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Sample records for european mediterranean coast

  1. Perkinsus chesapeaki observed in a new host, the European common edible cockle Cerastoderma edule, in the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, N; Rojas, M; Aceituno, P; Andree, K B; Lacuesta, B; Furones, M D

    2014-03-01

    Histological observations showed the presence of a Perkinsus sp. parasite in Cerastoderma edule tissues for the first time in the Spanish Mediterranean coast. ITS molecular characterization by PCR-RFLP, in situ hybridization and sequencing, identified the parasite as Perkinsus chesapeaki, with a maximum identity of 99-100% with GenBank P. chesapeaki sequences from France and 97% with P. chesapeaki sequences of North American origin when BLAST analysis was carried out. Furthermore, phylogenetic studies placed the European cockle parasite in a well defined cluster together with the other European isolates. This is the first report of P. chesapeaki in the cockle C. edule. PMID:24525498

  2. Meteotsunami occurrence frequency along the Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masina, Marinella; Archetti, Renata; Lamberti, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    A number of research studies describe exceptional destructive meteotsunami events since long time whereas no systematic database is available of moderate events because sea level data were recorded with insufficient resolution. Sea level measurements recently collected with high sampling rate, one per minute or less, by tide gauges positioned along the Mediterranean coasts are examined, aiming to analyze the occurrence of oscillation events in the tsunami frequency range. Sea level data from operating tide stations inside the Mediterranean basin are made publicly available through the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Sea Level Monitoring Facility web site (http://www.ioc-sealevelmonitoring.org/). After the implementation of a rigorous quality check procedure to the raw water level time series, Hilbert transform is applied to two hour high-pass filtered observations to identify tsunami-like oscillation events. Events of seismic origin are identified by consistency between earthquake occurrence and tsunami wave travel time from the earthquake epicenter to the specific tide gauge. Similar analyses are performed to exclude sea waves induced harbor seiches events. A list of probable meteotsunami episodes occurred in the Mediterranean region is so compiled and their occurrence frequency and intensity statistics are evaluated at the different tide gauge sites over the time period of high frequency water level data availability ranging from five to seven years. The effects of atmospheric conditions and seabed topography are discussed. Detection and characterization of meteotsunamis, both of exceptional character and of weak intensity, represent an essential step toward improved assessments of coastal flooding risk along the Mediterranean coasts.

  3. Sustainable management for the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Berberoglu, Süha

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this article is to propose a program for the integrated coastal zone management that is required to stimulate and guide sustainable development of the Mediterranean coastal zone of Turkey. Improved data collection, quality control, analysis, and data management will provide a firm basis for future scientific understanding of the East Mediterranean coast of Turkey and will support long-term management. Various innovative procedures were proposed for a promising ecosystem-based approach to manage coastal wetlands in the Mediterranean: remote data acquisition with new technologies; environmental quality monitoring program that will provide a baseline for monitoring; linking a Geographic Information System (GIS) with natural resource management decision routines in the context of operational wetlands, fisheries, tourism management system; environmental sensitivity analysis to ensure that permitted developments are environmentally sustainable; and use of natural species to restore the wetlands and coastal dunes and sustain the system processes. The proposed management scheme will benefit the scientific community in the Mediterranean and the management/planning community in Eastern Turkey. PMID:12592459

  4. European Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor catalog: Solutions for years 2003 and 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pondrelli, S.; Salimbeni, S.; Morelli, A.; Ekström, G.; Boschi, E.

    2007-09-01

    We present an update, for years 2003 and 2004, of the European- Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor (RCMT) catalog that we maintain since 1997. This update adds 177 new solutions to the database, relating to moderate-magnitude ( 4.5≤M<5.5) earthquakes. About 30% of our new solutions also appear in the global CMT catalog: comparison of the two independent determinations generally shows very good agreement. Within the time span covered, the most noticeable seismic sequences occurred in Northern Africa (Boumerdes, Algerian coast in 2003 and Al Hoceima, Morocco in 2004) and in Southern Greece and Dodecanese region (August 2003 and 2004). The complete RCMT catalog for the European and Mediterranean region now covers 8 years, and contains about 600 solutions.

  5. Characterization of extreme sea level at the European coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizalde, Alberto; Jorda, Gabriel; Mathis, Moritz; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    Extreme high sea levels arise as a combination of storm surges and particular high tides events. Future climate simulations not only project changes in the atmospheric circulation, which induces changes in the wind conditions, but also an increase in the global mean sea level by thermal expansion and ice melting. Such changes increase the risk of coastal flooding, which represents a possible hazard for human activities. Therefore, it is important to investigate the pattern of sea level variability and long-term trends at coastal areas. In order to analyze further extreme sea level events at the European coast in the future climate projections, a new setup for the global ocean model MPIOM coupled with the regional atmosphere model REMO is prepared. The MPIOM irregular grid has enhanced resolution in the European region to resolve the North and the Mediterranean Seas (up to 11 x 11 km at the North Sea). The ocean model includes as well the full luni-solar ephemeridic tidal potential for tides simulation. To simulate the air-sea interaction, the regional atmospheric model REMO is interactively coupled to the ocean model over Europe. Such region corresponds to the EuroCORDEX domain with a 50 x 50 km resolution. Besides the standard fluxes of heat, mass (freshwater), momentum and turbulent energy input, the ocean model is also forced with sea level pressure, in order to be able to capture the full variation of sea level. The hydrological budget within the study domain is closed using a hydrological discharge model. With this model, simulations for present climate and future climate scenarios are carried out to study transient changes on the sea level and extreme events. As a first step, two simulations (coupled and uncoupled ocean) driven by reanalysis data (ERA40) have been conducted. They are used as reference runs to evaluate the climate projection simulations. For selected locations at the coast side, time series of sea level are separated on its different

  6. High Resolution Regional Climate Modeling for Lebanon, Eastern Mediterranean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katurji, Marwan; Soltanzadeh, Iman; Kuhnlein, Meike; Zawar-Reza, Peyman

    2013-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean coast consists of Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Israel and a small part of southern Turkey. The region lies between latitudes 30 degrees S and 40 degrees N, which makes its climate affected by westerly propagating wintertime cyclones spinning off mid-latitude troughs (December, January and February), while during summer (June, July and August) the area is strongly affected by the sub-tropical anti-cyclonic belt as a result of the descending air of the Hadley cell circulation system. The area is considered to be in a transitional zone between tropical to mid-latitude climate regimes, and having a coastal topography up to 3000 m in elevation (like in the Western Ranges of Lebanon), which emphasizes the complexity of climate variability in this area under future predictions of climate change. This research incorporates both regional climate numerical simulations, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite derived and surface rain gauge rainfall data to evaluate the Regional Climate Model (RegCM) version 4 ability to represent both the mean and variance of observed precipitation in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, with emphasis on the Lebanese coastal terrain and mountain ranges. The adopted methodology involves dynamically down scaling climate data from reanalysis synoptic files through a double nesting procedure. The retrospective analysis of 13 years with both 50 and 10 km spatial resolution allows for the assessment of the model results on both a climate scale and specific high intensity precipitating events. The spatial averaged mean bias error in precipitation rate for the rainy season predicted by RegCM 50 and 10 km resolution grids was 0.13 and 0.004 mm hr-1 respectively. When correlating RegCM and TRMM precipitation rate for the domain covering Lebanon's coastal mountains, the root mean square error (RMSE) for the mean quantities over the 13-year period was only 0.03, while the RMSE for the standard deviation was higher by one

  7. Photooxidant dynamics in the Mediterranean basin in summer: Results from European research projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MilláN, M. M.; Salvador, R.; Mantilla, E.; Kallos, G.

    1997-04-01

    Most of the Mediterranean Sea is surrounded by mountains 1500 m or higher. Their east and south facing slopes favor the early formation of upslope winds, reinforcing the sea breezes. These slopes also act as orographic chimneys which link the surface winds directly with their return flows aloft, creating recirculations. To characterize the dynamics of pollutants in the Mediterranean basin and to compose a mosaic of the atmospheric circulations involved, the European Commission (EC) supported the following projects: (1) meso-meteorological cycles of air pollution in the Iberian Peninsula (MECAPIP), 1988-1991, intended to document the atmospheric circulations over the Iberian Peninsula; (2) regional cycles of air pollution in the west central Mediterranean area (RECAPMA), 1990-1991, which extended the characterization from the Atlantic coast of Portugal to Italy; and (3) south European cycles of air pollution (SECAP), 1992-1995, for the whole of the basin. The level of interpretation of the data and the elaboration and validation of working hypotheses across the basin have followed, in turn, with the corresponding lags in space and time. The purpose of this paper is to present a summary (to 1995) of the documented, as well as the postulated, processes involved. The MECAPIP and RECAPMA projects have shown that stacked layer systems form along the Spanish Mediterranean coasts, 2-3 km deep and more than 300 km wide, with the most recent layers at the top and the older ones near the sea. These act as a reservoir for aged pollutants to reenter land the next day, and tracer experiments have shown that turnover times are from 2 to 3 days. During the night, part of this system drifts along the coast. Under strong insolation these circulations become "large natural photochemical reactors," where most of the NOx emissions and other precursors are transformed into oxidants, acidic compounds, aerosols, and O3 (exceeding some EC directives for several months). Finally, the

  8. Update of the European-Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor (RCMT) Catalog: an Insight on Notable Recent Mediterranean Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pondrelli, S.; Salimbeni, S.; Ekström, G.; Morelli, A.

    2006-12-01

    The European-Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor (RCMT) Catalog collects solutions routinely computed since 1997 for earthquakes with moderate magnitude (4.5≤ M ≤ 5.5) in the Mediterranean region. The database represents an extension to smaller magnitudes of the Harvard global CMT catalog, based on analysis of seismograms recorded at regional distance, and modeling of intermediate period surface waves. The catalog, updated to 2005, includes about 650 events, and represents a valuable tool for seismotectonic and geodynamic studies. The most interesting seismic sequences in the most recent years occurred in Northern Africa (Boumerdes, Algerian coast in 2003 and Al Hoceima, Morocco in 2004) and in the Southern Greece, Dodecanese area and Aegean Sea (August 2003 and 2004, October 2005). For most of the events of these sequences moment tensor solutions were not available in the literature. We further extended the catalog back in time for the Italian region, as far as allowed by availability of digital data --- i.e. since 1977 --- with the same analysis and inversion method used for current seismicity. The new dataset includes events in many seismic zones where moderate seismicity had previously been scarcely documented, e.g. the Po Plain and the Adriatic Sea. In particular, both older and more recent seismicity in the Central Adriatic Sea holds particular interest, as the region had often been depicted as aseismic. New solutions, providing new information on the geometry of seismic deformation, mainly represent moderate magnitude events, that can effectively be modeled by the method we use.

  9. Oceanic Loading Eect near the European Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, E.; Vinogradova, O.; Boyarskiy, E.; Afanasieva, L.

    2012-04-01

    The dissipation, anisotropy, and rotation constraints of the total oceanic gravimetric effect are analysed. The dependence of the results on the selected P- and S-velocity model (i.e., on the structure of the crust and upper mantle of the Earth) is considered. For calculating the effect of oceanic loading, we apply the method of Legendre polynomial expansion of tidal heights. The CSR3 model data are expanded up to the 720th order. The results yielded by this method closely agree with those calculated from the Green's functions by the LOAD07 program of the ETERNA software. Remarkable advantage of our program over other approaches is that it provides high-speed processing and does not require introducing the near-field formalism. Application of the pre-computed expansions reduces the time of calculations by two orders of magnitude, compared to LOAD07. This is particularly important when analyzing the geographical distributions of the loading effect predicted by different models. Taking dissipation into account improves the total gravimetric effect calculated for the M2 wave near the coast of Europe by 0.1-0.2 mcGal in amplitude and by a few hundredths of degree in phase. Transition from the PREM model to the IASP91 model which is better suitable for Europe changes the model predictions by 0.1-0.4 mcGal in amplitude and by 0.1 to 5-7 degrees in phase. Thus, allowance for dissipation together with the use of the refined data on the crustal and upper-mantle structure of the Earth may contribute, at places, over 0.5 mcGal to the amplitude and a few degrees to the phase of the total oceanic gravimetric effect. In this relation, particular attention should be paid to the regions about the Land's End cape (Cape Cornwall) and Cape Saint Mathieu.

  10. Ingestion of microplastics by demersal fish from the Spanish Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Juan; Martínez-Armental, José; Martínez-Cámara, Ariana; Besada, Victoria; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción

    2016-08-15

    Microplastic pollution has received increased attention over the last few years. This study documents microplastic ingestion in three commercially relevant demersal fish species from the Spanish Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, the lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula, the European hake Merluccius merluccius and the red mullet Mullus barbatus. Overall 212 fish were examined, 72 dogfish, 12 hakes and 128 red mullets. The percentage of fish with microplastics was 17.5% (15.3% dogfish, 18.8% red mullets and 16.7% hakes), averaging 1.56±0.5 items per fish, and the size of the microplastics ranged from 0.38 to 3.1mm. These fish species are used currently as biomonitors for marine pollution monitoring within the Spanish Marine Pollution Monitoring Programme (SMP), and may be as well suitable candidates for monitoring spatial and temporal trends of ingested litter. The data presented here represent a baseline for the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive descriptor 10 in Spain. PMID:27289284

  11. An Operational Alert System for the European-Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazet-Roux, G.; Bossu, R.; Carreno, E.; Guilbert, J.; Godey, S.

    2003-12-01

    The European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) has been running for several years an operational alert system for potentially damaging earthquakes which occur in the European-Mediterranean region. This alert system, - sub-part of the EMSC real time information service available on the web site (www.emsc-csem.org) - is based on parametric data provided through the Internet by 40 different networks representing 800 stations in the Euro.-Med. region. In case of potentially damaging earthquake, the seismologist on duty connects to EMSC facilities, merges and processes all available data and, as soon as a reliable solution is available, disseminates alert messages by fax and email. Alert messages are sent by fax to official organisations (e.g., Civil Protection Agency, rescue teams, Council of Europe, ECHO, etc.), to the seismological community and to the public by emails (800 emails). Furthermore, data and results are made automatically available in real time on the web. In case of technical problems or maintenance activities, the duty is taken over by IGN (Madrid, Spain), which runs full back-up procedures. EMSC commits itself to a maximum dissemination time (time lag between the occurrence of the earthquake and the messages' dissemination) of 1 hour. This delay is respected in the vast majority of cases with a median dissemination time of less than 40 minutes. We will give an overview of this system and its performances and put a special emphasis on the processing of the recent earthquake in Algeria.

  12. Risk Assessment of Organochlorines in Mollusk from the Mediterranean and Red Sea Coasts of Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; El-Said, Ghada F; Khaled, Azza

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues were studied in different mollusk species from the Egyptian Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts. The average levels of OCPs in mollusks comprised chlordanes, dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor (DECEM), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). The averages of HCHs, DDTs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mollusks from the Mediterranean Sea were 1.13±1.21, 1.30±1.27, and 1.40±0.93 ng/g, respectively; from the Red Sea, they were 0.62±0.90, 1.77±1.82, and 6.44±5.05 ng/g, respectively. The analysis of HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs in mollusks indicates a new usage of lindane, PCB congeners, and the input of technical HCH and aged DDT. The data showed that the Red Sea Coast was more affected by PCBs congeners than the Mediterranean Sea Coast, which may be attributed to the different activities along the two coastal areas. Mollusks in the Mediterranean Sea had higher dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor contents than those in the Red Sea. Interestingly, HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs levels were lower than those recommended for Swedish Food Regulation and U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which means that mollusks from these two coastal areas are safe as food. PMID:27131056

  13. Comparison of the feeding apparatus and diet of European sardines Sardina pilchardus of Atlantic and Mediterranean waters: ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Costalago, D; Garrido, S; Palomera, I

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the feeding apparatus (gill rakers, GR) and the diet composition of European sardine Sardina pilchardus populations living in two contrasting environments were compared: the upwelling area off western Iberia and the comparatively less productive region of the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The importance of local adaptations in the trophic ecology of this species was estimated. Sardina pilchardus from the Atlantic Iberian coast and from the north-western Mediterranean Sea have clear differences in the feeding apparatus and diet compositions. Those from the Atlantic Iberian coast have significantly more GRs than S. pilchardus of the same size range in the Mediterranean Sea. While S. pilchardus from the Mediterranean Sea mostly depend on prey ranging between 750-1500 and 3000-4000 µm, corresponding mostly to cladocerans, decapods and copepods, those from the Atlantic depend on smaller prey (50-500 and 1000-1500 µm) that include phytoplankton and copepods, particularly during summer months, and S. pilchardus eggs during the winter. The marked difference between the trophic ecology of S. pilchardus in the two areas studied appears to have originated from different dietary strategies that the two populations have adopted in contrasting feeding environments. These differences are shown to profoundly affect the size and quality of prey consumed, and the effect of cannibalism on the populations. PMID:25846858

  14. Alien bryozoans in the eastern Mediterranean Sea--new records from the coast of Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Harmelin, Jean-Georges

    2014-01-01

    The Levant Basin (SE Mediterranean) is the most exposed to the introduction of non-indigenous species. The current assessment of exotic bryozoans present along the coast of Lebanon has been completed by the recording of fourteen cheilostome species (one cryptogenic) collected by diving in 17 localities (2-42 m). This set of exotic bryozoans comprises ten genera, including four (Akatopora Davis, 1934, Drepanophora Harmer, 1957, Mucropetraliella Stach, 1936 and Predanophora Tilbrook, 2006) not previously reported in the Mediterranean, while Celleporaria is the most successful extra-Mediterranean genus with four species in the survey collection. A new Celleporina species, C. bitari n. sp., also collected in the Red Sea, is described. Although lessepsian migration through the Suez Canal is the main pathway for exotic bryozoans in this region, the geographic origin of some species suggests that shipping through Gibraltar Strait is also responsible to a large extent. PMID:25544525

  15. An updated database of Holocene relative sea level changes along the Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Rovere, Alessio

    2014-05-01

    Present-day sea level variations in the Mediterranean depend on various factors, including recent climatic forcing, tectonic activity, anthropogenic effects, and glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA). Mediterranean coasts offer an exceptional opportunity to investigate the various mechanisms that contribute to sea level variations on different time-scales. In fact, geological, geomorphological and archaeological indicators can be coupled with the available instrumental observations. Several areas of the Mediterranean basin are affected by a significant tectonic activity contributing to a widespread coastal instability. The northern Mediterranean coasts are, potentially, the most affected by the process of isostatic adjustment due to the proximity to the former Alpine and Fennoscandian ice sheets. However, GIA-related deformation of the whole Mediterranean basin is mainly driven by water-loading, which contributes to a significant and widespread subsidence whose extension and strength, in turn, directly depend on ice sheet chronology and Earth viscosity. In the Mediterranean, different kinds of RSL markers have been used to reconstruct RSLs: biological, sedimentary, geomorphological and archaeological. The production of such great amount of literature, which is still rapidly growing in number, has led to the obvious consequence of fragmented information, only occasionally reviewed in some localities, but never collected into an organic database to be analysed at the scale of the Mediterranean basin. We aim to create a database of Holocene (last 10 ka) geological data across the Mediterranean basin. This represents a tool of fundamental importance for understanding and tuning GIA models and to assess sea level rise hazards, which are particularly magnified in low-lying or subsiding coastal areas. Here we present the first results of this study carried out both in tectonically active areas (Aegean Sea, Greece) and stable ones (Southern France and Corsica, NE Spanish coast

  16. Holocene sea level changes at the coast of dor, southeast mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Sneh, Y; Klein, M

    1984-11-16

    Geological, geomorphological, and archeological data of changes in sea level during the Holocene at the Mediterranean coast of Dor provide a eustatic curve of the region. This curve shows that sea level was approximately 2 meters below the present level 4000 years ago, rose to 1 meter below the present level 3000 years ago, and was 1 meter higher than the present level 1500 years ago. It then dropped to 1 meter below the present level about 800 years ago. PMID:17759891

  17. Management of the Mediterranean Coast in Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, P.; Conte, D.; Scarascia, L.; Sanchez-Arcilla, A.; Sierra, J. P.; Mosso, C.; Hinkel, J.; Vafeidis, A.

    2015-12-01

    Model projections can provide a rich information on the hazards posed by marine storminess on coastal areas and their evolution in climate change scenarios. When addressing coastal protection issues is however necessary to consider simultaneously different factors, that are usually separately computed, such as sea level rise, storm surges and ocean waves and adopt an approach accounting for their superposition. Further, this information need to be combined with that on the vulnerability of the coastal areas, their morphology and the location of harbors and defenses. This study shows how to use multi-factor projections and geographical information to identify critical parts of the coastline and to suggest to policymaker where to invest resources at country and regional scale. Results are applied to the Mediterranean coastline. Impacts on beaches (e.g. erosion), harbors (e.g. overtopping), human settlements (e.g., flood damage) and their management through enhanced coastal defenses are discussed. This study is part of the RISES-AM project (FP7-EU-603396).

  18. Convective and stratiform precipitation trends in the Spanish Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Leo, Ana M.; Hernández Martín, Emiliano; Queralt, Sara; Cony, Marco Marco

    2010-05-01

    Eastern Iberian Peninsula is characterized by the large occurrence of convective precipitation events, which entail important economic and social damages. It is necessary to achieve a good knowledge and understanding of the meteorological processes involved. In this regard, an algorithm for classifying convective and stratiform precipitation components has been applied to a decadal precipitation record. Dataset were provided by National Spanish Meteorological Agency (AEMET) for the period 1998-2008. Hourly precipitation records have been analyzed. The goals of this study are: a) classifying total precipitation into its stratiform and convective components in Levante region (located in the Eastern Spanish coast) and b) analyzing annual and seasonal trends of such components. In order to determine both convective and stratiform precipitation components, a suitable exponential function has been used. After iterative computation process critical precipitation intensity (so-called Rc) is obtained for each year and season of the study period. Every precipitation episode in Levante region is classified into prevailing convective or stratiform regime according to the threshold value defined by Rc. First results show an annual and seasonal significant positive trend in total precipitation and stratiform component for 1998-2008 decade. Further analysis reveals that convective precipitation exhibits no significant trend. Therefore, preliminary conclusions state that the total precipitation amounts in Levante Region strongly depends on the stratiform component evolution. Current analyses are focused on evaluating the importance of convective precipitation component and assessing the main triggering factors involved in the severe weather episodes registered.

  19. Convective and stratiform precipitation trends in the Spanish Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Leo, A. M.; Hernández, E.; Queralt, S.; Maqueda, G.

    2013-01-01

    Eastern Iberian Peninsula is characterized by the large occurrence of convective precipitation events, which entail important economic and social damage consequences. In order to prevent and minimize its effects, a good knowledge and understanding of the meteorological processes involved are necessary to be achieved. In this regard, an algorithm for classifying convective and stratiform precipitation components has been applied to a decadal precipitation record. Dataset were provided by National Spanish Meteorological Agency (AEMET) for the period 1998-2008. Hourly precipitation records have been analyzed. The goals of this study have been: a) to classify total precipitation into its stratiform and convective components in Levante region (located in the Eastern Spanish Coast) and b) to analyze annual and seasonal trends of such components. For determining both convective and stratiform precipitation components, a suitable exponential function has been used. After a computation process, critical precipitation intensity (so-called Rc) is obtained for each year and season of the studied period. Every precipitation episode in Levante region is classified into prevailing convective or stratiform regime according to the threshold value defined by Rc. The results obtained have been compared to Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE) to verify the validity of the algorithm. First results show an annual and seasonal significant positive trend in total precipitation and stratiform component for 1998-2008 decade. Further analysis reveals that convective precipitation exhibits no significant trend. Preliminary conclusions state that the total precipitation amount in Levante Region strongly depends on the stratiform component evolution.

  20. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in cetaceans on the European Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Martínez-Cedeira, José A; Romero-Suances, Rafael; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

    2015-02-01

    The occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was investigated in cetacean specimens stranded on the northwestern coast of Spain (European Atlantic coast) by analysis of 65 samples of large intestine from eight species. The parasites were identified by direct immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR amplification of the β-giardin gene, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the SSU-rDNA gene of Giardia and the SSU-rDNA gene of Cryptosporidium. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 7 (10.8 %) and 9 samples (13.8 %), respectively. In two samples, co-infection with both parasites was observed. Giardia duodenalis assemblages A, C, D and F, and Cryptosporidium parvum were identified. This is the first report of G. duodenalis in Balaenoptera acutorostrata, Kogia breviceps and Stenella coeruleoalba and also the first report of Cryptosporidium sp. in B. acutorostrata and of C. parvum in S. coeruleoalba and Tursiops truncatus. These results extend the known host range of these waterborne enteroparasites. PMID:25418072

  1. Assessment of metal contamination in coastal sediments, seawaters and bivalves of the Mediterranean Sea coast, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S; Attiah, Abdullah

    2015-12-30

    In order to assess metal contamination on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, 45 sediment samples, seawaters and bivalve specimens were collected from Rosetta coastal area for Mg, Al, K, Fe, Sr, Zn, Pb, Mn, As, Ce, Ni, Cr and Zr analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that the coastal sediments of Rosetta area were severely enriched, strongly polluted with As, Pb and very highly contaminated with As, Pb, Ni, Ce, mostly as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with other samples from the Arabian Gulf, Red Sea and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of Fe, Pb, As, Zn and Ni. The natural sources of heavy metals in the study area are attributed to weathering and decomposition of mountain ranges of the Sudan and Ethiopia, while the anthropogenic ones are the metals produced from industrial, sewage, irrigation and urban runoff. PMID:26563548

  2. First assessment of the Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) invasion along the French Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Ruitton, Sandrine; Javel, Fabrice; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Meinesz, Alexandre; Pergent, Gérard; Verlaque, Marc

    2005-10-01

    The introduced green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea has been rapidly spreading in the Mediterranean Sea since 1990. It was first observed in France in 1997 (Marseilles). In early 2004, the stretch of the French Mediterranean coastline and the surface area affected by the invasion were estimated at about 83 km and 4014 ha, respectively. The depth range of colonized areas was usually 10-35 m depth. Shallow (0-10 m) and deep (down to 40 m) dense meadows were rarely observed. In contrast to the dead matte of Posidonia oceanica, which constituted the most widely colonized substratum, dense P. oceanica meadows and fine sand with large ripple-marks were not invaded. Few rocky areas were colonized and coarse sand bottoms were usually colonized below 20 m depth. All the colonized areas were exposed to human activities and more than 40% were fishing areas. Mild climate, suitable substrata, presence of vectors of dispersal and absence of efficient biological control make the French Mediterranean coast particularly vulnerable to the further spread of the alga. PMID:15893332

  3. First occurrence of Caprella scaura Templeton, 1836 (Crustacea: Amphipoda) on off-coast fish farm cages in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.

    2014-03-01

    The non-indigenous caprellid Caprella scaura Templeton, 1836, native to the western Indian Ocean, was firstly recorded in the Mediterranean Sea in 1994, and all Mediterranean populations discovered to date are related to shoreline areas. A total of ten fish farms were sampled off the coasts of Spain (4), Italy (1), Croatia (2), Greece (1) and Malta (2). This is the first time that C. scaura has been reported from off-coast areas. Reproducing populations have been detected in fouling communities of three tuna farms off the coast of Croatia and Malta, which also signifies the first confirmed record of this species in both countries. The occurrence of successfully established and thriving populations of C. scaura Templeton, 1836 at floating off-coast fish farms underlines the importance of these structures as stepping stones in the species.

  4. Storm-induced hazards and vulnerability along the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    The recently signed Protocol on ICZM in the Mediterranean by the EU and the Mediterranean countries includes a chapter on Natural Hazards where the Parties are advised to undertake vulnerability and hazard assessments of coastal zones. Within this context, the main aim of this work is to present a comprehensive framework developed within the Spain-funded VuCoMA research project to analyze coastal storm-induced hazards and vulnerability. The framework consists of three steps: definition of local storm characteristics, estimation of hazard intensities and vulnerability assessment. Storms recorded in different locations along the 500 km long Catalan coast have been analyzed to characterize the regional climate. First, a 5-class intensity scale was developed for the NW Mediterranean conditions using the wave power as classification variable. Each storm class was defined in terms of class-averaged values of Hs, Tp and duration. In addition to this, the storm climate was probabilistically defined by obtaining the wave height extreme probability function for different locations along the coast. The linkage of Hs to the other storm parameters (Tp and duration) was done through empirical relationships between each variable with Hs obtained for each location along the coast. To analyze storm-induced hazards, three main processes have been considered: sediment transport potential, beach erosion and inundation. Each process was formulated in terms of a simple indicator and they were quantified in two ways: (i) by just retaining the contribution of storm properties (wave and surge) to the considered hazard and, (ii) by including the local modulation due to coastal geomorphology (sediment and slope). This step follows the above presented two approaches. To define the hazard intensity of each storm class, we calculate the magnitude of induced processes for each individual storm within a class and, final representative figures are given in terms of class-averaged values plus the

  5. Assessing surface sediment dynamics along the north-west coast of Marsa Dhouiba (Tunisia, southern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiari, Nouha; Atoui, Abdelfattah; Brahim, Mouldi; Sammari, Chérif; Charef, Abdelkrim; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-04-01

    An investigation was conducted from summer 2012 to winter 2013 at 25 stations along the Tunisian coast near Kef Abbed at Marsa Dhouiba (north-east Mediterranean Sea) to analyse grain size, sediment mineralogy and currents. Particle-size analysis shows that sand deposits at shallow depths are characterised by S-shaped curves, indicating a degree of agitation and possible transport by rip currents near the bottom. At greater depths (between 10 and 30 m), the bottom is covered by coarse sand and gravel. A current was observed transporting sediment eastward along the coast; another seaward current was also noted. Generated by wind, swell and especially waves from west to north-west, the two currents transport clay and silt-sized sediment seaward. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler showed Marsa Dhouiba's coastal current to follow a direction 175° East, with its main axis running north/north-west parallel to the coast and its minor axis also running north/north-west. Analysis of current components indicates that the velocities u and v are oriented north to south. Sediment evolution in shallow waters is dependent on detrital inputs from streams and winds. The coarse fraction of surface sediments in Marsa Dhouiba presents 87% of total sediments and is located at depths of 10-30 m. Sediment dynamics in the Marsa Dhouiba region are closely related to the west/north-west swell.

  6. Hunt for Palytoxins in a Wide Variety of Marine Organisms Harvested in 2010 on the French Mediterranean Coast.

    PubMed

    Biré, Ronel; Trotereau, Sophie; Lemée, Rodolphe; Oregioni, Davide; Delpont, Christine; Krys, Sophie; Guérin, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    During the summer of 2010, 31 species including fish, echinoderms, gastropods, crustaceans, cephalopods and sponges were sampled in the Bay of Villefranche on the French Mediterranean coast and screened for the presence of PLTX-group toxins using the haemolytic assay. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for confirmatory purposes and to determine the toxin profile. The mean toxin concentration in the whole flesh of all sampled marine organisms, determined using the lower- (LB) and upper-bound (UB) approach was 4.3 and 5.1 µg·kg(-1), respectively, with less than 1% of the results exceeding the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) threshold of 30 µg·kg(-1)and the highest values being reported for sea urchins (107.6 and 108.0 µg·kg(-1)). Toxins accumulated almost exclusively in the digestive tube of the tested species, with the exception of octopus, in which there were detectable toxin amounts in the remaining tissues (RT). The mean toxin concentration in the RT of the sampled organisms (fishes, echinoderms and cephalopods) was 0.7 and 1.7 µg·kg(-1) (LB and UB, respectively), with a maximum value of 19.9 µg·kg(-1) for octopus RT. The herbivorous and omnivorous organisms were the most contaminated species, indicating that diet influences the contamination process, and the LC-MS/MS revealed that ovatoxin-a was the only toxin detected. PMID:26308009

  7. Hunt for Palytoxins in a Wide Variety of Marine Organisms Harvested in 2010 on the French Mediterranean Coast

    PubMed Central

    Biré, Ronel; Trotereau, Sophie; Lemée, Rodolphe; Oregioni, Davide; Delpont, Christine; Krys, Sophie; Guérin, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    During the summer of 2010, 31 species including fish, echinoderms, gastropods, crustaceans, cephalopods and sponges were sampled in the Bay of Villefranche on the French Mediterranean coast and screened for the presence of PLTX-group toxins using the haemolytic assay. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for confirmatory purposes and to determine the toxin profile. The mean toxin concentration in the whole flesh of all sampled marine organisms, determined using the lower- (LB) and upper-bound (UB) approach was 4.3 and 5.1 µg·kg−1, respectively, with less than 1% of the results exceeding the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) threshold of 30 µg·kg−1 and the highest values being reported for sea urchins (107.6 and 108.0 µg·kg−1). Toxins accumulated almost exclusively in the digestive tube of the tested species, with the exception of octopus, in which there were detectable toxin amounts in the remaining tissues (RT). The mean toxin concentration in the RT of the sampled organisms (fishes, echinoderms and cephalopods) was 0.7 and 1.7 µg·kg−1 (LB and UB, respectively), with a maximum value of 19.9 µg·kg−1 for octopus RT. The herbivorous and omnivorous organisms were the most contaminated species, indicating that diet influences the contamination process, and the LC-MS/MS revealed that ovatoxin-a was the only toxin detected. PMID:26308009

  8. Synoptic climatology of winter intense precipitation events along the Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reale, M.; Lionello, P.

    2013-07-01

    The link between winter (December-January-February) precipitation events at 15 Mediterranean coastal locations and synoptic features (cyclones and Northern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns) is analyzed. A list of precipitation events has been produced; q percentile thresholds (Thq) and corresponding frequency Nq (for q equal to 25, 50, 90 and 98) have been considered. A negative trend has been detected in total precipitation and N50 at many locations, while no significant trend in N25, N90 and N98 has been found. The negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the East Atlantic/West Russia pattern (EAWR) compete for exerting the largest influence on the frequency of the 25th, 50th and 90th percentiles, with EAWR and NAO exerting their largest influence in the central and western Mediterranean areas, respectively. All percentiles show a similar behavior except for the 98th percentile, which shows no convincing link to any teleconnection pattern. The cyclone tracks that are associated with precipitation events have been selected using the ERA-40 reanalysis data, and a strong link between intense precipitation and cyclones is shown for all stations. In general, the probability of detecting a cyclone within a distance of 20° from each station increases with the intensity of the precipitation event and decreases with the duration of a dry period. The origin and track of cyclones producing intense precipitation differ among different areas. When precipitation occurs in the northwestern Mediterranean, cyclones are generally either of Atlantic origin or secondary cyclones associated with the passage of major cyclones north of the Mediterranean Basin, while they are mostly generated inside the region itself for events at the eastern Mediterranean coast. An important fraction of intense events in the southern areas is produced by cyclones that are generated over northern Africa. The analysis of sea level pressure and geopotential height at 500 h

  9. The mediterranean coast of Andalusia (sw spain): the impacts of human coastal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Messina, Enrica; Anfuso, Giorgio; Suffo, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Spanish coasts, especially the Andalusia Mediterranean one, were affected over time by progressive urbanization and associated construction of defense structures. Such structures protected small coastal sectors but at places triggered processes of coastal erosion and associated degradation of habitats and ecosystems. A correct management of coastal areas must be based on the monitoring of coastal evolution and human pressure. A useful tool to evaluate the level of human anthropization is the estimation of the "Coastal Armouring", e.g. the quantification of coastal defense structures, infrastructures, ports, etc. In this study, available aerial photographs and satellite images from 1956 to 2011 were scanned and geo-referenced and used for the quantitative assessment of coastal human constructions impact on the studied coastal area. The so called coefficient of technogenous impact (K) was used. It results from the relationship between the total length of all maritime structures (groins, moles, seawalls, dikes, channels, etc.) and the entire length of the study coastal section. For this purpose, the Andalusia coast, about 500 km in length, was divided into sections of 1 km. For each one of such sections the technogenous impact was calculated in the 1956 and 2011 documents. The analysis showed that the degree of anthropization in some areas (for example the Port of Montril) has increased considerably, triggering degradation processes in the nearby coastal areas. Results also evidenced as, in many cases, greatest human impacts are linked to the progressive construction of coastal defense. The lack of a general strategy to combat the erosion problem and the urgency in the short term to protect specific parts of the coast led to a reactive approach based initially in the construction of hard structures. Such interventions locally solved erosion problems but gave rise to drowndrift erosion according to the "domino" effect. A more general management plan is needed

  10. Is there a Mediterranean bioethics?

    PubMed

    Mallia, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    Is there a special Mediterranean approach to Bioethics and if so what are the roots of this approach? And why not a Bosphorus, or a 'lake Michigan' bioethics? The answer to such a question depends on the focus one takes on defining 'Mediterranean'? On the one hand one can refer to the Mediterranean region which includes the surrounding coasts, having Europe on its northern coast line, northern Africa on its southern coast line (and these will include the north and South West coasts), and in the Eastern region countries which border with Middle-Eastern countries. This approach is the approach currently being taken by European Parliamentarians when they speak about the Mediterranean, namely including countries like France, Italy and Libya. On the other hand there is the look upon the Mediterranean as 'Southern Europe'; this is a more 'traditional' way on how westerners view the Mediterranean. This common approach is often recognized when, for example, we speak of 'Mediterranean diet', or, 'Mediterranean Temperament'. It would include Eastern countries like Greece and Cyprus. This article focuses on these two approaches to Mediterranean ethics after discussing issues pertaining to the region which are important to define in this context. It then analyses the need for having a Mediterranean approach to bioethical issues. PMID:23070886

  11. The distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; Said, Tarek O; Khaled, Azza; El-Sikaily, Amany; Abd-Allah, Aly M A

    2007-01-01

    Coastal marine sediment samples were collected from 31 sampling stations along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. All sediment samples were analyzed to determine aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as total organic carbon (TOC) contents and grain size analysis. Total concentrations of 16 EPA-PAHs in the sediments were varied from 88 to 6338 ng g(-1) with an average value of 154 ng g(-1) (dry weight). However, the concentrations of total aliphatic were varied from 1.3 to 69.9 ng g(-1) with an average value of 15.6 ng g(-1) (dry weight). The highest contents of PAHs were found in the Eastern harbor (6338 ng g(-1)), Manzala (5206 ng g(-1)) and El-Jamil East (4895 ng g(-1)) locations. Good correlations observed between a certain numbers of PAH concentrations allowed to identify its origin. The average total organic carbon (TOC) percent was varied from 0.91 to 4.54%. Higher concentration of total pyrolytic hydrocarbons ( summation operatorCOMB) than total fossil hydrocarbons ( summation operatorPHE) declared that atmospheric fall-out is the significant source of PAHs to marine sediments of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. The selected marked compounds, a principal component analysis (PCA) and special PAHs compound ratios (phenanthrene/anthracene vs fluoranthene/pyrene; summation operatorCOMB/ summation operatorEPA-PAHs) suggest the pyrogenic origins, especially traffic exhausts, are the dominant sources of PAHs in most locations. Interferences of rather petrogenic and pyrolytic PAH contaminations were noticed in the harbors due to petroleum products deliveries and fuel combustion emissions from the ships staying alongside the quays. PMID:17058015

  12. Evidence for paleotsunami deposits at Kefret Saber and El Alamein, Mediterranean coast of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Asem; Meghraoui, Mustapha; El Gabry, Mohamed; Maouche, Said; Hussein, Hichem; Korrat, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami deposits and dragged large boulders are investigated along the Mediterranean coast of Egypt in the framework of the EC-Funded ASTARTE project (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839) and the French-Egyptian IMHOTEP project. The targeted zones located west of Alexandria are selected according to historical earthquakes and related inundation events as recorded in archives. Field investigations include: 1) Coastal geomorphology along estuaries, wedge-protected and dune-protected lagunas, and terrace-platforms as potential sites for paleotsunami and boulder records and 2) Investigations of paleotsunamis deposits and their spatial distribution using trenching and coring. The two selected sites at Kefret Saber (immediately west of Marsah Matrouh town) and near El Alamein village are inner lagunas protected by 2 to 40-m-high dunes parallel to the shoreline. Five trenches and six cores dug in Kefret Saber and 1 trench in Alamein revealed an almost identical 5 to 10-cm-thick white sand unit with highly reworked fossil-rich and shells at about 20 to 40-cm-depth, intercalated in light brown laminated sandy and sandy-clay deposits. A total of 50 samples of organic deposits and charcoal fragments were collected from both sites, among which 20 samples have been dated. Dated charcoal in deposits above and below the white sand unit lead us to correlate with the 24 June 1870 major earthquake (M 7.5 - 8.0?) that generated a tsunami with the inundation of Alexandria harbor. Major seismic sources being along the Hellenic subduction zone and Cyprus arc, our progress study of paleotsunami deposits and their distribution along the Egyptian coast will help in a better constraint of the size and recurrence of tsunamis, and their propagation over the east Mediterranean regions.

  13. Anomalous distribution of fluoride and phosphorus forms in surface sediments along eastern Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast.

    PubMed

    El-Said, Ghada F; Khalil, Mona Kh; Draz, Suzanne E O

    2016-07-01

    The study focused on the distribution of fluoride, total phosphorus, and four phosphorus fractions in some sites along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. The geochemical parameters and textures of 30 surficial sediment samples from six sectors were determined. The sediment's geochemical parameters (total carbonates (TCO3) and total organic carbon (TOC), exchangeable and carbonate-associated phosphorus (Pex), iron- and aluminum-associated phosphorus (POH), calcium-associated phosphate/apatite (PHCl), residual phosphorus (PR), total phosphorus (TP), calcium (Cas), magnesium (Mgs), and fluoride (Fs)) showed variable values. The rank of phosphorus fractions in the sediments PHCl > PR > POH > Pex reflected that the eastern Egyptian coast was still uncontaminated. Generally, Pex levels gave a gradual increase in the offshore direction, while POH values varied along the stations of each sector. Also, the presented data indicated that the apatite-P fraction was the main storage of the phosphate in the sediments with a contribution to TP ranging from 58 to 87 %. The highest and lowest average fluoride contents (0.49 ± 0.10 and 0.25 ± 0.31 mg/g) were determined in the Port Said and Damietta sectors, respectively. Interestingly, the variability of both phosphorus and fluoride levels in the investigated area seemed to be accompanied with the sediment's character beside the proximity to potential effluent sources. PMID:27053053

  14. Mapping of the Seagrass Cover Along the Mediterranean Coast of Turkey Using Landsat 8 Oli Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakirman, T.; Gumusay, M. U.; Tuney, I.

    2016-06-01

    Benthic habitat is defined as ecological environment where marine animals, plants and other organisms live in. Benthic habitat mapping is defined as plotting the distribution and extent of habitats to create a map with complete coverage of the seabed showing distinct boundaries separating adjacent habitats or the use of spatially continuous environmental data sets to represent and predict biological patterns on the seafloor. Seagrass is an essential endemic marine species that prevents coast erosion and regulates carbon dioxide absorption in both undersea and atmosphere. Fishing, mining, pollution and other human activities cause serious damage to seabed ecosystems and reduce benthic biodiversity. According to the latest studies, only 5-10% of the seafloor is mapped, therefore it is not possible to manage resources effectively, protect ecologically important areas. In this study, it is aimed to map seagrass cover using Landsat 8 OLI images in the northern part of Mediterranean coast of Turkey. After pre-processing (e.g. radiometric, atmospheric, water depth correction) of Landsat images, coverage maps are produced with supervised classification using in-situ data which are underwater photos and videos. Result maps and accuracy assessment are presented and discussed.

  15. First evidence of European eels exiting the Mediterranean Sea during their spawning migration.

    PubMed

    Amilhat, Elsa; Aarestrup, Kim; Faliex, Elisabeth; Simon, Gaël; Westerberg, Håkan; Righton, David

    2016-01-01

    The migration route and the spawning site of the European eel Anguilla anguilla are still uncertain. It has been suggested that the Mediterranean eel stock does not contribute to spawning because there is no evidence of eels leaving the Mediterranean Sea. To test this hypothesis, we equipped eight female silver eels from the south of France with pop-up satellite tags during escapement from coastal waters. Once in deeper water, the eels quickly established diel vertical migration (DVM) between the upper and lower mesopelagic zone. Five tagged eels were taken by predators within the Mediterranean, but two eels reached the Atlantic Ocean after six months and at distances greater than 2000 km from release. These eels ceased their DVM while they negotiated the Gibraltar Strait, and remained in deep water until they reached the Atlantic Ocean, when they recommenced DVM. Our results are the first to show that eels from Mediterranean can cross the Strait of Gibraltar and continue their migration into the Atlantic Ocean. This finding suggests that Mediterranean countries, as for other EU states, have an important role to play in contributing to conservation efforts for the recovery of the European eel stock. PMID:26906289

  16. First evidence of European eels exiting the Mediterranean Sea during their spawning migration

    PubMed Central

    Amilhat, Elsa; Aarestrup, Kim; Faliex, Elisabeth; Simon, Gaël; Westerberg, Håkan; Righton, David

    2016-01-01

    The migration route and the spawning site of the European eel Anguilla anguilla are still uncertain. It has been suggested that the Mediterranean eel stock does not contribute to spawning because there is no evidence of eels leaving the Mediterranean Sea. To test this hypothesis, we equipped eight female silver eels from the south of France with pop-up satellite tags during escapement from coastal waters. Once in deeper water, the eels quickly established diel vertical migration (DVM) between the upper and lower mesopelagic zone. Five tagged eels were taken by predators within the Mediterranean, but two eels reached the Atlantic Ocean after six months and at distances greater than 2000 km from release. These eels ceased their DVM while they negotiated the Gibraltar Strait, and remained in deep water until they reached the Atlantic Ocean, when they recommenced DVM. Our results are the first to show that eels from Mediterranean can cross the Strait of Gibraltar and continue their migration into the Atlantic Ocean. This finding suggests that Mediterranean countries, as for other EU states, have an important role to play in contributing to conservation efforts for the recovery of the European eel stock. PMID:26906289

  17. European cretaceous flints on the coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emery, K.O.; Kaye, C.A.; Loring, D.H.; Nota, D.J.G.

    1968-01-01

    Flint pebbles and nodules from the Upper Cretaceous chalks of Europe occur offshore and at many seaports along the Atlantic coast of North America, where they were brought as ship's ballast. Isolated pieces imported from Europe as gunflints also are present.

  18. RAMS-forecasts comparison of typical summer atmospheric conditions over the Western Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, I.; Caselles, V.; Estrela, M. J.; Niclòs, R.

    2014-08-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) has been used in order to perform a high-resolution numerical simulation of two meteorological events related to the most common atmospheric environments during the summer over the Western Mediterranean coast: mesoscale circulations and western synoptic advections. In this regard, we take advantage of the operational RAMS configuration running within the real-time forecasting system environment already implemented over this Mediterranean area, precisely in the Valencia Region and nearby areas. The attention of this paper is especially focused on identifying the main features of both events and the ability of the model in resolving the associated characteristics as well as in performing a comprehensive evaluation of the model by means of diverse meteorological observations available within the selected periods over the area of study. Additionally, as this paper is centred in RAMS-based forecasts, two simulations are operated applying the most two recent versions of the RAMS model implemented in the above-mentioned system: RAMS 4.4 and RAMS 6.0. Therefore, a comparison among both versions of the model has been performed as well. Finally, it is our intention to contrast the RAMS forecasts for two completely different atmospheric conditions common with the area of study in the summer. A main difference between the simulation of both meteorological situations has been found in the humidity. In this sense, whilst the model underestimates this magnitude considering the mesoscale event, especially at night time, the model reproduces the daily humidity properly under the western synoptic advection.

  19. Fractionation profile and mobility pattern of metals in sediments from the Mediterranean Coast, Libya.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Samir M; Okbah, Mohamed A; El Haddad, Huda S; Soliman, Naglaa F

    2015-07-01

    A five-step sequential extraction technique, following Tessier's protocol, has been applied to determine the chemical association of Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn with major sedimentary phases (exchangeable, carbonate, manganese and iron oxides, organic and residual fraction) in surface sediments from 14 stations off the Libyan Mediterranean coast. This study is a first approach of chemical fractionation of these metals in one of the most economically important area of the Libyan coastline in Mediterranean Sea. The total metal content was also determined. The total concentration of metals ranged from 5-10.5 mg/kg for Cd, 9.1-22.7 mg/kg for Cu, 141.8-1056.8 mg/kg for Fe, 18.9-56.9 mg/kg for Pb, and 11.6-30.5 mg/kg for Zn. The results of the partitioning study showed that the residual form was the dominant fraction of the selected metals among most of the studied locations. The degree of surface sediment contamination was computed for risk assessment code (RAC), individual contamination factor (ICF), and Global contamination factor (GCF). Risk assessment code classification showed that the relative amounts of easily dissolved phase of trace metals in the sediments are in the order of Pb>Zn>Cd>Cu>Fe. The results of ICF and GCF showed that Sirt and Abu Kammashand had higher GCF than other sites indicating higher environmental risk. In terms of ICF value, a decrease order in environmental risk by trace metals was Pb>Zn>Cu>Cd>Fe. Therefore, Pb had highest risk to water body. PMID:26070996

  20. Combination of Multisatellite Altimetry and Tide Gauge Data for Determining Vertical Crustal Movements along Northern Mediterranean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, F.; Vigo, M. I.; García-García, D.; Sánchez-Reales, J. M.

    2012-08-01

    Sea level variations (SLV) can be measured by tide gauges (TG) at the coast and by altimeters onboard satellites. The former measures the SLV relative to the coast, whereas altimetry provides the SLV with respect to a geocentric reference frame. The differences between SLV measurements from these two techniques can be used as an indirect assessment of vertical crustal motions at the TG sites. In this study, we exploit this idea, analyzing differences between sea level signals as measured by altimetric missions (TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1) and by 47 TG stations along northern Mediterranean coasts for the period 1993-2007. This allows us to estimate the vertical land motion along these coasts at the TG sites in this time window. For those sites where the TG is co-located or has a nearby global positioning system (GPS) station, these estimates are compared with the vertical rates derived from GPS measurements. Our results on vertical ground motion along the Mediterranean coast provide a useful source of data for studying, contrasting, and constraining tectonic models for the region.

  1. RSLR-induced increase of vulnerability to storms along the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosom, Eva; Jiménez, José A.; Nicholls, Robert J.

    2014-05-01

    Climate-related hazards are affecting coasts worldwide and they are likely to increase during the next decades (Nicholls et al., 2007). If we also consider that values at exposure are also increasing, coastal areas will very likely be exposed to increasing risks. Due to this, to properly develop sustainable coastal risk management plans it is necessary to consider climate-change induced effects as an additional forcing. Within this context, vulnerability assessment is a useful tool to help managers to make decisions in resource allocation and development of DRR plans. Vulnerability can be simply defined as the potential of a coastal system to be harmed by a given hazard. The negative contribution (susceptibility) is characterized through the magnitude of main induced processes (erosion and inundation) whereas the positive one (resilience) is parameterized in function of beach geomorphology. With respect to extreme events, Bosom and Jiménez (2011) presented a framework to assess coastal vulnerability to storms at regional scale adopting a probabilistic approach. In this work, this framework is enlarged by including the potential effects of RSLR on the vulnerability assessment. Thus, RSLR-driven processes (erosion and inundation) are accounted through their induced modifications on beach morphology that can affect the beach capacity of response or, in other words, its adaptation capacity. The inclusion of this effect in the vulnerability framework significantly changes coastal vulnerability values to storms at any probability of occurrence without the need of considering any change in storminess. The magnitude of the vulnerability increase depends on the considered RSLR scenario and the coastal geomorphology. This integrated framework has been applied to 219 km of the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) considering different RSLR scenarios and time projections. Preliminary results obtained for a Tr = 50-y and the medium RSLR scenario (3.8 mm/y + subsidence) indicate a

  2. [Concept of the Mediterranean diet in modern European nutrition].

    PubMed

    Smoliar, V I

    2001-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of the conception of the Mediterranean diet that has become to be shared by many leading nutritionists of Europe over the last decade as a possible reference model of nutrition for inhabitants of many countries of Central, Northern and Eastern Europe. An association is shown between some nutritional factors and indices for general mortality, mortality from ischemic heart disease and cancer of certain localizations. A positive effect has been unraveled of monounsaturated fatty acids together with negative effects of saturated fatty acids on the process of beta-oxidization and mitochondrial functions in the cardiac muscle. On the basis of the analysis of the existing data a conclusion has been reached that annexes to the existing principles of the A. A. Pokrovsky's optimum nourishment formula are necessary. PMID:11692685

  3. Magnetotactic bacteria in microcosms originating from the French Mediterranean Coast subjected to oil industry activities.

    PubMed

    Postec, Anne; Tapia, Nicolas; Bernadac, Alain; Joseph, Manon; Davidson, Sylvain; Wu, Long-Fei; Ollivier, Bernard; Pradel, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) mineralize nanosized magnetite or greigite crystals within cells and thus play an important role in the biogeochemical process. Despite decades of research, knowledge of MTB distribution and ecology, notably in areas subjected to oil industry activities, is still limited. In the present study, we investigated the presence of MTB in the Gulf of Fos, French Mediterranean coast, which is subjected to intensive oil industry activities. Microcosms containing sediments/water (1:2, v/v) from several sampling sites were monitored over several weeks. The presence of MTB was revealed in five of eight sites. Diverse and numerous MTB were revealed particularly from one site (named CAR), whilst temporal variations of a homogenous magnetotactic cocci population was shown within the LAV site microcosm over a 4-month period. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, and a novel genus from the LAV site was evidenced. Among the physicochemical parameters measured, a correlation was shown between the variation of MTB abundance in microcosms and the redox state of sulphur compounds. PMID:21766218

  4. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in commercial cephalopods from the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Picó-Durán, Gabriela; Pulleiro-Potel, Lorena; Abollo, Elvira; Pascual, Santiago; Muñoz, Pilar

    2016-04-15

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of nematode larvae in commercial cephalopods in the Western Mediterranean Sea. A total of 202 animals comprising 123 broadtail shortfin squid (Illex coindetii), 34 European squid (Loligo vulgaris) and 45 common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) were examined using enzymatic digestion. A total of 31 larvae were isolated (prevalence: 14.6%) and identified using molecular analyses which included PCR and sequencing of the ITS (ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2) region. Phylogenetic tree inferred from ITS sequences yielded supported relationships for Anisakis (P: 12.2%) and Hysterothylacium species (P: 4.1%). All parasites were found parasitizing I. coindetii and, as expected, A. pegreffii presented the highest prevalence (11.4%). A. physeteris was also found with a lower prevalence (1.6%) but confirming the role of the broadtail shortfin squid as paratenic host and, its potential host for anisakidosis transmission. A hybrid larva between Anisakis simplex and A. pegreffi was also identified. All Anisakis larvae were found within the visceral cavity; in contrast most of the Hysterothylacium larvae were isolated from the mantle. A significant correlation was found between total nematode prevalence and depth, explained by the presence of larger broadtail shortfin squids inhabiting deeper depths. Therefore, the results obtained in the present study improve the knowledge of the occurrence of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium species in the I. coindetii from the Spanish Mediterranean Sea highlighting the importance of considering I. coindetii as a potential hazard for humans if it is consumed raw or not well cooked and the need of further research in other cephalopods. PMID:26995720

  5. What can otolith shape analysis tell us about population structure of the European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, from Atlantic and Mediterranean waters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemaa, Sharif; Bacha, Mahmoud; Khalaf, Gaby; Dessailly, David; Rabhi, Khalef; Amara, Rachid

    2015-02-01

    The European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, exhibits a complex population structure, which has produced conflicting results in previous genetic studies. Despite its importance in the fisheries industry, stock delineation for management and conservation purposes is still a matter of debate throughout the distribution range of the species. This study examines whether otolith shapes are more efficient than genetic markers to detect population structure in pelagic species with large population sizes. Sardines were analyzed from 15 sampling localities in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea covering almost the whole distribution range of the species. A combination of otolith shape indices and elliptic Fourier descriptors was investigated by multivariate statistical procedures. Within the studied area, three distinct groups were identified with an overall correct classification of 77%. Group A: northern Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Gabès; group B: Atlantic Morocco-south Alboran-Algero-provençal coasts; and group C: European Atlantic coast. The Almeria-Oran front and the Gibraltar strait are not an efficient barrier for sardine population separation as there seems to be exchanges between populations of the south-western Mediterranean Sea and those of the Moroccan Atlantic Ocean coast or Gulf of Cadiz. The results are discussed in relation to environmental conditions, oceanographic features, and physical barriers to dispersal in the study area, and compared with those obtained by previous genetic, morphometric, and meristic data. For pelagic species with high gene flow, present results highlighted the need to take into account the identification of phenotypic stocks to ensure sustainable fishery benefits and efficient conservation as they may have unique demographic properties and responses to exploitation.

  6. The Mediterranean: Strategic hub of oil activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1988-06-20

    The author says, the Mediterranean has always been a hub of oil industry activity. Pipeline and canal links into the Middle East, sizable oil and gas production along the North African shore, and access to the huge European markets through terminals on the southern European coast combine to give the region great strategic importance. The outbreak of the Iran-Iraq war emphasized the Mediterranean's key role in transporting Middle Eastern crude. This special Journal report provides an exclusive look at operations of Middle East, European, and North African countries on the rim of the Mediterranean Sea.

  7. Prevalences of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in mollusks from the Spanish Mediterranean Coast

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Joven, Carmen; de Blas, Ignacio; Furones, M. Dolores; Roque, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a well-recognized pathogen of humans. To better understand the ecology of the human-pathogenic variants of this bacterium in the environment, a study on the prevalence in bivalves of pathogenic variants (tlh+ and tdh+ and/or trh+) versus a non-pathogenic one (only tlh+ as species marker for V. parahaemolyticus), was performed in two bays in Catalonia, Spain. Environmental factors that might affect dynamics of both variants of V. parahaemolyticus were taken into account. The results showed that the global prevalence of total V. parahaemolyticus found in both bays was 14.2% (207/1459). It was, however, significantly dependent on sampling point, campaign (year) and bivalve species. Pathogenic variants of V. parahaemolyticus (tdh+ and/or trh+) were detected in 3.8% of the samples (56/1459), meaning that the proportion of bivalves who contained tlh gene were contaminated by pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains is 27.1% (56/207). Moreover, the presence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (trh+) was significantly correlated with water salinity, thus the probability of finding pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus decreased 1.45 times with every salinity unit (ppt) increased. Additionally, data showed that V. parahaemolyticus could establish close associations with Ruditapes spp. (P-value < 0.001), which could enhance the transmission of illness to human by pathogenic variants, when clams were eaten raw or slightly cooked. This study provides information on the abundance, ecology and characteristics of total and human-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus variants associated with bivalves cultured in the Spanish Mediterranean Coast. PMID:26284033

  8. Dispersion modelling of a tall stack plume in the spanish mediterranean coast by a particle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, J. F.; Cremades, L.; Baldasano, J. M.

    A Lagrangian particle model has been used to simulate the dispersion of a tall stack plume of a power plant located in a complex coastal site at the Spanish Mediterranean coast, under summer meteorological conditions: land and sea breezes and thermal low effects. These are responsible for a particular behavior of plume (rotations greater than 90°). The model is based on the numerical solution of Langevin's equation (Sawford, 1984; Thomson, 1984, 1987; de Baas et al., 1986) by following the trajectories of many particles. The displacement of these particles is governed by meteorological parameters resulting from Eulerian wind data adjusted by an objective analysis model based on variational calculus. The adjusted values should satisfy continuity as a strong constraint (Sherman, 1978; Mathur and Peters, 1990). The model allows to simulate the atmospheric dispersion both in homogeneous and nonhomogeneous turbulence according to de Baas et al. (1986) and Zannetti (1990) schemes. The numerical results obtained by the dispersion model are compared with experimental data from a measurement campaign developed at the surroundings of Castellon power plant. The model is applied to the problem of predicting the ground level concentration (GLC) (3 m, above ground level) of the SO 2 emitted by the power plant. Model behavior was evaluated through several statistical indices: relative mean bias, normalized mean square error and the cumulative frequency distribution of the point-by-point ratio between observed and predicted concentrations. Both models were developed at the Instituto de Tecnología y Modelización Ambiental (ITEMA) of the Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña (UPC).

  9. Climate change alters plant biogeography in Mediterranean prairies along the West Coast, USA.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D; Reynolds, Lorien L; Goklany, Maya E; Wilson, Hannah E; Little, Chelsea J; Ferguson, Aryana; Johnson, Bart R

    2016-02-01

    Projected changes in climate are expected to have widespread effects on plant community composition and diversity in coming decades. However, multisite, multifactor climate manipulation studies that have examined whether observed responses are regionally consistent and whether multiple climate perturbations are interdependent are rare. Using such an experiment, we quantified how warming and increased precipitation intensity affect the relative dominance of plant functional groups and diversity across a broad climate gradient of Mediterranean prairies. We implemented a fully factorial climate manipulation of warming (+2.5-3.0 °C) and increased wet-season precipitation (+20%) at three sites across a 520-km latitudinal gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA. After seeding with a nearly identical mix of native species at all sites, we measured plant community composition (i.e., cover, richness, and diversity), temperature, and soil moisture for 3 years. Warming and the resultant drying of soils altered plant community composition, decreased native diversity, and increased total cover, with warmed northern communities becoming more similar to communities further south. In particular, after two full years of warming, annual cover increased and forb cover decreased at all sites mirroring the natural biogeographic pattern. This suggests that the extant climate gradient of increasing heat and drought severity is responsible for a large part of the observed biogeographic pattern of increasing annual invasion in US West Coast prairies as one moves further south. Additional precipitation during the rainy season did little to relieve drought stress and had minimal effects on plant community composition. Our results suggest that the projected increase in drought severity (i.e., hotter, drier summers) in Pacific Northwest prairies may lead to increased invasion by annuals and a loss of forbs, similar to what has been observed in central and southern California, resulting in

  10. Quality and Quality Assurance in Vocational Education and Training in the Mediterranean Countries: Lessons from the European Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Jean-Raymond; Baati, Mounir; Seyfried, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on the development of the European approach towards quality and quality assurance in vocational education and training (VET) and its relevance for VET reforms in the European Training Foundation (ETF) partner countries. The analysis is based on an ETF project conducted in 2007-2008 in the Mediterranean partner countries to…

  11. Retracing the Quaternary history of sea-level changes in the Spanish Mediterranean-Atlantic coasts: Geomorphological and sedimentological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazo, C.; Goy, J. L.; Dabrio, C. J.; Lario, J.; González-Delgado, J. A.; Bardají, T.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Cabero, A.; Ghaleb, B.; Borja, F.; Silva, P. G.; Roquero, E.; Soler, V.

    2013-08-01

    This study analyses coastal geomorphic responses to the various sea-level changes that occurred throughout the Quaternary period in the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of Spain. Particular emphasis is paid to the geomorphic and stratigraphic record of the changes in amplitude, duration and frequency associated with the major gradual climate changes observed in marine cores and ice oxygen-isotope records during the Early and Middle Pleistocene (ca. 2.6 Myr; ca. ~ 1.4-0.8 Myr; ca. ~ 0.4-0.2 Myr) and also with the rapid and abrupt Late Pleistocene and Holocene climate changes. With this aim, the best preserved and most complete sedimentary sequences known in the Spanish Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts covering diverse geodynamic and climatic contexts were selected and analyses. This study is mainly based on field investigation of geomorphic, sedimentologic and stratigraphic features of mapped morphosedimentary units, combined with reliable chronological data. The analyses include the interpretation of sedimentary environments, the 3-D reconstruction of facies and morphosedimentary unit arrangement, paying special attention to the lateral geomorphic relationships between marine and terrestrial morphosedimentary units developed during interglacials under sea-level highstand scenarios. The interglacials occurred during four key Quaternary periods might be related with major gradual changes associated with glacial climate cycles reported from marine and ice oxygen-isotope records. Almost coeval changes in geomorphological styles are reported from all studied areas, regardless of their specific geodynamic context. Results from the Mediterranean realm suggest that this area is more sensitive to climatic and sea level variability than the Spanish Atlantic coast, particularly in the case of rapid and abrupt changes.

  12. An Efficient Rapid Warning System For Earthquakes In The European-mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.; di Giovambattista, R.; Tome, M.

    Every year a few damaging earthquakes occur in the European-Mediterranean region. It is therefore indispensable to operate a real-time warning system in order to pro- vide rapidly reliable estimates of the location, depth and magnitude of these seismic events. In order to provide this information in a timely manner both to the scientific community and to the European and national authorities dealing with natural hazards and relief organisation, the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) has federated a network of seismic networks exchanging their data in quasi real-time. Today, thanks to the Internet, the EMSC receives real-time information about earth- quakes from about thirty seismological institutes. As soon as data reach the EMSC, they are displayed on the EMSC Web pages (www.emsc-csem.org). A seismic alert is generated for any potentially damaging earthquake in the European-Mediterranean re- gion, potentially damaging earthquakes being defined as seismic events of magnitude 5 or more. The warning system automatically issues a message to the duty seismolo- gist mobile phone and pager. The seismologist log in to the EMSC computers using a laptop PC and relocates the earthquake by processing together all information pro- vided by the networks. The new location and magnitude are then send, by fax, telex, and email, within one hour following the earthquake occurrence, to national and inter- national organisations whose activities are related to seismic risks, and to the EMSC members. The EMSC rapid warning system has been fully operational for more than 4 years. Its distributed architecture has proved to be an efficient and reliable way for the monitoring of potentially damaging earthquakes. Furthermore, if a major problem disrupts the operational system more than 30 minutes, the duty is taken, over either by the Instituto Geografico National in Spain or by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica in Italy. The EMSC operational centre, located at the

  13. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l’ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity. PMID:27338427

  14. The Diet of Preschool Children in the Mediterranean Countries of the European Union: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Rêgo, Carla; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review discusses data on the dietary intake of preschool children living in the Mediterranean countries of the European Union, including the comparison with a Mediterranean-like diet and the association with nutritional status. Specifically, data from the multinational European Identification and Prevention on Dietary and life style induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study and national studies, such as the Estudo do Padrão Alimentar e de Crescimento Infantil (EPACI) study and Geração XXI cohort in Portugal, ALimentando la SAlud del MAñana (ALSALMA) study in Spain, Étude des Déterminants pré-et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'ENfant (EDEN) cohort in France, Nutrintake 636 study in Italy, and Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS) cohort in Greece, were analyzed. In the majority of countries, young children consumed fruit and vegetables quite frequently, but also consumed sugared beverages and snacks. High energy and high protein intakes mainly from dairy products were found in the majority of countries. The majority of children also consumed excessive sodium intake. Early high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, and both early consumption of energy-dense foods and overweight seemed to track across toddler and preschool ages. Most children living in the analyzed countries showed low adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, which in turn was associated with being overweight/obese. Unhealthier diets were associated with lower maternal educational level and parental unemployment. Programs promoting adherence of young children to the traditional Mediterranean diet should be part of a multi-intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity. PMID:27338427

  15. Organochlorine compounds in surface sediments from the northern coast of Cyprus, Eastern Mediterranean: Levels, possible sources and potential risk.

