Science.gov

Sample records for european national strategies

  1. Priorities in national space strategies and governance of the member states of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina; Sagath, Daniel; Papastefanou, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty Member States with a variety of strategic priorities and governance structures regarding their space activities. A number of countries engage in space activities exclusively though ESA, while others have also their own national space programme. Some consider ESA as their prime space agency and others have additionally their own national agency with respective programmes. The main objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of strategic priorities and the national space governance structures in 20 ESA Member States. This analysis and assessment has been conducted by analysing the Member States public documents, information provided at ESA workshop on this topic and though unstructured interviews. The paper is structured to include two main elements: priorities and trends in national space strategies and space governance in ESA Member States. The first part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators that boost engagement in space. These vary from one Member State to another and include with different levels of engagement in technology domains amongst others: science and exploration, navigation, Earth observation, human space flight, launchers, telecommunications, and integrated applications. Member States allocate a different role of space as enabling tool adding to the advancement of sustainability areas including: security, resources, environment and climate change, transport and communication, energy, and knowledge and education. The motivators motivating reasoning which enhances or hinders space engagement also differs. The motivators identified are industrial competitiveness, job creation, technology development and transfer, social benefits

  2. Comprehensive national energy strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

  3. European National Society Cardiovascular Journals

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, F.; Ambrosio, G.; Pinto, F.J.; van der Wall, E.E.

    2008-01-01

    Anesti Kondili MD, Djamaleddine Nibouche MD, Karlen Adamyan MD, Kurt Huber MD, Hugo Ector MD, Izet Masic MD, Rumiana Tarnovska MD, Mario Ivanusa MD, Vladimír Stane˘k MD, Jørgen Videbæk MD, Mohamed Hamed MD, Alexandras Laucevicius MD, Pirjo Mustonen MD, Jean-Yves Artigou MD, Ariel Cohen MD, Mamanti Rogava MD, Michael Böhm MD, Eckart Fleck MD, Gerd Heusch MD, Rainer Klawki MD, Panos Vardas MD, Christodoulos Stefanadis MD, József Tenczer MD, Massimo Chiariello MD, Aleksandras Laucevicius MD, Joseph Elias MD, Halima Benjelloun MD, Olaf Rødevand MD, Piotr Kul/akowski MD, Edvard Apetrei MD, Victor A. Lusov MD, Rafael G. Oganov MD, Velibor Obradovic MD, Gabriel Kamensky MD, Miran F. Kenda MD, Christer Höglund MD, Thomas F. Lüscher MD, René Lerch MD, Moufid Jokhadar MD, Habib Haouala MD, Vedat Sansoy MD, Valentin Shumakov MD, Adam Timmis MD. (European National Society Cardiovascular Journals Editors, see Appendix for complete affiliations) PMID:18665206

  4. Comparison of legislation, regulations and national health strategies for palliative care in seven European countries (Results from the Europall Research Group): a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background According to EU policy, anyone in need of palliative care should be able to have access to it. It is therefore important to investigate which palliative care topics are subject to legislation and regulations in Europe and how these are implemented in (national) health care plans. This paper aims to deliver a structured overview of the legislation, existing regulations and the different health care policies regarding palliative care in seven European countries. Methods In 2008 an inventory of the organisation of palliative care was developed by the researchers of the Europall project. Included were two open questions about legislation, regulations, and health policy in palliative care. This questionnaire was completed using palliative care experts selected from Belgium, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain. Additionally, (grey) literature on palliative care health policy and regulations from the participating countries was collected to complete the inventory. Comparative analysis of country specific information was performed afterwards. Results In all countries palliative care regulations and policies existed (either in laws, royal decrees, or national policies). An explicit right to palliative care was mentioned in the Belgium, French and German law. In addition, access to palliative care was mentioned by all countries, varying from explicit regulations to policy intentions in national plans. Also, all countries had a national policy on palliative care, although sometimes mainly related to national cancer plans. Differences existed in policy regarding palliative care leave, advance directives, national funding, palliative care training, research, opioids and the role of volunteers. Conclusions Although all included European countries have policies on palliative care, countries largely differ in the presence of legislation and regulations on palliative care as well as the included topics. European healthcare policy recommendations

  5. Adolescent Leisure across European Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, August; Schaffner, Brigitta

    2003-01-01

    Examined variations in adolescent time use within Europe and their relation to culture, focusing on organization of free time, most frequent leisure activities, and resulting emotional states. Found that European adolescents spent free time in a range of activities, including electronic media, computer games, playing musical instruments, reading,…

  6. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, together with a project extension from 36 to 44 months. The project is co-funded by the European Commission's Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) and will end in October 2016. In broad terms, the ELF Project will deliver a unique gateway to the authoritative reference geospatial information for Europe (harmonised pan-European maps, geographic and land information) sourced from the National Mapping and Cadastral Authorities (NMCAs) around Europe and including transparent licensing. This will be provided as an online ELF web service that will deliver an up-to-date topographic base map and also as view & download services for access to the ELF datasets. To develop and build up the ELF, NMCAs are accompanied and collaborate with several research & academia institutes, a standardisation body, system integrators, software developers and application providers. The harmonisation is in progress developing and triggering a number of geo-tools like edge-matching, generalisation, transformation and others. ELF will provide also some centralised tools like Geo Locator for searching location based on geographical names, addresses and administrative units, and GeoProduct Finder for discovering the available web-services and licensing them. ELF combines national reference geo-information through the ELF platform. ELF web services will be offered to users and application developers through open source (OSKARI) and proprietary (ArcGIS Online) cloud platforms. Recently, 29 NMCAs plus the

  7. National Drug Control Strategy. Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The first National Drug Control Strategy set ambitious two and five-year performance based goals: (1) to lower the rate of drug use by 10 percent over 2 years among both youth and adults; and (2) to lower the rate by 25 percent over 5 years. The chapters in this updated version are keyed to the strategies three priorities: (1) Stopping Use Before…

  8. National Drug Control Strategy, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In May of 2010, President Obama released the Administration's inaugural "National Drug Control Strategy". Based on the premise that drug use and its consequences pose a threat not just to public safety, but also to public health, the 2010 "Strategy" represented the first comprehensive rebalancing of Federal drug control policy in the nearly 40…

  9. National Drug Control Strategy. Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    President Bush's new National Drug Control Strategy for 2003 focuses on three core priorities: stopping drug use before it starts; healing America's drug users; and disrupting the market. The 2003 strategy reports progress toward meeting the President's goals of reducing drug use by 10 percent over 2 years, and 25 percent over 5 years. With regard…

  10. Technological Strategies and National Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Robert

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the international and domestic implications of technological growth. Defines three basic national strategies: a broad front approach, scientific and technological specialization and importation. Analyzes the strategies followed by form countries - France, the United States, Sweden, and Japan- to illustrate the alternatives and the…

  11. National Drug Control Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This report presents a comprehensive blueprint for new direction and effort in the national fight against illegal drug use. It is the result of an intensive review of federal anti-drug efforts to date and incorporates advice and recommendations from hundreds of interested and involved anti-drug leaders outside the federal government. The…

  12. The European Marine Strategy: Noise Monitoring in European Marine Waters from 2014.

    PubMed

    Dekeling, René; Tasker, Mark; Ainslie, Michael; Andersson, Mathias; André, Michel; Borsani, Fabrizio; Brensing, Karsten; Castellote, Manuel; Dalen, John; Folegot, Thomas; van der Graaf, Sandra; Leaper, Russell; Liebschner, Alexander; Pajala, Jukka; Robinson, Stephen; Sigray, Peter; Sutton, Gerry; Thomsen, Frank; Werner, Stefanie; Wittekind, Dietrich; Young, John V

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires European member states to develop strategies for their marine waters leading to programs of measures that achieve or maintain good environmental status (GES) in all European seas by 2020. An essential step toward reaching GES is the establishment of monitoring programs, enabling the state of marine waters to be assessed on a regular basis. A register for impulsive noise-generating activities would enable assessment of their cumulative impacts on wide temporal and spatial scales; monitoring of ambient noise would provide essential insight into current levels and any trend in European waters. PMID:26610961

  13. National Drug Control Strategy, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The White House, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the Fiscal Year 2007 Budget for the National Drug Control Strategy within the three key priority areas; education and community action, treatment and intervention, and disruption in the illegal drug market. The first chapter, "Stopping Drug Use Before It Starts," outlines the Administration's work to prevent the…

  14. Status and Strategy for Moisture Metrology in European Metrology Institutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, S.; Boese, N.; Bosma, R.; Buzoianu, M.; Carroll, P.; Fernicola, V.; Georgin, E.; Heinonen, M.; Kentved, A.; Melvad, C.; Nielsen, J.

    2015-08-01

    Measurement of moisture in materials presents many challenges, due to diverse measuring principles, sample interactions with atmosphere, and variation in what is measured (either water content alone or moisture including other liquids). Calibrations are variously referenced to published standard methods, primary calibration facilities, or certified reference materials, but each of these addresses limited substances and ranges of measurement. Overall, metrology infrastructure is not as fully developed or coherent for this field as it is for many other areas of measurement. In order to understand the metrology needs and to support developments, several European national metrology institutes (NMIs) have undertaken some collaborative activities. These have included a "cooperation in research" project for sharing of information, a survey of moisture capabilities at NMIs, the formulation of a strategy for moisture metrology at the NMI level, and a funded research project to develop improved metrology for the moisture field. This paper summarizes the information gathered, giving an overview of the status of moisture metrology at NMIs, and it reports a proposed strategy to improve the current situation.

  15. European strategies against the parasite transfusion risk.

    PubMed

    Reesink, H W

    2005-02-01

    present implemented measures to prevent TT-malaria in the European countries are probably highly effective. More research is needed to establish the theoretical risk of TT-T. cruzi and TT-Leishmania infection in Europe, before preventive measures may be considered. PMID:15814284

  16. Decline of the Nation State?: How the European Union Creates National and Sub-National Identifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opp, Karl-Dieter

    2005-01-01

    A widely held argument is that organizations such as the European Community will only succeed if an identification with these organizations develops; and the EC creates this identification. This, in turn, is supposed to diminish identification with national and sub-national regions. Based on this argument, some testable propositions are suggested…

  17. Cancer Now Leading Killer in 12 European Nations

    MedlinePlus

    ... be collected and compared between countries "so that health professionals and national governments can target interventions more effectively to reduce inequalities," he said. SOURCE: European Heart Journal , news release, ...

  18. [Acceptance of alternative disease control strategies in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Nigsch, Annette; Depner, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The European Commission intends to change its animal disease control strategy following the slogan "Prevention is better than cure". Vaccination and diagnostics should play a major role in emergency situations. A policy paper regarding the use of vaccines has been discussed with all Member States and the main aspects were evaluated in a questionnaire. In principle, the majority of Member States are in favour of a future strategy in which vaccination is replacing culling. However, questions regarding the pathogen freedom and the trade of vaccinated animals and animal products from vaccinated animals still remain open. PMID:22372318

  19. Eastern European National Minorities, 1919-1980. A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Stephan M.; And Others

    Historical summaries and annotated bibliographies are provided for chapters focusing on national minorities in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, Italy and Austria, Bulgaria, and Albania between 1919 and 1980. Chapter 1, "Eastern European National Minorities, 1919-1980" (Stephen M. Horak), includes an historical summary focusing…

  20. National Drug Control Strategy. 2008 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the 2008 National Drug Control Strategy of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. The overarching goal of the President's Strategy is to reduce drug use in America through a balanced approach that focuses on stopping use before it starts, healing America's drug users, and disrupting the market for illegal…

  1. Political Strategies and Language Policies: The European Union Lisbon Strategy and Its Implications for the EU's Language and Multilingualism Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…

  2. 2011 National Drug Control Strategy. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In May of 2010, President Obama released the Administration's inaugural "National Drug Control Strategy", a comprehensive approach to combat the public health and safety consequences posed by drug use. Now, a year later, the Administration is releasing its update building upon that initial "Strategy". The "Strategy" establishes ambitious goals to…

  3. BLM Environmental Education National Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Land Management (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This environmental education strategy was developed by a Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Washington Office Task Group in collaboration with staff at all levels of the BLM. The strategy calls for the BLM to expand its efforts in educating citizens about ecosystems and ecosystem management, and to establish environmental education as an integral…

  4. A National Strategy for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank, Ed.

    The first paper of this set of 12 conference papers, "Nine Learning Fallacies and Their Replacement by a National Strategy for Lifelong Learning," by Frank Coffield, synthesizes the opinions of other participants, and goes beyond them to set forth an outline of a strategy for lifelong learning in the United Kingdom. Following this introductory…

  5. Evaluating expansion strategies for startup European Union dairy farm businesses.

    PubMed

    McDonald, R; Shalloo, L; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2013-06-01

