends in participation rates and determinants of participation in the VIP from 1990 to 2006. Design Registry data on socio-economic status from Statistics Sweden, and mortality and hospitalisation data from the National Board of Health and Welfare, both covering the whole Swedish population, were linked to the VIP and analysed for participants and non-participants. Results During 1990–2006, 117,710 individuals were eligible to participate in the VIP, and 40,472 of them were eligible to participate twice. There were 96,560 observations for participants and 61,622 for non-participants. The overall participation rate increased from 56 to 65%. Participants and non-participants had minimal differences in education and age. Initial small differences by sex and degree of urban residence decreased over time. Despite an increasing participation rate in all groups, those with low income or who were single had an approximately 10% lower participation rate than those with high or medium-income or who were married or cohabitating. Conclusion Sustainability of the VIP is based on organisational integration into primary health care services and targeting of the entire middle-aged population. This enables the programme to meet population expectations of health promotion and to identify high-risk individuals who are then entered into routine preventive health care services. This has the potential to increase participation rates, to minimise social selection bias, and to reinforce other community-based interventions

  4. A study of emissions from a Euro 4 light duty diesel vehicle with the European particulate measurement programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Harry; Ayala, Alberto; Zhang, Sherry; Collins, John; Huai, Tao; Herner, Jorn; Chau, Wilson

    2010-09-01

    The California Air Resources Board, CARB, has participated in a program to quantify particulate matter (PM) emissions with a European methodology, which is known as the Particulate Measurement Programme (PMP). The essence of the PMP methodology is that the diesel PM from a Euro 4 vehicle equipped with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) consists primarily of solid particles with a size range greater than 23 nm. The PMP testing and the enhanced testing performed by CARB have enabled an increased understanding of both the progress that has been made in PM reduction, and the future remaining challenges for new and improved DPF-equipped diesel vehicles. A comparison of measured regulated emissions and solid particle number emissions with the results obtained by the PMP participating international laboratories was a success, and CARB's measurements and standard deviations compared well with the other laboratories. Enhanced measurements of the influence of vehicle conditioning prior to testing on PM mass and solid particle number results were performed, and some significant influences were discovered. For example, the influence of vehicle preconditioning on particle number results was significant for both the European and USA test driving cycles. However, the trends for the cycles were opposite with one cycle showing an increase and the other cycle showing a decrease in particle number emissions. If solid particle size distribution and total particle numbers are to be used as proposed in PMP, then a greater understanding of the quality and errors associated with measurement technologies is advisable. In general, particle counting instruments gave results with similar trends, but cycle-to-cycle testing variation was observed. Continuous measurements of particle number concentrations during test cycles have given detailed insight into PM generation. At the present time there is significant variation in the capabilities of the particle counting instruments in terms of

  5. Hepatitis B and C surveillance and screening programmes in the non-EU/EEA Member States of the WHO European Region: survey findings from 10 countries, 2012.

    PubMed

    Mozalevskis, Antons; Eramova, Irina; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2016-06-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics warrant a comprehensive response based on reliable population-level information about transmission, disease progression and disease burden, with national surveillance systems playing a major role. In order to shed light on the status of surveillance in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region outside of the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), we surveyed 18 countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Among the 10 countries that responded, the common features of many surveillance systems included mandatory surveillance, passive case-finding and the reporting of both acute and chronic HBV and HCV. Only some countries had surveillance systems that incorporated the tracking of associated conditions and outcomes such as cirrhosis and liver transplantation. Screening programmes for some key populations appeared to be in place in many countries, but there may be gaps in relation to screening programmes for people who inject drugs, prisoners, sex workers and men who have sex with men. Nonetheless, important components of a surveillance structure are in place in the responding study countries. It is advisable to build on this structure to develop harmonised HBV and HCV surveillance for all 53 Member States of the WHO European Region following the example of the system recently instituted in EU/EEA countries. PMID:27277421

  6. Making european-style community wind power development work in theUnited States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A.

    2004-04-26

    Once primarily a European phenomenon, community wind power development--defined here as one or more locally owned, utility-scale wind turbines interconnected on either the customer or utility side of the meter--is gaining a foothold in an increasing number of states throughout the United States. This article describes the various policies and incentives that Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Massachusetts are using to support community wind power development, and how state and federal support influences the types of projects and ownership structures that are being developed. Experience in these states demonstrates that, with an array of incentives and creative financing schemes targeted at community-scale projects, there are opportunities to make community wind work in the United States.

  7. Health promotion through self-care and community participation: Elements of a proposed programme in the developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Bhuyan, Khanindra Kumar

    2004-01-01

    Background The concepts of health promotion, self-care and community participation emerged during 1970s, primarily out of concerns about the limitation of professional health system. Since then there have been rapid growth in these areas in the developed world, and there is evidence of effectiveness of such interventions. These areas are still in infancy in the developing countries. There is a window of opportunity for promoting self care and community participation for health promotion. Discussion A broad outline is proposed for designing a health promotion programme in developing countries, following key strategies of the Ottawa Charter for health promotion and principles of self care and community participation. Supportive policies may be framed. Self care clearinghouses may be set up at provincial level to co-ordinate the programme activities in consultation with district and national teams. Self care may be promoted in the schools and workplaces. For developing personal skills of individuals, self care information, generated through a participatory process, may be disseminated using a wide range of print and audio-visual tools and information technology based tools. One such potential tool may be a personally held self care manual and health record, to be designed jointly by the community and professionals. Its first part may contain basic self care information and the second part may contain outlines of different personally-held health records to be used to record important health and disease related events of an individual. Periodic monitoring and evaluation of the programme may be done. Studies from different parts of the world indicate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of self care interventions. The proposed outline has potential for health promotion and cost reduction of health services in the developing countries, and may be adapted in different situations. Summary Self care, community participation and health promotion are emerging but dominant

  8. Second Community Pilot Project Programme: Transition of Young People from School to Adult and Working Life: Results and Prospects. Dossier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eurydice News, 1987

    1987-01-01

    During 1983-87 the Commission of the European Communities helped fund 30 pilot projects that were intended to help young people aged 14-18 make the transition from school to work in 10 member states. The objective of these projects was to use local initiative to identify and develop innovative solutions to the problems facing young people. The…

  9. Filling the observational void: Scientific value and quantitative validation of hydrometeorological data from a community-based monitoring programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, David; Forsythe, Nathan; Parkin, Geoff; Gowing, John

    2016-07-01

    This study shows how community-based hydrometeorological monitoring programmes can provide reliable high-quality measurements comparable to formal observations. Time series of daily rainfall, river stage and groundwater levels obtained by a local community in Dangila woreda, northwest Ethiopia, have passed accepted quality control standards and have been statistically validated against formal sources. In a region of low-density and declining formal hydrometeorological monitoring networks, a situation shared by much of the developing world, community-based monitoring can fill the observational void providing improved spatial and temporal characterisation of rainfall, river flow and groundwater levels. Such time series data are invaluable in water resource assessment and management, particularly where, as shown here, gridded rainfall datasets provide gross under or over estimations of rainfall and where groundwater level data are non-existent. Discussions with the local community during workshops held at the setup of the monitoring programme and since have demonstrated that the community have become engaged in the project and have benefited from a greater hydrological knowledge and sense of ownership of their resources. This increased understanding and empowerment is at the relevant scale required for effective community-based participatory management of shallow groundwater and river catchments.

  10. Changes in hardwood forest understory plant communities in response to European earthworm invasions.

    PubMed

    Hale, Cindy M; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2006-07-01

    European earthworms are colonizing earthworm-free northern hardwood forests across North America. Leading edges of earthworm invasion provide an opportunity to investigate the response of understory plant communities to earthworm invasion and whether the species composition of the earthworm community influences that response. Four sugar maple-dominated forest sites with active earthworm invasions were identified in the Chippewa National Forest in north central Minnesota, USA. In each site, we established a 30 x 150 m sample grid that spanned a visible leading edge of earthworm invasion and sampled earthworm populations and understory vegetation over four years. Across leading edges of earthworm invasion, increasing total earthworm biomass was associated with decreasing diversity and abundance of herbaceous plants in two of four study sites, and the abundance and density of tree seedlings decreased in three of four study sites. Sample points with the most diverse earthworm species assemblage, independent of biomass, had the lowest plant diversity. Changes in understory plant community composition were most affected by increasing biomass of the earthworm species Lumbricus rubellus. Where L. rubellus was absent there was a diverse community of native herbaceous plants, but where L. rubellus biomass reached its maximum, the herbaceous-plant community was dominated by Carex pensylvanica and Arisaema triphyllum and, in some cases, was completely absent. Evidence from these forest sites suggests that earthworm invasion can lead to dramatic changes in the understory community and that the nature of these changes is influenced by the species composition of the invading earthworm community. PMID:16922315

  11. Prospects for European Research and Development in Training & Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the prospects for research and development in the education and training fields offered by the European Communities. The position of the EC is explained in relation to the existing and forthcoming Framework Programmes of research and development. The 1987-91 Framework Programme has committed most of its funding to existing…

  12. Community-based programmes to promote use of bicycle helmets in children aged 0-14 years: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Anneliese; Turner, Cathy; McClure, Rod; Acton, Caroline; Nixon, Jim

    2005-09-01

    Hospital-based research has shown that wearing a helmet reduces the risk of head injury in bicycle riders. These studies have provided the impetus for community-wide interventions to increase the numbers of cyclists who wear helmets; however, the effectiveness of such programmes is undetermined. This study employs extensive search strategies to review the scientific literature to establish the effectiveness of community-wide programmes to increase helmet use among cyclists. Thirteen community-wide intervention studies using substantive methodologies were located in 16 published papers. The community-wide interventions include mandating helmet wearing, education campaigns, distribution of free or subsidized helmets or, more frequently, combinations of all of these methods of influence. All studies reported success in influencing helmet wearing across communities. However, none of the studies reveals enough detail of the mix or techniques employed in the interventions to replicate the interventions. While it is encouraging that all of the studies showed positive results, the way forward for further implementation of helmet wearing is for adequate documentation of successful interventions. PMID:16335431

  13. [The spatial organization of winter bird communities in the East European and West Siberian plains].

    PubMed

    Vartapetov, L G; Preobrazhenskaia, E S

    2010-01-01

    The main trends in the territorial changes in winter bird communities and the environmental factors determining them were analyzed based on long-term counts in the East European and West Siberian plains. These trends are reduced to a decline in the winter avian complexes (in the number of species and individuals) in the north- and eastward directions and with a decrease in the degree of sheltering and feed reserves in the habitats associated with reduction in afforestation. The specific regional features of winter East European avian complexes are the larger number of species and individuals in the nemoral forest, forest-steppe, and steppe landscapes, and inland water bodies as compared with the West Siberian avian complexes, as well as an increased influence of the degree of development and agricultural transformation of landscapes. PMID:20583618

  14. Empowering European communities to improve natural resource management for human well-being: the OPPLA web portal & communities of practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, M.; Brown, C.; Pérez-Soba, M.; Rounsevell, M.; Verweij, P.; Delbaere, B.; Cojocaru, G.; Saarikoski, H.; Harrison, P.; Zellmer, K.