    PubMed

    Kucuksezgin, F; Pazi, I; Gonul, L T; Duman, M

    2016-08-15

    Organochlorines (OCs) were determined in sediments collected from different regions of northern coast of Cyprus. The OCPs and Aroclors had a wide range from 2.78 to 306 and 15 to 325ngg(-1), respectively. The highest level was found at Yedi Dalga site. DDE was the most abundant compound. The ratios of metabolites to parent DDT showed that DDTs were derived mostly from the aged and weathered inputs. Comparing our results with the previous studies showed that POPs in sediments were found to be lower than those in samples for Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. The SQG implied that, Aroclor1254 exceeded the TEL values, showing that adverse biological effects are expected occasionally at some of the sediment samples. DDTs were dominant and more ecotoxicological concern in the northern Cyprus. Altogether, it may be summarized that DDTs will impose ecologically hazardous impacts in the sedimentary environment at the present. PMID:27234367

  16. Response to storm conditions of two different beaches at the Mediterranean coast of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mrini, Aldelmounim; Anfuso, Giorgio; Nachite, Driss; Taaouati, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    In recent decades the increased demand for the recreational use of beaches has resulted in the uptake of studies on the morphodynamic processes which are acting on beaches. This knowledge is fundamental for appropriate coastal erosion management, suitable tourist use of littoral and for the design and shape of human construction. The Mediterranean sectors of Moroccan littoral investigated in this study, Ksar Rimal and Cabo Negro beaches, are respectively located north and south of Cabo Negro promontory and, over recent years, have been subject to increasing tourist activity. This has consisted mainly of the construction of two tourist ports (Marina Smir and Kabila), residential developments, hotels and a motorway which runs parallel to the coast, affecting the dune ridges and two lagoons which are of great ecological interest. In detail, the dunes located in the backshore at Ksar Rimal beach, are nowadays occupied by summer houses threaten by coastal retreat. A wide, partially urbanized, backshore is observed at Cabo Negro beach. With the intention of characterize the morphodynamic and seasonal behavior and the response of the studied beaches to storm impact, a beach monitoring program was carried out in the period 2006-2008, with special attention to the February-March 2008 stormy period. On analyzing the information obtained, it was possible to characterize the morphology and sedimentology of the studied beaches, and to calculate beach volumetric variations. Ksar Rimal is an open, exposed beach characterized by an intermediate slope (tan β = 0.10) with medium-coarse sands. The beach showed a reflective beach state characterized by plunging breakers. Small morphological seasonal changes were observed, most important morphological and volumetric variations (about 20 m3/m) taking place after winter storms which usually gave rise to a more dissipative beach profile (tan β = 0.05) characterized by spilling breakers. Beach recovery was quite rapid, usually lasting 2

  17. Source characterization of fine and coarse particles at the East Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamane, Yaacov; Perrino, Cinzia; Yossef, Osnat; Catrambone, Maria

    Fine and coarse atmospheric particles were collected in Ashdod—a midsize industrial city on the southeastern Mediterranean coast, and in Gedera—a rural site, to characterize ambient particles and to determine their long-range transport during two major seasons—winter and summer. Manual PM2.5 and PM10 samplers, dichotomous samplers, continuous automated PM10 samplers, and denuders were used to sample particulate and gaseous pollutants. Fine and coarse concentrations in Ashdod were 21.2 and 39.6 μg m -3, and 23.9 and 30.5 μg m -3 in the fall-winter and summer campaigns, respectively. Crustal material, as calcites or dolomites mixed with silicates, dominated the coarse fraction and also the fine fraction on dusty days. In the fall-winter, S, P, and Ni were coupled with minerals. Coarse Ni was associated with crustal material during dust storms, while P originated from shipping and deposition of phosphates in the urban area around. Sulfates dominated the fine fractions in the summer season averaging 12 μg m -3. Multivariate analysis indicated that S was associated with As and Se, V and Ni, both associated with heavy fuel combustion, and Zn and Pb. In winter, those mixed sources were local, but in summer they were part of long-range transport. In the fall-winter, Zn and Pb were strongly associated with Mn, Ga, and Cu—elements emitted from either traffic or metal processing plants. Although the influence of crustal material on both size fractions was significant, most heavy metals were associated with PM2.5. Higher concentrations were linked to a larger number of particles in this fraction, to a larger surface area available for biochemical reaction [Harrison, R., Shi, J., Xi, S., Khan, A., Mark, D., Kinnersley, R., Yin, J., Philos, T., 2000. Measurement of number, mass and size distribution of particles in the atmosphere. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 358, 2567-2579], and finally to a larger concern in regards to health effects.

  18. Medium-term shoreline evolution of the mediterranean coast of Andalusia (SW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Messina, Enrica; Anfuso, Giorgio; Suffo, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Coastal environment is a dynamic system in which numerous natural processes are continuously actuating and interacting among them. As a result, geomorphologic, physical and biological characteristics of coastal environments are constantly changing. Such dynamic balance is nowadays seriously threatened by the strong and increasing anthropic pressure that favors erosion processes, and the associated loss of environmental, ecologic and economic aspects. Sandy beaches are the most vulnerable environments in coastal areas. The aim of this work was to reconstruct the historical evolution of the Mediterranean coastline of Andalusia, Spain. The investigated area is about 500 km in length and includes the provinces of Cadiz, Malaga, Granada and Almeria. It is essentially composed by cliffed sectors with sand and gravel pocket beaches constituting independent morphological cells of different dimensions. This study was based on the analysis of aerial photos and satellite images covering a period of 55 years, between 1956 and 2011. Aerial photos were scanned and geo-referenced in order to solve scale and distortion problems. The shoreline was considered and mapped through the identification of the wet / dry sand limit which coincides with the line of maximum run-up; this indicator - representing the shoreline at the moment of the photo - is the most easily identifiable and representative one in microtidal coastal environments. Since shoreline position is linked to beach profile characteristics and to waves, tide and wind conditions at the moment of the photo, such parameters were taken into account in the calculation of shoreline position and changes. Specifically, retreat/accretion changes were reconstructed applying the DSAS method (Digital Shoreline Analysis System) proposed by the US Geological Survey. Significant beach accretion was observed at Playa La Mamola (Granada), with +1 m/y, because the construction of five breakwaters, and at Playa El Cantal (Almeria) and close

  19. Amount and distribution of neustonic micro-plastic off the western Sardinian coast (Central-Western Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    de Lucia, Giuseppe Andrea; Caliani, Ilaria; Marra, Stefano; Camedda, Andrea; Coppa, Stefania; Alcaro, Luigi; Campani, Tommaso; Giannetti, Matteo; Coppola, Daniele; Cicero, Anna Maria; Panti, Cristina; Baini, Matteo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Marsili, Letizia; Massaro, Giorgio; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Matiddi, Marco

    2014-09-01

    A plethora of different sampling methodologies has been used to document the presence of micro-plastic fragments in sea water. European Marine Strategy suggests to improve standard techniques to make future data comparable. We use Manta Trawl sampling technique to quantify abundance and distribution of micro-plastic fragments in Sardinian Sea (Western Mediterranean), and their relation with phthalates and organoclorine in the neustonic habitat. Our results highlight a quite high average plastic abundance value (0.15 items/m(3)), comparable to the levels detected in other areas of the Mediterranean. "Site" is the only factor that significantly explains the differences observed in micro-plastic densities. Contaminant levels show high spatial and temporal variation. In every station, HCB is the contaminant with the lowest concentration while PCBs shows the highest levels. This work, in line with Marine Strategy directives, represents a preliminary study for the analysis of plastic impact on marine environment of Sardinia. PMID:24776304

  20. Molecular Phylogeny and Ecology of Textularia agglutinans d'Orbigny from the Mediterranean Coast of Israel: A Case of a Successful New Incumbent.

    PubMed

    Merkado, Gily; Titelboim, Danna; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Holzmann, Maria; Pawlowski, Jan; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Abdu, Uri; Herut, Barak; Abramovich, Sigal

    2015-01-01

    Textularia agglutinans d'Orbigny is a non-symbiont bearing and comparatively large benthic foraminiferal species with a widespread distribution across all oceans. In recent years, its populations have considerably expanded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast of the eastern Levantine basin. Despite its exceptionally widespread occurrence, no molecular data have yet been obtained. This study provides the first ribosomal DNA sequences of T. agglutinans complemented with morphological and ecological characterization, which are based on material collected during environmental monitoring of the hard bottom habitats along the Israeli Mediterranean coast, and from the Gulf of Elat (northern Red Sea). Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that all specimens from both provinces belong to the same genetic population, regardless their morphological variability. These results indicate that modern population of T. agglutinans found on the Mediterranean coast of Israel is probably Lessepsian. Our study also reveals that T. agglutinans has an epiphytic life mode, which probably enabled its successful colonization of the hard bottom habitats, at the Mediterranean coast of Israel, which consist of a diverse community of macroalgae. Our study further indicates that the species does not tolerate high SST (> 35°C), which will probably prevent its future expansion in the easternmost Mediterranean in light of the expected rise in temperatures. PMID:26539992

  1. Molecular Phylogeny and Ecology of Textularia agglutinans d’Orbigny from the Mediterranean Coast of Israel: A Case of a Successful New Incumbent

    PubMed Central

    Merkado, Gily; Titelboim, Danna; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Holzmann, Maria; Pawlowski, Jan; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Abdu, Uri; Herut, Barak; Abramovich, Sigal

    2015-01-01

    Textularia agglutinans d’Orbigny is a non-symbiont bearing and comparatively large benthic foraminiferal species with a widespread distribution across all oceans. In recent years, its populations have considerably expanded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast of the eastern Levantine basin. Despite its exceptionally widespread occurrence, no molecular data have yet been obtained. This study provides the first ribosomal DNA sequences of T. agglutinans complemented with morphological and ecological characterization, which are based on material collected during environmental monitoring of the hard bottom habitats along the Israeli Mediterranean coast, and from the Gulf of Elat (northern Red Sea). Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that all specimens from both provinces belong to the same genetic population, regardless their morphological variability. These results indicate that modern population of T. agglutinans found on the Mediterranean coast of Israel is probably Lessepsian. Our study also reveals that T. agglutinans has an epiphytic life mode, which probably enabled its successful colonization of the hard bottom habitats, at the Mediterranean coast of Israel, which consist of a diverse community of macroalgae. Our study further indicates that the species does not tolerate high SST (> 35°C), which will probably prevent its future expansion in the easternmost Mediterranean in light of the expected rise in temperatures. PMID:26539992

  2. A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Olalde, Iñigo; Schroeder, Hannes; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Vinner, Lasse; Lobón, Irene; Ramirez, Oscar; Civit, Sergi; García Borja, Pablo; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Talamo, Sahra; María Fullola, Josep; Xavier Oms, Francesc; Pedro, Mireia; Martínez, Pablo; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Zilhão, João; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-01-01

    The spread of farming out of the Balkans and into the rest of Europe followed two distinct routes: An initial expansion represented by the Impressa and Cardial traditions, which followed the Northern Mediterranean coastline; and another expansion represented by the LBK (Linearbandkeramik) tradition, which followed the Danube River into Central Europe. Although genomic data now exist from samples representing the second migration, such data have yet to be successfully generated from the initial Mediterranean migration. To address this, we generated the complete genome of a 7,400-year-old Cardial individual (CB13) from Cova Bonica in Vallirana (Barcelona), as well as partial nuclear data from five others excavated from different sites in Spain and Portugal. CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. The Iberian Cardial genome also carries a discernible hunter–gatherer genetic signature that likely was not acquired by admixture with local Iberian foragers. Our results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible. PMID:26337550

  3. Modelling of European hake nurseries in the Mediterranean Sea: An ecological niche approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druon, Jean-Noël; Fiorentino, Fabio; Murenu, Matteo; Knittweis, Leyla; Colloca, Francesco; Osio, Chato; Mérigot, Bastien; Garofalo, Germana; Mannini, Alessandro; Jadaud, Angélique; Sbrana, Mario; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Tserpes, George; Peristeraki, Panagiota; Carlucci, Roberto; Heikkonen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    An ecological niche modelling (ENM) approach was developed to model the suitable habitat for the 0-group European hake, Merluccius merluccius L., 1758, in the Mediterranean Sea. The ENM was built combining knowledge on biological traits of hake recruits (e.g. growth, settlement, mobility and feeding strategy) with patterns of selected ecological variables (chlorophyll-a fronts and concentration, bottom depth, sea bottom current and temperature) to highlight favourable nursery habitats. The results show that hake nurseries require stable bottom temperature (11.8-15.0 °C), low bottom currents (<0.034 m s-1) and a frequent occurrence of productive fronts in low chlorophyll-a areas (0.1-0.9 mg m-3) to support a successful recruitment. These conditions mostly occur recurrently in outer shelf and shelf break areas. The prediction explains the relative balance between biotic and abiotic drivers of hake recruitment in the Mediterranean Sea and the primary role of unfavourable environmental conditions on low recruitment in specific years (i.e. 2011). The ENM outputs particularly agree spatially with biomass data of recruits, although processes such as fishing and natural mortality are not accounted for. The seasonal mapping of suitable habitats provides information on potential nurseries and recruitment carrying capacity which are relevant for spatial fisheries management of hake in the Mediterranean Sea.

  4. A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures.

    PubMed

    Olalde, Iñigo; Schroeder, Hannes; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Vinner, Lasse; Lobón, Irene; Ramirez, Oscar; Civit, Sergi; García Borja, Pablo; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Talamo, Sahra; María Fullola, Josep; Xavier Oms, Francesc; Pedro, Mireia; Martínez, Pablo; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Zilhão, João; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-12-01

    The spread of farming out of the Balkans and into the rest of Europe followed two distinct routes: An initial expansion represented by the Impressa and Cardial traditions, which followed the Northern Mediterranean coastline; and another expansion represented by the LBK (Linearbandkeramik) tradition, which followed the Danube River into Central Europe. Although genomic data now exist from samples representing the second migration, such data have yet to be successfully generated from the initial Mediterranean migration. To address this, we generated the complete genome of a 7,400-year-old Cardial individual (CB13) from Cova Bonica in Vallirana (Barcelona), as well as partial nuclear data from five others excavated from different sites in Spain and Portugal. CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. The Iberian Cardial genome also carries a discernible hunter-gatherer genetic signature that likely was not acquired by admixture with local Iberian foragers. Our results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible. PMID:26337550

  5. An Amphisbaenian Skull from the European Miocene and the Evolution of Mediterranean Worm Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Bolet, Arnau; Delfino, Massimo; Fortuny, Josep; Almécija, Sergio; Robles, Josep M.; Alba, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of blanid amphisbaenians (Mediterranean worm lizards) is mainly inferred based on molecular studies, despite their fossils are common in Cenozoic European localities. This is because the fossil record exclusively consists in isolated elements of limited taxonomic value. We describe the only known fossil amphisbaenian skull from Europe – attributed to Blanus mendezi sp. nov. (Amphisbaenia, Blanidae) – which represents the most informative fossil blanid material ever described. This specimen, from the Middle Miocene of Abocador de Can Mata (11.6 Ma, MN7+8) in the Vallès-Penedès Basin (Catalonia, NE Iberian Peninsula), unambiguously asserts the presence of Blanus in the Miocene of Europe. This reinforces the referral to this genus of the previously-known, much more incomplete and poorly-diagnostic material from other localities of the European Neogene. Our analysis – integrating the available molecular, paleontological and biogeographic data – suggests that the new species postdates the divergence between the two main (Eastern and Western Mediterranean) extant clades of blanids, and probably precedes the split between the Iberian and North-Western African subclades. This supports previous paleobiogeographic scenarios for blanid evolution and provides a significant minimum divergence time for calibrating molecular analyses of blanid phylogeny. PMID:24896828

  6. 1997-2008: 11 years of European-Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensors and their dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pondrelli, S.; Morelli, A.; Ekström, G.; Postpischl, L.; Salimbeni, S.

    2008-12-01

    The European-Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor (RCMT) Catalog collects seismic moment tensor solutions that have been routinely computed since 1997 for earthquakes with moderate magnitude (4.5 < M < 5.5) in the Mediterranean region. This database represents an extension to smaller magnitudes of the Global CMT catalog (http://www.globalcmt.org). RCMT computation is based on the analysis of seismograms recorded at regional distances, and modeling of intermediate period surface waves. The Catalog is regularly updated a few months behind real time, and reports are published in Phys. Earth Planet. Int. and on the worldwide web (http://www.bo.ingv.it/RCMT). However, moment tensors can also be computed on the basis of data available in quasi-real time. Such preliminary solutions are available within one or a few hours after an earthquake occurs, and published as a Quick RCMTs. The European- Mediterranean RCMT Catalog currently includes more than 850 seismic moment tensor solutions, mainly located in the most seismically active areas, such as northern Greece and the Hellenic trench. In the consideration of the size of the Catalog, we developed a web-search interface that allows to query the SQL database on geographical, time and magnitudes (mb, Ms and Mw) ranges. The results can then be formatted and exported in various formats, or mapped directly on the web page (beach balls). Two important flags were introduced, allowing us to include in the database new events still in the preliminary stages of analysis or in need of further refinements. The first flag distinguishes Definitive and Quick solutions, while the second one categorizes events in 4 Quality levels on the basis of changes of centroid coordinates or when the depth needs to be fixed or when the double couple component is too big (Pondrelli et al., PEPI, 2006).

  7. Increasing severity of damage caused by floods in the Spanish Mediterranean coast (1960-2014), climate change or vulnerability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Alfredo; Gil, Salvador; Lopez, Francisco; Barriendos, Mariano

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, there has been an increase in physical and economic losses (WMO, CRED and UCL, 2014) that raises serious concerns in society. Climate change projections may explain the rise in flood losses; however, these shouldn't be considered yet (Bouwer, 2011). According to IPCC (2014), there is low confidence in anthropogenic climate change affecting the frequency and magnitude of fluvial floods on a global scale. In other words, this increase in flood events is not completely related to the higher frequency of heavy rainfall. To illustrate the aforementioned, a spatial example can be seen in the study area. In the Spanish Mediterranean coast, we see an increase in economic losses within the last 50 years due to flood events (Gil et al., 2014). It seems that the socio-economic growth and the rise of housing construction (Gaja, 2008) have led to an increase in vulnerability and exposure which are mainly responsible for those losses and the increase in severity of flood events (Pérez et al., 2015). Furthermore, this situation will probably become more precarious if some climate forecasts are met [IPCC, 2014; AEMET, 2015], and if the economic model fails to adopt efficient adaptive measures. Therefore, it is interesting to focus attention on social factors either within the present or future scenario in order to minimise the potential consequences and improve the adaptation. The main objective of this work focuses on the study of the evolution of the severity of the floods in the Spanish Mediterranean coast for the period (1960-2015). To do that, a statistical analysis of the data base [Gil et al., 2014; extended to the entire Spanish Mediterranean coast (MEDIFLOOD)] and a multiscale mapping (local, provincial and regional level) of the frequency of these events will take place in order to make comparisons and show spatiotemporal patterns according to the severity events evolution. Preliminary results show some interesting statistically significant

  8. Protein and dry matter degradability of European- and Mediterranean-derived birdsfoot trefoil cultivars grown in the colder continental USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work suggests several European- and Mediterranean-derived cultivars of birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) are well adapted to the colder continental USA and produce forage with greater condensed tannin (CT) concentrations, but comparable neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and slightly ...

  9. Fully Automatic Regional Moment Tensor Inversion In The European Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, F.; Braumiller, J.; Kradolfer, U.; Giardini, D.

    The Alpine-Mediterranean region is characterized by diffuse and mostly moderate seismicity, although strong earthquakes (M 5.5) do not occur infrequently in the central and eastern Mediterranean basin. Fast and accurate source parameter determi- nations (Mw, depth and focal mechanism) provide important information to assist fast disaster relief efforts in areas strongly damaged by earthquakes. Moment tensor inver- sion techniques provide accurate size and depth estimations that are often superior to standard location techniques. Our goal is to provide fully automatic, stable and reliable source parameter estimates within 90 minutes after a strong earthquake. Our target are all moderate to strong earthquakes (M 4.8) in the European-Mediterranean region. Since April 2000, we are running a test procedure, automatically collecting data from broadband stations located at regional distances from the epicenter, and automatically inverting the waveforms for the moment tensor. Data are collected from several re- gional networks (Switzerland, Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Israel and US Ge- ological Survey stations in Russia and Georgia), that provide broadband waveforms via AutoDRM in near-real time (within 15 minutes after an earthquake). With near-real time data, we produce a fully automatic moment tensor solution within 90 minutes. We apply several criteria to our automatic moment tensor solutions, to quantify the reliability of the source paramenter estimates. For a well constrained focal mechanism, we require a minimum of 3 3-component waveforms with good signal-to- noise ratio and an azimuthal stations gap of less than 300. A few good signal-to-noise ratio waveforms are generally sufficient to obtain a well determined size (Mw) esti- mate. In the near future we plan to disseminate our source parameter determinations on a web-page and/or a mailing list as they are produced.

  10. Presence of anisakid larvae in the European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, fished off the Tyrrhenian coast of central Italy.

    PubMed

    De Liberato, Claudio; Bossù, Teresa; Scaramozzino, Paola; Nicolini, Giuseppe; Ceddia, Pietro; Mallozzi, Salvatore; Cavallero, Serena; D'Amelio, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of anisakid nematode larvae in European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) fished off the Tyrrhenian coast of central Italy. From February through July 2012, 1,490 specimens of E. encrasicolus caught in three different fishing areas (off Civitavecchia, Anzio, and Gaeta in the northern, central, and southern Lazio region of Italy, respectively) were tested for the presence of anisakid larvae, both by visual microscopic inspection and enzymatic digestion. In each of the three fishing areas, each of two sampling times produced 250 fish (with the exception of one sampling time in Gaeta that produced 240 fish). Larvae of the family Anisakidae were detected with an overall estimated prevalence of 2.3%, and each positive fish harbored a single larva. No anisakid larvae were detected in fish caught off Gaeta. Fish with larvae were significantly longer (standard length) than fish without larvae. Twenty-six larvae (74.3%) were detected by visual inspection of the viscera, eight larvae (22.8%) were detected by visual inspection of the fillets, and one larva (2.8%) was detected after digestion of pooled fillets. Molecular analysis to fully characterize the 35 detected larvae revealed 15 specimens of Anisakis pegreffii, 10 specimens of Hysterothylacium aduncum, and one hybrid genotype of A. pegreffii × Anisakis simplex. For nine specimens, no visible product was obtained after PCR amplification. The overall prevalence for A. pegreffii and H. aduncum was 1.0 and 0.7%, respectively. A comparison between fishes harboring A. pegreffii larvae and those harboring H. aduncum revealed that those with A. pegreffii were significantly heavier. The prevalence of anisakid larvae found in the present study is lower then that reported previously in E. encrasicolus collected in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:23992513

  11. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Holon, Florian; Mouquet, Nicolas; Boissery, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Delaruelle, Gwenaelle; Tribot, Anne-Sophie; Deter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures at a relevant

  12. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Holon, Florian; Mouquet, Nicolas; Boissery, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Delaruelle, Gwenaelle; Tribot, Anne-Sophie; Deter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures at a relevant

  13. Plants used in artisanal fisheries on the Western Mediterranean coasts of Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Artisanal fisheries in the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, have been poorly investigated. There is a long history of fishing in this region, and it remains an important economic activity in many localities. Our research entails both a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and 58 field interviews with practitioners on plants used in fishing activities along the Western Mediterranean Italian coastal regions. The aims were to record traditional knowledge on plants used in fishery in these regions and to define selection criteria for plant species used in artisanal fisheries, considering ecology and intrinsic properties of plants, and to discuss the pattern of diffusion of shared uses in these areas. Methods Information was gathered both from a general review of ethnobotanical literature and from original data. A total of 58 semi-structured interviews were carried out in Liguria, Latium, Campania and Sicily (Italy). Information on plant uses related to fisheries were collected and analyzed through a chi-square residual analysis and the correspondence analysis in relation to habitat, life form and chorology. Results A total of 60 plants were discussed as being utilized in the fisheries of the Western Italian Mediterranean coastal regions, with 141 different uses mentioned. Of these 141 different uses, 32 are shared among different localities. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the entire dataset, resulting in details about specific selection criteria for the different usage categories (plants have different uses that can be classified into 11 main categories). In some uses, species are selected for their features (e.g., woody), or habitat (e.g., riverine), etc. The majority of uses were found to be obsolete (42%) and interviews show that traditional fishery knowledge is in decline. There are several reasons for this, such as climatic change, costs, reduction of fish stocks, etc. Conclusions Our research correlates functional

  14. Links between parasitism, energy reserves and fecundity of European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Maza, Dolors; Lloret, Josep; Muñoz, Marta; Faliex, Elisabeth; Vila, Sílvia; Sasal, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus L. 1758, is one of the most sought-after target species in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. However, this stock currently consists of small individuals, and landings are reported to have decreased considerably. The main purpose of this study was to assess, for the first time, the interrelationships between size, fecundity, energy reserves and parasitism in female anchovies, in order to analyse the potential implications for the health of northwestern Mediterranean anchovy stocks arising from the current shortage of large individuals. Results revealed that smaller individuals show lower fecundity, lower lipid content and a higher intensity of certain parasites. As it is known that smaller individuals now predominate in the population, the relationships found in this study indicate that the health of anchovies from the northwestern Mediterranean is currently impaired. PMID:27293748

  15. Links between parasitism, energy reserves and fecundity of European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Maza, Dolors; Lloret, Josep; Muñoz, Marta; Faliex, Elisabeth; Vila, Sílvia; Sasal, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus L. 1758, is one of the most sought-after target species in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. However, this stock currently consists of small individuals, and landings are reported to have decreased considerably. The main purpose of this study was to assess, for the first time, the interrelationships between size, fecundity, energy reserves and parasitism in female anchovies, in order to analyse the potential implications for the health of northwestern Mediterranean anchovy stocks arising from the current shortage of large individuals. Results revealed that smaller individuals show lower fecundity, lower lipid content and a higher intensity of certain parasites. As it is known that smaller individuals now predominate in the population, the relationships found in this study indicate that the health of anchovies from the northwestern Mediterranean is currently impaired. PMID:27293748

  16. ESR dating marine terraces along the Mediterranean coast of the Antakya Graben, SE Turkey: Sea level change and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tari, Ufuk; Tüysüz, Okan; Blackwell, Bonnie; Genç, Ş. Can; İmren, Caner; Florentin, Jonathan A.; Skinner, Anne

    2015-04-01

    In southeastern Turkey, NE-trending Antakya Graben forms an asymmetric depression filled by Pliocene marine siliciclastic sediment, Pleistocene to Recent fluvial terrace sediment and alluvium. A multi-segmented, dominantly sinistral fault lying along the graben possibly connects the Cyprus Arc in the west to the Amik Triple Junction on the Dead Sea Fault (DSF) in the east. Normal faults, bounding the southeastern margin caused the graben to tilt southeastward and these faults are younger than the sinistral ones. Westward escape of the continental İskenderun Block along the sinistral faults belonging to the DSF in the east and to the Eastern Anatolian Fault in the north caused Antakya Graben to open since Pliocene. In the later stages of this opening, normal faults developed along the southeastern of the graben, leading to differential uplift of the Mediterranean coastal terraces. Tectonic uplift coupled with sea level fluctuations has produced several stacked marine terraces at elevations ranging from 0.25 m to 180 m above current sea level along the Mediterranean coast. In this study we dated these terrace deposits by using electron spin resonance (ESR) method. In the NW part of the graben, terraces at 30 m above mean sea level (amsl) yield 63±8 ka and correlate with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4. Older units dating to MIS 7 and 5 likely were being eroded to supply some fossils found in this terrace. On the 45 m amsl terrace dates to 114±7 ka, which is the MIS 5d/5e boundary. Terrace deposits at 105 m amsl belong to MIS 5c boundary at 91±13 ka. At Samandağ site at 39 m amsl, molluscs deposited in a large tidal channel indicate MIS 5d/5e boundary at 116 ± 5 ka. Contemporary sediments are seen in different elevations in the SE part of the graben. The youngest samples suggest an age 14±1 ka in the late MIS 2 for the slump topping the 8 m amsl terrace. At the 50 m amsl terrace dates to 89±5 ka and correlate with MIS 5a/5c. Here 180 m amsl terrace gave a

  17. Tsunami hazard assessment along the French Mediterranean coast : detailed modeling of tsunami impacts for the ALDES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quentel, E.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hébert, H.

    2012-04-01

    The catastrophic 2004 tsunami drew the international community's attention to tsunami risk in all basins where tsunamis occurred but no warning system exists. Consequently, under the coordination of UNESCO, France decided to create a regional center, called CENALT, for the north-east Atlantic and the western Mediterranean. This warning system, which should be operational by 2012, is set up by the CEA in collaboration with the SHOM and the CNRS. The French authorities are in charge of the top-down alert system including the local alert dissemination. In order to prepare the appropriate means and measures, they initiated the ALDES (Alerte Descendante) project to which the CEA also contributes. It aims at examining along the French Mediterranean coast the tsunami risk related to earthquakes and landslides. In addition to the evaluation at regional scale, it includes the detailed studies of 3 selected sites; the local alert system will be designed for one of them : the French Riviera. In this project, our main task at CEA consists in assessing tsunami hazard related to seismic sources using numerical modeling. Past tsunamis have affected the west Mediterranean coast but are too few and poorly documented to provide a suitable database. Thus, a synthesis of earthquakes representative of the tsunamigenic seismic activity and prone to induce the largest impact to the French coast is performed based on historical data, seismotectonics and first order models. The North Africa Margin, the Ligurian and the South Tyrrhenian Seas are considered as the main tsunamigenic zones. In order to forecast the most important plausible effects, the magnitudes are estimated by enhancing to some extent the largest known values. Our hazard estimation is based on the simulation of the induced tsunamis scenarios performed with the CEA code. The 3 sites have been chosen according to the regional hazard studies, coastal typology elements and the appropriate DTMs (Digital Terrain Models). The

  18. PM2.5 chemical composition in five European Mediterranean cities: A 1-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Dalia; Detournay, Anais; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Liguori, Francesca; Saraga, Dikaia; Bove, Maria Chiara; Brotto, Paolo; Cassola, Federico; Massabò, Dario; Latella, Aurelio; Pillon, Silvia; Formenton, Gianni; Patti, Salvatore; Armengaud, Alexandre; Piga, Damien; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc; Bartzis, John; Tolis, Evangelos; Prati, Paolo; Querol, Xavier; Wortham, Henri; Marchand, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    The seasonal and spatial characteristics of PM2.5 and its chemical composition in the Mediterranean Basin have been studied over a 1-year period (2011-2012) in five European Mediterranean cities: Barcelona (BCN), Marseille (MRS), Genoa (GEN), Venice (VEN), and Thessaloniki (THE). During the year under study, PM10 annual mean concentration ranged from 23 to 46 μg m- 3, while the respective PM2.5 ranged from 14 to 37 μg m- 3, with the highest concentrations observed in THE and VEN. Both cities presented an elevated number of exceedances of the PM10 daily limit value, as 32% and 20% of the days exceeded 50 μg m- 3, respectively. Similarly, exceedances of the WHO guidelines for daily PM2.5 concentrations (25 μg m- 3) were also more frequent in THE with 78% of the days during the period, followed by VEN with 39%. The lowest PM levels were measured in GEN. PM2.5 exhibited significant seasonal variability, with much higher winter concentrations for VEN and MRS, in fall for THE and in spring for BCN. PM2.5 chemical composition was markedly different even for similar PM2.5 levels. On annual average, PM2.5 was dominated by OM except in THE. OM contribution was higher in Marseille (42%), while mineral matter was the most abundant constituent in THE (32%). Moreover, PM2.5 relative mean composition during pollution episodes (PM2.5 > 25 μg m- 3) as well as the origins of the exceedances were also investigated. Results outline mainly the effect of NO3- being the most important driver and highlight the non-negligible impact of atmospheric mixing and aging processes during pollution episodes.

  19. Impact and recovery from a mass mortality event of the gorgonian Paramuricea clavata populations on the french Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonhomme, D.; Garrabou, J.; Perez, T.; Sartoretto, S.; Harmelin, J. G.

    2003-04-01

    An unprecedented mass mortality occurred in the NW Mediterranean in summer 1999. This event affected 30 species of invertebrates from 5 different Phyla (sponges, cnidarians, molluscs, ascidians, bryozoans) on several hundred kilometres of shoreline from the Bay of Genoa in Italy to the Bay of Marseilles in France. The most affected taxa were sponges and cnidarians. This mass mortality took place under an unusual environmental context characterized by high and stable water column temperatures. The impact of the mass mortality and recovery (1999-2002) of populations of the gorgonian Paramuricea clavata from Provence's coasts (France) have been studied. Most surveyed populations displayed 50 % of affected colonies at different degree (dead, severe and low damage), although a great variability in rates of mortality and tissue loss was also evident depending among sites. The mortality impact decreased with depth, a pattern which supports the hypothesis that temperature played a key role in this event. Surveys on populations for which pre-mortality data (density and size structure) was attested that recovery was far from completion three years after the mortality. Considering the growth rate of P. clavata, full recovery of the most affected local populations will take several decades will be necessary to return to pre-mortality values. In the context of the global change and taking into account the correlation with the temperature, one may expect that the frequency of of these kind of events will increase in the next decades. Dramatic consequences can be expected for the conservation of the affected species in shallow habitats, in particular, and for the Mediterranean biodiversity, in general.

  20. Aeolian beach ridges and their significance for climate and sea level: Concept and insight from the Levant coast (East Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauz, B.; Hijma, M. P.; Amorosi, A.; Porat, N.; Galili, E.; Bloemendal, J.

    2013-06-01

    Relict beach ridges of aeolian origin and associated soils are often used for inferring relative sea level and climate with contrasting results. Most studies link the aeolian coastal deposits to regressive phases, some to high sea-level stands, and a few to intermediate relative sea-level positions. We interpret the apparent contradictions as indicating the lack of an over-arching concept and the inconsistent usage of sea level-related terms. In this paper we present an integrated morpho-sedimentological concept for a microtidal, mid-latitudinal coast and review existing data from the Levant (East Mediterranean) coast to evaluate the concept and to eliminate nomenclatural confusion. A coastal depositional environment in a semi-arid environment consists of shallow-marine, aeolian and alluvial facies which together form an aeolian beach-ridge complex as a package of strata which respond simultaneously to sea-level change. A transgressive complex forms through reworking or overstepping of the coastal foredune and a regressive complex forms by downstepping. Under transgression the aeolian beach ridge represents the highstand deposit and its adjacent shallow marine sediment is the transgressive deposit. Under regression the complex represents the falling stage and the associated downdip surface marks the lowstand. On the Levant coast we find chronologically well-constrained, offlapping aeolian beach ridges as parts of six downstepping beach ridge complexes formed between ~ 200 ka and 10 ka. The complexes represent the falling stage systems tract (FSST) of a short-lived (5th-order) depositional sequence when the shoreline shifted from a position close to the modern coastline to the shelf or below the shelf edge. Three of these FSSTs and their up dip and down dip super bounding surface together form the 4th order (~ 100 ka) sequence of the last interglacial/glacial cycle. The absence of transgressive, highstand and lowstand systems tract is explained by the poor

  1. Yield, morphological characteristics, and chemical composition of European- and Mediterranean-derived birdsfoot trefoil cultivars grown in the colder continental United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commonly grown North American birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) varieties, such as Norcen,0 produce forage with insufficient condensed tannin (CT) concentrations to maximize ruminant livestock performance. Our objective was to identify European and Mediterranean genotypes with higher CT...

  2. A new species of Siphonoecetes Krøyer, 1845 Siphonoecetes (Centraloecetes) bulborostrum sp. nov. (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Ischyroceridae) from the western Mediterranean, coast of Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    De-la-Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio; Martí, Amparo

    2014-01-01

    An undescribed species of Siphonoecetes Krøyer, 1845 was found on Mediterranean coast of Iberian Peninsula. It was collected at the depth of 10 and 15 m near Alicante. Though it was previously found in Chafarinas Islands, this new species was not named and fully described. In the present paper, Siphonoecetes (Centraloecetes) bulborostrum sp. nov. is described. The species belongs to Centroloecetes subgenus, since it possesses bulbous ventroapical projection on peduncle of uropod 1 in males and a row of long pectinate setae on distal margin of peduncle of uropod 3. Siphonoecetes (Centraloecetes) bulborostrum sp. nov. (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Ischyroceridae) is easily distinguishable from the other Siphonoecetes reported in Iberian Mediterranean coast by presence of bulbous subrostral projection. PMID:24870885

  3. Vulnerability of Mediterranean Ecosystems to Long-Term Changes along the Coast of Israel

    PubMed Central

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Le Burel, Sabine; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Although human activity is considered to be a major driving force affecting the distribution and dynamics of Mediterranean ecosystems, the full consequences of projected climate variability and relative sea-level changes on fragile coastal ecosystems for the next century are still unknown. It is unclear how these waterfront ecosystems can be sustained, as well as the services they provide, when relative sea-level rise and global warming are expected to exert even greater pressures in the near future (drought, habitat degradation and accelerated shoreline retreat). Haifa Bay, northern Israel, has recorded a landward sea invasion, with a maximum sea penetration 4,000 years ago, during an important period of urban development and climate instability. Here, we examine the cumulative pressure of climate shifts and relative sea-level changes in order to investigate the patterns and mechanisms behind forest replacement by an open-steppe. We provide a first comprehensive and integrative study for the southern Levant that shows that (i) human impact, through urbanization, has been the main driver behind ecological erosion in the past 4,000 years; (ii) climate pressures have reinforced this impact; and (iii) local coastal changes have played a decisive role in eroding ecosystem resilience. These three parameters, which have closely interacted during the last 4,000 years in Haifa Bay, clearly indicate that for an efficient management of the coastal habitats, anthropogenic pressures linked to urban development must be reduced in order to mitigate the predicted effects of Global Change. PMID:25003703

  4. Vulnerability of Mediterranean ecosystems to long-term changes along the coast of Israel.

    PubMed

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Le Burel, Sabine; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Although human activity is considered to be a major driving force affecting the distribution and dynamics of Mediterranean ecosystems, the full consequences of projected climate variability and relative sea-level changes on fragile coastal ecosystems for the next century are still unknown. It is unclear how these waterfront ecosystems can be sustained, as well as the services they provide, when relative sea-level rise and global warming are expected to exert even greater pressures in the near future (drought, habitat degradation and accelerated shoreline retreat). Haifa Bay, northern Israel, has recorded a landward sea invasion, with a maximum sea penetration 4,000 years ago, during an important period of urban development and climate instability. Here, we examine the cumulative pressure of climate shifts and relative sea-level changes in order to investigate the patterns and mechanisms behind forest replacement by an open-steppe. We provide a first comprehensive and integrative study for the southern Levant that shows that (i) human impact, through urbanization, has been the main driver behind ecological erosion in the past 4,000 years; (ii) climate pressures have reinforced this impact; and (iii) local coastal changes have played a decisive role in eroding ecosystem resilience. These three parameters, which have closely interacted during the last 4,000 years in Haifa Bay, clearly indicate that for an efficient management of the coastal habitats, anthropogenic pressures linked to urban development must be reduced in order to mitigate the predicted effects of Global Change. PMID:25003703

  5. Ovatoxin-a and Palytoxin Accumulation in Seafood in Relation to Ostreopsis cf. ovata Blooms on the French Mediterranean Coast

    PubMed Central

    Amzil, Zouher; Sibat, Manoella; Chomerat, Nicolas; Grossel, Hubert; Marco-Miralles, Francoise; Lemee, Rodolphe; Nezan, Elisabeth; Sechet, Veronique

    2012-01-01

    Dinoflagellates of the genus Ostreopsis are known to cause (often fatal) food poisoning in tropical coastal areas following the accumulation of palytoxin (PLTX) and/or its analogues (PLTX group) in crabs, sea urchins or fish. Ostreopsis spp. occurrence is presently increasing in the northern to north western Mediterranean Sea (Italy, Spain, Greece and France), probably in response to climate change. In France, Ostreopsis. cf. ovata has been associated with toxic events during summer 2006, at Morgiret, off the coast of Marseille, and a specific monitoring has been designed and implemented since 2007. Results from 2008 and 2009 showed that there is a real danger of human poisoning, as these demonstrated bioaccumulation of the PLTX group (PLTX and ovatoxin-a) in both filter-feeding bivalve molluscs (mussels) and herbivorous echinoderms (sea urchins). The total content accumulated in urchins reached 450 µg PLTX eq/kg total flesh (summer 2008). In mussels, the maximum was 230 µg eq PLTX/kg (summer 2009) compared with a maximum of 360 µg found in sea urchins during the same period at the same site. This publication brings together scientific knowledge obtained about the summer development of Ostreopsis spp. in France during 2007, 2008 and 2009. PMID:22412814

  6. Occurrence and behavior of illicit drugs and metabolites in sewage water from the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Valencia region).

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Serrano, Roque; Ferrer, Carlos; Tormos, Isabel; Hernández, Félix

    2014-07-15

    In this work, a study on the occurrence and behavior of illicit drugs and metabolites in sewage water systems has been made. A comprehensive dataset was obtained by analyzing illicit drugs daily in influent and effluent waters from three sewage treatment plants (STPs), over three different weeks. To complete this dataset, monitoring was conducted during an international pop/rock festival, an interesting facet within this study. The STPs selected were sited along the Spanish Mediterranean coast (Castellón province, Valencia region) and represent towns of different sizes, with appreciable variations in the population in the summer period. Illicit drug concentrations in the influents were low, except during the celebration of the music festival, when the levels of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, MDA and MDMA increased. Comparing the influent and effluent concentration data allowed the rough estimation of the removal of illicit drugs and metabolites by each STP. Removal efficiencies were estimated between 75 and 100% for most of the analytes under investigation. The loads discharged into the aquatic ecosystem were also calculated from effluent data. Weekly discharges of drugs and metabolites via effluent sewage waters presented values commonly below 10 g for each individual drug, with the exception of benzoylecgonine, which usually exceeded this level. The increase in population and drug consumption during the music event led to a notable increase in the weekly discharges, reaching values up to 406 g of MDMA and 122 g of benzoylecgonine. PMID:24342491

  7. Lightning characteristics over the eastern coast of the Mediterranean during different synoptic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Ami, Y.; Altaratz, O.; Yair, Y.; Koren, I.

    2015-11-01

    Thunderstorm activity takes place in the eastern Mediterranean mainly through the boreal fall and winter seasons during synoptic systems of Red Sea Trough (RST), Red Sea Trough that closed a low over the sea (RST-CL), and Cyprus Low (during fall - FCL and winter - WCL). In this work we used the Israeli Lightning Location System ground strokes data set, between October 2004 and December 2010, for studying the properties of lightning strokes and their link to the thermodynamic conditions in each synoptic system. It is shown that lightning activity dominates over sea during WCL and FCL systems (with maximum values of 1.5 in WCL, and 2.2 km-2 day-1 in FCL) and have a dominant component over land during the RST and RST-CL days. The stronger instability (high Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) values of 762 ± 457 J kg-1) during RST-CL days together with the higher altitude of the clouds' mixed-phase region (3.6 ± 0.3 km), result in a slightly higher density of ground strokes during this system but a lower fraction of positive ground strokes (3 ± 0.5 %). In general the fraction of positive strokes was found to be inversely correlated with the sea surface temperature: it increases from 1.2 % in early fall to 17.7 % in late winter, during FCL and WCL days. This change could be linked to the variation in the charge center's vertical location during those months. The diurnal cycle in the lightning activity was examined for each synoptic system. During WCL conditions, no preferred times were found through the day, as it relates to the random passage timing of the frontal systems over the study region. During the fall systems (FCL and RST-CL) there is a peak in lightning activity during the morning hours, probably related to the enhanced convection driven by the convergence between the eastern land breeze and the western synoptic winds. The distributions of peak currents in FCL and WCL systems also change from fall to winter and include more strong negative and

  8. Microbial pollution indicators and culturable heterotrophic bacteria in a Mediterranean area (Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coasts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R. A.

    2011-05-01

    In the present study we evaluated the degree of microbial water pollution along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca (Southern Adriatic Sea) as well as the culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundances and biodiversity in relation to the microbiological quality of the water. A total of 3773 colonies were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morphological, cultural and biochemical methods including the standardized API 20 E and API 20 NE tests. Along the examined coastal tract the microbial pollution indicators were always below the tolerance limits for bathing waters defined by the CEE directive, suggesting a good sanitary quality. Concerning culturable heterotrophic bacteria, different temporal density trends were observed in the four sites in relation to their geographical position. A positive relationship between the bacterial abundances and the temperature was observed in S. Cataldo and Otranto. The culturable bacterial community was mainly composed of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae family represented a conspicuous component of the bacterial community too. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram-positive bacteria. Of interest is the isolation of yeasts (2% at the surface and 1% at the bottom) taking into account their capability of biodegradation of various materials. Because of the low level of microbial pollution recorded, our results are indicative of the natural variation and diversity of the culturable bacterial community in such an oligotrophic ecosystem and could represent a good point of comparison with other ecosystems as well as a baseline for long term studies aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental fluctuations and human impacts on this aspect of biodiversity in coastal areas.

  9. Distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in beach sand samples from Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özmen, S. F.; Cesur, A.; Boztosun, I.; Yavuz, M.

    2014-10-01

    Following Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, a huge amount of radionuclides were released in atmosphere and ocean. It's impact on the environment is of great concern to the good of the public at large. In this regard environmental radioactivity monitoring such as external dose rate and radioactivity measurements in environmental samples has been carried out. For this purpose, several beach sand samples were collected from south coast of the Turkey in September 2011 and radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra (238U), 228Ac (232Th), 40K, 134Cs and 137Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry using a high-purity Germanium detector. The measured activity concentrations in beach sand samples ranged from 4.0±0.5 to 21.5±1.8 Bq/kg, 1.8±0.4 to 27.9±2.4 Bq/kg, 19.0±2.2 to 590.3±28.6 Bq/kg and 0.1±0.0 to 1.0±0.1 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs, respectively. However there was no sign of 134Cs in the sample spectrum after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Hence we can safely conclude that there was no significant material transfer from Fukushima to Turkey. The other activities are in good agreement with the published results of neighboring areas. The absorbed gamma dose rate (D) and the annual effective dose (AED) of beach sand samples were below the world wide average implying that the radiation hazard is insignificant. The data presented in this study would also be very useful to determine the possible future effects of the nuclear power plant to the environment.

  10. Age and season determine European rabbit habitat use in Mediterranean ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, Marta; Rebollo, Salvador; Bravo, Lucía Gálvez

    2008-11-01

    Knowledge about the factors determining habitat use is especially interesting for herbivores living under seasonal climates as they have to deal with food shortage during the drought season. In this context, different-aged individuals are expected to respond differently to seasonal variations because nutritional requirements and predation risk can vary with age. We investigated adult and juvenile European rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus) habitat use in a Mediterranean ecosystem of central Spain, during spring, summer and winter. Relationships between adult and juvenile rabbit pellet abundances and 11 environmental variables related to food availability and refuge density were analysed by means of multiple regression, and evaluated using information theory to identify the set of models best supported by the data. Density of warren entrances was the more constant predictor of habitat use for juvenile rabbits in all the seasons. Herbaceous vegetation volume had a negative influence and was the strongest predictor for adult rabbit habitat use in spring and winter. In summer, green vegetation cover became the strongest positive habitat use predictor. These results suggest that adults prefer to forage in low volume swards ensuring a wide sensory range for the detection of approaching predators. However, the arrival of summer and its associated food depletion forces them to shift toward more open productive areas where green vegetation persists, but at the expense of higher predation risk. Seasonal variation induces minor changes in juvenile habitat use due to their strong dependence on warrens. Thus, our results show that rabbit habitat use is influenced by animal age and seasonal variations in resources.

  11. Relationship between sea-level pressure and sea-level height in the Camargue (French Mediterranean coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moron, V.; Ullmann, A.

    2005-09-01

    A statistical study of daily maximum sea-level height at one station (Grau de la Dent) in the Camargue (Rhône delta, French Mediterranean coast) and daily sea-level pressure (SLP) at 12 h UTC over the eastern North Atlantic is used to identify the meteorological conditions associated with sea-level variations in the Camargue for the winters 1974-75 to 2000-01. Mean SLP composites during and 5 days before major surge events (defined as those with a daily maximum sea-level height >80 cm) suggest the dominant influence of storms, moving northwest to southeast across the North Atlantic and strengthening as they approach the Bay of Biscay. During such storms, strong onshore winds may persist for up to 4-5 days. These winds tend to strengthen from 3 days to 1 day before the surge events. The mean October-March correlation between daily maximum sea-level height in the Camargue and SLP averaged over the Bay of Biscay (10°W-0°, 40-50°N) is strong (r = 0.69). A methodology is developed for assessing the low-frequency SLP variability impact on sea-level height in the Camargue. A cross-validated linear regression is used to hindcast the interannual and intraseasonal variability of the monthly 75th and 90th percentiles of the daily maximum sea-level height from the monthly mean SLP over the Bay of Biscay. The linear correlation between the cross-validated hindcast and observed time series is 0.83 (0.77) for the 75th (90th) percentile on the 1974-75 to 2000-01 period. The mean bias error, reflecting systematic errors in predicting the monthly percentiles, is close to zero.

  12. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global sea level rise and the need to incorporate projections of rise into management plans for coastal adaptation. It also discusses the performance of a shoreline revetment; M. Ali Seawall, placed to protect the land against flooding and overtopping at coastal site, within Abu Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt along the Nile Delta coast. The assessment is conducted to examine the adequacy of the seawall under the current and progressive effects of climate change demonstrated by the anticipated sea level rise during this century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) predicts that the Mediterranean will rise 30 cm to 1 meter this century. Coastal zone management of the bay coastline is of utmost significance to the protection of the low agricultural land and the industrial complex located in the rear side of the seawall. Moreover this joint research work highlights the similarity of the nature of current and anticipated coastal zone problems, at several locations around the world, and required adaptation and protection measures. For example many barrier islands in the world such as that in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the U.S., lowland and deltas such as in Italy and the Nile Delta, and many islands are also experiencing significant levels of erosion and flooding that are exacerbated by sea level rise. Global Climatic Changes: At a global scale, an example of the effects of accelerated climate changes was demonstrated. In recent years, the impacts of natural disasters are more and more severe on coastal lowland areas. With the threats of climate change, sea level rise storm surge, progressive storm and hurricane activities and potential subsidence, the reduction of natural disasters in coastal lowland areas receives increased attention. Yet many of their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding, and conversions of land to open ocean. These global changes were recently

  13. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global sea level rise and the need to incorporate projections of rise into management plans for coastal adaptation. It also discusses the performance of a shoreline revetment; M. Ali Seawall, placed to protect the land against flooding and overtopping at coastal site, within Abu Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt along the Nile Delta coast. The assessment is conducted to examine the adequacy of the seawall under the current and progressive effects of climate change demonstrated by the anticipated sea level rise during this century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) predicts that the Mediterranean will rise 30 cm to 1 meter this century. Coastal zone management of the bay coastline is of utmost significance to the protection of the low agricultural land and the industrial complex located in the rear side of the seawall. Moreover this joint research work highlights the similarity of the nature of current and anticipated coastal zone problems, at several locations around the world, and required adaptation and protection measures. For example many barrier islands in the world such as that in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the U.S., lowland and deltas such as in Italy and the Nile Delta, and many islands are also experiencing significant levels of erosion and flooding that are exacerbated by sea level rise. Global Climatic Changes: At a global scale, an example of the effects of accelerated climate changes was demonstrated. In recent years, the impacts of natural disasters are more and more severe on coastal lowland areas. With the threats of climate change, sea level rise storm surge, progressive storm and hurricane activities and potential subsidence, the reduction of natural disasters in coastal lowland areas receives increased attention. Yet many of their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding, and conversions of land to open ocean. These global changes were recently

  14. From egg production to recruits: Connectivity and inter-annual variability in the recruitment patterns of European anchovy in the northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospina-Alvarez, Andres; Catalán, Ignacio A.; Bernal, Miguel; Roos, David; Palomera, Isabel

    2015-11-01

    We show the application of a Spatially-Explicit Individual-Based Model (SEIBM) to understand the recruitment process of European anchovy. The SEIBM is applied to simulate the effects of inter-annual variability in parental population spawning behavior and intensity, and ocean dynamics, on the dispersal of eggs and larvae from the spawning area in the Gulf of Lions (GoL) towards the coastal nursery areas in the GoL and Catalan Sea (northwestern Mediterranean Sea). For each of seven years (2003-2009), we initialize the SEIBM with the real positions of anchovy eggs during the spawning peak, from an acoustics-derived eggs production model. We analyze the effect of spawners' distribution, timing of spawning, and oceanographic conditions on the connectivity patterns, growth, dispersal distance and late-larval recruitment (14 mm larva recruits, R14) patterns. The area of influence of the Rhône river plume was identified as having a high probability of larval recruitment success (64%), but up to 36% of R14 larvae end up in the Catalan Coast. We demonstrate that the spatial paths of larvae differ dramatically from year to year, and suggest potential offshore nursery grounds. We showed that our simulations are coherent with existing recruitment proxies and therefore open new possibilities for fisheries management.

  15. Fucus spiralis as monitoring tool of metal contamination in the northwest coast of Portugal under the European Water Framework Directives.

    PubMed

    Reis, Pedro A; Cassiano, Júlia; Veiga, Puri; Rubal, Marcos; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    Metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in coastal seawaters and soft tissues of macroalga Fucus spiralis from the northwest coast of Portugal were determined to assess spatial variations of metal bioavailabilities and bioaccumulation factors to compare different ecological quality classifications. Both coastal seawaters and soft tissues of F. spiralis showed significant spatial variations in their metal concentrations along the coast. The macroalgae F. spiralis accumulated more efficiently Cd, Mn and Zn and showed low bioaccumulation factors to Cr, Cu and Fe. Regarding the metal guidelines of the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority, the entire northwest (NW) coast of Portugal in April 2013 should be classified as 'class I--unpolluted' for all metals, except in Ave for Cu ('class II--moderately polluted') and Cavado for Cd and Cu ('class II-moderately polluted'), revealing the low metal bioavailabilities of these seawaters. As there were always significant positive correlations between all metals in seawaters and F. spiralis, this macroalga species was considered a suitable monitoring tool of metal contamination in the NW coast of Portugal and a useful aquatic organism to be included in the European Environmental Specimen Banks in order to establish a real-time environmental monitoring network under the European Water Framework Directives. PMID:24816592

  16. Seasonal variation of volatile organic compounds exchange above a periurban Holm oak forest on the Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savi, Flavia; Juráň, Stanislav; Fares, Silvano

    2015-04-01

    Bi-directional exchanges of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) were investigated on a Mediterranean Holm oak forest in Castelporziano presidential estate, a peri-urban forest near the coast of Tyrrhenian sea, 20 Km from Rome downtown, Italy. Two field campaigns were carried out in January and August 2014 to explore VOCs fluxes in two seasons with different climate conditions and physiological activity of plants. Concentration of 23 compounds was measured using a proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). These included biogenic products (BVOC - isoprene, monoterpenes), oxygenated BVOC (OVOC - methanol, acetaldehyde acetone) and VOC of anthropogenic origin (AVOC - acetonitrile, benzene, hexenal, toluene, xylenes). Each half-hour, we switched between measurement at high frequency above the canopy and sampling through a 5-levels gradient from soil to above the canopy. We used the eddy covariance technique to calculate fluxes above the canopy, while gradient measurements were used to estimate in-canopy source and sink distribution by applying an Inverse Lagrangian Transport Model (Karl et al., 2004, J.Geophys.Res). Ozone and NOx concentrations were also measured to better correlate VOCs exchanges with this important secondary pollutant. Low temperatures lead to almost negligible BVOC fluxes during Winter. Summer fluxes were largely represented by BVOC (mainly monoterpenes). The highest fluxes (up to 2.4 nmol m-2 s-1) were recorded in the central hour of the day in response to high light and temperature. Oxygenated compounds (methanol and acetone) showed different behaviour during the two seasons: in Winter a net release of these compounds was observed, while in Summer the canopy acted as a sink for OVOC except for the hottest hours when we observed significant emissions. OVOC source-sink distribution analysis helped identifying the canopy layers which mostly contributed to VOCs exchanges, thus underlining the importance of forest canopies in VOCs exchanges

  17. A comparison of moment magnitude estimates for the European-Mediterranean and Italian regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, Paolo; Lolli, Barbara; Vannucci, Gianfranco; Boschi, Enzo

    2012-09-01

    With the goal of constructing a homogeneous data set of moment magnitudes (Mw) to be used for seismic hazard assessment, we compared Mw estimates from moment tensor catalogues available online. We found an apparent scaling disagreement between Mw estimates from the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the US Geological Survey and from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) project. We suspect that this is the effect of an underestimation of Mw > 7.0 (M0 > 4.0 × 1019 Nm) computed by NEIC owing to the limitations of their computational approach. We also found an apparent scaling disagreement between GCMT and two regional moment tensor catalogues provided by the 'Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich' (ETHZ) and by the European-Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor (RCMT) project of the Italian 'Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia' (INGV). This is probably the effect of the overestimation of Mw < 5.5 (M0 < 2.2 × 1017 Nm), up to year 2002, and of Mw < 5.0 (M0 < 4.0 × 1016 Nm), since year 2003, owing to the physical limitations of the standard CMT inversion method used by GCMT for the earthquakes of relatively low magnitude. If the discrepant data are excluded from the comparisons, the scaling disagreements become insignificant in all cases. We observed instead small absolute offsets (≤0.1 units) for NEIC and ETHZ catalogues with respect to GCMT whereas there is an almost perfect correspondence between RCMT and GCMT. Finally, we found a clear underestimation of about 0.2 units of Mw magnitudes computed at the INGV using the time-domain moment tensor (TDMT) method with respect to those reported by GCMT and RCMT. According to our results, we suggest appropriate offset corrections to be applied to Mw estimates from NEIC, ETHZ and TDMT catalogues before merging their data with GCMT and RCMT catalogues. We suggest as well to discard the probably discrepant data from NEIC and GCMT if other Mw estimates from different sources are

  18. Starting a DNA barcode reference library for shallow water polychaetes from the southern European Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Jorge; Teixeira, Marcos A L; Borges, Luisa M S; Ferreira, Maria S G; Hollatz, Claudia; Gomes, Pedro T; Sousa, Ronaldo; Ravara, Ascensão; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Filipe O

    2016-01-01

    Annelid polychaetes have been seldom the focus of dedicated DNA barcoding studies, despite their ecological relevance and often dominance, particularly in soft-bottom estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we report the first assessment of the performance of DNA barcodes in the discrimination of shallow water polychaete species from the southern European Atlantic coast, focusing on specimens collected in estuaries and coastal ecosystems of Portugal. We analysed cytochrome oxidase I DNA barcodes (COI-5P) from 164 specimens, which were assigned to 51 morphospecies. To our data set from Portugal, we added available published sequences selected from the same species, genus or family, to inspect for taxonomic congruence among studies and collection location. The final data set comprised 290 specimens and 79 morphospecies, which generated 99 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) within Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD). Among these, 22 BINs were singletons, 47 other BINs were concordant, confirming the initial identification based on morphological characters, and 30 were discordant, most of which consisted on multiple BINs found for the same morphospecies. Some of the most prominent cases in the latter category include Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776) (7), Eulalia viridis (Linnaeus, 1767) (2) and Owenia fusiformis (delle Chiaje, 1844) (5), all of them reported from Portugal and frequently used in ecological studies as environmental quality indicators. Our results for these species showed discordance between molecular lineages and morphospecies, or added additional relatively divergent lineages. The potential inaccuracies in environmental assessments, where underpinning polychaete species diversity is poorly resolved or clarified, demand additional and extensive investigation of the DNA barcode diversity in this group, in parallel with alpha taxonomy efforts. PMID:26129849

  19. Assessment of height variations by GPS at Mediterranean and Black Sea coast tide gauges from the SELF projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Zerbini, S.; Baker, T.; Bürki, B.; Galanis, J.; Garate, J.; Georgiev, I.; Kahle, H.-G.; Kotzev, V.; Lobazov, V.; Marson, I.; Negusini, M.; Richter, B.; Veis, G.; Yuzefovich, P.

    2002-09-01

    In the framework of the European Union SEa Level Fluctuations (SELF) I and the SELF II Projects designed to study sea level variations around the Mediterranean and Black Seas, the Global Positioning System (GPS) technique was adopted to measure the ongoing crustal movements at tide gauge stations. Tide gauges measure sea-level variations with respect to a ground benchmark. In order to determine true sea-level variations of a few millimeters per year, it is necessary to estimate the ground vertical movement to a high degree of accuracy. Countries involved in the projects were Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Bulgaria and Russia. In the period from 1993 to 1998 repeated observations at more than 28 tide gauges and at a number of reference and intermediate stations were conducted. GPS measurements were complemented by Water Vapor Radiometers (WVR) at selected sites. Individual campaigns were evaluated and analyzed and showed height variations in the millimeter-centimeter range. All data were processed following common standards using the Bernese Software in a unified analysis to generate a combined solution. Based on the normal equations of all of the campaigns, a combined solution for the SELF Projects sites was generated. In the analysis of multi-technique anchor sites to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame ITRF97, it is shown that vertical rates of different techniques may be of different sign with respect to each other and also with respect to the ITRF97 combination. Vertical rates are not reliable in general and even the restriction to the use of long the long-time series sites KOSG, ONSA, WTZR, MADR, GRAZ and MATE did not ensure significant and unique vertical rates. Nevertheless, they had to be used for the reference frame definition. The results of repeated gravity observations and the continuous GPS observations at Porto Corsini and Medicina were compared to the epoch-wise GPS campaigns and revealed that the vertical rates are in conformance with each

  20. Public health research support through the European structural funds in central and eastern Europe and the Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Public health research provides evidence for practice across fields including health care, health promotion and health surveillance. Levels of public health research vary markedly across European Union (EU) countries, and are lowest in the EU's new member states (in Central and Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean). However, these countries now receive most of the EU's Structural Funds, some of which are allocated to research. Methods STEPS, an EU-funded study, sought to assess support for public health research at national and European levels. To identify support through the Structural funds, STEPS drew information from country respondents and internet searches for all twelve EU new member states. Results The EU allocates annually around €7 billion through the Structural Funds for member states' own use on research. These funds can cover infrastructure, academic employment, and direct research grants. The programmes emphasise links to business. Support for health research includes major projects in biosciences, but direct support for public health research was found in only three countries - Cyprus, Latvia and Lithuania. Conclusions Public health research is not prioritised in the EU's Structural Funds programme in comparison with biomedicine. For the research dimension of the new European programme for Structural Funds 2014-2002, ministries of health should propose public health research to strengthen the evidence-base for European public health policy and practice. PMID:22480250

  1. Are we safe? A tool to improve the knowledge of the risk areas: high-resolution floods database (MEDIFLOOD) for Spanish Mediterranean coast (1960 -2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Guirado, Salvador; Perez-Morales, Alfredo; Lopez-Martinez, Francisco; Barriendos-Vallve, Mariano

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula concentrates an important part of the population and economic activities in Spain. Intensive agriculture, industry in the major urban centers, trade and tourism make this region the main center of economic dynamism and one of the highest rates of population and economic growth of southern Europe. This process accelerated after Franco regime started to be more open to the outside in the early sixties of the last century. The main responsible factor for this process is the climate because of warmer temperatures and a large number of sunny days, which has become in the economic slogan of the area. However, this growth process has happened without proper planning to reduce the impact of other climatic feature of the area, floods. Floods are the natural hazard that generates greater impacts in the area.One of the factors that facilitate the lack of strategic planning is the absence of a correct chronology of flood episodes. In this situation, land use plans, are based on inadequate chronologies that do not report the real risk of the population of this area. To reduce this deficit and contribute to a more efficient zoning of the Mediterranean coast according to their floods risk, we have prepared a high-resolution floods database (MEDIFLOOD) for all the municipalities of the Spanish Mediterranean coast since 1960 until 2013. The methodology consists on exploring the newspaper archives of all newspapers with a presence in the area. The searches have been made by typing the name of each of the 180 municipalities of the Spanish coast followed by 5 key terms. Each identified flood has been classified by dates and according to their level of intensity and type of damage. Additionally, we have consulted the specific bibliography to rule out any data gaps. The results are surprising and worrying. We have identified more than 3,600 cases where a municipality has been affected by floods. These cases are grouped into more than 700

  2. Yield, morphological development, and forage quality characteristics of European- and Mediterranean-derived birdsfoot trefoil cultivars grown in the colder continental United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    North American birdsfoot trefoil (BFT) cultivars such as Norcen produce forage with low condensed tannin (CT) concentrations that may be insufficient for optimal livestock performance. Our objective was to identify European and Mediterranean cultivars with higher CT concentrations that would be suit...

  3. Spatial and seasonal variability of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton at the bottom seawater in the north coast of Sfax, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Amira; Denis, Michel; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib

    2015-10-01

    In the frame of the Taparura Project, we studied the distribution of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton communities in relation to environmental variables at 18 stations sampled during four coastal cruises conducted between October 2009 and July 2010 at the bottom, on the north coast of Sfax (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The restoration effect on coastal ultraphytoplankton (<10 μm) and microphytoplankton (<200 μm) was investigated using conventional flow cytometry and inverted microscopy. Flow cytometry analysis of ultraphytoplankton resolved six groups (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, nanoeukaryotes and three distinct subgroups within picoeukaryotes). In addition to these autotrophic groups, two unknown groups were characterised on the north coast. Picophytoplankton abundance shifted from a summer dominance of Synechococcus to a dominance of picoeukaryotes and Prochlorococcus during spring. Nanoeukaryotes were the most abundant in spring. Microphytoplankton was resolved into five groups, labelled Bacillariophyceae, Dinophyceae, Cyanobacteriae, Euglenophyceae and Chlorophyceae. A total of 90 microphytoplankton species were identified in all stations, with an overwhelming abundance of large diatoms, a typical trait of benthic communities (Coscinodiscus sp., Grammatophora sp., Navicula sp., Pleurosigma sp., Striatella unipunctata …). Results collected in this study are favouring a beneficial impact on the ecosystem of the Sfax north coast restoration achieved by the Taparura Project. PMID:26054458

  4. Heavy metal accumulation in Diplodus annularis, Liza aurata, and Solea vulgaris relevant to their concentration in water and sediment from the southwestern Mediterranean (coast of Sfax).

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Zohra; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn) were measured in the liver, gills, and muscle of Solea vulgaris, Liza aurata, and Diplodus annularis, collected from the south coast of Sfax (Gabes Gulf, southwestern Mediterranean). The concentrations of heavy metals in water exhibited the following decreasing order (expressed in μg l(-1)): Fe > Ni > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd whereas the trend is somewhat different in sediments (mg kg(-1) D.W.) Fe > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd. The levels of heavy metals varied significantly among fish species and tissues. Heavy metal levels were found generally higher in the liver and gills than the muscle in all species. The liver was the target organ for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn accumulation. Nickel and lead, however, exhibited their highest concentrations in the gills. The three studied fishes showed a difference in metals accumulation decreasing in following order S. vulgaris > D. annularis > L. aurata. Solea vulgaris with the highest TFwater, TFsediment, and metal concentrations in tissues would be considered as a potential bio-indicator in the south coast of Sfax for the assessment of environmental pollution status. Comparative studies with Luza zone indicate considerable bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb and Zn) in the various tissues of fish samples of the south coast of Sfax. PMID:27040537

  5. Erosion Modelling In A Mediterranean Subcatchment Under Climate Change Scenarios Using Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilek, A.; Berberoglu, S.; Kirkby, M.; Irvine, B.; Donmez, C.; Erdogan, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is particularly prone to erosion. This is because it is subject to long dry periods followed by heavy bursts of erosive rainfall, falling on steep slopes with fragile soils, resulting in considerable amounts of erosion. In parts of the Mediterranean region, erosion has reached a stage of irreversibility and in some places erosion has practically ceased because there is no more soil left. With a very slow rate of soil formation, any soil loss of more than 1 t ha-1 yr-1 can be considered as irreversible within a time span of 50-100 years. The objectives of this study were i) to estimate the temporal and spatial distribution of soil erosion under climate change scenarios in study area ii) to assess the hydrological runoff processes. In this study, climate data, land use, topographic and physiographic properties were assembled for Egribuk Subcatchment at Seyhan River Basin in Turkey and used in a process-based Geographical Information System (GIS) to determine the hydrological sediment potential and quantify reservoir sedimentation. The estimated amount of sediment transported downstream is potentially large based on hydrological runoff processes using the Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA) model. The detailed model inputs included 128 variables derived mainly from, soil, climate, land use/cover, topography data sets. The outcomes of this research were spatial and temporal distribution of erosion amount in t ha-1 yr-1 or month-1.