    A stochastic whole-farm simulation model was used to examine alternative strategies for new entrant dairy farmers to grow and develop dairy farm businesses in the context of European Union (EU) milk quota abolition in 2015. Six alternative strategies were compared: remain static, natural growth expansion, waiting until after EU milk quota abolition to expand, a full-scale expansion strategy without milk quotas and not incurring super levy penalties, a full-scale expansion strategy with milk quotas and incurring super levy penalties, and once-a-day milking until EU milk quota abolition, followed by full-scale expansion. Each discrete whole farm investment strategy was evaluated over a 15-yr period (2013-2027) using multiple financial stability and risk indicators, including overall discounted farm business profitability, net worth change, return on investment, and financial risk. The results of this study indicate that, although associated with increased risk, dairy farm expansion will ensure the future profitability of the farm business. Within the context of EU milk quotas until 2015, the most attractive expansion strategy is to increase cow numbers while avoiding super levy fines using once-a-day milking techniques, increasing to the full capacity of the dairy farm once milk quotas are removed. In contrast, the results also indicate that dairy farms that remain static will experience a significant reduction in farm profitability in the coming year due to production cost inflation. Cash flow deficits were observed during the initial year of expansion and, therefore, rapidly expanding dairy farm businesses require a significant cash reserve to alleviate business risk during the initial year of expansion. The results of this analysis also indicate that dairy farm businesses that expand using lower cost capital investments and avoid milk quota super levy fines significantly reduce the financial risks associated with expansion. PMID:23548283

  6. The National Literacy Strategy and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainthorp, Rhona

    2000-01-01

    Presents a discussion paper reflecting on the National Literacy Strategy (NLS) after one year of operation. Argues that once the NLS becomes established it will be necessary for all teachers to engage with the research literature so that they teach from a position of professional understanding of the processes involved in reading and writing…

  7. Improvisations around the National Literacy Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanke, Veronica

    2002-01-01

    Describes how five and six year olds responded to and appropriated aspects of the National Literacy Strategy (NLS). Outlines how the children displayed increasing literacy and collaborative skills while working with consonant blends, alphabetical order, and spelling. Concludes NLS is not the whole story in regards to learning about literacy. (PM)

  8. The Modernisation of European Universities: Cross-National Academic Perspectives. Higher Education Research and Policy. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek, Ed.; Kurkiewicz, Andrzej, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The recent decade brought about new ways of thinking about universities. European-level educational policies became increasingly influential as the agenda of university reforms was viewed as part of greater Lisbon strategy reforms. National governments adopted the economic concept of the university consistently developed in subsequent official…

  9. A National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlea, Edward; Elfring, Chris

    2012-12-04

    Climate models are the foundation for understanding and projecting climate and climate-related changes and are thus critical tools for supporting climate-related decision making. This study developed a holistic strategy for improving the nation's capability to accurately simulate climate and related Earth system changes on decadal to centennial timescales. The committee's report is a high level analysis, providing a strategic framework to guide progress in the nation's climate modeling enterprise over the next 10-20 years. This study was supported by DOE, NSF, NASA, NOAA, and the intelligence community.

  10. European Perspective on Multiple Myeloma Treatment Strategies in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Sonneveld, Pieter; Davies, Faith; Bladé, Joan; Boccadoro, Mario; Cavo, Michele; Morgan, Gareth; de la Rubia, Javier; Delforge, Michel; Dimopoulos, Meletios; Einsele, Hermann; Facon, Thierry; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Moreau, Philippe; Nahi, Hareth; Plesner, Torben; San-Miguel, Jesús; Hajek, Roman; Sondergeld, Pia; Palumbo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of multiple myeloma has undergone significant changes and has resulted in the achievement of molecular remissions, the prolongation of remission duration, and extended survival becoming realistic goals, with a cure being possible in a small but growing number of patients. In addition, nowadays it is possible to categorize patients more precisely into different risk groups, thus allowing the evaluation of therapies in different settings and enabling a better comparison of results across trials. Here, we review the evidence from clinical studies, which forms the basis for our recommendations for the management of patients with myeloma. Treatment approaches depend on “fitness,” with chronological age still being an important discriminator for selecting therapy. In younger, fit patients, a short three drug-based induction treatment followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) remains the preferred option. Consolidation and maintenance therapy are attractive strategies not yet approved by the European Medicines Agency, and a decision regarding post-ASCT therapy should only be made after detailed discussion of the pros and cons with the individual patient. Two- and three-drug combinations are recommended for patients not eligible for transplantation. Treatment should be administered for at least nine cycles, although different durations of initial therapy have only rarely been compared so far. Comorbidity and frailty should be thoroughly assessed in elderly patients, and treatment must be adapted to individual needs, carefully selecting appropriate drugs and doses. A substantial number of new drugs and novel drug classes in early clinical development have shown promising activity. Their introduction into clinical practice will most likely further improve treatment results. PMID:25063227

  11. European perspective on multiple myeloma treatment strategies in 2014.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Heinz; Sonneveld, Pieter; Davies, Faith; Bladé, Joan; Boccadoro, Mario; Cavo, Michele; Morgan, Gareth; de la Rubia, Javier; Delforge, Michel; Dimopoulos, Meletios; Einsele, Hermann; Facon, Thierry; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Moreau, Philippe; Nahi, Hareth; Plesner, Torben; San-Miguel, Jesús; Hajek, Roman; Sondergeld, Pia; Palumbo, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    The treatment of multiple myeloma has undergone significant changes and has resulted in the achievement of molecular remissions, the prolongation of remission duration, and extended survival becoming realistic goals, with a cure being possible in a small but growing number of patients. In addition, nowadays it is possible to categorize patients more precisely into different risk groups, thus allowing the evaluation of therapies in different settings and enabling a better comparison of results across trials. Here, we review the evidence from clinical studies, which forms the basis for our recommendations for the management of patients with myeloma. Treatment approaches depend on "fitness," with chronological age still being an important discriminator for selecting therapy. In younger, fit patients, a short three drug-based induction treatment followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) remains the preferred option. Consolidation and maintenance therapy are attractive strategies not yet approved by the European Medicines Agency, and a decision regarding post-ASCT therapy should only be made after detailed discussion of the pros and cons with the individual patient. Two- and three-drug combinations are recommended for patients not eligible for transplantation. Treatment should be administered for at least nine cycles, although different durations of initial therapy have only rarely been compared so far. Comorbidity and frailty should be thoroughly assessed in elderly patients, and treatment must be adapted to individual needs, carefully selecting appropriate drugs and doses. A substantial number of new drugs and novel drug classes in early clinical development have shown promising activity. Their introduction into clinical practice will most likely further improve treatment results. PMID:25063227

  12. Resource allocation strategies in Southeastern European health policy.

    PubMed

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B

    2013-04-01

    The past 23 years of post-socialist restructuring of health system funding and management patterns has brought many changes to small Balkan markets, putting them under increasing pressure to keep pace with advancing globalization. Socioeconomic inequalities in healthcare access are still growing across the region. This uneven development is marked by the substantial difficulties encountered by local governments in delivering medical services to broad sectors of the population. This paper presents the results of a systematic review of the following evidence: published reports on health system reforms in the region commissioned by WHO, IMF, World Bank, OECD, European Commission; all available published evidence on health economics, funding, reimbursement in world/local languages since 1989 indexed at Medline, Excerpta Medica and Google Scholar; in depth analysis of official website data on medical care financing related legislation among key public institutions such as national Ministries of health, Health Insurance Funds, Professional Associations were applicable, in local languages; correspondence with key opinion leaders in the field in their respective communities. Contributors were asked to answer a particular set of questions related to the issue, thus enlightening fresh legislative developments and hidden patterns of policy maker's behavior. Cost awareness is slowly expanding in regional management, academic and industrial establishment. The study provides an exact and comprehensive description of its current extent and legislative framework. Western Balkans policy makers would profit substantially from health-economics-based decision-making to cope with increasing difficulties in funding and delivering medical care in emerging markets with a rapidly growing demand for health services. PMID:23143312

  13. Proposal for national targets in the framework of the European reduction goal for early school leaving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastra-Bravo, Xavier B.; Tolón-Becerra, Alfredo; Salinas-Andújar, José A.

    2013-11-01

    According to the European Commission's "Europe 2020" strategy, the early school leaving (ESL) rate in European Union (EU) Member States must be reduced to a maximum of 10 per cent by 2020. This paper proposes a nonlinear distribution method based on dynamic targets for reducing the percentage of early school leavers. The aim of this method is to provide policymakers with alternatives in terms of transferring the EU-wide headline target to individual national targets. Weighting was based on four indicators: ESL rate, unemployment rate, expenditure on education as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP), and expenditure on schools per student. As a result, nine possible scenarios for ESL reduction have been constructed for each of the EU Member States in three groups: the whole EU up to June 2013 (EU27), EU Member States which joined before 30 April 2004 (EU15) and EU Member States which joined after 30 April 2004 (EU12). This method allows the European policy to be translated into specific national targets that would converge in the aggregate goal.

  14. Publishing Strategies of Young, Highly Mobile Academics: The Question of Language in the European Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines links between publishing strategies and the academic mobility of multilingual entry-level scholars in the European context against the backdrop of European Union (EU) policies and research on academic labor market characteristics, skilled migration and scholarly publishing. An analysis of language of publication, patterns of…

  15. Impact of European Media Education Strategies on Russian Media Education Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhaleva, Galina V.

    2015-01-01

    The article attempts to examine the impact of European media education theories and approaches on Russian media education evolution basing on a comparative analysis of Russian and European media literacy promotion strategies in the historical context. This influence resulted in the appearance and development of socio-cultural models of media…

  16. Educational Research: What Strategies for Development in the European Research Area?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan

    2004-01-01

    This is a report of the "European Educational Research Journal" (EERJ) Roundtable that sought to describe what national educational research programmes are doing, how they are working together, and how they might contribute to the developing European Educational Research Space. The Roundtable was an opportunity for one large consortium of national…

  17. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  18. An Example of National Literacy Strategy Medium-Term Planning. The National Literacy Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    These medium-term plans have been produced to support, but not prescribe, teachers' planning. They exemplify ways in which England's National Literacy Strategy (NLS) Framework objectives (and the Early Learning Goals) can be clustered. The Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 medium term plans cluster the NLS text, sentence and word level objectives into…

  19. Emotion Regulation Strategies in European American and Hong Kong Chinese Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Kayan Phoebe; Savina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study explored emotion regulation strategies in middle school European American (N = 54) and Hong Kong Chinese (N = 89) children. Children were presented with scenarios describing a fictitious girl/boy who encountered situations eliciting sadness, anger, and fear. Based on Gross' theory (1998), the survey of emotion regulation strategies was…

  20. National launch strategy vehicle data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordes, David

    1990-01-01

    The national launch strategy vehicle data management system (NLS/VDMS) was developed as part of the 1990 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program. The system was developed under the guidance of the Engineering Systems Branch of the Information Systems Office, and is intended for use within the Program Development Branch PD34. The NLS/VDMS is an on-line database system that permits the tracking of various launch vehicle configurations within the program development office. The system is designed to permit the definition of new launch vehicles, as well as the ability to display and edit existing launch vehicles. Vehicles can be grouped in logical architectures within the system. Reports generated from this package include vehicle data sheets, architecture data sheets, and vehicle flight rate reports. The topics covered include: (1) system overview; (2) initial system development; (3) supercard hypermedia authoring system; (4) the ORACLE database; and (5) system evaluation.

  1. Towards a Strategy for Future Projects in High-Energy Physics (European Perspective)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelen, J.

    2006-07-01

    This write-up is a very brief `telegram style' summary of a much more extensive talk delivered at the Conference. The subject of the talk is of current topical interest, in particular because the CERN Council has installed a Strategy Group with the mandate to formulate a strategy for European high energy physics. The recommendations of the Strategy Group will be discussed during a special session of CERN Council in Lisbon, Portugal, on July 14 2006.

  2. The National Literacy Strategy--Framework for Teaching: Additional Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    England's National Literacy Strategy is intended to raise standards of literacy for every student. Teachers should aim to include each student in the Literacy Hour. Evidence from the National Literacy Project (NLP), on which the national strategy is based, shows that students with widely varying needs can expect to improve their literacy skills in…

  3. Towards a Coherent European Strategy for Industry-Higher Education Collaboration in the Exploitation of Research. A Comparison of French and UK Technology Transfer Schemes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibert, Henri

    1998-01-01

    France and the United Kingdom have similar programs for technology transfer and applications of scientific research. There is great potential for them to combine efforts and work with companies on regional, national, and European strategies for the use of technological innovations. (SK)

  4. Marrying into the European family of nations: national disorder and upset gender roles in post-Communist Romanian film.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on recent Romanian films, this article explores the distinctive post-communist concerns with national relocation in the symbolic geography of Europe. The focus on tragic comedies, an increasingly popular genre in Eastern European cinematography, foregrounds the critical usage of irony to express skepticism about the inclusive nature of geopolitical projects such as the European Union by national communities situated at its periphery. While the tragic comedies examined here are successful in challenging official narratives of European belonging, they rely on highly gendered scripts that prove more resilient to ironic reworkings. The movies resort to gendered plots and family tropes, representing Romania’s efforts to receive European recognition as attempts to “marry into” the European Union. The larger thrust of this article is to open complex notions such as “Europe,” “nation,” and “gender,” which are notoriously prone to essentialization, to a deconstructive analysis as systems of differentiation. PMID:22250313

  5. Continental level landslide susceptibility assessment in the context of the European Union's Soil Thematic Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, A.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.; Reichenbach, P.; Hervás, J.; Malet, J.; Guzzetti, F.