    2014-12-01

    The ecosystem services concept is seen by many as a useful paradigm to support decision-making at the complex interface between science, policy and practice. However, to be successful, it requires a strong willingness for collaboration and joint understanding. In support of this aspiration, OPPLA is being developed as a web portal to enable European communities to better manage ecosystems for human well-being and livelihoods. OPPLA will provide access to a variety of online resources such as tools, case studies, lessons learned, videos, manuals and training and educational materials. It will also provide expert forums and spaces for discussions between researchers, practitioners and decision makers. Hence a critical aspect of the success of OPPLA is the co-evolution of communities of practice. An example of a community of practice is the recently launched Ecosystem Services Community - Scotland (ESCom-Scotland; escomscotland.wordpress.com). ESCom-Scotland aims to support better management of Scotland's natural resources by helping to establish a community of practice between individuals and groups involved in the science, policy and practice behind sustainable ecosystem management. It aspires to encourage the sharing of ideas, increase collaboration and to initiate a support network for those engaging with the ecosystem services concept and it will use the OPPLA resources to support these activities. OPPLA is currently at the developmental stage and was instigated by two large European Commission funded research projects: OPERAs (www.operas-project.eu) and OpenNESS (www.openness-project.eu), with a combined budget of ca. €24m. These projects aim to improve understanding of how ecosystem services contribute to human well-being in different social-ecological systems. Research will establish whether, how and under what conditions the ecosystem services concept can move beyond the academic domain towards practical implementation in support of sustainable ecosystem

  15. Change in risk factors for coronary heart disease during 10 years of a community intervention programme (North Karelia project).

    PubMed Central

    Puska, P; Salonen, J T; Nissinen, A; Tuomilehto, J; Vartiainen, E; Korhonen, H; Tanskanen, A; Rönnqvist, P; Koskela, K; Huttunen, J

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive community based programme to control cardiovascular diseases was started in North Karelia, Finland, in 1972. Reductions in smoking, serum cholesterol concentrations, and blood pressure were among the central intermediate objectives. The effect of the programme during the 10 year period 1972-82 was evaluated by examining independent random population samples at the outset (1972) and five (1977) and 10 (1982) years later both in the programme and in a matched reference area. Over 10 000 subjects were studied in 1972 and 1977 (participation rate about 90%) and roughly 8000 subjects in 1982 (participation rate about 80%). Analyses were conducted of the estimated effect of the programme on the risk factor population means by comparing the baseline and five year and 10 year follow up results in the age range 30-59 years. The effect of the programme (net reduction in North Karelia) at 10 years among the middle aged male population was estimated to be a 28% reduction in smoking (p less than 0.001), a 3% reduction in mean serum cholesterol concentration (p less than 0.001), a 3% fall in mean systolic blood pressure (p less than 0.001), and a 1% fall in mean diastolic blood pressure (p less than 0.05). Among the female population the reductions were respectively, 14% (NS), 1% (NS), 5% (p less than 0.001), and 2% (p less than 0.05). During the first five years of the project (1972-7) the programme effectively reduced the population mean values of the major coronary risk factors. At 10 years the effects had persisted for serum cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure and were increased for smoking. PMID:6423038

  16. A long-term macroeconomic equilibrium model for the European Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogner, H. H.

    1982-04-01

    A version of MACRO, a highly aggregated, long-term, two-sector general equilibrium model, developed to examine energy-economy linkage, calibrated for the European community, is presented. Based on a range of energy supply scenarios, the impact of rising energy costs on economic activity, the feasibility of common assumptions about price-induced conservation, and the impact of continued high energy levels of energy imports on trade balance were examined, in order to assess model performance. Results suggest that the model meets the requirements for a consistency check of member country energy strategies.

  17. [Immigration from outside the European Community in Campania: results of empirical research in three provinces].

    PubMed

    Di Gennaro, G; Pizzuti, D; Conte, M

    1996-06-01

    "The study is based on the results of empirical research and deals with non-European Community immigrants living in Campania [Italy]....The essential aspects analyzed in the study refer to immigrants' motivations, place and country of origin, working conditions at home and in the new environment, [and] characteristics of working activity in Campania. The final part deals with social integration and migrants' relations with local institutions. The specific character of Campanian immigration is for many reasons connected with a widespread irregular economy which deeply affects migrants' personal attitudes and strategies." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12292143

  18. European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management - a new Horizon2020 project to serve the international community and improve the accessibility to gravity field products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeggi, Adrian; Weigelt, Matthias; Flechtner, Frank; Guentner, Andreas; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Martinis, Sandro; Bruinsma, Sean; Flury, Jakob; Bourgogne, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    A proposal for a European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM) has been submitted in response to the Earth Observation Call EO-1-2014 of the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. EGSIEM shall demonstrate that observations of the redistribution of water and ice mass derived from the current GRACE mission, the future GRACE-FO mission, and additional data provide critical and complementary information to more traditional Earth Observation products and open the door for innovative approaches to flood and drought monitoring and forecasting. The EGSIEM project has recently started in January 2015. We present the three key objectives that EGSIEM shall address: 1) to establish a scientific combination service to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community, 2) to establish a near real-time and regional service to reduce the latency and increase the temporal resolution of the mass redistribution products, and 3) to establish a hydrological and early warning service to develop gravity-based indicators for extreme hydrological events and to demonstrate their value for flood and drought forecasting and monitoring services. All of these services shall be tailored to the various needs of the respective communities. Significant efforts shall be devoted to transform the service products into user-friendly and easy-to-interpret data sets and the development of visualization tools.

  19. Is my drinking a problem? A community-based alcohol intervention programme post-Haiyan in Tacloban City

    PubMed Central

    Czaicki, Adam Edward; Fabrigas, Gloria; Hall, Julie Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Problem Evidence on alcohol use following disasters is scarce. After Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines we wanted to determine whether there were alcohol-related problems among the disaster survivors and to strengthen the appropriate local health service support in Tacloban City. Context Tacloban City is a highly urbanized city that was one of the areas worst hit by Typhoon Haiyan. Prior to Haiyan there was very little support for people with alcohol problems, and the rehabilitation facility was located about 40 km away. Action A pilot community-based alcohol intervention programme was conducted that included: assessment of the extent of alcohol problems in the community and health-care workers baseline knowledge and skills; training of health-care workers on primary care alcohol intervention provision; and community outreach with post-training supervision. Outcome The alcohol screening found 26 (22%) of those attending health care facilities would benefit from some form of alcohol intervention. Health-care workers knowledge on basic alcohol intervention was low. This was strengthened during the training, and at outreach clinics the trained health-care workers were able to identify people with alcohol problems and provide them with treatment plans. Lessons learnt We learnt that there was a problem with alcohol in Tacloban City and that it was possible to run an alcohol intervention programme in the community using minimal resources. Addressing alcohol-related issues in the community is an important public health intervention. While there is a need for policies and guidelines at the national level, a community-based intervention is possible to establish with referral mechanism to specialized care. Training modules for such programs can be further developed and institutionalized. PMID:26767145

  20. Public preferences for vaccination programmes during pandemics caused by pathogens transmitted through respiratory droplets - a discrete choice experiment in four European countries, 2013.

    PubMed

    Determann, Domino; Korfage, Ida J; Fagerlin, Angela; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Bliemer, Michiel C; Voeten, Helene A; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Lambooij, Mattijs S; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to quantify and compare preferences of citizens from different European countries for vaccination programme characteristics during pandemics, caused by pathogens which are transmitted through respiratory droplets. Internet panel members, nationally representative based on age, sex, educational level and region, of four European Union Member States (Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden, n = 2,068) completed an online discrete choice experiment. These countries, from different geographical areas of Europe, were chosen because of the availability of high-quality Internet panels and because of the cooperation between members of the project entitled Effective Communication in Outbreak Management: development of an evidence-based tool for Europe (ECOM). Data were analysed using panel latent class regression models. In the case of a severe pandemic scenario, vaccine effectiveness was the most important characteristic determining vaccination preference in all countries, followed by the body that advises on vaccination. In Sweden, the advice of family and/or friends and the advice of physicians strongly affected vaccine preferences, in contrast to Poland and Spain, where the advice of (international) health authorities was more decisive. Irrespective of pandemic scenario or vaccination programme characteristics, the predicted vaccination uptakes were lowest in Sweden, and highest in Poland. To increase vaccination uptake during future pandemics, the responsible authorities should align with other important stakeholders in the country and communicate in a coordinated manner. PMID:27277581

  1. Adapting and disseminating a community-collaborative, evidence-based HIV/AIDS prevention programme: Lessons from the history of CHAMP

    PubMed Central

    SPERBER, ELIZABETH; MCKAY, MARY M.; BELL, CARL C.; PETERSEN, INGE; BHANA, ARVIN; PAIKOFF, ROBERTA

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, calls for the scaling-up, or more broad dissemination of evidence-based HIV prevention programmes, have increased. This paper responds to the call for increasing applicable knowledge about programme dissemination by reviewing the history of a major evidence-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and mental health promotion programme that has been adapted successfully and pilot-tested across four settings – including two major cities, as well as in the United States, Trinidad and Tobago and South Africa – to date. This programme, entitled CHAMP (the Collaborative HIV Prevention & Adolescent Mental Health Project), is distinctive primarily for its emphasis on community collaboration and power-sharing, and also its incorporation of individual, family and community-level interventions. The history of programme development, including theoretical foundations and results across sites, is discussed with a particular emphasis on the implications of CHAMP’S dissemination thus far. PMID:19924263

  2. How do community-based HIV prevention programmes for men who have sex with men 'travel'? Lessons from the Ukwazana/Zwakalani journey in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Andrew; de Swardt, Glenn; McIntyre, James; Struthers, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Research reveals how homophobia and stigma link closely to HIV among men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper considers the varying impact of homophobic stigma on HIV prevention programmes among men who have sex with men in South Africa. It explores how a community-based HIV prevention programme based in the peri-urban townships of Cape Town was 'translated' to peri-urban Johannesburg. Drawing on interviews with volunteers and programme facilitators in Johannesburg, it argues that an altered homophobic environment to that found in Cape Town gave different opportunities to engage both with other men who have sex with men and the broader community. It also argues that programme facilitators should be mindful of how varying degrees of homophobic stigma may relate to broader theoretical debates about sexual binary relationships, which can help us understand why particular programmes choose to focus on certain activities rather than others. PMID:25752360

  3. The Influence of the European Communities on the Emergence of Competence-Based Models of Vocational Training in England and Wales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, George

    1995-01-01

    The European Community's vocational training policy of the 1980s influenced the competency-based National Vocational Qualifications in England and Wales. This historical perspective is needed if closer cooperation with European partners is anticipated. (SK)

  4. Assessing community health workers’ performance motivation: a mixed-methods approach on India's Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) programme

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, Saji Saraswathy; Mohanty, Satyanarayan; Das, Ashis

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined the performance motivation of community health workers (CHWs) and its determinants on India's Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) programme. Design Cross-sectional study employing mixed-methods approach involved survey and focus group discussions. Setting The state of Orissa. Participants 386 CHWs representing 10% of the total CHWs in the chosen districts and from settings selected through a multi-stage stratified sampling. Primary and secondary outcome measures The level of performance motivation among the CHWs, its determinants and their current status as per the perceptions of the CHWs. Results The level of performance motivation was the highest for the individual and the community level factors (mean score 5.94–4.06), while the health system factors scored the least (2.70–3.279). Those ASHAs who felt having more community and system-level recognition also had higher levels of earning as CHWs (p=0.040, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.12), a sense of social responsibility (p=0.0005, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.25) and a feeling of self-efficacy (p=0.000, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.54) on their responsibilities. There was no association established between their level of dissatisfaction on the incentives (p=0.385) and the extent of motivation. The inadequate healthcare delivery status and certain working modalities reduced their motivation. Gender mainstreaming in the community health approach, especially on the demand-side and community participation were the positive externalities of the CHW programme. Conclusions The CHW programme could motivate and empower local lay women on community health largely. The desire to gain social recognition, a sense of social responsibility and self-efficacy motivated them to perform. The healthcare delivery system improvements might further motivate and enable them to gain the community trust. The CHW management needs amendments to ensure adequate supportive supervision, skill and knowledge enhancement and enabling working