  6. A Late Cretaceous Contamination Episode of the European-Mediterranean Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piromallo, C.; Gasperini, D.; Macera, P.; Faccenna, C.

    2008-12-01

    One of the most debated issues about the Tertiary-Quaternary alkaline magmatism of the Euro- Mediterranean region is the assessment of both the nature of its mantle source and the mechanism responsible for the common HIMU-like (High μ=high 238U/204Pb) character of erupted lavas, enduring over about 100 million years in diverse tectonic environments. We reconcile here geochemistry, timing and locations of the main Na-rich alkaline volcanic centers, seismic tomography and plate kinematics. We propose that the common component of the Euro-Mediterranean mantle derives from a contamination episode triggered by the rise of the Central Atlantic Plume (CAP) head. Highly incompatible element ratios and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions indicate a common source for Na-rich alkali basalts of NE Atlantic, Europe and North Africa. Plate reconstruction shows that at Late Cretaceous-Paleocene time the oldest magmatic centers of the Euro-Mediterranean region were shifted more than 2000 km SW of their present day position, close to the CAP hot spot location, where seismic tomography detects a broad low seismic velocity region in the lower mantle. Thus, a possible common source for the Cenozoic Euro-Mediterranean volcanism could refer to this geographical area, representing both its Cretaceous paleo-position and geochemical endmember. The north-eastward migration of the Eurasian and African plates involved also the CAP contaminated mantle, which moved in the same direction coupled to the lithospheric plate, explaining the presence of geochemically-uniform material in the sub-lithospheric mantle. During the Tertiary, regional-scale convection and related processes such as rifting, back-arc spreading, slab detachment/windows, may have favored upwelling and partial melting of the frayed plume head material via adiabatic decompression, shaping the discontinuous spatial and temporal distribution of HIMU-like volcanics. The growing supply of subducted lithosphere may explain as well the

  7. Freshwater scarcity effects on the aquatic macrofauna of a European Mediterranean-climate estuary.

    PubMed

    González-Ortegón, Enrique; Baldó, Francisco; Arias, Alberto; Cuesta, Jose A; Fernández-Delgado, Carlos; Vilas, César; Drake, Pilar

    2015-01-15

    In the Mediterranean-climate zone, recurrent drought events and increasing water demand generally lead to a decrease in freshwater input to estuaries. This water scarcity may alter the proper function of estuaries as nursery areas for marine species and as permanent habitat for estuarine species. A 12-year data set of the aquatic macrofauna (fish, decapod and mysid crustaceans) in a Mediterranean estuary (Guadalquivir estuary, South Spain) was analysed to test if water scarcity favours the nursery function of regional estuaries to the detriment of permanent estuarine inhabitants. Target species typically displayed a salinity-related distribution and estuarine salinisation in dry years resulted in a general upstream community displacement. However, annual densities of marine species were neither consistently higher in dry years nor estuarine species during wet years. Exceptions included the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer and the marine shrimp Crangon crangon, which were more abundant in wet and dry years, respectively. High and persistent turbidity, a collateral effect of water scarcity, altered both the structural (salinity-related pattern) and functional (key prey species and predator density) community characteristics, chiefly after the second drought period of the analysis. The observed high inter-year environmental variability, as well as species-specific effects of water scarcity, suggests that exhaustive and long-term sampling programmes will be required for rigorously monitoring the estuarine communities of the Mediterranean-climate region. PMID:25005237

  8. The MIS 5 palaeoenvironmental record in the SE Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula (Río Antas, Almería, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, T.; Ortiz, J. E.; Blázquez, A. M.; Ruiz Zapata, B.; Gil, M. J.; Martín, T.; Sánchez-Palencia, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Landwards of a MIS5 bar, a borehole core (SRA) was analyzed to establish the relationship between the lagoonal record and the raised beach deposits in the surroundings of the Antas river mouth and to reconstruct the Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental evolution of the southern Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. 63 samples were recovered for amino acid racemization dating, 86 samples for sedimentological and paleontological determination, 37 samples for pollen identification and 54 for biomarker analysis. AAR revealed that the borehole record contains MIS11, MIS6 and MIS5 deposits, the latter extensively represented. During the end of MIS6 and MIS5, a sand barrier developed and created a shallow lagoon with alternating terrestrial inputs this process being common in other Mediterranean realms. Litho- and biofacies allowed the identification of distinct paleoenvironments through time, with the presence of a lagoonal environment alternating with alluvial fan progradation. Biomarkers indicated constant input from terrestrial plants, together with variable development of aquatic macrophytes. The palynological content allowed the reconstruction of the paleoclimatological conditions during MIS6 and 5, with evidence of seven scenarios characterized by alternating arid and relatively humid conditions.

  9. Summer rainfall variability in European Mediterranean mountains from the sixteenth to the twentieth century reconstructed from tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Labourdette, D.; Génova, M.; Schmitz, M. F.; Urrutia, R.; Pineda, F. D.

    2014-09-01

    Since the end of the last glacial period, European Mediterranean mountains have provided shelter for numerous species of Eurosiberian and Boreal origin. Many of these species, surviving at the southern limit of their range in Europe and surrounded by Mediterranean ones, are relatively intolerant to summer drought and are in grave danger of loss, as a result of increasingly long and frequent droughts in this region. This is the case of the Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) and the Austrian pine ( Pinus nigra ssp. salzmannii) which are found on Central Iberian Peninsula at the edge of their natural range. We used a tree ring network of these two species to reconstruct past variations in summer rainfall. The reconstruction, based upon a tree ring composite chronology of the species, dates back to 1570 (adjusted R 2 = 0.49, P < 0.000001) and captures interannual to decadal scale variability in summer precipitation. We studied the spatial representativeness of the rainfall patterns and described the occurrence rate of extremes of this precipitation. To identify associations between macroclimatic factors and tree radial growth, we employed a principal component analysis to calculate the resultant of the relationship between the growth data of both species, using this resultant as a dependent variable of a multiple regression whose independent variables are monthly mean temperature and precipitation from the average records. Spatial correlation patterns between instrumental precipitation datasets for southern Europe and reconstructed values for the 1950-1992 period indicate that the reconstruction captures the regional signal of drought variability in the study region (the origin of this precipitation is convective: thermal low pressure zones induced in the inland northeastern areas of the Iberian Peninsula). There is a clear increase in the recurrence of extreme dry events as from the beginning of twentieth century and an abrupt change to drier conditions. There appears to

  10. Long-term decline of the populations of Fucales (Cystoseira spp. and Sargassum spp.) in the Albères coast (France, North-western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Thibaut, Thierry; Pinedo, Susana; Torras, Xavier; Ballesteros, Enric

    2005-12-01

    Only five of fourteen species of Fucales reported at the end of the XIXth century are currently present in the Albères Coast (France, NW Mediterranean). According to historical data there has been a steady decrease of all the populations since the 1940s. Seven taxa now extinct (Cystoseira crinita, Cystoseira barbata, Cystoseira foeniculacea f. tenuiramosa, Cystoseira spinosa, Cystoseira spinosa var. compressa, Sargassum hornschuchii and Sargassum vulgare) were considered frequent and some of them were the dominant and engineering species in several phytobenthic assemblages. Moreover, only one of the five species left, shows no signs of regression (Cystoseira compressa), two are considered as rare (Cystoseira caespitosa, Cystoseira zosteroides), and one is very rare (Cystoseira elegans). Cystoseira mediterranea, a species that was reported to make a continuous belt along the shores of the Albères coast, has almost disappeared from some areas. Overgrazing by sea urchins, outcompetition by mussels, habitat destruction, scientific research sampling and, probably, human trampling and chemical pollution are to be blamed for the decline of populations thriving in shallow waters. Deep-water species have been affected by an increase in water turbidity and, probably, chemical pollution and direct plant destruction attributed to net fishing. If degradation of the environmental conditions continues, the remaining Cystoseira species will face a most unwelcome prospect. Even after the removal of the causes that led to its die-off, natural restoration of extinct species seems not to be possible because the decline has also affected populations from nearby areas and zygotes are unable to disperse over long distances. Urgent management actions have to be designed in order to improve the current situation of the populations of Fucales in the Albères coast. PMID:16026805

  11. Update of information on perkinsosis in NW Mediterranean coast: Identification of Perkinsus spp. (Protista) in new locations and hosts.

    PubMed

    Ramilo, Andrea; Carrasco, Noelia; Reece, Kimberly S; Valencia, José M; Grau, Amalia; Aceituno, Patricia; Rojas, Mauricio; Gairin, Ignasi; Furones, M Dolores; Abollo, Elvira; Villalba, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    This study addressed perkinsosis in commercially important mollusc species in the western Mediterranean area. Perkinsus olseni was found in Santa Gilla Lagoon (Sardinia) infecting Ruditapes decussatus, Cerastoderma glaucum and Venerupis aurea, in Balearic Islands infecting Venus verrucosa and in Delta de l'Ebre (NE Spain) parasitising Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus. Perkinsus mediterraneus was detected infecting Ostrea edulis from the Gulf of Manfredonia (SE Italy) and Alacant (E Spain), V. verrucosa and Arca noae from Balearic Islands and Chlamys varia from Balearic Islands, Alacant and Delta de l'Ebre. PMID:25553580

  12. Post-glacial coast development and human settling of the North European Ice Marginal Landscape (IML)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bregman, I. Kant Baltic Federal State University, Kaliningrad, Russia, E. P. H.; Netherlands, Utrecht University, the; Druzhinina, I. Kant Baltic Federal State University, Kaliningrad, Russia, O. A.

    2012-04-01

    In North Europe, in the Ice Marginal Landscapes (IML) from the Netherlands to Estonia, human settling is in the Late-Pleistocene - Holocene strongly influenced by post-glacial relative coast development(MESO, 2010; SINCOS, 2002-2009; Machu, 2006-2009, IGCP project 346, CoPaF, 2009-2012) and glacio-isostasy. Geological processes like updoming and tectonic block displacements not only influenced sedimentation of river systems in delta's (e.g. Cohen, 2003), but influenced coastal development and human settling too in the North Sea area (e.g. Peeters, 2009; Hijma e.a., 2011) the Wadden areas (e.g. de Langen, 2011) and lagoons (e.g. Druzhinina, 2010). An overview of shoreline development at the distal side of the Late Glacial forbulge related to glaciological and geophysical processes however does not exist and coastal development models are also not correlated with human settling. Our project( 2012 - 2018) has the aim to describe the influence of shifting coast on the way of settling and living of ancient man in the IML. The main questions to be answered are as follow: (i) Is coast development influenced by glaciations a result of interaction between endo- and exogenic (glaciological-, geological-, and geophysical) forces in general and at the local scale of morphological elements? (ii) Did ancient man adept to changes in natural circumstances and what did that mean for his social behavior and economy? (iii) Were forms of human society and economy in the IML primarily dependent on the natural environment with regard to geophysical and geological differences and related to post-glacial response of the earth crust? Detailed integrated studying of "key-areas", with attention to deep geology, will allow to get new insight of the impact of post-glacial shoreline changes and history of man on the coast in the IML with focus on his past (history of relations) and future (impact of climate change. The project is an international project, with participation of institutes all

  13. Assessing trace metal pollution through high spatial resolution of surface sediments along the Tunis Gulf coast (southwestern Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Rym; Zaaboub, Noureddine; Fertouna-Bellakhal, Mouna; Chouba, Lassad; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-03-01

    Tunis Gulf (northern Tunisia, Mediterranean Sea) is of great economic importance due to its abundant fish resources. Rising urbanization and industrial development in the surrounding area have resulted in an increase in untreated effluents and domestic waste discharged into the gulf via its tributary streams. Metal (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) and major element (Mg, Ca, Na, and K) concentrations were measured in the grain fine fraction <63 μm by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results showed varying spatial distribution patterns for metals, indicating complex origins and controlling factors such as anthropogenic activities. Sediment metal concentrations are ranked as follows: Fe > Mg > Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Cd > Hg. Metals tend to be concentrated in proximity to source points, suggesting that the mineral enrichment elements come from sewage of coastal towns and pollution from industrial dumps and located along local rivers, lagoons, and on the gulf shore itself. This study showed that trace metal and major element concentrations in surface sediments along the Tunis Gulf shores were lower than those found in other coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:26564186

  14. Distribution pattern and genetic structure of Aedes zammitii (Diptera: Culicidae) along the Mediterranean and Aegean coasts of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yavasoglu, Sare Ilknur; Simsek, Fatih Mehmet; Ulger, Celal

    2016-06-01

    The Mariae species complex, consisting of Aedes mariae, Aedes phoeniciae, and Aedes zammitii, has a limited distribution worldwide. All three species are found in rocky habitats on the coastal areas of Mediterranean countries. Aedes phoeniciae and Ae. zammitii are two members of the Mariae complex that exist in Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution pattern and genetic structure of Ae. zammitii along the Mediterranean and Aegean regions. For this purpose, larval and adult samples of Ae. zammitii were collected from 19 different rocky habitats along the coastal regions of Antalya, Muğla, Aydın, İzmir, Balıkesir, and Çanakkale provinces. DNA isolation was performed primarily from collected samples, and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 4 (ND4) gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Based on ND4 sequence analyses, 21 haplotypes were detected along the distribution range of the species. Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) and spatial analyses of molecular variance (SAMOVA) indicated six groups, and most of the variation was among groups, demonstrating the population structuring at group level. Isolation by distance analyses (IBD) showed a correlation between geographic and genetic distances. PMID:27232138

  15. Tsunami hazard assessment in the Euro-Mediterranean region: outcome of the TRANSFER European project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébert, Hélène; Roger, Jean; Sahal, Alexandre; Allgeyer, Sébastien; Schindelé, François

    2010-05-01

    The FP6 TRANSFER project (2006-2009) (led by University of Bologna) focused its activities on tsunami hazard assessment for the Euro-Mediterranean area, based on updated databases, tsunami hazard assessment through numerical modeling and propositions of operational tools for warning purposes. Within the project, the activities in CEA were devoted to three main fields. First, the numerical methods have been tested against several benchmark problems which were able to demonstrate the efficiency of the methods used. Then a statistical approach has been proposed to analyze the tsunami variability along shorelines. This study was inferred from the numerous databases gathered after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. First order numerical models have been carried out without grid refinement, compared to available observations and discussed with respect to the well accepted coastal amplification laws (Green, Synolakis). The method thereby defined was finally applied to the Balearic Islands to consider the tsunami threat for earthquake sources originating from northern Africa. The results underline the relative tsunami exposure for the different sections of the coastline for the Balearic Islands. Finally two detailed hazard studies have been conducted in Palma (Majorca, Balearic) and Istanbul (Turkey), based on scenarios of tsunamigenic earthquakes. The results show that the harbour of Palma in Majorca is rather protected from the tsunamis considered in the study (i.e. earthquakes with magnitude 7.0 to 7.3 along northern Africa), whereas the southeastern coastline of Majorca seems to be more significantly exposed. In Istanbul, for the given scenarios (earthquakes with magnitude 7.1 to 7.4 in the Sea of Marmara), the tsunami exposure is more important for several coastal low-lying sites where inundations can occur. Beyond these results, the project also gave the opportunity to refine databases of tsunami observations in France, namely for the 2003 tsunami triggered by the Mw 6

  16. Climate induced changes on the hydrology of the southern coast of Mediterranean Sea, Alexandria - Matrouh Governorates, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabrouk, Badr; Ludwig, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    The Nile Delta is one of the most complex, fragile and densely populated landscapes. It has suffered from abrupt environmental changes including sea level rise, sea water intrusion, and dramatic drawdown in groundwater levels due to severe pumping. The western part of Nile Delta's coast, from Alexandria to Marsa Matruh Governorates, is considered as one of the most vulnerable regions in Nile Delta. Environmentally complicated risks on water and soil coincide with suffering from strategic management problems. The general lack of studies linking sea level rise with socioeconomic impact cause large uncertainties. Such impacts became very critical recently, as subsidence and successive step sliding in the northern coast cause catastrophic disasters in areas with high population and socio-economic importance. Western Coast of Nile Delta is characterized by a succession of limestone and oolitic limestone which is extremely fragile and vulnerable to degradation in addition to dissolution by saline water. This study deals with studying the effect of global warming, sea level rise and severe pumping on the studied area. Examples will be given for soil degradation, subsidence, surface sliding, creeps successive step sliding, and sinkholes due to dissolving and fracturing of the limestone plateau.

  17. Phthalate metabolites in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Fourgous, C; Chevreuil, M; Alliot, F; Amilhat, E; Faliex, E; Paris-Palacios, S; Teil, M J; Goutte, A

    2016-11-01

    The levels and fate of phthalate metabolites have been poorly evaluated in fish, despite their potential ecotoxicological impacts. The present study aims to characterize the levels of phthalate metabolites in muscle tissue of yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) from two coastal Mediterranean lagoons, during three sampling periods. Nine phthalate metabolites were detected in >70% of the samples. Slightly higher levels of phthalate metabolites were detected in March and June compared to October, suggesting possible seasonal variations in environmental release and/or phthalate metabolization process by eels. The large sample size (N=117) made it possible to explore correlations between phthalate metabolites' levels and individual parameters, such as body length, age, body condition and hepatic histo-pathologies. Body length and estimated age poorly correlated with phthalate metabolites, suggesting that eels did not accumulate phthalates during growth, contrary to persistent compounds. Eels presented different grades of hepatic fibrosis and lipidosis. A negative correlation was found between the severity of these pathologies in the liver and the sum of phthalate metabolites levels, supporting the hypothesis that eels with damaged liver are less able to metabolize xenobiotics. PMID:27412480

  18. Cova del Rinoceront (Castelldefels, Barcelona): a terrestrial record for the Last Interglacial period (MIS 5) in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daura, J.; Sanz, M.; Julià, R.; García-Fernández, D.; Fornós, J. J.; Vaquero, M.; Allué, E.; López-García, J. M.; Blain, H. A.; Ortiz, J. E.; Torres, T.; Albert, R. M.; Rodríguez-Cintas, À.; Sánchez-Marco, A.; Cerdeño, E.; Skinner, A. R.; Asmeron, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Garcés, M.; Arnold, L. J.; Demuro, M.; Pike, A. W. G.; Euba, I.; Rodríguez, R. F.; Yagüe, A. S.; Villaescusa, L.; Gómez, S.; Rubio, A.; Pedro, M.; Fullola, J. M.; Zilhão, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Cova del Rinoceront, a site in NE Iberia, contains a thick sedimentary fill preserving a faunal archive from the penultimate glacial and the the last interglacial periods. Layers I to III have been dated to between 74 and 147 ka, coinciding with MIS 5a to 5e, a period poorly represented in the Mediterranean terrestrial record. The results from Cova del Rinoceront are of broader interest for the reconstruction of ecological dynamics during warm stages and the understanding of the evolution and geographical variation of several taxa. The palaeoecological evidence suggests a landscape dominated by mixed wooded vegetation with mild climatic conditions, slightly more humid than today. Several vertebrate taxa, including Haploidoceros mediterraneus, Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis and Glis glis, are documented for the first time in the early Upper Pleistocene of Europe, showing that these species persisted across the region for longer than previously thought. In addition, the recovery of a small lithic assemblage indicates human presence in the surroundings of the site. The 11 m-thick stratigraphic section also provides an ideal setting in which to compare several geochronological methods. U-Th dating of the flowstones that cap the deposit, of speleothems formed along the cave walls, and of speleothems buried by the deposit at different elevations provides minimum and maximum ages of 74 and 175 ka, respectively, for the accumulation. The ages obtained by luminescence, electron spin resonance (ESR), amino acid racemisation (AAR), palaeomagnetism and U-series dating of bone are in good agreement with each other and are stratigraphically consistent. This well-dated faunal succession presents a unique opportunity to assess changes in the Pleistocene fauna of the Mediterranean coast over an interval of more than 100 ka.

  19. European and Mediterranean mercury modelling: Local and long-range contributions to the deposition flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gencarelli, Christian N.; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sprovieri, Francesca; Yang, Xin; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is known to have adverse effects on human health, and most human exposure to toxic methylmercury is through fish consumption. Soluble Hg compounds in the marine environment can be methylated in the water column and enter the base of the food chain. Atmospheric deposition is the most important pathway by which Hg enters marine ecosystems. The atmospheric chemistry of Hg has been simulated over Europe and the Mediterranean for the year 2009, using the WRF/Chem model and employing two different gas phase Hg oxidation mechanisms. The contributions to the marine deposition flux from dry deposition, synoptic scale wet deposition and convective wet deposition have been determined. The Hg deposition fluxes resulting from transcontinental transport and local/regional emission sources has been determined using both Br/BrO and O3/OH atmospheric oxidation mechanisms. The two mechanisms give significantly different annual deposition fluxes (129 Mg and 266 Mg respectively) over the modelling domain. Dry deposition is more significant using the O3/OH mechanism, while proportionally convective wet deposition is enhanced using the Br/BrO mechanism. The simulations using the Br/BrO oxidation compared best with observed Hg fluxes in precipitation. Local/regional Hg emissions have the most impact within the model domain during the summer. A comparison of simulations using the 2005 and 2010 AMAP/UNEP Hg emission inventories show that although there is a decrease of 33% in anthropogenic emissions between the two reference years, the total simulated deposition in the regions diminishes by only 12%. Simulations using the 2010 inventory reproduce observations somewhat better than those using the 2005 inventory for 2009.

  20. The tsunami triggered by the 21 May 2003 Boumerdès-Zemmouri (Algeria) earthquake: field investigations on the French Mediterranean coast and tsunami modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahal, A.; Roger, J.; Allgeyer, S.; Lemaire, B.; Hébert, H.; Schindelé, F.; Lavigne, F.

    2009-11-01

    A field survey was organized on the French Mediterranean coasts to investigate the effects of the tsunami induced by the 21 May 2003 Boumerdès-Zemmouri (Algeria) earthquake (Mw=6.9). The results show that eight harbours were affected by important sea level disturbances that caused material loss. Unfortunately, the low sampling rate of the French tide gage records (10 min) does not allow for a proper evaluation of the tsunami wave amplitudes since these amplitudes were probably underestimated in the harbours where these sensors are installed. The survey brings to light regional and local contrasts among the harbours' hydrological responses to the tsunami. To better understand these contrasts, a numerical simulation of the sea level elevations induced by the tsunami was conducted. The simulation showed a certain correlation between the field results and the wave amplification along the coast; however it underestimated the observed phenomena. Another simulation was then conducted using high resolution bathymetric grids (space step of 3 m) centred more specifically on 3 neighbouring harbours, however, again the simulation results did not match the amplitudes recorded through the observations. In order to better understand the wave amplification mechanisms inside each grid, a Gaussian signal was virtually broadcasted from the source to the harbours. Virtual sensors identified the periods which are stimulated - or not - by the arrival of the signal in each grid. Comparing these periods with those previously recorded emphasizes the proper period of each waterbody. This paper evaluates the limitations of such a study, focusing specifically on (1) the importance of having accurate and precise data about the source (the lack of information about the signal amplitude leads to an underestimation of the tsunami, thus reproducing only a fourth to a third of the observed phenomenon), (2) the need for networked tide gages with high resolution records and short sampling rates, and

  1. Influence of summer conditions on the larval fish assemblage in the eastern coast of Tunisia (Ionian Sea, Southern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrad, Rafik; Alemany, Francisco; Rodriguez, José-María; Jarboui, Othman; Lopez-Jurado, José-Luis; Balbin, Rosa

    2013-02-01

    The structure of the summer larval fish assemblage off the eastern coast of Tunisia and its relation to environmental conditions was studied, from ichthyoplankton samples taken during a survey conducted between 23rd June and 9th July 2008. A total of 68 larval fish taxa were identified, 52 to species level. The taxonomic composition and abundance of the larval fish assemblage showed high spatial heterogeneity. Mesoscale hydrographic features, such as eddies, seem to play an important role in the spatial distribution of fish larvae in the area, enhancing concentration and retention. The larval fish assemblage was dominated by the small pelagic species Sardinella aurita (26.6% of the total larval fish abundance), followed by Engraulis encrasicolus (22.6%), Spicara spp. (8.6%) and Mullus barbatus (6.8%). Shannon-Weaver index (H') ranged between 0 and 2.62. The highest values were found offshore, at 95 miles east of Sousse, over depths around 250 m. The diversity was higher in this region as a result of transport by currents and retention by eddies. It has also been shown that the eastern coast of Tunisia is a spawning ground for the tuna species Auxis rochei, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus alalunga. Larvae of mesopelagic fishes represented 5.46% of the total abundance, with Cyclothone braueri, Ceratoscopelus maderensis and Lampanyctus crocodilus being the most important species. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that depth was the most important environmental factor in explaining species distribution.

  2. Biomonitoring study of heavy metals in biota and sediments in the South Eastern coast of Mediterranean sea, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Maha A M; Abdallah, Aly M A

    2008-11-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and Fe were determined in biota and sediment samples collected from the Eastern Harbour and El-Mex Bay in the Mediterranean Sea, Egypt. The levels of Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and Fe in the macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, Enteromorpha compressa (green algae) and Jania rubens (red algae), recorded high concentrations except for Cd. Moreover, Fe was the most predominant metal in the seaweed. The two species of bivalves, Donax trunculus and Paphia textile, showed different amounts of metals in their tissue. The abundance of heavy metal concentrations in the mussel samples was found in the order Fe> Zn> Mn> Cu> Co> Cd and Fe> Zn> Mn> Cu> Cd> Co, respectively for the two species. The metals concentrations were generally higher compared with the previous studies in mussels from the same area. The levels of metals accumulated in the investigated fish samples, Saurida undosquamis, Siganus rivulatus, Lithognathus mormyrus and Sphyraena sphyraena, were higher than those of Marmara Sea (Turkey), for Co and Cd and lower for Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe. El-Mex Bay having the highest metals concentration in sediments as their order of abundance were Fe> Zn> Mn> Cu> Cd> Co. Nevertheless, a high variability in the metal levels occurs among the studied algae and biota and also between the investigated Harbour. A significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found for each of Zn and Fe in P. textile and of Co in D. trunculus relative to their concentrations in surficial sediments. PMID:18074236

  3. Chemical relations between atmospheric aerosols, deposition and stone decay layers on historic buildings at the mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torfs, K.; Van Grieken, R.

    To evaluate the effects of the environment on weathering of historical buildings in the Mediterranean Basin, an elaborate study has been carried out at four monuments, with specific interest directed on the action of air pollution and marine salts. The composition of the atmosphere around the monuments has been investigated by monitoring the aerosols and the total deposition. These results are combined with the stone decay phenomena to interpret the deterioration at the respective monuments. In Eleusis, Greece, a highly industrialized area, high concentrations of heavy metals and sulphate are found in the aerosols and deposition and in the decay layers of the stone, while the marine influence is obscured, in spite of its location close to the sea. In Malta and in Cadiz (Spain), the influence of the sea dominates in the stone weathering process. In Bari (Italy), next to the effects of marine aerosols on the stone decay inside and outside the building, high concentrations of sulphate are observed on the outside stones. The aerosols and depositions reflect a relatively small influence of anthropogenic derived elements; this points out the action of gaseous SO 2 on the stones.

  4. Relationships between trace elements in Posidonia oceanica shoots and in sediment fractions along Latium coasts (northwestern Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Bravo, I; Focaracci, F; Cerfolli, F; Papetti, P

    2016-03-01

    The Mediterranean endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica is widely used as a sensitive bioindicator of trace elements (TEs) in the coastal environment. Therefore, a bulk of data exist on TE levels from impacted versus unpolluted sites while only recent studies started comparing TE accumulation in plant compartments versus both water column and sediment characteristics. In this study, six TEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb) were analyzed in P. oceanica shoots related to depth (-10 and -20 m) and to TE concentrations in the different grain size fractions of the sediment, from two Sites of Community interest (SIC) in the central Tyrrhenian Sea. TE concentrations in both shoots and sediment were generally low, except for Cr. Cu was the only element showing significantly different concentrations at the two sites while As differed significantly between samples taken at different depths. TE concentrations in the unsieved sediment were found uncorrelated to TEs in shoots except for the important nutrient Cu (positive correlation). The finest sediment fractions were enriched in TEs and significantly correlated to Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni concentrations in the shoots. PMID:26869047

  5. Factors determining the dynamics of toxic blooms of Alexandrium minutum during a 10-year study along the shallow southwestern Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdenadher, Moufida; Hamza, Asma; Fekih, Wafa; Hannachi, Imen; Zouari Bellaaj, Amel; Bradai, Mohamed Nejmeddine; Aleya, Lotfi

    2012-06-01

    Many blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum have been recorded since 1990 in the Gulf of Gabes (southwestern Mediterranean Sea). To understand the determining factors of bloom formation, we studied the distribution of A. minutum in relation to environmental factors in samples taken at shallow sandy (<1 m) beach stations and a lagoon between 1997 and 2006. This was accompanied by laboratory experiments to identify A. minutum. The species forms harmful algal blooms (HABs) in stations subjected to anthropogenic eutrophication and in confined lagoons, living under conditions of varying salinity which gives it a unique opportunity to broaden its physiological tolerance and increase its colonisation potential. Increases in phosphorus appear to be more important than nitrogen or temperature in the control of A. minutum. The stations sampled all along the coast present specific hydrographic properties (shallowness, turbulence) suggesting that factors other than temperature and nutrients influence Alexandrium distribution, the exception being Boughrara Lagoon where the species developed in accordance with published data. Our findings and their interpretations indicate that the mechanism of the sudden A. minutum blooms along the nearshore of the Gulf of Gabes was complex and differed from that of true coastal ecosystems.

  6. "Estuaries and coasts" CLIL* lesson plans in English and geology fieldtrip to Cornwall for students in European section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontempelli, Nathalie; Voyer, Karine; Lebourgeois, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    When the European section was created in our high school we had to choose an overarching theme. After considering that we live both in the River Seine estuary and near the English Channel it became obvious that our theme should be "estuaries and coasts". We began the 2012-2013 school year with a day-trip around the River Seine estuary to introduce the theme. First we made a general landscape study from a viewpoint, then we discussed the history of the navigation on the Seine, of local farming on marshland and finally we focused on farmhouse architecture. To conclude we visited the natural reserve near the "Normandy Bridge". As an introduction our poster aims at presenting this part of Normandy. And then we would like to show some examples of our CLIL lesson plans about this chosen topic. The aim of a CLIL lesson is to create interactive speaking between students working in pairs or in groups. There are three different stages: - Warm-up activities - In-depth study: listening, reading, echoing, looking for information on the internet, making a slide show and doing an oral presentation, participating to a role play… - Assessment : using what has been learnt to answer questions Finally we wish to present our field trip to Cornwall. We have already done it twice before (in 2002 and 2004) and this year it is scheduled in May 2013 with our European section students. The aim of this trip is to study geology and botany in English in order to extend what we teach in our CLIL lessons about estuaries and coasts. It also helps promoting exchanges with British families and building intercultural knowledge and understanding. Our program includes for example, fossil hunting and studying the Jurassic cliffs in Charmouth, observing an old ocean crust in Coverack, visiting Saint-Mickael's mount, discovering a tin mine in Geevor, walking through the "Lost Gardens of Heligan" and thus discovering an example of this world-renowned restored English garden, and last but not least having

  7. Diversity and distribution of unicellular opisthokonts along the European coast analyzed using high-throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, Javier; Mallo, Diego; Massana, Ramon; de Vargas, Colomban; Richards, Thomas A.; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2015-01-01

    Summary The opisthokonts are one of the major super-groups of eukaryotes. It comprises two major clades: 1) the Metazoa and their unicellular relatives and 2) the Fungi and their unicellular relatives. There is, however, little knowledge of the role of opisthokont microbes in many natural environments, especially among non-metazoan and non-fungal opisthokonts. Here we begin to address this gap by analyzing high throughput 18S rDNA and 18S rRNA sequencing data from different European coastal sites, sampled at different size fractions and depths. In particular, we analyze the diversity and abundance of choanoflagellates, filastereans, ichthyosporeans, nucleariids, corallochytreans and their related lineages. Our results show the great diversity of choanoflagellates in coastal waters as well as a relevant role of the ichthyosporeans and the uncultured marine opisthokonts (MAOP). Furthermore, we describe a new lineage of marine fonticulids (MAFO) that appears to be abundant in sediments. Therefore, our work points to a greater potential ecological role for unicellular opisthokonts than previously appreciated in marine environments, both in water column and sediments, and also provides evidence of novel opisthokont phylogenetic lineages. This study highlights the importance of high throughput sequencing approaches to unravel the diversity and distribution of both known and novel eukaryotic lineages. PMID:25556908

  8. Evidence for post last-glacial-maximum punctuated sea level rise found on the eastern Mediterranean coast of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Oded; Goodman-Tchernov, Beverly

    2015-04-01

    The eustatic sea level curve for the eastern Mediterranean presents a general trend characterized by rapid post last-glacial-maximum rise (20,000 years ago), slowing approximately 6000 years ago and stabilizing at current sea-level 4000 years ago. Sea level evidence from portions of the Israeli coastline, suggest minimal to no hydro-glacio-isostatic influence on the local relative sea level curve, and no tectonic offsets for at least the past two thousand years. Recently, a submerged series of relict wave cut notches and erosional pits were identified along a sequence of coastal sites located approximately 20 km from one another (Michmoret, Olga, Caesarea, Dor) at 3 m and 6 m water depths. The features were carved into an upper-Pleistocene to Holocene eolianite sandstone, the age of which was previously constrained by OSL measurements to MIS 1-3. Elsewhere, similar features are widely used as sea-level markers. In this study, at some of the sites, we found a coinciding 3 m to 6 m submerged cliff with overhanging upper part, morphology that is comparable to the morphology of the modern coastal cliff. These submerged features should either suggest a tectonic offset, which is not favorable for the study area, or they might suggest that sea level rise has not been gradual, but rather punctuated, exhibiting pulses of sea level rise followed by periods of sea level stagnation. For the study site, the last stagnation took place at a few meters below current sea-level and enabled the development of the observed wave induced morphology within the eolianite. At present sea level, similar features exist and are being actively formed within the same host rock. At some of the sites, artificially-cut archaeological features from about the last 2000 years present with notches or erosional pits thereby providing insight into the period of time required for their creation due to their archaeological associations. Sea level rise might impacts the coastline significantly, with

  9. Stay off the motorway: Resolving the pre-recruitment life history dynamics of the European anchovy in the SW Mediterranean through a spatially-explicit individual-based model (SEIBM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Ignacio A.; Macías, Diego; Solé, Jordi; Ospina-Álvarez, Andrés; Ruiz, Javier

    2013-04-01

    We explore the underlying mechanisms of the early life history dynamics of the European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, in the SW Mediterranean. By using a 3D ROMS hydrodynamic model coupled to an individual-based model (IBM) of the larval stages of the European anchovy, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) the plausible effective spawning zones (those generating late larvae to the known nursery grounds) are mainly found in the vicinity of Malaga Bay, as suggested by published empirical data; (2) the observed, back-calculated growth of larvae sampled in the nursery grounds can be reasonably simulated by a simple temperature-dependent growth model; and (3) the inclusion of biological behavior in the IBM significantly improves the match between the observed and modeled late-larval recruitment and/or growth patterns. We performed simulations for the peak spawning season in 2008, for which survey data were available, and an average climatological run. Hypothesis 1 was accepted, whereas hypothesis 2 resulted in a good imitation of anchovy growth only after 10 days post-hatch. The inclusion of an empirically derived equation for egg buoyancy in the model (hypothesis 3) resulted in a slight improvement of the model of late-larval recruitment patterns. Finally, our model was used to explore possible retention-based nursery areas in the whole Alboran Sea. Our simulations showed to agree well with the existing data both in the European and in the African coast and confer the physics a dominant role in shaping the spatial dynamics of early life stages of anchovy in the area.

  10. Predicting bottlenose dolphin distribution along Liguria coast (northwestern Mediterranean Sea) through different modeling techniques and indirect predictors.

    PubMed

    Marini, C; Fossa, F; Paoli, C; Bellingeri, M; Gnone, G; Vassallo, P

    2015-03-01

    Habitat modeling is an important tool to investigate the quality of the habitat for a species within a certain area, to predict species distribution and to understand the ecological processes behind it. Many species have been investigated by means of habitat modeling techniques mainly to address effective management and protection policies and cetaceans play an important role in this context. The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) has been investigated with habitat modeling techniques since 1997. The objectives of this work were to predict the distribution of bottlenose dolphin in a coastal area through the use of static morphological features and to compare the prediction performances of three different modeling techniques: Generalized Linear Model (GLM), Generalized Additive Model (GAM) and Random Forest (RF). Four static variables were tested: depth, bottom slope, distance from 100 m bathymetric contour and distance from coast. RF revealed itself both the most accurate and the most precise modeling technique with very high distribution probabilities predicted in presence cells (90.4% of mean predicted probabilities) and with 66.7% of presence cells with a predicted probability comprised between 90% and 100%. The bottlenose distribution obtained with RF allowed the identification of specific areas with particularly high presence probability along the coastal zone; the recognition of these core areas may be the starting point to develop effective management practices to improve T. truncatus protection. PMID:25460419

  11. Generation and evaluation of typical meteorological year datasets for greenhouse and external conditions on the Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, M. D.; López, J. C.; Baeza, E.; Céspedes, A.; Meca, D. E.; Bailey, B.

    2015-08-01

    radiation transmission of approximately 65 % and rely on manual control of ventilation which constitute the majority in the south-east of Spain and in most Mediterranean greenhouse areas.

  12. Generation and evaluation of typical meteorological year datasets for greenhouse and external conditions on the Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M D; López, J C; Baeza, E; Céspedes, A; Meca, D E; Bailey, B

    2015-08-01

    radiation transmission of approximately 65 % and rely on manual control of ventilation which constitute the majority in the south-east of Spain and in most Mediterranean greenhouse areas. PMID:25351360

  13. Application of a wind-wave-current coupled model in the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean sea), for wind energy purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Palomares, Ana; Navarro, Jorge; Grifoll, Manel; Pallares, Elena; Espino, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    This work shows the main results of the HAREAMAR project (including HAREMAR, ENE2012-38772-C02-01 and DARDO, ENE2012-38772-C02-02 projects), concerning the local Wind, Wave and Current simulation at St. Jordi Bay (NW Mediterranean Sea). Offshore Wind Energy has become one of the main topics within the research in Wind Energy research. Although there are quite a few models with a high level of reliability for wind simulation and prediction in onshore places, the wind prediction needs further investigations for adaptation to the Offshore emplacements, taking into account the interaction atmosphere-ocean. The main problem in these ocean areas is the lack of wind data, which neither allows for characterizing the energy potential and wind behaviour in a particular place, nor validating the forecasting models. The main objective of this work is to reduce the local prediction errors, in order to make the meteo-oceanographic hindcast and forecast more reliable. The COAWST model (Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave Sediment Transport Model; Warner et al., 2010) system has been implemented in the region considering a set of downscaling nested meshes to obtain high-resolution outputs in the region. The adaptation to this particular area, combining the different wind, wave and ocean model domains has been far from simple, because the grid domains for the three models differ significantly. This work shows the main results of the COAWST model implementation to this particular area, including both monthly and other set of tests in different atmospheric situations, especially chosen for their particular interest. The time period considered for the validation is the whole year 2012. A comparative study between the WRF, SWAN and ROMS model outputs (without coupling), the COWAST model outputs, and a buoy measurements moored in the region was performed for this year. References Warner, J.C., Armstrong, B., He, R., and Zambon, J.B., 2010, Development of a Coupled Ocean

  14. Methodology for local tsunami hazard mapping and assessment for Mediterranean and North Atlantic coasts, SCHEMA Project (EC FP6).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillande, R.; Gardi, A.; Salaun, T.; Laboudigue, A.; Koscielny, M.; Tinti, S.; Silva, A.; Novikova, T.; Lesne, O.; Mangin, A.

    2009-04-01

    assessed and represented for some of the factors and land use features are added for a first representation of vulnerability. For the chosen location, the final global hazard map is produced by the extraction of each maximum tsunami scenario for some parameters with a potential use for coastal zone planning and management. Each tsunami scenario and its associated hazards are a tool for early warning, alert, crisis management and rescue operations by relief operators. Considering the rarity of tsunamis both in Seychelles and in the western Mediterranean and NE Atlantic, the probability of occurrence is not considered as a relevant parameter in this first stage of the analysis.

  15. Presence of plastic debris in loggerhead turtle stranded along the Tuscany coasts of the Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean Marine Mammals (Italy).

    PubMed

    Campani, Tommaso; Baini, Matteo; Giannetti, Matteo; Cancelli, Fabrizio; Mancusi, Cecilia; Serena, Fabrizio; Marsili, Letizia; Casini, Silvia; Fossi, Maria Cristina

    2013-09-15

    This work evaluated the presence and the frequency of occurrence of marine litter in the gastrointestinal tract of 31 Caretta caretta found stranded or accidentally bycaught in the North Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine debris were present in 71% of specimens and were subdivided in different categories according to Fulmar Protocol (OSPAR 2008). The main type of marine debris found was user plastic, with the main occurrence of sheetlike user plastic. The small juveniles showed a mean±SD of marine debris items of 19.00±23.84, while the adult specimens showed higher values of marine litter if compared with the juveniles (26.87±35.85). The occurrence of marine debris observed in this work confirms the high impact of marine debris in the Mediterranean Sea in respect to other seas and oceans, and highlights the importance of Caretta caretta as good indicator for marine litter in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) of European Union. PMID:23896406

  16. Implications of spatial heterogeneity for management of marine protected areas (MPAs): examples from assemblages of rocky coasts in the northwest Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Benedetti-Cecchi, L; Bertocci, I; Micheli, F; Maggi, E; Fosella, T; Vaselli, S

    2003-05-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly used as a management tool to preserve species and habitats. Testing hypotheses about the effectiveness of MPAs is important for their implementation and to identify informative criteria to support management decisions. This study tested the general proposition that MPAs affected assemblages of algae and invertebrates between 0.0 and 0.5 m above the mean low water level of rocky coasts on two islands in the Tuscan Archipelago (northwest Mediterranean). Protection was concentrated mainly on the west coasts of the islands, raising the possibility that neither the full range of assemblages nor the relevant scales of variation were properly represented within MPAs. This motivated the comparison of assemblages on opposite sides of islands (habitats). The effects of MPAs and habitat were assessed with a multifactorial sampling design; hypotheses were tested about differences in structure of assemblages, in mean abundance of common taxa and in univariate and multivariate measures of spatial variation. The design consisted of three replicate shores for each condition of protected and reference areas on the west side of each island and three unprotected shores on the eastern side. Assemblages were sampled independently four times on each island between June 1999 and January 2001. At each time of sampling two sites were selected randomly at each of two tidal heights to represent midshore and lowshore assemblages on each shore. Estimates of abundance were obtained using non-destructive sampling methods from five replicate 20x20 cm quadrats at each site. Results indicated differences among habitats in structure of assemblages, in mean abundance of common taxa and in univariate and multivariate measures of spatial variation at the scale of shores. Most of these patterns were inconsistent with the predicted effect of management through MPAs. The data suggest that designation of MPAs in the Tuscan Archipelago should proceed through

  17. The Mediterranean Sea Regime Shift at the End of the 1980s, and Intriguing Parallelisms with Other European Basins

    PubMed Central

    Conversi, Alessandra; Fonda Umani, Serena; Peluso, Tiziana; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Santojanni, Alberto; Edwards, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background Regime shifts are abrupt changes encompassing a multitude of physical properties and ecosystem variables, which lead to new regime conditions. Recent investigations focus on the changes in ecosystem diversity and functioning associated to such shifts. Of particular interest, because of the implication on climate drivers, are shifts that occur synchronously in separated basins. Principal Findings In this work we analyze and review long-term records of Mediterranean ecological and hydro-climate variables and find that all point to a synchronous change in the late 1980s. A quantitative synthesis of the literature (including observed oceanic data, models and satellite analyses) shows that these years mark a major change in Mediterranean hydrographic properties, surface circulation, and deep water convection (the Eastern Mediterranean Transient). We provide novel analyses that link local, regional and basin scale hydrological properties with two major indicators of large scale climate, the North Atlantic Oscillation index and the Northern Hemisphere Temperature index, suggesting that the Mediterranean shift is part of a large scale change in the Northern Hemisphere. We provide a simplified scheme of the different effects of climate vs. temperature on pelagic ecosystems. Conclusions Our results show that the Mediterranean Sea underwent a major change at the end of the 1980s that encompassed atmospheric, hydrological, and ecological systems, for which it can be considered a regime shift. We further provide evidence that the local hydrography is linked to the larger scale, northern hemisphere climate. These results suggest that the shifts that affected the North, Baltic, Black and Mediterranean (this work) Seas at the end of the 1980s, that have been so far only partly associated, are likely linked as part a northern hemisphere change. These findings bear wide implications for the development of climate change scenarios, as synchronous shifts may provide the key

  18. Late Holocene diffused interaction between a transform fault and nearby continental margin, extracted by comparing biological sea-level indicators and hydro-isostatic numerical predictions along the eastern Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattner, U.; Sivan, D.; Morhange, C.; Lambeck, K.; Boaretto, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Dendropoma petraeum are fixed vermitides that construct the abrasion platform rims. These endemic mollusks are considered good Relative Sea Level (RSL) indicators in the eastern and the southern Mediterranean, due to their narrow habitat at the sea surface (+/- 10cm). The observed RSL values recorded (submerged, uplifted or at present MSL) reflect a superposition of eustatic, isostatic, tectonic and possibly local sedimentary instabilities. The present study examines fossil Dendropoma samples gathered along the Levant coast, from northern Israel to eastern Turkey. Conventional radiocarbon dates (from Turkey, Syria and partly in Lebanon) and C14 AMS (from Lebanon and Israel) yields Dendropoma ages ranging through Late Holocene. A numerical model is used for calculating the change in sea level through the Holocene as a function of glacio-hydrology and isostasy of the eastern Mediterranean. Space-time dependent subtractions of the model values are used to eliminate the eustatic component of the RSL, in order to obtain the tectonic factor. Results show a general northward increase in tectonic uplift of the Levant coast. This differential uplift corresponds well to the major tectonic segments comprising the Levant continental margin since the Pleistocene, from the Carmel fault to the East Anatolian fault.

  19. The E glycoprotein plays an essential role in the high pathogenicity of European-Mediterranean IS98 strain of West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Alsaleh, Khaled; Khou, Cécile; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Vàzquez, Ana; de Arellano, Eva Ramírez; Després, Philippe; Pardigon, Nathalie

    2016-05-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widespread arbovirus in the world. Several recent outbreaks and epizootics have been reported in Europe and the Mediterranean basin with increased virulence. In contrast to the well-characterized American and Australian strains, little is known about the virulence determinants of the WNV European-Mediterranean strains. To investigate the viral factors involved in the virulence of these strains, we generated chimeras between the highly neuropathogenic Israel 1998 (IS-98-ST1, IS98) strain and the non-pathogenic Malaysian Kunjin virus (KJMP-502). In vivo analyses in a mouse model of WNV pathogenesis shows that chimeric virus where KJMP-502 E glycoprotein was replaced by that of IS98 is neuropathogenic, demonstrating that this protein is a major virulence determinant. Presence of the N-glycosylation site had limited impact on virus virulence and the 5'UTR does not seem to influence pathogenesis. Finally, mice inoculated with KJMP-502 virus were protected against lethal IS98 infection. PMID:26896935

  20. Beyond the Mediterranean peninsulas: evidence of central European glacial refugia for a temperate forest mammal species, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus).

    PubMed

    Deffontaine, V; Libois, R; Kotlík, P; Sommer, R; Nieberding, C; Paradis, E; Searle, J B; Michaux, J R

    2005-05-01

    This study details the phylogeographic pattern of the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus, a European rodent species strongly associated with forest habitat. We used sequences of 1011 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene from 207 bank voles collected in 62 localities spread throughout its distribution area. Our results reveal the presence of three Mediterranean (Spanish, Italian and Balkan) and three continental (western, eastern and 'Ural') phylogroups. The endemic Mediterranean phylogroups did not contribute to the post-glacial recolonization of much of the Palaearctic range of species. Instead, the major part of this region was apparently recolonized by bank voles that survived in glacial refugia in central Europe. Moreover, our phylogeographic analyses also reveal differentiated populations of bank voles in the Ural mountains and elsewhere, which carry the mitochondrial DNA of another related vole species, the ruddy vole (Clethrionomys rutilus). In conclusion, this study demonstrates a complex phylogeographic history for a forest species in Europe which is sufficiently adaptable that, facing climate change, survives in relict southern and northern habitats. The high level of genetic diversity characterizing vole populations from parts of central Europe also highlights the importance of such regions as a source of intraspecific genetic biodiversity. PMID:15836645

  1. 1.4 kyrs of flash flood events in the Southern European Alps: implications for extreme precipitation patterns and forcing over the north-western Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, B.; Arnaud, F.; Sabatier, P.; Crouzet, C.; Brisset, E.; Guiter, F.; Reyss, J. L.; Chaumillon, E.; Tachikawa, K.; Bard, E.; Delannoy, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    the general moisture, the hydrology of large rivers and temperature patterns of the south-western European region, i.e. a low flood activity during the warm/dry MCA and conversely during the cold/wet Little Ice Age (LIA). At a sub-centennial scale, a high variability of the flood frequency is superimposed to the general increase during the LIA and appeared in phase with solar maximum. Moreover peaks of flood frequency seem to be correlated with negative autumnal NAO phases, in agreement with previous paleoflood reconstructions of Mediterranean Spanish rivers. Finally the comparison of flood frequency patterns from north-western Mediterranean sites suggests a 50-150 years oscillation mode, probably related to a NAO-like pattern, in two main NW Mediterranean atmospheric circulation patterns triggering extreme precipitations either over the Southern Alps or the Cevennes-Vivarais region.

  2. Assessment of the diversity and dynamics of Plum pox virus and aphid populations in transgenic European plums under Mediterranean conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental impact of field release of transgenic European plums (Prunus domestica L.) carrying the coat protein gene of Plum pox virus (PPV) was assessed in Valencia, Spain. The molecular variability of PPV populations present in transgenic vs. non-transgenic plums was compared, and total nu...

  3. Reviving the Mediterranean Olive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a collaborative investigation by six nongovernment organisations (NGOs) from five European-Mediterranean countries to identify a framework for reversing rural marginalisation in Mediterranean communities through sustainable forms of community-based agricultural development. The project brought together…

  4. Monitoring the impact of litter in large vertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD): constraints, specificities and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Galgani, F; Claro, F; Depledge, M; Fossi, C

    2014-09-01

    In its decision (2010/477/EU) relating to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission identified the following points as focuses for monitoring: (i) 10.1.1: Trends in the amount, source and composition of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines, (ii) 10.1.2: Trends in the amount and composition of litter in the water column and accumulation on the sea floor, (iii) 10.1.3: Trends in the amount, distribution and composition of micro-particles (mainly microplastics), and (iv) 10.2.1: Trends in the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals. Monitoring the impacts of litter will be considered further in 2014. At that time, the strategy will be discussed in the context of the Mediterranean Sea, providing information on constraints, protocols, existing harm and research needed to support monitoring efforts. The definition of targets and acceptable levels of harm must take all factors into account, whether entanglement, ingestion, the transport and release of pollutants, the transport of alien species and socio-economic impacts. It must also reflect on the practical deployment of "ingestion" measures (10.2.1). The analysis of existing data will reveal the potential and suitability of some higher trophic level organisms (fish, turtles, birds and mammals) for monitoring the adverse effects of litter. Sea turtles appear to be useful indicator species, but the definition of an ecological quality objective is still needed, as well as research on alternative potential indicator species. PMID:24612883

  5. Middle Triassic chirotherid trackways on earthquake influenced intertidal limulid reproduction flats of the European Germanic Basin coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2012-09-01

    Chirotherid footprints of Synaptichnium, Chirotherium and Isochirotherium appeared during the late Early (Aegean) to early Late (Carnian) Triassic in central Europe. These taxa are partly revised herein, using both perfect and variably preserved tracks, and very long trackways from an upper Pelsonian intertidal-flat megatracksite of the Germanic Basin coast Pelsonian (Karlstadt Formation). The global Middle Triassic distribution of those footprints suggests seasonal migrations across Pangaea of possible archosauriform reptile trackmakers, such as Euparkeria, Ticinosuchus, Arizonasaurus and Batrachotomus, caused by horseshoe-crab mass migrations into tidal-flat beach reproductive zones in the Germanic Basin. Such seasonal migrations may even suggest a Pangaea-wide food-chain reaction, possibly including the mobilization of fish, marine and terrestrial reptiles, and of which situation the Germanic Basin intertidal-flats is a globally unique example.

  6. Contribution to the top-down alert system associated with the upcoming French tsunami warning center (CENALT): tsunami hazard assessment along the French Mediterranean coast for the ALDES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loevenbruck, A.; Quentel, E.; Hebert, H.

    2011-12-01

    The catastrophic 2004 tsunami drew the international community's attention to tsunami risk in all basins where tsunamis occurred but no warning system exists. Consequently, under the coordination of UNESCO, France decided to create a regional center, called CENALT, for the north-east Atlantic and the western Mediterranean. This warning system, which should be operational by 2012, is set up by the CEA in collaboration with the SHOM and the CNRS. The French authorities are in charge of the top-down alert system including the local alert dissemination. In order to prepare the appropriate means and measures, they initiated the ALDES (Alerte Descendante) project to which the CEA also contributes. It aims at examining along the French Mediterranean coast the tsunami risk related to earthquakes and landslides. In addition to the evaluation at regional scale, it includes the detailed studies of 3 selected sites; the local alert system will be designed for one of them. In this project, our main task at CEA consists in assessing tsunami hazard related to seismic sources using numerical modeling. Tsunamis have already affected the west Mediterranean coast; however past events are too few and poorly documented to provide a suitable database. Thus, a synthesis of earthquakes representative of the tsunamigenic seismic activity and prone to induce the largest impact to the French coast is performed based on historical data, seismotectonics and first order models. The North Africa Margin, the Ligurian and the South Tyrrhenian Seas are considered as the main tsunamigenic zones. In order to forecast the most important plausible effects, the magnitudes are estimated by enhancing to some extent the largest known values. Our hazard estimation is based on the simulation of the induced tsunamis scenarios performed with the CEA code. Models of propagation in the basin and off the French coast allow evaluating the potential threat at regional scale in terms of sources location and

  7. Spotted fever Rickettsia species in Hyalomma and Ixodes ticks infesting migratory birds in the European Mediterranean area

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A few billion birds migrate annually between their breeding grounds in Europe and their wintering grounds in Africa. Many bird species are tick-infested, and as a result of their innate migratory behavior, they contribute significantly to the geographic distribution of pathogens, including spotted fever rickettsiae. The aim of the present study was to characterize, in samples from two consecutive years, the potential role of migrant birds captured in Europe as disseminators of Rickettsia-infected ticks. Methods Ticks were collected from a total of 14,789 birds during their seasonal migration northwards in spring 2009 and 2010 at bird observatories on two Mediterranean islands: Capri and Antikythira. All ticks were subjected to RNA extraction followed by cDNA synthesis and individually assayed with a real-time PCR targeting the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. For species identification of Rickettsia, multiple genes were sequenced. Results Three hundred and ninety-eight (2.7%) of all captured birds were tick-infested; some birds carried more than one tick. A total number of 734 ticks were analysed of which 353 ± 1 (48%) were Rickettsia-positive; 96% were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii and 4% with Rickettsia africae or unidentified Rickettsia species. The predominant tick taxon, Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato constituted 90% (n = 658) of the ticks collected. The remaining ticks were Ixodes frontalis, Amblyomma sp., Haemaphysalis sp., Rhipicephalus sp. and unidentified ixodids. Most ticks were nymphs (66%) followed by larvae (27%) and adult female ticks (0.5%). The majority (65%) of ticks was engorged and nearly all ticks contained visible blood. Conclusions Migratory birds appear to have a great impact on the dissemination of Rickettsia-infected ticks, some of which may originate from distant locations. The potential ecological, medical and veterinary implications of such Rickettsia infections need further examination. PMID:25011617

  8. Behaviour of Talitrus saltator (Crustacea: Amphipoda) on a rehabilitated sandy beach on the European Atlantic Coast (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessa, Filipa; Rossano, Claudia; Nourisson, Delphine; Gambineri, Simone; Marques, João Carlos; Scapini, Felicita

    2013-01-01

    Environmental and human controls are widely accepted as the main structuring forces of the macrofauna communities on sandy beaches. A population of the talitrid amphipod Talitrus saltator (Montagu, 1808) was investigated on an exposed sandy beach on the Atlantic coast of Portugal (Leirosa beach) to estimate orientation capabilities and endogenous rhythms in conditions of recent changes in the landscape (artificial reconstruction of the foredune) and beach morphodynamics (stabilization against erosion from the sea). We tested sun orientation of talitrids on the beach and recorded their locomotor activity rhythms under constant conditions in the laboratory. The orientation data were analysed with circular statistics and multiple regression models adapted to angular distributions, to highlight the main factors and variables influencing the variation of orientation. The talitrids used the sun compass, visual cues (landscape and sun visibility) to orient and the precision of orientation varied according to the tidal regime (rising or ebbing tides). A well-defined free-running rhythm (circadian with in addition a bimodal rhythmicity, likely tidal) was highlighted in this population. This showed a stable behavioural adaptation on a beach that has experienced a process of artificial stabilization of the dune through nourishment actions over a decade. Monitoring the conditions of such dynamic environments and the resilience capacity of the inhabiting macroinfauna is a main challenge for sandy beach ecologists.

  9. There are many Mediterranean diets.

    PubMed

    Noah, A; Truswell, A S

    2001-01-01

    Interest in Mediterranean diet began 30 years ago, when Ancel Keys published the results of the famous Seven Countries Study, Since 1945, almost 1.3 million people have come to Australia from Mediterranean countries as new settlers. There are 18 countries with coasts on the Mediterranean sea: Spain, southern France, Italy, Malta, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Libya, Malta, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. This study from which this report derives aims to investigate the influence of the food habits of immigrants from Mediterranean countries on Australian food intake. Here we look at the 'traditional' food habits of the above Mediterranean countries as told by 102 people we interviewed in Sydney, who came from 18 Mediterranean countries to Sydney. Most of the informants were women, their age ranged from 35 to 55 years. The interview was open-ended and held in the informant's home. It usually lasted around 1 1/2 hours. The interview had three parts. Personal information was obtained, questions relating to the food habits of these people back in their original Mediterranean countries and how their food intake and habits have changed in Australia were also asked. From the interviews, we have obtained a broad picture of 'traditional' food habits in different Mediterranean countries. The interview data was checked with books of recipes for the different countries. While there were similarities between the countries, there are also important differences in the food habits of the Mediterranean countries. Neighbouring countries' food habits are closer than those on opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea. We suggest that these food habits can be put into four groups. The data here refer to food habits in Mediterranean countries 20 or 30 years ago, as they were recovering from the Second World War. There is no single ideal Mediterranean diet. Nutritionists who use the concept should qualify the individual country and the time in

  10. Morphology, ultrastructure, genetics, and morphometrics of Diplostomum sp. (Digenea: Diplostomidae) metacercariae infecting the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.) (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae), off the northwest coast of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Pina, Susana; Russell-Pinto, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Pedro; Formigo, Nuno E; Gibson, David I; Santos, Maria J

    2012-01-01

    The morphology, ultrastructure, genetics, and morphometrics of a species of Diplostomum von Nordmann 1832 (Digenea: Diplostomidae), isolated from the European flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.)) caught off the northwest coast of Portugal, are characterized. The metacercarial stage was found unencysted in the lens capsule of the eye. Light microscopical observations revealed the existence of some variability in specimen shape and size, with two morphotypes, referred to as "round" and "long", being apparent. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a smooth, unarmed tegument, with the lappet region being the most irregular and porose. Both the oral and ventral suckers were provided with a series of papillae, which presented very distinctive ultrastructural features and were particularly conspicuous in the case of the ventral sucker. The two morphotypes detected were found to have 100% genetic correspondence in the 18S + ITS1 + 5.8S region of the rDNA. Since the genetic data for this metacercaria differed from those of the species of Diplostomum available in GenBank, a description of a new genotype (accession number GQ370809) is provided. The molecular phylogenetic analyses, in conjunction with principal components and cluster analyses based on morphometric data, revealed the existence of consistent differences between the Diplostomum sp. metacercariae from flounder compared with Diplostomum spathaceum, Diplostomum mergi, Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, and Diplostomum paracaudum. The latter of these species was found to be the most similar to the present material. Our results do not support an evolutionary separation of the European and North American species of Diplostomum. PMID:21626424

  11. Bioremediation of Southern Mediterranean oil polluted sites comes of age.

    PubMed

    Daffonchio, Daniele; Ferrer, Manuel; Mapelli, Francesca; Cherif, Ameur; Lafraya, Alvaro; Malkawi, Hanan I; Yakimov, Michail M; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R; Blaghen, Mohamed; Golyshin, Peter N; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Boon, Nico; Magagnini, Mirko; Fava, Fabio

    2013-09-25

    Mediterranean Sea is facing a very high risk of oil pollution due to the high number of oil extractive and refining sites along the basin coasts, and the intense maritime traffic of oil tankers. All the Mediterranean countries have adopted severe regulations for minimizing pollution events and bioremediation feasibility studies for the most urgent polluted sites are undergoing. However, the analysis of the scientific studies applying modern 'meta-omics' technologies that have been performed on marine oil pollution worldwide showed that the Southern Mediterranean side has been neglected by the international research. Most of the studies in the Mediterranean Sea have been done in polluted sites of the Northern side of the basin. Those of the Southern side are poorly studied, despite many of the Southern countries being major oil producers and exporters. The recently EU-funded research project ULIXES has as a major objective to increase the knowledge of the bioremediation potential of sites from the Southern Mediterranean countries. ULIXES is targeting four major polluted sites on the coastlines of Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia, including seashore sands, lagoons, and oil refinery polluted sediments. The research is designed to unravel, categorize, catalogue, exploit and manage the diversity and ecology of microorganisms thriving in these polluted sites. Isolation of novel hydrocarbon degrading microbes and a series of state of the art 'meta-omics' technologies are the baseline tools for improving our knowledge on biodegradation capacities mediated by microbes under different environmental settings and for designing novel site-tailored bioremediation approaches. A network of twelve European and Southern Mediterranean partners is cooperating for plugging the existing gap of knowledge for the development of novel bioremediation processes targeting such poorly investigated polluted sites. PMID:23727339

  12. Combining allostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic perspectives to compile subregional records of fluvial responsiveness: The case of the sustainably entrenching Palancia River watershed (Mediterranean coast, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, Peter; Hoinkis, Ralf; Santisteban, Juan I.; Salat, Christina; Mediavilla, Rosa

    2011-06-01

    We use a combined allostratigraphic and morpholithostratigraphic approach to establish a relative stratigraphy of macroscale sediment-landform units in the Mediterranean Palancia River watershed (986-km2, NE Spain). Four alloformations signifying important changes in (sub)regional scale geomorphic valley-floor evolution were identified based on data from 1120 field sites and age determinations, and from analyzing high resolution geodata. The formation of the widespread and thick Pleistocene alloformation can be attributed to climatically-induced excessive sediment supply and flood activities during Pleistocene cold intervals - rather than representing time-lagging response to Plio/Pleistocene neotectonic uplift. Triggered by the turn to Holocene climatic conditions, three successively inset alloformations illustrate how stream grading and floodplain narrowing continuously have progressed over the Holocene. The overall degradational valley-floor evolution in the Holocene is interpreted as a response to the antecedent, overly valley-floor aggradation. Allostratigraphic and morphostratigraphic data suggest that the abandonment of the two earlier Holocene alloformations geomorphologically represents a pulsed turn toward intensified entrenchment rather than pulsed sedimentation. The most important benefit of amalgamating allostratigraphic and (morpho)lithostratigraphic concepts is that allostratigraphic ordering provides a formally conclusive approach to scale up (morpho)lithostratigraphic information from the reach scale to much larger scales of geographical extent. Consequently, applying allostratigraphic principles opens a perspective to moving forward toward analyzing the relationships between climate, neotectonics, sea level change, human impact, and fluvial response in coupled hinterland-coastal systems that require to evaluate sedimentary information at larger spatial scales.