    2011-12-01

    In the context of the European Union's Soil Thematic Strategy, and the formulation of a draft of a European framework directive devoted to the sustainable protection of soil, landslides are recognized as one of the eight soil threats requiring harmonized spatial hazard assessments over the EU territory. The general framework for the harmonized assessment of soil threats (namely erosion, organic matter decline, salinisation, compaction, landslides, contamination, sealing and loss of biodiversity) consists of a nested geographical approach based on "Tiers", where a semi-quantitative, low-resolution (1:1 million) evaluation ("Tier 1") using already available pan-European datasets should enable the delineation of priority areas requiring more detailed quantitative inventory-based assessments with additional data ("Tier 2"). In this contribution, we present the elaboration of a continental level "Tier 1" generic landslide susceptibility model based on a heuristic, spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) approach exploiting the most important conditioning factors for landslides being slope gradient, lithology and land cover. Additionally, extensive landslide locations available at regional and national levels were collected, harmonized and standardized over the EU territory to obtain a signal for input parameter specification and model calibration, evaluation and classification. Since the analyzed area is highly complex in terms of climatic, physiographic and seismotectonic conditions controlling landslide occurrences, a terrain differentiation based on climatic and geomorphologic criteria is proposed to delineate distinct zones to which specific predictor class weights have been allocated through the SMCE approach for susceptibility evaluation. The heuristic indexing scheme is cross-validated with multivariate statistical evaluations in representative areas for which detailed inventory information is available. The resulting pan-European susceptibility estimate

  6. National climate policies across Europe and their impacts on cities strategies.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, O; Reckien, D; Olazabal, M; Foley, A; Salvia, M; de Gregorio Hurtado, S; Orru, H; Flacke, J; Geneletti, D; Pietrapertosa, F; Hamann, J J-P; Tiwary, A; Feliu, E; Dawson, R J

    2016-03-01

    Globally, efforts are underway to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to climate change impacts at the local level. However, there is a poor understanding of the relationship between city strategies on climate change mitigation and adaptation and the relevant policies at national and European level. This paper describes a comparative study and evaluation of cross-national policy. It reports the findings of studying the climate change strategies or plans from 200 European cities from Austria, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. The study highlights the shared responsibility of global, European, national, regional and city policies. An interpretation and illustration of the influences from international and national networks and policy makers in stimulating the development of local strategies and actions is proposed. It was found that there is no archetypical way of planning for climate change, and multiple interests and motivations are inevitable. Our research warrants the need for a multi-scale approach to climate policy in the future, mainly ensuring sufficient capacity and resource to enable local authorities to plan and respond to their specific climate change agenda for maximising the management potentials for translating environmental challenges into opportunities. PMID:26696604

  7. Proposal for National Targets in the Framework of the European Reduction Goal for Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lastra-Bravo, Xavier B.; Tolón-Becerra, Alfredo; Salinas-Andújar, José A.

    2013-01-01

    According to the European Commission's "Europe 2020" strategy, the early school leaving (ESL) rate in European Union (EU) Member States must be reduced to a maximum of 10 per cent by 2020. This paper proposes a nonlinear distribution method based on dynamic targets for reducing the percentage of early school leavers. The aim of this…

  8. Lifelong Learning in the European Union: Whither the Lisbon Strategy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Hywel Ceri

    2005-01-01

    This article traces the Lisbon strategy back to the White Paper issued by President Jacques Delors in 1993 on "Growth, Competitiveness, and Jobs" as the launching point for the structural reform agenda needed to turn around the massive unemployment crisis and proposing a combination of policies for the structural reform of the labour market and…

  9. Quality Assurance in Engineering Education on a National and European Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gola, Muzio M.

    2005-01-01

    Activity 2 of project E4, "Quality Assessment and Transparency for Enhanced Mobility and Trans-European Recognition", included the working group on "Quality Assurance in Engineering on a National and European Scale". Its report can be found in Part 2 of Volume D, final report of the E4 Thematic Network (Firenze University Press 2003). The Report…

  10. Reconstructing the history of residence strategies in Indo-European-speaking societies: neo-, uxori-, and virilocality.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Laura

    2011-02-01

    Linguists and archaeologists have used reconstructions of early Indo-European residence strategies to constrain hypotheses about the homeland and trajectory of dispersal of Indo-European languages; however, these reconstructions are largely based on unsystematic and a historical use of the linguistic and ethnographic evidence, coupled with substantial bias in interpretation. Here I use cross-cultural data in a phylogenetic comparative framework to reconstruct the pattern of change in residence strategies in the history of societies speaking Indo-European languages. The analysis provides evidence in support of prevailing virilocality with alternative neolocality for Proto-Indo-European, and that this pattern may have extended back to Proto-Indo-Hittite. These findings bolster interpretations of the archaeological evidence that emphasize the "non-matricentric" structure of early Indo-European society; however, they also counter the notion that early Indo-European society was strongly "patricentric." I discuss implications of these findings in the context of the archaeological and genetic evidence on prehistoric social organization. PMID:21453007

  11. Constructing a Strategic, National Resource: European Policies and the Up-Scaling of Water Services in the Algarve, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Water management has been significantly reshaped throughout recent decades in Europe and worldwide. Vivid examples of this restructuring include Southern European coastal zones which have been transformed into the European “pleasure periphery” over the last 40 years, requiring significant changes in water service provision. Taking it as an illustrative case of the Southern European coastal freshwater crisis and the way different European Member States have dealt with it, the article provides an account of the Algarve, indicative of typical Portuguese dynamics, and compares it with developments in other European countries. Expanding demands on water services in this region led to a crisis situation throughout the nineties, which was resolved by shifting physical infrastructures and competencies to the supra-local level. The re-scaling of water management was instrumental to expanding national control over the sector at the expense of local authorities and privatization. The national level used European funds and regulations to re-configure the institutional and infrastructure set-up in order to provide for tourism and agricultural expansion. Quality tourism was constructed as a decentral, hegemonic state spatial project, with the Algarvian’s entire water resource base being put at its disposal. The solution found illustrates a modified version of the supply side and surface water oriented “hydraulic paradigm” in Portugal: geared towards tourism and urban areas and the maintenance of irrigation agriculture. Delays in infrastructures, ideological preferences, maintaining national control over strategic water services and territoriality contributed towards the construction of water services as part of this hegemonic state spatial strategy for tourism expansion.

  12. Constructing a strategic, national resource: European policies and the up-scaling of water services in the Algarve, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Water management has been significantly reshaped throughout recent decades in Europe and worldwide. Vivid examples of this restructuring include Southern European coastal zones which have been transformed into the European "pleasure periphery" over the last 40 years, requiring significant changes in water service provision. Taking it as an illustrative case of the Southern European coastal freshwater crisis and the way different European Member States have dealt with it, the article provides an account of the Algarve, indicative of typical Portuguese dynamics, and compares it with developments in other European countries. Expanding demands on water services in this region led to a crisis situation throughout the nineties, which was resolved by shifting physical infrastructures and competencies to the supra-local level. The re-scaling of water management was instrumental to expanding national control over the sector at the expense of local authorities and privatization. The national level used European funds and regulations to re-configure the institutional and infrastructure set-up in order to provide for tourism and agricultural expansion. Quality tourism was constructed as a decentral, hegemonic state spatial project, with the Algarvian's entire water resource base being put at its disposal. The solution found illustrates a modified version of the supply side and surface water oriented "hydraulic paradigm" in Portugal: geared towards tourism and urban areas and the maintenance of irrigation agriculture. Delays in infrastructures, ideological preferences, maintaining national control over strategic water services and territoriality contributed towards the construction of water services as part of this hegemonic state spatial strategy for tourism expansion. PMID:20458480

  13. National Drug Control Strategy. FY 2009 Budget Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The White House, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Drug Control Budget Summary identifies resources and performance indicators for programs within the Executive Branch that are integral to the President's National Drug Control Strategy. The Strategy, which is the Administration's plan for reducing drug use and availability, is based on three pillars: (1) Stopping Use Before It Starts,…

  14. National Indigenous English Literacy and Numeracy Strategy, 2000-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs, Canberra.

    Australia's National Indigenous Literacy and Numeracy Strategy acknowledges that extra effort and resources will be required for Indigenous Australian children to achieve the recently enacted national educational goals. The principal objective of the strategy is to achieve English literacy and numeracy for Indigenous students at levels comparable…

  15. Implementing the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive: Scientific challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Alice; Borja, Angel; Solidoro, Cosimo; Grégoire, Marilaure

    2015-10-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD; EC, 2008) is an ambitious European policy instrument that aims to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) in the 5,720,000 km2 of European seas by 2020, using an Ecosystem Approach. GES is to be assessed using 11 descriptors and up to 56 indicators (European Commission, 2010), and the goal is for clean, healthy and productive seas that are the basis for marine-based development, known as Blue-Growth. The MSFD is one of many policy instruments, such as the Water Framework Directive, the Common Fisheries Policy and the Habitats Directive that, together, should result in "Healthy Oceans and Productive Ecosystems - HOPE". Researchers working together with stakeholders such as the Member States environmental agencies, the European Environmental Agency, and the Regional Sea Conventions, are to provide the scientific knowledge basis for the implementation of the MSFD. This represents both a fascinating challenge and a stimulating opportunity.

  16. A comprehensive fracture prevention strategy in older adults: the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) statement.

    PubMed

    Blain, H; Masud, T; Dargent-Molina, P; Martin, F C; Rosendahl, E; van der Velde, N; Bousquet, J; Benetos, A; Cooper, C; Kanis, J A; Reginster, J Y; Rizzoli, R; Cortet, B; Barbagallo, M; Dreinhöfer, K E; Vellas, B; Maggi, S; Strandberg, T

    2016-08-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region, the European Union of Medical Specialists, and the International Osteoporosis Foundation-European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people. PMID:27299902

  17. A Comprehensive Fracture Prevention Strategy in Older Adults: The European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) Statement.

    PubMed

    Blain, H; Masud, T; Dargent-Molina, P; Martin, F C; Rosendahl, E; van der Velde, N; Bousquet, J; Benetos, A; Cooper, C; Kanis, J A; Reginster, J Y; Rizzoli, R; Cortet, B; Barbagallo, M; Dreinhöfer, K E; Vellas, B; Maggi, S; Strandberg, T

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS), in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region (IAGG-ER), the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS), the International Osteoporosis Foundation - European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people. PMID:27273355

  18. Reconstructing the history of marriage and residence strategies in Indo-European-speaking societies.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Laura

    2011-02-01

    This file provides additional information on the data and methods used in Fortunato (2011a, b), and discussion of the results of the fossilization of nodes Proto-Indo-Hittite (PIH) and Proto-Indo-European (PIE) for marriage and residence strategies. PMID:21453008

  19. Response to the National Career Development Strategy Green Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Journal of Career Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National Career Development Strategy Green Paper paper proposes a strategy that is committed to these principles: (1) quality through Career Industry Council of Australia (CICA) benchmarking, quality frameworks and processes and as a risk management strategy; (2) lifetime access to career development services; (3) development of career…

  20. European Fusion Materials Research Program - Recent Results and Future Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Diegele, E.; Andreani, R.; Laesser, R.; Schaaf, B. van der

    2005-05-15

    The paper reviews the objectives and the status of the current EU long-term materials program. It highlights recent results, discusses some of the key issues and major existing problems to be resolved and presents an outlook on the R and D planned for the next few years. The main objectives of the Materials Development program are the development and qualification of reduced activation structural materials for the Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in ITER and of low activation structural materials resistant to high fluence neutron irradiation for in-vessel components such as breeding blanket, divertor and first wall in DEMO. The EU strategy assumes: (i) ITER operation starting in 2015 with DEMO relevant Test Blanket Modules to be installed from day one of operation, (ii) IFMIF operation in 2017 and (iii) DEMO final design activities in 2022 to 2025. The EU candidate structural material EUROFER for TBMs has to be fully code qualified for licensing well before 2015. In parallel, research on materials for operation at higher temperatures is conducted following a logical sequence, by supplementing EUROFER with the oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels and, thereafter, with fibre-reinforced Silicon Carbide (SiC{sub f}/SiC). Complementary, tungsten alloys are developed as structural material for high temperature applications such as gas-cooled divertors.

  1. EACVI appropriateness criteria for the use of cardiovascular imaging in heart failure derived from European National Imaging Societies voting.

    PubMed

    Garbi, Madalina; Edvardsen, Thor; Bax, Jeroen; Petersen, Steffen E; McDonagh, Theresa; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the first European appropriateness criteria for the use of cardiovascular imaging in heart failure, derived from voting of the European National Imaging Societies representatives. The paper describes the development process and discusses the results. PMID:27129538

  2. Diminished States? National Power in European Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    The increasing research on international organisations' education policy lacks analyses of the relation between international organisations and nation states. This paper aims to analyse the power of nation states in international education policy. Focusing on the new degree system in higher education in Europe, partly from Foucault's…

  3. The National Drug Control Strategy, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This federal document offers a comprehensive approach to reduce demand for illegal drugs and decrease their availability. Supported by statistical tables and graphs, the summary is divided into six sections. "The Purpose and Nature of the Strategy" outlines a 10-year plan for drug interdiction and reduction and identifies the elements of that…

  4. Reconstructing the history of marriage strategies in Indo-European-speaking societies: monogamy and polygyny.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Laura

    2011-02-01

    Explanations for the emergence of monogamous marriage have focused on the cross-cultural distribution of marriage strategies, thus failing to account for their history. In this paper I reconstruct the pattern of change in marriage strategies in the history of societies speaking Indo-European languages, using cross-cultural data in the systematic and explicitly historical framework afforded by the phylogenetic comparative approach. The analysis provides evidence in support of Proto-Indo-European monogamy, and that this pattern may have extended back to Proto-Indo-Hittite. These reconstructions push the origin of monogamous marriage into prehistory, well beyond the earliest instances documented in the historical record; this, in turn, challenges notions that the cross-cultural distribution of monogamous marriage reflects features of social organization typically associated with Eurasian societies, and with "societal complexity" and "modernization" more generally. I discuss implications of these findings in the context of the archaeological and genetic evidence on prehistoric social organization. PMID:21453006

  5. 3 CFR - Implementation of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Implementation of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy... HIV/AIDS Strategy Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies As we approach 30 years from the onset of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States, new actions are needed to...