  5. Improving the performance of community health workers in humanitarian emergencies: a realist evaluation protocol for the PIECES programme

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Brynne; Adams, Ben Jack; Bartoloni, Alex; Alhaydar, Bana; McAuliffe, Eilish; Raven, Joanna; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Vallières, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Understanding what enhances the motivation and performance of community health workers (CHWs) in humanitarian emergencies represents a key research gap within the field of human resources for health. This paper presents the research protocol for the Performance ImprovEment of CHWs in Emergency Settings (PIECES) research programme. Enhancing Learning and Research in Humanitarian Action (ELRHA) funded the development of this protocol as part of their Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) call (No.19839). PIECES aims to understand what factors improve the performance of CHWs in level III humanitarian emergencies. Methods and analysis The suggested protocol uses a realist evaluation with multiple cases across the 3 country sites: Turkey, Iraq and Lebanon. Working with International Medical Corps (IMC), an initial programme theory was elicited through literature and document reviews, semistructured interviews and focus groups with IMC programme managers and CHWs. Based on this initial theory, this protocol proposes a combination of semistructured interviews, life histories and critical incident narratives, surveys and latent variable modelling of key constructs to explain how contextual factors work to trigger mechanisms for specific outcomes relating to IMC's 300+ CHWs' performance. Participants will also include programme staff, CHWs and programme beneficiaries. Realist approaches will be used to better understand ‘what works, for whom and under what conditions’ for improving CHW performance within humanitarian contexts. Ethics and dissemination Trinity College Dublin's Health Policy and Management/Centre for Global Health Research Ethics Committee gave ethical approval for the protocol development phase. For the full research project, additional ethical approval will be sought from: Université St. Joseph (Lebanon), the Ethics Committee of the Ministry of Health in Baghdad (Iraq) and the Middle East Technical University (Turkey). Dissemination

  6. Demand generation and social mobilisation for integrated community case management (iCCM) and child health: Lessons learned from successful programmes in Niger and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Alyssa B; Martin, Sandrine; Cerveau, Teresa; Wetzler, Erica; Berzal, Rocio

    2014-01-01

    Aim We present the approaches used in and outcomes resulting from integrated community case management (iCCM) programmes in Niger and Mozambique with a strong focus on demand generation and social mobilisation. Methods We use a case study approach to describe the programme and contextual elements of the Niger and Mozambique programmes. Results Awareness and utilisation of iCCM services and key family practices increased following the implementation of the Niger and Mozambique iCCM and child survival programmes, as did care–seeking within 24 hours and care–seeking from appropriate, trained providers in Mozambique. These approaches incorporated interpersonal communication activities and community empowerment/participation for collective change, partnerships and networks among key stakeholder groups within communities, media campaigns and advocacy efforts with local and national leaders. Conclusions iCCM programmes that train and equip community health workers and successfully engage and empower community members to adopt new behaviours, have appropriate expectations and to trust community health workers’ ability to assess and treat illnesses can lead to improved care–seeking and utilisation, and community ownership for iCCM. PMID:25520800

  7. Evaluation of RugbySmart: a rugby union community injury prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Simon M; Quarrie, Ken L; Hume, Patria A

    2009-05-01

    RugbySmart, a rugby union injury prevention programme, was launched in New Zealand in 2001. It was compulsory for all coaches and referees to complete RugbySmart requirements annually in order to continue coaching or refereeing. After 5 years of implementation the programme partners, Accident Compensation Corporation and New Zealand Rugby Union, evaluated RugbySmart to determine its effectiveness in reducing injuries. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of RugbySmart on reducing injury rates per 100,000 players and resulting injury prevention behaviours. The RugbySmart programme was associated with a decrease in injury claims per 100,000 players in most areas the programme targeted; the programme had negligible impact on non-targeted injury sites. The decrease in injury claims numbers was supported by results from the player behaviour surveys pre- and post-RugbySmart. There was an increase in safe behaviour in the contact situations of tackle, scrum and ruck technique. PMID:18356104

  8. The Innovative Medicines Initiative's New Drugs for Bad Bugs programme: European public-private partnerships for the development of new strategies to tackle antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Kostyanev, T; Bonten, M J M; O'Brien, S; Steel, H; Ross, S; François, B; Tacconelli, E; Winterhalter, M; Stavenger, R A; Karlén, A; Harbarth, S; Hackett, J; Jafri, H S; Vuong, C; MacGowan, A; Witschi, A; Angyalosi, G; Elborn, J S; deWinter, R; Goossens, H

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a global public health threat. Despite the emergence of highly resistant organisms and the huge medical need for new drugs, the development of antibacterials has slowed to an unacceptable level worldwide. Numerous government and non-government agencies have called for public-private partnerships and innovative funding mechanisms to address this problem. To respond to this public health crisis, the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking programme has invested more than €660 million, with a goal of matched contributions from the European Commission and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations, in the development of new antibacterial strategies. The New Drugs for Bad Bugs (ND4BB) programme, an Innovative Medicines Initiative, has the ultimate goal to boost the fight against ABR at every level from basic science and drug discovery, through clinical development to new business models and responsible use of antibiotics. Seven projects have been launched within the ND4BB programme to achieve this goal. Four of them will include clinical trials of new anti-infective compounds, as well as epidemiological studies on an unprecedented scale, which will increase our knowledge of ABR and specific pathogens, and improve the designs of the clinical trials with new investigational drugs. The need for rapid concerted action has driven the funding of seven topics, each of which should add significantly to progress in the fight against ABR. ND4BB unites expertise and provides a platform where the commitment and resources required by all parties are streamlined into a joint public-private partnership initiative of unprecedented scale. PMID:26568581

  9. Ethical and social issues in presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease: a European Community collaborative study. European Community Huntington's Disease Collaborative Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of social and ethical aspects of presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease has been carried out, based on data on linked DNA markers, from four major testing centres in different European Community countries (Belgium, Italy, Netherlands, and United Kingdom). Information was available on 603 applicants, with 213 final results given, of which 32% gave an increased risk. A series of specific issues and problems were documented systematically for all applicants, results being given on frequency of occurrence and illustrated by individual case histories. The principal issues could be grouped as problems of inappropriate referral, problems involving relatives, and problems relating to disclosure of results. At least one important problem was encountered in 46% of applicants, emphasising the importance of expert counselling, preparation, and support of applicants, and of close liaison between clinical, counselling, and laboratory staff. The extensive and detailed information available for Huntington's disease from this and other studies will be of considerable value in relation to genetic testing for other late onset genetic disorders and will be even more relevant to Huntington's disease now that specific mutation analysis is possible for this disorder. PMID:8133502

  10. Outreach services to improve access to health care in South Africa: lessons from three community health worker programmes

    PubMed Central

    Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla; Goudge, Jane; Thomas, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In South Africa, there are renewed efforts to strengthen primary health care and community health worker (CHW) programmes. This article examines three South African CHW programmes, a small local non-governmental organisation (NGO), a local satellite of a national NGO, and a government-initiated service, that provide a range of services from home-based care, childcare, and health promotion to assist clients in overcoming poverty-related barriers to health care. Methods The comparative case studies, located in Eastern Cape and Gauteng, were investigated using qualitative methods. Thematic analysis was used to identify factors that constrain and enable outreach services to improve access to care. Results The local satellite (of a national NGO), successful in addressing multi-dimensional barriers to care, provided CHWs with continuous training focused on the social determinants of ill-health, regular context-related supervision, and resources such as travel and cell-phone allowances. These workers engaged with, and linked their clients to, agencies in a wide range of sectors. Relationships with participatory structures at community level stimulated coordinated responses from service providers. In contrast, an absence of these elements curtailed the ability of CHWs in the small NGO and government-initiated service to provide effective outreach services or to improve access to care. Conclusion Significant investment in resources, training, and support can enable CHWs to address barriers to care by negotiating with poorly functioning government services and community participation structures. PMID:23364101

  11. Acceptability of conditions in a community-led cash transfer programme for orphaned and vulnerable children in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Skovdal, Morten; Robertson, Laura; Mushati, Phyllis; Dumba, Lovemore; Sherr, Lorraine; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2014-10-01

    Evidence suggests that a regular and reliable transfer of cash to households with orphaned and vulnerable children has a strong and positive effect on child outcomes. However, conditional cash transfers are considered by some as particularly intrusive and the question on whether or not to apply conditions to cash transfers is an issue of controversy. Contributing to policy debates on the appropriateness of conditions, this article sets out to investigate the overall buy-in of conditions by different stakeholders and to identify pathways that contribute to an acceptability of conditions. The article draws on data from a cluster-randomized trial of a community-led cash transfer programme in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe. An endpoint survey distributed to 5167 households assessed community members' acceptance of conditions and 35 in-depth interviews and 3 focus groups with a total of 58 adults and 4 youth examined local perceptions of conditions. The study found a significant and widespread acceptance of conditions primarily because they were seen as fair and a proxy for good parenting or guardianship. In a socio-economic context where child grants are not considered a citizen entitlement, community members and cash transfer recipients valued the conditions associated with these grants. The community members interpreted the fulfilment of the conditions as a proxy for achievement and merit, enabling them to participate rather than sit back as passive recipients of aid. Although conditions have a paternalistic undertone and engender the sceptics' view of conditions being pernicious and even abominable, it is important to recognize that community members, when given the opportunity to participate in programme design and implementation, can take advantage of conditions and appropriate them in a way that helps them manage change and overcome the social divisiveness or conflict that otherwise may arise when some people are identified to benefit and others not. PMID:24019380

  12. Involving Communities in the Evaluation of Programmes with "At Risk" Children and Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Explores relationships between evaluators and those who participate in community-based programs, focusing on the Communities That Care (CTC) program in Britain. Discusses different community perspectives toward evaluation, highlighting challenges created for evaluators. Provides examples to identify CTC evaluation strategies, showing the…

  13. People, Power, and Participation. The Communities in Crisis Programme, 1986-9: An Evaluative Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batten, Julie

    Communities in Crisis is a British training program for unemployed adults that was developed in response to the needs of community organizations in areas where community programs have few resources. Its underlying philosophy focuses on motivating and encouraging long-term unemployed people to take initiatives and reflect on their progress. The…

  14. Community perceptions on malaria and care-seeking practices in endemic Indian settings: policy implications for the malaria control programme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The focus of India’s National Malaria Programme witnessed a paradigm shift recently from health facility to community-based approaches. The current thrust is on diagnosing and treating malaria by community health workers and prevention through free provision of long-lasting insecticidal nets. However, appropriate community awareness and practice are inevitable for the effectiveness of such efforts. In this context, the study assessed community perceptions and practice on malaria and similar febrile illnesses. This evidence base is intended to direct the roll-out of the new strategies and improve community acceptance and utilization of services. Methods A qualitative study involving 26 focus group discussions and 40 key informant interviews was conducted in two districts of Odisha State in India. The key points of discussion were centred on community perceptions and practice regarding malaria prevention and treatment. Thematic analysis of data was performed. Results The 272 respondents consisted of 50% females, three-quarter scheduled tribe community and 30% students. A half of them were literates. Malaria was reported to be the most common disease in their settings with multiple modes of transmission by the FGD participants. Adoption of prevention methods was seasonal with perceived mosquito density. The reported use of bed nets was low and the utilization was determined by seasonality, affordability, intoxication and alternate uses of nets. Although respondents were aware of malaria-related symptoms, care-seeking from traditional healers and unqualified providers was prevalent. The respondents expressed lack of trust in the community health workers due to frequent drug stock-outs. The major determinants of health care seeking were socio-cultural beliefs, age, gender, faith in the service provider, proximity, poverty, and perceived effectiveness of available services. Conclusion Apart from the socio-cultural and behavioural factors, the availability of

  15. Engaging Parents in Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme as Part of England's Teenage Pregnancy Strategy: Lessons for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Mairi Ann; Davis, Liz; Lindsay, Geoff; Davis, Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Based on 65 interviews with professionals and parents conducted during 2007-2008, this 16-month, mainly qualitative evaluation of Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme (a preventative initiative within England's teenage pregnancy strategy) found that a community development approach and an ethos of partnership with parents and…

  16. Career and Community Studies: An Inclusive Liberal Arts Programme for Youth with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Richard; Carroll, Stuart; Petroff, Jerry G.