  13. Analysis of mercury and methylmercury concentrations, and selenium:mercury molar ratios for a toxicological assessment of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the most recent stranding event along the Adriatic coast (Southern Italy, Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Chiaravalle, E; Gavinelli, S; Monaco, G; Rizzi, M; Abete, M C

    2015-11-01

    Mass stranding of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) is a rare event in the Mediterranean Sea. In September 2014, a pod of seven sperm whales became stranded along the Adriatic coast of Southern Italy. This is the seventh occurrence of this type since 1555 in this sea basin. Total concentrations of mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) and selenium (Se) were measured from brain, muscle, liver and kidney of three female sperm whales, which died in this event. Analyses showed considerable, age-dependent variations in Hg and Se concentrations in the different organs. The contamination levels of T-Hg in the liver (up to 200 mg kg(-1)) and brain (up to 21 mg kg(-1)) samples were markedly higher than those in the kidney and muscle samples. The liver and brain also showed the highest Se levels. Se:Hg molar ratios ⩾1 were observed in all the organs of the three sperm whales, suggesting that Se could protect the animals from Hg toxicity. The risk of Hg-associated neurotoxicity was assessed by comparing our values to thresholds set for neurotoxicity in mammals, and the role of Se in the detoxification process of T-Hg/MeHg is discussed herein. PMID:26233668

  14. First detailed data on metazoan parasites of the rare species short beaked garfish Belone svetovidovi (Teleostei: Belonidae) from Tunisian coast, Central Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Châari, Manel; Derbel, Hela; Neifar, Lassâd

    2016-01-01

    Forty five specimens of the short beaked garfish Belone svetovidovi, a rare belonid species largely confused with the garfish Belone belone from Tunisian coast Sea were examined for metazoan parasite. Nine metazoan parasites species were identified: one monogenean (Axine sp.), 4 digeneans (Lecithostaphylus retroflexus, Tergestia acanthocephala, Aponurus laguncula and Condylocotyla pilodora metacercaria), one copepod (Bomolochus bellones), one isopod (Irona nana), one acanthocephalan (Telosentis exiguus) and one nematod Hysterotylacium sp. Most of parasite species were new records for B. svetovidovi in Tunisia. In the parasite fauna of B. svetovidovi, digenean C. pilodora metacercaria was the most prevalent species (42%) followed by Monogenea Axine sp. (36%). The total length of the host did not influence parasitic infection in B. svetovidovi. The metazoan parasite composition of B. svetovidovi revealed great similarity than those of B. belone from Tunisia supporting same ecological behavior of both hosts. PMID:27262955

  15. Assessment of heavy metal contamination levels and toxicity in sediments and fishes from the Mediterranean Sea (southern coast of Sfax, Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Zohra, Ben Salem; Habib, Ayadi

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of heavy metals in sediment is regarded as a global crisis with a large share in industrializing cities like Sfax (Tunisia). Seven heavy metals such as Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn), and one metalloid such as Arsenic (As) in sediments and fish (D. annularis, L. aurata, and S. vulgaris) were investigated from the Southern coast of Sfax in Tunisia. The range of metals in sediments were 13.11-36; 4.42-7.92; 8.23-28.56; 50,564-11,956; 2.9-6.8; 9.13-30.51; 65.06-151.50, and 47-546 kg(-1) DW for As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The level of studied metals in sediment samples exceeded the limits of the quality assessment guidelines (SQGs). The potential ecological risk index (PERI) proved that the investigated region could pose moderate risk for the aquatic biota. Metal bioaccumulation in the fish muscles varied significantly among species. Indeed, S. vulgaris and D. annularis accumulated higher amount of metal than L. aurata. The target hazard quotients (THQ) of individual heavy metals in fish, except for As and Hg, revealed safe levels for human consumption. Nevertheless, the total THQ indexes exceeded 1 suggesting the combined effects on muscles fish, which may constitute a risk to population's health. PMID:27040542

  16. A middle Pleistocene eastern Mediterranean fish refuge: the Tsampika Bay (Rhodes, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agiadi, K.; Koskeridou, E.; Moissette, P.; Lopez-Otalvaro, G. E.; Quillévéré, F.; Cornée, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    Extensive sampling of the Tsampika marly diatomites reveals the presence of at least three very important fish species, Bregmaceros sp., Sygnathus acus and Spratteloides sp.. Previous records of Bregmaceros sp. in the Mediterranean have suggested that this characteristic Pliocene warm-water circumglobal pelagic fish disappeared from the Mediterranean basin due to the climatic deterioration, after the Gelasian age1,2,3,4. The Tsampika fish-bearing deposits, mainly marly diatomites, are younger than 268 Ka, based on the occurrence of Emiliania huxleyi. Consequently, this is so far the youngest record of Bregmaceros sp. in the Mediterranean, suggesting that typical Pliocene fish may have found refuge in selected localities, such as Tsampika Bay, at least until the Ionian. Evidence for its presence in the Mediterranean basin today is ambiguous. Isolated records of Bregmaceros atlanticus place it in the Sicily Strait5, and off the Israeli and south Turkish coasts6. Although it appears more likely that Bregmaceros atlanticus has been introduced to the modern Mediterranean from the Red Sea, through the Suez Canal, the possibility that it is part of a small population native to the Mediterranean can not be excluded based on present-day data6. Indeed the late Pleistocene Mediterranean fish record is obsolete, due to the lack of appropriate sampling on this subject. Furthermore, the majority of Pleistocene Bregmaceros samples pertain to otoliths, which cannot be unambiguously identified on the species level. As a result, the present findings pose the considerable possibility that the Pleistocene Bregmaceros records belong to two species, B. albyi, the well known post-Messinian Mediterranean fish, and B. atlanticus, which may have invaded the Mediterranean Sea from Gibraltar along with several other warm-water taxa during recurring interglacial periods. The specific identification of the Tsampika fish will undoubtedly shed light to this possibility, and enhance our knowledge

  17. Relationships between sea-level pressure and sea-level height in the Camargue (French Mediterranean coast) by Vincent Moron and Albin Ullmann, pages 1531-1540, Volume 25, Issue 11, 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moron, Vincent

    2006-06-01

    A statistical study of daily maximum sea-level height at one station (Grau de la Dent) in the Camargue (Rhône delta, French Mediterranean coast) and daily sea-level pressure (SLP) at 12 h UTC over the eastern North Atlantic is used to identify the meteorological conditions associated with sea-level variations in the Camargue for the winters 1974-1975 to 2000-2001. Mean SLP composites during and 5 days before major surge events (defined as those with a daily maximum sea-level height > 80 cm) suggest the dominant influence of storms, moving northwest to southeast across the North Atlantic and strengthening as they approach the Bay of Biscay. During such storms, strong onshore winds may persist for up to 4-5 days. These winds tend to strengthen from 3 days to 1 day before the surge events. The mean October-March correlation between daily maximum sea-level height in the Camargue and SLP averaged over the Bay of Biscay (10°W-0° , 40° -50°N) is strong (r = - 0.69). A methodology is developed for assessing the low frequency SLP variability impact on sea-level height in the Camargue. A cross-validated linear regression is used to hindcast the interannual and intraseasonal variability of the monthly 75th and 90th percentiles of the daily maximum sea-level height from the monthly mean SLP over the Bay of Biscay. The linear correlation between the cross-validated hindcast and observed time series is 0.83 (0.77) for the 75th (90th) percentile over the 1974-1975 to 2000-2001 period. The mean bias error, reflecting systematic errors in predicting the monthly percentiles, is close to zero.

  18. Study of the impact of cyclogenesis at the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribo, M.; Llasat, C.

    2009-09-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is usually affected by high impact weather events, generating high impacts in all Mediterranean countries and causing important damages. This basin is surrounded by mountains and arid regions, and the interaction of the air flow with the orography barriers produces many effects, the most important is the formation of low pressure centers. This is one of the reasons why the Mediterranean Sea is considered to be the most cyclogenetic area in the world (Jansà, 1997). Floods are also one of the most important natural hazards in the Mediterranean Basin. Flood events occur when soil absorption, runoff or drainage cannot adequately disperse intense rainfall from quasi-stationary or stationary weather systems in short time periods. In some occasions these floods produce high social impact in the affected areas. Our work presents the study of the relationship between the flood episodes and the presence of cyclones in the Mediterranean Basin during those episodes, between 1990 and 2004. Information about social impact of each event has also been considered. To do these analyses the MEDEX database (MEDiterranean EXperiment on cyclones that produce high impact weather in the Mediterranean) has been improved in the frame work of the European FLASH project, and information about cyclones and rainfall has been extracted from the MEDEX cyclones database. A total of 217 flood events had been identified. Once the presence of one or more cyclones during each flood episode has been identified, temporal and regional analyses were made to determine the distribution of the cyclonic centers and to study the evolution of the events. Mediterranean cyclogenesis is leaded by influence of external systems (along the African coast, from the Atlantic Ocean, and from the west of Europe), although the majority of the cyclones (87% of the studied cases) are generated in the Mediterranean Basin, under influence of preexistent systems. There are different Mediterranean

  19. Dust in the Mediterranean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 24, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), acquired this true-color image of a large cloud of dust blowing from northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea. The dust storm has persisted in the region for at least a week. In this image, the brownish dust plume appears to originate about 260 miles (400 km) east of Algiers, Algeria, and is blowing toward the northwest coast of Sardinia, Italy. SeaWiFS flies aboard the OrbView-2 Satellite. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE

  20. Rocky-shore communities as indicators of water quality: a case study in the Northwestern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, Susana; García, María; Satta, Maria Paola; de Torres, Mariona; Ballesteros, Enric

    2007-01-01

    The collection of 152 samples from the upper sublittoral zone along the rocky coasts of Catalonia (Northwestern Mediterranean) was carried out in 1999 in order to test the suitability of littoral communities to be used as indicators of water quality in the frame of the European Water Framework Directive. Detrended correspondence analysis were performed to distinguish between different communities and to relate communities composition to water quality. Samples collected in reference sites were included in the analysis. Mediterranean rocky shore communities situated in the upper sublittoral zone can be used as indicators of the water quality: there is a gradient from high to bad status that comprises from dense Cystoseira mediterranea forests to green algae dominated communities. The geographical patterns in the distribution of these communities show that the best areas are situated in the Northern coast, where tourism is the main economic resource of the area, and the worst area is situated close to the metropolitan zone of Barcelona with high population and industrial development. Thus, Mediterranean sublittoral rocky shore communities are useful indicators of water quality and multivariate analysis are a suitable statistical tool for the assessment of the ecological status. PMID:17049951

  1. A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Gosling, Anna L.; Boocock, James; Kardailsky, Olga; Kurumilian, Yara; Roudesli-Chebbi, Sihem; Badre, Leila; Morel, Jean-Paul; Sebaï, Leïla Ladjimi; Zalloua, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    While Phoenician culture and trade networks had a significant impact on Western civilizations, we know little about the Phoenicians themselves. In 1994, a Punic burial crypt was discovered on Byrsa Hill, near the entry to the National Museum of Carthage in Tunisia. Inside this crypt were the remains of a young man along with a range of burial goods, all dating to the late 6th century BCE. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the Young Man of Byrsa and identify that he carried a rare European haplogroup, likely linking his maternal ancestry to Phoenician influenced locations somewhere on the North Mediterranean coast, the islands of the Mediterranean or the Iberian Peninsula. This result not only provides the first direct ancient DNA evidence of a Phoenician individual but the earliest evidence of a European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5b2c1, in North Africa. PMID:27224451

  2. A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa.

    PubMed

    Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; Gosling, Anna L; Boocock, James; Kardailsky, Olga; Kurumilian, Yara; Roudesli-Chebbi, Sihem; Badre, Leila; Morel, Jean-Paul; Sebaï, Leïla Ladjimi; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    While Phoenician culture and trade networks had a significant impact on Western civilizations, we know little about the Phoenicians themselves. In 1994, a Punic burial crypt was discovered on Byrsa Hill, near the entry to the National Museum of Carthage in Tunisia. Inside this crypt were the remains of a young man along with a range of burial goods, all dating to the late 6th century BCE. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the Young Man of Byrsa and identify that he carried a rare European haplogroup, likely linking his maternal ancestry to Phoenician influenced locations somewhere on the North Mediterranean coast, the islands of the Mediterranean or the Iberian Peninsula. This result not only provides the first direct ancient DNA evidence of a Phoenician individual but the earliest evidence of a European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5b2c1, in North Africa. PMID:27224451

  3. Mediterranean diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you should take a calcium supplement. Wine is a common part of a Mediterranean eating ... but some people should not drink alcohol. Avoid wine if you are prone to alcohol abuse, pregnant, ...

  4. Coasts under pressure.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1994-01-01

    In most areas of the world, too many people live or play along the coast. Municipal and industrial wastes pollute coastal waters. Rivers spew erosion sediment and pollutants into these waters. Economic development is often the only management strategy for coastal zones, and economic development has little concern for resource degradation and watershed management. 53 countries have coastal management plans, but few have adequately implemented them. Almost 66% of the world's population lives within 150 km of the coast; by 2025, 75% will live as close to the coast. In the US, the coastal population has grown faster than that of the entire US, so that the population density is now almost 400 persons/sq m compared to 275 persons/sq m in 1960. Urbanization continues in the US coastal zones, where 7 of the 10 US largest cities exist. 94% of China's population lives in the eastern 3rd of the country. The population density along China's coast is more than 600/sq km. In Shanghai, it is more than 2000/sq km. Many people are moving from poorer provinces in the central and western regions to the economic free zones and special economic zones along the coast. At any moment, 30-60 million Chinese are moving. Most everyone in southeastern Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America live in coastal areas. By 2025, the coastal zone between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo will be all urbanized This is also occurring on Chile's coast between Valparaiso and Concepcion. The Mediterranean has the most overcrowded coastline in the developed world. Unchecked development could lead to continuous urban sprawl between Spain and Greece. Development pressures have caused a sizable decline in or a collapse of coastal fisheries. In Asia, all waters within 15 km of the coastline have been overfished. Coral reefs and mangrove forests are being destroyed with inadequate resources targeted for their protection. PMID:12287493

  5. California Coast

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the cloud bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. The Los Angeles basin is just south of center; ... Mar 14, 2000 Images:  California Coast location:  United States region:  ...

  6. Influence of site, season, silvering stage, and length on the parasites of the European eel Anguilla anguilla in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France using indicator species method.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Jean-José; Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    The parasites of 425 European eels, Anguilla anguilla, were studied between 2009 and 2012 in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France. An indicator value (IndVal) method was used for analysis, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity. Because of its resilience to detect changes in abundance, IndVal is an effective ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method demonstrated that site, season, silvering stage, and length could influence the occurrence of parasite species in European eel. A randomization test identified ten parasite species as having a significant indicator value for site (lagoons differed principally in salinity: oligohaline to polyhaline for the Biguglia lagoon and polyhaline to euhaline for the Urbino lagoon; the digeneans Bucephalus anguillae and Lecithochirium musculus, the cestodes Bothriocephalus claviceps, Proteocephalus macrocephalus, and larvae of Myzophyllobothrium sp., the nematodes Anguillicoloides crassus, and encysted larvae of Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan Acanthocephaloides incrassatus, the monogenean Pseudodactyogyrus anguillae, and the copepod Ergasilus gibbus); one parasite species for the spring season (the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus); six parasite species for silvering stage (yellow, pre-silver, silver; the trematodes B. anguillae and Deropristis inflata, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus, the monogenean P. anguillae, and the copepod E. gibbus); and three parasite species for some of the five length classes (the cestode P. macrocephalus, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., and the monogenean P. anguillae). Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the management of parasitism in the populations of European eels. PMID:23739809

  7. Effects of land use on annual runoff and soil loss -a meta-analysis of a European and Mediterranean plot database-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maetens, W.; Poesen, J.; Vanmaercke, M.

    2012-04-01

    Runoff and soil loss caused by water erosion are important desertification processes. While previous studies have shown the important effect of land use on annual soil loss (SLa), quantification of these effects based on field-measured data is limited and the effect of land use on annual runoff (Ra) and the relation between Ra and SLa has largely been neglected in the past. Nevertheless, runoff generation plays an equally important role as soil loss in desertification, especially in drier areas, where water is a key resource. Hence, sustainable land management practices to mitigate interrill and rill erosion should also consider the effects on runoff. Therefore, in the framework of the FP6 project DESIRE (http://www.desire-project.eu), the largest currently available database of plot runoff and soil loss data in Europe and the Mediterranean was compiled to investigate effects of land use on Ra, annual runoff coefficient (RCa) and SLa. This database comprises 227 plot-measuring sites in Europe and the Mediterranean, with SLa for 1061 plots (PL) representing 7 234 plot-years and Ra for 807 PL representing 5 357 plot-years. Bare soil, vineyards and tree crops were found to have high mean RCa (5-10 %) and mean SLa (10-20 Mg.ha-1.yr-1). Cropland and fallow show similar mean annual RCa (8.0 and 7.3 %), but lower SLa (6.5 and 5.8 Mg.ha-1.yr-1). Plots with (semi-)natural vegetation cover show the lowest mean annual RC (

  8. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Meed, R.M.

    1991-10-01

    This paper testifies that water pollution by oil remains significant, and noncompliance with federal regulations to prevent oil pollution continues to be great in the four ports GAO visited. Additionally, the impact of the Coast Guard's efforts to reduce oil spill in unknown because the agency does not compile and analyze inspection and spill data needed to make this determination. Further, the Coast Guard has not been inspecting portions of pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Coast Guard officials now acknowledge this responsibility.

  9. Dolphin Morbillivirus Epizootic Resurgence, Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Raga, Juan-Antonio; Domingo, Mariano; Corteyn, Mandy; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Fernández, Mercedes; Aznar, Francisco-Javier; Barrett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In July 2007, >100 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, were found dead along the coast of the Spanish Mediterranean. Of 10 dolphins tested, 7 were positive for a virus strain closely related to the dolphin morbillivirus that was isolated during a previous epizootic in 1990. PMID:18325265

  10. Tsunamigenic potential of Mediterranean fault systems and active subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petricca, Patrizio; Babeyko, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Since the North East Atlantic and Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) is under development by the European scientific community, it becomes necessary to define guidelines for the characterization of the numerous parameters must be taken into account in a fair assessment of the risk. Definition of possible tectonic sources and evaluation of their potential is one of the principal issues. In this study we systematically evaluate tsunamigenic potential of up-to-now known real fault systems and active subduction interfaces in the NEAMTWS region. The task is accomplished by means of numerical modeling of tsunami generation and propagation. We have simulated all possible uniform-slip ruptures populating fault and subduction interfaces with magnitudes ranging from 6.5 up to expected Mmax. A total of 15810 individual ruptures were processed. For each rupture, a tsunami propagation scenario was computed in linear shallow-water approximation on 1-arc minute bathymetric grid (Gebco_08) implying normal reflection boundary conditions. Maximum wave heights at coastal positions (totally - 23236 points of interest) were recorded for four hours of simulation and then classified according to currently adopted warning level thresholds. The resulting dataset allowed us to classify the sources in terms of their tsunamigenic potential as well as to estimate their minimum tsunamigenic magnitude. Our analysis shows that almost every source in the Mediterranean Sea is capable to produce local tsunami at the advisory level (i.e., wave height > 20 cm) starting from magnitude values of Mw=6.6. In respect to the watch level (wave height > 50 cm), the picture is less homogeneous: crustal sources in south-west Mediterranean as well as East-Hellenic arc need larger magnitudes (around Mw=7.0) to trigger watch levels even at the nearby coasts. In the context of the regional warning (i.e., source-to-coast distance > 100 km) faults also behave more heterogeneously in respect to the minimum

  11. Miocene shift of European atmospheric circulation from trade wind to westerlies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Cheng; Liu, Yu-Sheng (Christopher); Tang, Hui; Utescher, Torsten

    2014-07-01

    The modern European climatic regime is peculiar, due to its unitary winter but diverse summer climates and a pronounced Mediterranean climate in the south. However, little is known on its evolution in the deep time. Here we reconstruct the European summer climate conditions in the Tortonian (11.62-7.246 Ma) using plant fossil assemblages from 75 well-dated sites across Europe. Our results clearly show that the Tortonian Europe mainly had humid to subhumid summers and no arid climate has been conclusively detected, indicating that the summer-dry Mediterranean-type climate has not yet been established along most of the Mediterranean coast at least by the Tortonian. More importantly, the reconstructed distribution pattern of summer precipitation reveals that the Tortonian European must have largely been controlled by westerlies, resulting in higher precipitation in the west and the lower in the east. The Tortonian westerly wind field appears to differ principally from the trade wind pattern of the preceding Serravallian (13.82-11.62 Ma), recently deduced from herpetofaunal fossils. Such a shift in atmospheric circulation, if ever occurred, might result from the development of ice caps and glaciers in the polar region during the Late Miocene global cooling, the then reorganization of oceanic circulation, and/or the Himalayan-Tibetan uplift.

  12. Molecular phylogeny and biogeographic history of the European Maja spider crabs (Decapoda, Majidae).

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Graciela; Morán, Paloma; Posada, David

    2009-10-01

    We have assessed for the first time the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of the crabs of the genus Maja that inhabit European coasts: M. brachydactyla, M. crispata, M. goltziana and M. squinado. Using mitochondrial markers, we have recovered a well-resolved phylogenetic tree that supports a single origin for the European species, most likely from an Indo-West Pacific ancestor during the Early Miocene. In this phylogeny, M. goltziana appears as the basal European species, with a sister lineage bifurcating into an Eastern Atlantic (M. brachydactyla) and a Mediterranean (M. crispata and M. squinado) clade. We propose the Tethyan Seaway as the initial colonization route, although an entrance through South Africa cannot be discounted. The Eastern Atlantic/Mediterranean split seems to predate the Messinian salinity crisis, which, in turn, could have promoted the recent divergence within the Mediterranean. In addition, Pleistocene glaciations could explain the current diversity in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean, where a unique mitochondrial lineage is found. According to this, the genetic profile of South African crabs appears to belong to M. brachydactyla, questioning the validity of the putative species M. capensis. PMID:19460449

  13. Miocene shift of European atmospheric circulation from trade wind to westerlies

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Cheng; Liu, Yu-Sheng (Christopher); Tang, Hui; Utescher, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    The modern European climatic regime is peculiar, due to its unitary winter but diverse summer climates and a pronounced Mediterranean climate in the south. However, little is known on its evolution in the deep time. Here we reconstruct the European summer climate conditions in the Tortonian (11.62–7.246 Ma) using plant fossil assemblages from 75 well-dated sites across Europe. Our results clearly show that the Tortonian Europe mainly had humid to subhumid summers and no arid climate has been conclusively detected, indicating that the summer-dry Mediterranean-type climate has not yet been established along most of the Mediterranean coast at least by the Tortonian. More importantly, the reconstructed distribution pattern of summer precipitation reveals that the Tortonian European must have largely been controlled by westerlies, resulting in higher precipitation in the west and the lower in the east. The Tortonian westerly wind field appears to differ principally from the trade wind pattern of the preceding Serravallian (13.82–11.62 Ma), recently deduced from herpetofaunal fossils. Such a shift in atmospheric circulation, if ever occurred, might result from the development of ice caps and glaciers in the polar region during the Late Miocene global cooling, the then reorganization of oceanic circulation, and/or the Himalayan-Tibetan uplift. PMID:25012454

  14. Contrasted phylogeographic patterns on mitochondrial DNA of shallow and deep brittle stars across the Atlantic-Mediterranean area

    PubMed Central

    Taboada, Sergi; Pérez-Portela, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on Ophiothrix in European waters demonstrated the existence of two distinct species, Ophiothrix fragilis and Ophiothrix sp. II. Using phylogenetic and species delimitation techniques based on two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase I and 16S rRNA) we prove the existence of a new congeneric species (Ophiothrix sp. III), occurring in the deep Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the Alboran Sea. We compared phylogeographic patterns of these three Ophiothrix species to test whether closely related species are differentially affected by past demographic events and current oceanographic barriers. We used 432 sequences (137 of O. fragilis, 215 of Ophiothrix sp. II, and 80 of Ophiothrix sp. III) of the 16S rRNA from 23 Atlantic-Mediterranean locations for the analyses. We observed different geographic and bathymetric distributions, and contrasted phylogeography among species. Ophiothrix fragilis appeared genetically isolated between the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins, attributed to past vicariance during Pleistocene glaciations and a secondary contact associated to demographic expansion. This contrasts with the panmixia observed in Ophiothrix sp. II across the Atlantic-Mediterranean area. Results were not conclusive for Ophiothrix sp. III due to the lack of a more complete sampling within the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:27585743

  15. Contrasted phylogeographic patterns on mitochondrial DNA of shallow and deep brittle stars across the Atlantic-Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Taboada, Sergi; Pérez-Portela, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on Ophiothrix in European waters demonstrated the existence of two distinct species, Ophiothrix fragilis and Ophiothrix sp. II. Using phylogenetic and species delimitation techniques based on two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase I and 16S rRNA) we prove the existence of a new congeneric species (Ophiothrix sp. III), occurring in the deep Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the Alboran Sea. We compared phylogeographic patterns of these three Ophiothrix species to test whether closely related species are differentially affected by past demographic events and current oceanographic barriers. We used 432 sequences (137 of O. fragilis, 215 of Ophiothrix sp. II, and 80 of Ophiothrix sp. III) of the 16S rRNA from 23 Atlantic-Mediterranean locations for the analyses. We observed different geographic and bathymetric distributions, and contrasted phylogeography among species. Ophiothrix fragilis appeared genetically isolated between the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins, attributed to past vicariance during Pleistocene glaciations and a secondary contact associated to demographic expansion. This contrasts with the panmixia observed in Ophiothrix sp. II across the Atlantic-Mediterranean area. Results were not conclusive for Ophiothrix sp. III due to the lack of a more complete sampling within the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:27585743

  16. Variability and trends of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, Maria; Flocas, Helena A.; Simmonds, Ian; Kouroutzoglou, John; keay, Kevin; Rudeva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated with the aid of the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm, applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim mean sea level pressures. The algorithm is employed for the first time to study anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in the Mediterranean were checked and verified. The tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems revealed two major anticyclonic routes: over the northern (i.e. from the Iberian towards the Balkan Peninsula) and over the southern (i.e. the North Africa coast) Mediterranean barriers. A transition of the system density and anticyclogenesis maxima is evident throughout the year from solely continental environments in winter and autumn to also maritime in spring and summer. These variations can be attributed to the seasonal variability of the major anticyclonic systems that are involved in this region. The interannual variability of synoptic systems can be attributed to natural low frequency variability. The interannual variations of the system density and strength were linked to the Northern Hemisphere modes of atmospheric variability; e.g. more (less) antiyclonic tracks are observed around the Mediterranean basin during periods of positive (negative) NAO, with a consequent enhancement (decline) of the pressure field. Moreover, possible trends in the frequency and intensity of the anticyclonic systems were explored in an attempt to examine any impacts of recent global warming conditions. Positive trends of system density, genesis and intensity prevail during the cold period over the greater area around the Mediterranean basin. During summer, the general increase in system density is not followed by a corresponding tendency in the number of the generating systems and the intensity. Regarding the depth of the

  17. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities.

  18. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    GAO found the situation in the Philadelphia and New York ports similar to that in Prince William Sound-neither industry nor the Coast Guard are prepared to respond to major oil spills. This report discusses how this unpreparedness is due to a lack of specificity in the industry and Coast Guard's plan on how to deal with spills of various sizes and Coast Guard authority to require ship owners and operators to have contingency plans or to require changes in existing plans. On the basic of recent experiences, GAO believes that prevention of oil spills rather than responding to them should be the main priority. Experiences in Price William Sound and in Philadelphia, however, show that much needs to be done to improve prevention measures like monitoring and guiding ship movements and using harbor pilots or vessel escorts.

  19. Effect of Intestinal Tapeworm Clestobothrium crassiceps on Concentrations of Toxic Elements and Selenium in European Hake Merluccius merluccius from the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Miquel, Jordi; Ferrer-Maza, Dolors; Delgado, Eulàlia; Casadevall, Margarida

    2015-10-28

    The capacity for heavy metal bioaccumulation by some fish parasites has been demonstrated, and their contribution to decreasing metal concentrations in tissues of parasitized fish has been hypothesized. The present study evaluated the effect of the cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps on the accumulation of trace elements in 30 European hake, Merluccius merluccius, in Spain (half of them infested by C. crassiceps). Tissue samples from all M. merluccius and specimens of C. crassiceps from the infected hakes were collected and stored until element analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic, mercury, and selenium were generally present in lower levels in the cestode than in all hake tissues. The mean value of the muscular Se:Hg molar ratio in the infested subsample was higher than that in hakes without cestodes. Values indicate that the edible part of infested hakes presents a lower amount of Cd and Pb in relation to noninfested hakes. PMID:26434500

  20. Vitellogenin gene expression in the intertidal blenny Lipophrys pholis: a new sentinel species for estrogenic chemical pollution monitoring in the European Atlantic coast?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, F; Santos, M M; Castro, L Filipe C; Reis-Henriques, M A; Lima, D; Vieira, M N; Monteiro, N M

    2009-01-01

    The presence of estrogenic chemicals (ECs) in the aquatic environment is a growing problem. While most attention was initially given to fresh water and estuarine ecosystems, it is now evident that coastal marine areas are also vulnerable to these pollutants. The use of vitellogenin induction in male fish, a specific biomarker of EC exposure, has been the most widely applied methodology. However, in some occasions, the high mobility and migratory behaviour of common sentinel fish species makes data interpretation difficult. Hence, there is the need to validate new sentinel marine fish species which should display, among other features, a strong homing behaviour. The shanny, Lipophrys pholis, is an intertidal fish that combines many of the required characteristics for a sentinel species: abundance and easy of catch, wide geographical distribution and restricted home range. Thus, in order to evaluate, in the field, the species sensitivity to ECs, L. pholis males were collected at two sites reflecting different degrees of anthropogenic contamination. The vitellogenin II gene (VTGII) was isolated and its liver expression evaluated by RT-PCR in the field samples. A significant induction of gene expression was observed in the specimens collected in the urban area, if compared to the reference site, which suggests exposure to ECs. Moreover, a 21-days laboratory exposure to environmental relevant concentrations of ethinylestradiol (EE2) was also performed. A significant induction of L. pholis VTGII gene in EE2 exposed males was observed suggesting similar sensitivity to that of other marine/estuarine fishes. Even though further validation is currently in progress, the available data indicates that L. pholis is responsive to ECs, thus favouring its future integration in monitoring programmes designed to evaluate the presence of ECs in European marine ecosystems. PMID:18672093

  1. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that about 16,000 oil spills involving the release of more than 46 million gallons of oil took place in U.S. navigable waters in 1988; spills at water-front facilities, where vessels load and unload oil, accounted for about half of the oil spilled. While the Coast Guard acknowledges its responsibility for regulating and inspecting waterfront facilities, it efforts in this area have fallen short because it has not been inspecting portions of intrafacility pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Water pollution and noncompliance with federal oil pollution prevention regulations continue to be high at waterfront facilities. Yet the Coast Guard cannot determine how effective its inspection program has been in reducing the risk of oil spills because information on program results, such as the types, severity, and frequency of deficiencies found by inspectors, is not compiled an linked with information on the causes of oil spills found by investigators. Until the Coast Guard collects this type of information, it will not be in a position to establish measurable goals.

  2. The features of a "Mediterranean" Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Leone, Salvino

    2012-11-01

    Even if somebody considers inappropriate any geographic adjective for Bioethics, nevertheless we think that there are some specific features of "Mediterranean" Bioethics that could distinguish it from a "Northern-European and Northern-American" one. First of all we must consider that medical ethics was born and grew in Mediterranean area. First by the thought of great Greek philosophers as Aristotle (that analyse what ethics is), then by Hippocrates, the "father" of medical ethics. The ethical pattern of Aristotle was based on "virtues" and their practice. In this perspective we can already note a strong difference with actual North-European or American principialist ethics. But a second consideration concerns the role that great Mediterranean religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) had in the construction of the ethical thought especially on the matter of life and its respect. So, in our pluralistic and multicultural society is absolutely necessary to rescue an approach that considers both "lungs" of ethical thought (Mediterranean and Northern one) and highlights the role that Mediterranean Ethics still has in this way. PMID:22441971

  3. Genetic identification and distribution of the parasitic larvae of Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis simplex (s. s.) in European hake Merluccius merluccius from the Tyrrhenian Sea and Spanish Atlantic coast: implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Paolo; Smaldone, Giorgio; Acerra, Virginia; D'Angelo, Luisa; Anastasio, Aniello; Bellisario, Bruno; Palma, Giuseppe; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Mattiucci, Simonetta

    2015-04-01

    The consumption of the hake Merluccius merluccius is widespread in European countries, where this fish has a high commercial value. To date, different larval species of Anisakis have been identified as parasites in M. merluccius from European waters, Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis simplex (s. s.) being the two most common. The aim of the study is to present data on the occurrence of Anisakis spp. larvae in the viscera and flesh of M. merluccius. Consequently, the distribution and infection rates of different species of Anisakis in different sites (viscera, and dorsal and ventral fillets) were investigated in hake caught in the central Tyrrhenian Sea (FAO 37.1.3) and the NE Atlantic Ocean (FAO 27 IXa). A sample of N=65 fish individuals (length>26 cm) was examined parasitologically from each fishing ground. The fillets were examined using the pepsin digestion method. A large number (1310) of Anisakis specimens were identified by multilocus allozyme electrophoresis (MAE) and mtDNA cox2 sequence analysis; among these, 814 larvae corresponded to A. simplex (s. s.) and 476 to A. pegreffii. They were found to infect both the flesh and the viscera. The two species co-infected the same individual fish (both in the viscera and in the flesh) from the FAO 27 area, whereas only A. pegreffii was found in hake from the Tyrrhenian Sea. The average parasite burden of A. pegreffii in hake from the Tyrrhenian Sea was significantly lower to that observed from hake off the Atlantic coast of Spain, both in prevalence and in abundance. In addition, whereas no significant difference in overall prevalence values was recorded between the two Anisakis species in the viscera of the FAO 27 sample, significant differences were found in the abundance levels observed between these species in the flesh, with A. simplex (s. s.) exhibiting significantly higher levels than that observed for A. pegreffii (p<0.001). Given that the pathogenic role in relation to man is known for these two species of

  4. European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) for Geology - A sea-bed substrate map for European marine areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanen, Ulla; Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Stevenson, Alan; Partners, EMODnet-Geology 2

    2014-05-01

    The European Union's (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims to achieve good environmental status of the EU's marine waters by 2020. In order imply effective management of the broad marine areas spatial datasets covering all European marine areas are needed. In response the European Commission has adopted the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) to assemble fragmented marine data products into publicly available datasets covering broad areas. The marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys - Euro GeoSurveys) took an initiative and launched the first EMODnet -Geology project (2009-2012) to compile and harmonize information from the Baltic Sea, Greater North Sea and Celtic Sea at the scale of 1:1 000 000 (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). The second phase of the EMODnet -Geology project started in 2013 with an expanded sea area. The 36 members from 31 countries will compile marine geological information at a scale of 1:250,000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). The project includes collecting and harmonizing the first sea-bed substrate map for the European Seas. The data will be essential not only for geologists but also for others interested in marine sediments like marine managers and habitat mappers. A 1:250,000 GIS layer on sea-bed substrates will be delivered in the OneGeology-Europe portal, replacing and upgrading the existing 1:1 million map layer from the previous phase. A confidence assessment will be applied to all areas to identify the information that underpins the geological interpretations.

  5. African dust outbreaks over the Mediterranean Basin during 2001-2011: concentrations, phenomenology and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pey, Jorge; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andres; Forastiere, Franceso; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    -spring in the eastern side, with occurrence of various severe episodes throughout the year. Overall, African dust emerges as the largest PM10 source in regional background southern sites of the Mediterranean (35-50% of PM10), with seasonal peak contributions to PM10 up to 80% of the total mass in the eastern side. The multi-year study of African dust episodes and their contributions to PM10 concentrations displaysa consistent decreasing trend in the period 2006/2007 to 2011 in 4 of the 17 studied regions, all of them located in the NW of the Mediterranean. Such decrease is almost parallel to that of NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) index for the summer period, being progressively more negative since 2006. As a consequence, a sharp change in the atmospheric circulation over the last 5 years (a similar negative NAO period occurred in the 1950 decade) have affected the number of African dust episodes and consequently the annual dust inputs to PM10observed in the NW part of the Mediterranean. By investigating mean temperatures and geopotential height maps at 850hPa it is evident a displacement of warm air masses accomplishing African dust towards the central Mediterranean in the 2007-2008 period, and towards the NW African coast and the Canary Islands in the 2009-2011 period. Acknowledgements This study has been founded by the LIFE programme of the European Commission under the Grant Agreement LIFE10 ENV/IT/327. Partial founding was received from the Autonomous Government of Catalonia and the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment. PM10 data were obtained from EMEP, Airbase and ACTRIS databases. Most of the interpretations were performed thanks to the support of HYSPLIT model, SKIRON, BSC-DREAM and NRL-NAAPS aerosol maps, NCEP/NCAR meteorological database, and image products from MODIS and SeaWiFs NASA satellites.

  6. Seven ambiguities in the Mediterranean palaeoenvironmental narrative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzedakis, P. C.

    2007-09-01

    A review of seven outstanding issues on Mediterranean palaeoenvironments is presented. These are related to the dominant orbital pacing of climate variability, the length of the interglacial vegetation succession, the influence of the African summer monsoon, the seasonality of precipitation during boreal insolation maxima, the moisture balance during glacial maxima and the appearance of the mediterranean-type climate rhythm and evolution of mediterranean sclerophyllous plants. What emerges is that (1) marine δ 18O planktonic and SST records show that precession has been a fundamental tempo of Mediterranean climate change, representing both a low-latitude signal (runoff from North Africa) and the direct influence of insolation at Mediterranean latitudes, but high-latitude glacial effects (41-kyr and 100-kyr cycles) became superimposed after 2.8 Ma. Sapropel and dust deposition patterns in marine cores reveal that obliquity also has an effect on Mediterranean climate through dry-wet oscillations, which are independent of glacial-interglacial variability. (2) The temperate part of interglacial vegetation succession has a duration of approximately half a precession cycle. This persisted during the interval of obliquity-dominated glacial cycles (˜2.8-1 Ma), with distinct forest successions following the precessional cycles. However, these are not always separated by an open vegetation phase because of minimal ice growth, producing an impression of a prolonged interglacial forest interval. (3) The effect of an enhanced African monsoon during summer insolation maxima has been mainly indirect, in terms of Nile discharge and runoff along the North African coast, leading to increased freshwater input into the Mediterranean Sea, reduced deep-water ventilation and sapropel deposition. (4) The notion of an accentuated summer rain regime in the northern Mediterranean borderlands also contributing to a freshening of the Mediterranean Sea during boreal insolation maxima is not

  7. Crust and upper mantle of the western Mediterranean - Constraints from full-waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Andreas; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    We present a full-waveform tomographic model of the western Mediterranean crust and mantle constructed from complete three-component recordings from permanent and temporary networks. The incorporation of body and multi-mode surface waves in the period range from 12-150 s allows us to jointly resolve crustal and mantle structures, including the Guadalquivir, Tajo and Ebro basins at shallow depth, as well as the western Mediterranean subduction system in the transition zone. No mantle plumes can be detected beneath the European Cenozoic rift system, including the Massif Central. In addition to the well-studied Alboran slab, a strong E-W trending high-velocity anomaly is present around 200-300 km depth beneath the Algerian coast. This previously undetected African slab is detached from the surface and broken into two segments. It may be interpreted as the slab that caused the opening of the Liguro-Provençal basin through successive roll-back between 35-15 Ma.

  8. Metagenomes of Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:22778901

  9. Summer fire predictability in a Mediterranean environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, Raül; Turco, Marco; Bedía, Joaquín; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Each year approximately 500000 hectares burn in Europe. Most of them are consequence of Mediterranean summer fires that lead to damages to the natural environment causing important economic and life losses. In order to allow the preparedness of adequate prevention measures in European Mediterranean regions, a better understanding of the summer fire predictability is crucial. Climate is a primary driver of the interannual variability of fires in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, controlling fuel flammability and fuel structure [1, 2]. That is, summer fires are linked to current-year climate values (proxies for the climatic factors that affect fuel flammability) and to antecedent climate variables (proxies for the climatic factors influencing fine fuel availability and connectivity). In our contribution we explore the long-term predictability of wildfires in a Mediterranean region (NE Spain), driving a multiple linear regression model with observed antecedent climate variables and with predicted variables from the ECMWF System-4 seasonal forecast. The approaches are evaluated through a leave-one-out cross-validation over the period 1983-2010. While the ECMWF System-4 proved of limited usefulness due to its limited skill, the model driven with antecedent climate variables alone allowed for satisfactory long-term prediction of above-normal fire activity, suggesting the feasibility of successful seasonal prediction of summer fires in Mediterranean-type regions. *References [1] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a mediterranean environment (northeastern iberian peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [2] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Climate change impacts on wildfires in a Mediterranean environment. Climatic Change, 125: 369-380, 2014.

  10. What can we learn about ship emission inventories from measurements of air pollutants over the Mediterranean Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmer, E.; Dentener, F.; Aardenne, J. V.; Cavalli, F.; Vignati, E.; Velchev, K.; Hjorth, J.; Boersma, F.; Vinken, G.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Raes, F.

    2009-09-01

    Ship emission estimates diverge widely for all chemical compounds for several reasons: use of different methodologies (bottom-up or top-down), activity data and emission factors can easily result in a difference ranging from a factor of 1.5 to even an order of magnitude. Combining three sets of observational data - ozone and black carbon measurements sampled at three coastal sites and on board of a Mediterranean cruise ship, as well as satellite observations of atmospheric NO2 column concentration over the same area - we assess the accuracy of the three most commonly used ship emission inventories, EDGAR FT (Olivier et al., 2005), emissions described by Eyring et al. (2005) and emissions reported by EMEP (Vestreng et al., 2007). Our tool is a global atmospheric chemistry transport model which simulates the chemical state of the Mediterranean atmosphere applying different ship emission inventories. The simulated contributions of ships to air pollutant levels in the Mediterranean atmosphere are significant but strongly depend on the inventory applied. Close to the major shipping routes relative contributions vary from 10 to 50% for black carbon and from 2 to 12% for ozone in the surface layer, as well as from 5 to 20% for nitrogen dioxide atmospheric column burden. The relative contributions are still significant over the North African coast, but less so over the South European coast because densely populated regions with significant human activity contribute relatively more to air pollution than ships, even if these regions attract a lot of ship traffic. The observations poorly constrain the ship emission inventories in the Eastern Mediterranean where the influence of uncertain land based emissions, the model transport and wet deposition are at least as important as the signal from ships. In the Western Mediterranean, the regional EMEP emission inventory gives the best match with most measurements, followed by Eyring for NO2 and ozone and by EDGAR for black carbon

  11. What can we learn about ship emission inventories from measurements of air pollutants over the Mediterranean Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmer, E.; Dentener, F.; Aardenne, J. V.; Cavalli, F.; Vignati, E.; Velchev, K.; Hjorth, J.; Boersma, F.; Vinken, G.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Raes, F.

    2009-03-01

    Ship emission estimates diverge widely for all chemical compounds for several reasons: use of different methodologies (bottom-up or top-down), activity data and emission factors can easily result in a difference from a factor of 1.5 to two orders of magnitude. Despite these large discrepancies in existing ship emission inventories for air pollutants very little has been done to evaluate their consistency with atmospheric measurements at open sea. Combining three sets of observational data - ozone and black carbon measurements sampled at three coastal sites and on board of a Mediterranean cruise ship, as well as satellite observations of atmospheric NO2 column concentration over the same area - we assess the accuracy of the three most commonly used ship emission inventories, EDGAR FT (Olivier et al., 2005), emissions described by Eyring et al. (2005) and emissions reported by EMEP (Vestreng et al., 2007). Our tool is a global atmospheric chemistry transport model which simulates the chemical state of the Mediterranean atmosphere applying different ship emission inventories. The simulated contributions of ships to air pollutant levels in the Mediterranean atmosphere are significant but strongly depend on the inventory applied. Close to the major shipping routes relative contributions vary from 10 to 50% for black carbon and from 2 to 12% for ozone in the surface layer, as well as from 5 to 20% for nitrogen dioxide atmospheric column burden. The relative contributions are still significant over the North African coast, but less so over the South European coast. The observations poorly constrain the ship emission inventories in the Eastern Mediterranean where the influence of uncertain land based emissions, the model transport and wet deposition are at least as important as the signal from ships. In the Western Mediterranean, the regional EMEP emission inventory gives the best match with most measurements, followed by Eyring for NO2 and ozone and by EDGAR for black

  12. Soil erosion modelling of the Mediterranean basin in the context of land use and climate changes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdan, Olivier; Desprats, Jean-François; Fouché, Julien; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Cheviron, Bruno; Simonneaux, Vincent; Raclot, Damien; Mouillot, Florent

    2010-05-01

    Hydric erosion is one of the major causes of soil degradation. It results from the interaction of several parameters which vary in space and time. Global warming and the land use changes expected during the 21st century are going to influence the soils deterioration and the erosion processes. In order to protect the soil resource under the current bioclimatic context and prevent the future consequences, it is essential to apprehend the erosion risk. Many studies developed the soil erosion risk modelling at various scales from regional to European scale. The MESOEROS project is the first which aims to understand the soil loss risk on the whole Mediterranean basin for the current climate context and also for the predicting climate changes expected for the 21st century. Two models are used: MESALES (expert rules model) and PESERA (physical based model). Both provide the soil erosion risk into five classes. Model inputs, soils properties (crusting and erodibility), climate data, DEM and land use data, come from the most recent and validated datasets, homogenised on the whole study area. After being calibrated with watersheds data and the PESERA modelling on Europe, the two modelling results are analysed. Both MESALES and PESERA present an erosion risk contrast around the Mediterranean basin. MESALES estimates Italia, Andalusia, Catalan and Aragon regions, western part of Greece and Balkan region as threatened areas while PESERA models the arable region of Castellan y Leon, Near East and the high atlas range in Morocco as subjected to an erosion risk. The two methods model parts of northern Morocco, centre and European part of Turkey, Lebanon and northern Portugal at risk while southern France, Libyan coasts and southern Greece are never threatened. Analyses of the parameter influences on the models and the modelling validation allow understanding the integration of climate change on modelling results. MESALES and PESERA point out an evolution of the soil erosion risk

  13. Eutrophication and environmental policy in the Mediterranean Sea: a review.

    PubMed

    Karydis, Michael; Kitsiou, Dimitra

    2012-08-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a semienclosed basin connected with the open sea mainly through the Strait of Gibraltar. Due to the circulation pattern and the long residence time ranging between 80 and 100 years, the Mediterranean Sea is a sensitive environment to eutrophication pressures. The main body of water of the Mediterranean is characterized by very low nutrient concentrations, and therefore, the Mediterranean is classified among the most oligotrophic (very poor waters in nutrients) seas of the world's oceans. However, some coastal areas, mainly in the northern part of the basin, receive excessive loads of nutrients from sewage effluents, river fluxes, aquaculture farms, fertilizers, and industrial facilities, showing intense eutrophic phenomena with many adverse effects for the marine ecosystem and humans. Various national and international authorities, in addition to monitoring, have taken legal and administrative measures to mitigate eutrophication trends in the area. The Mediterranean environment is a good paradigm of integration of extensive legal framework, scientific knowledge, and administrative practices. The Barcelona Convention, the Mediterranean Action Plan, and European Union Directives on water quality and coastal management, together with scientific information derived from international research programs in the Mediterranean, provide a sound background for practical actions in eutrophication problems. In the present work, the problem of coastal eutrophication in the Mediterranean is reviewed in connection with public policies of the Mediterranean States based on national and international legislation and scientific knowledge on Mediterranean oceanography-ecology and actions coordinated by international bodies. These common actions and practices on coastal management are also discussed in relation to the need for sustainable development and protection of the coastal zone in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:21956336

  14. Grandidierella bonnieroides Stephensen, 1948 (Amphipoda, Aoridae)-first record of an established population in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Brutto, Sabrina Lo; Iaciofano, Davide; Lubinevsky, Hadas; Galil, Bella S

    2016-01-01

    The first record in the Mediterranean Sea of the invasive aorid amphipod crustacean Grandidierella bonnieroides is presented. A widespread circumtropical species, recorded off the Saudi coast of the Arabian Gulf, the Red Sea and the Suez Canal, it may have been introduced into the Mediterranean through the Suez Canal. This tube-builder species of soft bottoms recently established a population in the polluted Haifa Bay, Israel. Further, this is the first Mediterranean record of the genus. PMID:27394471

  15. Consensus Document on Intermittent Claudication from the Central European Vascular Forum (C.E.V.F.)-3rd revision (2013) with the sharing of the Mediterranean League of Angiology and Vascular Surgery, and the North Africa and Middle East Chapter of International Union of Angiology.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, G M; Kalodiki, E; L Gašpar, L; Martini, R; Minar, E; Angelides, N; Nicolaides, A N; Novo, S; Visonà, A; Prior, M; Arosio, E; Hussein, E A; Poredos, P; Antignani, P L; Avram, R; Roztocil, K; Stvrtinova, V; Kozak, M; Vacula, I

    2014-08-01

    This paper is the review of the Consensus Document on Intermittent Claudication of the Central European Vascular Forum (CEVF), published in 2008, and and shared with the North Africa and Middle East Chapter of International Union of Angiology and the Mediterranean League of Angiology and Vascular Surgery. The Document presents suggestions for general practitioners and vascular specialists for more precise and appropriate management of PAD, particularly of intermittent claudication, and underlines the investigations that should be required by GPs and what the GP should expect from the vascular specialist (angiologist, vascular surgeon). The idea of the Faculty is to produce a short document, which is an easy reference in daily clinical practice, both for the GPs and vascular specialists. PMID:25056165

  16. Distribution of Mytilus taxa in European coastal areas as inferred from molecular markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijewski, T.; Śmietanka, B.; Zbawicka, M.; Gosling, E.; Hummel, H.; Wenne, R.

    2011-02-01

    The genetic constitution of mussels ( Mytilus spp.) was studied by means of three nuclear (Me 15/16, EF-bis, ITS) and one mtDNA (ND2-COIII) marker on a large European scale. In addition to a sharp cline between Atlantic and Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis, we observed a clear genetic distinction between the Black Sea and Mediterranean populations and a higher incidence of M. trossulus than reported so far in northern European populations. The frequency of M. galloprovincialis nuclear alleles was high along the Iberian Peninsula and decreased abruptly along the French coasts with a high frequency of M. edulis alleles in the Bay of Biscay, The Netherlands, Germany, Iceland, Barents and White Seas, and with little evidence of introgression between the two taxa. M. trossulus alleles were observed in the Baltic Sea and Danish Straits as expected. In addition, occurrence of M. trossulus alleles in cold waters of Iceland, Barents Sea and White Sea is reported for the first time.

  17. Mediterranean dietary pattern and chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Camilla; Chiodini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The study of the relationship between the Mediterranean way of eating and the occurrence of diseases typical of the economically developed countries has been considered the starting point of nutritional epidemiology. From the Seven Countries Study in the 1950s to the recent European EPIC collaboration, the evaluation of the components of diet-affecting chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer has been crucially based on the analysis of foods and nutrients characterizing the Mediterranean dietary habits. This long research history has been marked by a consistency of data over time when either single nutrients/food groups or more complex dietary patterns have been analyzed: The Mediterranean way of eating is a protective tool from cardiovascular diseases and many cancers. Italy has been a natural point of observation, starting from cardiovascular disease in the mid-1950s and continuing with major cancers. In spite of unfavorable lifestyle changes in the Italian population mostly due to globalization of unhealthy habits (richer diet and lower levels of physical activity), those individuals still close to the Mediterranean style are significantly protected. The very recent Italian data derived from the observation of about 50,000 individuals, participating in the Italian cohorts of the EPIC study, confirm these findings and are consistent with results from other European populations and in some cases also from North American populations. Moreover, several dietary trials suggest that such a way of eating improves both the metabolic risk condition for chronic disease and the occurrence of those diseases. In conclusion, a way of eating inspired by a Mediterranean dietary pattern is not only based on evidence but is also a palatable style that has contributed to protection from the epidemic of chronic diseases. PMID:24114475

  18. The alarming decline of Mediterranean fish stocks.

    PubMed

    Vasilakopoulos, Paraskevas; Maravelias, Christos D; Tserpes, George

    2014-07-21

    In recent years, fisheries management has succeeded in stabilizing and even improving the state of many global fisheries resources [1-5]. This is particularly evident in areas where stocks are exploited in compliance with scientific advice and strong institutional structures are in place [1, 5]. In Europe, the well-managed northeast (NE) Atlantic fish stocks have been recovering in response to decreasing fishing pressure over the past decade [3-6], albeit with a long way to go for a universal stock rebuild [3, 7]. Meanwhile, little is known about the temporal development of the European Mediterranean stocks, whose management relies on input controls that are often poorly enforced. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of 42 European Mediterranean stocks of nine species in 1990-2010, showing that exploitation rate has been steadily increasing, selectivity (proportional exploitation of juveniles) has been deteriorating, and stocks have been shrinking. We implement species-specific simulation models to quantify changes in exploitation rate and selectivity that would maximize long-term yields and halt stock depletion. We show that stocks would be more resilient to fishing and produce higher long-term yields if harvested a few years after maturation because current selectivity is far from optimal, especially for demersal stocks. The European Common Fisheries Policy that has assisted in improving the state of NE Atlantic fish stocks in the past 10 years has failed to deliver similar results for Mediterranean stocks managed under the same policy. Limiting juvenile exploitation, advancing management plans, and strengthening compliance, control, and enforcement could promote fisheries sustainability in the Mediterranean. PMID:25017210

  19. Chlorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from Apulia Region coasts.

    PubMed

    Giandomenico, Santina; Spada, Lucia; Annicchiarico, Cristina; Assennato, Giorgio; Cardellicchio, Nicola; Ungaro, Nicola; Di Leo, Antonella

    2013-08-15

    This project was carried out to assess the levels and spatial distribution of organochlorine compounds in the coastal marine environment, using mussels as bioindicators to evaluate the coastal water quality. Levels of polychlorobiphenils (PCB), chlorinated pesticides (DDT isomers, HCH isomers, Aldrin, Dieldrin, alfa-Endosulfan, Hexachlorobenzene, Pentachlorobenzene) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in tissues from mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along the Apulia Region coasts (Mediterranean Sea). Results indicate that contamination by organochlorine compounds is higher in mussels sampled in the Ionian Sea than in those from the Adriatic Sea, with PCB levels up to seven times higher in mussels from Ionian than from the Adriatic Sea. Although PCB levels were above the maximum values indicated by both European Community (EC) and National regulation in several sample sites, the PCB concentrations were particularly high in some stations, suggesting that these locations require a much specific attention. Conversely, results on the mussel contamination by PBDEs highlight their ubiquitous environmental distribution, and underline the need to establish the maximum level for these compounds in foodstuff, according to European Regulations. PMID:23751882

  20. Adapting Coastal State Indicators to end-users: the iCoast Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarchi, Alessandro; Isotta Cristofori, Elena; Gracia, Vicente; Sairouní, Abdel; García-León, Manuel; Cámaro, Walther; Facello, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The extraordinary development of the built environment and of the population densities in the coastal areas are making coastal communities highly exposed. The sea level rise induced by climate change will worsen this coastal vulnerability scenario and a considerable amount of people are expected to be threatened by coastal flooding in the future. Due to the increasing number of catastrophic events, and the consequent increased number of damages and people affected, over the last decades coastal hazard management has become a fundamental activity in order to improve the resilience of coastal community. In this scenario, iCoast (integrated COastal Alert SysTem) project has been founded to develop a tool able to address coastal risks caused by extreme waves and high sea water levels in European coastal areas. In the framework of iCoast Project, a set of Coastal State Indicators (CSIs) has been developed in order to improve the forecasting and the assessment of coastal risks. CSIs are indeed parameters able to provide end-users with an essential information about coastal hazards and related impacts. Within the iCoast Project, following a comprehensive literature review about existing indicators concerning coastal risks, a list of CSIs have been chosen as parameters that can be derived from the meteorological and the hydrodynamic modules. They include both physical variables used as trigger for meteorological and flood warnings from the majority of the operational National/Regional warning systems and further essential parameters, so called 'storm integrated' coastal-storm indicators, able to describe the physical processes that drive coastal damages, such as erosion, accumulation, flooding, destructions. Nowadays, it is generally acknowledged that communities are not homogenous and hence their different vulnerable groups might need different warnings. Generally, even existing national EWS in developed countries are often ineffective to issue targeted warnings for

  1. Mineral dust deposition in Western Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Julie; Laurent, Benoit; Bergmatti, Gilles; Losno, Rémi; Bon Nguyen, Elisabeth; Chevaillier, Servanne; Roulet, Pierre; Sauvage, Stéphane; Coddeville, Patrice; Ouboulmane, Noura; Siour, Guillaume; Tovar Sanchez, Antonio; Massanet, Ana; Morales Baquero, Rafael; Di Sarra, Giogio; Sferlazzo, Damiano; Dulac, François; Fornier, Michel; Coursier, Cyril

    2014-05-01

    North African deserts are the world's largest sources of atmospheric mineral dust produced by aeolian erosion. Saharan dust is frequently transported toward Europe over the Mediterranean basin. When deposited in oceanic areas, mineral dust can constitute a key input of nutrients bioavailable for the oceanic biosphere. For instance, Saharan dust deposited in the in the Mediterranean Sea can be a significant source of nutrient like Fe, P and N during summer and autumn. Our objective is to study the deposition Saharan mineral dust in the western Mediterranean basin and to improve how deposition processes are parameterized in 3D regional models. To quantify the deposition flux of Saharan dust in the western Mediterranean region a specific collector (CARAGA) to sample automatically the insoluble atmospheric particle deposition was developed (LISA-ICARE) and a network of CARAGA collectors have been set up. Since 2011, eight CARAGA are then deployed in Frioul, Casset, Montandon and Ersa in France, Mallorca and Granada in Spain, Lampedusa in Italia, and Medenine in Tunisia, along a South-North gradient of almost 2000km from the North African coast to the South of Europe. We observe 10 well identified dust Saharan deposition events at Lampedusa and 6 at Mallorca for a 1-yr sampling period. These dust events are sporadic and the South-North gradient of deposition intensity and frequency is observed (the highest dust mass sampled at the stations are : 2,66 g.m-2 at Lampedusa ; 0,54 g.m-2 at Majorque ; 0,33 g.m-2 at Frioul ; 0,16 g.m-2 at Casset). The ability of the CHIMERE model to reproduce the deposition measurements is tested. The mineral dust plumes simulated over the western Mediterranean basin are also compared to satellite observations (OMI, MODIS) and in-situ measurements performed during the ChArMEx campaign and in the AERONET stations.

  2. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  3. Year of the Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen

    1980-01-01

    President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)

  4. Mediterranean diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulou, A; Vasilopoulou, E

    2000-12-01

    Mortality statistics from the WHO database covering the period 1960 to 1990 have provided intriguing evidence that something unusual has been affecting in a beneficial way the health of the Mediterranean population. In recent papers, which evaluated the evidence accumulated over the last three decades, it was concluded that the traditional Mediterranean diet meets several important criteria for a healthy diet. Direct evidence in support of the beneficial properties of the Mediterranean diet has also become available. These data were derived from three studies, which have used a diet score, devised a priori on the basis of eight desirable key features of the traditional common diet in the Mediterranean region. The conclusion of these studies is that a diet that adheres to the principles of the traditional Mediterranean one is associated with longer survival. The Greek version of the Mediterranean diet is dominated by the consumption of olive oil and by high consumption of vegetables and fruits. Antioxidants represent a common element in these foods and an antioxidant action provides a plausible explanation for the apparent benefits. Wild edible greens frequently eaten in rural Greece in the form of salads and pies contain very high quantities of flavonoids-- considerably higher than those found in red wine or black tea. While there is no direct evidence that these antioxidants are central to the benefits of the Mediterranean Diet, indirect evidence from epidemiological data and the increasing understanding of their mechanisms of action suggest that antioxidants may play a major role. PMID:11242471

  5. Climatic Feedbacks and Desertification: The Mediterranean Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, M. M.; Estrela, M. J.; Sanz, M. J.; Mantilla, E.; Martín, M.; Pastor, F.; Salvador, R.; Vallejo, R.; Alonso, L.; Gangoiti, G.; Ilardia, J. L.; Navazo, M.; Albizuri, A.; Artíñano, B.; Ciccioli, P.; Kallos, G.; Carvalho, R. A.; Andrés, D.; Hoff, A.; Werhahn, J.; Seufert, G.; Versino, B.

    2005-03-01

    Mesometeorological information obtained in several research projects in southern Europe has been used to analyze perceived changes in the western Mediterranean summer storm regime. A procedure was developed to disaggregate daily precipitation data into three main components: frontal precipitation, summer storms, and Mediterranean cyclogenesis. Working hypotheses were derived on the likely processes involved. The results indicate that the precipitation regime in this Mediterranean region is very sensitive to variations in surface airmass temperature and moisture. Land-use perturbations that accumulated over historical time and greatly accelerated in the last 30 yr may have induced changes from an open, monsoon-type regime with frequent summer storms over the mountains inland to one dominated by closed vertical recirculations where feedback mechanisms favor the loss of storms over the coastal mountains and additional heating of the sea surface temperature during summer. This, in turn, favors Mediterranean cyclogenesis and torrential rains in autumn-winter. Because these intense rains and floods can occur anywhere in the basin, perturbations to the hydrological cycle in any part of the basin can propagate to the whole basin and adjacent regions. Furthermore, present levels of air pollutants can produce greenhouse heating, amplifying the perturbations and pushing the system over critical threshold levels. The questions raised are relevant for the new European Union (EU) water policies in southern Europe and for other regions dominated by monsoon-type weather systems.

  6. The Mediterranean diet: a view from history.

    PubMed

    Haber, B

    1997-10-01

    Although the virtues of the Mediterranean diet have been advocated since the Renaissance, adoption of the diet outside the Mediterranean region has proved difficult but not impossible. Efforts at promoting dietary change have been explored in the writings of Europeans and Americans since 1614 when Giacomo Castelvetro, an exile from Modena, Italy, published a book in England on Italian fruit, herbs, and vegetables. The historical causes of resistance by groups and individuals-culture, class, sex, and human psychology-are revealed by asking the question, What does food mean to people? Particularly instructive are failed efforts by well-meaning late-19th-century American reformers to hasten the assimilation of newly arrived immigrants by interfering with their eating habits. The establishment of the New England Kitchen, which provided inexpensive Yankee cooking intended to Americanize poor immigrants, served only to expedite food distribution networks between California farms and urban centers, allowing mainly Mediterranean groups to eat their customary foods. Successful efforts at change are also explored, leading to the conclusion that the satisfying flavors of the Mediterranean diet provide the best chance of influencing people to abandon unhealthy foods in favor of fresh vegetables, fruit, grains, and olive oil. The diet must be promoted, however, not only by medical and nutritional authorities, but also by people who have the power to persuade: authorities on cooking and experts in advertising and marketing. PMID:9322586

  7. Pan-African - Mediterranean Migrations: Implications for Education and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Diane Brook

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine features of the contemporary migrant and refugee flows across Africa northward to the Mediterranean and then to European countries (sometimes called the "new mass migration" and also migrant flows southward to South Africa. In addition, the purpose was to examine dimensions of response and adaptation in…

  8. Observation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds down to the Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keckhut, P.; David, Ch.; Marchand, M.; Bekki, S.; Jumelet, J.; Hauchecorne, A.

    2007-05-01

    A Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) was detected for the first time in January 2006 over Southern Europe after 25 years of systematic lidar observations. This cloud was observed while the polar vortex was highly distorted during the initial phase of a major stratospheric warming. Very cold stratospheric temperatures (<190 K) centred over the Northern-Western Europe were reported, extending down to the South of France where lidar observations were performed. CTM (Chemical Transport Model) investigations show that this event led to a significant direct ozone destruction (35 ppb/day), within and outside the vortex as chlorine activated air masses were moved to sunlight regions allowing ozone destruction. If such exceptional events of mid-latitudes PSCs were to become frequent in the future, they should not compromise the ozone recovery because their effect appears to be limited temporally and spatially. More importantly, these events might tend to be associated with the initial phase of a stratospheric warming that results into a weakening and warming of the polar vortex and hence into a reduced probability occurrence of PSC temperatures during the rest of the winter.

  9. Observation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds down to the Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keckhut, P.; David, Ch.; Marchand, M.; Bekki, S.; Jumelet, J.; Hauchecorne, A.; Höpfner, M.

    2007-10-01

    A Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) was detected for the first time in January 2006 over Southern Europe after 25 years of systematic lidar observations. This cloud was observed while the polar vortex was highly distorted during the initial phase of a major stratospheric warming. Very cold stratospheric temperatures (<190 K) centred over the Northern-Western Europe were reported, extending down to the South of France where lidar observations were performed. CTM (Chemical Transport Model) investigations show that this event led to a significant direct ozone destruction (35 ppb/day), within and outside the vortex as chlorine activated air masses were moved to sunlight regions allowing ozone destruction. If such exceptional events of mid-latitudes PSCs were to become frequent in the future, they should not compromise the ozone recovery because their effect appears to be limited temporally and spatially. More importantly, these events might tend to be associated with the initial phase of a stratospheric warming that results into a weakening and warming of the polar vortex and hence into a reduced probability occurrence of PSC temperatures during the rest of the winter.

  10. Prognosis of Central-Eastern Mediterranean waterspouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keul, Alexander G.; Sioutas, Michalis V.; Szilagyi, Wade

    The North American waterspout forecasting methodology by Szilagyi is applied on a sample of 110 waterspout events for the years 2002-2006 over the Central-Eastern Mediterranean (the Adriatic, Ionian and Aegean Sea). First, the geographical distribution and frequency of the phenomena are shown. Four synoptic types of waterspout-prone circulation patterns are considered. For the Adriatic cases, five thermodynamic indices (KI, TT, SWEAT, CAPE, BRN) are used as possible predictors. The testing of the Szilagyi Waterspout Nomogram and Index (SWI), developed for the Great Lakes region, was favorable for the Mediterranean case data, validating its use as a prognostic tool. Results were presented and discussed at the 4th European Conference on Severe Storms ECSS at Trieste. Meteorologists should standardize and evaluate waterspout prognostic tools and implement a visual interface to improve the service for relevant user groups.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships and demographic histories of the Atherinidae in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea re-examined by Bayesian inference.

    PubMed

    Pujolar, J M; Zane, L; Congiu, L

    2012-06-01

    The aim of our study is to examine the phylogenetic relationship, divergence times and demographic history of the five close-related Mediterranean and North-eastern Atlantic species/forms of Atherina using the full Bayesian framework for species tree estimation recently implemented in ∗BEAST. The inference is made possible by multilocus data using three mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, control region) and one nuclear gene (rhodopsin) from multiple individuals per species available in GenBank. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of the complete gene dataset produced a tree with strong support for the monophyly of each species, as well as high support for higher level nodes. An old origin of the Atherina group was suggested (19.2 MY), with deep split events within the Atherinidae predating the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Regional genetic substructuring was observed among populations of A. boyeri, with AMOVA and MultiDimensional Scaling suggesting the existence of five groupings (Atlantic/West Mediterranean, Adriatic, Greece, Black Sea and Tunis). The level of subdivision found might be consequence of the hydrographic isolation within the Mediterranean Sea. Bayesian inference of past demographic histories showed a clear signature of demographic expansion for the European coast populations of A. presbyter, possibly linked to post-glacial colonizations, but not for the Azores/Canary Islands, which is expected in isolated populations because of the impossibility of finding new habitats. Within the Mediterranean, signatures of recent demographic expansion were only found for the Adriatic population of A. boyeri, which could be associated with the relatively recent emergence of the Adriatic Sea. PMID:22425706

  12. Diversity of magnetotactic bacteria from a French pristine Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Fuduche, Maxime; Postec, Anne; Davidson, Sylvain; Chauvin, Jean-Paul; Galès, Grégoire; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès; Ollivier, Bernard; Wu, Long-Fei; Pradel, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria synthesize intracellular magnetite and/or greigite magnetosome crystals. They play a significant role in both iron and sulfur cycles in sedimentary aquatic environments. To get insight into the bio-geochemical contribution of MTB, more studies concerning their ecology and their distribution in diverse habitats are necessary. The MTB community of an oil-industry polluted area of the French Mediterranean coast has been previously investigated. Here, we investigate the MTB community from coastal sediments of a Mediterranean pristine area using optical and transmission electron microscopy and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. A particularly high diversity of MTB was observed, with cocci phylogenetically distributed across the order Magnetococcales, including a novel cluster with sequences from the Mediterranean Sea designated as "Med group", and novel morphotypes. PMID:25487117

  13. Numerical reconstruction of trajectory of small-size surface drifter in the Mediterranean sea. Reconstruction of surface drift in the Mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchekinova, Elena Y.; Kumkar, Yogesh; Coppini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we addressed the effects of wind-induced drift on Lagrangian trajectories of surface sea objects using high-resolution ocean forecast and atmospheric data. Application of stochastic Leeway model for prediction of trajectories drift was considered for the numerical reconstruction of the Elba accident that occurred during the period 21.06.2009-22.06.2009: a person on an inflatable raft was lost in the vicinity of the Elba Island coast; from the initial position, the person on a raft drifted southwards in the open sea and later he was found on a partially deflated raft during rescue operation. For geophysical forcing, we used high-resolution currents from the Mediterranean Forecasting System and atmospheric wind from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. To investigate the effect of wind on trajectory behavior, numerical simulations were performed using different categories of drifter-like particles similar to a person on an inflatable raft. An algorithm of spatial clustering was used to differentiate the most probable search areas with a high density of particles. Our results showed that the simulation scenarios using particles with characteristics of draft-limited sea drifters provided better prediction of an observed trajectory in terms of the probability density of particles.

  14. Seasonality of Arctic Mediterranean Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieper, Christoph; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Mediterranean communicates through a number of passages with the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Most of the volume exchange happens at the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge: warm and saline Atlantic Water flows in at the surface, cold, dense Overflow Water flows back at the bottom and fresh and cold Polar Water flows out along the East Greenland coast. All surface inflows show a seasonal signal whereas only the outflow through the Faroe Bank Channel exhibits significant seasonality. Here we present a quantification of the seasonal cycle of the exchanges across the Greenland-Scotland ridge based on volume estimates of the in- and outflows within the last 20 years (ADCP and altimetry). Our approach is comparatistic: we compare different properties of the seasonal cycle like the strength or the phase between the different in- and outflows. On the seasonal time scale the in- and outflows across the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge are not balanced. The net flux thus has to be balanced by the other passages on the Canadian Archipelago, Bering Strait as well as runoff from land.