  6. Forging a National Strategy for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jack

    2009-01-01

    At the National Staff Development Council's (NSDC's) 40th Annual Conference in December 2008, former NSDC Board President Karen Dyer and Executive Director Stephanie Hirsh presented the first Policy Maker of the Year Award to Senator Jack Reed (D-RI) in recognition of his dedicated work on behalf of legislation that promotes effective professional…

  7. The importance of the coding of hospital malnutrition in the health strategy of the European Union: a Spanish contribution.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, J; León, M; Planas, M; García de Lorenzo, A

    2010-01-01

    Malnutrition related to illness and inadequate nutrition remains a matter of relevant interest in the member countries of the European Union because of its elevated prevalence and high costs. It is estimated to affect 30 million patients and cost 170 billion euros annually. The 2008-2013 strategy "Together for Health" put forward in the European Parliament urges Member States to develop, together with local and regional authorities, initiatives in the field of education of the population, training, investigation and good clinical practices. SENPE (Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition) collaborates in different areas in the development of this strategy which aim to put malnutrition related to illness in the focus of the health system. One of its contributions has been the preparation of the Document of Consensus on the Coding of Malnutrition SENPE-SEDOM (Spanish Society of Medical Documentation). The agreements adopted have helped normalize the process of coding this pathology with the assignment of specific codes for specifically defined terms. This document has allowed the optimization of information regarding the types and degrees of malnutrition and the procedures employed for its prevention or treatment in the hospital centres of the National Health System. PMID:21519757

  8. National mass care strategy: a national integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Mintz, Amy; Gonzalez, Waddy

    2013-01-01

    Mass care refers to a wide range of humanitarian activities that collectively provide life- sustaining services, such as emergency sheltering, feeding, reunification, distribution of emergency supplies and recovery information, before or in the aftermath of an emergency or disaster. Most services are coordinated and provided by non-governmental organisations and/or local government. Based on the lessons learned in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005, the American Red Cross, the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disasters joined efforts to expand national mass care capabilities in order to support survivors in the wake of catastrophic events, as well as to enhance the integration of volunteers and non-governmental organisations into the broader national effort. These efforts resulted in the creation of the National Mass Care Council in 2010, with representatives of Federal and State agencies, voluntary organisations and the private sector working together to develop a unified approach to mass care and to ensure the provision of consistent and uniform services across the USA, regardless of the magnitude of the event. PMID:24113635

  9. The WHO-ITU national eHealth strategy toolkit as an effective approach to national strategy development and implementation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    With few exceptions, national eHealth strategies are the pivotal tools upon which the launch or refocusing of national eHealth programmes is hinged. The process of their development obviates cross-sector ministerial commitment led by the Ministry of Health. Yet countries often grapple with the task of strategy development and best efforts frequently fail to address strategic components of eHealth key to ensure successful implementation and stakeholder engagement. This can result in strategies that are narrowly focused, with an overemphasis placed on achieving technical outcomes. Without a clear link to a broader vision of health system development and a firm commitment from partners, the ability of a strategy to shape development of a national eHealth framework will be undermined and crucial momentum for implementation will be lost. WHO and ITU have sought to address this issue through the development of the National eHealth Strategy Toolkit that provides a basis for the components and processes to be considered in a strategy development or refocusing exercise. We look at this toolkit and highlight those areas which the countries should consider in formulating their national eHealth strategy. PMID:23920691

  10. Toward a digital library strategy for a National Information Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, Robert A.; Hulen, Harry

    1993-01-01

    Bills currently before the House and Senate would give support to the development of a National Information Infrastructure, in which digital libraries and storage systems would be an important part. A simple model is offered to show the relationship of storage systems, software, and standards to the overall information infrastructure. Some elements of a national strategy for digital libraries are proposed, based on the mission of the nonprofit National Storage System Foundation.

  11. On Nations and Children: Rousseau, Poland and European Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The paper is an interpretation of J.-J. Rousseau's book on the government of Poland. The central part of the paper is devoted to complex relations between the notions of nature, nation, childhood, and civic education. Methodologically, the analysis involves interpretation of historical contexts and positions significant in the writing of the book,…

  12. Argument and Multiple Identities: Contemporary European Nationalism and Environmentalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKerrow, Raymie; Bruner, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Examines argument and the creation and maintenance of social identity. Discusses the relationship between argument and current research on the construction of identities. Presents two illustrations--one focusing on nationalism as given expression in the divided city of Mostar, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and another focusing on environmentalism as…

  13. SDI: implications for NATO strategy and Western European security. An examination of ballistic missile defense in the context of Western European strategic logic

    SciTech Connect

    Soofer, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation has four distinctive aspects. 1. By outlining the position of France, Britain, and West Germany on SDI and BMD, it hopes to elucidate the nature and extent of official and private European criticism and support for research into BMD as well as actual deployment of missile defenses - both in the US and Western Europe. 2. By examining European strategic thought as it pertains to deterrence, NATO strategy, and arms control, it attempts to explain the basis for the various views of SDI held by European governments and opposition groups, while affording the reader a better understanding of the Western European security predicament as well. 3. By analyzing the impact of various BMD deployment schemes in the continental US, Western Europe, and Soviet Union - on NATO strategy and European security, it hopes to contribute to the ongoing search for ways to strengthen NATO defense, and hence, deterrence capabilities. 4. Finally, this study seeks to examine the relationship between generally held security paradigms and specific strategic force initiatives. It is concluded that missile defenses of US strategic nuclear forces and command structure, as well as limited area defense of the continental US, would contribute to western European security by strengthening the credibility of the US strategic nuclear guarantee - the bedrock of NATO strategy.

  14. A perfect match: Nuclear energy and the National Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    In the course of developing the National Energy Strategy, the Department of Energy held 15 public hearings, heard from more than 375 witnesses and received more than 1000 written comments. In April 1990, the Department published an Interim Report on the National Energy Strategy, which compiles those public comments. The National Energy Strategy must be based on actual experience and factual analysis of our energy, economic and environmental situation. This report by the Nuclear Power Oversight committee, which represents electric utilities and other organizations involved in supplying electricity from nuclear energy to the American people, provides such an analysis. The conclusions here are based on hard facts and actual worldwide experience. This analysis of all the available data supports -- indeed, dictates -- expanded reliance on nuclear energy in this nation's energy supply to achieve the President's goals. 33 figs.

  15. The Redistribution of Responsibilities in Five European Educational Systems: From Global Trends to National Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista, Susana

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comparative analysis on the evolution of the distribution of responsibilities--the authority of deciding over a particular domain--at the national, regional, and local levels in the European Union educational systems. After explaining common trends in the institutional arrangements through the role of evaluation, the…

  16. European Earwig, Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) at the Hanford Reach National Monument, Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European earwig, Forficula auricularia L., was surveyed using pitfall traps at three sites at the Hanford Reach National Monument in south central Washington state. Pitfall traps were collected weekly from April 2002 through April 2003. The earwig was consistently taken during all months of the...

  17. Using a Social Justice and Health Framework to Assess European Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-01-01

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents. PMID:25464133

  18. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    PubMed

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-12-01

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents. PMID:25464133

  19. Size Reduction in Early European Domestic Cattle Relates to Intensification of Neolithic Herding Strategies.

    PubMed

    Manning, Katie; Timpson, Adrian; Shennan, Stephen; Crema, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Our analysis of over 28,000 osteometric measurements from fossil remains dating between c. 5600 and 1500 BCE reveals a substantial reduction in body mass of 33% in Neolithic central European domestic cattle. We investigate various plausible explanations for this phenotypic adaptation, dismissing climatic change as a causal factor, and further rejecting the hypothesis that it was caused by an increase in the proportion of smaller adult females in the population. Instead we find some support for the hypothesis that the size decrease was driven by a demographic shift towards smaller newborns from sub-adult breeding as a result of intensifying meat production strategies during the Neolithic. PMID:26630287

  20. Size Reduction in Early European Domestic Cattle Relates to Intensification of Neolithic Herding Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Katie; Timpson, Adrian; Shennan, Stephen; Crema, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Our analysis of over 28,000 osteometric measurements from fossil remains dating between c. 5600 and 1500 BCE reveals a substantial reduction in body mass of 33% in Neolithic central European domestic cattle. We investigate various plausible explanations for this phenotypic adaptation, dismissing climatic change as a causal factor, and further rejecting the hypothesis that it was caused by an increase in the proportion of smaller adult females in the population. Instead we find some support for the hypothesis that the size decrease was driven by a demographic shift towards smaller newborns from sub-adult breeding as a result of intensifying meat production strategies during the Neolithic. PMID:26630287

  1. Strategies for the implementation of a European Volcano Observations Research Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Active volcanic areas in Europe constitute a direct threat to millions of people on both the continent and adjacent islands. Furthermore, eruptions of "European" volcanoes in overseas territories, such as in the West Indies, an in the Indian and Pacific oceans, can have a much broader impacts, outside Europe. Volcano Observatories (VO), which undertake volcano monitoring under governmental mandate and Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.) manage networks on European volcanoes consisting of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are either continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), including prototype deployment. VOs and VRIs also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), near-real time analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres; all providing high-quality information on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. This large and high-quality deployment of monitoring systems, focused on a specific geophysical target (volcanoes), together with the wide volcanological phenomena of European volcanoes (which cover all the known volcano types) represent a unique opportunity to fundamentally improve the knowledge base of volcano behaviour. The existing arrangement of national infrastructures (i.e. VO and VRI) appears to be too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort planned in the framework of the EPOS-PP proposal is focused on the creation of services aimed at providing an improved and more efficient access to the volcanological facilities

  2. The role of nutrition for pressure ulcer management: national pressure ulcer advisory panel, European pressure ulcer advisory panel, and pan pacific pressure injury alliance white paper.

    PubMed

    Posthauer, Mary Ellen; Banks, Merrilyn; Dorner, Becky; Schols, Jos M G A

    2015-04-01

    Nutrition and hydration play an important role in preserving skin and tissue viability and in supporting tissue repair for pressure ulcer (PrU) healing. The majority of research investigating the relationship between nutrition and wounds focuses on PrUs. This white paper reviews the 2014 National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, and Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance Nutrition Guidelines and discusses nutrition strategies for PrU management. PMID:25775201

  3. Teacher Stress and Coping Strategies: A National Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This national survey of 1,201 kindergarten through Grade-12-U.S. teachers focused on three related areas: (1) sources of teacher stress, (2) manifestations of stress, and (3) suggested coping strategies. The survey instrument was adapted from the Teacher Stress Inventory and the Coping Scale for Adults. Results indicated that teachers nationwide…

  4. Easter School Guidance. The National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    This booklet explains the goals of Easter Schools, part of England's National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies. Easter Schools should be planned to cover four half-days and include four literacy and four mathematics lessons each covering the equivalent of at least an hour. The booklet addresses the following issues: why funding has been made…

  5. Year 5 Booster Units. The National Literacy Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England).

    The eight units of work in this document are designed to complement existing literacy booster units. Each unit is based on teaching objectives from the National Literacy Strategy Framework. They have been produced with the help of Year 5 teachers and have been trialled with pupils in a range of schools. The units support teachers' work with Year 5…

  6. Response to the National Career Development Strategy Green Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Journal of Career Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Career Development Association of Australia (CDAA) congratulates the Commonwealth Government on the development of the National Career Development Strategy Green Paper. This is a timely and important document that provides a framework to demonstrate the central contribution that career development services play in supporting individuals,…

  7. Strand Tracker: Non-Fiction Objectives. The National Literacy Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    These materials aim to help teachers make explicit links between teaching in the Literacy Hour and in the rest of the curriculum. The materials map teaching objectives from England's National Literacy Strategy's (NLS) Framework for Teaching to various text types and lists NLS resources which can be used to support teaching and learning. Text types…

  8. Long Overdue? Another Look at the National Literacy Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the teaching approaches which English primary schools are encouraged to use as part of the National Literacy Strategy (NLS) and the ways in which the case for their increased use is supported by research and inspection evidence. Outlines the studies which have influenced the NLS in promoting greater direct interactive teaching of…

  9. Spatial strategies for managing visitor impacts in National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Resource and social impacts caused by recreationists and tourists have become a management concern in national parks and equivalent protected areas. The need to contain visitor impacts within acceptable limits has prompted park and protected area managers to implement a wide variety of strategies and actions, many of which are spatial in nature. This paper classifies and illustrates the basic spatial strategies for managing visitor impacts in parks and protected areas. A typology of four spatial strategies was proposed based on the recreation and park management literature. Spatial segregation is a common strategy for shielding sensitive resources from visitor impacts or for separating potentially conflicting types of use. Two forms of spatial segregation are zoning and closure. A spatial containment strategy is intended to minimize the aggregate extent of visitor impacts by confining use to limited designated or established Iocations. In contrast, a spatial dispersal strategy seeks to spread visitor use, reducing the frequency of use to levels that avoid or minimize permanent resource impacts or visitor crowding and conflict. Finally, a spatial configuration strategy minimizes impacting visitor behavior though the judicious spatial arrangement of facilities. These four spatial strategics can be implemented separately or in combination at varying spatial scales within a single park. A survey of national park managers provides an empirical example of the diversity of implemented spatial strategies in managing visitor impacts. Spatial segregation is frequently applied in the form of camping restrictions or closures to protect sensitive natural or cultural resources and to separate incompatible visitor activities. Spatial containment is the most widely applied strategy for minimizing the areal extent of resource impacts. Spatial dispersal is commonly applied to reduce visitor crowding or conflicts in popular destination areas but is less frequently applied or