    2008-01-01

    Post-secondary education for youth with Intellectual Disabilities is an emerging area of research. Although there has been increasing interest and recent programme development in this area, there is little research that explores benefits of liberal learning for these students. This paper describes the experiences of three college faculty who…

  17. The Creation of Virtual Communities in a Primary Initial Teacher Training Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Anne; Tanner, Doug; Jessop, Tansy

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the conditions that have facilitated the use of a customised virtual learning environment as part of a blended learning approach on a part-time postgraduate initial teacher training programme for prospective primary school teachers. It is based on data gathered as part of a study of the impact of e-learning on students…

  18. A programmable droplet-based microfluidic device applied to multiparameter analysis of single microbes and microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kaston; Zahn, Hans; Leaver, Timothy; Konwar, Kishori M.; Hanson, Niels W.; Pagé, Antoine P.; Lo, Chien-Chi; Chain, Patrick S.; Hallam, Steven J.; Hansen, Carl L.

    2012-01-01

    We present a programmable droplet-based microfluidic device that combines the reconfigurable flow-routing capabilities of integrated microvalve technology with the sample compartmentalization and dispersion-free transport that is inherent to droplets. The device allows for the execution of user-defined multistep reaction protocols in 95 individually addressable nanoliter-volume storage chambers by consecutively merging programmable sequences of picoliter-volume droplets containing reagents or cells. This functionality is enabled by “flow-controlled wetting,” a droplet docking and merging mechanism that exploits the physics of droplet flow through a channel to control the precise location of droplet wetting. The device also allows for automated cross-contamination-free recovery of reaction products from individual chambers into standard microfuge tubes for downstream analysis. The combined features of programmability, addressability, and selective recovery provide a general hardware platform that can be reprogrammed for multiple applications. We demonstrate this versatility by implementing multiple single-cell experiment types with this device: bacterial cell sorting and cultivation, taxonomic gene identification, and high-throughput single-cell whole genome amplification and sequencing using common laboratory strains. Finally, we apply the device to genome analysis of single cells and microbial consortia from diverse environmental samples including a marine enrichment culture, deep-sea sediments, and the human oral cavity. The resulting datasets capture genotypic properties of individual cells and illuminate known and potentially unique partnerships between microbial community members. PMID:22547789

  19. The European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases: three productive years at the service of the rare disease community

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases was entrusted with aiding the European Commission in a number of tasks, ranging from the monitoring of initiatives, to recommending improvements and actions to be pursued in the future, in addition to helping strengthen liaison at both European and International levels in the field of rare diseases. The three-year mandate of the EUCERD drew to a close in July 2013 with an impressive record. The EUCERD has laid down the foundations for future work so as to continue to advance in the key areas that have been identified as of interest for the rare disease community at large: centres of expertise, European Reference Networks, patient registries and databases, newborn screening, and indicators for national rare disease plans/strategies. The work of the Committee should now be continued by the newly formed European Commission Expert Group on Rare Diseases. PMID:24580800

  20. ESF EUROCORES Programmes In Geosciences And Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, I. G.

    2007-12-01

    In close cooperation with its Member Organisations, the European Science Foundation (ESF) has launched since late 2003 a series of European Collaborative Research (EUROCORES) Programmes. Their aim is to enable researchers in different European countries to develop cooperation and scientific synergy in areas where European scale and scope are required in a global context. The EUROCORES Scheme provides an open, flexible and transparent framework that allows national science funding and science performing agencies to join forces to support excellent European-led research, following a selection among many science-driven suggestions for new Programmes themes submitted by the scientific community. The EUROCORES instrument represents the first large scale attempt of national research (funding) agencies to act together against fragmentation, asynchronicity and duplication of research (funding) within Europe. There are presently 7 EUROCORES Programmes specifically dealing with cutting edge science in the fields of Earth, Climate and Environmental Sciences. The EUROCORES Programmes consist of a number of international, multidisciplinary collaborative research projects running for 3-4 years, selected through independent peer review. Under the overall responsibility of the participating funding agencies, those projects are coordinated and networked together through the scientific guidance of a Scientific Committee, with the support of a Programme Coordinator, responsible at ESF for providing planning, logistics, and the integration and dissemination of science. Strong links are aimed for with other major international programmes and initiatives worldwide. In this framework, linkage to IYPE would be of major interest for the scientific communities involved. Each Programme mobilises 5 to 13 million Euros in direct science funding from 9 to 27 national agencies from 8 to 20 countries. Additional funding for coordination, networking and dissemination is allocated by the ESF

  1. Spatial distribution of subtidal Nematoda communities along the salinity gradient in southern European estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adão, Helena; Alves, Ana Sofia; Patrício, Joana; Neto, João Magalhães; Costa, Maria José; Marques, João Carlos

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of subtidal nematode communities along the salinity gradients of two Portuguese estuaries exposed to different degrees of anthropogenic stress: the Mira and the Mondego. The nematode communities were mainly composed of Sabatieria, Metachromadora, Daptonema, Anoplostoma, Sphaerolaimus and Terschellingia species, closely resembling the communities of Northern European estuaries. In both estuaries, nematode density and community composition followed the salinity gradient, naturally establishing three distinct estuarine sections: (i) freshwater and oligohaline - characterised by the presence of freshwater nematodes, low nematode density and diversity; (ii) mesohaline - dominated by Terschellingia, Sabatieria and Daptonema, with low total density and diversity; and (iii) polyhaline and euhaline - where nematodes reached the highest density and diversity, and Paracomesoma, Synonchiella, and Odontophora were dominant. Despite the similarities in community composition and total nematode density, the proportion of different nematode feeding types were remarkably different in the two estuaries. In Mira, selective deposit feeders were dominant in the oligohaline section, while non-selective deposit feeders were dominant in the other sections. On the contrary, in the Mondego estuary, epigrowth-feeders and omnivores/predators were dominant in the freshwater sections and in the euhaline sector of the southern arm. Differences observed along each estuarine gradient were much stronger than overall differences between the two estuaries. In the Mondego estuary, the influence of anthropogenic stressors seemed not to be relevant in determining the nematodes' spatial distribution patterns, therefore suggesting that mesoscale variability responded essentially to natural stressors, characteristic of estuarine gradients. Nevertheless, the proportion of the different feeding types was different between the two estuaries, indicating that the

  2. [Revocation of authorizations on GMO under the precautionary principle (with special attention to the Justice Tribunal of the European Communities].

    PubMed

    Escajedo San Epifanio, Leire

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, the european institutions have done a great effort in order to introduce the precautionary principle, applicable to the management of serious and uncertain risks. Under the protection of the precautionary principle, european authorities and authorities of the member states have partially modified, suspended or revoked authorizations relative to genetically modified organisms. Is it rightful this use of the precautionary principle? This is the matter that the European Communities Justice Court has faced when the affected companies have lodge their appeals against this decisions. PMID:14562473

  3. TRAINING COMMUNITY VOLUTEERS IN PREVENTING ALCOHOLISM AND DRUG ADDICTION : A BASIC PROGRAMME AND ITS IMPACT ON CERTAIN VARIABLES

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, L.S.S.

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted on 19 community volunteers and the training module they underwent is presented. The subjects were given 7 days in-training with the objectives of imparting knowledge ana skill to identify and motivate alcohol and drug dependent person, to motivate them and their family to seek treatment to provide social support to them and to organise prevention programmes in the community. Their knowledge, skills and attitudes have shown significant improvement and change as a result to training. Extraversion was found to be significantly related to change in all the above variables, psychoticism was related to attitude and self-esteem was related to improvement in skills. Need for under taking further research in this area is also emphasized. PMID:21584078

  4. Training community voluteers in preventing alcoholism and drug addiction : a basic programme and its impact on certain variables.

    PubMed

    Manickam, L S

    1997-07-01

    A study was conducted on 19 community volunteers and the training module they underwent is presented. The subjects were given 7 days in-training with the objectives of imparting knowledge ana skill to identify and motivate alcohol and drug dependent person, to motivate them and their family to seek treatment to provide social support to them and to organise prevention programmes in the community. Their knowledge, skills and attitudes have shown significant improvement and change as a result to training. Extraversion was found to be significantly related to change in all the above variables, psychoticism was related to attitude and self-esteem was related to improvement in skills. Need for under taking further research in this area is also emphasized. PMID:21584078

  5. The Future Development of the European Union Education, Training and Youth Programmes After 2006: A Public Consultation Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document launches a wide public consultation with all those involved in and with an interest in the European Union's (EU's) education, training, and youth programs called Socrates, Tempus, Leonardo da Vinci, and Youth for Europe. It is the first step toward preparing the new generation of programs to start in 2007 and will inform the…

  6. Case-control studies in cancer patients as a surveillance system of occupational exposure in the European Community. European Community Working Party.

    PubMed Central

    Rona, R J; Taub, N A; Rasmussen, S

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The main aim was to detect known relationships between lung and blood cancers and various occupational exposures (using job titles as proxies) using a case-control design. The suitability of this system for routine surveillance could then be assessed. DESIGN--A case-control study was carried out in 1989. SETTING--Hospitals in eight European Community countries. SUBJECTS--Men aged 25 to 75 years with incident and prevalent cancer of the lung (190 cases), haematopoietic system (210 cases), or gastrointestinal tract (245 controls) were studied. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The crude estimate of the overall odds ratio exposure (OR) for relevant occupational exposure of lung cancer relative to gastrointestinal cancer was 1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82, 1.77). In a logistic regression analysis adjusting for country, age at diagnosis, smoking, and alcohol consumption, the overall OR was not greatly changed. A significant interaction of occupational exposure and age at diagnosis showed that lung cancer patients diagnosed at a younger age had a higher OR than patients diagnosed at an older age. Thus, the overall, insignificant result may have been due to a low reliability of occupational history in older age or to a selective mechanism related to age. The overall OR for occupational exposure of cancer of the blood relative to gastrointestinal cancer was 0.88 (95% CI 0.60, 1.31). The logistic regression analysis did not alter these results. CONCLUSION--A surveillance based on a case-control design using job titles would not be sensitive enough to detect possible occupational risks. PMID:8228771

  7. Geothermal Field Development in the European Community Objectives, Achievements and Problem Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ungemach, Pierre

    1983-12-15

    Achievements and problem areas are reviewed with respect to various engineering implications of geothermal field development in the European Community (EC). Current and furture development goals address three resource settings. (a) low enthalpy sources (30-150{degrees}C), an outlook common to all Member states as a result of hot water aquifers flowing in large sedimentary units with normal heat flow, widespread thoughout the EC; (b) high enthalpy sources (<150{degrees}C) in areas of high heat flow which, as a consequence of the geodynamics of the Eurasian plate, are limited to Central and South-West Italy and to Eastern Greece; (c) hot dry rocks (HDR), whose potential for Europe, and also the difficulties in implementing the heat mining concept, are enormous. A large scale experiment conducted at medium depth in Cornwall (UK) proves encouraging though. It has provided the right sort of scientific inputs to the understanding of the mechanics of anisotropic brittle basement rocks.