  15. Tsunami hazard and vulnerability assessment for the south coast of Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Armigliato, Alberto; Georgiou, Georgios

    2013-04-01

    The island of Cyprus is situated in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Anatolian peninsula and is the third largest island in the Mediterranean. In this area tectonic setting is complex and as yet not fully understood. Dominant here are three major tectonic structures, namely the Hellenic arc, the Cyprian arc and the Levantine rift. The Hellenic Arc has the highest tsunamigenic potential with capability of producing destructive regional tsunamis, like the one that occurred in 1303 following a large earthquake near East Crete. The Levantine rift is associated with several tsunamis, mostly but not exclusively local, as shown in the tsunami catalog by Fokaefs and Papadopoulos (2007), but it is tectonically unfavorable to tsunami generation since it is located inland and is marked by faults with predominant strike-slip mechanism (Ryan et al., 2005). The Cyprian Arc runs near the southern coast of the island and can be an important source of tsunamis. In the frame of the European project NearToWarn that is focused on near-shore tsunami generation in the Mediterranean sea, the Cyprian arc is considered as a study area. By means of the fault database compiled in the course of a previous project called TRANSFER, tsunamigenic sources along the arc are taken into account. The most relevant one results to be the Limassol fault that is placed some km off South-West Cyprus striking more or less parallel to the coast. The hazard assessment is carried out by using the worst credible-case scenario technique, that is known to be the most appropriate when tsunami data are insufficient for the application of a probabilistic analysis. For numerical simulations we use the tsunami code UBO-TSUFD allowing one to compute run-up and inundation focused on given target areas with high space resolution by multiple grid nesting. The paper chief interest is on the southern coast of Cyprus, that is the most affected according to historical reports and one of the most

  16. Long-range transport and re-circulation of pollutants in the western Mediterranean during the project Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangoiti, Gotzon; Millán, Millán M.; Salvador, Rosa; Mantilla, Enrique

    During the warm season (March-September), high ozone concentrations have been reported at the coastal and mountain monitoring stations of the eastern Iberia coast (Millán et al., J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D7) 8811, J. Appl. Meteorol. 4 (2000) 487). The vegetation protection threshold of current Directive 92/72/EEC and the World Health Organisation guideline for the protection of crops and semi-natural vegetation are systematically exceeded during the whole period. The main objective of the present study is to search for the origin of these chronic pollution levels: to search for the reason(s) for such high O 3 concentrations during such a long period. A mesoscale model is used to reproduce the diurnal cycle of winds and stability/layering over the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB), at a sufficient space/temporal resolution, under a typical recursive synoptic condition during the warm season: data from the flight tracks of the European Project—Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area—are used to substantiate the model results. Times of residence and the final distribution of pollutants entering the WMB are estimated using single-particle Lagrangian trajectories and a multiple-particle dispersion model. Our results show that the marine boundary layer and the lower troposphere in the region between the Balearic Islands and eastern Iberia are subject to a flow regime that tends to accumulate pollutants within large circulations, covering the entire western basin. We have also shown a diurnal pulsation of the Tramontana/Mistral wind regime, which can transport new pollutants into the area (background concentrations of 50-65 ppb of O 3 of continental European origin) that are added to local emissions and re-circulated within the coastal breezes at eastern Iberia for periods of more than five days. Local emissions and wind configuration contribute to increase the O 3 concentrations up to 100 ppb and even more.

  17. Non-methane hydrocarbons over the Eastern Mediterranean during summer, measured from northwest Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvage, Carina; Derstroff, Bettina; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Keßel, Stephan; Thorenz, Ute; Baker, Angela; Williams, Jonathan; Lelieveld, Jos

    2015-04-01

    In summer 2014 the CYprus Photochemistry EXperiment (CYPHEX) field campaign took place at an elevated (600m) measurement site in the north western part of Cyprus close (10 km) to the coast (35,96N, 32,4E) in order to investigate the photochemistry and air mass transport of the eastern Mediterranean. Non-methane hydrocarbons were measured with a commercial GC-FID (AMA instruments GmbH, Ulm, Germany) with a final dataset consisting of two weeks of continuous, hourly measurements for 10 NMHC. NMHCs are a class of volatile organic compounds (VOC) which are emitted by both anthropogenic and natural sources. Their predominant sink in the atmosphere is photochemically driven oxidation by OH radicals. Their atmospheric lifetimes, which range from a few days for more reactive compounds such as pentanes and butanes and up to a month for less reactive ones like ethane, make it possible to deduce photochemical histories and transport regimes from NMHC observations. Furthermore, in the presence of NOx they are important precursors for tropospheric ozone. Backward trajectories show that the airmasses reaching the measurement site had been influenced periodically by emissions from western continental Europe (France, Spain) that crossed the Mediterranean Sea and from eastern continental Europe (Greece and Turkey) more recently influenced by industrial emissions. Varying patterns in NMHC data delineates these two regimes very well, with aged western European air masses being characterized by low level ethane and with toluene and benzene being higher and more variable in plumes from eastern Europe. Additionally, atypical n-butane and i-butane ratios suggest a deviation from the expected predominant oxidation by OH, possibly indicating reaction with chlorine radicals (Cl). The dataset has been evaluated with respect to NMHC sources and oxidative history using different methods of approach.

  18. Last interglacial East Mediterranean sapropels: Testing the freshwater hypothesis using coastal proxy records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauz, Barbara; Elmejdoub, Noureddine; Rogerson, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Current understanding of sapropel formation in the Eastern Mediterranean suggests a combination of anoxia and enhanced primary productivity. Enhanced anoxia is thought to have resulted from freshwater input into the Eastern Mediterranean most likely originating from the Nile and from wadis draining Saharan lakes. We investigated Mediterranean sediment sequences on the coasts of North Africa and Levant using conventional sedimentological and optical dating techniques in order to understand the coastal response to external forcing when sapropels S5, S4 and S3 formed at ~125 ka, ~105 ka and ~83 ka in various East Mediterranean sub-basins. The sediment sequences show sharp switches between siliciclastic and carbonate dominated nearshore environment where carbonate-rich sediments are composed of oolitic grainstones. The oolitic sediments represent a period of elevated annual sea-surface temperature and lack of fluvial discharge at ~113 ka on the Levant coast, at ~110 ka on the coast west of the Nile delta (El Asmar and Wood 2000) and at ~80 ka on the north Saharan coast. Both the timing and duration of the arid period are different on each coast owing to the interplay between local processes and external forcing. For the Levantine Sea these differences confirm the dominant role of the Nile discharge in generating conditions for sapropels to form. For the central east Mediterranean the differences indicate dominant external forcing after ~110 ka, exerted by the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, because arid shorelines existed contemporaneously with the formation of S4 andS3. While it is hard to find the unequivocal evidence, we feel our data rule out a Saharan lakes source of freshwater for the central East Mediterranean Sea after ~110 ka and thereby implicitly, a spatial and temporal varying freshwater input.

  19. Gulf Coast Wetlands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wetlands of the Gulf Coast     View Larger ... highlights coastal areas of four states along the Gulf of Mexico: Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and part of the Florida panhandle. The ... date:  Oct 15, 2001 Images:  Gulf Coast location:  United States Gulf of ...

  20. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Schwabe, Arthur D.; Terasaki, Paul I.; Barnett, Eugene V.; Territo, Mary C.; Klinenberg, James R.; Peters, Robert S.

    1977-01-01

    The success of colchicine therapy in the management of familial Mediterranean fever has provided new direction to investigations into the pathogenesis of this disease. Examination of HLA antigen frequencies in 53 patients with familial Mediterranean fever and appropriate controls, as well as various immunologic studies have yielded no significant differences. However, B lymphocyte typing and assays for immune complexes, lymphokines and prostaglandins may be of potential interest. Preliminary studies indicate that leukocytes of patients with familial Mediterranean fever release increased amounts of lysozyme (P<0.01), when subjected to high temperatures, and of both lysozyme and myeloperoxidase at low osmotic concentrations. The known and potential effects of colchicine on leukocyte and cellular metabolism, and the current status of colchicine prophylaxis are reviewed. In patients receiving an optimum colchicine dose of 1.5 to 1.8 mg per day, side effects have been minimal and the frequency of attacks has been decreased significantly. PMID:878470

  1. Mediterranean sea level variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigo, I.; Sánchez Reales, J. M.; García, D.; Chao, B. F.

    2009-04-01

    In this work we report an updated study of the sea level variations for the Mediterranean sea for the period from October 1992 to January 2008. The study addresses two mayor issues: (i)The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of sea surface height (SSH) from radar altimetry measurements (from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) + Jason-1, etc.). We use EOF analysis to explain most of its interannual variation, and how the different basins interact. (ii) The analysis of dynamics and balance of water mass transport for the whole period. We estimate the steric SSH by combining the steric SSH estimated from temperature and salt profiles simulated by the ECCO model with time-variable gravity (TVG) data (from GRACE) for the Mediterranean Sea. The estimated steric SSH together with the SSH obtained from altimetry allow for a more realistic estimation of the water mass variations in the Mediterranean for the whole period.

  2. Egpm - The Proposed European Contribution To The Global Precipitation Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnai, A.; Testud, J.; Egpm Science Team

    The U.S. and Japan space agencies (NASA and NASDA, respectively) are presently formulating a new joint mission, called the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), aimed at measuring precipitation on a global basis with sufficient quality, Earth cover- age, and sampling to improve prediction of the Earth's climate, weather, and specific components of the global water cycle. GPM will consist of two components: a large "core" platform inclined at about 65 and equipped with both passive and active mi- crowave instruments, and a constellation of up to eight "drone" satellites (mostly in sun-synchronous orbits), carrying passive MW radiometers to provide global rain- fall coverage at 3-hour intervals (depending on latitude). The mission, which will be launched in the 2007-2008 time frame, is in fact a multinational satellite project. NASA and NASDA will provide the core satellite and two drones, but are expecting international cooperation for the other drones. Noteworthy, GPM would provide a sig- nificant contribution to the monitoring and the understanding of hazardous and flash- flood producing storms along the Mediterranean coasts, and would improve the fore- cast skill of global and regional Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models through data assimilation of precipitation measurements. Thus, a large part of the European scientific and operational community is strongly interested in GPM. Especially, the operational community related to NWP, nowcasting and hydrological hazards would take advantage of Europe being part of the constellation, because this would guar- antee direct access to real-time data. In this paper, we describe the characteristics of the European GPM (EGPM) constellation member, that has been recently proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in order to encourage it to directly engage in the international development of GPM.

  3. Multiple SNP Markers Reveal Fine-Scale Population and Deep Phylogeographic Structure in European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Iriondo, Mikel; Albaina, Aitor; Pardo, Miguel Angel; Manzano, Carmen; Grant, W. Stewart; Irigoien, Xabier; Estonba, Andone

    2012-01-01

    Geographic surveys of allozymes, microsatellites, nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have detected several genetic subdivisions among European anchovy populations. However, these studies have been limited in their power to detect some aspects of population structure by the use of a single or a few molecular markers, or by limited geographic sampling. We use a multi-marker approach, 47 nDNA and 15 mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to analyze 626 European anchovies from the whole range of the species to resolve shallow and deep levels of population structure. Nuclear SNPs define 10 genetic entities within two larger genetically distinctive groups associated with oceanic variables and different life-history traits. MtDNA SNPs define two deep phylogroups that reflect ancient dispersals and colonizations. These markers define two ecological groups. One major group of Iberian-Atlantic populations is associated with upwelling areas on narrow continental shelves and includes populations spawning and overwintering in coastal areas. A second major group includes northern populations in the North East (NE) Atlantic (including the Bay of Biscay) and the Mediterranean and is associated with wide continental shelves with local larval retention currents. This group tends to spawn and overwinter in oceanic areas. These two groups encompass ten populations that differ from previously defined management stocks in the Alboran Sea, Iberian-Atlantic and Bay of Biscay regions. In addition, a new North Sea-English Channel stock is defined. SNPs indicate that some populations in the Bay of Biscay are genetically closer to North Western (NW) Mediterranean populations than to other populations in the NE Atlantic, likely due to colonizations of the Bay of Biscay and NW Mediterranean by migrants from a common ancestral population. Northern NE Atlantic populations were subsequently established by migrants from the Bay of Biscay. Populations along the Iberian

  4. Paranthias furcifer (Perciformes: Serranidae), a new alien fish in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Dulčić, J; Dragičević, B

    2013-01-01

    A specimen of a creole fish Paranthias furcifer (285 mm total length) was captured in Marina Bay (Croatian coast) in the eastern Adriatic Sea. This is the first Mediterranean record of this species. The possible modes of introduction of species are discussed. PMID:23331154

  5. DISSEMINATED TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A MEDITERRANEAN PREGNANT RISSO'S DOLPHIN (GRAMPUS GRISEUS) WITH TRANSPLACENTAL FETAL INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) dam and its fetus based on pathologic findings, immunohistochemistry, and the structure of the parasite. The dolphin was stranded alive on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, and died a few hrs later. At necropsy the ...

  6. Exploring the borders of European Phragmites within a cosmopolitan genus

    PubMed Central

    Lambertini, Carla; Sorrell, Brian K.; Riis, Tenna; Olesen, Birgit; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Two Phragmites australis taxa are recognized in Europe: P. australis ssp. altissimus, also known as Phragmites isiaca, in the Mediterranean region and P. australis in the temperate region. Another taxonomic group in the Mediterranean is Phragmites frutescens. European genotypes are diverse genetically, cytologically and morphologically, and are related to African, Asiatic and American genotypes. We investigated chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity in Europe and defined the current borders of the European gene pool. Methodology We analysed chloroplast variation with parsimony and genetic distance methods, and compared it with that of nuclear amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellites. We also investigated the phenological pattern of 188 genotypes collected worldwide in a common garden in Denmark. We assumed that non-flowering genotypes could indicate climatic, geographic and/or reproductive barriers to dispersal and would have been recorded in the genetic pattern as groups genetically isolated from, or within, the European pool. Principal results The European P. australis gene pool extends from North America to the Far East and South Africa. However, African and North American genotypes are differentiating from the European genotypes. Mediterranean P. australis is genetically different from temperate P. australis and shares several similarities with Phragmites mauritianus in Africa and Phragmites karka in Asia. Phragmites frutescens shares the cpDNA sequences with both these tropical species. Two DNA bands can distinguish Mediterranean P. australis from P. frutescens and P. mauritianus and from temperate P. australis, and reveal possible hybrids among these species in the Mediterranean region. Phenological data confirmed possible gene flow within the temperate region of Europe, whereas the Mediterranean genotypes did not set inflorescences in Denmark, suggesting reproductive barriers between temperate and Mediterranean P. australis

  7. Climate change and drought risk management in Mediterranean watersheds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Maia, R.; Garrido, A.; Hoerling, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    As a result of major droughts and floods over the past two decades, the European Union has expressed major concerns regarding climate change impacts on the resilience of ecosystems and water resources. The EU Water Framework Directive established a framework for action in the field of water olicy committing European Union member states to achieve develop integrated watershed management plans and improve the quality of water bodies by 2015. Key to meeting these goals are understanding and planning for changes in extreme events, groundwater and surface water changes, and the level of integrated water resources management infrastructure. In the northern European basins, water shortages are mostly offset by irrigation systems. This is not the case for southern basins in the Mediterranean (e.g. Guadiana, Ebro, Po), where water supply systems are already stressed, and where socioeconomic losses due to droughts are more significant. Precipitation variability in the Mediterranean basin is characterized by substantial interdecadal variations and long-term trends. This paper presents an assessment of climate and the socioeconomic impacts of drought in the Mediterranean basin including the factors that determine the vulnerability of different sectors to the risks posed by climate change. The studies are based on two projects in which the authors are involved: the European Commission funded PREEMPT project 'Policy-relevant assessment of the socio-economic effects of droughts and floods' and 'Development of methodologies for integration of climate change on water resources managements for the Guadiana Basin', that analyze drought events, economic losses, risk management efforts and the prospect for adaptation. Studies show that the land area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea has experienced 10 of the 12 driest winters since 1902 in just the last 20 years. A change in wintertime Mediterranean precipitation toward drier conditions has likely occurred over 1902-2010. Anthropogenic

  8. Wave ensemble forecast in the Western Mediterranean Sea, application to an early warning system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallares, Elena; Hernandez, Hector; Moré, Jordi; Espino, Manuel; Sairouni, Abdel

    2015-04-01

    between the 5th and the 8th day of the prediction. The information obtained is then included in an early warning system, designed in the framework of the European project iCoast (ECHO/SUB/2013/661009) with the aim of set alarms in coastal areas depending on the wave conditions, the sea level, the flooding and the run up in the coast.

  9. VI European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics has reached the sixth edition, marking the tenth year's anniversary. The spirit of the school is to provide a very important occasion for a deep education of young researchers about the main topics of experimental nuclear astrophysics. Moreover, it should be regarded as a forum for the discussion of the last-decade research activity. Lectures are focused on various aspects of primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis, including novel experimental approaches and detectors, indirect methods and radioactive ion beams. Moreover, in order to give a wide educational offer, some lectures cover complementary subjects of nuclear astrophysics such as gamma ray astronomy, neutron-induced reactions, short-lived radionuclides, weak interaction and cutting-edge facilities used to investigate nuclear reactions of interest for astrophysics. Large room is also given to young researcher oral contributions. Traditionally, particular attention is devoted to the participation of students from less-favoured countries, especially from the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The school is organised by the Catania Nuclear Astrophysics research group with the collaboration of Dipartimento di Fisica e Astromomia - Università di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare.

  10. Methylmercury in hair fisherman for Turkish coasts

    SciTech Connect

    Vural, N.; Uenlue, H.

    1996-10-01

    Environmental methylmercury mainly arises from the methylation of inorganic mercury. The change in speciation of mercury from inorganic to methylated forms is the first step in the aquatic bioaccumulation processes. The bioconcentration factor of methylmercury in fish tissue to that in water is usually between 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 5}. Among seafood, fish products are the main source of methylmercury absorbed by men from the environment. Since Minimata epidemic health injuries and deaths in relation to mercury pollution, environmental and biological monitoring of inorganic and organic mercury species has gained importance through out the world and many reports have been published on the health effects and biological monitoring of mercury compounds including some Mediterranean countries. This study focuses on methylmercury in hair of fisherman living in different geographical Turkish coasts and relationship to eating fish habit. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of Rainfall-Runoff Models for Mediterranean Subcatchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilek, A.; Berberoglu, S.; Donmez, C.

    2016-06-01

    The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA), a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.

  12. Dioxin compounds in the deep-sea rose shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) throughout the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotllant, Guiomar; Abad, Esteban; Sardà, Francisco; Ábalos, Manuela; Company, Joan B.; Rivera, Josep

    2006-12-01

    Polychlorodibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) are among the more toxic anthropogenic contaminants. They are fat-soluble and accumulate in animal tissues. Exposure to PCDD/Fs can cause several endocrine, reproductive and developmental problems in animals, including human beings. Several studies have demonstrated that fish and invertebrates living in association with sediments are exposed to and accumulate contaminants, but to date there have been no studies of PCDD/Fs contamination in deep-sea regions. Specimens of Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) were collected from depths of 600-2500 m at different points in the Mediterranean Sea, from the western basin off the coast of Barcelona to the central basin off the Peloponnesian Peninsula, with otter trawl gear. Amounts of PCDD/Fs were measured in different animal tissues by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS). This is the first study to report the presence of PCDD/Fs in deep-sea organisms dwelling at depths below 600 m. A. antennatus presented levels of PCDD/Fs of the same order of magnitude, or slightly higher, as those found in shallow-water species ( Melicertus kerathurus) with respect to land-generated contamination. This highlights the widespread distribution of these pollutants and the potential threat posed to the biodiversity of fragile and vulnerable ecosystems such as the deep-sea. PCDD/F levels detected in the edible parts (muscle) of the commercial shrimp A. antennatus were clearly below the toxic limit value established by European legislation. Levels followed the trend muscle

  13. The Vertical Structure, Sources, and Evolution of Aerosols in the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Greg; Bourrianne, Thierry; Léon, Jean-François; Pont, Véronique; Mallet, Marc; Lambert, Dominique; Augustin, Patrick; Dulac, François; Junkermann, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The VESSAER campaign (VErtical Structure and Sources of AERosols in the Mediterranean Region) was designed to characterize the different sources of aerosol in the Mediterranean Basin and assess the regional impact of aerosol on cloud microphysical and radiative properties. VESSAER was conducted on an ultra-light aircraft in summer 2012. Research activities included ground-based observations in the central and northern regions of Corsica, as well as aerosol lidar and sunphotometer measurements near the eastern coast. The main scientific goals were to investigate local versus long-range sources of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and their vertical stratification in the lower troposphere, study evolution and ageing due to atmospheric processes, and determine aerosol direct radiative impacts over a larger spatial scale. The background aerosol concentrations (D > 0.01 um) within the boundary layer in Corsica were nearly 2000 cm^-3 and increased to ca. 104 cm^-3 during pollution events when back-trajectories originated from coastal areas in France and Italy and the Po Valley. Nearly all of these particles were CCN-active at 0.38% supersaturation, indicating a relatively hygroscopic aerosol. Vertical profiles of aerosol hygroscopicity revealed that ageing (with respect to CCN-activity) of European emissions occurred exclusively in the boundary layer. Within two days, the European emissions had become hygroscopic, probably a result of cloud processing. In contrast, aerosol hygroscopicity did not change as a function of transport time in elevated aerosol layers, suggesting that photochemical ageing of less hygroscopic material is relatively slow compared to ageing processes in the boundary layer. The vertical profiles clearly showed the long-range transport of dust from the Saharan Desert and pollution from the European continent, which were the two major sources of aerosol during the campaign. Two of the research flights coincided with CALIPSO overpasses, when

  14. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980’s, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts. PMID:26982584

  15. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    PubMed

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts. PMID:26982584

  16. Mediterranean Jellyfish Venoms: A Review on Scyphomedusae

    PubMed Central

    Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Pane, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    The production of natural toxins is an interesting aspect, which characterizes the physiology and the ecology of a number of marine species that use them for defence/offence purposes. Cnidarians are of particular concern from this point of view; their venoms are contained in specialized structures–the nematocysts–which, after mechanical or chemical stimulation, inject the venom in the prey or in the attacker. Cnidarian stinging is a serious health problem for humans in the zones where extremely venomous jellyfish or anemones are common, such as in temperate and tropical oceanic waters and particularly along several Pacific coasts, and severe cases of envenomation, including also lethal cases mainly induced by cubomedusae, were reported. On the contrary, in the Mediterranean region the problem of jellyfish stings is quite modest, even though they can have anyhow an impact on public health and be of importance from the ecological and economic point of view owing to the implications on ecosystems and on some human activities such as tourism, bathing and fishing. This paper reviews the knowledge about the various aspects related to the occurrence and the stinging of the Mediterranean scyphozoan jellyfish as well as the activity of their venoms. PMID:20479971

  17. The role of sea surface circulation and hydrographic processes in anchovy spawning and larvae distribution in the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcini, Federico; Palatella, Luigi; Cuttitta, Angela; Bignami, Francesco; Patti, Bernardo; Santoleri, Rosalia; Fiorentino, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    The European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the most important resources of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite its abundance and relevance, the anchovy population off the Mediterranean coasts exhibits a patchy distribution. Moreover, its biology and the influence of environment on its variability is poorly known. We here use data from ichthyoplankton-surveys carried out during the peak spawning season in order to analyze abundance and age of anchovy larvae in the Strait of Sicily, with respect to sea surface dynamic and hydrographic parameter patterns. The Strait of Sicily dynamics is characterized by upwelling regions, fronts, vortices, and filaments, with a consequent complexity in the spatial distribution of oceanographic parameters and anchovy larvae. To investigate the role of mesoscale features and oceanographic environment on the latter, anchovy larvae observations were paired to remote sensing data (such as sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, primary production, surface wind speed as well as light attenuation, absorption, and particle backscattering coefficients) and Lagrangian and Eulerian numerical simulations results for ocean currents and larval transport. The subsequent analysis shows and quantifies how the Atlantic Ionian Stream (AIS, a meandering current of Atlantic origin) path and variability, as well as the upwelling-induced south Sicilian coastal current, have consequences for anchovy spawning and larvae distribution. These currents transport anchovy larvae towards the Sicilian coast's south-eastern tip, where larvae are then retained in a frontal structure. However, significant cross-shore transport events due to relatively cold filament-like baroclinic instabilities generated by wind-induced coastal upwelling were also observed. Finally, the larval age distribution qualitatively agrees well with this transport pattern.

  18. Droughts and forest fires in Mediterranean Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, Marco; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Most of the total burned area in Europe occurs in Mediterranean regions, with severe economic and environmental damage, life loss and an average of about 4500 km2 burned every year. A better understanding of the impacts on wildfires of environmental and socioeconomic changes is crucial to develop adequate measures of prevention, adaptation and mitigation in this area. Here we focus on the impact of droughts on fires in European Mediterranean regions (Portugal, Spain, the south of France, Italy, Greece). This goal will be achieved through three specific supporting objectives: (1) Understanding past changes in fires in this region (extending the study of [1]); (2) Comparing and analyzing different drought indices (e.g. SPI, SPEI and SSI; see [2, 3] for more details on those indices); (3) Modeling the interaction between drought and fires (following and extending the study of [4]). We develop relatively simple regression models that link the fire activity to the key climate drivers. These models could be used to estimate fire responses to different climate change projections and environmental and socioeconomic scenarios ([5]). *References [1] Turco M., Llasat M. C., Tudela A., Castro X., and Provenzale A. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970-2010, NE Spain). Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 13(3):649-652, 2013. [2] Zengchao H., AghaKouchak A., Nakhjiri N., and Farahmand A. Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System. Scientific Data, 1:1-10, 2014. [3] Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Beguería, S. and López-Moreno, J. I. A multiscalar drought index sensitive to global warming: The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index. Journal of Climate, 23:1696-1718, 2010. [4] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von Hardenberg J., and Provenzale A. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a Mediterranean environment (northeastern Iberian Peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [5] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von

  19. Phytoplankton off the West Coast of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Just off the coast of West Africa, persistent northeasterly trade winds often churn up deep ocean water. When the nutrients in these deep waters reach the ocean's surface, they often give rise to large blooms of phytoplankton. This image of the Mauritanian coast shows swirls of phytoplankton fed by the upwelling of nutrient-rich water. The scene was acquired by the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) aboard the European Space Agency's ENVISAT. MERIS will monitor changes in phytoplankton across Earth's oceans and seas, both for the purpose of managing fisheries and conducting global change research. NASA scientists will use data from this European instrument in the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) program. The mission of SIMBIOS is to construct a consistent long-term dataset of ocean color (phytoplankton abundance) measurements made by multiple satellite instruments, including the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For more information about MERIS and ENVISAT, visit the ENVISAT home page. Image copyright European Space Agency

  20. SMED - Sulphur MEditerranean Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Sellitto, Pasquale; Corradini, Stefano; Di Sarra, Alcide Giorgio; Merucci, Luca; Caltabiano, Tommaso; La Spina, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Emissions of volcanic gases and particles can have profound impacts on terrestrial environment, atmospheric composition, climate forcing, and then on human health at various temporal and spatial scales. Volcanic emissions have been identified as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of recent climate change trends. In particular, a primary role is acted by sulphur dioxide emission due to its conversion to volcanic sulphate aerosol via atmospheric oxidation. Aerosols may play a key role in the radiative budget and then in photochemistry and tropospheric composition. Mt. Etna is one of the most prodigious and persistent emitters of gasses and particles on Earth, accounting for about 10% of global average volcanic emission of CO2 and SO2. Its sulphur emissions stand for 0.7 × 106 t S/yr9 and then about 10 times bigger than anthropogenic sulphur emissions in the Mediterranean area. Centrepiece of the SMED project is to advance the understanding of volcanogenic sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol particles dispersion and radiative impact on the downwind Mediterranean region by an integrated approach between ground- and space-based observations and modelling. Research is addressed by exploring the potential relationship between proximal SO2 flux and aerosol measured remotely in the volcanic plume of Mt. Etna between 2000 and 2014 and distal aerosol ground-based measurements in Lampedusa, Greece, and Malta from AERONET network. Ground data are combined with satellite multispectral polar and geostationary imagers able to detect and retrieve volcanic ash and SO2. The high repetition time of SEVIRI (15 minutes) will ensure the potential opportunity to follow the entire evolution of the volcanic cloud, while, the higher spatial resolution of MODIS (1x1 km2), are exploited for investigating the probability to retrieve volcanic SO2 abundances from passive degassing. Ground and space observations are complemented with atmospheric Lagrangian model

  1. A Project for Developing an Original Methodology Intended for Determination of the River Basin/Sub-Basin Boundaries and Codes in Western Mediterranean Basin in Turkey with Perspective of European Union Directives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökgöz, Türkay; Ozulu, Murat; Erdoǧan, Mustafa; Seyrek, Kemal

    2016-04-01

    From the view of integrated river basin management, basin/sub-basin boundaries should be determined and encoded systematically with sufficient accuracy and precision. Today basin/sub-basin boundaries are mostly derived from digital elevation models (DEM) in geographic information systems (GIS). The accuracy and precision of the basin/sub-basin boundaries depend primarily on the accuracy and resolution of the DEMs. In this regard, in Turkey, a survey was made for the first time within the scope of this project to identify current situation, problems and needs in General Directorates of State Hydraulic Works, Water Management, Forestry, Meteorology, Combating Desertification and Erosion, which are the major institutions with responsibility and authority. Another factor that determines the accuracy and precision of basin/sub-basin boundaries is the flow accumulation threshold value to be determined at a certain stage according to a specific methodology in deriving the basin/sub-basin boundaries from DEM. Generally, in Turkey, either the default value given by GIS tool is used directly without any geomorphological, hydrological and cartographic bases or it is determined by trial and error. Although there is a system of catchments and rivers network at 1:250,000 scale and a proper method has already been developed on systematic coding of the basin by the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, it is stated that a new system of catchments, rivers network and coding at larger scale (i.e. 1:25,000) is needed. In short, the basin/sub-basin boundaries and codes are not available currently at the required accuracy and precision for the fulfilment of the obligations described in European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD). In this case, it is clear that there is not yet any methodology to obtain such products. However, a series of projects should be completed such that the basin/sub-basin boundaries and codes are the fundamental data infrastructure. This task

  2. The Central-Western Mediterranean: Anomalous igneous activity in an anomalous collisional tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustrino, Michele; Duggen, Svend; Rosenberg, Claudio L.

    2011-01-01

    plate (Sardinia, Corsica, Balearic Islands, Kabylies, Calabria, Peloritani Mountains). The bulk of igneous activity in the central-western Mediterranean is believed to have tapped mantle 'wedge' regions, metasomatized by pressure-related dehydration of the subducting slabs. The presence of subduction-related igneous rocks with a wide range of chemical composition has been related to the interplay of several factors among which the pre-metasomatic composition of the mantle wedges (i.e., fertile vs. refractory mineralogy), the composition of the subducting plate (i.e., the type and amount of sediment cover and the alteration state of the crust), the variable thermo-baric conditions of magma formation, coupled with variable molar concentrations of CO 2 and H 2O in the fluid phase released by the subducting plates are the most important. Compared to classic collisional settings (e.g., Himalayas), the central-western Mediterranean area shows a range of unusual geological and magmatological features. These include: a) the rapid formation of extensional basins in an overall compressional setting related to Africa-Europe convergence; b) centrifugal wave of both compressive and extensional tectonics starting from a 'pivotal' region around the Gulf of Lyon; c) the development of concomitant Cenozoic subduction zones with different subduction and tectonic transport directions; d) subduction 'inversion' events (e.g., currently along the Maghrebian coast and in northern Sicily, previously at the southern paleo-European margin); e) a repeated temporal pattern whereby subduction-related magmatic activity gives way to magmas of intraplate geochemical type; f) the late-stage appearance of magmas with collision-related 'exotic' (potassic to ultrapotassic) compositions, generally absent from simple subduction settings; g) the relative scarcity of typical calcalkaline magmas along the Italian peninsula; h) the absence of igneous activity where it might well be expected (e.g., above the

  3. On the summer coast parallel winds off the west coast of Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijo, Nádia; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Semedo, Alvaro; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2016-04-01

    During summer the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula is under the effect of persistent coast parallel northerly winds, called Nortada (northerly wind in Portuguese). The synoptic forcing behind the Nortada is caused by the semi-permanent Azores High and the thermal low pressure system in-land central Iberia. The associated pressure gradient gives rise to coastal parallel winds as the result of the geostrophically adjusted response to this synoptic pattern. In turn the persistence of the Nortada induces the development of upwelling systems from the Galicia to Algarve, off the west coast of Iberia, bringing deep cold nutrient-rich water to the shelf and to the surface. This cold water sharpens the temperature and pressure gradients at the coast, leading to a further increase of the wind speed at the coast. The summer regional climate of the coastal western Iberian area is modulated by the Nortada. The structure and climatology characterization of the summer Nortada is investigated through analyses of close to surface wind data produced by a regional 9km horizontal resolution atmospheric hindcast. This regional data was produced using the WRF model, forced by the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis, and covers the period 1989-2007. The link between the Nortada and the Iberian coastal low level jet is also studied.

  4. View of eastern coast of Sicily area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the eastern coast of Sicily area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Mount Etna, the highest volcano in Europe (10,958 feet), is still active as evidenced by the thin plume of smoke emaneting from its crest. On the flanks of Etna recent lava flows appear black in contrast to the older flows and volcanic debris that are red. Numerous small, circular cinder cones on the flanks represent sites of previous eruptions. Catania, on the Mediterranean coast south of Etna, is the largest of several cities and villages which appear as light-gray patches on the lower slopes of the volcano. Plano de Catania, south of the city of Catania, is outlined by polygonal light and dark agricultural tracts. Several lakes, the largest of which is Lake Pozzillo, show up as dark blue in the photograph. The unusual colors in the picture are due to the use of

  5. Changing coastal oceanography of the Black Sea II: Mediterranean effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolmazin, D.

    The behavior and physical mechanisms during the Mediterranean flow, entering the Black Sea from the Bosphorus, are described using existing field observations and hydrodynamic models for the vertical and along axis circulation in the strait. Soviet studies in the 1960-1970's showed that a well-defined sill north of the Bosphorus does not prevent the overflow of dense Mediterranean water onto the shelf even during unfavorable conditions (high surface elevation in the Black Sea and strong northerly winds). The stream makes a sharp westward turn after exiting from the strait and then starts its track downward to the shelf slope. Intensive dispersion of the Mediterranean water occurs at a distance of 25-50 km from the strait. Recent laboratory and mathematical models have been reviewed to describe the behavior of the density and current interfaces in the strait and the role of temporary blockage of the dense flow upon the Mediterranean effluent. Two hypothetic physical mechanisms for sill overflow are discussed. One is associated with bifurcation of the coastal flows, approaching the strait orifice, and formation of a diversion zone in the upper layer which facilitates the flow over the sill. Another hypothesis suggests that the sill exercises frictionless rotational hydraulic control in the short, 4 km continuation of the strait channel. Persistent northeasterly or southerly winds can substantially affect the intensity of the Mediterranean effluent by modifying the average flow fields and density structures in the strait. TS-analysis of far-field property distribution shows that the Mediterranean water contributes to the laminated structure of the Black Sea water column. Under average conditions, the Mediterranean waters follow the mainstream of the Black Sea current system along the Turkish coast, reaching the deepest strata in the southeastern corner of the sea. Ongoing Soviet diversions of fresh water from the northern slope of the Black Sea and projected damming

  6. Climate reconstruction based on planktic and benthic foraminifera from a short core from the Gulf of Taranto, Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauel, Anna-Lena; Mueller, Inigo; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; de Lange, Gert J.

    2010-05-01

    The MOCCHA Project (Multidisciplinary study of continental/ocean climate dynamics using high-resolution records from the eastern Mediterranean) aims at reconstructing climate change from high sedimentation rate sediments in the Gulf of Taranto. Being highly affected by riverine input as well as being influenced by marine water masses, this region is a very promising site for reconstructing Holocene climate variability, especially in the context of anthropogenic influence on climate. Here we present a dataset based on stable isotope measurements of planktic and benthic foraminifera from a short sediment core covering the last two centuries. The comparison with regional historical temperature and precipitation records covering the last hundred years and with global temperature reconstructions emphasize the potential of this site for climate and environmental reconstructions. Based on a previous calibration study on an extensive set of surface sediments taken around the southern Italian coast we established that the planktic foraminifera, while being highly affected by different salinity and nutrient distributions related to circulation patterns of major water masses, dominantly record summer temperature conditions. Furthermore, the isotopic composition of the benthic species allows to reconstruct carbon cycling, bottom water properties and the organic matter fluxes to the seafloor. The present short-core study allows to continue our calibration of geochemical signals on a longer time scale and to gain further insight in the climate and environmental evolution in the Mediterranean. This work has been made possible thanks to the support from the European Science Foundation (ESF) under the EUROCORES Program EuroMARC and from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF).

  7. Coast Guard Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

  8. Diversity, environmental requirements, and biogeography of bivalve wood-borers (Teredinidae) in European coastal waters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bivalve teredinids inflict great destruction to wooden maritime structures. Yet no comprehensive study was ever carried out on these organisms in European coastal waters. Thus, the aims of this study were to: investigate the diversity of teredinids in European coastal waters; map their past and recent distributions to detect range expansion or contraction; determine salinity-temperature (S-T) requirements of species; flag, for future monitoring, the species that pose the greatest hazard for wooden structures. Results A total of nine teredinid species were found established in European coastal waters. Seven were considered cryptogenic, of unknown origin, and two were considered alien species. Teredo navalis and Nototeredo norvagica were the species with the widest distribution in European waters. Recently, T. navalis has been reported occurring further east in the Baltic Sea but it was not found at a number of sites on the Atlantic coast of southern Europe. The Atlantic lineage of Lyrodus pedicellatus was the dominant teredinid in the southern Atlantic coast of Europe. In the Mediterranean six teredinid species occurred in sympatry, whereas only three of these occurred in the Black Sea. The species that pose the greatest hazard to wooden maritime structures in European coastal areas are T. navalis and the two lineages of L. pedicellatus. Conclusions Combined data from field surveys and from the literature made it possible to determine the diversity of established teredinid species and their past and recent distribution in Europe. The environmental requirements of species, determined using climatic envelopes, produced valuable information that assisted on the explanation of species distribution. In addition, the observed trends of species range extension or contraction in Teredo navalis and in the two lineages of Lyrodus pedicellatus seem to emphasise the importance of temperature and salinity as determinants of the distribution of teredinids, whereas

  9. The low frequency Western Mediterranean summer variability: relevance, feedbacks and predictability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Ortizbevia Maria; Antonio, Ruizdeelvira; Francisco Jose, Alvarez-Garcia; Miguel, Tasambay-Salazar

    2016-04-01

    In a recent study, OrtizBeviá et al. (2012) have defined a seasonal index, the Western Mediterranean Index, in order to characterize the Western Mediterranean summer variability. They have found there a statistically significant feedback between the Mediterranean and the North Pacific variability, characterized by the Pacific North America Mode Index. They have detected also a feedback between the Western Mediterranean in summer and the variability of some areas of the North Atlantic basin. Based on these statistical linear relationship they proposed a model to forecast the part of the Western Mediterranean variability represented by the Western Mediterranean Index in summer and autumn and validate it through some hindcast experiments, with a moderate, but significant skill. OrtizBeviá et al.(2012) presented also the evidence of the existence of a low frequency, multidecadal component in the Western Mediterranean summer variability. In the work to be presented here we extend the previous one, focusing on the long term variability. We perform similar statistical analysis on selected data fields that span more than 100 years. We add a second index to the characterisation of the Western Mediterranean variability and are then able to show the relevance of the Western Mediterranean summer variability for european air temperature and precipitation seasonal anomalies. Our analyses show that the variability represented by two North Atlantic Indexes play a key role in the Western Mediterranean summer variability. They also proof the existence of a feedback between this variability and that of the Pacific North America Mode, for an extended period of more than 140 years. The performance of the different predictive models built on the basis of those linear relationships are tested in a series of hindcast experiments. References Ortiz Beviá, M. J.; Alvarez García

  10. Out of Anatolia: longitudinal gradients in genetic diversity support an eastern origin for a circum-Mediterranean oak gallwasp Andricus quercustozae.

    PubMed

    Rokas, Antonis; Atkinson, Rachel J; Webster, Lucy; Csóka, György; Stone, Graham N

    2003-08-01

    Many studies have addressed the latitudinal gradients in intraspecific genetic diversity of European taxa generated during postglacial range expansion from southern refugia. Although Asia Minor is known to be a centre of diversity for many taxa, relatively few studies have considered its potential role as a Pleistocene refugium or a potential source for more ancient westward range expansion into Europe. Here we address these issues for an oak gallwasp, Andricus quercustozae (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), whose distribution extends from Morocco along the northern coast of the Mediterranean through Turkey to Iran. We use sequence data for a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b and allele frequency data for 12 polymorphic allozyme loci to answer the following questions: (1). which regions represent current centres of genetic diversity for A. quercustozae? Do eastern populations represent one refuge or several discrete glacial refugia? (2). Can we infer the timescale and sequence of the colonization processes linking current centres of diversity? Our results suggest that A. quercustozae was present in five distinct refugia (Iberia, Italy, the Balkans, southwestern Turkey and northeastern Turkey) with recent genetic exchange between Italy and Hungary. Genetic diversity is greatest in the Turkish refugia, suggesting that European populations are either (a). derived from Asia Minor, or (b). subject to more frequent population bottlenecks. Although Iberian populations show the lowest diversity for putatively selectively neutral markers, they have colonized a new oak host and represent a genetically and biologically discrete entity within the species. PMID:12859636

  11. First Gammaherpesvirus detection in a free-living Mediterranean bottlenose dolphin.

    PubMed

    Lecis, Roberta; Tocchetti, Marco; Rotta, Andrea; Naitana, Salvatore; Ganges, Llilianne; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Recently, herpes viruses have been detected in different cetacean species from the Atlantic and in Mediterranean striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). While pathogens such as cetacean morbillivirus have been widely studied following recent epizootics, herpesvirus (HV) distribution and pathogenic effects in cetaceans are still understudied. This study reports the first molecular identification of a Gammaherpesvirus in the genital mucosa of a free-living Mediterranean bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) stranded off the coast of central Italy. Sequenced herpesviral PCR product was closely related to other HVs recently isolated in the genital mucosa of various cetacean species. PMID:25632684

  12. Microsatellite analysis of olive fly populations in the Mediterranean indicates a westward expansion of the species.

    PubMed

    Augustinos, A A; Mamuris, Z; Stratikopoulos, E E; D'Amelio, S; Zacharopoulou, A; Mathiopoulos, K D

    2005-11-01

    Bactrocera oleae is the major insect pest of the olive fruit. Twelve microsatellite loci isolated from the genome of this insect were used in a Mediterranean-wide population analysis. These loci were highly polymorphic with a mean number of alleles per locus of 10.42 and a mean effective number of alleles of 2.76. The analysis was performed on a sample of 671 flies collected from nineteen locations around the European part of the Mediterranean basin. Despite the high level of gene flow across the Mediterranean, results support the notion of a differentiation of three subpopulations: one of the Iberian Peninsula, one of Greece and Italy and one of Cyprus. In addition, the gradual decrease of heterozygosity from the Eastern to the Western part of the Mediterranean indicates a westward expansion of the species. PMID:16247695

  13. Epidemiology of Carbapenem Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections in Mediterranean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Girmenia, Corrado; Serrao, Alessandra; Canichella, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Infections by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), in particular, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp), are a significant public health challenge worldwide. Resistance to carbapenems in enterobacteriaceae is linked to different mechanisms, including the production of the various types of enzymes like KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48. Despite several attempts to control the spread of these infections at the local and national level, the epidemiological situation for CRKp had worsened in the last years in the Mediterranean area. The rate and types of CRKp isolates greatly differ in the various Mediterranean countries. KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is diffused particularly in the European countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and is endemic in Greece and Italy. On the contrary, OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae is endemic in Turkey and Malta and diffused at inter-regional level particularly in some North African and Middle East countries. The spread of these multiresistant pathogens in the world and the Mediterranean countries has been related to various epidemiological factors including the international transfer of patients coming from endemic areas. PMID:27441063

  14. Identifying the drivers of abundance and size of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in Northwestern Mediterranean lagoons.

    PubMed

    Delpy, Floriane; Albouy-Boyer, Séverine; Pagano, Marc; Thibault, Delphine; Blanchot, Jean; Guilhaumon, François; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Bonnet, Delphine

    2016-08-01

    Acknowledged as among the worst invasive marine species, Mnemiopsis leidyi has spread through European Seas since the mid-1980's. Here we report a bimonthly survey conducted in 2010-11 in three lagoons (Bages-Sigean, Thau and Berre) and at two adjacent coastal stations (Sète and SOMLIT-Marseille) along the French Mediterranean coast. M. leidyi was present only in Berre and Bages-Sigean with maximum abundances observed in late summer. M. leidyi adults were present year round in Berre with the largest organisms (∼6 cm) observed in April. In Bages-Sigean, they occurred in sufficient abundance to be recorded by fishermen between August and November. Multiple linear regressions highlighted that abundance in both lagoons was mainly influenced by direct effects of salinity and chlorophyll-a, and temperature to a lesser extent. While M. leidyi has not yet been recorded in Thau, the lagoon is continually monitored to detect the potential establishment of M. leidyi. PMID:27262669

  15. Study of Anticyclogenesis Affecting the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.; Simmonds, I.; Kouroutzoglou, J.; Garde, L.; Keay, K.; Bitsa, E.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated by the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm (MS algorithm), applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim MSLP on a 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The algorithm was employed for the first time for anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in such a closed basin with complex topography were checked and verified. Then, the tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems were calculated and analyzed. Considering that cold-core anticyclones are shallow and weaken with height contrary to the warm-core that exhibit a vertically well-organized structure, the vertical thermal extend of the systems was studied with an algorithm developed as an extension module of the MS algorithm using ERA-Interim temperatures on several isobaric levels from 1000hPa to 100hPa on an 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The results verified that during both cold and warm period, cold-core anticyclones mainly affect the northern parts of the Mediterranean basin, with their behavior to be strongly regulated by cyclonic activity from the main storm track areas of the North Atlantic and Europe. On the other hand, warm-core anticyclones were found mainly in the southern Mediterranean and North African areas. Here, in order to get a perspective on the dynamic and thermodynamic processes in anticyclonic formation, a dynamical analysis at several vertical levels is performed. The study of mean fields of potential vorticity, temperature advection, vorticity advection at various levels can elucidate the role of upper and low levels during anticyclogenesis and system evolvement and help to further understand the dynamic mechanisms which are responsible for the anticyclogenesis over the Mediterranean region. Acknowledgement: This research project is implemented within the framework of the

  16. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  17. The forgotten tragedy of unidentified dead in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Tidball Binz, M; Penados, L; Prieto, J; Finegan, O; Grandi, M

    2015-05-01

    The need to identify the dead - an issue of paramount importance for the forensic sciences - and its importance for humanitarian, administrative, judicial and other purposes are universal values enshrined by domestic and international law. However, for hundreds of men, women and children, migrants, who die every year in their attempt to cross the Mediterranean Sea to reach Europe this fundamental right remains unfulfilled. In order to address and bring solutions to this tragedy the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) carried out an assessment in 2012 and 2013 across European Mediterranean countries affected by irregular immigration across the sea (Italy, Greece, Malta, Portugal, France, Spain). An international meeting in 2013 among Southern European countries led to recommendations which should serve as a road-map for action. They are already guiding activities of the ICRC and other participant institutions. The Council of Europe, which endorsed the recommendations, has since stepped up its efforts to prevent and resolve the humanitarian consequences of migration, including the unidentified dead. Among other things it has called on its Member States to "set up a proper system of data collection of the mortal remains of people who lose their lives in the Mediterranean and make it swiftly accessible to relatives". PMID:25770023

  18. The big crossing: illegal boat migrants in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Kassar, Hassène; Dourgnon, Paul

    2014-08-01

    This article explores illegal migration routes and groups across North Africa to Europe. We describe sub-Saharan and cross-Mediterranean routes, and how they changed during the years. We propose an analytical framework for the main factors for these migrations, from local to international and regulatory context. We then describe sea-migrants' nationalities and socio-economic and demographic characteristics, from studies undertook in Tunisia and Morocco. While boat migration represents only a fraction of illegal migration to Europe, it raises humanitarian as well as ethical issues for European and North African (NA) countries, as a non-negligible amount of them end up in death tolls of shipwrecks in the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, existing statistics show that illegal trans-Mediterranean migration is growing exponentially. Ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are likely to prompt even larger outflows of refugees in the near future. This should induce NA countries to share closer public policy concerns with European countries. PMID:25107993

  19. Canada's east coast play

    SciTech Connect

    Doig, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    The intent of this paper is to give a basic overview presentation on Canada's east coast play - most likely the number one offshore play in the free world - and possibly the world. The play stretches 2,500 miles north and south, as it follows the Labrador Coast, past the Strait of Belle Isle and onto the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and as it makes a 90 degree turn, 1,000 miles east to west along the coast of Nova Scotia to the Georges Bank. 3,500 miles in all - which if placed in western Canada, would stretch from northern Alberta to southern Mexico. It's geologic potential is immense - 15-20 billion barrels of oil and 80-90 Tcf of natural gas. And so far only approximately 2 billion barrels of oil and 5 Tcf of natural gas have been found. There is more out there. And less than 200 wells have been drilled - still very virgin territory. Two world size discoveries have been made in the area. Hibernia, on the Grand Banks, is estimated to contain 1.8 billion barrels. Venture, on the Scotian Shelf, has a natural gas reserve of 2.5 Tcf - big by Canadian standards and significant in that Mobil Oil has also made some other interesting discoveries on the same Sable Island block which have not been delineated.

  20. Seabed substrates and sedimentation rates of the European Seas - EMODnet-Geology2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Alanen, Ulla; Stevenson, Alan; Partners, EMODnet Geology 2

    2015-04-01

    Seas and oceans are important for us. However, increased human activities in marine and coastal areas have altered marine ecosystems worldwide. To ensure sustainable use of marine resources and health of the seas, improved management is needed. The European Union's (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive targets to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) of the EU's marine waters by 2020. However, it has been acknowledged that the poor access to data on the marine environment was a handicap to government decision-making, a barrier to scientific understanding and a break on the economy. The effective management of the broad marine areas requires spatial datasets covering all European marine areas. As a consequence the European Commission adopted the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) in 2009 to combine dispersed marine data into publicly available datasets covering broad areas. The second phase of the EMODnet -Geology project started in 2013 and it will run for 3 years. The partnership includes 36 marine organizations from 30 countries. The partners, mainly from the marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys - EuroGeoSurveys), aim to assemble marine geological information at a scale of 1:250,000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). In comparison to the urEMODnet project (2009-2012) the data will be more detailed and aim to cover much larger area. The project includes collecting and harmonizing the first seabed substrate map for the European Seas, as well as data/map showing sedimentation rates at the seabed. The data will be essential not only for geologists but also for others interested in marine sediments like marine managers and habitat mappers. A 1:250,000 GIS layer on seabed substrates will be delivered in the portal, in addition to the existing 1:1 million map layer from

  1. Bioaccumulation of trace elements in the sandhopper Talitrus saltator (Montagu) from the Ionian sandy coasts of Sicily.

    PubMed

    Conti, Erminia; Dattilo, Sandro; Costa, Giovanni; Puglisi, Concetto

    2016-07-01

    The Ionian beaches of Sicily are of particular ecological interest because they include the basin of the largest active volcano in Europe and hosts both sites subject to natural protection constraints, as well as important industrial settlements. Consequently, the possibilities for these areas to become polluted are numerous. The sandhopper Talitrus saltator has proven to be a good bioindicator of contamination by numerous trace metals on some European coasts. Nevertheless, no data are available for the populations inhabiting the shores of the southern Mediterranean. Now, as metal accumulation has been shown to vary intraspecifically, the aim of this study was to evaluate trace metal accumulation in adults of T. saltator inhabiting Ionian coastal areas of Sicily and make an assessment of natural and anthropogenic metal pollution of this strip of coast. We also extended our survey to As, Co, Mo, Se, Sn and V never investigated before in this species. Significant differences in metal concentration among sites were found in both sand samples and amphipod tissues. The highest metal content was observed near the mouth of Simeto, the longest river of Sicily which collects waters coming from the volcanic territory of Mount Etna. The bioaccumulation of Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn in T. saltator is fully confirmed; it is also proven for As and Mo and assumed for Cr, Fe, Mn and V. Our outcomes let us to evaluate the prevailing influence of telluric contamination of the Ionian sandy shores of Sicily by trace metals. We also come to the conclusion that in the northern sites, pollution originates from volcanic emission while anthropogenic influence prevails in the southern ones. PMID:26990940

  2. Qibla in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rius-Piniés, Mònica

    Orientation toward Mecca has been compulsory for Muslims in all time periods and in all places. In fact, mosques were built in such a way as to help believers to pray toward the right direction. Nevertheless, the alignment of the sacred buildings was not always exact, and many did not actually face the Kaaba. There are many reasons for this "mistake", the main one being that at the time of the construction of the most important mosques, the astronomical and geographical knowledge needed to make accurate calculations was lacking. In the Mediterranean area, the scholars who were most involved in this task were the fuqahā' (experts in Islamic jurisprudence) who were sometimes well versed in astronomical knowledge or, at least, were skilled in the practice of popular astronomy. The combination of astronomy and religion, mixed with the political and topographical conditions, produces a unique area of study which remains controversial today.

  3. European Mistletoe

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References American mistletoe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 7, 2009. European mistletoe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July ...

  4. Alcohol in the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Rimm, E B; Ellison, R C

    1995-06-01

    Alcohol consumption clearly reduces risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in populations throughout the world and may contribute to lower rates of CVD among residents of Mediterranean countries. In addition, overall mortality rates are generally slightly lower among moderate drinkers than among abstainers. However, several studies have linked alcohol consumption (even amounts equivalent to two drinks daily) to increased rates for certain cancers, especially breast cancer in women. A Mediterranean diet, which is high in fruit, vegetables, and grains, also typically includes one to two drinks per day. Whether one to two drinks adversely affect cancer incidence in the presence of a Mediterranean diet has not been fully explored. With the evidence currently available, we conclude that alcohol, when consumed responsibly in most populations, is an important component of the Mediterranean diet and a component of a healthy lifestyle. PMID:7754991

  5. An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes) in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Faulwetter, Sarah; Chatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Galil, Bella S.; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea) was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979) and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology and distribution of the species recorded for the first time in the studied areas. In addition, an update on the distribution of the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean is given and an identification key to the Mediterranean species is provided. PMID:22207817

  6. European Community.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  7. Alien Marine Fishes Deplete Algal Biomass in the Eastern Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Enric; Kizilkaya, Zafer; Yildirim, Derya; Ballesteros, Enric

    2011-01-01

    One of the most degraded states of the Mediterranean rocky infralittoral ecosystem is a barren composed solely of bare rock and patches of crustose coralline algae. Barrens are typically created by the grazing action of large sea urchin populations. In 2008 we observed extensive areas almost devoid of erect algae, where sea urchins were rare, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. To determine the origin of those urchin-less ‘barrens’, we conducted a fish exclusion experiment. We found that, in the absence of fish grazing, a well-developed algal assemblage grew within three months. Underwater fish censuses and observations suggest that two alien herbivorous fish from the Red Sea (Siganus luridus and S. rivulatus) are responsible for the creation and maintenance of these benthic communities with extremely low biomass. The shift from well-developed native algal assemblages to ‘barrens’ implies a dramatic decline in biogenic habitat complexity, biodiversity and biomass. A targeted Siganus fishery could help restore the macroalgal beds of the rocky infralittoral on the Turkish coast. PMID:21364943

  8. Tidal notches in Mediterranean Sea: a comprehensive analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioli, Fabrizio; Lo Presti, Valeria; Rovere, Alessio; Ferranti, Luigi; Anzidei, Marco; Furlani, Stefano; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Orru, Paolo E.; Scicchitano, Giovanni; Sannino, Gianmaria; Spampinato, Cecilia R.; Pagliarulo, Rossella; Deiana, Giacomo; de Sabata, Eleonora; Sansò, Paolo; Vacchi, Matteo; Vecchio, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Recent works (Evelpidou et al., 2012) suggest that the modern tidal notch is disappearing worldwide due sea level rise over the last century. In order to assess this hypothesis, we measured modern tidal notches in several of sites along the Mediterranean coasts. We report observations on tidal notches cut along carbonate coasts from 73 sites from Italy, France, Croatia, Montenegro, Greece, Malta and Spain, plus additional observations carried outside the Mediterranean. At each site, we measured notch width and depth, and we described the characteristics of the biological rim at the base of the notch. We correlated these parameters with wave energy, tide gauge datasets and rock lithology. Our results suggest that, considering 'the development of tidal notches the consequence of midlittoral bioerosion' (as done in Evelpidou et al., 2012) is a simplification that can lead to misleading results, such as stating that notches are disappearing. Important roles in notch formation can be also played by wave action, rate of karst dissolution, salt weathering and wetting and drying cycles. Of course notch formation can be augmented and favoured also by bioerosion which can, in particular cases, be the main process of notch formation and development. Our dataset shows that notches are carved by an ensemble rather than by a single process, both today and in the past, and that it is difficult, if not impossible, to disentangle them and establish which one is prevailing. We therefore show that tidal notches are still forming, challenging the hypothesis that sea level rise has drowned them.

  9. Earthquakes and tidal records in the Mediterranean sea: case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchio, A.; Anzidei, M.; Carbone, V.; Capparelli, V.; Guerra, I.; Arena, G.

    2012-12-01

    We show and discuss the analysis of tidal data from some selected tide gauge stations located in the Mediterranean sea, including the Italian tide gauge network consisting in 30 stations. Our goal is to study the effects of large and moderate magnitude earthquakes on tidal oscillations. We focus on three seismic events: i) the March 11th, 2011, M 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, generating a giant tsunami offshore the Honshu island (Japan) that propagated in the Oceans. We show that the tidal stations located in the Mediterranean have recorded a weak signal that disturbed the daily tidal trends; ii) the May 21th, 2003, M 6.8 Boumerdès earthquake in northern Algeria, that generated a small tsunami event that reached the coast of Southern Europe; iii) the Dicember 17th, 2008, M 5.3 earthquake located in the Tyrrhenian sea. Finally, we also analyzed a sea level data set containing an anomalous tidal signal not related to earthquakes, felt along Thyrrhenian coast of Italy on July 2012. Tidal data were reduced for inverse barometric correction and analyzed by an advanced filtering technique that decomposes the records through oscillating modes, identifying the contributions at different timescales. In particular we focused on the dynamical behavior of the main tidal components (24 and 12 hours) and of low-frequency processes and trends.

  10. Implementation of an aorcm in the mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Zolt, S.; Lionello, P.; Malguzzi, P.

    2003-04-01

    This study describes a dynamical downscaling in the Mediterranean region, carried out using the coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave model MIAO. The MIAO (Model of Interacting Atmosphere and Ocean) model is composed of three modules, BOLAM (limited area atmospheric circulation model), POM (ocean circulation model) and WAM (ocean waves model), that can be coupled to each other. In the Mediterranean region, which is characterized by complex land-sea distribution, steep orography near the coasts, and intense air-sea interactions, the air-sea fluxes show interesting mesoscale features, important for dense water formation processes and Mediterranean cyclogenesis. In order to study the importance of the coupling between atmosphere and ocean, two two-year long simulations have been carried out in both coupled and uncoupled mode. The differences in the Sea Surface Temperature (SST), precipitation and air-sea interface fields (air-sea fluxes, air temperature, significant wave height, etc.) between the two simulations are discussed. It is stressed that the coupled simulation results in a much better reproduction of the SST annual cycle.

  11. Baroclinic wind adjustment processes in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinardi, Nadia; Navarra, Antonio

    The wind-driven general circulation of the Mediterranean Sea is studied using a primitive equation model. The model uses a 0.25° horizontal resolution and eight or 16 levels in the vertical. The model uses the Mediterranean basin geometry, and the Strait of Gibraltar is closed. The vertical density structure is initialized with annual average data, and the temperature and salinity values are fixed at the surface to simulate perpetual annual mean conditions. The wind forcing consists of monthly mean climatological stresses. The results show that the general circulation of the Mediterranean Sea has a multiple time-scale character (seasonal excursions and steady state amplitudes are comparable) and it is composed by sub-basin scale gyres corresponding to the scale of the wind stress curl centers. The steady state circulation (annual mean average) is determined by a Sverdrup balacne modified by viscous effects. The unsteady vertically integrated transport circulation consists of sub-basin scale gyres similar to the steady state transport components, which amplify seasonally and the partial or total reversal of the currents in many subportions of the basin. The gyres can be stationary in position or propagating. This seasonal ocean response is partly constituted by Rossby modes due to the wind stress curl annual harmonic. The baroclinic circulation shows the seasonal shift of the North African Current from a position along the African coasts during winter to the center of the Balearic and Ionian basin during summer.

  12. Modelling the transport and accumulation of floating marine debris in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Mansui, J; Molcard, A; Ourmières, Y

    2015-02-15

    In the era of plastic and global environmental issues, when large garbage patches have been observed in the main oceanic basins, this work is the first attempt to explore the possibility that similar permanent accumulation structures may exist in the Mediterranean Sea. The questions addressed in this work are: can the general circulation, with its sub-basins scale gyres and mesoscale instabilities, foster the concentration of floating items in some regions? Where are the more likely coastal zones impacted from open ocean sources? Multi-annual simulations of advected surface passive debris depict the Tyrrhenian Sea, the north-western Mediterranean sub-basin and the Gulf of Sirte as possible retention areas. The western Mediterranean coasts present very low coastal impact, while the coastal strip from Tunisia to Syria appears as the favourite destination. No permanent structure able to retain floating items in the long-term were found, as the basin circulation variability brings sufficient anomalies. PMID:25534631

  13. Travelling in the eastern Mediterranean with landscape character assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Jaber, N.; Abunnasr, Y.; Abu Yahya, A.; Boulad, N.; Christou, O.; Dimitropoulos, G.; Dimopoulos, T.; Gkoltsiou, K.; Khreis, N.; Manolaki, P.; Michael, K.; Odeh, T.; Papatheodoulou, A.; Sorotou, A.; Sinno, S.; Suliman, O.; Symons, N.; Terkenli, T.; Trigkas, Vassilis; Trovato, M. G.; Victora, M.; Zomeni, M.; Vogiatzakis, I. N.

    2015-06-01

    Following its application in Northern Europe, Landscape Character Assessment has also been implemented in Euro-Mediterranean countries as a tool for classifying, describing and assessing landscapes. Many landscape classifications employed in the Euro-Mediterranean area are similar in philosophy and application to the ones developed in Northern Europe. However, many aspects of landform, climate, land-use and ecology, as well as socio-economic context are distinctive of Mediterranean landscapes. The paper discusses the conceptual and methodological issues faced during landscape mapping and characterisation in four East-Mediterranean countries (within the MEDSCAPES project): Cyprus, Greece, Jordan and Lebanon. The major hurdles to overcome during the first phase of methodology development include variation in availability, quality, scale and coverage of spatial datasets between countries and also terminology semantics around landscapes. For example, the concept of landscape - a well-defined term in Greek and English - did not exist in Arabic. Another issue is the use of relative terms like 'high mountains,' `uplands' `lowlands' or ' hills'. Such terms, which are regularly used in landscape description, were perceived slightly differently in the four participating countries. In addition differences exist in nomenclature and classification systems used by each country for the dominant landscape-forming factors i.e. geology, soils and land use- but also in the cultural processes shaping the landscapes - compared both to each other and to the Northern-European norms. This paper argues for the development of consistent, regionally adapted, relevant and standardised methodologies if the results and application of LCA in the eastern Mediterranean region are to be transferable and comparable between countries.

  14. Persistence and co-occurrence of demersal nurseries in the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): Implications for fishery management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofalo, G.; Fortibuoni, T.; Gristina, M.; Sinopoli, M.; Fiorentino, F.

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the nurseries of seven commercially important demersal species of the northern sector of the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): red mullet, European hake, horned octopus, deep-water rose shrimp, greater forkbeard, Norway lobster and giant red shrimp. An eleven-year series of data collected through experimental trawling in the Strait of Sicily during spring and autumn was analyzed. The spatio-temporal persistence of the high-density aggregations (hot spots) of juvenile individuals in their first year of life was investigated to identify habitats that serve as nurseries. The density of recruits within the persistent nurseries was used as a proxy of the unit area contribution of individuals which recruit to the adult population. The spatial distribution patterns of the recruits of most the species were well defined and very stable in the long term. Persistent and potentially highly productive nurseries of European hake, deep-water rose shrimp and greater forkbeard were identified off the southern coast of Sicily. Persistent areas of recruits concentration were also observed for the other species investigated, but their specific potential contribution of individuals to the adult population was not substantial compared to adjacent grounds. The close or overlapped localization of sites which regularly host vulnerable life stages of different exploited species, revealed an area of great ecological significance which probably plays a major role in the dynamics of the fishery resources in the Strait of Sicily. Appropriate spatial protection measures of this area, including marine protected area designation, could complement conventional management approach for ensuring the long-term sustainability of these fisheries and stocks conservation.

  15. Coasts in Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichsen, D.

    1996-11-01

    Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

  16. Chemical contamination baseline in the Western basin of the Mediterranean Sea based on transplanted mussels.

    PubMed

    Andral, Bruno; Galgani, François; Tomasino, Corinne; Bouchoucha, Marc; Blottiere, Charlotte; Scarpato, Alfonso; Benedicto, José; Deudero, Salud; Calvo, Monica; Cento, Alexandro; Benbrahim, Samir; Boulahdid, Moustapha; Sammari, Cherif

    2011-08-01

    The MYTILOS project aimed at drawing up a preliminary report on coastal chemical contamination at the scale of the Western Mediterranean (continental coasts of the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and Maghreb) based on a transplanted mussels methodology validated along the French coasts since 1996 by Ifremer and the Rhône Méditerranée & Corsica water board. MYTILOS is backed up by the INTERREG III B/MEDOC programme, the PNUE/PAM-MEDPOL and Rhône Méditerranée & Corsica water board. Three cruises (2004, 2005, 2006) have taken place to assess the first state of chemical contamination along the Western Mediterranean shores with the same methodology. Approximately 120 days were spent at sea deploying and retrieving 123 mussel bags. The results obtained for all studied contaminants were equivalent to those obtained along the French coast according the RINBIO network. These similarities relate to both the highest measured levels and background levels throughout the 123 stations. The areas of greatest impact were mainly urban and industrial centers and the outlets of major rivers, with a far higher midsea impact on the dilution of organic compounds than on metals. Metal levels measured in midsea zones were found to be similar to those in natural shellfish populations living along the coast. On a global scale we can observe that the contaminants levels in the Mediterranean Sea are in the same range as in other areas worldwide. Overall, the research demonstrates the reliability of this methodology for marine pollution monitoring, especially in the Mediterranean sea. PMID:20862467

  17. Searching for Tsunami deposits along the Lebanese Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, A. R.; Tapponnier, P.; Switzer, A. D.; Jessika, N.