  10. Blood conservation strategies in major orthopaedic surgery: efficacy, safety and European regulations.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M; García-Erce, J A; Villar, I; Thomas, D

    2009-01-01

    Several major orthopaedic surgical procedures may result in significant blood loss and the need for allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT). However, overall concerns about adverse effects of ABT have prompted the review of transfusion practice and the search for transfusion alternatives to decrease or avoid the use of ABT. These strategies include the correction of perioperative anaemia, pharmacological and non-pharmacologic measures to reduce blood loss, preoperative autologous blood donation and perioperative red blood cell salvage. We have reviewed the efficacy and safety of these strategies and where appropriate offer evidence-based recommendations on their use in orthopaedic surgery. We also reviewed the European regulations on ABT alternatives. Pharmacological alternatives need to be used with a total adherence to European regulations in their legal and off-label use. The administration and use of pharmacological agents to stimulate erythropoiesis or reduce blood loss needs to be within the context of attempting to use allogenic blood in a rational manner. As for autologous blood, European Directives cover preoperative autologous blood donation, but not its clinical use, and perioperative red blood cell salvage devices, but not the product yielded by them. Therefore, the development of quality standards and good practice guidelines for perioperative red blood cell salvage, as well as its inclusion in the haemovigilance programme, is urgently needed. Finally, it is noteworthy that some recommendations given for ABT alternatives are not supported by a high level of evidence and that the goal of performing major orthopaedic surgical procedures without the use of ABT may be better accomplished by combining several of these techniques within a defined algorithm. PMID:19121192

  11. Toward public health nutrition strategies in the European Union to implement food based dietary guidelines and to enhance healthier lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Stockley, L

    2001-04-01

    This paper suggests strategies for implementing the EU food based dietary guidelines. Dietary guidelines have been developed and disseminated in many countries across the world. However, the EU guidelines are the first to include a specific section on implementation. The aims of the guidelines are twofold, 1) to provide food based dietary guidelines which can be used as a consistent communication tool and 2) as a springboard to planning, implementing, and evaluating public health nutrition strategies. The report is not intended to be prescriptive. It aims to build upon a solid evidence base to provide practical and cost effective suggestions for developing public health strategies, which member countries can use and tailor to the social, cultural and health needs of their populations. Diet and physical activity related diseases impose vast costs on the European economy. However, despite the enormous costs to healthcare systems and in terms of lost productivity, there have been a very few resources allocated in Europe to attempting to prevent these, rather than treating them. The burden of disease exists in the majority of the population, and not in high-risk groups. The optimal public health strategy is thus to focus on the population as a whole, rather than targeting those with increased risk factors or pre-existing disease. Reviews have been carried out on the health impact effectiveness of various types of intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in the population. These conclude that the most effective interventions a) adopt an integrated, multidisciplinary, and comprehensive approach b) involve a complementary range of actions, and c) work at an individual, community, environmental and policy level. Information provision in isolation is not effective, and may exacerbate inequalities in health. In some countries inequities in diet and physical activity are not only significant contributors to inequalities in health, but are increasing

  12. Cross-national comparability of burden of disease estimates: the European Disability Weights Project.

    PubMed Central

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Pereira, Joaquin; Packer, Claire; Schwarzinger, Michael; Burstrom, Kristina

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sources of cross-national variation in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in the European Disability Weights Project. METHODS: Disability weights for 15 disease stages were derived empirically in five countries by means of a standardized procedure and the cross-national differences in visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were analysed. For each country the burden of dementia in women, used as an illustrative example, was estimated in DALYs. An analysis was performed of the relative effects of cross-national variations in demography, epidemiology and disability weights on DALY estimates. FINDINGS: Cross-national comparison of VAS scores showed almost identical ranking orders. After standardization for population size and age structure of the populations, the DALY rates per 100000 women ranged from 1050 in France to 1404 in the Netherlands. Because of uncertainties in the epidemiological data, the extent to which these differences reflected true variation between countries was difficult to estimate. The use of European rather than country-specific disability weights did not lead to a significant change in the burden of disease estimates for dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Sound epidemiological data are the first requirement for burden of disease estimation and relevant between-countries comparisons. DALY estimates for dementia were relatively insensitive to differences in disability weights between European countries. PMID:12219156

  13. National symbols and distinctiveness: rhetorical strategies in creating distinct national identities.

    PubMed

    Finell, Eerika; Liebkind, Karmela

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine qualitatively how respondents create national distinctiveness using rhetorical identity strategies in the context of four Finnish national symbols. The data consist of 127 essays written by Finnish secondary school students. Analysis revealed five different strategies used to distinguish between the in-group and the out-group. These strategies differ on two dimensions: the level of polarization, and the extent to which the in-group-out-group relationship is depicted as being active versus passive. Furthermore, the analysis showed that the two dimensions of nationalism, particularism and universalism, have an important role in the differentiation processes and therefore highlighted the importance of taking into consideration ideological issues while studying social identities. The meaning of the contents of national identity in the differentiation processes is also discussed. PMID:19558753

  14. Impact on the PACOM regional command strategy of the evolving national security strategy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, M.H.

    1994-02-08

    This paper deals with the conclusions and recommendations of the impact the evolving United States national security strategy may have on the PACOM regional command strategy. The conclusions and recommendations are based on a survey of the January 1993 National Security Strategy of the United States presented by the outgoing Administration and the impact that the evolving strategy of the Clinton Administration is having. These conclusions and recommendations are also influenced by current events surrounding the activities and policy debate centered on the Peoples Democratic Republic of Korea. The conclusions drawn are that the objectives of national security are timeless and consistent from Administration to Administration, even when the party changes. The divergence occurs in emphasis and priority. Several impacts on the PACOM regional command strategy are identified as a result. To break the reliance on the strategy of deterrence requires refocusing of the priority from the global-international level to the regional level. The recommendation is made that the Administration should de-link the military considerations on the Korean peninsula from the international debate over the DPRK nuclear program.

  15. Overview of eutrophication indicators to assess environmental status within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, João G.; Andersen, Jesper H.; Borja, Angel; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Camp, Jordi; Cardoso da Silva, Margarida; Garcés, Esther; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Humborg, Christoph; Ignatiades, Lydia; Lancelot, Christiane; Menesguen, Alain; Tett, Paul; Hoepffner, Nicolas; Claussen, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    In 2009, following approval of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission (EC) created task groups to develop guidance for eleven quality descriptors that form the basis for evaluating ecosystem function. The objective was to provide European countries with practical guidelines for implementing the MSFD, and to produce a Commission Decision that encapsulated key points of the work in a legal framework. This paper presents a review of work carried out by the eutrophication task group, and reports our main findings to the scientific community. On the basis of an operational, management-oriented definition, we discuss the main methodologies that could be used for coastal and marine eutrophication assessment. Emphasis is placed on integrated approaches that account for physico-chemical and biological components, and combine both pelagic and benthic symptoms of eutrophication, in keeping with the holistic nature of the MSFD. We highlight general features that any marine eutrophication model should possess, rather than making specific recommendations. European seas range from highly eutrophic systems such as the Baltic to nutrient-poor environments such as the Aegean Sea. From a physical perspective, marine waters range from high energy environments of the north east Atlantic to the permanent vertical stratification of the Black Sea. This review aimed to encapsulate that variability, recognizing that meaningful guidance should be flexible enough to accommodate the widely differing characteristics of European seas, and that this information is potentially relevant in marine ecosystems worldwide. Given the spatial extent of the MSFD, innovative approaches are required to allow meaningful monitoring and assessment. Consequently, substantial logistic and financial challenges will drive research in areas such as remote sensing of harmful algal blooms, in situ sensor development, and mathematical models. Our review takes into

  16. European Union's strategy on endocrine disrupting chemicals and the current position of Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Perharič, Lucija; Fatur, Tanja; Drofenik, Jernej

    2016-06-01

    In view of the European Union regulations 1107/2009 and 528/2012, which say that basic substances in plant protection and biocidal products marketed in the European Union (EU) should not have an inherent capacity to cause endocrine disruption, an initiative was started to define scientific criteria for the identification of endocrine disruptors (EDs). The objectives of the EU strategy on EDs are to protect human health and the environment, to assure the functioning of the market, and to provide clear and coherent criteria for the identification of EDs that could have broad application in the EU legislation. Policy issues were to be addressed by the Ad-hoc group of Commission Services, EU Agencies and Member States established in 2010, whereas the scientific issues were to be addressed by the Endocrine Disruptors Expert Advisory Group (ED EAG), established in 2011. The ED EAG adopted the 2002 World Health Organization (WHO) definition of endocrine disruptor and agreed that for its identification it is necessary to produce convincing evidence of a biologically plausible causal link between an adverse effect and endocrine disrupting mode of action. In 2014, the European Commission proposed four ED identification criteria options and three regulatory options, which are now being assessed for socio-economic, environmental, and health impact. Slovenia supports the establishing of identification criteria and favours option 4, according to which ED identification should be based on the WHO definition with the addition of potency as an element of hazard characterisation. As for regulatory options, Slovenia favours the risk-based rather than hazard-based regulation. PMID:27331297

  17. 76 FR 30193 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy; Notice of Intent: Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy; Notice of... National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy (Strategy). The Strategy will provide a... to the Office of the Science Advisor, Attn: National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate...

  18. Emotion regulation strategies and later externalizing behavior among European American and African American children

    PubMed Central

    Supplee, Lauren H.; Skuban, Emily Moye; Shaw, Daniel S.; Prout, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    Children’s early emotion regulation strategies (ERS) have been related to externalizing problems; however, most studies have included predominantly European American, middle-class children. The current study explores whether ERS use may have differential outcomes as a function of the mother’s ethnic culture. The study utilizes two diverse samples of low-income male toddlers to examine observed ERS during a delay of gratification task in relation to maternal and teacher reports of children’s externalizing behavior 2 to 6 years later. Although the frequencies of ERS were comparable between ethnic groups in both samples, the use of physical comfort seeking and self-soothing was positively related to African American children’s later externalizing behavior but negatively related to externalizing behavior for European American children in Sample 1. Data from Sample 2 appear to support this pattern for self-soothing in maternal, but not teacher, reportof externalizing behavior. Within group differences by income were examined as a possible explanatory factor accounting for the ethnic differences, but it was not supported. Alternative explanations are discussed to explain the pattern of findings. PMID:19338690

  19. Bridge to a sustainable future: National environmental technology strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    For the past two years the Administration has sought the views of Congress, the states, communities, industry, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and interested citizens on ways to spur the development and use of a new generation of environmental technologies. This document represents the views of thousands of individuals who participated in events around the country to help craft a national environmental technology strategy that will put us on the path to sustainable development.

  20. Consultation Process on the European Commission's "Memorandum on Lifelong Learning": Analysis of National Reports. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni Cheallaigh, Martina, Ed.

    This document presents outcomes of a review of the Memorandum on Lifelong Learning (LL) consultation reports from member states of the European Commission and EEA (European Economic Area) countries that collected all views on how best to make progress in implementing LL at local, regional, and national levels. Section 1 provides an overview of…

  1. [Intellectual and emotional characteristics of some European nations in relation to the stages of their historical development].

    PubMed

    Robustova, V V; Gorshenina, M A

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual and emotional characteristics of some European nations in the aspect of their historical development are illustrated by the example of representatives of British and Italian culture. Behavior, mentality and other speech-related functions are analyzed. PMID:26356529

  2. Forecasting European cold waves based on subsampling strategies of CMIP5 and Euro-CORDEX ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero-Llana, Laura; Braconnot, Pascale; Vautard, Robert; Vrac, Mathieu; Jezequel, Aglae

    2016-04-01

    Forecasting future extreme events under the present changing climate represents a difficult task. Currently there are a large number of ensembles of simulations for climate projections that take in account different models and scenarios. However, there is a need for reducing the size of the ensemble to make the interpretation of these simulations more manageable for impact studies or climate risk assessment. This can be achieved by developing subsampling strategies to identify a limited number of simulations that best represent the ensemble. In this study, cold waves are chosen to test different approaches for subsampling available simulations. The definition of cold waves depends on the criteria used, but they are generally defined using a minimum temperature threshold, the duration of the cold spell as well as their geographical extend. These climate indicators are not universal, highlighting the difficulty of directly comparing different studies. As part of the of the CLIPC European project, we use daily surface temperature data obtained from CMIP5 outputs as well as Euro-CORDEX simulations to predict future cold waves events in Europe. From these simulations a clustering method is applied to minimise the number of ensembles required. Furthermore, we analyse the different uncertainties that arise from the different model characteristics and definitions of climate indicators. Finally, we will test if the same subsampling strategy can be used for different climate indicators. This will facilitate the use of the subsampling results for a wide number of impact assessment studies.