  8. Building for School and Community. IV: England, Australia. Programme on Educational Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Projects that aim at meeting the educational needs of a community and also at creating a framework within which the overall social needs of the community can be taken into account have been the subject of detailed case studies, each devoted to a given country. In addition, these individual studies have served as a basis for a further analysis…

  9. "Community Connections": A Programme to Enhance Domestic and International Students' Educational Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Ruth; Clayton, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely acknowledged that an important indicator of a successful sojourn for international students is social integration into the host community. Despite seemingly regular opportunities to integrate, many international students report that their interactions with local residents remain superficial. The "Community Connections" programme…

  10. Field studies to determine mancozeb based spray programmes with minimal impact on predatory mites in European vine cultivation.

    PubMed

    Miles, M; Kemmitt, G

    2005-01-01

    Mancozeb is an ethylene bisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicide with contact activity against a wide range of economically important fungal diseases. Its multi-site mode of action means that to date there have been no recorded incidences of resistance developing despite many years of use on high risk diseases. One such disease, Grape downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) has developed resistance to a number of important oomycete specific fungicides following their introduction onto the market. The role of Mancozeb either as a mixing or alternation partner in helping to manage these resistance situations remains critically important. Historical use patterns for mancozeb in tree and vine crops involved many applications of product at high use rates. Although this gave excellent disease control, a negative impact on predatory mites has been reported by researchers. This has lead to the development of mancozeb spray programmes in vines and other crops with a much reduced impact on predatory mites. A range of field studies was conducted in France, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain where either 2 or 4 applications of mancozeb containing products were made per season at different spray timings. These trials covered the representative range of uses, agronomic practices, mite species and geographical locations in Europe. In this paper findings from ten field studies in five different vine growing regions in Europe indicated that two to four applications of mancozeb at 1.6 kg a.i./ha as part of a spray programme caused minimal impact on naturally occurring populations of predatory mites which in turn was compatible with Integrated Pest Management programmes and the conservation of predatory mites. PMID:16628890

  11. Cost effectiveness and equity of a community based cardiovascular disease prevention programme in Norsjö, Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm, L; Rosén, M; Weinehall, L; Asplund, K

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost effectiveness and equity of a community based cardiovascular disease prevention programme. DESIGN: A prospective cross sectional design. SETTING: A community based intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease in the district of Norsjö (n = 5500), Sweden. The intervention was aimed at both the general population and at individuals thought to be at special risk, the emphasis being on changing dietary habits and reducing cholesterol concentrations. PARTICIPANTS: The participants were men and women aged 30-60 years. MAIN RESULTS: The mean serum cholesterol concentration in the Norsjö population was reduced by nearly 20% during the first six years of intervention. It was estimated that the programme's overall total societal costs were 363,000 pounds and estimates of the cost per year of life saved ranged from 14,900 pounds to net savings, according to different assumptions. Taking only health care costs and savings into account, the cost per year of life saved ranged from 1100 pounds to 4050 pounds. The results varied between different sex and age groups, but not between social classes. Even if a causal relationship exists between low cholesterol concentrations and excess mortality, the estimated side effects of lowering cholesterol values in Norsjö were negligible in comparison with the expected benefits. CONCLUSIONS: The community based intervention in Norsjö seems to be cost effective even under conservative assumptions. The approach used seems to have benefited all social classes. Cost effectiveness analyses that take consequences for equity into account are valuable tools in decision making. PMID:8762387

  12. High Tech Programmers in Low-Income Communities: Creating a Computer Culture in a Community Technology Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Peppler, Kylie A.; Chiu, Grace M.

    For the last twenty years, issues of the digital divide have driven efforts around the world to address the lack of access to computers and the Internet, pertinent and language appropriate content, and technical skills in low-income communities (Schuler & Day, 2004a and b). The title of our paper makes reference to a milestone publication (Schon, Sanyal, & Mitchell, 1998) that showcased some of the early work and thinking in this area. Schon, Sanyal and Mitchell's book edition included an article outlining the Computer Clubhouse, a type of community technology center model, which was developed to create opportunities for youth in low-income communities to become creators and designers of technologies by (1998). The model has been very successful scaling up, with over 110 Computer Clubhouses now in existence worldwide.

  13. Cost of malaria control in China: Henan's consolidation programme from community and government perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Sukhan; Sleigh, Adrian C.; Liu, Xi-Li

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assist with strategic planning for the eradication of malaria in Henan Province, China, which reached the consolidation phase of malaria control in 1992, when only 318 malaria cases were reported. METHODS: We conducted a prospective two-year study of the costs for Henan's malaria control programme. We used a cost model that could also be applied to other malaria programmes in mainland China, and analysed the cost of the three components of Henan's malaria programme: suspected malaria case management, vector surveillance, and population blood surveys. Primary cost data were collected from the government, and data on suspected malaria patients were collected in two malaria counties (population 2 093 100). We enlisted the help of 260 village doctors in six townships or former communes (population 247 762), and studied all 12 325 reported cases of suspected malaria in their catchment areas in 1994 and 1995. FINDINGS: The average annual government investment in malaria control was estimated to be US$ 111 516 (case-management 59%; active blood surveys 25%; vector surveillance 12%; and contingencies and special projects 4%). The average cost (direct and indirect) for patients seeking treatment for suspected malaria was US$ 3.48, equivalent to 10 days' income for rural residents. Each suspected malaria case cost the government an average of US$ 0.78. CONCLUSION: Further cuts in government funding will increase future costs when epidemic malaria returns; investment in malaria control should therefore continue at least at current levels of US$ 0.03 per person at risk. PMID:12219157

  14. Serving the Community and Learning a Foreign Language: Evaluating a Service-Learning Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Frank A.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated a service learning program in Spanish, in which learners of Spanish provide various forms of social services to native speakers in local communities in the target language, to assess its impact on learner motivation and attitudes. (Author/VWL)

  15. Studying Europe's Languages: The Economic Case for Australia and the Practical Case of the European Community's Language Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staddon, Sally

    1992-01-01

    Explains the relationship between international trade and language competence in Australia and describes programs to enable students to spend part of their study time learning European Community (EC) languages in countries other than their own. Also discusses the status of foreign language learning in the United Kingdom. (SM)

  16. British Efforts To Upgrade Business Foreign Language Skills: Preparing for Participation in the Single Market of the European Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert

    The need for British businesses to be able to communicate with their customers in their own languages is discussed in this analysis of British preparation for doing business in the European Community (EC). The EC now accounts for half of all exports from the United Kingdom (UK). This paper summarizes five major types of resources available to…

  17. Comparative Analysis of Systems and Procedures for Certification of Qualifications in Force in the European Community. Summary and Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEDEFOP Flash, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The procedures currently used in the 12 European Community (EC) member countries for certifying the employment qualifications of graduates of full-time vocational education and training programs and/or apprenticeship programs were compared. The comparison, which was based on information obtained from 12 national studies of EC members' education…

  18. Wild European Apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) Population Dynamics: Insight from Genetics and Ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a Future Conservation Programme

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically “pure” populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple. PMID:24827575

  19. Accelerating reproductive and child health programme impact with community-based services: the Navrongo experiment in Ghana.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, James F.; Bawah, Ayaga A.; Binka, Fred N.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the demographic and health impact of deploying health service nurses and volunteers to village locations with a view to scaling up results. METHODS: A four-celled plausibility trial was used for testing the impact of aligning community health services with the traditional social institutions that organize village life. Data from the Navrongo Demographic Surveillance System that tracks fertility and mortality events over time were used to estimate impact on fertility and mortality. RESULTS: Assigning nurses to community locations reduced childhood mortality rates by over half in 3 years and accelerated the time taken for attainment of the child survival Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in the study areas to 8 years. Fertility was also reduced by 15%, representing a decline of one birth in the total fertility rate. Programme costs added 1.92 US Dollar per capita to the 6.80 US Dollar per capita primary health care budget. CONCLUSION: Assigning nurses to community locations where they provide basic curative and preventive care substantially reduces childhood mortality and accelerates progress towards attainment of the child survival MDG. Approaches using community volunteers, however, have no impact on mortality. The results also demonstrate that increasing access to contraceptive supplies alone fails to address the social costs of fertility regulation. Effective deployment of volunteers and community mobilization strategies offsets the social constraints on the adoption of contraception. The research in Navrongo thus demonstrates that affordable and sustainable means of combining nurse services with volunteer action can accelerate attainment of both the International Conference on Population and Development agenda and the MDGs. PMID:17242830

  20. Community-based health insurance programmes and the national health insurance scheme of Nigeria: challenges to uptake and integration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria has included a regulated community-based health insurance (CBHI) model within its National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). Uptake to date has been disappointing, however. The aim of this study is to review the present status of CBHI in SSA in general to highlight the issues that affect its successful integration within the NHIS of Nigeria and more widely in developing countries. Methods A literature survey using PubMed and EconLit was carried out to identify and review studies that report factors affecting implementation of CBHI in SSA with a focus on Nigeria. Results CBHI schemes with a variety of designs have been introduced across SSA but with generally disappointing results so far. Two exceptions are Ghana and Rwanda, both of which have introduced schemes with effective government control and support coupled with intensive implementation programmes. Poor support for CBHI is repeatedly linked elsewhere with failure to engage and account for the ‘real world’ needs of beneficiaries, lack of clear legislative and regulatory frameworks, inadequate financial support, and unrealistic enrolment requirements. Nigeria’s CBHI-type schemes for the informal sectors of its NHIS have been set up under an appropriate legislative framework, but work is needed to eliminate regressive financing, to involve scheme members in the setting up and management of programmes, to inform and educate more effectively, to eliminate lack of confidence in the schemes, and to address inequity in provision. Targeted subsidies should also be considered. Conclusions Disappointing uptake of CBHI-type NHIS elements in Nigeria can be addressed through closer integration of informal and formal programmes under the NHIS umbrella, with increasing involvement of beneficiaries in scheme design and management, improved communication and education, and targeted financial assistance. PMID:24559409

  1. Prioritisation of wildlife pathogens to be targeted in European surveillance programmes: Expert-based risk analysis focus on ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ciliberti, Alexandre; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Yon, Lisa; Hutchings, Mike R; Artois, Marc

    2015-03-01

    This study attempted to develop a list of priority pathogens. It is part of a European Union (EU) project dedicated to the surveillance of emerging or re-emerging pathogens of wildlife. Partners of the consortium established an initial list of 138 pathogens of concern, which was reduced to a smaller list of 65 pathogens likely to affect ruminants (i.e., the most costly animal group in the EU over the last 15 years). These 65 pathogens underwent a two-step, expert-based risk analysis: 92 experts graded them with respect to their global importance for animal welfare, species conservation, trade/economic impacts and public health. In step 2, the top 15 pathogens from step 1 were assessed by 69 experts considering seven weighted epidemiological criteria (pathogen variability, host specificity, potential for contagion, speed of spread, presence in Europe, difficulty of surveillance in wildlife and persistence in the environment) for which four options were possible. The responses concerned a wide geographic coverage. The resulting top-list pathogens were ranked as follows: 1. Salmonella enterica, 2. Coxiella burnetii, 3. foot-and-mouth disease virus, 4. Mycobacterium bovis, 5. bluetongue virus, and 6. European tick-borne encephalitis virus. The influence of the characteristics of the respondents, the importance of the levels of uncertainty/variability and the implication of the results are discussed. This work highlights the relevance of developing such lists for preparedness. PMID:25496774