    2012-12-01

    Lebanon has a long coastline making it prone to tsunami waves generated from many distant or nearby sources within the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Important Tsunamigenic sources are frequent in the Hellenic Trench, but the Levantine Basin also has a number of important active submarine faults such as the Cypriot subduction zone or the offshore faults associated with the Levant Fault System: the Mount-Lebanon Thrust system or the offshore Carmel Fault, all potential tsunami-sources. A relatively small number of historical earthquakes associated with these faults resulted in tsunami events mentioned in the historical record of the region. The best known and most destructive of all these is the AD 551 earthquake on the offshore Mount-Lebanon Thrust. It resulted in a well-described historical tsunami event that affected many localities over the Lebanese coast. Submarine landslides and/or marine volcanic eruptions in the Mediterranean also may have resulted in similar events. In order to better understand the tsunami hazard in the eastern Mediterranean in general and over the Lebanese coast in particular, and to establish a geology-based catalog of tsunami events in the area we surveyed the shoreline of Lebanon searching for indicators of potential tsunami deposits or morphological signatures. This task is challenged by the extensive urban development of the Lebanese coast that left very few unmodified coastal areas. Many interesting sites wit potential tsunami traces were identified. Dislocated large boulders are frequently observed over the Lebanese coastline. A number of these can be the remnants of old tsunami events. Few sites with abundant marine shells and pumice were identified that can also be related to tsunami events. In the beach deposits of the Damour area, south of Beirut we excavated one first 15m long, 7m wide and 4 to 5m deep trench. The trench shows a beachface setting with different sedimentary units. Preliminary results from on-going sedimentological

  18. Inconsistencies in coastal dune genesis and development in the western Mediterranean Cabopino Dune system, southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Malvárez, Gonzalo; Jackson, Derek; Navas, Fatima

    2016-04-01

    It is generally agreed that a falling sea level regime is required in the long term to establish dunes as distinctive landform features along a coast. Sedimentary (supply) bodies from fluvial, glacial sources or marine platform processes also need to be in place. In most Atlantic-facing coastal dune systems the current morpho-sedimentary structures are usually associated with the period between 18K BP and present when both glacial and riverine sediments emplaced sediments within the active zone of present sea level to help form beaches and dunes. Mediterranean coastal dunes fronted by steep continental shelves, such as in the western Mediterranean coast of southern Spain are, however, not associated with glacial deposits and thus are only present in association with river mouths and/or coastal lagoons. Their development is attributed to very recent sediment supply, which, combined with other forcing factors such as wind and waves, several orders of magnitude below those of north Atlantic systems, explains their limited extent. Some coastal dune fields however, do not seem to respond to this general pattern because of their scale and, more importantly, their origin linked possibly to marine platform processes rather than riverine or lagoonal development. Here, we examine the Cabopino dune system in southern Spain offering a conceptual model of their genesis and development as an "Atlantic" dune system within a Mediterranean setting. This is demonstrated by their scale (the largest in the Spanish Mediterranean) and their morphodynamic link to nearshore and platform processes in the last 18,000 years.

  19. Cancer prevention in Europe: the Mediterranean diet as a protective choice.

    PubMed

    Giacosa, Attilio; Barale, Roberto; Bavaresco, Luigi; Gatenby, Piers; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Janssens, Jaak; Johnston, Belinda; Kas, Koen; La Vecchia, Carlo; Mainguet, Paul; Morazzoni, Paolo; Negri, Eva; Pelucchi, Claudio; Pezzotti, Mario; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2013-01-01

    In the coming years, European death rates because of cancer will further decline, but the overall number of cases will increase, mostly as a consequence of the ageing of the population. The target for cancer prevention in Europe will remain a healthy diet and control of obesity in addition to a decrease in smoking. A healthy diet model in European countries is the traditional Mediterranean diet, which is based on abundant and variable plant foods, high consumption of cereals, olive oil as the main (added) fat, low intake of (red) meat and moderate consumption of wine. The Mediterranean diet is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The biological mechanisms for cancer prevention associated with the Mediterranean diet have been related to the favourable effect of a balanced ratio of omega 6 and omega 3 essential fatty acids and high amounts of fibre, antioxidants and polyphenols found in fruit, vegetables, olive oil and wine. The Mediterranean diet also involves a 'Mediterranean way of drinking', that is, regular, moderate consumption of wine mainly with food. This pattern of drinking increases longevity, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and does not appreciably influence the overall risk of cancer. However, heavy alcohol drinking is associated with digestive, upper respiratory tract, liver and breast cancers; therefore, avoidance or restriction of alcohol consumption to two drinks/day in men and one drink/day in women is a global public health priority. PMID:22644232

  20. Ancient wells and their geoarchaeological significance in detecting tectonics of the Israel Mediterranean coastline region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nir, Yaacov; Eldar, Iris

    1987-01-01

    Eight ancient water wells, representing the late Bronze Age to the Crusades period (ca. 3100 700 B.P.), have recently been excavated (six by the authors) and reopened at archaeological sites (tels) along the southern and central Mediterranean coast of Israel. Evidence of ancient freshwater levels directly reflects on possible neotectonics of the region and on eustatic changes of sea level. There is substantial disagreement about the tectonic stability of the Israel Mediterranean coastal region during the past 3500 yr, whether there was a large-magnitude tectonic event (one of the largest known for recent times) during the period in discussion or whether the region was tectonically quiet. We tested the instability hypothesis by using geoarchaeological data from the wells and found no evidence for significant tectonic deformation of the central and southern Israel coast in the past 3100 yr. The “ancient water-well” method can, with appropriate modifications, be used all around the Mediterranean and other coasts elsewhere in the world where ground-water-sea-level relations are alike. Now in the digging of wells we must not disdain reflection, but must devote much acuteness and skill to the consideration of the natural principles of things. Vitruvius Pollio, Architectura, Book VIII, Chapter VI (25 B.C.)

  1. Temperature changes along the Spanish Mediterranean shelf waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Yanez, M.; Lopez-Jurado, J. L.; Salat, J.; Pascual, J.

    2003-04-01

    Temperature and salinity of intermediate and deep waters of the western Mediterranean have rised during the XX century. These changes are well documented in the specialised literature (Bethoux et al., 1998, Rholing and Bryden, 1992, Tsimplis and Baker, 2000). Nevertheless it is not yet clear whether these changes are due to global warming and a change in the deep water formation conditions in the western Mediterranean or if it is imported from the eastern basin. In the second case, an increase of salinity of the eastern basin due to damming of the main rivers would be the main cause. Trend detection in coastal waters where intermediate waters influence is negligible, would help to clarify this problem. Nevertheless, it is more difficult to detect significant trends in coastal waters due to the intense noise and seasonal cycles superimposed to these trends (if existing). The number of degrees of freedom needed for the significant detection is higher and regular sampling programs are needed. Unfortunately, standard stations periodically sampled are scarce. Here we present results from two of these periodic programs conducted by IEO and ICM along the Spanish Mediterranean shelf (RADIALES project and L'startit coastal station). This work is divided into two parts. The first one is devoted to the revision of the main hypothesis involved in the statistic treatment of time series, such as normal distribution, independence of residuals, seasonal cycles removing, etc...., while the second part will focus on the comparison of time series along the Spanish coast, the study of temperature trends and its possible relation with NAO index. The most striking result is the detection of a intense warming trend which is common to the north-western and south-western stations for the last part of the XX century. Bibliography. Bethoux, J.P., B. Gentili, D. Taillez, warming and freshwater budget change in the Mediterranean since the 1940s, their possible relation to the greenhouse effect

  2. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes. PMID:27573802

  3. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K; Latif, Mojib

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970-1999 and 2000-2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000-2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970-1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes. PMID:27573802

  4. Seismogenic nodes in the Mediterranean orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, A.; Panza, G.; Soloviev, A.; Aoudia, A.

    2003-04-01

    The central segment of the Mediterranean orogenic belt (the Apennines, Alps, Carpathians, Balkanides, and Dinarides) has been studied to identify seismogenic nodes, specific structures formed at the intersections of fault zones. The nodes have been delineated with the morphostructural zoning (MSZ) based on the concept that the lithosphere is built-up by different-scale blocks, separated by mobile boundaries. With MSZ we compiled the morphostructural map (scale 1:1,000,000) for the study region using the GIS technology. The map shows the hierarchical block-structure of the region, the boundary zones bounding blocks, and the loci of the nodes. Three-level hierarchy has been established for the blocks and their boundaries. All the recorded M >= 6.0 earthquakes nucleate at the nodes delineated by MSZ, i.e. ignoring the seismic record. The nodes capable of M >= 6.5 earthquakes are identified with the criteria of high seismicity nodes, previously derived from pattern recognition in the Pamirs -Tien Shan region. In the study region, with the employed criteria 29 out of the 33 nodes, hosting the observed M >= 6.5 events, have been classified as prone to M >= 6.5 earthquakes. With the exception of the Carpatho-Balkanides system, where the recognition procedure is inapplicable due to the insufficient number of sample nodes for the learning stage, we recognized the seismogenic nodes (D), prone to M >= 6.0 earthquakes, with the pattern recognition algorithm CORA-3. The recognition is performed using geomorphic, morphostructural, and gravity parameters relevant to seismicity. The majority of D nodes is associated with the first and second rank boundaries, i.e. larger earthquakes originate at the boundaries of larger blocks. Characteristic traits of D nodes selected by CORA-3 suggest an increased fragmentation of the crust and high intensity of tectonic movements in the D nodes vicinities. We identify a number of D nodes, where strong earthquakes are not recorded till present

  5. STS-57 Earth observation of the Eastern Mediterranean, Nile River, Asia Minor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Earth observation of the Eastern Mediterranean. From a high vantage point over the Nile River, this north-looking view shows the eastern Mediterranean and the entire landmass of Asia Minor, with the Black Sea dimly visible at the horizon. Many of the Greek islands can be seen in the Aegean Sea (top left), off the coast of Asia Minor. Cyprus is visible under atmospheric dust in the northeastern corner of the Mediterranean. The dust cloud covers the east end of the Mediterranean, its western edge demarcated by a line that cuts the center of the Nile Delta. This dust cloud originated far to the west, in Algeria, and moved northeast. A gyre of clouds in the southeast corner of the Mediterranean indicates a complementary counterclockwise (cyclonic) circulation of air. The Euphrates River appears as a thin green line (upper right) in the yellow Syrian desert just south of the mountains of Turkey. The Dead Sea (lower right) lies in a rift valley which extends north into Turkey and sout

  6. Zoonoses in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, Aristarco; Morelli, Daniela; Mantovani, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Middle East Region (MME) is considered the most important area for the historical development and concentration of zoonoses. Besides the classical Mediterranean pattern, an urbanised pattern has emerged which is strongly influenced by globalisation. Both patterns co-exist and have many peculiarities affecting the life cycles of zoonoses and their social impact. The features of those zoonoses which are now most relevant in the MME (brucellosis, rabies, cystic echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, food-borne zoonoses) are discussed. Besides other relevant activities, the World Health Organization has established, since 1979, a specialised programme with a unit coordinating and managing activities: i.e. the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre, operating from Athens, Greece. PMID:17361068

  7. Glacial history of the European marine mussels Mytilus, inferred from distribution of mitochondrial DNA lineages.

    PubMed

    Smietanka, B; Burzyński, A; Hummel, H; Wenne, R

    2014-09-01

    Mussels of the genus Mytilus have been used to assess the circumglacial phylogeography of the intertidal zone. These mussels are representative components of the intertidal zone and have rapidly evolving mitochondrial DNA, suitable for high resolution phylogeographic analyses. In Europe, the three Mytilus species currently share mitochondrial haplotypes, owing to the cases of extensive genetic introgression. Genetic diversity of Mytilus edulis, Mytilus trossulus and Mytilus galloprovincialis was studied using a 900-bp long part of the most variable fragment of the control region from one of their two mitochondrial genomes. To this end, 985 specimens were sampled along the European coasts, at sites ranging from the Black Sea to the White Sea. The relevant DNA fragments were amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Contrary to the earlier findings, our coalescence and nested cladistics results show that only a single M. edulis glacial refugium existed in the Atlantic. Despite that, the species survived the glaciation retaining much of its diversity. Unsurprisingly, M. galloprovincialis survived in the Mediterranean Sea. In a relatively short time period, around the climatic optimum at 10 ky ago, the species underwent rapid expansion coupled with population differentiation. Following the expansion, further contemporary gene flow between populations was limited. PMID:24619178

  8. Glacial history of the European marine mussels Mytilus, inferred from distribution of mitochondrial DNA lineages

    PubMed Central

    Śmietanka, B; Burzyński, A; Hummel, H; Wenne, R

    2014-01-01

    Mussels of the genus Mytilus have been used to assess the circumglacial phylogeography of the intertidal zone. These mussels are representative components of the intertidal zone and have rapidly evolving mitochondrial DNA, suitable for high resolution phylogeographic analyses. In Europe, the three Mytilus species currently share mitochondrial haplotypes, owing to the cases of extensive genetic introgression. Genetic diversity of Mytilus edulis, Mytilus trossulus and Mytilus galloprovincialis was studied using a 900-bp long part of the most variable fragment of the control region from one of their two mitochondrial genomes. To this end, 985 specimens were sampled along the European coasts, at sites ranging from the Black Sea to the White Sea. The relevant DNA fragments were amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Contrary to the earlier findings, our coalescence and nested cladistics results show that only a single M. edulis glacial refugium existed in the Atlantic. Despite that, the species survived the glaciation retaining much of its diversity. Unsurprisingly, M. galloprovincialis survived in the Mediterranean Sea. In a relatively short time period, around the climatic optimum at 10 ky ago, the species underwent rapid expansion coupled with population differentiation. Following the expansion, further contemporary gene flow between populations was limited. PMID:24619178

  9. Phylogeography of the European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio): A critically endangered species.

    PubMed

    Chassaing, Olivier; Desse-Berset, Nathalie; Hänni, Catherine; Hughes, Sandrine; Berrebi, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio) was once a common species throughout Europe, but the sole remaining natural population presently inhabits the Gironde Estuary in France (Atlantic coast). The species was classified as 'Critically Endangered' in 1996, and the Gironde population is now on the verge of extinction. In this setting, and for the first time, we present the past phylogeographical features of this species throughout Europe along with an assessment of its former genetic diversity. This study was based on a molecular analysis (mtDNA CR sequencing) of 10 living specimens from the Gironde Estuary, 55 museum specimens that had been caught along 19th and 20th centuries, and 59 archaeological remains dating back to 260-5000years BP, from which mitochondrial DNA was extracted and amplified. Although discontinuous, the produced data provided a realistic image of the former structure of A. sturio in Europe. Reconstruction of the phylogenetic trees and haplotypes network led to the identification of several clades. The mitochondrial genetic diversity of this species was found to be much greater at the core (Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean and Adriatic regions) than along the margins (Atlantic-Northern Europe, Black Sea) of its range. A series of hypotheses on the dates and causes of changes in the species' major structures are put forward on the basis of these data. Finally, competition with A. oxyrinchus, a sibling species whose presence in Northern Europe was recently reconsidered, is presented as a major factor in the evolution of this species. PMID:26424382

  10. Cosmogenic nuclides application on French Mediterranean shore platform development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliano, Jérémy; Lebourg, Thomas; Godard, Vincent; Dewez, Thomas; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier; Marçot, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    Rocky shorelines are among the most common elements of the world's littoral zone, and the potential effects of rising sea level on the ever increasing populations require a better understanding of their dynamics. The sinuosity and heterogeneity of the shoreline morphology at large and intermediate wavelengths (1-100 km) results from their constant evolution under the combined influence of marine and continental forcings. This macro-scale organization is the expression of the action of elementary erosion processes acting at shorter wavelengths (<1 km) which lead to the development of shore platforms by landward retreat of cliff edges. Modern analytical techniques (laser-scaning, micro-erosion meters, aerial surveys) constitute appropriate methods to identify and quantify processes of cliff retreat to 1-100 yrs time-scales. But over this time frame, shore platform development appears imperceptible. Precise knowledge of long-term erosion rates are needed to understand rocky shore evolution, and develop quantitative modeling of platform development. Rocky coasts constitute a Quaternary sea level evolution archive that is partly preserved and progressively destroyed. One major challenges is to determine the degree to which coast morphologies are (i) contemporary, (ii) or ancient features inherited, (iii) or partly inherited from Quaternary interglacial stages. In order to fill the lack of long term coast morphodynamic data, we use cosmogenic nuclides (36Cl) to study abrasion surfaces carved in carbonates lithologies along the French Mediterranean coast, in a microtidal environment (Côte Bleue, West of Marseille). 36Cl concentration heritage influences strongly our interpretations in terms of age and denudation of the surfaces. We propose to constrain heritage in sampling oldest relic marine surfaces at 10m of altitude, and along recent cliff scarp. 36Cl concentrations show that the lowest platforms near sea level are contemporary and the highest ones (8-14 m above sea

  11. ECS - The European Communication Satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, C. B.

    1981-09-01

    The evolution of the European Communication Satellite system (ECS) is traced from feasibility studies in 1970 to the development and launch in 1978 of the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS) by the European Space Agency to prove the new satellite and radio transmission technology being used on ECS. This was followed by the establishment of 'Interim EUTELSAT' in 1979 as the organization to operate ECS. The satellite, which operates at 11/14 GHz, covers all the capitals in Europe via three spot beam antennas, supplemented by a 'Eurobeam' regional coverage antenna which extends the range to cover all of Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Telephony channels are transmitted digitally using time division multiple access (TDMA) with digital speech interpolation (DSI) to optimize satellite capacity. Television transmission is by analog FM over the Eurobeam antenna to North African as well as European capitals. System implications of TDMA operation are discussed, and the EUTELSAT policy for Special Services or satellite business systems is discussed.

  12. Selected aspects of Mediterranean diet and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Pelucchi, Claudio; Bosetti, Cristina; Rossi, Marta; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    European Mediterranean populations have a high life expectancy. Several aspects of their diet are considered favorable on health. We considered the role of various aspects of the Mediterranean diet on cancer risk in a series of Italian case-control studies including about 10,000 cases of cancer at 13 different sites and over 17,000 controls. For most epithelial cancers, the risk decreased with increasing vegetable consumption. Allium vegetables were also favorably related to cancer risk. Fruit intake was inversely associated with digestive tract and laryngeal cancers. For digestive tract cancers, the population attributable risks for low intake of vegetables and fruit ranged between 15% and 40%. Olive oil and unsaturated fats, which are typical aspects of the Mediterranean diet, were inversely related to the risk of several cancers, particularly of the upper aerodigestive tract. Whole grain food (and hence possibly fiber) intake was also related to reduced risk of various cancers. In contrast, refined grains and, consequently, glycemic load and index were associated to increased risks. Several micronutrients and food components (including folate, flavonoids, and carotenoids) showed inverse relations with cancer risk, but the main component(s) responsible for the favorable effect of a diet rich in vegetables and fruit remain undefined. PMID:20155613

  13. Networking environmental metadata: a pilot project for the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonora, N.; Benito, M.; Abou El-Magd, I.; Mazzetti, P.; Ndong, C.

    2012-04-01

    To better exploit any environmental dataset it is necessary to provide detailed information (metadata) capable to furnish the best data description. Operating environmental data and information networking requires the long-term investment of financial and human resources. As these resources are scarce, ensuring sustainability can be a struggle. Then, to use more effectively human and economic resources and to avoid duplication, it is essential to test existing models and, where appropriate, replicate strategies and experiences. For the above reasons, it has been programmed to pilot a project to implement and test a metadata catalogue's networking, involving Countries afferent the Mediterranean Region, to demonstrate that the adoption of open source and free software and international interoperability standards can contribute to the alignment of I&TC resources to achieve environmental information sharing. This pilot, planned in the frame of the EGIDA FP7 European Project, aims to support the implementation of a replication methodology for the establishment of national/regional environmental information nodes on the bases of the System of Systems architecture concept, to support the exchange of environmental information in the frame of the Barcelona Convention and to incept a Mediterranean scale joint contribution to GEOSS focusing on partnership, infrastructures and products. To establish the partnership and to conduce interoperability tests, this pilot project build on the Info-RAC (Information and Communication Activity Centre of the United Nation Environmental Programme - Mediterranean Action Plan) and GEO (Group on Earth Observations) networks.

  14. Red algal exotics on North Sea coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, Christine A.; Stegenga, Herre

    1998-09-01

    A total of ten red seaweed species are recognized as introduced into the North Sea from other parts of the world. These are Asparagopsis armata and Bonnemaisonia hamifera (Bonnemaisoniales), Grateloupia doryphora (Halymeniales), Antithamnionella spirographidis, Antithamnionella ternifolia, Anotrichium furcellatum, Dasya baillouviana, ?Dasysiphonia sp., Polysiphonia harveyi and Polysiphonia senticulosa (Ceramiales). The oldest of these is B. hamifera, introduced prior to 1890, while the most recent, ?Dasysiphonia sp., was first found in 1994 and still requires taxonomic investigation. A variety of distribution patterns is seen, with geographical ranges varying from general within the North Sea to very restricted. The diversity of introduced red algae on eastern coasts of the North Sea is much greater than in the west. The most likely explanation for this pattern is that French coasts were the initial site of introduction for many of the seaweeds, which were then distributed northwards by the residual surface currents. Their increasing success in the Netherlands has probably been promoted by the drastically changed local hydrodynamic conditions which have also permitted the recent introduction of many native European species. Of the biological features of species that may favour their success as introductions, clonal vegetative propagation, often with specialized propagules or fragmentation mechanisms, is almost ubiquitous. Low-temperature tolerances can be inferred, but data are sparse. Many of the alien red algae in the North Sea contain anti-grazing compounds such as bromophenols, which may contribute to their invasive potential by deterring grazing sufficiently to permit establishment of an inoculum.

  15. Characterization of aerosol episodes in the greater Mediterranean Sea area from satellite observations (2000-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkikas, A.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Torres, O.

    2016-03-01

    An algorithm able to identify and characterize episodes of different aerosol types above sea surfaces of the greater Mediterranean basin (GMB), including the Black Sea and the Atlantic Ocean off the coasts of Iberia and northwest Africa, is presented in this study. Based on this algorithm, five types of intense (strong and extreme) aerosol episodes in the GMB are identified and characterized using daily aerosol optical properties from satellite measurements, namely MODIS-Terra, Earth Probe (EP)-TOMS and OMI-Aura. These aerosol episodes are: (i) biomass-burning/urban-industrial (BU), (ii) desert dust (DD), (iii) dust/sea-salt (DSS), (iv) mixed (MX) and (v) undetermined (UN). The identification and characterization is made with our algorithm using a variety of aerosol properties, namely aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (α), fine fraction (FF), effective radius (reff) and Aerosol Index (AI). During the study period (2000-2007), the most frequent aerosol episodes are DD, observed primarily in the western and central Mediterranean Sea, and off the northern African coasts, 7 times/year for strong episodes and 4 times/year for extreme ones, on average. The DD episodes yield 40% of all types of strong aerosol episodes in the study region, while they account for 71.5% of all extreme episodes. The frequency of occurrence of strong episodes exhibits specific geographical patterns, for example the BU are mostly observed along the coasts of southern Europe and off the Atlantic coasts of Portugal, the MX episodes off the Spanish Mediterranean coast and over the Adriatic and northern Aegean Sea, while the DSS ones over the western and central Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, the extreme episodes for all but DD aerosol display more patchy spatial patterns. The strong episodes exhibit AOD at 550 nm as high as 1.6 in the southernmost parts of central and eastern Mediterranean Sea, which rise up to 5 for the extreme, mainly DD and DSS, episodes. Although more

  16. Are lionfish set for a Mediterranean invasion? Modelling explains why this is unlikely to occur.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matthew W; Purkis, Sam J

    2014-11-15

    The Atlantic invasion of Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans/P. miles) has been as swift as it has been disastrous. Lionfish are non-native to the Mediterranean, but an invasion is perhaps even more likely than for the Atlantic. First, as for the Atlantic, there are many major cities on the coast of the Mediterranean (where aquarium-keeping is a common practice and chances of accidental and deliberate releases are high), and second, lionfish are native to the Red Sea, to which the Mediterranean is connected via the Suez Canal. Furthermore, there have already been four records of lionfish in the Mediterranean and so the pretext for an invasion is already in place. Up until now, however, it has been difficult to gauge the likelihood of an infestation of lionfish in the Mediterranean as, unlike the Atlantic, this sea has not been examined in terms of its hydrodynamics, ocean climate, and bathymetry, all factors known to be relevant to assessing the possibility of invasion. Motivated by this knowledge-gap, this study used remote sensing and computer modeling to investigate the connectivity between areas along the Mediterranean coastline that fulfill the necessary physical criteria to serve as potential lionfish habitat. Model results from the Mediterranean were compared and contrasted to those from the Atlantic and eastern Pacific. The Atlantic was considered because the lionfish invasion there has been voracious. Meanwhile, the eastern Pacific is interesting as a site without native lionfish, but with plenty of opportunity for their introduction, but no invasion yet recorded. Results indicated that, unlike in the Atlantic, connectivity among potential lionfish habitats in the Mediterranean was low in the study and comparable to that in the eastern Pacific. Although oceanographic conditions in the Mediterranean were found unfavorable for wide dispersion of lionfish larvae, hotspots where numerous lionfish sightings would forewarn an impending invasion were

  17. Postfire chaparral regeneration under mediterranean and non-mediterranean climates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.; Fotheringham, Connie J.; Rundel, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares postfire regeneration and diversity patterns in fire-prone chaparral shrublands from mediterranean (California) and non-mediterranean-type climates (Arizona). Vegetation sampling was conducted in tenth hectare plots with nested subplots for the first two years after fire. Floras in the two regions were compared with Jaccard's Index and importance of families and genera compared with dominance-diversity curves. Although there were 44 families in common between the two regions, the dominant families differed; Poaceae and Fabaceae in Arizona and Hydrophyllaceae and Rosaceae in California. Dominance diversity curves indicated in the first year a more equable distribution of families in Arizona than in California. Woody plants were much more dominant in the mediterranean climate and herbaceous plants more dominant in the bimodal rainfall climate. Species diversity was comparable in both regions at the lowest spatial scales but not at the tenth hectare scale. Due to the double growing season in the non-mediterranean region, the diversity for the first year comprised two different herbaceous floras in the fall and spring growing seasons. The Mediterranean climate in California, in contrast, had only a spring growing season and thus the total diversity for the first year was significantly greater in Arizona than in California for both annuals and herbaceous perennials. Chaparral in these two climate regimes share many dominant shrub species but the postfire communities are very different. Arizona chaparral has both a spring and fall growing season and these produce two very different postfire floras. When combined, the total annual diversity was substantially greater in Arizona chaparral.

  18. Princess Astrid Coast, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The continent of Antarctica is almost completely covered by a thick blanket of ice, punctuated only by steep mountain peaks and a handful of dry valleys. Antarctica is also ringed by a permanent ice shelf, and that is surrounded by seasonal sea ice. The image above, acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on September 26, 2001, shows many of the types of ice found in Antarctica. At the bottom of the image is the ice of the continental glacier, which is up to 4,000 meters thick in the interior. These thick glaciers are held in place by coastal mountain ranges. Some ice does flow through the mountains, spilling onto the relatively flat land of the Princess Astrid Coast. Cold air also spills over the mountains, creating very strong and persistent 'katabatic' winds. These scour the snow off the tops of the glaciers, leaving pale blue patches of bare ice. Above the coastline is the ice shelf, which is much smoother. There, glacial ice actually floats on the sea surface. Beyond that is the chaotic surface of the sea ice, which has been solidifying all winter long. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. Seismic noise recored by seafloor observatories at Mediterranean sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Caro, Mariagrazia; Monna, Stephen; Frugoni, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Favali, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is an area highly exposed to geo-hazards, such as seismic and volcanic activity. Real-time and continuous monitoring of its coastal areas is needed to ensure rapid warning and mitigate the effects of natural disasters. Seafloor observatories for near-real-time and real-time interactive long-term monitoring of ocean processes which are part of the EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory, www.emso-eu.org) Research Infrastructure, have been deployed in sites of the Mediterranean basin. We present long-term time series acquired by GEOSTAR-class seafloor observatories deployed in four sites of Mediterranean areas: Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas (deep seafloor Central-Mediterranean sites) and the Marmara Sea and Gulf of Corinth (shallow seafloor Eastern-Mediterranean sites). We generated a reference model of the background seismic noise based on data collected from seismometers installed on board seafloor observatories. We concentrate on interesting and peculiar features of the noise signal in the frequency band 0.003-50 Hz. The main contribution in the short period band >5Hz (<2s) comes from anthropic noise (e.g. shipping noise). In this band we also find a peak around 0.8Hz (1.25s) which appears to be a persistent characteristic of the Mediterranean basins. Seasonal variations (summer-winter) are visible in the microseismic band 0.05-0.5Hz (2-20s). In particular in the Ionian and Tyrrhenian deep seafloor sites we can distinguish the splitting of the DF (Double Frequency peak) in the long period (LPDF) and the short period (SPDF) peaks. Our study shows the presence of the LPDF, well visible at the deep seafloor sites, and seasonal variations of the LPDF and the SPDF amplitudes ratio, suggesting that the SPDF depends on the sea wave regime generated by local winds. For the deep seafloor sites we can also appreciate the contribution of infragravity waves (<0.05Hz). Our observations confirm the dependence of the

  20. The Mediterranean Oscillation and precipitation in the Jordan River region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnros, Tobias; Menzel, Lucas

    2014-05-01

    are associated with high- and above normal winter precipitation. As an example; during negative MOI phases the probability of below average precipitation is 78%. During positive MOI phases the probability is 41%. These findings can be considered valuable for the purpose of forecasting drought within the Jordan River region. References: Black, E. (2011). The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation and European circulation regimes on the daily to interannual variability of winter precipitation in Israel. International Journal of Climatology, 1-11. doi:10.1002/joc.2383 Palutikof, J. P., Conte, M., Casimiro Mendes, J., Goodess, C. M., & Espirito Santo, F. (1996). Climate and climate change. In C. J. Brandt & J. B. Thornes (Eds.), Mediterranean desertification and land use. London, UK: John Wiley and Sons.

  1. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet.

    PubMed

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A; Osada, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  2. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  3. [Mediterranean lymphoma mimicking Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Jouini, S; Ayadi, K; Mokrani, A; Wachuku, E; Hmouda, H; Gourdie, R

    2001-07-01

    We report an uncommon localization of mediterranean lymphoma of the terminal ileum in a 28 year-old male patient. Ultrasound and Computed Tomography showed moderate regular and symmetrical intestinal wall thickening simulating Crohn's disease. We highlight the role of computed tomography in the diagnosis, staging and detection of complications. PMID:11507451

  4. Immunoglobulin genes in Andalusia (Spain). Genetic diversity in the Mediterranean space.

    PubMed

    Fortes-Lima, César; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Hernández, Candela L; Reales, Guillermo; Calderón, Rosario

    2014-11-01

    Andalusia is the most densely populated region of Spain since ancient times, and has a rich history of contacts across the Mediterranean. Earlier studies have underlined the relatively high frequency of the Sub-Saharan GM 1,17 5* haplotype in western Andalusia (Huelva province, n=252) and neighbouring Atlantic regions. Here, we provide novel data on GM/KM markers in eastern Andalusians (n=195) from Granada province, where African GM*1,17 5* frequency is relatively high (0.044). The most frequent GM haplotypes in Andalusia parallel the most common in Europe. Altogether, these data allow us to gain insight into the genetic diversity of southern Iberia. Additionally, we assess population structure by comparing our Iberian samples with 41 Mediterranean populations. GM haplotype variation across the Mediterranean reflects intense and complex interactions between North Africans and South Europeans along human history, highlighting that African influence over the Iberian Peninsula does not follow an isotropic pattern. PMID:25444709

  5. The Role of Hydrodynamic Processes on Anchovy Eggs and Larvae Distribution in the Sicily Channel (Mediterranean Sea): A Case Study for the 2004 Data Set

    PubMed Central

    Falcini, Federico; Palatella, Luigi; Cuttitta, Angela; Buongiorno Nardelli, Bruno; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Lanotte, Alessandra S.; Patti, Bernardino; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the link between ocean hydrodynamics and distribution of small pelagic fish species is fundamental for the sustainable management of fishery resources. Both commercial and scientific communities are indeed seeking to provide services that could “connect the dots” among in situ and remote observations, numerical ocean modelling, and fisheries. In the Mediterranean Sea and, in particular, in the Sicily Channel the reproductive strategy of the European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) is strongly influenced by the oceanographic patterns, which are often visible in sea surface temperature satellite data. Based on these experimental evidences, we propose here a more general approach where the role of ocean currents, wind effects, and mesoscale activity are tied together. To investigate how these features affect anchovy larvae distribution, we pair ichthyoplankton observations to a wide remote sensing data set, and to Lagrangian numerical simulations for larval transport. Our analysis shows that while the wind-induced coastal current is able to transport anchovy larvae from spawning areas to the recruiting area off the Sicilian south-eastern tip, significant cross-shore transport due to the combination of strong northwesterly mistral winds and topographic effects delivers larvae away from the coastal conveyor belt. We then use a potential vorticity approach to describe the occurrence of larvae cross-shore transport. We conclude that monitoring and quantifying the upwelling on the southern Sicilian coast during the spawning season allows to estimate the cross-shore transport of larvae and the consequent decrease of individuals within the recruiting area. PMID:25915489

  6. The role of hydrodynamic processes on anchovy eggs and larvae distribution in the sicily channel (mediterranean sea): a case study for the 2004 data set.

    PubMed

    Falcini, Federico; Palatella, Luigi; Cuttitta, Angela; Buongiorno Nardelli, Bruno; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Lanotte, Alessandra S; Patti, Bernardino; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the link between ocean hydrodynamics and distribution of small pelagic fish species is fundamental for the sustainable management of fishery resources. Both commercial and scientific communities are indeed seeking to provide services that could "connect the dots" among in situ and remote observations, numerical ocean modelling, and fisheries. In the Mediterranean Sea and, in particular, in the Sicily Channel the reproductive strategy of the European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) is strongly influenced by the oceanographic patterns, which are often visible in sea surface temperature satellite data. Based on these experimental evidences, we propose here a more general approach where the role of ocean currents, wind effects, and mesoscale activity are tied together. To investigate how these features affect anchovy larvae distribution, we pair ichthyoplankton observations to a wide remote sensing data set, and to Lagrangian numerical simulations for larval transport. Our analysis shows that while the wind-induced coastal current is able to transport anchovy larvae from spawning areas to the recruiting area off the Sicilian south-eastern tip, significant cross-shore transport due to the combination of strong northwesterly mistral winds and topographic effects delivers larvae away from the coastal conveyor belt. We then use a potential vorticity approach to describe the occurrence of larvae cross-shore transport. We conclude that monitoring and quantifying the upwelling on the southern Sicilian coast during the spawning season allows to estimate the cross-shore transport of larvae and the consequent decrease of individuals within the recruiting area. PMID:25915489

  7. An 80 kyr-long continuous speleothem record from Dim Cave, SW Turkey with paleoclimatic implications for the Eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Shulmeister, James; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Uysal, I Tonguç; Feng, Yue-Xing; Nguyen, Ai Duc; Yüce, Galip

    2015-01-01

    Speleothem-based stable isotope records are valuable in sub-humid and semi-arid settings where many other terrestrial climate proxies are fragmentary. The Eastern Mediterranean is one such region. Here we present an 80-kyr-long precisely-dated (by U-series) and high-resolution oxygen (δ(18)O) and carbon (δ(13)C) records from Dim Cave (~36°N) in SW Turkey. The glacial-interglacial δ(18)O variations in the Dim Cave speleothem are best explained in terms of changes in the trajectories of winter westerly air masses. These are along a northerly (European) track (isotopically less depleted) during the early last glaciation but are gradually depressed southward closer to the modern westerly track along the North African coast (more depleted) after c.50 kyr and remain in the southern track through the Last Glacial Maximum. The southward displacement of the westerly track reflects growth of the Fennoscandian ice sheet and its impact on westerly wind fields. Changes in δ(13)C are interpreted as reflecting soil organic matter composition and/or thickness. δ(13)C values are significantly more negative in interglacials reflecting active carbonic acid production in the soil and less negative in glacial times reflecting carbonate rock values. Several Heinrich events are recorded in the Dim record indicating intensification of westerly flow across this part of the EM. PMID:26337921

  8. An 80 kyr-long continuous speleothem record from Dim Cave, SW Turkey with paleoclimatic implications for the Eastern Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Shulmeister, James; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Tonguç Uysal, I.; Feng, Yue-Xing; Duc Nguyen, Ai; Yüce, Galip

    2015-01-01

    Speleothem-based stable isotope records are valuable in sub-humid and semi-arid settings where many other terrestrial climate proxies are fragmentary. The Eastern Mediterranean is one such region. Here we present an 80-kyr-long precisely-dated (by U-series) and high-resolution oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) records from Dim Cave (~36°N) in SW Turkey. The glacial-interglacial δ18O variations in the Dim Cave speleothem are best explained in terms of changes in the trajectories of winter westerly air masses. These are along a northerly (European) track (isotopically less depleted) during the early last glaciation but are gradually depressed southward closer to the modern westerly track along the North African coast (more depleted) after c.50 kyr and remain in the southern track through the Last Glacial Maximum. The southward displacement of the westerly track reflects growth of the Fennoscandian ice sheet and its impact on westerly wind fields. Changes in δ13C are interpreted as reflecting soil organic matter composition and/or thickness. δ13C values are significantly more negative in interglacials reflecting active carbonic acid production in the soil and less negative in glacial times reflecting carbonate rock values. Several Heinrich events are recorded in the Dim record indicating intensification of westerly flow across this part of the EM. PMID:26337921

  9. Climate Local Information over the Mediterranean to Respond User Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruti, P.

    2012-12-01

    CLIM-RUN aims at developing a protocol for applying new methodologies and improved modeling and downscaling tools for the provision of adequate climate information at regional to local scale that is relevant to and usable by different sectors of society (policymakers, industry, cities, etc.). Differently from current approaches, CLIM-RUN will develop a bottom-up protocol directly involving stakeholders early in the process with the aim of identifying well defined needs at the regional to local scale. The improved modeling and downscaling tools will then be used to optimally respond to these specific needs. The protocol is assessed by application to relevant case studies involving interdependent sectors, primarily tourism and energy, and natural hazards (wild fires) for representative target areas (mountainous regions, coastal areas, islands). The region of interest for the project is the Greater Mediterranean area, which is particularly important for two reasons. First, the Mediterranean is a recognized climate change hot-spot, i.e. a region particularly sensitive and vulnerable to global warming. Second, while a number of countries in Central and Northern Europe have already in place well developed climate service networks (e.g. the United Kingdom and Germany), no such network is available in the Mediterranean. CLIM-RUN is thus also intended to provide the seed for the formation of a Mediterranean basin-side climate service network which would eventually converge into a pan-European network. The general time horizon of interest for the project is the future period 2010-2050, a time horizon that encompasses the contributions of both inter-decadal variability and greenhouse-forced climate change. In particular, this time horizon places CLIM-RUN within the context of a new emerging area of research, that of decadal prediction, which will provide a strong potential for novel research.

  10. The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats

    PubMed Central

    Coll, Marta; Piroddi, Chiara; Steenbeek, Jeroen; Kaschner, Kristin; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Ballesteros, Enric; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Corbera, Jordi; Dailianis, Thanos; Danovaro, Roberto; Estrada, Marta; Froglia, Carlo; Galil, Bella S.; Gasol, Josep M.; Gertwagen, Ruthy; Gil, João; Guilhaumon, François; Kesner-Reyes, Kathleen; Kitsos, Miltiadis-Spyridon; Koukouras, Athanasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Laxamana, Elijah; López-Fé de la Cuadra, Carlos M.; Lotze, Heike K.; Martin, Daniel; Mouillot, David; Oro, Daniel; Raicevich, Saša; Rius-Barile, Josephine; Saiz-Salinas, Jose Ignacio; San Vicente, Carles; Somot, Samuel; Templado, José; Turon, Xavier; Vafidis, Dimitris; Villanueva, Roger; Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hot spot. Here we combined an extensive literature analysis with expert opinions to update publicly available estimates of major taxa in this marine ecosystem and to revise and update several species lists. We also assessed overall spatial and temporal patterns of species diversity and identified major changes and threats. Our results listed approximately 17,000 marine species occurring in the Mediterranean Sea. However, our estimates of marine diversity are still incomplete as yet—undescribed species will be added in the future. Diversity for microbes is substantially underestimated, and the deep-sea areas and portions of the southern and eastern region are still poorly known. In addition, the invasion of alien species is a crucial factor that will continue to change the biodiversity of the Mediterranean, mainly in its eastern basin that can spread rapidly northwards and westwards due to the warming of the Mediterranean Sea. Spatial patterns showed a general decrease in biodiversity from northwestern to southeastern regions following a gradient of production, with some exceptions and caution due to gaps in our knowledge of the biota along the southern and eastern rims. Biodiversity was also generally higher in coastal areas and continental shelves, and decreases with depth. Temporal trends indicated that overexploitation and habitat loss have been the main human drivers of historical changes in biodiversity. At present, habitat loss and degradation, followed by fishing impacts, pollution, climate change, eutrophication, and the establishment of alien species are the most important threats and affect the greatest number of taxonomic groups. All these impacts are expected to grow in importance in the future, especially climate change and habitat degradation. The spatial identification of hot spots highlighted the ecological importance of most of the western Mediterranean shelves (and in particular, the Strait of

  11. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats.

    PubMed

    Coll, Marta; Piroddi, Chiara; Steenbeek, Jeroen; Kaschner, Kristin; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Ballesteros, Enric; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Corbera, Jordi; Dailianis, Thanos; Danovaro, Roberto; Estrada, Marta; Froglia, Carlo; Galil, Bella S; Gasol, Josep M; Gertwagen, Ruthy; Gil, João; Guilhaumon, François; Kesner-Reyes, Kathleen; Kitsos, Miltiadis-Spyridon; Koukouras, Athanasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Laxamana, Elijah; López-Fé de la Cuadra, Carlos M; Lotze, Heike K; Martin, Daniel; Mouillot, David; Oro, Daniel; Raicevich, Sasa; Rius-Barile, Josephine; Saiz-Salinas, Jose Ignacio; San Vicente, Carles; Somot, Samuel; Templado, José; Turon, Xavier; Vafidis, Dimitris; Villanueva, Roger; Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hot spot. Here we combined an extensive literature analysis with expert opinions to update publicly available estimates of major taxa in this marine ecosystem and to revise and update several species lists. We also assessed overall spatial and temporal patterns of species diversity and identified major changes and threats. Our results listed approximately 17,000 marine species occurring in the Mediterranean Sea. However, our estimates of marine diversity are still incomplete as yet-undescribed species will be added in the future. Diversity for microbes is substantially underestimated, and the deep-sea areas and portions of the southern and eastern region are still poorly known. In addition, the invasion of alien species is a crucial factor that will continue to change the biodiversity of the Mediterranean, mainly in its eastern basin that can spread rapidly northwards and westwards due to the warming of the Mediterranean Sea. Spatial patterns showed a general decrease in biodiversity from northwestern to southeastern regions following a gradient of production, with some exceptions and caution due to gaps in our knowledge of the biota along the southern and eastern rims. Biodiversity was also generally higher in coastal areas and continental shelves, and decreases with depth. Temporal trends indicated that overexploitation and habitat loss have been the main human drivers of historical changes in biodiversity. At present, habitat loss and degradation, followed by fishing impacts, pollution, climate change, eutrophication, and the establishment of alien species are the most important threats and affect the greatest number of taxonomic groups. All these impacts are expected to grow in importance in the future, especially climate change and habitat degradation. The spatial identification of hot spots highlighted the ecological importance of most of the western Mediterranean shelves (and in particular, the Strait of

  12. Occurrence of the Atlantic blue crab Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 in two Mediterranean coastal habitats: Temporary visitor or permanent resident?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, Giorgio; Carrozzo, Leonardo; Costantini, Maria Letizia; Rossi, Loreto; Marini, Gabriele; Pinna, Maurizio

    2013-12-01

    Coastal habitats worldwide are threatened by invasive alien species (IAS) that can alter community and ecosystem processes. Invasions are of particular concern for the Mediterranean Sea, and IAS-related descriptors of good ecological status have been recently proposed in European reference regulations.

  13. An European historical reconstruction of sea surface dynamics (waves and storm surge) for coastal impact studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, Melisa; Perez, Jorge; Cid, Alba; Castanedo, Sonia; Losada, Inigo; Medina, Raul; Mendez, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Despite their outstanding relevance in coastal processes, a study of the sea surface dynamics due to atmospheric wind and pressure variations are rather limited in comparison with the mean sea level rise. Data of waves and surges along the European region are scarce and in-homogeneous, not only in terms of spatial coverage but also in terms of temporal coverage. This study presents two databases focused on a historical reconstruction of: (i) the wind-generated waves (GOW) and (ii) the meteorological sea level component (GOS). The GOW and GOS datasets cover the whole European coast (North Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea) at high-spatial resolution from 1979 to present. The meteorological sea level component (storm surge) has been generated by the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). To take into account non-linear interactions between tides and surges, both dynamics were simulated jointly. Final results of meteorological component of sea level were obtained by subtracting the astronomical tide from the simulated sea surface. The model was set-up for Europe using an orthogonal grid, with a horizontal resolution ranging between 3.5 to 11 km. A spatial domain of approximately 5 km was used for the Black Sea. Local coastal waves can be the integrated result of the ocean surface over a large region of influence. GOW-Europe is designed from a multigrid approach based on the overlapping of two-way nested domains. The coarser spatial resolution along the European coast of GOW is 15 km. The generation and propagation of the sea surface waves of GOW-Europe are simulated with the model WAVEWATCH III v4.18. Effects of non-linear wave-wave interactions, whitecapping and depth-induced refraction are considered in the propagation model. In order to validate GOW and GOS over Europe with available observations, an exhaustive comparison with in-situ and remote measurements was developed. In-situ buoys and tide-gauges are used to compare hourly time

  14. Recent nutrient dynamics in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kitack; Moon, Ji-Young

    2016-04-01

    The concentrations of nitrate (N) and phosphate (P), and the N:P ratio in the upper water column of the Mediterranean Sea (MED) were examined using observational data (~173,000 data points) collected since 1980s. The observed trends were found to distinctly evolve in the western and eastern MED. In the western MED the N and P concentrations have rapidly increased over time and was broadly consistent with the riverine input history from the populated areas surrounding the western MED. Contrarily, the N and P concentrations in the eastern MED markedly increased up until the mid-1995 and briefly remained high between 1995 and 2000. The N concentration rapidly decreased thereafter. In particular, the three-phase temporal transition of N and P in the eastern MED (increase-constant-decline) was more consistent with the emission history of pollutant nitrogen from the western European continent, in which regulation of emissions of pollutant nitrogen has been in place since 1970s. Our analysis implies that the recent N dynamics in the upper MED appeared to be sensitive to input dynamics of anthropogenic N, via atmospheric deposition and river. This conclusion is further strengthened by good agreement between the integrated rate of increase in the upper-water N inventory and the total anthropogenic N input during the past 30 years.

  15. Three new species of the genus Paraleucilla Dendy, 1892 (Porifera, Calcarea) from the coast of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Fernanda F; Menegola, Carla; Lanna, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of calcareous sponges from the coast of Bahia State, NE Brazil are described. All of them belong to the genus Paraleucilla (Calcaronea, Leucosolenida, Amphoriscidae): P. solangeae sp. nov., P. oca sp. nov., and P. incomposita sp. nov. The number of species recorded from the Bahia coast has thus increased from 10 to 13. Including these new species, there are now 50 calcareous sponge species known from the entire Brazilian coast. Paraleucilla is now composed of 11 species, six of them occurring along the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The remaining species occur mainly in the Indian Ocean, and also in the Pacific Ocean, Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea. An identification key for all Paraleucilla species is provided. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Solange Peixinho, to acknowledge her contribution to our understanding of the biodiversity of Calcarea from the Bahia coast in Brazil. PMID:24870655

  16. The potential reproductive contribution of Mediterranean migrating eels to the Anguilla anguilla stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capoccioni, Fabrizio; Costa, Corrado; Canali, Emiliano; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Antonucci, Francesca; Ragonese, Sergio; Bianchini, Marco L.

    2014-11-01

    The European eel is a highly migratory fish. After the reproduction in the Sargasso Sea early larval-stages start a passive ocean migration towards European and Mediterranean continental waters. After several years as yellow eels, mature adults change to silver stage and then start their return trip. The trajectory of their backward migration is unknown, because of low probability of capturing migrating individuals, having this capture never been reported in the Mediterranean. Recently, 8 silver eels were collected in the Strait of Sicily. Using literature information about possible individual route and speed, their geographical position was projected up to the spawning site during reproductive season. Despite using optimal and continuous migration swimming speed, none of the specimens may have been able to reach the Sargasso Sea in time for mating. Subsequently, to identify putative Mediterranean areas from which eels could have been reaching the spawning grounds on time, a backward scenario was postulated using the previous scientific assumptions. Our results suggests that just a small quota of Mediterranean silver males successfully reaches the Sargasso area, and only females from the westernmost and central parts of the basin could be able to fruitfully pond their eggs during the supposed spawning period.

  17. The potential reproductive contribution of Mediterranean migrating eels to the Anguilla anguilla stock.

    PubMed

    Capoccioni, Fabrizio; Costa, Corrado; Canali, Emiliano; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Antonucci, Francesca; Ragonese, Sergio; Bianchini, Marco L

    2014-01-01

    The European eel is a highly migratory fish. After the reproduction in the Sargasso Sea early larval-stages start a passive ocean migration towards European and Mediterranean continental waters. After several years as yellow eels, mature adults change to silver stage and then start their return trip. The trajectory of their backward migration is unknown, because of low probability of capturing migrating individuals, having this capture never been reported in the Mediterranean. Recently, 8 silver eels were collected in the Strait of Sicily. Using literature information about possible individual route and speed, their geographical position was projected up to the spawning site during reproductive season. Despite using optimal and continuous migration swimming speed, none of the specimens may have been able to reach the Sargasso Sea in time for mating. Subsequently, to identify putative Mediterranean areas from which eels could have been reaching the spawning grounds on time, a backward scenario was postulated using the previous scientific assumptions. Our results suggests that just a small quota of Mediterranean silver males successfully reaches the Sargasso area, and only females from the westernmost and central parts of the basin could be able to fruitfully pond their eggs during the supposed spawning period. PMID:25424371

  18. The potential reproductive contribution of Mediterranean migrating eels to the Anguilla anguilla stock

    PubMed Central

    Capoccioni, Fabrizio; Costa, Corrado; Canali, Emiliano; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Antonucci, Francesca; Ragonese, Sergio; Bianchini, Marco L.

    2014-01-01

    The European eel is a highly migratory fish. After the reproduction in the Sargasso Sea early larval-stages start a passive ocean migration towards European and Mediterranean continental waters. After several years as yellow eels, mature adults change to silver stage and then start their return trip. The trajectory of their backward migration is unknown, because of low probability of capturing migrating individuals, having this capture never been reported in the Mediterranean. Recently, 8 silver eels were collected in the Strait of Sicily. Using literature information about possible individual route and speed, their geographical position was projected up to the spawning site during reproductive season. Despite using optimal and continuous migration swimming speed, none of the specimens may have been able to reach the Sargasso Sea in time for mating. Subsequently, to identify putative Mediterranean areas from which eels could have been reaching the spawning grounds on time, a backward scenario was postulated using the previous scientific assumptions. Our results suggests that just a small quota of Mediterranean silver males successfully reaches the Sargasso area, and only females from the westernmost and central parts of the basin could be able to fruitfully pond their eggs during the supposed spawning period. PMID:25424371

  19. Modelling the background aerosol climatologies (1989-2010) for the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Jerez, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    Aerosol levels and composition are influenced by multiple atmospheric physico-chemical processes that can affect them from its release point (as primary aerosol), or via gas-to-particle conversion processes that give rise to secondary aerosols. The contribution of the various aerosol sources, the role of long-range transport and the contribution of primary and secondary particulate matter to the ambient aerosol concentrations over Europe are not well known (Kulmala et al., 2009). Focusing on the Mediterranean, Querol et al. (2009) point out that there is a lack of studies on the variability of particulate matter (PM) along the Mediterranean basin, necessary for understanding the special features that differentiate aerosol processes between the western, eastern and central Mediterranean basins. In this perspective, modelling systems based on state-of-science chemistry transport models (CTMs) are fundamental elements to investigate the transport and chemistry of pollutants behaviour at different scales and to assess the impact of emissions in aerosol levels and composition. Therefore, this study aims to summarise the results on the levels and chemical composition of aerosols along the Mediterranean basin, highlighting the marked gradient between the western-central-eastern coasts. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the seasonality of PM composition and levels. For this purpose, the regional modelling system WRF-CHIMERE-EMEP has been implemented for conducting a full transient simulation for the ERA-Interim period (1989-2010) using year-to-year changing EMEP emissions. The domain of study covers Europe with a horizontal resolution of 25 km and a vertical resolution of 23 layers in the troposphere; however the analysis focuses on the Mediterranean area. The PM levels and composition are compared to the measured values reported by the EMEP network, showing a good agreement with observations for both western and eastern Mediterranean. The modelling results for

  20. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    PubMed

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  1. Aerosol optical properties at Lampedusa (Central Mediterranean) 1. Influence of transport and identification of different aerosol types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, G.; di Sarra, A.; Meloni, D.; Piacentino, S.; Chamard, P.

    2005-07-01

    Ångström exponent values. Particles originating from all sectors show a summer maximum in aerosol optical depth. The summer increase in optical depth for European aerosols is linked with an increment in the values of α that indicates an enhancement in the number of fine particles. The summer maximum of τ for African particles is associated with a weak reduction in theÅngström exponent, suggesting an increase in the total number of particles and a relatively more intense transport of large particles. The observations were classified according to the aerosol optical properties, and two main classes have been identified: desert dust and biomass burning/urban-industrial aerosols. Values of τ and α averaged over the whole observing period are 0.37 and 0.15 for desert dust, and 0.27 and 1.77 for urban-industrial/biomass burning aerosols. Lampedusa reveals a stronger influence of desert dust compared to other Mediterranean sites (mostly located on the coasts of Europe).

  2. Life History Traits Reflect Changes in Mediterranean Butterfly Communities Due to Forest Encroachment

    PubMed Central

    Slancarova, Jana; Bartonova, Alena; Zapletal, Michal; Kotilinek, Milan; Faltynek Fric, Zdenek; Micevski, Nikola; Kati, Vasiliki; Konvicka, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The biodiversity of the Southern Balkans, part of the Mediterranean global biodiversity hot-spot, is threatened by land use intensification and abandonment, the latter causing forest encroachment of formerly open habitats. We investigated the impact of forest encroachment on butterfly species richness, community species composition and the representation of life history traits by repeated seasonal visits of 150 one-hectare sites in five separate regions in three countries—Greece, Bulgaria, and the Republic of Macedonia (FYROM—the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)— 10 replicates for each habitat type of grasslands, open formations and scrub forest within each region. Grasslands and open formations sites hosted in average more species and more red-listed species than scrub forest, while no pattern was found for numbers of Mediterranean species. As shown by ordination analyses, each of the three habitat types hosted distinct butterfly communities, with Mediterranean species inclining either towards grasslands or open formations. Analysing the representation of life history traits revealed that successional development from grasslands and open formations towards scrub forest shifts the community composition towards species overwintering in earlier stages, having fewer generations per year, and inhabiting large European or Eurosiberian (e.g. northern) ranges; it decreases the representation of Mediterranean endemics. The loss of grasslands and semi-open formations due to forest encroachment thus threatens exactly the species that should be the focus of conservation attention in the Mediterranean region, and innovative conservation actions to prevent ongoing forest encroachment are badly needed. PMID:26999008

  3. Life History Traits Reflect Changes in Mediterranean Butterfly Communities Due to Forest Encroachment.

    PubMed

    Slancarova, Jana; Bartonova, Alena; Zapletal, Michal; Kotilinek, Milan; Faltynek Fric, Zdenek; Micevski, Nikola; Kati, Vasiliki; Konvicka, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The biodiversity of the Southern Balkans, part of the Mediterranean global biodiversity hot-spot, is threatened by land use intensification and abandonment, the latter causing forest encroachment of formerly open habitats. We investigated the impact of forest encroachment on butterfly species richness, community species composition and the representation of life history traits by repeated seasonal visits of 150 one-hectare sites in five separate regions in three countries-Greece, Bulgaria, and the Republic of Macedonia (FYROM-the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)- 10 replicates for each habitat type of grasslands, open formations and scrub forest within each region. Grasslands and open formations sites hosted in average more species and more red-listed species than scrub forest, while no pattern was found for numbers of Mediterranean species. As shown by ordination analyses, each of the three habitat types hosted distinct butterfly communities, with Mediterranean species inclining either towards grasslands or open formations. Analysing the representation of life history traits revealed that successional development from grasslands and open formations towards scrub forest shifts the community composition towards species overwintering in earlier stages, having fewer generations per year, and inhabiting large European or Eurosiberian (e.g. northern) ranges; it decreases the representation of Mediterranean endemics. The loss of grasslands and semi-open formations due to forest encroachment thus threatens exactly the species that should be the focus of conservation attention in the Mediterranean region, and innovative conservation actions to prevent ongoing forest encroachment are badly needed. PMID:26999008

  4. Saharan dust deposition may affect phytoplankton growth in the Mediterranean sea at ecological time scales.

    PubMed

    Gallisai, Rachele; Peters, Francesc; Volpe, Gianluca; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, José Maria

    2014-01-01

    The surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea are extremely poor in the nutrients necessary for plankton growth. At the same time, the Mediterranean Sea borders with the largest and most active desert areas in the world and the atmosphere over the basin is subject to frequent injections of mineral dust particles. We describe statistical correlations between dust deposition over the Mediterranean Sea and surface chlorophyll concentrations at ecological time scales. Aerosol deposition of Saharan origin may explain 1 to 10% (average 5%) of seasonally detrended chlorophyll variability in the low nutrient-low chlorophyll Mediterranean. Most of the statistically significant correlations are positive with main effects in spring over the Eastern and Central Mediterranean, conforming to a view of dust events fueling needed nutrients to the planktonic community. Some areas show negative effects of dust deposition on chlorophyll, coinciding with regions under a large influence of aerosols from European origin. The influence of dust deposition on chlorophyll dynamics may become larger in future scenarios of increased aridity and shallowing of the mixed layer. PMID:25333783

  5. Saharan Dust Deposition May Affect Phytoplankton Growth in the Mediterranean Sea at Ecological Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Gallisai, Rachele; Peters, Francesc; Volpe, Gianluca; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, José Maria

    2014-01-01

    The surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea are extremely poor in the nutrients necessary for plankton growth. At the same time, the Mediterranean Sea borders with the largest and most active desert areas in the world and the atmosphere over the basin is subject to frequent injections of mineral dust particles. We describe statistical correlations between dust deposition over the Mediterranean Sea and surface chlorophyll concentrations at ecological time scales. Aerosol deposition of Saharan origin may explain 1 to 10% (average 5%) of seasonally detrended chlorophyll variability in the low nutrient-low chlorophyll Mediterranean. Most of the statistically significant correlations are positive with main effects in spring over the Eastern and Central Mediterranean, conforming to a view of dust events fueling needed nutrients to the planktonic community. Some areas show negative effects of dust deposition on chlorophyll, coinciding with regions under a large influence of aerosols from European origin. The influence of dust deposition on chlorophyll dynamics may become larger in future scenarios of increased aridity and shallowing of the mixed layer. PMID:25333783

  6. The tropical caprellid amphipod Paracaprella pusilla: a new alien crustacean in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Macarena; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Guerra-García, José Manuel

    2013-12-01

    Paracaprella pusilla Mayer (Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel 17:1-55, 1890), originally described from Brazil, is one of the most abundant caprellid amphipod species in tropical and subtropical seas around the world. During a survey of caprellid amphipods from marinas along the Balearic Island (Western Mediterranean Sea) carried out between November 2011 and August 2012, we found two established populations of P. pusilla in Mallorca and Ibiza, respectively. So far, its occurrence in European waters was reported only from southwestern Spain in 2010. This record represents a northward range expansion of the species' distribution, which is found for the first time in the Mediterranean. This is also the first record of the genus Paracaprella in the Mediterranean Sea. The most probable introduction vector was ship fouling. We also found the invasive caprellid Caprella scaura Templeton (Trans Entomol Soc Lond 1:185-198, 1836) in Mallorca and Menorca, which is recorded for the first time in the Balearic Islands, confirming its rapid expansion along the Mediterranean. When comparing reproductive traits between both alien species, we found that P. pusilla has a higher fecundity than C. scaura for the same female size. Taking into account this evidence, the species may be expected to appear in other Mediterranean and adjacent areas.

  7. Nutrient and Phytoplankton Analysis of a Mediterranean Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastiá, M. T.; Rodilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the key anthropogenic nutrient input sources are essential to adopting management measures that can target input for maximum effect in controlling the phytoplankton biomass. In this study, three systems characterized by distinctive main nutrient sources were sampled along a Mediterranean coast transect. These sources were groundwater discharge in the Ahuir area, the Serpis river discharge in the Venecia area, and a submarine wastewater outfall 1,900 m from the coast. The study area includes factors considered important in determining a coastal area as a sensitive area: it has significant nutrient sources, tourism is a major source of income in the region, and it includes an area of high water residence time (Venecia area) which is affected by the harbor facilities and by wastewater discharges. We found that in the Ahuir and the submarine wastewater outfall areas, the effects of freshwater inputs were reduced because of a greater water exchange with the oligotrophic Mediterranean waters. On the other hand, in the Venecia area, the highest levels of nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass were attributed to the greatest water residence time. In this enclosed area, harmful dinoflagellates were detected ( Alexandrium sp. and Dinophysis caudata). If the planned enlargement of the Gandia Harbor proceeds, it may increase the vulnerability of this system and provide the proper conditions of confinement for the dinoflagellate blooms' development. Management measures should first target phosphorus inputs as this is the most potential-limiting nutrient in the Venecia area and comes from a point source that is easier to control. Finally, we recommend that harbor environmental management plans include regular monitoring of water quality in adjacent waters to identify adverse phytoplankton community changes.

  8. Recent Invasion of the Symbiont-Bearing Foraminifera Pararotalia into the Eastern Mediterranean Facilitated by the Ongoing Warming Trend.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christiane; Morard, Raphael; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Weinmann, Anna E; Titelboim, Danna; Abramovich, Sigal; Kucera, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The eastern Mediterranean is a hotspot of biological invasions. Numerous species of Indo-pacific origin have colonized the Mediterranean in recent times, including tropical symbiont-bearing foraminifera. Among these is the species Pararotalia calcariformata. Unlike other invasive foraminifera, this species was discovered only two decades ago and is restricted to the eastern Mediterranean coast. Combining ecological, genetic and physiological observations, we attempt to explain the recent invasion of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Using morphological and genetic data, we confirm the species attribution to P. calcariformata McCulloch 1977 and identify its symbionts as a consortium of diatom species dominated by Minutocellus polymorphus. We document photosynthetic activity of its endosymbionts using Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorometry and test the effects of elevated temperatures on growth rates of asexual offspring. The culturing of asexual offspring for 120 days shows a 30-day period of rapid growth followed by a period of slower growth. A subsequent 48-day temperature sensitivity experiment indicates a similar developmental pathway and high growth rate at 28°C, whereas an almost complete inhibition of growth was observed at 20°C and 35°C. This indicates that the offspring of this species may have lower tolerance to cold temperatures than what would be expected for species native to the Mediterranean. We expand this hypothesis by applying a Species Distribution Model (SDM) based on modern occurrences in the Mediterranean using three environmental variables: irradiance, turbidity and yearly minimum temperature. The model reproduces the observed restricted distribution and indicates that the range of the species will drastically expand westwards under future global change scenarios. We conclude that P. calcariformata established a population in the Levant because of the recent warming in the region. In line with observations from other groups of organisms

  9. Recent Invasion of the Symbiont-Bearing Foraminifera Pararotalia into the Eastern Mediterranean Facilitated by the Ongoing Warming Trend

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Christiane; Morard, Raphael; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Weinmann, Anna E.; Titelboim, Danna; Abramovich, Sigal; Kucera, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The eastern Mediterranean is a hotspot of biological invasions. Numerous species of Indo-pacific origin have colonized the Mediterranean in recent times, including tropical symbiont-bearing foraminifera. Among these is the species Pararotalia calcariformata. Unlike other invasive foraminifera, this species was discovered only two decades ago and is restricted to the eastern Mediterranean coast. Combining ecological, genetic and physiological observations, we attempt to explain the recent invasion of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Using morphological and genetic data, we confirm the species attribution to P. calcariformata McCulloch 1977 and identify its symbionts as a consortium of diatom species dominated by Minutocellus polymorphus. We document photosynthetic activity of its endosymbionts using Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorometry and test the effects of elevated temperatures on growth rates of asexual offspring. The culturing of asexual offspring for 120 days shows a 30-day period of rapid growth followed by a period of slower growth. A subsequent 48-day temperature sensitivity experiment indicates a similar developmental pathway and high growth rate at 28°C, whereas an almost complete inhibition of growth was observed at 20°C and 35°C. This indicates that the offspring of this species may have lower tolerance to cold temperatures than what would be expected for species native to the Mediterranean. We expand this hypothesis by applying a Species Distribution Model (SDM) based on modern occurrences in the Mediterranean using three environmental variables: irradiance, turbidity and yearly minimum temperature. The model reproduces the observed restricted distribution and indicates that the range of the species will drastically expand westwards under future global change scenarios. We conclude that P. calcariformata established a population in the Levant because of the recent warming in the region. In line with observations from other groups of organisms

  10. Characterization of PM10 sources in the central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolai, G.; Nava, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Becagli, S.; Traversi, R.; Marconi, M.; Frosini, D.; Severi, M.; Udisti, R.; di Sarra, A.; Pace, G.; Meloni, D.; Bommarito, C.; Monteleone, F.; Anello, F.; Sferlazzo, D. M.

    2015-07-01

    The Mediterranean Basin atmosphere is influenced by both strong natural and anthropogenic aerosol emissions, and is also subject to important climatic forcings. Several programs have addressed the study of the Mediterranean basin; nevertheless important pieces of information are still missing. In this framework, PM10 samples were collected on a daily basis on the island of Lampedusa (35.5° N, 12.6° E, 45 m a.s.l.), which is far from continental pollution sources (the nearest coast, in Tunisia, is more than 100 km away). After mass gravimetric measurements, different portions of the samples were analyzed to determine the ionic content by Ion Chromatography (IC), the soluble metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), and the total (soluble + insoluble) elemental composition by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Data from years 2007 and 2008 are used in this study. The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model was applied to the 2 year long data set of PM10 mass concentration and chemical composition to assess the aerosol sources affecting the Central Mediterranean basin. Seven sources were resolved: sea-salt, mineral dust, biogenic emissions, primary particulate ship emissions, secondary sulphate, secondary nitrate, and combustion emissions. Source contributions to the total PM10 mass were estimated to be about 40 % for sea-salt, around 25 % for mineral dust, 10 % each for secondary nitrate and secondary sulphate, and 5 % each for primary particulate ship emissions, biogenic emissions, and combustion emissions. Large variations in absolute and relative contributions are found and appear to depend on the season and on transport episodes. In addition, the secondary sulphate due to ship emissions was estimated, and found to contribute by about one third to the total sulphate mass. Results for the sea-salt and mineral dust sources were compared with estimates of the same contributions obtained from independent approaches, leading

  11. Characterization of PM10 sources in the central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolai, G.; Nava, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Becagli, S.; Traversi, R.; Marconi, M.; Frosini, D.; Severi, M.; Udisti, R.; di Sarra, A.; Pace, G.; Meloni, D.; Bommarito, C.; Monteleone, F.; Anello, F.; Sferlazzo, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Mediterranean Basin atmosphere is influenced by both strong natural and anthropogenic aerosol emissions and is also subject to important climatic forcings. Several programs have addressed the study of the Mediterranean basin; nevertheless important pieces of information are still missing. In this framework, PM10 samples were collected on a daily basis on the island of Lampedusa (35.5° N, 12.6° E; 45 m a.s.l.), which is far from continental pollution sources (the nearest coast, in Tunisia, is more than 100 km away). After mass gravimetric measurements, different portions of the samples were analyzed to determine the ionic content by ion chromatography (IC), the soluble metals by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and the total (soluble + insoluble) elemental composition by particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE). Data from 2007 and 2008 are used in this study. The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model was applied to the 2-year long data set of PM10 mass concentration and chemical composition to assess the aerosol sources affecting the central Mediterranean basin. Seven sources were resolved: sea salt, mineral dust, biogenic emissions, primary particulate ship emissions, secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, and combustion emissions. Source contributions to the total PM10 mass were estimated to be about 40 % for sea salt, around 25 % for mineral dust, 10 % each for secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate, and 5 % each for primary particulate ship emissions, biogenic emissions, and combustion emissions. Large variations in absolute and relative contributions are found and appear to depend on the season and on transport episodes. In addition, the secondary sulfate due to ship emissions was estimated and found to contribute by about one-third to the total sulfate mass. Results for the sea-salt and mineral dust sources were compared with estimates of the same contributions obtained from independent approaches, leading to an

  12. Amposta oil field (Spanish Mediterranean offshore)

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, U. )

    1988-08-01

    The Amposta oil field lies some 20 km off the Mediterranean coast of Spain directly south of the Ebro delta in 70 m of water. The field is operated by Shell in association with Repsol Exploracion (the Spanish national oil company) and Coparex. The field was discovered in 1970 and came on stream in 1972, reaching a maximum production of 40,000 bbl/day. The current cumulative production of 55.7 million bbl is just 300,000 bbl short of the field's expected ultimate primary recovery. Original production was established via a single-buoy mooring system (SBM) with a permanently moored tanker acting as a floating storage vessel. Oil is produced from a fractured, karstified Lower Cretaceous limestone reservoir in a tilted fault-block structure (areal closure is 900 ha), sealed by overlying Miocene clastics. The top of the reservoir is at 1,746 m; the original oil column was 194 m. Designing the optimal production/drainage scheme for a complex reservoir such as the Amposta field with its intricate pore geometry (channels, caves, and fractures) formed an interesting challenge. The field has produced from 7 wells so far. Until recently pressure could be maintained and dry oil produced. Enhanced recovery tests (gas injection) are presently being undertaken. The heavy, undersaturated, high-sulfur crude (17{degree} API, gas-oil ratio of 380 scf/bbl, and 5.5% sulfur) is an early expulsion product generated from a marly/chalky type II source rock sequence of latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous age, underlying the field.