  3. Establishing the European Research Area in Ageing: a network of national research programmes.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Gerda

    2005-10-01

    The following paper gives a summary of the European Commission's research policy with regard to the ERA-NET scheme and especially with regard to the ERA-AGE project that was launched in March 2004. All the partner institutions in the ERA-AGE project are main national funding agencies, research councils or ministries. Some selected examples of programme funding by the partner institutions may demonstrate their different ways of funding research and show the great variety of programmes. The long-term objective of the ERA-AGE project is to create a sustainable basis for the planning, implementation and exploitation of transnational research. In future, the European Research Area in Ageing could gain an added value from research investments by integrating existing funding mechanisms and research infrastructures, by commonly deciding on research priorities for funding activities in order to reduce fragmentation and duplication, and by the recruitment of young researchers. PMID:16154308

  4. Use of National and International Growth Charts for Studying Height in European Children: Development of Up-To-Date European Height-For-Age Charts

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Verrina, Enrico; Edefonti, Alberto; Molchanova, Elena A.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.; Schaefer, Franz; Jager, Kitty J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Growth charts based on data collected in different populations and time periods are key tools to assess children’s linear growth. We analyzed the impact of geographic factors and the secular trend on height-for-age charts currently used in European populations, developed up-to-date European growth charts, and studied the effect of using different charts in a sample of growth retarded children. Methods and Findings In an international survey we obtained 18 unique national height-for-age charts from 28 European countries and compared them with charts from the World Health Organization (WHO), Euro-Growth reference, and Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). As an example, we obtained height data from 3,534 children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from 13 countries via the ESPN/ERA-EDTA registry, a patient group generally suffering from growth retardation. National growth charts showed a clear secular trend in height (mean height increased on average 0.6 cm/decade) and a North-South height gradient in Europe. For countries without a recent (>1990) national growth chart novel European growth charts were constructed from Northern and Southern European reference populations, reflecting geographic height differences in mean final height of 3.9 cm in boys and 3.8 cm in girls. Mean height SDS of 2- to 17-year-old ESRD patients calculated from recent national or derived European growth charts (−1.91, 95% CI: −1.97 to −1.85) was significantly lower than when using CDC or WHO growth charts (−1.55, 95% CI: −1.61 to −1.49) (P<0.0001). Conclusion Differences between height-for-age charts may reflect true population differences, but are also strongly affected by the secular trend in height. The choice of reference charts substantially affects the clinical decision whether a child is considered short-for-age. Therefore, we advocate using recent national or European height-for-age charts derived from recent national data when monitoring growth

  5. Climate Change Education Roundtable: A Coherent National Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storksdieck, M.; Feder, M.; Climate Change Education Roundtable

    2010-12-01

    The Climate Change Education (CCE) Roundtable fosters ongoing discussion of the challenges to and strategies for improving public understanding of climate science and climate change among federal agencies, the business community, non-profit, and academic sectors. The CCE Roundtable is provides a critical mechanism for developing a coherent, national strategy to advance climate change education guided by the best available research evidence. Through its meetings and workshops, the roundtable brings together 30 federal and state policymakers, educators, communications and media experts, and members from the business and scientific community. The roundtable includes a number of ex officio members from federal agencies with dedicated interests in climate change education, including officials from the National Science Foundation’s EHR Directorate and its collaborating partner divisions, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Interior, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Education. The issues that are addressed by the roundtable include: - ways to incorporate knowledge about learning and understanding in developing informative programs and materials for decision-makers who must cope with climate change - the design of educational programs for professionals such as local planners, water managers, and the like, to enable them to better understand the implications of climate change for their decisions - development of training programs for scientists to help them become better communicators to decision-makers about implications of, and solutions to climate change - coordinated and collaborative efforts at the national level between federal agencies and other stakeholders This presenation will describe how the roundtable is fostering a coherent direction for climate change education.

  6. [Indonesia draws up plans for a national strategy].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    Dr. Sumedha Khanna, the World Health Organization representative in Indonesia, has reported that Indonesia is about to undertake a national level evaluation of maternal health care and training of midwives with the help of a UN subsidy. The results will be presented at a high level seminar planned for July 1992. The main elements of the national strategy and plan of action will also be developed at the meeting and integrated into the National Health Plan. The goal is to reduce maternal mortality to half its current level of 4500/100,000 live births by the year 2000. Part of the strategy will be to remedy the shortage of qualified midwives and of emergency services. Priority will be given to providing each village or health center with a qualified nurse-midwife. The Indonesian government expects to train 33,000 nurse-midwives within 5 years. The World Bank has agreed to subsidize training of 15,000. Physicians in district hospitals will be trained in essential obstetrical functions with the collaboration of the Indonesian Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. UNICEF is reportedly prepared to help. The Indonesian Association of Midwives has supported the initiative by using surveys of maternal mortality in different parts of the country to analyze the need to improve the health of Indonesian women. PMID:12284954

  7. Instructional Strategies and Best Practices to Narrow the Mathematics Achievement Gaps between African American, Hispanic, and European American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Felicia Mickles

    2012-01-01

    A persistent mathematics achievement gap between African American, Hispanic, and European American students at one elementary school was the focus of this investigation. The research questions of this single site case study involved understanding why an achievement gap exists, and to identify the instructional strategies and best practices used to…

  8. European recommendations for primary prevention of congenital anomalies: a joined effort of EUROCAT and EUROPLAN projects to facilitate inclusion of this topic in the National Rare Disease Plans.

    PubMed

    Taruscio, Domenica; Arriola, Larraitz; Baldi, Francesca; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Calzolari, Elisa; Carbone, Pietro; Curran, Rhonda; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Latos-Bieleńska, Anna; Khoshnood, Babak; Irgens, Lorentz; Mantovani, Alberto; Martínez-Frías, Maria Luisa; Neville, Amanda; Rißmann, Anke; Ruggeri, Stefania; Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are the paradigm example of rare diseases liable to primary prevention actions due to the multifactorial etiology of many of them, involving a number of environmental factors together with genetic predispositions. Yet despite the preventive potential, lack of attention to an integrated preventive strategy has led to the prevalence of CA remaining relatively stable in recent decades. The 2 European projects, EUROCAT and EUROPLAN, have joined efforts to provide the first science-based and comprehensive set of recommendations for the primary prevention of CA in the European Union. The resulting EUROCAT-EUROPLAN 'Recommendations on Policies to Be Considered for the Primary Prevention of Congenital Anomalies in National Plans and Strategies on Rare Diseases' were issued in 2012 and endorsed by EUCERD (European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases) in 2013. The recommendations exploit interdisciplinary expertise encompassing drugs, diet, lifestyles, maternal health status, and the environment. The recommendations include evidence-based actions aimed at reducing risk factors and at increasing protective factors and behaviors at both individual and population level. Moreover, consideration is given to topics specifically related to CA (e.g. folate status, teratogens) as well as of broad public health impact (e.g. obesity, smoking) which call for specific attention to their relevance in the pre- and periconceptional period. The recommendations, reported entirely in this paper, are a comprehensive tool to implement primary prevention into national policies on rare diseases in Europe. PMID:24714026

  9. The Climaware project: Impacts of climate change on water resources management - regional strategies and European view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections produced with CMIP5 and applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report indicate that changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to occur throughout Europe in the 21th century, with a likely decrease of water availability in many regions. Besides, water demand is also expected to increase, in link with these expected climate modifications, but also due to socio-economic and demographic changes. In this respect, the use of future freshwater resources may not be sustainable from the current water management perspective. Therefore adaptation strategies will most likely be needed to cope with these evolutions. In this context, the main objective of the ClimAware project (2010-2013 - www.uni-kassel.de/fb14/wasserbau/CLIMAWARE/, a project implemented within the IWRM-NET Funding Initiative) was to analyse the impacts of climate change (CC) on freshwater resources at the continental and regional scales and to identify efficient adaptation strategies to improve water management for various socio-economic sectors. This should contribute to a more effective implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its instruments (river basin management plans, programmes of measures). The project developed integrated measures for improved freshwater management under CC constraints. More specifically, the objectives of the ClimAware project were to: • elaborate quantitative projections of changes in river flows and consequences such as flood frequency, drought occurrence and sectorial water uses. • analyse the effect of CC on the hydromorphological reference conditions of rivers and therefore the definition of "good status". • define management rules/strategies concerning dam management and irrigation practices on different time perspectives. • investigate uncertainties in climate model - scenario combinations. The research approach considered both European and regional perspectives, to get

  10. Striking a balance between national interests and patients' needs: cross-border projects meeting European challenges.

    PubMed

    Burger, Renate; Kostera, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the new opportunities for EU member state citizens to go abroad for medical treatment. The European Court of Justice has facilitated the access to medical treatment for EU citizens in other EU states. This development has worried national governments since they feared reduced control in their healthcare systems. The cross-border project "healthacross" between Austria and the Czech Republic however illustrates in which way authorities can respond to patients needs in two different countries. Nevertheless a plethora of administrative and practical problems have to be solved for cross-border co-operation in the provision of healthcare. PMID:21391444

  11. Strategy for a transparent, accessible, and sustainable national claims database.

    PubMed

    Gelburd, Robin

    2015-03-01

    The article outlines the strategy employed by FAIR Health, Inc, an independent nonprofit, to maintain a national database of over 18 billion private health insurance claims to support consumer education, payer and provider operations, policy makers, and researchers with standard and customized data sets on an economically self-sufficient basis. It explains how FAIR Health conducts all operations in-house, including data collection, security, validation, information organization, product creation, and transmission, with a commitment to objectivity and reliability in data and data products. It also describes the data elements available to researchers and the diverse studies that FAIR Health data facilitate. PMID:26014305

  12. Test Strategy for the European HCPB Test Blanket Module in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Boccaccini, L.V.; Meyder, R.; Fischer, U.

    2005-05-15

    According to the European Blanket Programme two blanket concepts, the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) and a Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) will be tested in ITER. During 2004 the test blanket modules (TBM) of both concepts were redesigned with the goal to use as much as possible similar design options and fabrication techniques for both types in order to reduce the European effort for TBM development. The result is a robust TBM box being able to withstand 8 MPa internal pressure in case of in-box LOCA; the TBM box consists of First wall (FW), caps, stiffening grid and manifolds. The box is filled with typically 18 and 24 breeding units (BU), for HCPB and HCLL respectively. A breeding unit has about 200 mm in poloidal and toroidal direction and about 400 mm in radial direction; the design is adapted to contain and cooling ceramic breeder/beryllium pebble beds for the HCPB and eutectic Lithium-Lead for the HCLL.The use of a new material, EUROFER, and the innovative design of these Helium Cooled components call for a large qualification programme before the installation in ITER; availability and safety of ITER should not be jeopardised by a failure of these components. Fabrication technologies especially in the welding processes (diffusion welding, EB, TIG, LASER) need to be tested in the manufacturing of large mock-ups; an extensive out-of-pile programme in Helium facility should be foreseen for the verification of the concept from basic helium cooling functions (uniformity of flow in parallel channels, heat transfer coefficient in FW, etc.) up to the verification of large portions of the TBM design under relevant ITER loading.In ITER the TBM will have the main objective to collect information that will contribute to the final design of DEMO blankets. A strategy has been proposed in 2001 that leads to the tests in ITER 4 different Test Blanket Modules (TBM's) type during the first 10 years of ITER operation. For the new HCPB design this strategy is confirmed with

  13. [Normative-legal support for implementation of national strategy of glaucoma control in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Vitovs'ka, O P; Tymchenko, O I

    2009-01-01

    The review of normative legal database for implementation of national strategy of glaucoma control has demonstrated that there are all terms and conditions for implementation of national strategy on the national level. There is no necessity to change present normative legal database in the field of public health for the purpose of strategy implementation. PMID:20455458

  14. 76 FR 29195 - National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC) Governance Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace...: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: NIST announces the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in... with the Strategy. The goals of this workshop are to provide a venue for discussion and...

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory accelerated tru waste workoff strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kosiewicz, S.T.; Triay, I.R.; Rogers, P.Z.; Christensen, D.V.