  2. Macroparasites and their communities of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of parasitological examinations of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic, carried out at the Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences (previously the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) within the period of 50 years (1958-2008). Even though this survey is limited to the Czech Republic, it provides extensive data probably incomparable with any other study anywhere regarding the number of eels examined and parasites found. A total of 723 eels was examined from 42 localities that belong to all of the three main river drainage systems in the country, i.e. the Elbe, Danube and Oder river basins. Of the 31 species of adult and larval macroparasites including Monogenea (4 species), Trematoda (3), Cestoda (3), Nematoda (11), Acanthocephala (5), Hirudinea (1), Bivalvia (1), Copepoda (1), Branchiura (1) and Acariformes (1), most of them (30) were recorded from the Elbe River basin. These parasites can be divided into three main groups regarding their host specificity: parasites specific for eels (26%), non-specific adult parasites occurring also in other fishes (61%) and non-specific larvae (13%). The highest number (19) of parasite species was recorded in the Mácha Lake fishpond system in northern Bohemia. The parasite communities in eels from the individual localities exhibited large differences in their species composition and diversity depending on local ecological conditions. The parasite fauna of A. anguilla in the Czech Republic is compared with that in other European countries. The nematode Cucullanus egyptae Abdel-Ghaffar, Bashtar, Abdel-Gaber, Morsy, Mehlhorn, Al Quraishy et Mohammed, 2014 is designated as a species inquirenda. PMID:26130652

  3. A community-based intervention programme on hormonal contraceptives: The utilisation of social networks.

    PubMed

    Hidiroglu, S; Topuzoglu, A; Onsuz, M F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of an intervention programme based on the utilisation of the social learning concept which is practised through social networks among adult women in a suburban population in Turkey. The study was performed in two disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Umraniye, Istanbul. One of the neighbourhoods served as the intervention while the other as the control group. In order to document the efficacy of the intervention, baseline and evaluation surveys were carried out in both neighbourhoods. The most widely known hormonal contraceptive method was oral contraceptives, while emergency contraceptives were determined as the least known methods. The improvement was higher for the least known methods. Education with peer groups is shown to be effective in improving the knowledge of women about contraception. Information transfer through peer groups should be used more frequently particularly for emergency contraception. PMID:26472349

  4. Coaching to Quality: Increasing Quality in Early Care and Education Programmes through Community-University Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jaesook Lee; Harte, Helene Arbouet

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes efforts to increase the quality in early care and education through targeted coaching. A collaborative including several community agencies and a university developed a framework of support for early care and education providers, using coaching as its foundational basis, called Coaching to Quality (CTQ). This paper provides a…

  5. Barriers to and Facilitators of Access and Participation in Community-Based Exercise Programmes from the Perspective of Adults with Post-stroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Blonski, Diane C.; Covert, Megan; Gauthier, Roxanne; Monas, Alanna; Murray, Danielle; O'Brien, Kelly K.; Mendelson, Anita Debbie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To explore communication-related experiences with accessing and participating in community-based exercise programmes from the perspective of adults with post-stroke aphasia. Methods: Adults with mild to severe post-stroke aphasia were recruited from the Aphasia Institute (AI), Toronto, Canada, for a qualitative descriptive study using semi-structured, in-depth one-on-one interviews. Participants were asked to identify facilitators of, barriers to, and strategies for joining and participating in exercise programmes. Interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Results: Ten adults with mild (40%), moderate (40%), or severe (20%) aphasia participated in this study. The majority of participants were men (60%) aged 60–69 years (40%). Participants experienced a combination of communication, environmental, and personal facilitators of and barriers to accessing and participating in community-based exercise programmes. Strategies to enhance participation can be applied at both programme and individual levels. Conclusions: Findings may inform clinical practice and programming to optimize access to and participation in community-based exercise programmes for adults with post-stroke aphasia. PMID:25922558

  6. Interconnectivity vs. isolation of prokaryotic communities in European deep-sea mud volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachiadaki, M. G.; Kormas, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    During the past two decades, European cold seep ecosystems have attracted the scientific interest and to date there are several studies which have investigated the community structure and biodiversity of individual sites. In order to gain a better insight into the biology, biodiversity, and biogeography of seep-associated microbial communities along Europe's continental margins, a comparative approach was applied in the present work. By exploiting the publicly available data on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano, Gulf of Cádiz and the eastern Mediterranean mud volcanoes/pockmarks (Anaximander area and Nile Fan), we investigated the prokaryotic biological components connecting these geographically isolated systems. The construction of interaction networks for both archaeal and bacterial shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among the different sites, revealed the presence of persistent OTUs, which can be considered as "key-players". One archaeal OTU (HQ588641) belonging to the ANME-3 group and one δ-Proteobacteria (HQ588562) were found in all five investigated areas. Other Archaea OTUs shared between four sites or less, belonged to the ANME-2c, -2a, MBG-D, -B and Thaumarchaeota. All other shared Bacteria belonged to the δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, with the exception of one JS1 affiliate OTU. The distribution of the majority of the shared OTUs seems to be restricted in cold seeps, mud volcanoes and other marine methane-rich environments. Although the investigated sites were connected through a small number of OTUs, these microorganisms hold central ecophysiological roles in these sediments, namely methane- and sulfur-mediated mineralization.

  7. Effects of microplastics on European flat oysters, Ostrea edulis and their associated benthic communities.

    PubMed

    Green, Dannielle Senga

    2016-09-01

    Plastic pollution is recognised as an emerging threat to aquatic ecosystems, with microplastics now the most abundant type of marine debris. Health effects caused by microplastics have been demonstrated at the species level, but impacts on ecological communities remain unknown. In this study, impacts of microplastics on the health and biological functioning of European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) and on the structure of associated macrofaunal assemblages were assessed in an outdoor mesocosm experiment using intact sediment cores. Biodegradable and conventional microplastics were added at low (0.8 μg L(-1)) and high (80 μg L(-1)) doses in the water column repeatedly for 60 days. Effects on the oysters were minimal, but benthic assemblage structures differed and species richness and the total number of organisms were ∼1.2 and 1.5 times greater in control mesocosms than in those exposed to high doses of microplastics. Notably, abundances of juvenile Littorina sp. (periwinkles) and Idotea balthica (an isopod) were ∼2 and 8 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of either type of microplastic. In addition, the biomass of Scrobicularia plana (peppery furrow shell clam) was ∼1.5 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of microplastics. This work indicates that repeated exposure to high concentrations of microplastics could alter assemblages in an important marine habitat by reducing the abundance of benthic fauna. PMID:27239693

  8. Communities of Practice and Participatory Action Research: The Formation of a Synergy for the Development of Museum Programmes for Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampartzaki, Maria; Kypriotaki, Maria; Voreadou, Catherine; Dardioti, Antonia; Stathi, Iasmi

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the integration of two key ideas and working frameworks: a community of educational practice formed by the synergy between a natural history museum and a university department of pre-school education, which undertook participatory action research aimed at the creation of innovative museum programmes for young children. Data…

  9. Impact of community-based support services on antiretroviral treatment programme delivery and outcomes in resource-limited countries: a synthetic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Task-shifting to lay community health providers is increasingly suggested as a potential strategy to overcome the barriers to sustainable antiretroviral treatment (ART) scale-up in high-HIV-prevalence, resource-limited settings. The dearth of systematic scientific evidence on the contributory role and function of these forms of community mobilisation has rendered a formal evaluation of the published results of existing community support programmes a research priority. Methods We reviewed the relevant published work for the period from November 2003 to December 2011 in accordance with the guidelines for a synthetic review. ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, BioMed Central, OVID Medline, PubMed, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts and a number of relevant websites were searched. Results The reviewed literature reported an unambiguous positive impact of community support on a wide range of aspects, including access, coverage, adherence, virological and immunological outcomes, patient retention and survival. Looking at the mechanisms through which community support can impact ART programmes, the review indicates that community support initiatives are a promising strategy to address five often cited challenges to ART scale-up, namely (1) the lack of integration of ART services into the general health system; (2) the growing need for comprehensive care, (3) patient empowerment, (4) and defaulter tracing; and (5) the crippling shortage in human resources for health. The literature indicates that by linking HIV/AIDS-care to other primary health care programmes, by providing psychosocial care in addition to the technical-medical care from nurses and doctors, by empowering patients towards self-management and by tracing defaulters, well-organised community support initiatives are a vital part of any sustainable public-sector ART programme. Conclusions The review demonstrates that community support initiatives are a potentially effective

  10. A realist synthesis of the evidence on outreach programmes for health improvement of Traveller Communities

    PubMed Central

    Lhussier, M.; Carr, S.M.; Forster, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Improving the health of Traveller Communities is an international public health concern but there is little evidence on effective interventions. This study aimed to explain how, for whom and in what circumstances outreach works in Traveller Communities. Methods A realist synthesis was undertaken. Systematic literature searches were conducted between August and November 2011. Grey literature was sought and key stakeholders were involved throughout the review process. Iterative steps of data extraction, analysis and synthesis, followed by additional searches were undertaken. Results An explanatory framework details how, why and in what circumstances participation, behaviour change or social capital development happened. The trust status of outreach workers is an important context of outreach interventions, in conjunction with their ability to negotiate the intervention focus. The higher the outreach worker's trust status, the lower the imperative that they negotiate the intervention focus. A ‘menu’ of reasoning mechanisms is presented, leading to key engagement outcomes. Conclusions Adopting a realist analysis, this study offers a framework with explanatory purchase as to the potential of outreach to improve health in marginalized groups. PMID:26232206

  11. A community-based multilevel intervention for smoking, physical activity and diet: short-term findings from the Community Interventions for Health programme in Hangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Liu, Qing-Min; Ren, Yan-Jun; He, Ping-Ping; Wang, Sheng-Feng; Gao, Fang; Li, Li-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the short-term impact of a comprehensive, community-based multilevel intervention on knowledge, beliefs and practices with respect to smoking, physical activity and diet in Hangzhou, China. Methods A non-randomised, controlled, before-after quasi-experimental trial was conducted in two intervention areas and one comparison area. The intervention built on a socioecological framework and took place across four settings: neighbourhoods, schools, workplaces and community health centres. Two independent cross-sectional surveys of adults aged 18–64 years at baseline and a subsequent follow-up were conducted in 2008/2009 and 2011 in the intervention and comparison areas. A 2-year intervention programme was begun in mid-2009 and continued until mid-2011. Results A total of 2016 adults at baseline and 2016 adults at follow-up completed the survey. Over the 2-year intervention period, the intervention areas showed a statistically significant decline (25.2% vs 18.7%, p<0.001) in the prevalence of smoking compared with the comparison area (18.0% vs 16.4%, p=0.343). The proportion of individuals who had noticed anyone smoking in any of nine locations in the previous 30 days demonstrated a statistically significant decline in the intervention (78.9% vs 66.5%, p<0.001) and comparison (76.3% vs 66.5%, p<0.001) areas. The fruit and vegetable consumption score increased in a statistically significant manner in the intervention (24.84 vs 25.97, p=0.036) and comparison (24.25 vs 26.67, p<0.001) areas. The metabolic equivalent of physical activity increased from 1204 to 1386 (p=0.023) in the intervention areas compared with 918 to 924 in the comparison area (p=0.201). Conclusions After a 2-year intervention, beneficial changes were noted in the intervention areas with respect to smoking and physical activity but not diet. A community-based multilevel intervention programme is feasible in urban China. PMID:24297972