  13. Fish Assemblages of Mediterranean Marine Caves

    PubMed Central

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning. PMID:25875504

  14. Palaeotsunamis and tsunami hazards in the Eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    England, Philip; Howell, Andrew; Jackson, James; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-10-28

    The dominant uncertainties in assessing tsunami hazard in the Eastern Mediterranean are attached to the location of the sources. Reliable historical reports exist for five tsunamis associated with earthquakes at the Hellenic plate boundary, including two that caused widespread devastation. Because most of the relative motion across this boundary is aseismic, however, the modern record of seismicity provides little or no information about the faults that are likely to generate such earthquakes. Independent geological and geophysical observations of two large historical to prehistorical earthquakes, in Crete and Rhodes, lead to a coherent framework in which large to great earthquakes occurred not on the subduction boundary, but on reverse faults within the overlying crust. We apply this framework to the less complete evidence from the remainder of the Hellenic plate boundary zone, identifying candidate sources for future tsunamigenic earthquakes. Each such source poses a significant hazard to the North African coast of the Eastern Mediterranean. Because modern rates of seismicity are irrelevant to slip on the tsunamigenic faults, and because historical and geological data are too sparse, there is no reliable basis for a probabilistic assessment of this hazard, and a precautionary approach seems advisable. PMID:26392624

  15. Modeling Surface Currents in the Eastern Levantine Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Leila; Brajard, Julien; Fakhri, Milad; Mortier, Laurent; Poulain, Pierre-Marie

    2015-04-01

    We consider the problem of reconstructing the meso-scale features of the currents in the Eastern Levantine Mediterranean from combining in-situ and satellite altimetry data. Mathematically, this is an inverse problem where the objective is to invert Lagrangian trajectories, which are positions of drifters launched at sea, in order to improve the coarse Eulerian velocity, provided by the altimetric satellite measurements. We shall use a variational assimilation approach, whereby the eulerian velocity correction is obtained by minimizing the distance between the simulated position from a velocity background and actual observations. One important property of our approach is that it is model free, so that it is inexpensive and can be easily cast into real-time oceanic operational products. Our method is first validated with twin experiments, where we conduct sensitivity analysis to parameters such as number of drifters, assimilation time window and spatial filter length. The approach is next validated with past and present data from the Levantine Mediterranean by correcting velocity fields derived from altimetry by assimilating drifters' data. The drifters' data used here were collected in the context of the MedSVP program and more recently by the National Lebanese Marine Center (CNSM) in September 2013. The CNSM with its boat CANA has developed an important activity of data collection along the Lebanese coast so far and this activity will permit it to extend its collaborations further by integrating the modeling and data assimilation methods for reconstructing the surface currents.

  16. Heat flow map of the western Mediterranean basins

    SciTech Connect

    Foucher, J.P.; Burrus, J.; Vedova, B.D.

    1988-08-01

    More than 400 terrestrial heat flow determinations have been carried our in the western Mediterranean basins. These include results of detailed surveys in the Ligurian Sea and in the Gulf of Lions and Tyrrhenian basins, as well as sparse measurements in the Gulf of Valencia and the Algerian basin. Most of the measurements are surficial, obtained from the temperatures sensed by outrigged thermistors mounted on weight-driven probes penetrating the sediment to 3 to 10 m. Thermal conductivity was measured either on cores or in situ. The authors present a heat flow map of the western Mediterranean basins based on the available geothermal results. Mean regional heat flow values range from 55 to 105 mW m/sup /minus/2/ in the Lugiran and Gulf of Lions basin and from 50 to 200 m mW m/sup /minus/2/ in the Tyrrhenian Sea. In the latter basin, high heat flow characterizes areas of recent intensive thinning of the continental crust and associated incipient oceanic crust formation. In the former basins, heat flow tends to increase from the Provencal coast of France to the Corsican and Sardinian margins, which may reflect on increasing heat contribution from the mantle.

  17. Habitats and plant communities in the Nile Delta of Egypt I. Deltaic Mediterranean coastal habitat.

    PubMed

    Mashaly, I A; El-Habashy, I E; El-Halawany, E F; Omar, G

    2008-11-15

    The present study aims at investigating the vegetation-soil relationships in the Deltaic Mediterranean coastal land of Egypt. The Deltaic coast of the Mediterranean Sea of Egypt can be distinguished into five habitat types, namely: sand dunes, salt marshes, sand sheets, sandy fertile lands and lake shorelines (Manzala, Burullus and Idku). These habitats are categorized into four vegetation groups namely, group A dominated by Rumex pictus, group B codominated by Pancratium maritimum-Cyperus capitatus-Lolium perenne, group C codominated by Arthrocnemum macrostachyum-Atriplex portulacoides-Typha domingensis and group D codominated by Echinochloa stagnina-Typha domingensis-Phragmites australis. One hundred and thirty plant species are recorded in this coast and belonging to 38 families. Out of the recorded species, about 41.54% are annuals, 2.31% biennials and 56.15% perennials. The percentages of the life-form indicated that, therophytes attained the highest representation (43.85%). The floristic analysis revealed that, 55.38% of the recorded species are Mediterranean elements. The ecological amplitudes of the leading species along the gradient of edaphic factors are discussed. PMID:19260330

  18. Spatial distribution and sources of perfluorochemicals in the NW Mediterranean coastal waters (Catalonia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Avila, Juan; Meyer, Johan; Lacorte, Silvia

    2010-09-01

    This study provides the first evidence of the sources and loads of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) to the NW Mediterranean Sea. Five PFCs were analyzed in 45 seawater samples collected along the Catalan coast. Total PFCs ranged from 0.07 to 13.0 ng/l, being the levels higher in ports than in coastal waters. To determine the sources of PFCs, 8 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) effluents and 6 rivers discharging to the sea were also analyzed. WWTP effluents contained total PFCs levels ranging from 3.47 to 132 ng/l but due to the relatively low discharge flows, they contributed to 34.7 g/d to the sea. Total PFCs in rivers ranged from 2.24 to 21.9 ng/l and were the principal PFCs contributors to the sea. Overall, a total load of 190 g/d of PFCs are discharged to the NW Mediterranean coast. The effects and risk of PFCs discharges to the Mediterranean basin are discussed. PMID:20630635

  19. Repeat hydrography in the Mediterranean Sea, data from the Meteor cruise 84/3 in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanhua, T.; Hainbucher, D.; Cardin, V.; Álvarez, M.; Civitarese, G.

    2013-03-01

    Here we report on data from an oceanographic cruise on the German research vessel Meteor covering large parts of the Mediterranean Sea during spring of 2011. The main objectives of this cruise was to conduct measurements of physical, chemical and biological variables on a section across the Mediterranean Sea with the goal of producing a synoptic picture of the distribution of relevant physical and biogeochemical properties, in order to compare those to historic data sets. During the cruise, a comprehensive data set of relevant variables following the guide lines for repeat hydrography outlined by the GO-SHIP group (http://www.go-ship.org/) was collected. The measurements include; salinity and temperature (CTD), an over-determined carbonate system, inorganic nutrients, oxygen, transient tracers (CFC-12, SF6), Helium isotopes and tritium, and carbon isotopes. The cruise sampled all major basins of the Mediterranean Sea following roughly an east-to-west section from the coast of Lebanon to through the Strait of Gibraltar, and to the coast of Portugal. Also a south-to-north section from the Ionian Sea to the Adriatic Sea was carried out. Additionally, sampling in the Aegean, Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas were carried out. The sections roughly followed lines and positions that have been sampled previously during other programs, thus providing the opportunity for comparative investigations of the temporal development of various parameters.

  20. Repeat hydrography in the Mediterranean Sea, data from the Meteor cruise 84/3 in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanhua, T.; Hainbucher, D.; Cardin, V.; Álvarez, M.; Civitarese, G.; McNichol, A. P.; Key, R. M.

    2013-07-01

    Here we report on data from an oceanographic cruise on the German research vessel Meteor covering large parts of the Mediterranean Sea during spring of 2011. The main objective of this cruise was to conduct measurements of physical, chemical and biological variables on a section across the Mediterranean Sea with the goal of producing a synoptic picture of the distribution of relevant physical and biogeochemical properties, in order to compare those to historic data sets. During the cruise, a comprehensive data set of relevant variables following the guide lines for repeat hydrography outlined by the GO-SHIP group (http://www.go-ship.org/) was collected. The measurements include salinity and temperature (CTD), an over-determined carbonate system, inorganic nutrients, oxygen, transient tracers (CFC-12, SF6), helium isotopes and tritium, and carbon isotopes. The cruise sampled all major basins of the Mediterranean Sea following roughly an east-to-west section from the coast of Lebanon through to the Strait of Gibraltar, and to the coast of Portugal. Also a south-to-north section from the Ionian Sea to the Adriatic Sea was carried out. Additionally, sampling in the Aegean, Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas were carried out. The sections roughly followed lines and positions that have been sampled previously during other programs, thus providing the opportunity for comparative investigations of the temporal development of various parameters.

  1. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  2. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  3. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  4. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  5. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  6. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  7. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  8. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  9. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  10. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  11. Mediterranean Outflow Mixing and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, James F.; O'Neil Baringer, Molly; Lueck, Rolf G.; Johnson, Gregory C.; Ambar, Isabel; Parrilla, Gregorio; Cantos, Alain; Kennelly, Maureen A.; Sanford, Thomas B.

    1993-02-01

    The Mediterranean Sea produces a salty, dense outflow that is strongly modified by entrainment as it first begins to descend the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. The current accelerates to 1.3 meters per second, which raises the internal Froude number above 1, and is intensely turbulent through its full thickness. The outflow loses about half of its density anomaly and roughly doubles its volume transport as it entrains less saline North Atlantic Central water. Within 100 kilometers downstream, the current is turned by the Coriolis force until it flows nearly parallel to topography in a damped geostrophic balance. The mixed Mediterranean outflow continues westward, slowly descending the continental slope until it becomes neutrally buoyant in the thermocline where it becomes an important water mass.

  12. Mediterranean outflow mixing and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Price, J F; Baringer, M O; Lueck, R G; Johnson, G C; Ambar, I; Parrilla, G; Cantos, A; Kennelly, M A; Sanford, T B

    1993-02-26

    The Mediterranean Sea produces a salty, dense outflow that is strongly modified by entrainment as it first begins to descend the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. The current accelerates to 1.3 meters per second, which raises the internal Froude number above 1, and is intensely turbulent through its full thickness. The outflow loses about half of its density anomaly and roughly doubles its volume transport as it entrains less saline North Atlantic Central water. Within 100 kilometers downstream, the current is turned by the Coriolis force until it flows nearly parallel to topography in a damped geostrophic balance. The mixed Mediterranean outflow continues westward, slowly descending the continental slope until it becomes neutrally buoyant in the thermocline where it becomes an important water mass. PMID:17732247

  13. Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Colonial Waterbirds in the Mediterranean Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1996-01-01

    (excerpt from Forword) The Mediterranean Symposium, part of the annual conference of The Colonial Waterbird Society in October 1993 in Arles, France, was the successful culmination of ideas shared among leading European waterbird and wetland scientists... Both invited and contributed papers focused on two areas - breeding biology (especially of threatened or little known species), and feeding ecology. Eighteen oral presentations were given and 27 poster papers were developed.

  14. Treatment of Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Gradoni, L.; Bryceson, A.; Desjeux, P.

    1995-01-01

    Up-to-date information is given on the epidemiological situation of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in nine Mediterranean countries, and on drug regimens adopted in the management of ZVL patients in each country. Results of experimental and clinical trials on the efficacy and tolerability of liposomal amphotericin B in laboratory animals and in patients with ZVL are presented, as well as conclusions and recommendations on drug regimens to be used in the treatment of ZVL. PMID:7743590

  15. ENSURF: multi-model sea level forecast - implementation and validation results for the IBIROOS and Western Mediterranean regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, B.; Brouwer, R.; Beckers, J.; Paradis, D.; Balseiro, C.; Lyons, K.; Cure, M.; Sotillo, M. G.; Hackett, B.; Verlaan, M.; Fanjul, E. A.

    2012-03-01

    ENSURF (Ensemble SURge Forecast) is a multi-model application for sea level forecast that makes use of several storm surge or circulation models and near-real time tide gauge data in the region, with the following main goals: 1. providing easy access to existing forecasts, as well as to its performance and model validation, by means of an adequate visualization tool; 2. generation of better forecasts of sea level, including confidence intervals, by means of the Bayesian Model Average technique (BMA). The Bayesian Model Average technique generates an overall forecast probability density function (PDF) by making a weighted average of the individual forecasts PDF's; the weights represent the Bayesian likelihood that a model will give the correct forecast and are continuously updated based on the performance of the models during a recent training period. This implies the technique needs the availability of sea level data from tide gauges in near-real time. The system was implemented for the European Atlantic facade (IBIROOS region) and Western Mediterranean coast based on the MATROOS visualization tool developed by Deltares. Results of validation of the different models and BMA implementation for the main harbours are presented for these regions where this kind of activity is performed for the first time. The system is currently operational at Puertos del Estado and has proved to be useful in the detection of calibration problems in some of the circulation models, in the identification of the systematic differences between baroclinic and barotropic models for sea level forecasts and to demonstrate the feasibility of providing an overall probabilistic forecast, based on the BMA method.

  16. Ecological quality of some Tunisian coast and lagoon locations, by using benthic community parameters and biotic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afli, Ahmed; Ayari, Rakia; Zaabi, Sana

    2008-11-01

    Three Tunisian coastal and lagoon sites, variously affected by human activities, and differing according to their degree of communication with the sea, were studied. The total organic matter content and the granulometry of the sediment were measured and the macro-invertebrates were sampled and identified. Currently due to the lack of an efficient single biotic index for quality assessment, indications from these measurements can contribute to enrich our knowledge of the southern Mediterranean areas. Several biotic indices (AMBI, BENTIX, BOPA, BOPA modified, I2EC, ITI), most of which have been used in the context of the European Water Framework Directive, and some other structural parameters were used. The results show that the Bizerte lagoon, an almost closed area characterized mainly by extreme salinity/temperature and with a strong fluctuation of nutrients, appears biologically more impoverished. The Dkhila coast, which is more open to the sea, however, appears to be less dominated by the principal species. Biotic indices showed that the most polluted areas included the region exposed to urban inputs of Bizerte, the mouth of Hamdoun wadi and the harbour areas. In these locations, benthic macrofauna is dominated by opportunistic species like Capitella capitata, Scolelepis fuliginosa, Prionospio malmgreni, Polydora sp., Cirratulus cirratus and Cirriformia tentaculata. Other stations, which are farther from the sources of disturbance such as the mouths of the principal Wadis, the south of the Bizerte ship canal and the south of the Tunis bay, appear to be in good ecological condition and hosted a variety of sensitive species, Other stations were classified differently by the biotic indices used mainly because of the lack of a real inter-calibration of the various classification methodologies used by these indices.

  17. [Amyloidosis and familial Mediterranean fever].

    PubMed

    Pras, M

    1986-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (F. M. F.) is an autosomal recessive disorder occurring most commonly in Sepharadi Jews and Armenians. Two phenotypic features characterize the disease: brief episodic febrile attacks of peritonitis, pleuritis or synovitis recurring from childhood or adolescence and the development of systemic amyloidosis. Attacks are accompanied by striking elevations of acute phase proteins, including serum amyloid A protein. The amyloidosis of Familial Mediterranean Fever is of the AA type, and manifest clinically as a nephropathy that passes through proteinuria, nephrotic and uremic stages to renal death. Although there is ethnic variation in the incidence of amyloidosis of F. M. F. in our patient population--predominantly Sepharadi Jews of North African extraction--an amyloidotic death at an early age is their genetic destiny. Since the introduction in 1972 of colchicine to prevent the febrile attacks, the drug has been proven and become the main stay of therapy. Today, colchicine has been shown to be effective in preventing amyloidosis as well as the febrile attacks in Familial Mediterranean Fever. End stage renal disease is not the end of the road for patients with F.M.F. because of improving outlook for dialysis and renal transplantation in these patients. PMID:2943362

  18. Substitution and phase shift within the Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows of NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montefalcone, M.; Morri, C.; Peirano, A.; Albertelli, G.; Bianchi, C. N.

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the conservation status and ecosystem substitution in six Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows in 2002 along 300 km of the Ligurian coast (NW Mediterranean Sea). We studied the meadows by scuba transects and we compared the meadows state of health through in situ shoot density counts and computing the Conservation Index (CI), the latter measuring the proportional amount of dead matte relative to live P. oceanica. Both measures evidenced a generalised state of regression for most of the six meadows. We also reported the occurrence, within the meadows, of the other common Mediterranean seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, the Mediterranean green alga Caulerpa prolifera, and the invasive green algae Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa racemosa. We measured the replacement of P. oceanica by these species using the Substitution Index (SI), related to the proportional cover of each substitutes. These were ranked in order of their colonisation potential with respect to P. oceanica. We identified and measured a community "phase shift" occurring within the Mediterranean seagrass meadows using a combined index, the Phase-Shift Index (PSI). The analysis of the three environmental indices (CI, SI and PSI) at regional scale allowed to introduce three "regional" ordinal scales to classify the conservation status, the degree of substitution and the level of phase shift in P. oceanica meadows.

  19. Large Scale Moisture Fluxes that are related to dry and wet conditions over Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Sinan; Luterbacher, Juerg; Xoplaki, Elena; Turkes, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Large scale moisture flux analysis was carried out for the Mediterranean Basin in order to investigate the large scale atmospheric controls on moisture flux convergence that are related to dry and wet conditions. The seasonal moisture budget (precipitation minus evaporation) was calculated using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction - National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis data for the period 1949-2014. We focus on winter and summer circulation patterns for explaining the changes in dry and wet conditions rather than spring and autumn, as the transitional nature and characterization of these seasons are more uncertain in the Mediterranean basin. The driest and wettest years were chosen according to Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the differences between those years and average conditions were compared statistically and graphically. According to results, large scale climate changes over Mediterranean Region are linked to significant changes of the moisture fluxes in the Gulf of Mexico region and partially in the US East coast especially for wet years. Therefore the climatic role of the Gulf Stream for extreme climate conditions over Mediterranean region should be investigated.

  20. Regional and long-range transport scenarios for photo-oxidants on the Mediterranean basin in summer

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, M.; Mantilla, E.; Salvador, R.; Kallos, G.

    1996-12-31

    Atmospheric research, begun in 1988, has shown that the dynamics of air pollutants in the Mediterranean basin in summer are governed by processes ranging from local to large meso-scale with diurnal cycles. Large scale convection over some regions, and up-slope winds in others, can inject aged pollutants into the Mid-troposphere, where they can participate in long-range processes within Southern and Central Europe. Two scenarios have been identified for the regional and long-range transport of photo-oxidants and other pollutants within, and out of, the Western Mediterranean basin. The first scenario involves the pollutants injected over the Spanish Central Plateau directly into the mid-troposphere, and the second, the reservoir layers created along the Mediterranean coast. In the second scenario the key components are: the semi-permanent high(er) pressure area over the colder waters in the Gulf of Lion-Western Mediterranean basin, the mountain ranges which surround it, and the coastal processes. During the day the coastal circulations renovate the upper reservoir layers while the lower ones are drawn inland with the sea-breeze, and effective flow is mostly perpendicular to the coast.

  1. Trace elements in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean: A 10-years perspective.

    PubMed

    Shoham-Frider, Efrat; Goffman, Oz; Harlavan, Yehudit; Kress, Nurit; Morick, Danny; Roditi-Elasar, Mia; Shefer, Edna; Kerem, Dan

    2016-08-15

    Concentrations of Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and As, in kidney, liver, muscle and blubber from 7 specimens of Stenella coeruleoalba, stranded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast (IMC) from 2006 to 2011 (2011-series) were determined and compared to previous data on S. coeruleoalba from the IMC (2001-series). No differences were observed in essential and toxic elements concentrations, between the two series, except for hepatic Mn which was higher in the latter. Hg/Se molar ratios in blubber, kidney and liver increased linearly with log Hg concentrations, while muscle was more heterogenic in this respect. Means (±SD) of hepatic Hg concentrations (134±89 and 181±200mgkg(-1), from the 2011 and 2001 series, respectively) were similar to that found in 2007-2009 specimens from Spain, possibly reflecting the relatively high natural background levels of mercury in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:27210566

  2. Solar pacing of storm surges, coastal flooding and agricultural losses in the Central Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Kaniewski, David; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Faivre, Sanja; Otto, Thierry; Van Campo, Elise

    2016-01-01

    Storm surges, leading to catastrophic coastal flooding, are amongst the most feared natural hazards due to the high population densities and economic importance of littoral areas. Using the Central Mediterranean Sea as a model system, we provide strong evidence for enhanced periods of storminess leading to coastal flooding during the last 4500 years. We show that long-term correlations can be drawn between storminess and solar activity, acting on cycles of around 2200-yr and 230-yr. We also find that phases of increased storms and coastal flooding have impacted upon mid- to late Holocene agricultural activity on the Adriatic coast. Based on the general trend observed during the second half of the 20th century, climate models are predicting a weakening of Mediterranean storminess. By contrast, our new data suggest that a decrease in solar activity will increase and intensify the risk of frequent flooding in coastal areas. PMID:27126207

  3. Solar pacing of storm surges, coastal flooding and agricultural losses in the Central Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Kaniewski, David; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Faivre, Sanja; Otto, Thierry; Van Campo, Elise

    2016-01-01

    Storm surges, leading to catastrophic coastal flooding, are amongst the most feared natural hazards due to the high population densities and economic importance of littoral areas. Using the Central Mediterranean Sea as a model system, we provide strong evidence for enhanced periods of storminess leading to coastal flooding during the last 4500 years. We show that long-term correlations can be drawn between storminess and solar activity, acting on cycles of around 2200-yr and 230-yr. We also find that phases of increased storms and coastal flooding have impacted upon mid- to late Holocene agricultural activity on the Adriatic coast. Based on the general trend observed during the second half of the 20(th) century, climate models are predicting a weakening of Mediterranean storminess. By contrast, our new data suggest that a decrease in solar activity will increase and intensify the risk of frequent flooding in coastal areas. PMID:27126207

  4. Solar pacing of storm surges, coastal flooding and agricultural losses in the Central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniewski, David; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Faivre, Sanja; Otto, Thierry; van Campo, Elise

    2016-04-01

    Storm surges, leading to catastrophic coastal flooding, are amongst the most feared natural hazards due to the high population densities and economic importance of littoral areas. Using the Central Mediterranean Sea as a model system, we provide strong evidence for enhanced periods of storminess leading to coastal flooding during the last 4500 years. We show that long-term correlations can be drawn between storminess and solar activity, acting on cycles of around 2200-yr and 230-yr. We also find that phases of increased storms and coastal flooding have impacted upon mid- to late Holocene agricultural activity on the Adriatic coast. Based on the general trend observed during the second half of the 20th century, climate models are predicting a weakening of Mediterranean storminess. By contrast, our new data suggest that a decrease in solar activity will increase and intensify the risk of frequent flooding in coastal areas.

  5. Distribution and assessment of marine debris in the deep Tyrrhenian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Angiolillo, Michela; di Lorenzo, Bianca; Farcomeni, Alessio; Bo, Marzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Santangelo, Giovanni; Cau, Angelo; Mastascusa, Vincenza; Cau, Alessandro; Sacco, Flavio; Canese, Simonepietro

    2015-03-15

    Marine debris is a recognized global ecological concern. Little is known about the extent of the problem in the Mediterranean Sea regarding litter distribution and its influence on deep rocky habitats. A quantitative assessment of debris present in the deep seafloor (30-300 m depth) was carried out in 26 areas off the coast of three Italian regions in the Tyrrhenian Sea, using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). The dominant type of debris (89%) was represented by fishing gears, mainly lines, while plastic objects were recorded only occasionally. Abundant quantities of gears were found on rocky banks in Sicily and Campania (0.09-0.12 debris m(-2)), proving intense fishing activity. Fifty-four percent of the recorded debris directly impacted benthic organisms, primarily gorgonians, followed by black corals and sponges. This work provides a first insight on the impact of marine debris in Mediterranean deep ecosystems and a valuable baseline for future comparisons. PMID:25604749

  6. Analysis of current intensification in the Northwest Mediterranean shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestres, M.; Grifoll, M.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.

    2016-02-01

    Flow intensification episodes lasting more than 12 h are observed occasionally at different locations along the Northwestern Mediterranean coast. In the last years, these pulses have hindered ship operations outside the Barcelona harbour, thus attracting the attention of the port authorities. In this paper, the strongest intensification events in the Barcelona coast area are quantified and characterized in order to identify the mechanisms which generate them. For this, current, sea level and meteorological measured and modelled data, at local and regional scale, are analysed. The results show that the flow accelerations are due to the combination of a narrow coastal shelf and the prevalence of a strong and sustained wind from the NE to SE. The synoptic atmospheric conditions that lead to this meteorological scenario are described. For one of the events, the presence and contribution to the current fluctuations of a coastal trapped wave, likely generated at the Eastern edge of the Gulf of Lions shelf, and other factors such as a freshwater discharge are also identified and discussed.

  7. International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas

    PubMed Central

    Galil, B.S.; Marchini, A.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A.; Minchin, D.; Narščius, A.; Ojaveer, H.; Olenin, S.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present. PMID:24899770

  8. Bryan Coast, English Coast, Alexander Island, Fallieres Coast, and Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Antarctica shows the Bryan Coast (lower left), the English Coast (lower central), Alexander Island (middle right), the Fallieres Coast (top right), and the Bellingshausen Sea. The entire continent has been dedicated to peaceful scientific investigation since 1961, with the signing of the Antarctic Treaty.The waters surrounding Antarctica are intensely cold. Salt water freezes at -2C, allowing sea ice to form. The middle left portion of the image shows quite a lot of sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea. During the Antarctic winter, when data for this image was acquired, Antarctica doubles in size to about 28.5 million square km (or about 11 million square miles), and temperatures in the -60C range are common.This true-color image was compiled from MODIS data gathered March 29, 2002. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. Toward a dynamic biogeochemical division of the Mediterranean Sea in a context of global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reygondeau, Gabriel; Olivier Irisson, Jean; Guieu, Cecile; Gasparini, Stephane; Ayata, Sakina; Koubbi, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    European project PERSEUS (Protecting EuRopean Seas and borders through the intelligence US of surveillance) and the French program MERMEX (Marine Ecosystems Response in the Mediterranean Experiment).

  10. Ecology of the Atlantic black skipjack Euthynnus alletteratus (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) in the western Mediterranean Sea inferred by parasitological analysis.

    PubMed

    Mele, Salvatore; Pennino, M Grazia; Piras, M Cristina; Macías, David; Gómez-Vives, M José; Alemany, Francisco; Montero, Francisco E; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Between 2008 and 2011, the head of 150 Euthynnus alletteratus (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) caught inshore off the southeastern Iberian coast (western Mediterranean Sea) were examined for parasites. Two monogeneans, four didymozoid trematodes and four copepods were found. Parasite abundance showed a positive relationship with the annual sea surface temperature, except for Pseudocycnus appendiculatus, but negative with the sea depth (Capsala manteri, Neonematobothrium cf. kawakawa and Caligus bonito). Prevalences and mean abundances differed significantly among sampling areas, except for C. manteri, Oesophagocystis sp. 2 and Ceratocolax euthynni, and sampling years (Melanocystis cf. kawakawa, N.cf. kawakawa, P. appendiculatus and Unicolax collateralis). Results indicate that the parasite abundances of E. alletteratus in the western Mediterranean Sea depend mainly on regional environmental variables, which can show interannual variations. The presence of pelagic parasites, i.e. didymozoids and P. appendiculatus, could indicate that E. alletteratus migrates between inshore and offshore pelagic domains. The different parasite faunas reported in E. alletteratus populations from the western Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea appear to point out the geographical host isolation. These results suggest that E. alletteratus inhabiting the western Mediterranean Sea performs inshore-offshore small-scale migrations, and not transoceanic migrations between the western Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. PMID:27173779

  11. Mediterranean diet: the past and the present.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulou, A

    2001-08-01

    Mortality statistics from the World Health Organization have provided early evidence that diet in the Mediterranean countries has been affecting the health of the respective populations and, in particular, their coronary health. Keys (1) has taken the lead arguing that the traditional Mediterranean diet has beneficial effects on health. Recent studies, capturing the evidence accumulated over the last three decades, have documented that the traditional Mediterranean diet meets several important criteria for a healthy diet. An attempt to conceptualize the proper diet and to make it able to function has been reported and a score has been developed and evaluated. Studies among the elderly in Greece, Denmark, Australia, Spain and China have shown that the overall Mediterranean dietary pattern was more important for longevity than single nutrients. These findings suggest, therefore, that a Mediterranean diet is associated with longer survival. Two additional questions should be addressed at this time: Is the Mediterranean diet an integral entity, or the sum of identifiable components that can and should be separately considered in the development of guidelines? Is the Mediterranean diet or its major components transferable to populations living far from the Mediterranean area? Answers to these questions would be important for scientific and policy reasons. The dietary patterns that prevail in the Mediterranean area have many common characteristics, most of which stem from the fact that olive oil plays an important role in all of them. Thus, although different regions in the Mediterranean basin have their own diets, it is legitimate to consider them as variants of a single entity, the Mediterranean diet. The Mediterranean diet can be described as the dietary pattern found in the olive growing areas of the Mediterranean region, in the late '50s and early '60s, when the consequences of World War II were overcome, but the fast-food culture had not reached the area yet (2

  12. Epidemiological Overview of Hodgkin Lymphoma across the Mediterranean Basin.

    PubMed

    Salati, Massimiliano; Cesaretti, Marina; Macchia, Matteo; Mistiri, Mufid El; Federico, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has always been a source of fascination to researchers due to its heterogeneous characteristics of presentation. HL is an uncommon neoplasm of B-cell origin with an incidence that varies significantly by age, sex, ethnicity, geographic location and socioeconomic status. This complex pattern was also found to be replicated among Mediterranean basin populations. HL incidence rates progressively decreased from industrialized European countries such as France (ASR=2.61) and Italy (ASR=2.39) to less developed nations such as Albania (ASR=1.34) and Bosnia Herzegovina (ASR=1.1). Regarding HL mortality we have found that countries with the lowest incidence rates show the highest number of deaths from this cancer and viceversa. Finally, a wide gap in terms of survival was showed across the Mediterranean basin with survival rates ranged from 82.3% and 85.1% among Italian men and women, to 53.3 % and 59.3% among Libyan men and women, respectively. Factors such as the degree of socio-economic development, the exposure to risk factors westernization-related, the availability of diagnostic practices along with different genetic susceptibilities to HL may explain its variation across Mediterranean countries. Furthermore, the lack of health resources decisively contribute to the poor prognosis recorded in less developed region. In the future, the introduction of appropriate and accessible treatment facilities along with an adequate number of clinical specialists in the treatment of HL and other cancers are warranted in order to improve the outcomes of affected patients and treat a largely curable type of cancer in disadvantaged regions. PMID:25045456

  13. Ancient DNA reveals male diffusion through the Neolithic Mediterranean route

    PubMed Central

    Lacan, Marie; Keyser, Christine; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Brucato, Nicolas; Duranthon, Francis; Guilaine, Jean; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    The Neolithic is a key period in the history of the European settlement. Although archaeological and present-day genetic data suggest several hypotheses regarding the human migration patterns at this period, validation of these hypotheses with the use of ancient genetic data has been limited. In this context, we studied DNA extracted from 53 individuals buried in a necropolis used by a French local community 5,000 y ago. The relatively good DNA preservation of the samples allowed us to obtain autosomal, Y-chromosomal, and/or mtDNA data for 29 of the 53 samples studied. From these datasets, we established close parental relationships within the necropolis and determined maternal and paternal lineages as well as the absence of an allele associated with lactase persistence, probably carried by Neolithic cultures of central Europe. Our study provides an integrative view of the genetic past in southern France at the end of the Neolithic period. Furthermore, the Y-haplotype lineages characterized and the study of their current repartition in European populations confirm a greater influence of the Mediterranean than the Central European route in the peopling of southern Europe during the Neolithic transition. PMID:21628562

  14. Ancient DNA reveals male diffusion through the Neolithic Mediterranean route.

    PubMed

    Lacan, Marie; Keyser, Christine; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Brucato, Nicolas; Duranthon, Francis; Guilaine, Jean; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2011-06-14

    The Neolithic is a key period in the history of the European settlement. Although archaeological and present-day genetic data suggest several hypotheses regarding the human migration patterns at this period, validation of these hypotheses with the use of ancient genetic data has been limited. In this context, we studied DNA extracted from 53 individuals buried in a necropolis used by a French local community 5,000 y ago. The relatively good DNA preservation of the samples allowed us to obtain autosomal, Y-chromosomal, and/or mtDNA data for 29 of the 53 samples studied. From these datasets, we established close parental relationships within the necropolis and determined maternal and paternal lineages as well as the absence of an allele associated with lactase persistence, probably carried by Neolithic cultures of central Europe. Our study provides an integrative view of the genetic past in southern France at the end of the Neolithic period. Furthermore, the Y-haplotype lineages characterized and the study of their current repartition in European populations confirm a greater influence of the Mediterranean than the Central European route in the peopling of southern Europe during the Neolithic transition. PMID:21628562

  15. Persistent toxic substances in Mediterranean aquatic species.

    PubMed

    Miniero, Roberto; Abate, Vittorio; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Davoli, Enrico; De Felip, Elena; De Filippis, Stefania P; Dellatte, Elena; De Luca, Silvia; Fanelli, Roberto; Fattore, Elena; Ferri, Fabiola; Fochi, Igor; Rita Fulgenzi, Anna; Iacovella, Nicola; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Lucchetti, Dario; Melotti, Paolo; Moret, Ivo; Piazza, Rossano; Roncarati, Alessandra; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Zambon, Stefano; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Fish and fishery products may represent one of the main sources of dietary exposure to persistent toxic substances (PTSs) such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls; polybromodiphenyl ethers; organochlorine pesticides; perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate; and inorganic mercury and methyl mercury. In this study, PTS contamination of Mediterranean fish and crustaceans caught in Italian coastal waters was investigated in order to increase the representativeness of the occurrence database for wild species. The objectives were to verify the suitability of regulatory limits for PTSs, identify background concentrations values, if any, and examine the possible sources of variability when assessing the chemical body burdens of aquatic species. Twelve wild species of commercial interest and two farmed fish species were chosen. Excluding methyl mercury, chemical concentrations found in wild species fell generally towards the low ends of the concentration ranges found in Europe according to EFSA database and were quite lower than the tolerable maximum levels established in the European Union; farmed fish always showed contamination levels quite lower than those detected in wild species. The data obtained for wild species seemed to confirm the absence of local sources of contamination in the chosen sampling areas; however, species contamination could exceed regulatory levels even in the absence of specific local sources of contamination as a result of the position in the food web and natural variability in species' lifestyle. A species-specific approach to the management of contamination in aquatic organisms is therefore suggested as an alternative to a general approach based only on contaminant body burden. A chemical-specific analysis performed according to organism position in the food chain strengthened the need to develop this approach. PMID:25020099

  16. Mediterranean diets: are they environmentally responsible?

    PubMed

    Gussow, J D

    1995-06-01

    Dietary recommendations made to promote health seldom, if ever, take account of environmental implications of producing recommended foods. This paper considers several aspects of the traditional Mediterranean diet in relation to global sustainability. Plant-centered diets, such as those consumed around the Mediterranean Sea during the 1950s and 1960s, would be environmentally beneficial because they imply need for a much smaller population of domestic animals and, consequently, lowered demand on soil, water, and energy resources. Although fish consumption is high in some Mediterranean diets, fish should not be used to replace animal flesh because all of the world's major fisheries are currently overexploited. As for the appropriateness of Mediterranean fresh fruit and vegetables (which would need to be imported into non-Mediterranean regions), locally producible substitutes should be used wherever possible to reduce the environmental costs of transporting food great distances. Research is needed to examine the environmental consequences of certain exports such as olive oil. PMID:7754992

  17. Late Miocene diversification of the genus Hydrochus (Coleoptera, Hydrochidae) in the west Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Galiana, Amparo; Ribera, Ignacio

    2011-05-01

    We provide a reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships, the geographical and temporal origin, and the mode of diversification of the Mediterranean species of the aquatic beetle family Hydrochidae (Coleoptera, Hydrophiloidea). A total of ca. 3KB of sequence data of three mitochondrial and two nuclear genes were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of 62 specimens of 21 species of Hydrochus, including all western Mediterranean species but one. We estimated the times of divergence using Bayesian methods and an evolutionary rate of 0.0115 substitutions/site/MY, and used an ultrametric calibrated tree to construct a Lineage Through Time (LTT) plot to test alternative models of diversification. A well resolved, well supported phylogeny showed that all western Mediterranean Hydrochus formed a clade, sister to a group including species with a central and eastern European distribution. The origin of the western Mediterranean clade was estimated to be at ca. 13MY, and the speciation events took place between this time and the end of the Messinian, at about 5.3MY. The LTT plot best fitted a model with a shift in the rate of diversification at ca. 8 MY, with a single speciation event (originating two Iberian endemics) subsequent to this period. We conclude that most of the western Mediterranean species of Hydrochidae, including the Ibero-Maghrebian endemics, are ancient elements likely to have remained in the same geographical area since their Miocene origin. Our results add to a growing body of evidence showing the importance of Mediterranean long-term, Tertiary refugia as both cradles and museums of diversity. PMID:21354316

  18. Annual and spatial variation in the abundance length and condition of juvenile turbot ( Psetta maxima L.) on nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland: 2000-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Paula S.; Brophy, Deirdre; McGrath, David; O'Callaghan, Roisin; Comerford, Stephen; Casburn, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Turbot ( Psetta maxima Linnaeus) is a high value commercially exploited marine flatfish which occurs in European waters, from the Northeast Atlantic to the Arctic Circle, the Baltic and Mediterranean Sea. In Ireland, turbot are the most valuable commercial non-quota species. Very little is known about their population dynamics in the wild, in particular during the sandy beach nursery phase of the life history. In 2000, a survey was established to assess flatfish species on nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland. Eleven sandy beaches were assessed for 0+ turbot by beach seining, over an eight year period (2000-2007) during the months of August and September. The objective of the study was to estimate juvenile turbot abundance and size structure to determine if any spatial and annual trends existed. Large scale variability in the recruitment of fish to nursery grounds may be indicative of fluctuations in the adult stock. Turbot were found to recruit to five beaches consistently over the eight year period. Temporal and spatial variability in the relative abundance and length of turbot was discerned, with no apparent overall trend. However, certain nursery grounds were shown in most of the years examined to support higher abundances of turbot in comparison to other areas over the eight year period. Turbot abundances on nursery grounds were significantly correlated with mean spring sea temperatures during the pelagic stage. The condition of turbot did not significantly differ on an annual or spatial scale. Mean densities of 0+ turbot along the Irish coast were found to be similar and at times higher than other areas in Europe, ranging from 0.1 (± 0.3) individuals 1000 m - 2 to 18.5 (± 6.9) individuals 1000 m - 2 . Mean turbot total length on beaches ranged from 3.8 cm (± 0.6) to 6.6 cm (± 4.3). The observed spatial and temporal variability in abundance and length highlights the need for long-term studies when assessing juvenile flatfish populations. Results

  19. Optical and Microphysical Retrievals of Marine Stratocumulus Clouds off the Coast of Namibia from Satellite and Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    these algorithms have applications in climate change studies, climate modeling, numerical weather prediction, and fundamental atmospheric research. The archived MODIS Collection 5 cloud products processing stream will be used to analyze low water cloud scenes off the Namibian and Angolan coasts during SAFARI 2000 time period, as well as other years. Pixel-level Terra and Aqua MODIS retrievals (l. km spatial resolution at nadir) and gridded (1' uniform grid) statistics of cloud optical thickness and effective particle radius will be presented, including joint probability distributions between the two quantities. In addition, perspectives from the MODIS Airborne Simulator, which flew on the ER-2 during SAFARI 2000 providing high spatial resolution retrievals (50 m at nadir), will be presented as appropriate. The H-SAF Program requires an experimental operational European-centric Satellite Precipitation Algorithm System (E-SPAS) that produces medium spatial resolution and high temporal resolution surface rainfall and snowfall estimates over the Greater European Region including the Greater Mediterranean Basin. Currently, there are various types of experimental operational algorithm methods of differing spatiotemporal resolutions that generate global precipitation estimates. This address will first assess the current status of these methods and then recommend a methodology for the H-SAF Program that deviates somewhat from the current approach under development but one that takes advantage of existing techniques and existing software developed for the TRMM Project and available through the public domain.

  20. DNA barcoding reveals a cryptic nemertean invasion in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Álvarez, Fernando Ángel; Machordom, Annie

    2013-09-01

    For several groups, like nemerteans, morphology-based identification is a hard discipline, but DNA barcoding may help non-experts in the identification process. In this study, DNA barcoding is used to reveal the cryptic invasion of Pacific Cephalothrix cf. simula into Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts. Although DNA barcoding is a promising method for the identification of Nemertea, only 6 % of the known number of nemertean species is currently associated with a correct DNA barcode. Therefore, additional morphological and molecular studies are necessary to advance the utility of DNA barcoding in the characterisation of possible nemertean alien invasions.

  1. Chemical intra-Mediterranean variation and insecticidal activity of Crithmum maritimum.

    PubMed

    Tsoukatou, M; Tsitsimpikou, C; Vagias, C; Roussis, V

    2001-01-01

    The chemical composition of the volatile metabolites of Crithmum maritimum harvested from several geographic localities along the Mediterranean coasts was studied by GC and GC-MSD. The major oil constituents were found to be dillapiole, gamma-terpinene, sabinene, limonene and beta-phellandrene. The Western populations were richer in dillapiole, whereas the Southern collections were characterized by increased amounts of thymol methyl ether and gamma-terpinene. The Italian chemical profiles differentiated by the significant contributions of carvacrol methyl ether and isoterpinolene. The essential oils were also investigated for their insecticidal activity and their repellency against Pheidole pallidula (Nylander) ants and found to possess significant activity. PMID:11371010

  2. Mediterranean Tropical-like Cyclones: Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavicchia, Leone; von Storch, Hans; Gualdi, Silvio

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean basin is characterized by the genesis of a large number of cyclonic systems. Most of the cyclones generated in this area have a baroclinic nature. A few storms every year, however, develop a dynamical evolution similar to the one of tropical cyclones, showing an axis-symmetric vertical profile, a warm core, a cloud-free eye surrounded by a cloud cover with spiral shape, and winds up to the hurricane speed. The strongest between such storms exhibit a striking resemblance to the lower-latitudes hurricanes, except for the mesoscale spatial extent, and have thus been termed medicanes (Mediterranean hurricanes). Medicanes are considered rare phenomena, - the number of observed cases documented in the literature is around ten - but are associated to severe damage on coastal areas. Due to the scarcity of observations over sea, and to the coarse resolution of the long-term reanalysis datasets, it is difficult to construct a homogeneous statistics of the formation of medicanes. Using an approach (tested on a number of historical medicane cases) based on the high-resolution dynamical downscaling of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, and exploiting an objective detection algorithm specifically designed to single out the features of medicanes, the statistical properties of such storms (annual cycle, decadal and inter-annual variability, geographical distribution, trends) over the last six decades have been studied in a systematic way, and the linkage between the frequency of medicanes formation and synoptic patterns has been investigated. It was found that medicanes occur indeed with a low frequency, and that they are formed mostly during the cold season in the western Mediterranean and in the region extending between the Ionian Sea and the northern coast of Africa. The analysis of the environmental factors related with the formation of medicanes shows that the genesis mechanism requires a sufficiently large difference between the sea surface temperature and the

  3. Drought Variability in Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meko, D. M.; Touchan, R.

    2010-12-01

    Projections from general circulation models are consistent in identifying the Mediterranean Basin as a region of expected drying in response to increased greenhouse gases. The Mediterranean and its bordering countries, while giving rise to the classic “Mediterranean” climate-type, are characterized by a complex precipitation climatology, with strong influences from land-sea contrasts, topography, intrusions of polar air from various lowland pathways, and occasional tropical influence from systems originating south of the Atlas Mountains. Identification of an anthropogenic signature of drying with instrumental climate data can benefit from information on the natural spatio-temporal variability of drought on time scales of decades to centuries in this complex precipitation regime. An expanding tree-ring network will eventually yield multi-century drought records for the region (117 chronologies now developed or in progress). Aspects of spatio-temporal variability on shorter time scales in the southern part of the Mediterranan Basin (south of about 40°N) are examined in this presentation with the aid of gridded precipitation, temperature and Z-index - a dimensionless intermediate variable in Palmer Drought Index computation. Cross-spectral analysis is applied to summarize covariance of drought-related variables across the region. Ocean-atmosphere circulation indices are explored for direct causative factors in episodes of exceptional widespread seasonal and multi-season drought in the region.

  4. Virulence and molecular typing of Vibrio harveyi strains isolated from cultured dentex, gilthead sea bream and European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Pujalte, M J; Sitjà-Bobadilla, A; Macián, M C; Belloch, C; Alvarez-Pellitero, P; Pérez-Sánchez, J; Uruburu, F; Garay, E

    2003-06-01

    Vibrio harveyi was isolated from internal organs or ulcers of diseased and apparently healthy gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) cultured in several fish farms located on the Spanish Mediterranean coast. The prevalence of the bacterium was significantly higher in European sea bass than in gilthead sea bream, and was closely related to the season in both fish species, occurring almost exclusively on warm months (June to November). After phenotypic characterization, a selection of forty five isolates from gilthead sea bream, sea bass, and several isolates previously obtained from common dentex (Dentex dentex) of the same area, were molecularly typed by automated ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Cluster analysis of data established 8 RAPD types and 13 ribotypes among wild isolates, and the combination of both techniques allowed to define fourteen different groups and a clear discrimination of all outbreaks and samplings. Several strains isolated from diseased gilthead sea bream and sea bass and also from asymptomatic sea bream, were tested for virulence in both fish species by intracoelomic injection. All the isolates (11) were pathogenic for sea bass, with nine out of the eleven LD50 values ranging from 1.5 x 10(5) to 1.6 x 10(6) cfu/fish. Gilthead sea bream was unaffected by the seven tested strains, even by those more virulent for sea bass, and only one strain caused a 10% mortality at 4.2 x 10(7) cfu/fish. This is the first report on virulence of V. harveyi for sea bass. PMID:12866856

  5. The approach of the PREFER project to wildfire prevention and damage assessment in the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laneve, Giovanni; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Tampellini, Maria Lucia; Vimercati, Marco; Hirn, Barbara; Sebastian-Lopez, Ana; Diagourtas, Dimitri; Eftychidis, Georgios; Clandillon, Stephen; Caspard, Mathilde; Oliveira, Sandra; Lourenco, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    PREFER is a Copernicus Emergency project funded from the 2012 FP7 Space Work Programme, and it is aimed at developing products and services that will contribute to improve the European capacity to respond to the preparedness, prevention, and recovery management steps in the case of forest fire emergency cycle, with focus on the Mediterranean area. It is well known from the most recent reports on state of Europe's forests that the Mediterranean area is particularly affected by uncontrolled forest fires, with a number of negative consequences on ecosystems, such as desertification and soil erosion, and on the local economy. Most likely, the current risks of forest fires will be exacerbated by climate change. In particular, the climate of Southern Europe and the Mediterranean basin is projected to warm at a rate exceeding the global average. Wild fires will therefore remain the most serious threat to Southern European forests. In this situation, the need to collect better information and more knowledge concerning future risks of forest fires and fire prevention in the Mediterranean area is widely recognized to be a major urgent one. As part of the Copernicus programme (i.e. the European Earth Observation Programme), PREFER is based on advanced geo-information products using in particular the earth observation data acquired and developed in the frame of Copernicus. The objective of the PREFER project, started at the end of 2012, 8 partners (from Italy, Portugal, Spain, France and Greece) involved and three years schedule, is the design, development and demonstration of a pre-operational "end-to-end" information service, fully exploiting satellite sensors data and able to support prevention/ preparedness and recovery phases of the Forest Fires emergency cycle in the EU Mediterranean Region. The PREFER information is as general as to be usable in the different countries of the Mediterranean Region, and acts in full complement to already existing services, such as the EC

  6. Mineral composition of some varieties of beans from Mediterranean and Tropical areas.

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Naccari, Clara; Bua, Giuseppe Daniel; Rastrelli, Luca; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Dugo, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    In this study has been evaluated the mineral composition (Cd, Pb, As, Hg, Ba, Cr, Co, Ni, Se, Sb, V, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo, Na, K, Ca, Mg) of some varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata and V. angularis) from Mediterranean and Tropical areas of the world (Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast); the correlation between beans mineral composition in micro and macroelements and botanical and/or geographical origin; trace elements dietary intake by beans consumption. The results showed a correlation between beans mineral composition and their geographical origin, with higher values in Ivory Coast samples. Moreover, minerals content found confirmed the importance of these legumes in the diet for the significant content of essential micro and macroelements and a safe consumption of beans for the low residual levels of toxic metals. PMID:26940501

  7. Retrieval of eddy dynamics from SMOS sea surface salinity measurements in the Algerian Basin (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isern-Fontanet, Jordi; Olmedo, Estrella; Turiel, Antonio; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; García-Ladona, Emilio

    2016-06-01

    The circulation in the Algerian Basin is characterized by the presence of fresh-core eddies that propagate along the coast or at distances between 100 and 200 km from the coast. Enhancements in the processing of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) data have allowed to produce, for the first time, satellite sea surface salinity (SSS) maps in the Mediterranean Sea that capture the signature of Algerian eddies. SMOS data can be used to track them for long periods of time, especially during winter. SMOS SSS maps are well correlated with in situ measurements although the former has a smaller dynamical range. Despite this limitation, SMOS SSS maps capture the key dynamics of Algerian eddies allowing to retrieve velocities from SSS with the correct sign of vorticity.

  8. Modelling surface currents in the Eastern Levantine Mediterranean using surface drifters and satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Leila; Brajard, Julien; Fakhri, Milad; Hayes, Daniel; Mortier, Laurent; Poulain, Pierre-Marie

    2016-08-01

    We present a new and fast method that blends altimetric and drifter positions data in order to predict the surface velocity in the Eastern Levantine Mediterranean. The method relies on a variational assimilation approach where a velocity correction is continuously obtained by matching observed drifter positions with those predicted by a simple advection model. The background velocity used in the advection of the drifters is the aggregate of a geostrophic and a wind-driven component and the velocity correction is constrained to be divergence free. The algorithm employs a sliding time window that assimilates at once and inside each frame, an entire trajectory of drifters. We show that with few drifters, our method improves the estimation of velocity in two typical situations: an eddy between the Lebanese coast and Cyprus, and velocities along the Lebanese coast.

  9. Digenean species diversity in teleost fishes from the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia (Western Mediterranean)

    PubMed Central

    Derbel, H.; Châari, M.; Neifar, L.

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish digeneans in the Gulf of Gabes (southern coast of Tunisia). A total of 779 fishes belonging to 32 species were sampled. 53 species of Digenea belonging to 15 families were recorded. Among these species, 24 are reported for the first time from the coast of Tunisia. We report one new host record, Lecithochirium sp. from Sardinella aurita. The Hemiuridae is the dominant family. A host-parasite list is presented with the information on the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of each species collected. The diversity of Digenea is compared with other localities in the Mediterranean Sea and the northern east of Tunisia. The Gulf of Gabes shows the lowest diversity linked to the anthropogenic activities and impact of exotic species. The use of Digenea as indicators of the state of the ecosystem is discussed. PMID:22550623

  10. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  11. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  12. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  13. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  14. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  15. The Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) Project: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    In response to the EC call ENV.2012.6.4-2 (Long-term monitoring experiments in geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: the Supersite concept - FP7-ENV-2012-two-stage) a wide community of volcanological institutions proposed the project Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV), which is in the negotiation phase at the time of writing. The Consortium is composed by 18 European University and research institutes, four Small or Medium Enterprises (SME) and two non-European University and research institutes. MED-SUV will improve the consortium capacity of assessment of volcanic hazards in Supersites of Southern Italy by optimising and integrating existing and new observation/monitoring systems, by a breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes and by increasing the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities. More than 3 million of people are exposed to potential volcanic hazards in a large region in the Mediterranean Sea, where two among the largest European volcanic areas are located: Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. This project will fully exploit the unique detailed long-term in-situ monitoring data sets available for these volcanoes and integrate with Earth Observation (EO) data, setting the basic tools for a significant step ahead in the discrimination of pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. The wide range of styles and intensities of volcanic phenomena observed on these volcanoes, which can be assumed as archetypes of 'closed conduit ' and 'open conduit' volcano, together with the long-term multidisciplinary data sets give an exceptional opportunity to improve the understanding of a very wide spectrum of geo-hazards, as well as implementing and testing a large variety of innovative models of ground deformation and motion. Important impacts on the European industrial sector are expected, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new

  16. Study of the T16189C variant and mitochondrial lineages in Tunisian and overall Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Hsouna, Sana; Ben Halim, Nizar; Lasram, Khaled; Meiloud, Ghlana; Arfa, Imen; Kerkeni, Emna; Romdhane, Lilia; Jamoussi, Henda; Bahri, Sonia; Ben Ammar, Slim; Abid, Abdelmajid; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Houmeida, Ahmed; Abdelhak, Sonia; Kefi, Rym

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variant T16189C has been investigated in several metabolic diseases. In this study, we aimed to estimate the frequency of the T16189C variant in Tunisian and other Mediterranean populations and to evaluate the impact of this variant on the phylogeny of Mediterranean populations. Blood sample of 240 unrelated Tunisian subjects were recruited from several Tunisian localities. The hypervariable region 1 of the mtDNA were amplified and sequenced. Additional sequences (N = 4921) from Mediterranean populations were compiled from previous studies. The average frequency of T16189C variant in Tunisia (29%) is similar to that observed in North African and Near Eastern populations. Our findings showed positive correlation of the T16189C variant with Sub-Saharan and North African lineages, while a negative correlation was found with the Eurasian haplogroups, reaching its maximum with the Eurasian haplogroup H. The principal component analyses showed a high internal heterogeneity between Tunisian localities. At the Mediterranean scale, Tunisians are closer to North African (Algerian and Moroccan) and Near Eastern populations (Syrians and Palestinians) than to Europeans. PMID:25208176

  17. Drying and wetting of Mediterranean soils stimulates decomposition and carbon dioxide emission: the "Birch effect".

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Paul; Rey, Ana; Petsikos, Charalampos; Wingate, Lisa; Rayment, Mark; Pereira, João; Banza, João; David, Jorge; Miglietta, Franco; Borghetti, Marco; Manca, Giovanni; Valentini, Riccardo

    2007-07-01

    Observations on the net carbon exchange of forests in the European Mediterranean region, measured recently by the eddy covariance method, have revived interest in a phenomenon first characterized on agricultural and forest soils in East Africa in the 1950s and 1960s by H. F. Birch and now often referred to as the "Birch effect." When soils become dry during summer because of lack of rain, as is common in regions with Mediterranean climate, or are dried in the laboratory in controlled conditions, and are then rewetted by precipitation or irrigation, there is a burst of decomposition, mineralization and release of inorganic nitrogen and CO(2). In forests in Mediterranean climates in southern Europe, this effect has been observed with eddy covariance techniques and soil respiration chambers at the stand and small plot scales, respectively. Following the early work of Birch, laboratory incubations of soils at controlled temperatures and water contents have been used to characterize CO(2) release following the rewetting of dry soils. A simple empirical model based on laboratory incubations demonstrates that the amount of carbon mineralized over one year can be predicted from soil temperature and precipitation regime, provided that carbon lost as CO(2) is taken into account. We show that the amount of carbon returned to the atmosphere following soil rewetting can reduce significantly the annual net carbon gain by Mediterranean forests. PMID:17403645

  18. EGPM - The proposed European contribution to the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnai, A.; Egpm Mission Advisory Group

    2003-04-01

    At the beginning of January 2002, an international scientific consortium (the EGPM Science Team) constituted by numerous scientists involved in several disciplines related to precipitation, submitted to the European Space Agency (ESA) a proposal titled "EGPM: European contribution to the Global Precipitation Mission" in response to ESA's second call for proposals for Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions (EEOMs). The principle objective of the EGPM proposal was to encourage ESA to directly engage in the international organization for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission formulated by NASA and NASDA, by providing one member of the GPM constellation of satellites aimed at providing frequent global rainfall observations for an extended operations period starting in the time frame of 2007. Noteworthy, a large part of the European scientific and operational community is strongly interested in GPM. Especially, the operational community related to NWP, nowcasting and hydrological hazards would take advantage of Europe being part of the constellation, because this would guarantee direct access to real-time data. The proposed EGPM satellite should satisfy, in association with the overall GPM constellation, the following "regional" requirements: - Improve the rainfall estimation accuracy with respect to SSM/I; - Enhance the detectability of light rain and snowfall, specifically over land, as appropriate for Northern Europe and Canada and in mid-latitude oceanic perturbations; - Provide a significant contribution to the monitoring and the understanding of hazardous and flash-flood producing storms along the Mediterranean coasts; - Improve the forecast skill of global and regional NWP models through data assimilation of precipitation measurements; - Provide direct-read-out data for real-time applications, as well as global data acquisition. To this end, the scientific payload of the EGPM satellite would consist of an advanced conically scanning microwave radiometer

  19. Laryngeal cancer mortality trends in European countries.

    PubMed

    Chatenoud, Liliane; Garavello, Werner; Pagan, Eleonora; Bertuccio, Paola; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Bosetti, Cristina

    2016-02-15

    After a steady increase between the 1950s and the 1970s, laryngeal cancer mortality has been levelling off since the early 1980s in men from most western and southern European countries and since the early 1990s in central and eastern Europe. To update trends in laryngeal cancer mortality, we analyzed data provided by the World Health Organization over the last two decades for 34 European countries and the European Union (EU) as a whole. For major European countries, we also identified significant changes in trends between 1980 and 2012 using joinpoint regression analysis. Male mortality in the EU was approximately constant between 1980 and 1991 (annual percent change, APC=-0.5%) and declined by 3.3% per year in 1991-2012. EU age-standardized (world population) rates were 4.7/100,000 in 1990-91 and 2.5/100,000 in 2010-2011. Rates declined in most European countries, particularly over the last two decades. In 2010-11, the highest male rates were in Hungary, the Republic of Moldova, and Romania (over 6/100,000), and the lowest ones in Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland (below 1/100,000). In EU women, mortality was stable around 0.29/100,000 between 1980 and 1994 and slightly decreased thereafter (APC=-1.3%; 0.23/100,000 in 2000-01). We also considered male incidence trends for nine European countries or cancer registration areas. In most of them, declines were observed over recent decades. Laryngeal cancer mortality thus showed favourable trends over the last few decades in most Europe, following favourable changes in tobacco and, mostly for Mediterranean countries, alcohol consumption. PMID:26335030

  20. Sequencing type material resolves the identity and distribution of the generitype Lithophyllum incrustans, and related European species L. hibernicum and L. bathyporum (Corallinales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Kantun, Jazmin J; Rindi, Fabio; Adey, Walter H; Heesch, Svenja; Peña, Viviana; Le Gall, Line; Gabrielson, Paul W

    2015-08-01

    DNA sequences from type material in the nongeniculate coralline genus Lithophyllum were used to unambiguously link some European species names to field-collected specimens, thus providing a great advance over morpho-anatomical identifi-cation. In particular, sequence comparisons of rbcL, COI and psbA genes from field-collected specimens allowed the following conclusion: the generitype species, L. incrustans, occurs mostly as subtidal rhodoliths and crusts on both Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, and not as the common, NE Atlantic, epilithic, intertidal crust reported in the literature. The heterotypic type material of L. hibernicum was narrowed to one rhodolith belonging in Lithophyllum. As well as occurring as a subtidal rhodolith, L. hibernicum is a common, epilithic and epizoic crust in the intertidal zone from Ireland south to Mediterranean France. A set of four features distinguished L. incrustans from L. hibernicum, including epithallial cell diameter, pore canal shape of sporangial conceptacles and sporangium height and diameter. An rbcL sequence of the lectotype of Lithophyllum bathyporum, which was recently proposed to accommodate Atlantic intertidal collections of L. incrustans, corresponded to a distinct taxon hitherto known only from Brittany as the subtidal, bisporangial, lectotype, but also occurs intertidally in Atlantic Spain. Specimens from Ireland and France morpho-anatomically identified as L. fasciculatum and a specimen from Cornwall likewise identified as L. duckerae were resolved as L. incrustans and L. hibernicum, respectively. PMID:26986797

  1. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  2. California coast nearshore processes study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. During the period 1 May to 30 June 1973 material was processed and interpreted for use in analyzing the three ocean seasons along the California coast. ERTS imagery from the first season of the year, called the Davidson Current period, was mosaiced and analyzed. The second season of the year, the Upwelling period, was mosaiced and interpretation was initiated. Imagery for the third ocean season, the Oceanic period, is being collected for future study.

  3. Epidemiology of West Nile Disease in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin from 2009 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Di Sabatino, Daria; Bruno, Rossana; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Cito, Francesca; Iannetti, Simona; Narcisi, Valeria; De Massis, Fabrizio; Calistri, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) transmission has been confirmed in the last four years in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin. An increasing concern towards West Nile disease (WND) has been observed due to the high number of human and animal cases reported in these areas confirming the importance of this zoonosis. A new epidemiological scenario is currently emerging: although new introductions of the virus from abroad are always possible, confirming the epidemiological role played by migratory birds, the infection endemisation in some European territories today is a reality supported by the constant reoccurrence of the same strains across years in the same geographical areas. Despite the WND reoccurrence in the Old World, the overwintering mechanisms are not well known, and the role of local resident birds or mosquitoes in this context is poorly understood. A recent new epidemiological scenario is the spread of lineage 2 strain across European and Mediterranean countries in regions where lineage 1 strain is still circulating creating favourable conditions for genetic reassortments and emergence of new strains. This paper summarizes the main epidemiological findings on WNV occurrence in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin from 2009 to 2013, considering potential future spread patterns. PMID:25302311

  4. Effects of Extreme Climate on Mediterranean Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xoplaki, Elena

    2009-04-01

    Climate Extremes During Recent Millennia and Their Impact on Mediterranean Societies; Athens, Greece, 13-16 September 2008; Climatic extremes in the past few thousand years have severely affected societies throughout the Mediterranean region and have changed the outcome of historical events in some instances. Climatic extremes—droughts, floods, prolonged cold and heat—affect society in a variety of ways, operating through famine, disease, and social upheaval. These topics were discussed at an interdisciplinary symposium at the National and Kapodistrian University, in Greece, that brought together climatologists, paleoclimatologists, anthropologists, geologists, archaeologists, and historians working in the greater Mediterranean region.

  5. The relevance of the Mediterranean Region to colonial waterbird conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is the largest partially enclosed sea in the world and provides habitat to more than 100 species of waterbirds from the Palearctic-North African-Middle Eastern regions. Even though the Mediterranean suffers from pollution, has little tidal influence, and is oligotrophic, more than half of the western Palearctic populations of numerous waterfowl species winter in the region. Thirty-three species of colonial waterbirds breed along the 46,000 km Mediterranean coastline with nine species considered threatened or endangered, mostly because of wetland loss and degradation. The long history of human activity and scientific investigations in the region has taught some valuable lessons. In the area of colonial waterbird biology and conservation, we have learned important lessons about the value of long-term monitoring and research on selected populations. From marking studies of Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta) results have been used to derive useful information about metapopulation dynamics. Involvement of both African and European biologists allowed year-round Studies of these species that yielded valuable spin-offs for training in avian and wetland conservation. We have also learned the value of man-made wetlands as feeding and nesting sites for some colonial waterbirds. Careful evaluations of the habitat quality of different types of wetlands are required, as in contaminant levels such as lead shot and pesticides. Wetland conservationists have also learned from some instructive mistakes. Dam construction and agricultural incentive programs sponsored by the European Community, the World Bank, and others from the past have largely ignored impacts on wetlands and wildlife. In some areas, economic ventures such as aquaculture operations and salt mining have not involved waterbird habitat needs in their planning. Research and conservation needs include: (1) establishing regional monitoring programs and

  6. Behavioral patterns of Aplysia fasciata along the Mediterranean coast of Israel.

    PubMed

    Susswein, A J; Gev, S; Achituv, Y; Markovich, S

    1984-05-01

    Aplysia fasciata were observed in a number of environments. They were usually aggregated. Animals were occasionally buried in sand. Aplysia were less mobile and more deeply hidden when waves were strong. Aplysia swam only in a calm environment. A wide variety of seaweeds were eaten, but the most common food was Ulva lactuca. Food arousal and satiation occur in the field. Often the pattern of feeding was a gradual slowing down and eventual cessation of eating; however, many meals deviated from this pattern. Appetitive behaviors preceding mating as a male were similar to those preceding eating. Aroused animals mated as males, while passive animals mated as females; mating as a male produced arousal, expressed as an increased likelihood to respond to food or to mate as a male. Two males could simultaneously impregnate one female. Animals mate in large groups, constantly changing partners. Mating groups occur in linear chain, branched chain, and closed chain configurations. Egg laying and egg masses were observed in areas inhabited by animals. Inking was never observed without exprimenter intervention, even when a crab attacked an Aplysia. PMID:6547833

  7. The multifunctional artificial reef and its role in the defence of the Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    López, I; Tinoco, H; Aragonés, L; García-Barba, J

    2016-04-15

    Multifunctional artificial reefs (MFAR) are being implemented around the world, due to their ability to provide an environment where a sports-economic-recreational use and environmental improvement is implemented, and are also elements of coastal defence. However, a lot of failures have been recorded, possibly due to disregarded local factors in the formulations used, and there is no method that has encompassed all these factors, in order to take them into account in its design. The aim of this paper was to provide the coastal engineer with a method that would be used for the design of such reefs. To do this, the Babilonia beach of Guardamar del Segura, Alicante (Spain), was chosen because it is a fully anthropised area (with houses in the Maritime-Terrestrial Public Domain, marina, channelling and river mouth) with continuous regression, in which all the elements considered in this study, were treated. Based on the performance obtained in studies and projects worldwide, the climatic characteristics, biocenosis, sediment transport, settlements and liquefaction and the evolution of the coastline, were analysed. The multidisciplinary study carried out showed that with the implementation of a MFAR, the problem was reversed. Furthermore, the area was provided with a playful-economic use, and could be used 60% of the time, by surfers whose skill level were low to intermediate, without forgetting that the diversity of the marine ecosystem in the area was increased. PMID:26851763

  8. Thermal mapping, geothermal source location, natural effluents and plant stress in the Mediterranean coast of Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delascuevas, R. N. (Principal Investigator); Dearagon, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Data obtained by HCMM satellite over a complex area in eastern Spain were evaluated and found to be most useful in studying macrostructures in geology and in analyzing marine currents, layers, and areas (although other satellites provide more data). The upper scale to work with HCMM data appears to be 1:2.000.000. Techniques used in preprocessing, processing, and analyzing imagery are discussed as well as methods for pattern recognition. Surface temperatures obtained for soils, farmlands, forests, geological structures, and coastal waters are discussed. Suggestions are included for improvements needed to achieve better results in geographic areas similar to the study area.