    1997-03-01

    During 1996, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed two transuranic (TRU) waste workoff strategies that were estimated to save $270 - 340M through accelerated waste workoff and the elimination of a facility. The planning effort included a strategy to assure that LANL would have a significant quantity (3000+ drums) of TRU waste certified for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) beginning in April of 1998, when WIPP was projected to open. One of the accelerated strategies can be completed in less than ten years through a Total Optimization of Parameters Scenario ({open_quotes}TOPS{close_quotes}). {open_quotes}TOPS{close_quotes} fully utilizes existing LANL facilities and capabilities. For this scenario, funding was estimated to be unconstrained at $23M annually to certify and ship the legacy inventory of TRU waste at LANL. With {open_quotes}TOPS{close_quotes} the inventory is worked off in about 8.5 years while shipping 5,000 drums per year at a total cost of $196M. This workoff includes retrieval from earthen cover and interim storage costs. The other scenario envisioned funding at the current level with some increase for TRUPACT II loading costs, which total $16M annually. At this funding level, LANL estimates it will require about 17 years to work off the LANL TRU legacy waste while shipping 2,500 drums per year to WIPP. The total cost will be $277M. This latter scenario decreases the time for workoff by about 19 years from previous estimates and saves an estimated $190M. In addition, the planning showed that a $70M facility for TRU waste characterization was not needed. After the first draft of the LANL strategies was written, Congress amended the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) to accelerate the opening of WIPP to November 1997. Further, the No Migration Variance requirement for the WIPP was removed. This paper discusses the LANL strategies as they were originally developed. 1 ref., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. AlpArray - technical strategies for large-scale European co-operation in broadband seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisbourne, A.; Clinton, J.; Hetenyi, G.; Pequegnat, C.; Wilde-Piorko, M.; Villasenor, A.; Comelli, P.; AlpArray Working Group

    2012-04-01

    AlpArray is a new initiative to study the greater Alpine area with a large-scale broadband seismological network. The interested parties (currently 32 institutes in 12 countries) plan to combine their existing infrastructures into an all-out transnational effort that includes data acquisition, processing, imaging and interpretation. The experiment will encompass the greater Alpine area, from the Black Forest in the north to the Northern Apennines in the south and from the Pannonian Basin in the east to the French Massif Central in the west. We aim to cover this region with high-quality broadband seismometers by combining the ~400 existing permanent stations with an additional 400+ instruments from mobile pools. In this way, we plan to achieve homogeneous and high resolution coverage while also deploying densely spaced stations along swaths across key parts of the Alpine chain. These efforts on land will be combined with deployments of ocean bottom seismometers in the Mediterranean Sea. Significant progress has already been made in outlining the scientific goals and funding strategy. A brief overview of these aspects of the initiative will be presented here. However, we will concentrate on the technical aspects: How efficient large-scale integration of existing infrastructures can be achieved. Existing permanent station coverage within the greater Alpine area has been collated and assessed for data availability, allowing strategies to be developed for network densification to ensure a robust backbone network: An anticipated deployment strategy has been drawn up to optimise array coverage and data quality. The augmented backbone network will be supplemented by more densely spaced temporary arrays targeting more specific scientific questions. For these temporary arrays, a strategy document has been produced to outline standards for station installation, data acquisition, processing, archival and dissemination. All these operations are of course vital. However, data

  17. Orbits and Pointing Strategies for Space-Based Telescopes into a European Space Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Estrella; Sanchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Ramos-Lerate, Mercedes

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes the inclusion of optical images acquired from orbiting telescopes into an autonomous European space surveillance system via the Advance Space Surveillance System Simulator (AS4). Special interest on space-based observation of GEO objects exists since it avoids the weather dependence and longitudinal restrictions of ground-based observations of those objects. Furthermore, space-based observations allow the detection of small objects that are not detected from ground-based sensors.In order to analyze the impact of space-based telescopes images, several aspects have to be studied. The first consideration is the selection of the appropriate orbits to locate the telescopes. A description of the most suitable orbits and strategies for the observation of space debris population will be provided.Once an appropriated orbit has been selected, the next important consideration is the analysis of an optimized pointing strategy and its associated requirements for feasibility. Several pointing strategies will be exposed by analyzing, among other factors, the impact of luminosity conditions in the most populated regions to be observed. Numerical results are presented in the form of statistics, which reflect the compromise between the density of detected objects, and other important parameters for orbit determination and cataloguing purposes as re-acquisition times or measurement track duration.Finally, overall analyses of possible space-based constellations are presented. Such constellations are aimed to solve the main drawbacks in considering only one satellite at the selected orbit. This is for example the case of revisit times when considering a sub GEO orbiting telescope which can be solve by re-distributing several sensors in the orbit. It will also allow carrying on more complex pointing strategies by the definition of several sensors located at same orbit pointed at two different regions.The AS4 was developed by DEIMOS Space ([1], [2] and also [5]). The

  18. European complement to GPS: Orbit determination strategies and results of preliminary experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleuze, Muriel; Nouel, François; Escane, Isabelle

    1996-06-01

    The reference mission of the European Complement to GPS (CE-GPS) is destined to insure the integrity of the navigation message of the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) for the Civil Aviation community. CE-GPS is based on a geostationary payload capable of transmitting a GPS-like signal to ground users (civil aviation extended to maritime and terrestrial transport). This signal is broadcasted from a ground station (the Feeder Link Station) towards the geostationary which repeats it. The signal includes both a navigation message (GPS satellites ephemerides) and a health status of the GPS constellation (integrity message). An Operational Orbitography Center capable of processing the orbits of the geostationary and GPS satellites elaborates the navigation and integrity messages. The measurements required for the computation of the orbits are collected by a network of about six Monitoring Stations (in the equatorial area) and transmitted to the Feeder Link station. Experiments are under way to test the different new techniques involved in the development of the ground stations, and to select the optimal strategies for the geostationary orbit determination process and for station synchronization. This paper presents the different orbit determination strategies developed for the geostationary satellite and preliminary results obtained with data collected during two campaigns: autumn 1993 with two ground stations (Paris and Toulouse) and Spring 1994 with three ground stations (Kourou, Hartebeeshoek and Toulouse). The paper is organized in three parts: first, the CE-GPS concept is presented; second, the experimental system designed by CNES to assess the CE-GPS technical performances is described; and last, the experimental results are presented.

  19. Breaking the Ice: Strategies for Future European Research in the Polar Oceans - The AURORA BOREALIS Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Thiede, J.; European Research Icebreaker Consortium

    2011-12-01

    Research vessels dedicated to work in polar ice-covered waters have only rarely been built. Their history began with Fritjof Nansen's FRAM, which he used for his famous first crossing of the Arctic Ocean 1893-1896. She served as example for the first generation of polar research vessels, at their time being modern instruments planned with foresight. Ice breaker technology has developed substantially since then. However, it took almost 80 years until this technical advance also reached polar research, when the Russian AKADEMIK FEDEROV, the German POLARSTERN, the Swedish ODEN and the USCG Cutter HEALY were built. All of these house modern laboratories, are ice-breakers capable to move into the deep-Arctic during the summer time and represent the second generation of dedicated polar research vessels. Still, the increasing demand in polar marine research capacities by societies that call for action to better understand climate change, especially in the high latitudes is not matched by adequate facilities and resources. Today, no icebreaker platform exists that is permanently available to the international science community for year-round expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean or heavily ice-infested waters of the polar Southern Ocean around Antarctica. The AURORA BOREALIS concept plans for a heavy research icebreaker, which will enable polar scientists around the world to launch international research expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic continental shelf seas autonomously during all seasons of the year. The European Research Icebreaker Consortium - AURORA BOREALIS (ERICON-AB) was established in 2008 to plan the scientific, governance, financial, and legal frameworks needed for the construction and operation of this first multi-nationally owned and operated research icebreaker and polar scientific drilling platform. By collaborating together and sharing common infrastructures it is envisioned that European nations make a major contribution to

  20. Inside the Mechanics of Network Development: How Competition and Strategy Reorganize European Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Air transport forms complex networks that can be measured in order to understand its structural characteristics and functional properties. Recent models for network growth (i.e., preferential attachment, etc.) remain stochastic and do not seek to understand other network-specific mechanisms that may account for their development in a more microscopic way. Air traffic is made up of many constituent airlines that are either privately or publicly owned and that operate their own networks. They follow more or less similar business policies each. The way these airline networks organize among themselves into distinct traffic distributions reveals complex interaction among them, which in turn can be aggregated into larger (macro-) traffic distributions. Our approach allows for a more deterministic methodology that will assess the impact of airline strategies on the distinct distributions for air traffic, particularly inside Europe. One key question this paper is seeking to answer is whether there are distinct patterns of preferential attachment for given classes of airline networks to distinct types of European airports. Conclusions about the advancing degree of concentration in this industry and the airline operators that accelerate this process can be drawn.

  1. [Scientific advice by the national and European approval authorities concerning advanced therapy medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Jost, Nils; Schüssler-Lenz, Martina; Ziegele, Bettina; Reinhardt, Jens

    2015-11-01

    The aim of scientific advice is to support pharmaceutical developers in regulatory and scientific questions, thus facilitating the development of safe and efficacious new medicinal products. Recent years have shown that the development of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) in particular needs a high degree of regulatory support. On one hand, this is related to the complexity and heterogeneity of this group of medicinal products and on the other hand due to the fact that mainly academic research institutions and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are developing ATMPs. These often have limited regulatory experience and resources. In 2009 the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI) initiated the Innovation Office as a contact point for applicants developing ATMPs. The mandate of the Innovation Office is to provide support on regulatory questions and to coordinate national scientific advice meetings concerning ATMPs for every phase in drug development and especially with view to the preparation of clinical trial applications. On the European level, the Scientific Advice Working Party (SAWP) of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicinal Agency (EMA) offers scientific advice. This article describes the concepts of national and EMA scientific advice concerning ATMPs and summarizes the experience of the last six years. PMID:26369763

  2. 75 FR 43528 - Seeking Public Comment on Draft National Health Security Strategy Biennial Implementation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The National Health Security Strategy (2009) can be found at: http://www.phe.gov... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Seeking Public Comment on Draft National Health Security Strategy... achieve national health security and to implement the first quadrennial National Health Security...

  3. European Neutrons form Parasitic Research to Global Strategy: Realizing Plans for a Transnational European Spallation Source in the Wake of the Cold War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiserfeld, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Studies of Big Science have early on focused on instrumentation and scientific co-operation in large organizations, later on to take into account symbolic values and specific research styles while more recently also involving the relevance of commercial interests and economic development as well as the assimilation of research traditions. In accordance with these transformed practices, this presentation will analyze how an organization with the purpose of realizing a Big-Science facility, The European Spallation Source, has successfully managed to present the project as relevant to different national and international policy-makers, to the community of European neutron researchers as well as to different industrial interests. All this has been achieved in a research-policy environment, which has been the subject to drastic transformations, from calls to engage researchers from the former eastern bloc in the early 1990s via competition with American and Asian researchers at the turn of the century 2000 to intensified demands on business applications. During this process, there has also been fierce competition between different potential sites in the U.K., Germany, Spain, Hungary and Sweden, not once, but twice. The project has in addition been plagued by withdrawals of key actors as well as challenging problems in the field of spallation-source construction. Nevertheless, the European Spallation Source has survived from the early 1990s until today, now initiating the construction process at Lund in southern Sweden. In this presentation, the different measures taken and arguments raised by the European Spallation Source project in order to realize the facility will be analysed. Especially the different designs of the European Spallation Source will be analysed as responses to external demands and threats.

  4. Cultural Dimensions of Digital Library Development, Part II: The Cultures of Innovation in Five European National Libraries (Narratives of Development)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalbello, Marija

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the narrative accounts of the beginnings of digital library programs in five European national libraries: Biblioteca nacional de Portugal, Bibliotheque nationale de France, Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the National Library of Scotland, and the British Library. Based on interviews with policy makers and developers of digital…

  5. Educating the European Citizen in the Global Age: Engaging with the Post-National and Identifying a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Harriet

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades there have been increased calls for UK schools to develop a more European and global orientation in their pedagogy and curriculum, and to equip children and young people with post-national knowledge, skills, and dispositions. This paper examines some key problems in post-national conceptions of citizenship education, in order to…

  6. 77 FR 2996 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... the Strategy in a May 24, 2011, notice of intent in the Federal Register (76 FR 30193). After we... Fish and Wildlife Service National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy AGENCY: Fish..., Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy (Strategy). The purpose of the Strategy will be to...

  7. Local Solutions for National Challenges? Exploring Local Solutions through the Case of a National Succession Planning Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The notion of localism and decentralization in national policy has come increasingly to the fore in recent years. The national succession planning strategy for headteachers in England introduced by the National College for School Leadership promoted "local solutions for a national challenge". This article deals with some aspects of the…

  8. Implementing a national strategy for patient safety: lessons from the National Health Service in England.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R Q; Fletcher, M

    2005-04-01

    Improving patient safety has become a core issue for many modern healthcare systems. However, knowledge of the best ways for government initiated efforts to improve patient safety is still evolving, although there is considerable commonality in the challenges faced by countries. Actions to improve patient safety must operate at multiple levels of the healthcare system simultaneously. Using the example of the NHS in England, this article highlights the importance of a strategic analysis of the policy process and the prevailing policy context in the design of the national patient safety strategy. The paper identifies a range of policy "levers" (forces for change) that can be used to support the implementation of the national safety initiative and, in particular, discusses the strengths and limitations of the "business case" approach that has attracted recent interest. The paper offers insights into the implementation of national patient safety goals that should provide learning for other countries. PMID:15805460

  9. Developing a national salt reduction strategy for Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Enkhtungalag, Batsaikhan; Batjargal, Jamayan; Chimedsuren, Ochir; Tsogzolmaa, Bayandorj; Anderson, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The increase in prevalence of risk factors such as hypertension has contributed to an incremental rise in non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Mongolia over recent decades, such that they now account for 80% of all deaths in the country. Salt reduction is one of the most cost-effective interventions to reduce the burden of NCDs. Methods In 2011, the Ministry of Health (MOH) instigated the development of a national salt reduction strategy for Mongolia. As part of a 2-week national consultation and training program on salt reduction, it established an inter-sectoral working party and organized a series of bilateral meetings and visits to factories. Actions arising included a baseline survey of population salt consumption patterns and the implementation of a series of pilot salt reduction initiatives. Results The results of the baseline assessment revealed that average daily intake of salt, based on 24 hour urine samples from a representative national sample (n=1,027), was 11.06±5.99 g in 2011, more than double the World Health Organization (WHO) five grams recommendation. Moreover, while most participants knew that salt was bad for health, few were taking efforts to reduce intake, and many were consuming highly salty meals and tea; salt in tea alone was estimated to contribute 30% of daily salt intake. A pilot Pinch Salt intervention to reduce salt consumption of factory workers was undertaken in Ulaanbaatar (UB) city between 2012 and 2013, and was associated with a reduction of 2.8 g of salt intake. Ongoing food industry initiatives have led to significant reductions in salt levels in bread, and companies producing processed meat have indicated a willingness to reduce salt. Relevant stakeholders have also supported the campaign by participating in annual World Salt Awareness Week events. The activities to date have demonstrated the potential for action and there is now a need scale these up to a national level to ensure that Mongolia is in a strong

  10. The European Framework of Languages: A Piloting Sample of Cross-Curricular Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansilla, Paloma Ubeda; Riejos, Ana Maria Roldan

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of the history of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEF) and European Language Portfolio (ELP) and explains their aims and functions. It then provides a summary of the ELP use in Europe and in Spain by showing a pilot study of its implementation carried out at the Schools of Civil Engineering and…

  11. National Space Weather Program Releases Strategy for the New Decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Samuel P.; Babcock, Michael R.; Bonadonna, Michael F.