  12. Tackling the tuberculosis epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa--unique opportunities arising from the second European Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) programme 2015-2024.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Petersen, Eskild; Nyirenda, Thomas; Chakaya, Jeremiah

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) today remains a global emergency affecting 9.0 million people globally. The African Region bears the highest global TB/HIV burden and over 50% of TB cases in SSA are co-infected with HIV. An estimated 1.5 million died from the TB globally in 2013. A large majority of the 360,000 HIV-positive TB cases who died were from sub-Saharan Africa. Research and development is an important pillar of the WHO post-2015 global TB strategy. Advances in development of diagnostics, drugs, host-directed therapies, and vaccines will require evaluation under field conditions through multi-centre clinical trials at different geographical locations. Thus it is critically important that these evaluations are fully supported by all African governments and the capacity, trained staff and infrastructure required to perform the research and evaluations is built and made available. This viewpoint article reviews the opportunities provided by recently launched second programme (2015-2024) of the European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP2) for tackling the TB epidemic in Africa through its magnanimous portfolio. The unique opportunities provided by EDCTP2 for leadership of scientific research in TB and other diseases fully devolving to Africa are also covered. PMID:25809755

  13. The Upgrade Programme for the Structural Biology beamlines at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility - High throughput sample evaluation and automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theveneau, P.; Baker, R.; Barrett, R.; Beteva, A.; Bowler, M. W.; Carpentier, P.; Caserotto, H.; de Sanctis, D.; Dobias, F.; Flot, D.; Guijarro, M.; Giraud, T.; Lentini, M.; Leonard, G. A.; Mattenet, M.; McCarthy, A. A.; McSweeney, S. M.; Morawe, C.; Nanao, M.; Nurizzo, D.; Ohlsson, S.; Pernot, P.; Popov, A. N.; Round, A.; Royant, A.; Schmid, W.; Snigirev, A.; Surr, J.; Mueller-Dieckmann, C.

    2013-03-01

    Automation and advances in technology are the key elements in addressing the steadily increasing complexity of Macromolecular Crystallography (MX) experiments. Much of this complexity is due to the inter-and intra-crystal heterogeneity in diffraction quality often observed for crystals of multi-component macromolecular assemblies or membrane proteins. Such heterogeneity makes high-throughput sample evaluation an important and necessary tool for increasing the chances of a successful structure determination. The introduction at the ESRF of automatic sample changers in 2005 dramatically increased the number of samples that were tested for diffraction quality. This "first generation" of automation, coupled with advances in software aimed at optimising data collection strategies in MX, resulted in a three-fold increase in the number of crystal structures elucidated per year using data collected at the ESRF. In addition, sample evaluation can be further complemented using small angle scattering experiments on the newly constructed bioSAXS facility on BM29 and the micro-spectroscopy facility (ID29S). The construction of a second generation of automated facilities on the MASSIF (Massively Automated Sample Screening Integrated Facility) beam lines will build on these advances and should provide a paradigm shift in how MX experiments are carried out which will benefit the entire Structural Biology community.

  14. Evaluation of a community-based drowning prevention programme in northern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Davoudi-Kiakalayeh, A; Mohammadi, R; Yousefzade-Chabok, S; Jansson, B

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of a drowning intervention package in northern Islamic Republic of Iran. A quasi-experimental design used pre- and post-observations among residents and tourists in water-recreation beach areas of intervention and control regions by the Caspian Sea and in residents near the Caspian Sea coastline. The fatal drowning rate in the studied resident population in the provinces fell from 4.24 per 100 000 residents at baseline to 3.04 per 100,000 residents at endline. The risk of death from drowning in the intervention areas in the water-recreation area was greater during the pre-intervention (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.66-2.01) than the implementation period (OR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.15-0.37). The risk of drowning can be reduced by implementing increased supervision and raising community awareness. PMID:24975308

  15. Space research programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, Per; Englund, Jan; Norberg, Olle

    2001-08-01

    A major highlight of the Swedish national programme was the launch of the Odin Orbital Observatory in February 2001. The atmospheric profiles measured by Odin will be calibrated with rocket and balloon validation flights during the second half of 2001. A continuation of the satellite programme after Odin depends on the outcome of an ongoing assessment and an additional budget. The future ESA microgravity programme will be of high importance for European and Swedish science and applications using weightless conditions, and for the utilisation of the International Space Station (ISS). It should also make sure that the European independent capability for launching efficient sounding rockets is preserved and developed.

  16. Origin and Evolution of European Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Thierry; Andersen, Paal S.; Skov, Robert L.; De Grassi, Anna; Simões, Patricia Martins; Tristan, Anne; Petersen, Andreas; Aziz, Maliha; Kiil, Kristoffer; Cirković, Ivana; Udo, Edet E.; del Campo, Rosa; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Ahmad, Norazah; Tokajian, Sima; Peters, Georg; Schaumburg, Frieder; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Givskov, Michael; Driebe, Elizabeth E.; Vigh, Henrik E.; Shittu, Adebayo; Ramdani-Bougessa, Nadjia; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Price, Lance B.; Vandenesch, Francois; Larsen, Anders R.; Laurent, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) was recognized in Europe and worldwide in the late 1990s. Within a decade, several genetically and geographically distinct CA-MRSA lineages carrying the small SCCmec type IV and V genetic elements and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) emerged around the world. In Europe, the predominant CA-MRSA strain belongs to clonal complex 80 (CC80) and is resistant to kanamycin/amikacin and fusidic acid. CC80 was first reported in 1993 but was relatively rare until the late 1990s. It has since been identified throughout North Africa, the Middle East, and Europe, with recent sporadic reports in sub-Saharan Africa. While strongly associated with skin and soft tissue infections, it is rarely found among asymptomatic carriers. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) CC80 strains are extremely rare except in sub-Saharan Africa. In the current study, we applied whole-genome sequencing to a global collection of both MSSA and MRSA CC80 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest that the European epidemic CA-MRSA lineage is derived from a PVL-positive MSSA ancestor from sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, the tree topology suggests a single acquisition of both the SCCmec element and a plasmid encoding the fusidic acid resistance determinant. Four canonical SNPs distinguish the derived CA-MRSA lineage and include a nonsynonymous mutation in accessory gene regulator C (agrC). These changes were associated with a star-like expansion into Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa in the early 1990s, including multiple cases of cross-continent imports likely driven by human migrations. PMID:25161186

  17. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  18. Population education and ILO: African programmes of population and social community welfare education.

    PubMed

    Garzon-castaneda, P; Pour, H; Simbeye, A

    1985-06-01

    The information and population education and social and community welfare program drawn up by the International Labor Organization (ILO) aims at the improvement of the living conditions of workers through relating their incomes and needs to the basic needs of the family. The integration of voluntary associations in project activities can increase the effectiveness of messages; the multiplicity of information channels enlarges the scope and strenthens credibility insofar as these channels are accepted by the target groups. When it comes to determining the contents intended for groups such as trade unions, village committees, or cooperatives, a study of the area is undertaken to know their specific situation and the aspects concerning their population and social welfare problems. Population education provided by ILO deals with 2 primordial factors: 1) the improvement of working methods which will make it possible for individuals to improve of their health and living conditions while earning better incomes, and 2) the sharing all knowledge between men and women to encourage men to assume better responsibilities. The level of education of persons affected by projects is very different; they represent a complete range from the literate and semi-literate to the illiterate. Different units of production of educational equipment are being organized to meet material demand. In conclusion, educational and social welfare programs conform to the recommendations of the conference and will continue to draw on the World Population Action Plan to improve standards of living and quality of life for all people. PMID:12268116

  19. Online Communities of Practice Enhancing Statistics Instruction: The European Project EarlyStatistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meletiou-Mavrotheris, Maria; Mavrotheris, Efstathios

    2007-01-01

    Acknowledging the fact that teachers are at the heart of any educational reform effort, the European Union funded project EarlyStatistics aims to enrich European children's learning of statistics by offering their mathematics teachers a high-quality online professional development program. A central conviction underlying the design of the program…

  20. Community Residency Programme (CRP)--a tool for research and rural health training for medical students.

    PubMed

    Yadav, H

    2002-12-01

    Rural health training is an important element in the training of medical students in the University of Malaya. There is a need for the undergraduates to be familiar with the rural health infrastructure and to understand the social and economic aspects of the rural poor. The objective of the training is to make the students understand the problems faced by the poor in the rural areas so that when they practice in rural health areas, after graduation, they will understand the problems of the rural poor. They will have the knowledge of the diseases in the rural areas and also understand the community and the environmental factors that contribute to the disease. The training lasts' for 4 weeks, one week for lectures on health survey, two weeks for the field trip and one week of data analysis and presentation of their findings to an expert panel. During the field trip the students are divided into groups and they go to different parts of the country. Each group will do a field survey to find out the socio-demography, environmental, economic, nutritional and health problems in the village. In addition to the survey they also do a research project on any topic. The students also do social work, visit places of public health interest like the water treatment plant, sewage disposal, factory visits and others. Apart from technical skills in statistics and epidemiology, various other managerial skills like leadership, teamwork, communications and public relations are also learnt during the training. In conclusion this rural health training is an important aspect of the medical students training as it imparts several skills to them that are needed as a doctor. PMID:12733201

  1. Gender and representation in refugee communities: the experience of the Ikafe programme.

    PubMed

    Payne, L; Adoko, J

    1997-06-01

    The Ikafe camp established in 1994 in Uganda for 45,000 refugees from Sudan was treated as a rural development program by Oxfam UK/1. Refugees and Oxfam staff achieved registration, land allocation, distribution of food, water, sanitation, health care, and livelihood development, and the refugees successfully cleared land for cultivation, established nurseries, and instituted community-managed water and sanitation systems. All programming has been achieved through representative structures linked to Ugandan bodies. Despite Oxfam's attempt to provide women with equal representation and an equal voice in decision-making, only a low participation of women was achieved. Analysis of this situation revealed that women in the Sudan traditionally held positions of responsibility. However, in the refugee settlements women sometimes did not learn about meetings or meetings were held at inconvenient times or women lacked free time for meetings. The men feared that women would appropriate jobs the men considered their rightful positions, and women expressed jealousy of prominent women. The existence of a position entitled "Women's Representative" led the refugees to believe that all the other jobs were for men, and they considered the alien Ugandan structures appropriate only for voicing concerns, not for self-management. Thus, refugee representatives were often the men who could speak English. In response, Oxfam reformed the representative structure to insure sex equality and restructured the committee overseeing discipline on Sudanese lines. Oxfam learned that it is important to establish interim structures that can be adapted later and that it is not enough simply to create democratic election procedures and encourage people to elect women. PMID:12320971

  2. Ranking the criteria for sustainability of community-based rural homestay programmes from the perspective of the operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Rohaini; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ramli, Razamin; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2015-12-01

    Homestay is one of the government's products that promote the cultural tourism of country around the world. Homestay in Malaysia is not only thriving, but also its operation is moving gradually toward development of economic growth. Many homestays have been built throughout the country and this will give tourists an opportunity to enjoy the different and interesting environment in Malaysia. However, most of them receive less support from tourists and only certain numbers of homestays have operated consistently. This paper examines eleven sustainability criteria for homestay programme in Malaysia covering environmental, economic and sociocultural dimensions. The required data were collected through a survey of 246 homestay operators using a structured questionnaire. Data obtained was analyzed by utilizing percentage and arithmetic average. The findings revealed that the three most important criteria for homestay to remain sustained in this business area are ability and capacity, leadership and conservation of community resources. In order to improve the business performance of homestays in this country, homestay operators should focus on improving their ability and capacity and focus on enhancing their leadership skills.