  9. Ecology of Four Succulent Halophytes in the Mediterranean Coast of Damietta Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serag, M. S.

    1999-08-01

    A study was carried out on four succulent halophytes namely: Arthrocnemum macrostachyum Halocnemum strobilaceum, Inula crithmoides and Zygophyytum aegyptium, in relation to associated vegetation and soil properties. A strong positive correlation was apparent between Zygophyllum aegyptium and the non-succulent Frankenia hirsuta, and between Arthrocnemum macrostachyum and Suaeda pruinosa. The succulence of Halocnemum strobilaceum and Zygophyllum aegyptium increased with increased soil salinity. In contrast, the succulence of Arthrocnemum macrostachyum and Inula crithmoides increased with the increase of soil salinity only up to 3·0; above this value their succulence decreased. The findings are discussed in relation to the use of the selected halophytes to prevent sand drifting, and to improve desertification control in coastal environments in Arabic countries.

  10. [Is human Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens parasitosis mor frequent than it appears on the Mediterranean coast?].

    PubMed

    Delage, A; Lauraire, M C; Eglin, G

    1995-01-01

    Some observations of human parasitism by Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens are frequently enough reported but they are also individually reported by different authors. Nïmes's geographical situation makes of it a privileged observatory for this helminthiasis. The worm's maturity varies depending on the subjects: the sensitivity of those and the clinical reactions are of a large variety. The ones that seem to be constant are the parasit's migrations in the different territories during a lot of months. It is the case in the observation reported here; in another article, we have shown the possibility of an intraperitoneal migration which discovery can be only of an extreme fate. Next to some noisy manifestations, other cases stayed quiet advise the adaptation of some autochtones submissed to iteratif infestations. PMID:8555774

  11. Coasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Edward K.; Cliff, Ursula

    1974-01-01

    This article compares two approaches to regional planning. In San Francisco, a citizen-initiated supra-agency was organized to prevent overdevelop ment of the coastline. The New York coastline, developed by one man, Robert Moses, is now victim of an inadequate and inefficient system of development that ecologically threatens the area. (MA)

  12. Hydrological dynamics of water sources in a Mediterranean lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpp, C.; Ekdal, A.; Gönenc, I. E.; Maloszewski, P.

    2014-07-01

    Lagoons are important ecosystems occupying large coastal areas worldwide. Lagoons contain various mixtures of marine and freshwater sources which are highly dynamic in time. However, it often remains a challenge to identify and quantify dynamic changes of water sources, particularly in heterogeneous lagoon systems like the Köycegiz-Dalyan Lagoon (KDL), which is located at the southwest of Turkey on the Mediterranean Sea coast. The objective of this study was to quantify different contributions of potential water sources i.e. surface water, groundwater and seawater in the lagoon and how these water sources changed over time and space. In the wet and dry season stable isotopes of water, chloride concentration (Cl-) and salinity were measured in two depths in the lagoon and surrounding water bodies (sea, lake, groundwater). Different components of water sources were quantified with a three component endmember mixing analysis. Differences in Cl- and stable isotopes over time indicated the dynamic behaviour of the system. Generally, none of the groundwater samples was impacted by water of the Mediterranean Sea. During the wet season, most of the lagoon water (>95%) was influenced by freshwater and vertically well mixed. During the dry season, high Cl- in the deeper sampling locations indicated a high contribution of marine water throughout the entire lagoon system due to salt water intrusion. However, a distinct layering in the lagoon was obvious from low Cl- and depleted isotope contents close to the surface supporting freshwater inflow into the system even during the dry season. Besides temporal dynamics also spatial heterogeneities were identified. Changes in water sources were most evident in the main lagoon channel compared to more isolate lagoon lakes, which were influenced by marine water even in the wet season, and compared to side branches indicating slower turnover times. We found that environmental tracers helped to quantify contributions of different water

  13. Hydrological dynamics of water sources in a Mediterranean lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpp, C.; Ekdal, A.; Gönenc, I. E.; Maloszewski, P.

    2014-12-01

    Lagoons are important ecosystems occupying large coastal areas worldwide. Lagoons contain various mixtures of marine and freshwater sources which are highly dynamic in time. However, it often remains a challenge to identify and quantify dynamic changes of water sources, particularly in heterogeneous lagoon systems like the Köycegiz-Dalyan lagoon (KDL), which is located at the south-west of Turkey on the Mediterranean Sea coast. The objective of this study was to quantify different contributions of potential water sources i.e. surface water, groundwater and seawater in the lagoon and how these water sources changed over time and space. In the wet- and dry-season stable isotopes of water, chloride concentration (Cl-) and salinity were measured in two depths in the lagoon and surrounding water bodies (sea, lake, groundwater). Different components of water sources were quantified with a three component endmember mixing analysis. Differences in Cl- and stable isotopes over time indicated the dynamic behaviour of the system. Generally, none of the groundwater samples was impacted by water of the Mediterranean Sea. During the wet season, most of the lagoon water (> 95%) was influenced by freshwater and vertically well mixed. During the dry season, high Cl- in the deeper sampling locations indicated a high contribution of marine water throughout the entire lagoon system due to saltwater intrusion. However, a distinct layering in the lagoon was obvious from low Cl- and depleted isotope contents close to the surface supporting freshwater inflow into the system even during the dry season. Besides temporal dynamics also spatial heterogeneities were identified. Changes in water sources were most evident in the main lagoon channel compared to more isolate lagoon lakes, which were influenced by marine water even in the wet season, and compared to side branches indicating slower turnover times. We found that environmental tracers helped to quantify highly dynamic and

  14. Spatial and temporal variability of Mediterranean drought events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, R.; Sousa, P.; Nieto, R.; Gimeno, L.

    2009-04-01

    The original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and a recent adaptation to European soil characteristics, the Self Calibrated PDSI (or scPDSI) proposed by Schrier et al (2005) were used. We have computed monthly, seasonal and annual trends between 1901 and 2000 but also for the first and second halves of the 20th century. Results were represented only when achieving a minimum level of statistical significance (either 5% or 10% using a Mann-Kendall test) and confirm that the majority of the western and central Mediterranean is getting drier in the last decades of the 20th century while Turkey is generally getting wetter (Trigo et al., 2006). The spatio-temporal variability of these indices was evaluated with an EOF analysis, in order to reduce the large dimensionality of the fields under analysis. Spatial representation of the first EOF patterns shows that EOF 1 covers the entire Mediterranean basin (16.4% of EV), while EOF2 is dominated by a W-E dipole (10% EV). The following EOF patterns present smaller scale features, and explain smaller amounts of variance. The EOF patterns have also facilitated the definition of four sub-regions with large socio-economic relevance: 1) Iberia, 2) Italian Peninsula, 3) Balkans and 4) Turkey. The inter-annual variability of the regional spatial droughts indices for each region was analyzed separately. We have also performed an evaluation of their eventual links with large-scale atmospheric circulation indices that affect the Mediterranean basin, namely the NAO, EA, and SCAND. Finally we have evaluated the main sources of moisture affecting two drought prone areas in the western (Iberia) and eastern (Balkans) Mediterranean. This analysis was performed by means of backward tracking the air masses that ultimately reach these two regions using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART (Stohl et al., 1998) and meteorological analysis data from the ECMWF to track atmospheric moisture. This was done for a five-year period (2000

  15. Mediterranean monitoring and forecasting operational system for Copernicus Marine Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppini, Giovanni; Drudi, Massimiliano; Korres, Gerasimos; Fratianni, Claudia; Salon, Stefano; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Clementi, Emanuela; Zacharioudaki, Anna; Grandi, Alessandro; Delrosso, Damiano; Pistoia, Jenny; Solidoro, Cosimo; Pinardi, Nadia; Lecci, Rita; Agostini, Paola; Cretì, Sergio; Turrisi, Giuseppe; Palermo, Francesco; Konstantinidou, Anna; Storto, Andrea; Simoncelli, Simona; Di Pietro, Pier Luigi; Masina, Simona; Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Ravdas, Michalis; Mancini, Marco; Aloisio, Giovanni; Fiore, Sandro; Buonocore, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    The MEDiterranean Monitoring and Forecasting Center (Med-MFC) is part of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS, http://marine.copernicus.eu/), provided on an operational mode by Mercator Ocean in agreement with the European Commission. Specifically, Med MFC system provides regular and systematic information about the physical state of the ocean and marine ecosystems for the Mediterranean Sea. The Med-MFC service started in May 2015 from the pre-operational system developed during the MyOcean projects, consolidating the understanding of regional Mediterranean Sea dynamics, from currents to biogeochemistry to waves, interfacing with local data collection networks and guaranteeing an efficient link with other Centers in Copernicus network. The Med-MFC products include analyses, 10 days forecasts and reanalysis, describing currents, temperature, salinity, sea level and pelagic biogeochemistry. Waves products will be available in MED-MFC version in 2017. The consortium, composed of INGV (Italy), HCMR (Greece) and OGS (Italy) and coordinated by the Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Climate Change (CMCC, Italy), performs advanced R&D activities and manages the service delivery. The Med-MFC infrastructure consists of 3 Production Units (PU), for Physics, Biogechemistry and Waves, a unique Dissemination Unit (DU) and Archiving Unit (AU) and Backup Units (BU) for all principal components, guaranteeing a resilient configuration of the service and providing and efficient and robust solution for the maintenance of the service and delivery. The Med-MFC includes also an evolution plan, both in terms of research and operational activities, oriented to increase the spatial resolution of products, to start wave products dissemination, to increase temporal extent of the reanalysis products and improving ocean physical modeling for delivering new products. The scientific activities carried out in 2015 concerned some improvements in the physical, biogeochemical and

  16. Familial Mediterranean fever: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sönmez, Hafize Emine; Batu, Ezgi Deniz; Özen, Seza

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent monogenic autoinflammatory disease, and it is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and polyserositis. The disease is associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding pyrin, which causes exaggerated inflammatory response through uncontrolled production of interleukin 1. The major long-term complication of FMF is amyloidosis. Colchicine remains the principle therapy, and the aim of treatment is to prevent acute attacks and the consequences of chronic inflammation. With the evolution in the concepts about the etiopathogenesis and genetics of the disease, we have understood that FMF is more complicated than an ordinary autosomal recessive monogenic disorder. Recently, recommendation sets have been generated for interpretation of genetic testing and genetic diagnosis of FMF. Here, we have reviewed the current perspectives in FMF in light of recent recommendations. PMID:27051312

  17. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    PubMed

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the trends

  18. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends

    PubMed Central

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the “good environmental status” (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens’s method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the

  19. Ecology and ethnoecology of dusky grouper [garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834)] along the coast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Begossi, Alpina; Silvano, Renato AM

    2008-01-01

    Dusky grouper (garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus) is an important catch for several artisanal small-scale fisheries along the Brazilian coast. It is a sedentary, monandric, and late maturing protogynous species, which makes it vulnerable to overharvesting even though it is mainly caught through hook and line or spear fishing through free diving. Lack of information on the ecology and biology of this species in Brazil is astonishing. Much of the information found in the literature concerns Mediterranean dusky groupers. Studies compiling local knowledge (ethnoecology) about fish species complement biological data, and have been fundamental for effective fisheries management. In this study, our objectives are to obtain data about dusky grouper through fish catches and analysis of stomach contents and gonad maturation (macroscopic analyses), along with interviews from fishermen from six small-scales communities from the southern (Pântano do Sul, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State) to the northern Brazilian coast (Porto Sauípe, Bahia State). We conclude that precautionary approaches and 'data-less' management approaches are needed in the coast of Brazil. Research on this species and on the potential of aquaculture for its cultivation, are urgent, due to the apparent vulnerability and decrease of dusky grouper along the coast of Brazil. PMID:18793394

  20. Genetics Home Reference: familial Mediterranean fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epub 2013 Sep 9. Review. Citation on PubMed Lidar M, Kedem R, Berkun Y, Langevitz P, Livneh ... 090401. Epub 2009 Dec 15. Citation on PubMed Lidar M, Livneh A. Familial Mediterranean fever: clinical, molecular ...

  1. Night Views Over the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over the Mediterranean Sea was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 6, 2011, from 22:58:09 to 23:13:15 GMT,...

  2. [Mediterranean diet. Characteristics and health benefits].

    PubMed

    Serra Majem, Lluís; García Alvarez, Alicia; Ngo de la Cruz, Joy

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to define the concept of Mediterranean Diet or Diets and to describe the associated health benefits recognised by the scientific community. The characteristics of the Mediterranean Diet are described as well as the effects the foods comprising it have on the most common pathologies such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The Spanish Society of Community Nutrition's consensus based Healthy Diet Pyramid, along with Greece's pyramid for food guidelines for the adult population (from the Greek Ministry of Health), are presented and compared. They are the graphic representation of the food and physical activity guides of two typically Mediterranean countries. Nutritional and sociological trends are also discussed and their impact on the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet. PMID:15584472

  3. Probing continental collision in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. H. F.

    Knowledge about the processes of continental collisional would unlock a wealth of data for the field of tectonics, but such processes have been poorly documented by academic ocean drilling. On the basis of 1993 data confirming that the easternmost Mediterranean is in the initial stages of continental collision, the Ocean Drilling Program has scheduled two legs of drilling for summer 1995 in the eastern and western parts of the Mediterranean Sea.Effects of continental collision in the easternmost Mediterranean include the Quaternary uplift of Cyprus [Poole and Robertson, 1991] and the break up and subsidence of the Eratosthenes Seamount, which is located in the easternmost Mediterranean between Cyprus and the Levantine Basin (Figure 1).

  4. Coexistence of two freshwater turtle species along a Mediterranean stream: The role of spatial and temporal heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segurado, Pedro; Figueiredo, Diogo

    2007-09-01

    In the Iberian Peninsula the European pond turtle ( Emys orbicularis) and the Mediterranean pond turtle ( Mauremys leprosa) share many freshwater habitats, in particular Mediterranean streams. Whether and how these two species divide space within those habitats is poorly known in part due to the very low abundance of E. orbicularis at most syntopic sites. The spatial coexistence of these two species was studied along a 1.3 km reach of a typical Mediterranean stream based on data from trapping sessions and basking counts. The effect of the hydrological regime on differences in space use between species was also assessed. Spatial associations between species and between each species and microhabitat descriptors were estimated using a permutation procedure to account for spatial autocorrelation. Differences in the use of space were also estimated using a resample technique to account for the small sample sizes of E. orbicularis. Results indicate that E. orbicularis shows a preference for temporary, shallow, well vegetated and sandy reaches, while M. leprosa is less selective regarding microhabitat. Differences between E. orbicularis and juveniles of M. leprosa were less obvious. The high spatial heterogeneity of Mediterranean streams may be responsible for the persistence of viable populations of E. orbicularis as well as favouring the coexistence of the two turtle species. Therefore, stream habitat management and conservation plans for E. orbicularis should give priority to the maintenance of high levels of heterogeneity along Mediterranean streams.

  5. Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin — Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy

    PubMed Central

    Negev, Maya; Paz, Shlomit; Clermont, Alexandra; Pri-Or, Noemie Groag; Shalom, Uri; Yeger, Tamar; Green, Manfred S.

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD) in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus) the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue) the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparation for changing patterns of VBD distribution is crucial in the Mediterranean basin. We analyzed six representative Mediterranean countries and found that they have started to prepare for this threat, but the preparation levels among them differ, and policy mechanisms are limited and basic. Furthermore, cross-border cooperation is not stable and depends on international frameworks. The Mediterranean countries should improve their adaptation plans, and develop more cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary and participatory approaches. In addition, based on experience from existing local networks in advancing national legislation and trans-border cooperation, we outline recommendations for a regional cooperation framework. We suggest that a stable and neutral framework is required, and that it should address the characteristics and needs of African, Asian and European countries around the Mediterranean in order to ensure participation. Such a regional framework is essential to reduce the risk of VBD transmission, since the vectors of infectious diseases know no political borders. PMID:26084000

  6. Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin - Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy.

    PubMed

    Negev, Maya; Paz, Shlomit; Clermont, Alexandra; Pri-Or, Noemie Groag; Shalom, Uri; Yeger, Tamar; Green, Manfred S

    2015-06-01

    The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD) in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus) the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue) the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparation for changing patterns of VBD distribution is crucial in the Mediterranean basin. We analyzed six representative Mediterranean countries and found that they have started to prepare for this threat, but the preparation levels among them differ, and policy mechanisms are limited and basic. Furthermore, cross-border cooperation is not stable and depends on international frameworks. The Mediterranean countries should improve their adaptation plans, and develop more cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary and participatory approaches. In addition, based on experience from existing local networks in advancing national legislation and trans-border cooperation, we outline recommendations for a regional cooperation framework. We suggest that a stable and neutral framework is required, and that it should address the characteristics and needs of African, Asian and European countries around the Mediterranean in order to ensure participation. Such a regional framework is essential to reduce the risk of VBD transmission, since the vectors of infectious diseases know no political borders. PMID:26084000

  7. Performance evaluation of Wavewatch III in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Besio, Giovanni; Cassola, Federico; Mazzino, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    For this study, we analyzed the performance of the wave model Wavewatch III® forced by a limited area atmospheric model in the Mediterranean Sea. The simulation results have been compared to buoy measurements through single point statistical indicators such as normalized bias and symmetrically normalized root mean square error. A performance evaluation of the growth-dissipation source terms and their reference parameterizations was carried out on seventeen case studies corresponding to storms in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea and off the Mediterranean Spanish coast. The source terms introduced by Ardhuin et al. (2010) proved to be the best overall choice, although they led to an overestimation in the significant wave height under calm conditions and to an underestimation under severe conditions. A sensitivity analysis in the parameter space was performed within the neighborhood of the reference parameterization of Ardhuin et al. (2010), and a calibration was carried out to reduce the overall positive bias in the significant wave height. Furthermore, to investigate the effect from the wind forcing resolution, wind data with different resolutions was used in a sensitivity analysis. Because mesoscale features are relevant to the overall Mediterranean wave dynamics, we carried out a further investigation into the impact of the resolution on a different set of ten case studies characterized by strong mesoscale patterns. A comparison of the simulations with the measurements using single point statistical indicators shows that the high resolution results are affected by the so-called double penalty effect, although in some cases, they apparently provide a better qualitative description of the event. Finally, a hindcast covering 32 years (from 1979 to 2010) was developed using a reference parameterization from Ardhuin et al. (2010) and its calibrated variant. An analysis of the performance of the calibrated parameterization on the hindcast dataset reveals that it performs

  8. Phylogeography, historical demography and habitat suitability modelling of freshwater fishes inhabiting seasonally fluctuating Mediterranean river systems: a case study using the Iberian cyprinid Squalius valentinus.

    PubMed

    Perea, S; Doadrio, I

    2015-07-01

    The Mediterranean freshwater fish fauna has evolved under constraints imposed by the seasonal weather/hydrological patterns that define the Mediterranean climate. These conditions have influenced the genetic and demographic structure of aquatic communities since their origins in the Mid-Pliocene. Freshwater species in Mediterranean-type climates will likely constitute genetically well-differentiated populations, to varying extents depending on basin size, as a consequence of fragmentation resulting from drought/flood cycles. We developed an integrative framework to study the spatial patterns in genetic diversity, demographic trends, habitat suitability modelling and landscape genetics, to evaluate the evolutionary response of Mediterranean-type freshwater fish to seasonal fluctuations in weather. To test this evolutionary response, the model species used was Squalius valentinus, an endemic cyprinid of the Spanish Levantine area, where seasonal weather fluctuations are extreme, although our findings may be extrapolated to other Mediterranean-type species. Our results underscore the significant role of the Mediterranean climate, along with Pleistocene glaciations, in diversification of S. valentinus. We found higher nuclear diversity in larger drainage basins, but higher mitochondrial diversity correlated to habitat suitability rather than basin size. We also found strong correlation between genetic structure and climatic factors associated with Mediterranean seasonality. Demographic and migration analyses suggested population expansion during glacial periods that also contributed to the current genetic structure of S. valentinus populations. The inferred models support the significant contribution of precipitation and temperature to S. valentinus habitat suitability and allow recognizing areas of habitat stability. We highlight the importance of stable habitat conditions, fostered by typical karstic springs found on the Mediterranean littoral coasts, for the

  9. Comparison of the biology, dynamics, and secondary production of Talorchestia brito (Amphipoda, Talitridae) in Atlantic (Portugal) and Mediterranean (Tunisia) populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, S. C.; Marques, J. C.; Pardal, M. A.; Bouslama, M. F.; El Gtari, M.; Charfi-Cheikhrouha, F.

    2003-12-01

    The biology, population dynamics, and production of Talorchestia brito were studied at two sandy beaches located on the Atlantic (Portugal) and on the Mediterranean (Tunisia) coasts, respectively. The seasonal variation in abundance and the overall densities were similar in both populations. Reproduction occurred from February to September in the Atlantic, and from March to early November in the Mediterranean. The sex ratio was male biased in the Atlantic, and female biased in the Mediterranean. Based on data from the Atlantic population, both abundance and the proportion of reproductive females were positively correlated with temperature, while the proportion of juveniles in the population was positively correlated with temperature and sediment moisture. On average, individuals from the Atlantic were larger than the ones from the Mediterranean. Life span was estimated at six to nine months in the Atlantic, and five to eight months in the Mediterranean. Talorchestia brito was shown to be a semiannual species, with iteroparous females producing two broods per year, and exhibited a bivoltine life cycle. The minimum age required for males' and females' sexual differentiation and for female sexual maturation was shorter in the Mediterranean. Growth production ( P) was estimated at 0.19 g m -2 y -1 ash free dry weight (AFDW; 4.3 kJ m -2 y -1) in the Atlantic population, and 0.217 g m -2 y -1 AFDW (4.9 kJ m -2 y -1) in the Mediterranean one. Elimination production ( E) was estimated at 0.35 g m -2 y -1 AFDW (7.9 kJ m -2 y -1) in the Atlantic, and 0.28 g m -2 y -1 AFDW (6.3 kJ m -2 y -1) in the Mediterranean. The average annual biomass ( overlineB) (standing stock) was estimated at 0.032 g m -2 in the Atlantic beach, and 0.029 g m -2 in the Mediterranean one, resulting, respectively, in P/ overlineB ratios of 5.9 and 7.5 and E/ overlineB ratios of 10.8 and 9.6. Like other talitrids, T. brito exhibited geographic variation in morphometrical characteristics, sex ratio

  10. Temporal and spatial genetic differentiation in the crab Liocarcinus depurator across the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Marta; Palero, Ferran; García-Merchán, Víctor Hugo; Macpherson, Enrique; Robainas-Barcia, Aymée; Mestres, Francesc; Roda, Tania; Abelló, Pere

    2016-01-01

    Spatial genetic studies often require sampling broadly separated areas, difficult to access simultaneously. Although comparing localities surveyed at different time periods might result in spurious genetic differentiation, there is a general believe on the stability of genetic structure through time, particularly if sampled localities are isolated or very distant. By analysing spatial and temporal genetic differentiation of the portunid crab Liocarcinus depurator we assessed the contribution of historical and contemporary processes on population connectivity patterns across three main oceanographic discontinuities along the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition: Gibraltar Strait, Almeria-Oran Front and Ibiza Channel. A partial fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I gene was sequenced in 366 individuals collected from localities at both sides of each discontinuity during three time periods. Although localities showed genetic fluctuations through time, a significant gradient was detected along the coast for all sampling periods. Significant inter-annual differences identified within the Alicante area, north of the Almeria-Oran Front, were associated with shifts in the relative contribution of Atlantic and Mediterranean water masses. The persistence of a clinal pattern in the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition area together with local fluctuations suggests a complex balance of dispersal and selection. PMID:27431989

  11. Dynamics of the temperature-humidity index in the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segnalini, Maria; Nardone, Alessandro; Bernabucci, Umberto; Vitali, Andrea; Ronchi, Bruno; Lacetera, Nicola

    2011-03-01

    The study was aimed at describing the temperature humidity index (THI) dynamics over the Mediterranean basin for the period 1951-2007. The THI combines temperature and humidity into a single value, and may help to predict the effects of environmental warmth in farm animals. In particular, on the basis of THI values, numerous studies have been performed to establish thresholds for heat stress in dairy cows. The THI was calculated by using monthly mean values of temperature and humidity obtained from the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis project. The analysis demonstrated a high degree of heterogeneity of THI patterns over the Mediterranean basin, a strong north-south gradient, and an overall warming during the study period, which was particularly marked during summer seasons. Results indicated that several areas of the basin present summer THI values which were unfavorable to cow welfare and productivity, and that risk of heat stress for cows is generally greater in the countries of the south coast of the basin. Furthermore, THI data from the summer 2003 revealed that severe positive anomalies may impact areas normally characterized by a favorable climate for animal production. In conclusion, THI dynamics should be taken into careful consideration by farmers and policy makers operating in Mediterranean countries when planning investments in the sector of animal production. The investments should at least partially be directed towards implementation of adaptation measures, which may help to alleviate the impact of hot on farm animals welfare, performance and health.

  12. Spatial variation of the aerosol concentration and deposition over the Mediterranean coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzola, J.; Tedeschi, G.; Blot, R.

    2010-07-01

    A model for the spatial variation of aerosol concentrations and deposition along the coastal zone is of great interest for studies on air and water quality. In coastal areas, sea-spray aerosols generated at the sea surface by the interaction between wind and waves add to a continental contribution emitted from natural and/or anthropogenic sources. To include coastal effects in the model for the prediction of aerosol concentrations, Piazzola et al. (2003) developed the coastal Mediterranean aerosol model. The present paper deals with an extension of the Mediterranean coastal aerosol to a regional scale applied to the prediction of the sea surface flux deposition. This was achieved by the development of an automatic coupling process between the aerosol model and a regional meso-scale meteorological model which allows accounting for the details of the orography of the coast. The results show a non-homogeneous spatial coverage of aerosol concentrations over the northwestern Mediterranean. The simulations were then validated using aerosol size distributions recorded on board the ship "Atalante" for two kinds of meteorological conditions. Error calculations show a good performance of the coupling process since it predicts the aerosol concentration to within a maximum factor of 3 for particle radii between 0.1 to 10 µm. This process was then used to provide the spatial distribution of the particle deposition fluxes over the study area.

  13. Contribution of mono and polysaccharides to heterotrophic N2 fixation at the eastern Mediterranean coastline

    PubMed Central

    Rahav, E.; Giannetto, M. J.; Bar-Zeev, E.

    2016-01-01

    N2 fixation should be a critical process in the nitrogen-poor surface water of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Despite favorable conditions, diazotroph abundance and N2 fixation rates remains low for reasons yet explained. The main goal of this study was to investigate the limiting nutrients for diazotrophy in this oligotrophic environment. Hence, we conducted dedicated bottle-microcosms with eastern Mediterranean Sea water that were supplemented with mono and polysaccharides as well as inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous. Our results indicate that the diazotrophic community expressing nifH was primarily represented by heterotrophic Proteobacteria. N2 fixation and heterotrophic bacterial activity increased up-to tenfold following two days of dark incubations, once seawater was supplemented with organic carbon substrate in the form of glucose (monosaccharides) or gum-xanthan (polysaccharide surrogate). Furthermore, our results point that carbon-rich polysaccharides, such as transparent exopolymer particles, enhance heterotrophic N2 fixation, by forming microenvironments of intense metabolic activity, high carbon: nitrogen ratio, and possibly low O2 levels. The conclusions of this study indicate that diazotrophs in the eastern Mediterranean coast are primarily limited by organic carbon substrates, as possibly in many other marine regions. PMID:27306501

  14. Tsunami early warning in the Mediterranean: current and potential contributions of seismic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, Anthony; Michelini, Alberto; Lorito, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    Effective tsunami early warning after an earthquake in the Mediterranean basin is made difficult by the short distances and tsunami travel-times between earthquake/tsunami source regions and coast lines at risk. For tsunami hazard and risk assessment worldwide, seismic monitoring and analysis currently provide the majority of information available within the first tens of minutes after an earthquake. In the future, information from multi-sensors buoys, GPS, airborne and space systems, real-time tsunami forecasting, citizen devices, and other technologies, along with improvements in seismic monitoring and analysis procedures will help to increase the coverage, rapidity and reliability of tsunami warning. Here we examine the current and potential future contributions of seismic networks and analysis procedures to tsunami early warning in the Mediterranean basin. We discuss and asses the timing and reliability of established and newly proposed seismic methods to determine rapidly the location, magnitude, moment-tensor, faulting geometry and tsunami potential of earthquakes in the Mediterranean area. We consider a broad context, including present and future seismic network coverage, the constraints of short distances between source and risk zones, and the hazard from moderate size earthquakes. We examine real-time, evolutionary presentation of seismic information, along with prior and non-seismic information, for use within decision systems for tsunami warning.

  15. Mitochondrial control region variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis populations from the central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Giantsis, Ioannis A; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J; Angelidis, Panagiotis; Apostolidis, Apostolos P

    2014-01-01

    The variable domain 1 (VD1) domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE) Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey). A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece), relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species' inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels. PMID:24983478

  16. Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Giantsis, Ioannis A.; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J.; Angelidis, Panagiotis; Apostolidis, Apostolos P.

    2014-01-01

    The variable domain 1 (VD1) domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE) Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey). A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece), relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species’ inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels. PMID:24983478

  17. Large Historical Earthquakes and Tsunami Hazards in the Western Mediterranean: Source Characteristics and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbi, Assia; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Belabbes, Samir; Maouche, Said

    2010-05-01

    The western Mediterranean region was the site of numerous large earthquakes in the past. Most of these earthquakes are located at the East-West trending Africa-Eurasia plate boundary and along the coastline of North Africa. The most recent recorded tsunamigenic earthquake occurred in 2003 at Zemmouri-Boumerdes (Mw 6.8) and generated ~ 2-m-high tsunami wave. The destructive wave affected the Balearic Islands and Almeria in southern Spain and Carloforte in southern Sardinia (Italy). The earthquake provided a unique opportunity to gather instrumental records of seismic waves and tide gauges in the western Mediterranean. A database that includes a historical catalogue of main events, seismic sources and related fault parameters was prepared in order to assess the tsunami hazard of this region. In addition to the analysis of the 2003 records, we study the 1790 Oran and 1856 Jijel historical tsunamigenic earthquakes (Io = IX and X, respectively) that provide detailed observations on the heights and extension of past tsunamis and damage in coastal zones. We performed the modelling of wave propagation using NAMI-DANCE code and tested different fault sources from synthetic tide gauges. We observe that the characteristics of seismic sources control the size and directivity of tsunami wave propagation on both northern and southern coasts of the western Mediterranean.

  18. Temporal and spatial genetic differentiation in the crab Liocarcinus depurator across the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Marta; Palero, Ferran; García-Merchán, Víctor Hugo; Macpherson, Enrique; Robainas-Barcia, Aymée; Mestres, Francesc; Roda, Tania; Abelló, Pere

    2016-01-01

    Spatial genetic studies often require sampling broadly separated areas, difficult to access simultaneously. Although comparing localities surveyed at different time periods might result in spurious genetic differentiation, there is a general believe on the stability of genetic structure through time, particularly if sampled localities are isolated or very distant. By analysing spatial and temporal genetic differentiation of the portunid crab Liocarcinus depurator we assessed the contribution of historical and contemporary processes on population connectivity patterns across three main oceanographic discontinuities along the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition: Gibraltar Strait, Almeria-Oran Front and Ibiza Channel. A partial fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I gene was sequenced in 366 individuals collected from localities at both sides of each discontinuity during three time periods. Although localities showed genetic fluctuations through time, a significant gradient was detected along the coast for all sampling periods. Significant inter-annual differences identified within the Alicante area, north of the Almeria-Oran Front, were associated with shifts in the relative contribution of Atlantic and Mediterranean water masses. The persistence of a clinal pattern in the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition area together with local fluctuations suggests a complex balance of dispersal and selection. PMID:27431989

  19. Contribution of mono and polysaccharides to heterotrophic N2 fixation at the eastern Mediterranean coastline.

    PubMed

    Rahav, E; Giannetto, M J; Bar-Zeev, E

    2016-01-01

    N2 fixation should be a critical process in the nitrogen-poor surface water of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Despite favorable conditions, diazotroph abundance and N2 fixation rates remains low for reasons yet explained. The main goal of this study was to investigate the limiting nutrients for diazotrophy in this oligotrophic environment. Hence, we conducted dedicated bottle-microcosms with eastern Mediterranean Sea water that were supplemented with mono and polysaccharides as well as inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous. Our results indicate that the diazotrophic community expressing nifH was primarily represented by heterotrophic Proteobacteria. N2 fixation and heterotrophic bacterial activity increased up-to tenfold following two days of dark incubations, once seawater was supplemented with organic carbon substrate in the form of glucose (monosaccharides) or gum-xanthan (polysaccharide surrogate). Furthermore, our results point that carbon-rich polysaccharides, such as transparent exopolymer particles, enhance heterotrophic N2 fixation, by forming microenvironments of intense metabolic activity, high carbon: nitrogen ratio, and possibly low O2 levels. The conclusions of this study indicate that diazotrophs in the eastern Mediterranean coast are primarily limited by organic carbon substrates, as possibly in many other marine regions. PMID:27306501

  20. Bioassessment of trace element contamination of Mediterranean coastal waters using the seagrass Posidonia oceanica.

    PubMed

    Richir, J; Salivas-Decaux, M; Lafabrie, C; Lopez y Royo, C; Gobert, S; Pergent, G; Pergent-Martini, C

    2015-03-15

    A large scale survey of the trace element (TE) contamination of Mediterranean coastal waters was performed from the analysis of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni and Pb in the bioindicator Posidonia oceanica, sampled at 110 sites differing by their levels of exposure to contaminants. The holistic approach developed in this study, based on the combined utilization of several complementary monitoring tools, i.e. water quality scale, pollution index and spatial analysis, accurately assessed the TE contamination rate of Mediterranean coastal waters. In particular, the mapping of the TE contamination according to a new proposed 5-level water quality scale precisely outlined the contamination severity along Mediterranean coasts and facilitated interregional comparisons. Finally, the reliability of the use of P. oceanica as bioindicator species was again demonstrated through several global, regional and local detailed case studies. NB: The designations employed and the presentation of the information in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the authors concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. PMID:25617788

  1. Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) in the Mediterranean Sea: Genetic Diversity and Population Structure.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Daniele; Catanese, Gaetano; Procaccini, Gabriele; Fiorito, Graziano

    2016-01-01

    The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797, is a largely exploited cephalopod species in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, as well as along the coasts of Africa, Brazil and Japan, where its taxonomic identity is still debated. The assessment of its genetic structure is a pressing need to correctly manage the resource and to avoid overfishing and collapsing of local stocks. Here we analysed genetic variation and population structure of O. vulgaris using thirteen microsatellite loci in seven sampling localities from the Mediterranean Sea and one from the Atlantic Ocean. We also used a DNA barcoding approach by COI gene fragment to understand the phylogenetic relationships among the specimens here investigated and the ones whose sequences are available in literature. Our results reveal high levels of allelic richness and moderate heterozygosity in all samples investigated, and a pronounced differentiation of the Atlantic and Sicilian specimens. This latter aspect seems to support the isolation of the biota within the Strait of Messina. A certain degree of differentiation was detected among the other geographic samples within the Mediterranean Sea, which is more compatible with an island model than isolation by distance. The occurrence of null alleles affected more genetic diversity indices than population structure estimations. This study provides new insights about the genetic diversity and structure of O. vulgaris in the area of interest, which can be used as guidelines for a fisheries management perspective. PMID:26881847

  2. Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) in the Mediterranean Sea: Genetic Diversity and Population Structure

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Daniele; Catanese, Gaetano; Procaccini, Gabriele; Fiorito, Graziano

    2016-01-01

    The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797, is a largely exploited cephalopod species in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, as well as along the coasts of Africa, Brazil and Japan, where its taxonomic identity is still debated. The assessment of its genetic structure is a pressing need to correctly manage the resource and to avoid overfishing and collapsing of local stocks. Here we analysed genetic variation and population structure of O. vulgaris using thirteen microsatellite loci in seven sampling localities from the Mediterranean Sea and one from the Atlantic Ocean. We also used a DNA barcoding approach by COI gene fragment to understand the phylogenetic relationships among the specimens here investigated and the ones whose sequences are available in literature. Our results reveal high levels of allelic richness and moderate heterozygosity in all samples investigated, and a pronounced differentiation of the Atlantic and Sicilian specimens. This latter aspect seems to support the isolation of the biota within the Strait of Messina. A certain degree of differentiation was detected among the other geographic samples within the Mediterranean Sea, which is more compatible with an island model than isolation by distance. The occurrence of null alleles affected more genetic diversity indices than population structure estimations. This study provides new insights about the genetic diversity and structure of O. vulgaris in the area of interest, which can be used as guidelines for a fisheries management perspective. PMID:26881847

  3. Molecular epidemiology of betanodaviruses isolated from sea bass and sea bream cultured along the Tunisian coasts.

    PubMed

    Haddad-Boubaker, Sondès; Bigarré, Laurent; Bouzgarou, Nadia; Megdich, Aida; Baud, Marine; Cabon, Joëlle; Chéhida, Noureddine Ben

    2013-06-01

    Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) is a serious viral disease affecting farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Only scarce molecular data are available on the disease-causing betanodavirus populations in Tunisia. Therefore, we carried out the first molecular survey of betanodaviruses in farmed sea bass and sea bream (Sparus aurata) along the Tunisian coasts. Among 81 samples from five farms, 20 tested positive with RT-PCR, not only in clinical cases but also in asymptomatic fish before and during outbreaks. Positive fish were found in all farms, except in one farm investigated in the south of Tunisia. Sequencing the fragments of both genomic components (RNA1 and RNA2) in 16 isolates revealed that the Tunisian viruses were related to the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype. Furthermore, the newly sequenced isolates were generally highly related to one another suggesting a recent common ancestor. They also showed high identities with other isolates obtained from wild fishes in the Mediterranean, but were slightly more divergent from strains recently obtained from farmed fishes in the Mediterranean. The poor genetic diversity of the viral population along the Tunisian coasts is striking. One hypothesis is that it is the result of the maintenance of a homogenous genetic pool among infected wild fish, groupers for instance and subsequent dissemination to farmed fish over the seasons. PMID:23288625

  4. Testing of the INGV Prototype Tsunami Early Warning System for the Coasts of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorito, Stefano; Piatanesi, Alessio; Romano, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of the agreement between Italian Civil Protection and INGV (DPC-S3 project), we are studying the feasibility of a Tsunami Early Warning System (TEWS) for the coasts of Italy. The underlying concept is borrowed, as a starting point, from the Japan Meteorological Agency's TEWS. Some differences arise, however, due to the specificity of the Mediterranean context, as well as due to the reduced possibility of fast direct measurements of the tsunami waves eventually generated. The prototype system is based on a set of elementary submarine earthquake sources, plus a set of scaling laws of the tsunami height with respect to source parameters. In case of an earthquake, according to information released by the INGV seismic center (epicenter, depth, and magnitude), the pre-calculated wave heights produced by each elementary source must be interpolated to evaluate if a significant tsunami could have been generated, and where it will likely hit the coastlines more severely, in order to launch a proper alert. We start by considering a grid of nine epicenters on a 20x20 km square in front of the Algeria coast, and potentially threatening the southern Sardinia coast. At the moment, the geometry of the faults (strike, dip, rake) is keep fixed, while we consider for each of the epicenters several different depths and magnitudes. The (empirical) scaling laws that serve as a guidance for the interpolation are instead derived numerically for a wider range of earthquake parameters. The performances of the prototype have been evaluated both by means of synthetic earthquakes (by simulating hundreds of earthquakes falling in the prototype grid), and by using an ad-hoc database around the epicenter of a real earthquake, which generated a moderate tsunami in the western Mediterranean (the Mw=6.9 May 2003 Boumerdes-Zemmouri earthquake, Algeria). The synthetic tests also serve to assess the uncertainties that will be attached to the forecasts issued, directly descending from

  5. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change policies on air quality of the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzoli, Luca; Mert Gokturk, Ozan; Unal, Alper; Kindap, Tayfun; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is one of the regions of the world where significant impacts due to climate changes are predicted to occur in the future. Observations and model simulations are used to provide to the policy makers scientifically based estimates of the necessity to adjust national emission reductions needed to achieve air quality objectives in the context of a changing climate, which is not only driven by GHGs, but also by short lived climate pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols. There is an increasing interest and need to design cost-benefit emission reduction strategies, which could improve both regional air quality and global climate change. In this study we used the WRF-CMAQ air quality modelling system to quantify the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to ozone and particulate matter concentrations in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean and to understand how this contribution could change in different future scenarios. We have investigated four different future scenarios for year 2050 defined during the European Project CIRCE: a "business as usual" scenario (BAU) where no or just actual measures are taken into account; an "air quality" scenario (BAP) which implements the National Emission Ceiling directive 2001/81/EC member states of the European Union (EU-27); a "climate change" scenario (CC) which implements global climate policies decoupled from air pollution policies; and an "integrated air quality and climate policy" scenario (CAP) which explores the co-benefit of global climate and EU-27 air pollution policies. The BAP scenario largely decreases summer ozone concentrations over almost the entire continent, while the CC and CAP scenarios similarly determine lower decreases in summer ozone but extending all over the Mediterranean, the Middle East countries and Russia. Similar patterns are found for winter PM concentrations; BAP scenario improves pollution levels only in the Western EU countries, and the CAP scenario determines

  6. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...

  11. [New international migrations and migratory models in South European countries].

    PubMed

    De Filippo, E; Pugliese, E

    1996-01-01

    Trends in international migration in the Mediterranean European countries over the course of the 1980s are reviewed. "Particular attention is paid to the different factors that explain the arrival of these migratory fluxes during a period of economic recession and in areas where there is a co-presence of immigration, emigration and unemployment. The involvement of southern European countries as target countries for immigration is not seen as a simple consequence of the [restrictive policies] practiced in the Seventies by European countries with traditional immigration; the push towards these countries as well as the pull to the same are also considered, particularly the acceleration of the internationalization process of the labor markets, the characteristics of the labor markets, and processes of segmentation and tertiarization." (EXCERPT) PMID:12348750

  12. Phylogeny, phylogeography, and evolution in the Mediterranean region: News from a freshwater mussel (Potomida, Unionida).

    PubMed

    Froufe, Elsa; Prié, Vincent; Faria, João; Ghamizi, Mohamed; Gonçalves, Duarte V; Gürlek, Mustafa Emre; Karaouzas, Ioannis; Kebapçi, Ümit; Şereflişan, Hülya; Sobral, Carina; Sousa, Ronaldo; Teixeira, Amílcar; Varandas, Simone; Zogaris, Stamatis; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    The Potomida genus (Bivalvia, Unionida) has a Circum-Mediterranean distribution and like other freshwater mussel species, its populations have suffered dramatic declines. Although this genus is currently considered as monotypic, it has a long history of taxonomic revisions and presently many aspects of its systematics and evolutionary history are unclear. We sampled a total of 323 individuals from 39 different sites across the Potomida genus distribution, and sequenced two mitochondrial (16S rDNA and Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I) and one nuclear (28S rDNA) genes to clarify its phylogeny and phylogeographic history. Our results show that the genus includes two well-supported clades, one comprising solely the western Mediterranean species Potomida littoralis, and the other including two eastern Mediterranean species, the Greek endemic P. acarnanica and the Anatolian and Middle Eastern P. semirugata. We suggest that Potomida started radiating during the upper Miocene, and that both vicariance and dispersal events shaped the diversification and distribution of the genus along the Mediterranean region. P. littoralis is further divided in two mitochondrial lineages, one restricted to Europe and the other occurring mostly in North Africa. Moreover, some European basins present both lineages in sympatry. The conservation status of the three recognized species should be reevaluated, particularly P. acarnanica, since it is restricted to two Greek river basins presenting a high risk of extinction. Overall, our results clarify some important gaps in knowledge concerning the phylogeny, phylogeography and evolution of the Potomida genus in the Mediterranean region with important taxonomical, ecological and conservational implications. PMID:27118180

  13. A large scale survey of trace metal levels in coastal waters of the Western Mediterranean basin using caged mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    PubMed

    Benedicto, José; Andral, Bruno; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Guitart, Carlos; Deudero, Salud; Cento, Alessandro; Scarpato, Alfonso; Caixach, Josep; Benbrahim, Samir; Chouba, Lassaad; Boulahdid, Mostefa; Galgani, François

    2011-05-01

    A large scale study of trace metal contamination (Hg, Cd, Pb and Ni) by means of caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was undertaken along the coastal waters of the Western Mediterranean Sea within the context of the MYTILOS project. Individual mussels from an homogeneous population (shell size 50 ± 5 mm) obtained from an aquaculture farm were consecutively caged and deployed at 123 sites located in the Alborán, North-Western, South-Western and Tyrrhenian sub-basins for 12 weeks (April-July) in 2004, 2005 and 2006. After cage recoveries, both the metal content in the whole mussel tissue and the allometric parameters were measured. Statistical analysis of the datasets showed significant differences in concentrations between sub-basins for some metals and mussel condition index (CI). Linear regression models coupled to the CI were revisited for the data adjustment of certain trace metals (Hg, Cd and Ni), and four level categories were statistically derived to facilitate interregional comparison. Seawater masses surrounding coastal areas impacted by run-off from land mineralised coasts and industrial activities displayed the highest concentration ranges (Hg: 0.15-0.31 mg kg(-1) dw; Cd: 1.97-2.11; Ni: 2.18-3.20 and Pb: 3.1-3.8), although the levels obtained in most of the sites fitted within moderate or low categories, and they could be considered as baseline concentrations. However, few sites considered little-influenced by human activities, at present, showed high concentrations of Cd, Ni and Pb, which constitute new areas of concern. Overall, the use of active biomonitoring (ABM) approach allowed to investigate trace metal contamination in order to support policy makers in establishing regional strategies (particularly, with regard to the European Marine Strategy Directive). PMID:21384032

  14. Eukarya associated with the stony coral Oculina patagonica from the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Portillo, Esther; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Ascaso, Carmen; de Los Rios Murillo, Asunción; Ramos-Esplá, Alfonso A; Antón, Josefa

    2014-10-01

    Oculina patagonica is a putative alien scleractinian coral from the Southwest Atlantic that inhabits across the Mediterranean Sea. Here, we have addressed the diversity of Eukarya associated with this coral and its changes related to the environmental conditions and coral status. A total of 46 colonies of O. patagonica were taken from Alicante coast (Spain) and Pietra Ligure coast (Italy) and analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the small-subunit 18S rRNA and 16S plastid rRNA genes, internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS 2) analyses, and electron microscopy. Our results show that Eukarya and plastid community associated to O. patagonica change with environmental conditions and coral status. Cryptic species, which can be difficult to identify by optical methods, were distinguished by 18S rRNA gene DGGE: the barnacle Megatrema anglicum, which was detected at two locations, and two boring sponges related to Cliona sp. and Siphonodictyon coralliphagum detected in samples from Tabarca and Alicante Harbour, respectively. Eukaryotic phototrophic community from the skeletal matrix of healthy corals was dominated by Ochrosphaera sp. while bleached corals from the Harbour and Tabarca were associated to different uncultured phototrophic organism. Differences in ultrastructural morphologies of the zooxanthellae between healthy and bleached corals were observed. Nevertheless, no differences were found in Symbiodinium community among time, environments, coral status and location, showing that O. patagonica hosted only one genotype of Symbiodinium belonging to clade B2. The fact that this clade has not been previously detected in other Mediterranean corals and is more frequent in the tropical Western Atlantic, is a new evidence that O. patagonica is an alien species in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:24950182

  15. Dew and rain water collection in the Dalmatian Coast, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muselli, M.; Beysens, D.; Mileta, M.; Milimouk, I.

    2009-06-01

    Passive dew harvesting and rainwater collection requires a very small financial investment but can exploit a free, clean (outside urban/industrial zones) and inexhaustible source of water. This study investigates the relative contributions of dew and rain water in the Mediterranean Dalmatian coast and islands of Croatia, with emphasis on the dry summer season. In addition, we evaluate the utility of transforming abandoned roof rain collectors ("impluviums") to collect dew water too. Two sites were chosen, an exposed open site on the coast favourable to dew formation (Zadar) and a less favourable site in a cirque of mountains in Komiža (Vis Island). Between July 1, 2003 and October 31, 2006, dew was collected two or three times per day on a 1 m 2 inclined (30°) test dew condenser, together with standard meteorological data (air temperature and relative humidity, cloud cover, windspeed and direction). Maximum yields were 0.41 mm in Zadar and 0.6 mm in Komiža. The mean yearly cumulative dew yields were found to be 20 mm (Zadar) and 9.3 mm (Komiža). Because of its physical setting, Komiža represents a poor location for dew collection. However, during the dry season (May to October), monthly cumulative dew water yield can represent up to 38% of water collected by rainfall. In both July 2003 and 2006, dew water represented about 120% of the monthly cumulative rain water. Refurbishing the abandoned impluviums to permit dew collection could then provide useful supplementary water, especially during the dry season. As an example, the 1300 m 2 impluvium at Pod\\vspilje near Komiža could provide, in addition to rain water, 14,000 L dew water per year.

  16. The population genetics of familial mediterranean fever: a meta-analysis study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, V P; Giaglis, S; Mitroulis, I; Ritis, K

    2008-11-01

    Our aim was to construct a Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) cumulative database and to propose a MEFV based phylogenetic tree. Data were collected from published studies. A meta-analysis based on 16,756 chromosomes from FMF patients and normal individuals from 14 affected populations was performed. Arlequin 2.0 and Phylip 3.2 software were used for population genetics analysis and phylogenetic tree construction. We have shown that MEFV mutations are distributed non-uniformly along the Mediterranean Sea area. The most frequent mutations detected in FMF patients are M694V (39.6%), V726A (13.9%), M680I (11.4%), E148Q (3.4%), and M694I (2.9%), while 28.8% of chromosomes carry unidentified or no mutations, especially in Western Europeans. The mean overall carrier rate is 0.186 with peak values in Arabs, Armenians, Jews, and Turks. Only V726A obeys the Hardy-Weinberg law in FMF patients implying that this mutation is the most ancient. Jews present the most intense genetic isolation and drift; thus they might have nested de novo mutations and accelerated evolution. Besides Jews, three population groups might follow distinct evolutionary lines (Asia Minor, Eastern European, and Western European). In conclusion, the MEFV mutation pattern is non-uniform regarding distribution, phenotypic expression, neutrality and population genetics characteristics. Jews are the candidate population for founder effects in MEFV. PMID:18691160

  17. Genetic differentiation of the house mouse around the Mediterranean basin: matrilineal footprints of early and late colonization.

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, François; Orth, Annie; Cucchi, Thomas; Rajabi-Maham, Hassan; Catalan, Josette; Boursot, Pierre; Auffray, Jean-Christophe; Britton-Davidian, Janice

    2011-04-01

    The molecular signatures of the recent expansion of the western house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus, around the Mediterranean basin are investigated through the study of mitochondrial D-loop polymorphism on a 1313 individual dataset. When reducing the complexity of the matrilineal network to a series of haplogroups (HGs), our main results indicate that: (i) several HGs are recognized which seem to have almost simultaneously diverged from each other, confirming a recent expansion for the whole subspecies; (ii) some HGs are geographically delimited while others are widespread, indicative of multiple introductions or secondary exchanges; (iii) mice from the western and the eastern coasts of Africa harbour largely different sets of HGs; and (iv) HGs from the two shores of the Mediterranean are more similar in the west than in the east. This pattern is in keeping with the two-step westward expansion proposed by zooarchaeological data, an early one coincident with the Neolithic progression and limited to the eastern Mediterranean and a later one, particularly evident in the western Mediterranean, related to the generalization of maritime trade during the first millennium BC and onwards. The dispersal of mice along with humans, which continues until today, has for instance left complex footprints on the long ago colonized Cyprus or more simple ones on the much more recently populated Canary Islands. PMID:20880891

  18. The Eratosthenes Seamount - Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount forms a prominent landmark in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is located south of Cyprus with the Levantine Basin on its eastern side, the Herodotus Basin on its western side and the Nile Cone south of the seamount. The Eratosthenes Seamount rises up to 750 m below sea surface and is about 1200 m higher than the surrounding seafloor of the Levantine Basin and the Nile Cone sediments. The Eratosthenes Seamount is considered as a continental fragment of the former African-Nubian Plate that was rifted to its present position relative to Africa during the formation of the Tethyan Ocean. In 2010 a detailed geophysical survey was carried out in the area of the Eratosthenes Seamount by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources of Germany including multichannel seismic (MCS), refraction seismics, magnetic, gravity and magnetotelluric data acquisition. First results show a highly deformed seamount, with a plateau-like top that is impacted by west-east trending graben formation. The slopes of the seamount are eroded showing deep incised ripple patterns and recent submarine landslides. The Eratosthenes Seamount produces also a prominent magnetic and gravity anomaly, both supporting its uniqueness in the area of the Eastern Mediterranean. Velocity information by refraction seismic modeling, as well as the models of the magnetic and gravity data show evidence for a volcanic core of the seamount with carbonate layers on top of the volcanic core. The slopes of the seamount terminate against a conspicuous rim-like escarpment that forms in addition the northern and western termination of the Messinian Evaporites in the study area. The MCS and refraction seismic data show a very deep Levantine Basin with maximum acoustic basement depths of 12 to 14 km very close to the slope of the Eratosthenes Seamount. The deepest sediments resolved by the MCS data are of Lower Cretaceous to Jurassic age. The refraction seismic model shows a 14 km thick

  19. Phytoplankton bloom along the coast of Namibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This MODIS true-color image, acquired March 4, 2002, shows a phytoplankton bloom along the coast of Namibia. Phytoplankton is a microscopic organism that utilizes chlorophyll, which sunlight reflects off of to create this intense blue-green color in the water. Also prominent in this image is the Skeleton Coast Game Park, which runs along Namibia's northern coast and here glows a beautiful coral-orange color.

  20. An important fingerprint of wildfires on the European aerosol load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaba, F.; Angelini, F.; Curci, G.; Gobbi, G. P.

    2011-10-01

    Wildland fires represent the major source of fine aerosols, i.e., atmospheric particles with diameters <1 μm. The largest numbers of these fires occur in Africa, Asia and South America, but a not negligible fraction also occurs in Eastern Europe and former USSR countries, particularly in the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Besides the impact of large forest fires, recent studies also highlighted the crucial role played by routine agricultural fires in Eastern Europe and Russia on the Arctic atmosphere. An evaluation of the impact of these fires over Europe is currently not available. The assessment of the relative contribution of fires to the European aerosol burden is hampered by the complex mixing of natural and anthropogenic particle types across the continent. In this study we use long term (2002-2007) satellite-based fires and aerosol data coupled to atmospheric trajectory modelling in the attempt to estimate the wildfires contribution to the European aerosol optical thickness (AOT). Based on this dataset, we provide evidence that fires-related aerosols play a major role in shaping the AOT yearly cycle at the continental scale. In general, the regions most impacted by wildfires emissions and/or transport are Eastern and Central Europe as well as Scandinavia. Conversely, a minor impact is found in Western Europe and in the Western Mediterranean. We estimate that in spring 5 to 35% of the European fine fraction AOT (FFAOT) is attributable to wildland fires. The estimated impact maximizes in April (20-35%) in Eastern and Central Europe as well as in Scandinavia and in the Central Mediterranean. An important contribution of wildfires to the FFAOT is also found in summer over most of the continent, particularly in August over Eastern Europe (28%) and the Mediterranean regions, from Turkey (34%) to the Western Mediterranean (25%). Although preliminary, our results suggest that this fires-related, continent-wide haze plays a not negligible role on the

  1. Atlantic forcing of the Mediterranean oligotrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, I. E.; RíOs, A. F.; GarcíA-Lafuente, J.; Navarro, G.; Makaoui, A.; SáNchez-RomáN, A.; Rodriguez-Galvez, S.; Orbi, A.; RuíZ, J.; PéRez, F. F.

    2012-06-01

    The Mediterranean Sea shows a peculiar anomaly in its nutrient pattern compared to the global ocean, as there is decrease in nutrient concentration from west to east. This feature has been attributed to the antiestuarine circulation at the Strait of Gibraltar, where an eastward flow of Atlantic nutrient-poor surface waters is compensated by a westward countercurrent of Mediterranean nutrient-rich deep waters. This water exchange has been suggested as the ultimate cause for the oligotrophy of the Mediterranean basin, even though only a few studies have accurately examined the magnitude of the nutrient flux through the Strait of Gibraltar. In this work, data from the Gibraltar Fixed Time series (GIFT) between 2005 and 2008 were used to assess nutrient distributions. Applying a two-layer model of water mass exchange and using the Mediterranean outflow recorded in situ, the net export of nutrients from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic was calculated as 139 and 4.8 Gmol yr-1 of nitrate and phosphate, respectively. The results also demonstrated that the Atlantic inflow is not nutrient depleted and in particular contains significant levels of phosphate, which is the limiting factor for biological productivity in the eastern Mediterranean. The distribution of the quasi-conservative parameter N* in the western and eastern basins indicated that nitrate-deficient surface waters are transformed into phosphate-deficient bottom waters by internal cycling processes. Therefore, phosphate depletion in the Mediterranean does not have its origin in the entry of a phosphorus-impoverished Atlantic inflow through the Strait of Gibraltar.

  2. Monitoring the mesoscale circulation of the Western Mediterranean Sea using SSS derived from SMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Estrella; Isern-Fontanet, Jordi; Turiel, Antonio; Portabella, Marcos; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim

    2016-04-01

    The circulation in the Mediterranean Sea is characterized by the inflow of fresh waters from the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar. These waters, characterized by their lower salinity, create baroclinic instabilities that spawn eddies with sizes of the order of 100 km. These eddies have been widely analyzed using Sea Surface Temperature (SST) observations. Recent improvements in the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) retrieval and bias correction methodologies applied to the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite data have led, for the first time, to the generation of SSS maps that capture the signature of these structures. This opens the door for the generation of high spatial and temporal density maps in the Mediterranean, which can be used in a wide variety of oceanographic applications. In particular, the signature of the Alboran gyre and the eddy propagation across the Algerian coast are well reproduced, allowing for the first time to characterize the baroclinicity of the flow. The SMOS data are strongly affected by Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) and land-sea contamination in the Mediterranean Sea. Two important SSS retrieval algorithm improvements are proposed in this study. First, with more than six years of SMOS data acquisitions, there is enough data to empirically characterize and correct systematic biases. Second, the filtering criterion has been modified to account for the statistical distributions of SSS at each ocean grid point. This allows retrieving a value of SSS which is less affected by outliers originated from RFI and other effects. In this study, high level (spatio-temporally consistent) SSS maps are obtained by averaging the SMOS SSS retrievals using a classical objective analysis scheme and then combining the resulting maps with Sea Surface Temperature (SST) maps by means of multifractal fusion. The SSS fused maps contain well-defined spatial structures, suitable for studying the mesoscale activity in the Western

  3. A multi-method analysis of cyclone activity in the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, Isabel F.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Nissen, Katrin; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Lionello, Piero; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Ulbrich, Sven; Ulbrich, Uwe; Ordóñez, Paulina

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is a particularly active region in terms of cyclone formation and development. The geographical features of the area, including its location between the mid-latitudes and the sub-tropics, the almost closed sea and the mountain ranges near the coast play an important role determining the dominant meteorological characteristics of the region. This study revisits monthly climatologies of Mediterranean storms through the analysis of databases obtained from multiple methods for cyclone identification and tracking. Within the context of the IMILAST project, these methodologies were all applied to fields provided by ERA-Int reanalysis, available 6-hourly and at 0.75° x 0.75° spatial resolution. They consist of a set of objective criteria to identify cyclone signatures near the surface, through the search for minima in mean sea level pressure or 1000 hPa geopotential height, or for vorticity maxima at 850 hPa. The tracking is then performed through the analysis of centres identified in consecutive time slots and imposing a set of a priory conditions on the maximum velocity admissible for mid-latitude cyclones. The distributions of cyclone characteristics obtained from the different databases are analysed focusing on system duration, intensity and velocity. The spatial distributions and density of cyclone centres are also compared among the different storm-track databases, with particular emphasis on the location of the most active regions in terms of cyclogenesis. These are generally well defined in the Mediterranean region, being mostly determined by orographic features mentioned above and land-sea temperature gradients. As such, methodologies tend to agree in the areas that favour cyclone formation, particularly during winter months, while discrepancies among methods tend to be mostly related to number of detections. Finally, we make a critical analysis of some of the options/criteria within each methodology that favour or not the identification

  4. Metabolic acceleration in Mediterranean Perciformes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lika, Konstadia; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Papandroulakis, Nikos

    2014-11-01

    Larval stages are considered the most critical of fish development. During a very short period of time (2 to 3 months), larvae undergo major morphoanatomical and functional changes in order to transform into juveniles while remaining functioning (developing, eating, surviving). Depending on species and environmental conditions, patterns in larval development may vary. We study the patterns of larval development for nine fish species of Perciformes reared under aquaculture conditions and compare them in terms of species-specific parameters derived from DEB theory. We extended the standard DEB model to include metabolic acceleration during the larval period, where maximum specific assimilation and energy conductance increase with length between birth and metabolic metamorphosis. Metabolic acceleration has as a consequence that larvae initially grow slower than juveniles and adults. Our results indicate that the species with higher acceleration have lower growth rates at birth and they also suggest that metabolic acceleration is related to spawning season. High metabolic acceleration of demersal species is associated with summer-autumn spawning in the Mediterranean, where temperature is high and food availability is low.

  5. Myxozoan infections in Mediterranean mariculture.

    PubMed

    Palenzuela, O

    2006-06-01

    Fish mariculture has dramatically expanded in recent years in Mediterranean countries. In this scenario, several pathological problems have logically arisen and parasitological etiologies are increasingly being reported, either as primary or secondary pathogens. Myxozoa is the most diverse and economically important group of fish parasites, and several species are known to cause or contribute to losses in mariculture. Species of the genus Enteromyxum currently constitute the most serious parasitological threat. Some unusual biological characters, such as wide host spectrum and direct fish-to-fish transmission, together with high virulence for some host species, combine a dangerous cocktail which is emerging in recent years. Closed-system (recirculation) and heated-water locations are especially sensitive to chronic infections by these parasites, which can cause serious mortality and even discourage culture of some fish species at certain locations (i.e, Diplodus puntazzo). The presentation presents an overview of recent advances in research of marine myxozoans, focusing mainly in the most pathogenic, Enteromyxum spp. The incidence of these and other emerging infections, and the design of potential strategies for control will be introduced. PMID:16881390

  6. West Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.

    2013-12-01

    The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011

  7. Middle to Late Pleistocene coastal deposits of Eivissa (Western Mediterranean): Chronology and evolution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Valle, Laura; Pomar, Francisco; Fornós, Joan J.; Gómez-Pujol, Lluís; Anechitei-Deacu, Valentina; Timar-Gabor, Alida

    2016-04-01

    This study deals with the sedimentary and stratigraphical description of Pleistocene deposits from seven coastal areas of Eivissa (Balearic Islands). Twenty two sedimentary facies have been described involving the succession of eolian, colluvial and edaphic environments. Carbonate sandstones, breccias and silty deposits are the main component of these sequences. Despite the extensive eolian systems outcropping along the coast of Eivissa, there are very few studies performed to chronological framework of these deposits. Luminescence measurements were carried out using an automated RisØ TL/OSL-DA-20 reader in the Luminescence Dating Laboratory of Babes-Bolyai University (Cluj-Napoca, Romania) under low intensity red light. OSL dating of nineteen eolian levels indicate that their deposition took place between the Middle and Late Pleistocene, establishing a paleoclimatic evolution of Eivissa Island since 755 ka to 70 Ka. Eolian activity in the Eivissa Island can be correlated with regression episodes which took place during cold periods associated with different isotopic stages, concretely the MIS 18, 16, 12, 10, 8, 6 and 4. Similar results have been obtained from many sites along the western Mediterranean Sea such as Mallorca (Pomar i Cuerda, 1979; Nielsen et al, 2004; Fornós et al, 2009), Sardinia (Andreucci et al, 2009; Pascucci et al, 2014), Liguria (Pappalardo et al., 2013). Keywords: Eolian dunes, Pleistocene, Climatic evolution, Eivissa. References - Andreucci, S.; Pascucci, V.; Murray, A. S.; Clemmensen, L. B. 2009. Late Pleistocene coastal evolution of San Giovanni di Sinis, west Sardinia (Western Mediterranean). Sedimentary Geology, 216: 104- 116 - Fornós, J.J.; Clemmensen, L.B.; Gómez-Pujol, L.; Murray, A. 2009. Late Pleistocene carbonate aeolianites on Mallorca, Western Mediterranean: a luminescence chronology. Quaternary Science reviews 28: 2697-2709. -Nielsen, K.A.; Clemmensen, L.B.; Fornós, J.J. 2004. Middle Pleistocene magnetostratigraphy and

  8. First in situ observations of the deep-sea carnivorous ascidian Dicopia antirrhinum Monniot C., 1972 in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecho, A.; Aguzzi, J.; Company, J. B.; Canals, M.; Lastras, G.; Turon, X.

    2014-01-01

    Dicopia antirrhinum C. Monniot, 1972 is a rare species of deep-sea ascidian belonging to the Family Octacnemidae, reported at depths of 1000-2500 m in European Atlantic waters. Adult individuals have never been reported before in the Mediterranean Sea, where only seven juvenile specimens were found in 1975 at 500 m water depth in the Central basin (Malta). The affinities of these specimens with D. antirrhinum were noted, but lack of some typical characters of the species in juveniles prevented a definite taxonomical identification. No other member of the Octacnemidae has ever been found in the Mediterranean. In this study we describe the sampling of an adult specimen of D. antirrhinum at around 1100 m water depth on the flank of the La Fonera (Palamós) canyon, Northwestern Mediterranean, confirming their presence in the Mediterranean Sea. We also observed 5 individuals of this species on their natural habitat with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). Our results highlight the potential occurrence of Octacnemidae, the presence of which has been largely overlooked, in several deep-sea canyon areas within the Western Mediterranean basin. These observations are important because they indicate the need for increased sampling effort with new technologies, such as ROVs, in ecologically relevant habitats such as canyons, in order to obtain a more accurate picture of deep-sea biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Modelling of oil spills in confined maritime basins: The case for early response in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tiago M; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Lardner, Robin; Panagiotakis, Costas; Radhakrishnan, Hari

    2015-11-01

    Oil spill models are combined with bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data to model a series of oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. A total of 104 oil spill simulations, computed for 11 different locations in the Levantine Basin, show that oil slicks will reach the coast of Cyprus in four (4) to seven (7) days in summer conditions. Oil sli