  3. Vocational Guidance and Counselling for Young People and Adults in the European Community. Findings of a Conference (Berlin, West Germany, December 7-8, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Heinz J., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This document reports on a conference centered around three topics: vocational guidance in the Member States of the European Community (EC), the "Europeanization" of vocational guidance, and approaches to cross-frontier vocational guidance. Among the recommendations of the conference participants are the following: the tasks of vocational guidance…

  4. Integration of HIV Care into Community Management of Acute Childhood Malnutrition Permits Good Outcomes: Retrospective Analysis of Three Years of a Programme in Lusaka

    PubMed Central

    Amadi, Beatrice; Imikendu, Mercy; Sakala, Milika; Banda, Rosemary; Kelly, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background While HIV has had a major impact on health care in southern Africa, there are few data on its impact on acute malnutrition in children in the community. We report an analysis of outcomes in a large programme of community management of acute malnutrition in the south of Lusaka. Programme Activities and Analysis Over 3 years, 68,707 assessments for undernutrition were conducted house-to-house, and children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) or moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) were enrolled into either Outpatient Therapeutic Programme (OTP) or Supplementary Feeding Programme (SFP) respectively. Case records were analysed using tabulation and unconditional logistic regression. Findings 1,859 children (889 boys, 970 girls; median age 16 months) with MAM (n = 664) or SAM (n = 1,195) were identified. Of 1,796 children whose parents consented to testing, 185 (10.3%) were HIV positive. Altogether 1,163 (62.6%) were discharged as recovered from acute malnutrition. Case fatality while in the programme was 4.2% in children with SAM and 0.5% in those with MAM (RR of SAM 10.9; 95%CI 3.4,34.8; P<0.0001), and higher in children with HIV infection (RR 5.2, 95%CI 2.9, 9.0; P<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, HIV (OR 5.2; 95%CI 2.6, 10.1; P<0.0001), MUAC <11.5cm (OR 4.1; 95%CI 2.2, 7.4; P<0.0001) and the first year of the programme (OR 1.9; 95%CI 1.0, 3.4; P = 0.04) all increased mortality. Children with HIV infection who were able to initiate antiretroviral therapy had lower mortality (RR 0.23; 95%CI 0.10, 0.57; P = 0.0008). Interpretation Our programme suggests that a comprehensive community malnutrition programme, incorporating HIV care, can achieve low mortality even in a population heavily affected by HIV. PMID:26943124

  5. Training, supervision and quality of care in selected integrated community case management (iCCM) programmes: A scoping review of programmatic evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bosch–Capblanch, Xavier; Marceau, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    Aim To describe the training, supervision and quality of care components of integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) programmes and to draw lessons learned from existing evaluations of those programmes. Methods Scoping review of reports from 29 selected iCCM programmes purposively provided by stakeholders containing any information relevant to understand quality of care issues. Results The number of people reached by iCCM programmes varied from the tens of thousands to more than a million. All programmes aimed at improving access of vulnerable populations to health care, focusing on the main childhood illnesses, managed by Community Health Workers (CHW), often selected bycommunities. Training and supervision were widely implemented, in different ways and intensities, and often complemented with tools (eg, guides, job aids), supplies, equipment and incentives. Quality of care was measured using many outcomes (eg, access or appropriate treatment). Overall, there seemed to be positive effects for those strategies that involved policy change, organisational change, standardisation of clinical practices and alignment with other programmes. Positive effects were mostly achieved in large multi–component programmes. Mild or no effects have been described on mortality reduction amongst the few programmes for which data on this outcome was available to us. Promising strategies included teaming–up of CHW, micro–franchising or social franchising. On–site training and supervision of CHW have been shown to improve clinical practices. Effects on caregivers seemed positive, with increases in knowledge, care seeking behaviour, or caregivers’ basic disease management. Evidence on iCCM is often of low quality, cannot relate specific interventions or the ways they are implemented with outcomes and lacks standardisation; this limits the capacity to identify promising strategies to improve quality of care. Conclusion Large, multi–faceted, iCCM programmes, with strong

  6. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation protocol

    PubMed Central

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Pommier, Jeanine; Kane, Sumit; Pictet, Gabriel; Marchal, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The recruitment of community health volunteers to support the delivery of health programmes is a well-established approach in many countries, particularly where health services are not readily available. However, studies on management of volunteers are scarce and current research on human resource management of volunteers faces methodological challenges. This paper presents the protocol of a realist evaluation that aims at identifying the factors influencing the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of a Red Cross immunisation programme in Kampala (Uganda) with a specific focus on motivation. Methods and analysis The realist evaluation cycle structures the protocol. To develop the theoretical basis for the evaluation, the authors conducted interviews and reviewed the literature on community health volunteers’ performance, management and organisational behaviour. This led to the formulation of the initial programme theory, which links the intervention inputs (capacity-building strategies) to the expected outcomes (positive work behaviour) with mechanisms that point in the direction of drivers of motivation. The contextual elements include components such as organisational culture, resource availability, etc. A case study design will be adopted. We define a case as a Red Cross branch, run by a programme manager, and will select two cases at the district level in Kampala. Mixed methods will be used in data collection, including individual interviews of volunteers, participant observation and document review. The thematic analysis will be based on the initial programme theory and will seek for context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Findings from the two cases will be compared. Discussion We discuss the scope for applying realist evaluation and the methodological challenges we encountered in developing this protocol. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethical Committee at Rennes University Hospital

  7. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Marchal, Bruno; Kane, Sumit; Petrič, Taja; Pictet, Gabriel; Pommier, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper presents the results of a realist evaluation that aimed to understand how, why and under what circumstances a Red Cross (RC) capacity-building intervention influences the motivation and the performance of RC community health volunteers involved in the delivery of an immunisation programme in Kampala, Uganda. Method Given the complexity of the intervention, we adopted realist evaluation as our methodological approach and the case study as our study design. Data collection included document review, participant observation and interviews. The constant comparative method was used for the analysis. Two contrasted cases were selected within the five Kampala districts. Each case covers the management of the immunisation programme implemented at a RC branch. In each case, a programme manager and 15 RC volunteers were interviewed. The selection of the volunteers was purposive. Results We found that a capacity-building programme including supervision supportive of autonomy, skills and knowledge enhancement, and adapted to the different subgroups of volunteers, leads to satisfaction of the three key drivers of volunteer motivation: feelings of autonomy, competence and connectedness. This contributes to higher retention, and better task performance and well-being among the volunteers. Enabling contextual conditions include the responsiveness of the Uganda Red Cross Society (URCS) to community needs, and recognition of the work of the volunteers, from the URCS and the community. Conclusions A management approach that caters for the different motivational states and changing needs of the volunteers will lead to better performance. The findings will inform not only the management of community health volunteers, but also the management of all kinds of health workers. PMID:26525721

  8. Effect of a community intervention programme promoting social interactions on functional disability prevention for older adults: propensity score matching and instrumental variable analyses, JAGES Taketoyo study

    PubMed Central

    Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori; Aida, Jun; Takeda, Tokunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background The efficacy of promoting social interactions to improve the health of older adults is not fully established due to residual confounding and selection bias. Methods The government of Taketoyo town, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, developed a resident-centred community intervention programme called ‘community salons’, providing opportunities for social interactions among local older residents. To evaluate the impact of the programme, we conducted questionnaire surveys for all older residents of Taketoyo. We carried out a baseline survey in July 2006 (prior to the introduction of the programme) and assessed the onset of functional disability during March 2012. We analysed the data of 2421 older people. In addition to the standard Cox proportional hazard regression, we conducted Cox regression with propensity score matching (PSM) and an instrumental variable (IV) analysis, using the number of community salons within a radius of 350 m from the participant's home as an instrument. Results In the 5 years after the first salon was launched, the salon participants showed a 6.3% lower incidence of functional disability compared with non-participants. Even adjusting for sex, age, equivalent income, educational attainment, higher level activities of daily living and depression, the Cox adjusted HR for becoming disabled was 0.49 (95% CI 0.33 to 0.72). Similar results were observed using PSM (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.83) and IV-Cox analysis (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.74). Conclusions A community health promotion programme focused on increasing social interactions among older adults may be effective in preventing the onset of disability. PMID:25888596

  9. Identification systems and selection criteria for small ruminants among pastoralist communities in northern Kenya: prospects for a breeding programme.

    PubMed

    Mbuku, S M; Kosgey, I S; Kahi, A K

    2010-10-01

    Data on animal identification systems and selection criteria for sheep and goats were collected from the Rendille and Gabra communities in northern Kenya. These were then analysed through computation of indices, which represented a weighted average of all rankings of a particular trait or identification system. The three most important records kept were castration (index = 0.224), dates of birth (0.188) and entries into the flock (0.185). Identification was done through ear notching (0.409), branding (0.248), and coat colour of the animals (0.150). Characteristics with index >or=0.200 were considered more important and included big body size (Rendille, 0.260; Gabra, 0.251) and milk yield (Rendille, 0.206) for the buck's dam. Big body size (Rendille, 0.264; Gabra, 0.245) and offspring quality (Rendille, 0.252; Gabra, 0.265) were considered important attributes for the buck's sire. Important qualities for the ram's dam were big body size (Rendille, 0.246; Gabra, 0.216), offspring quality (Rendille, 0.200; Gabra, 0.235), fat deposition (0.233) among the Rendille and drought tolerance (0.246) among the Gabra. For the rams' sire, big body size (Rendille, 0.235; Gabra, 0.233), offspring quality (Rendille, 0.200; Gabra, 0.235) and fat deposition (Rendille, 0.203; Gabra, 0.220) were considered important. The results from this study imply that pedigree and performance recording have been practiced through own intricate knowledge and that pastoralists have deliberate selection criteria. This information is the cornerstone in the establishment of appropriate breeding programmes in the slowly changing pastoral systems. PMID:20419472

  10. The Erasmus programme for postgraduate education in orthodontics in Europe: an update of the guidelines.

    PubMed

    Huggare, J; Derringer, K A; Eliades, T; Filleul, M P; Kiliaridis, S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A; Martina, R; Pirttiniemi, P; Ruf, S; Schwestka-Polly, R

    2014-06-01

    In 1989, the ERASMUS Bureau of the European Cultural Foundation of the Commission of the European Communities funded the development of a new 3-year curriculum for postgraduate education in orthodontics. The new curriculum was created by directors for orthodontic education representing 15 European countries. The curriculum entitled 'Three years Postgraduate Programme in Orthodontics: the Final Report of the Erasmus Project' was published 1992. In 2012, the 'Network of Erasmus Based European Orthodontic Programmes' developed and approved an updated version of the guidelines. The core programme consists of eight sections: general biological and medical subjects; basic orthodontic subjects; general orthodontic subjects; orthodontic techniques; interdisciplinary subjects; management of health and safety; practice management, administration, and ethics; extramural educational activities. The programme goals and objectives are described and the competencies to be reached are outlined. These guidelines may serve as a baseline for programme development and quality assessment for postgraduate programme directors, national associations, and governmental bodies and could assist future residents when selecting a postgraduate programme. PMID:24344242