    2010-12-01

    The National Space Weather Program (NSWP; http://www.nswp.gov) is a U.S. federal government interagency program established by the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology (OFCM) in 1995 to coordinate, collaborate, and leverage capabilities across stakeholder agencies, including space weather researchers, service providers, users, policy makers, and funding agencies, to improve the performance of the space weather enterprise for the United States and its international partners. Two important documents released in recent months have established a framework and the vision, goals, and strategy to move the enterprise forward in the next decade. The U.S. federal agency members of the NSWP include the departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, Interior, State, and Transportation, plus NASA, the National Science Foundation, and observers from the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The OFCM is also working with the Department of Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency to formally join the program.

  12. 77 FR 76034 - National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... AGENCY National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change AGENCY: Environmental Protection... publishing the final ``National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change'' (2012 Strategy... light of climate change and charts key strategic actions to be taken to achieve the goals in 2012...

  13. How a Dead Butler Was Killed: The Way English National Strategies Maim Grammatical Parts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cajkler, Wasyl

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the way English grammar is described in documents issued between 1998 and 2002 in England for the National Literacy Strategy (NLS) and for the lower secondary Key Stage 3 (KS3) National Strategy. The analysis reveals that the NLS and KS3 Strategy do not consistently follow a recognised approach to grammatical description, and…

  14. Effect of African- and European-American maternal attitudes and limit-setting strategies on children's self-regulation.

    PubMed

    LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Swanson, Dena P; Cole, Robert; Kitzman, Harriet

    2011-12-01

    The effect of maternal attitudes and limit-setting strategies on children's self-regulation (measured as committed compliance) was compared in 151 African-American (AA) and 108 European-American (EA) mothers and their 3-year-old children. There were no ethnic differences in children's compliance, however ethnicity moderated the relationship between maternal authoritarian attitudes and children's compliance. Higher authoritarian attitudes predicted less children's compliance in the EA sample, but greater compliance in the AA sample. Observational limit-setting data revealed that in both ethnic groups, maternal authoritarian attitudes influenced children's self-regulation through maternal use of lower-power (gentle) verbal strategies, fewer physical strategies, and judicious use of higher-power verbal strategies. The findings indicate that the meaning and purpose of authoritarian attitudes varies across these mothers' socio-cultural contexts. PMID:21928396

  15. Comprehensive mapping of national school food policies across the European Union plus Norway and Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, S

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health challenge in Europe. Schools are seen as an important setting to promote healthy diet and lifestyle in a protected environment and school food-related practices are essential in this regard. To understand what policy frameworks European countries have created to govern these practices, a systematic assessment of national school food policies across the European Union plus Norway and Switzerland (n = 30 countries) was carried out. The survey revealed that all 30 countries currently have a school food policy in place; a total of 34 relevant policies were identified, 18 of which were mandatory and the remaining 16 voluntary. Major policy objectives specified were those to improve child nutrition (97% of policies), to help children learn and adopt healthy diet and lifestyle habits (94%) and to reduce or prevent childhood obesity (88%). Most commonly (>90%), the policies offered food-based standards for menu composition, and portion sizes were guided by age-appropriate energy requirements. Lunch and snacks were the most widely addressed mealtimes for almost 90% of all policies examined. Other important areas covered included food marketing to children; the availability of vending services; training requirements for catering staff; and whether nutrition education is a mandatory part of the national curriculum. Evaluation was mentioned in 59% of the school food policies reviewed. Future analyses should focus on evaluating the implementation of these policies and more importantly, their effectiveness in meeting the objectives defined therein. Comparable and up-to-date information along with data on education, attainment and public health indicators will enable a comprehensive impact assessment of school food policies and help facilitate optimal school food provision for all. PMID:25663818

  16. National burden of colorectal cancer in Lithuania and the ranking of Lithuania within the 45 European nations

    PubMed Central

    LUNEVICIUS, RAIMUNDAS; POSKUS, TOMAS; SAMALAVICIUS, NARIMANTAS E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to assess the national burden of colorectal cancer in Lithuania, and to determine the performance of Lithuania for the control of colorectal cancer compared with 45 European nations by ranking. Seven sources of data and information were used. The majority of the findings on disease burden are reported in the present study in the form of the crude and age-standardised incidence, age-specific and age-standardised mortality, disability adjusted life years (DALYs), years lived with disability (YLDs) and years of life lost (YLLs) per 100,000 individuals per year by gender and in the two genders combined between 1990 and 2011. Colorectal cancer was ranked as the 3rd leading cause of disease burden out of all malignancies. Overall, the crude incidence was 35 per 100,000 individuals in 2001 and 51 per 100,000 individuals in 2011 in Lithuania. Incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer varied markedly within Lithuania. The number of DALYs and YLLs slightly declined between 2005 and 2010. YLLs contributed 97% of the total burden due to colorectal cancer in 1990, and 96% in 2010. The mortality rate was 4–5 times higher in males aged 50–54 years than in males aged 45–49. The YLDs per 100,000 individuals per year in Lithuania increased by 61.1% between 1990 and 2010. However, Lithuania was below the average of the Central & Eastern, Southern, Northern and Western regions of Europe. It was concluded that the national colorectal cancer service provision should be amplified and that a programme for the prevention and control of colorectal cancer is required. PMID:26171046

  17. 75 FR 31818 - National Science Board; Committee on Strategy and Budget; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... National Science Board; Committee on Strategy and Budget; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice The National Science Board's Committee on Strategy and Budget, pursuant to NSF regulations (45 CFR part 614), the... the National Science Board Web site ( http://www.nsf.gov/nsb ) for information or schedule updates,...

  18. A national strategy for the export of US geothermal technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This document presents a proposal for an explicit US strategy to focus this still diffuse interest into a coordinated effort by the public and private sectors to increase exports of US geothermal goods and services over the next five to ten years. This document summarizes the background and need for an explicit US strategy, the factors influencing the development of this strategy, strategy options, and a recommended strategy.

  19. European environmental research infrastructures are going for common 30 years strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, Ari; Konjin, Jacco; Pursula, Antti

    2014-05-01

    Environmental Research infrastructures are facilities, resources, systems and related services that are used by research communities to conduct top-level research. Environmental research is addressing processes at very different time scales, and supporting research infrastructures must be designed as long-term facilities in order to meet the requirements of continuous environmental observation, measurement and analysis. This longevity makes the environmental research infrastructures ideal structures to support the long-term development in environmental sciences. ENVRI project is a collaborative action of the major European (ESFRI) Environmental Research Infrastructures working towards increased co-operation and interoperability between the infrastructures. One of the key products of the ENVRI project is to combine the long-term plans of the individual infrastructures towards a common strategy, describing the vision and planned actions. The envisaged vision for environmental research infrastructures toward 2030 is to support the holistic understanding of our planet and it's behavior. The development of a 'Standard Model of the Planet' is a common ambition, a challenge to define an environmental standard model; a framework of all interactions within the Earth System, from solid earth to near space. Indeed scientists feel challenged to contribute to a 'Standard Model of the Planet' with data, models, algorithms and discoveries. Understanding the Earth System as an interlinked system requires a systems approach. The Environmental Sciences are rapidly moving to become a one system-level science. Mainly since modern science, engineering and society are increasingly facing complex problems that can only be understood in the context of the full overall system. The strategy of the supporting collaborating research infrastructures is based on developing three key factors for the Environmental Sciences: the technological, the cultural and the human capital. The technological

  20. National Energy Strategy: A compilation of public comments; Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This Report presents a compilation of what the American people themselves had to say about problems, prospects, and preferences in energy. The Report draws on the National Energy Strategy public hearing record and accompanying documents. In all, 379 witnesses appeared at the hearings to exchange views with the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, and Deputy Under Secretary of Energy, and Cabinet officers of other Federal agencies. Written submissions came from more than 1,000 individuals and organizations. Transcripts of the oral testimony and question-and-answer (Q-and-A) sessions, as well as prepared statements submitted for the record and all other written submissions, form the basis for this compilation. Citations of these sources in this document use a system of identifying symbols explained below and in the accompanying box. The Report is organized into four general subject areas concerning: (1) efficiency in energy use, (2) the various forms of energy supply, (3) energy and the environment, and (4) the underlying foundations of science, education, and technology transfer. Each of these, in turn, is subdivided into sections addressing specific topics --- such as (in the case of energy efficiency) energy use in the transportation, residential, commercial, and industrial sectors, respectively. 416 refs., 44 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. On Cooperation and Competition: A Comparative Analysis of National Policies for Internationalisation of Higher Education in Seven Western European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luijten-Lub, Anneke; Van der Wende, Marijk; Huisman, Jeroen

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this article is on a comparison of the national policies for internationalisation in seven Western European countries (Austria, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United Kingdom). In this comparison, it will be shown that the trend suggested in previous research of increasing economical rationales for…

  2. New Zealand = Maori, New Zealand = Bicultural: Ethnic Group Differences in a National Sample of Maori and Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Jessica F.; Sibley, Chris G.; Robertson, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    New Zealand (NZ) Europeans show a unique implicit bicultural effect, with research using the Implicit Association Test consistently showing that they associate Maori (the Indigenous peoples) and their own (dominant/advantaged majority) group as equally representative of the nation. We replicated and extended this NZ = bicultural effect in a small…

  3. Youth, Europe and the Nation: The Political Knowledge, Interests and Identities of the New Generation of European Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faas, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Europe is undergoing considerable demographic, economic, cultural and socio-political change. National citizenship identities have been challenged by the simultaneous processes of European integration and the migration of people into and across Europe. This paper explores how the current generation of youth relates towards Europe, and highlights…

  4. A Compendium of National Reports on Laws Affecting Sport in Countries Having Acceded to the European Cultural Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This report presents information from national reports on laws affecting sports in various countries that have acceded to the European Cultural Convention. The reports come from the following countries: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg,…

  5. Strategies for Overcoming Key Barriers to Development of a National Security Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-30

    This report documents the strategies for overcoming identified key barriers to development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. Many barriers currently exist that prevent the development of an adequate number of properly trained national security personnel. The identified strategies to address the barriers will focus on both short-term and long-term efforts, as well as strategies to capture legacy knowledge of retiring national security workforce personnel.

  6. Ethical standards for clinical trials conducted in third countries: the new strategy of the European Medicines Agency.

    PubMed

    Altavilla, Annagrazia

    2011-01-01

    Clinical trials increasingly occur on a global scale as industry and government sponsors in wealthy countries move trials to low- and middle-income countries. The globalization of clinical research raises important questions about the economical and ethical aspects of clinical research and the translation of trial results to clinical practice: which ethical standards are applied? Are trials results accurate and valid, and can they be extrapolated to other settings? This article provides an overview of the strategy approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to clarify ethical standards for clinical research conducted outside the European Economic Area (EEA) and included in Marketing Authorization Applications. Reference to the EMA Reflection paper is made. PMID:21409974

  7. Comparison of European national legislation efficiency on the reduction of air pollutant emissions.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Miguel; Rodrigues, Ricardo; Ferreira, Joana; Lopes, Myriam; Borrego, Carlos

    2006-03-01

    Since 1995, the Institute for Environment and Development in Portugal has obtained >300 stack samples from various point sources of Portuguese industries. A coherent database was made with the collected results. The limit values fixed by several European legal documents consulted, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian, and Dutch emission legislation, were applied to the Institute for Environment and Development stack sampling inventory (from 1995 to 2000) to evaluate the efficiency of these standards in promoting the control and reduction of atmospheric pollutants emissions, especially regarding nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter. The conclusion was that the original Portuguese legislation was not restrictive enough and not very efficient regarding emissions reduction. In contrast, the Dutch and Italian legislations are quite restrictive but very efficient concerning emission control for the three pollutants analyzed. One of the outcomes of this study was the publication of a new law in Portugal regulating the emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The strategy of this emissions control law follows the conclusions found in this study including the concept of a mass flow threshold and different approaches depending on source dimension. PMID:16573194

  8. Coaching Strategies for AP: Building a Successful AP European History Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The October 2013 special issue of "Social Education" dealt with almost all AP social studies subjects, but omitted AP European History. This is one of the most fascinating AP subjects for students and teachers alike. In this article, the author shares his experiences since hewas given the responsibility of building his school's…

  9. Expertise, Networks and Indicators: The Construction of the European Strategy in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Romuald

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the networks of experts involved in the fabrication of indicators and benchmarks supporting the Open Method of Coordination led by the European Commission. In studying international expertise, it explores the policy borrowing process and the transfer of knowledge between several agents and institutions at global level. Our…

  10. Towards a European strategy for medicines research (2014-2020): The EUFEPS position paper on Horizon 2020.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Rogério; Aksu, Buket; Cuine, Alain; Danhof, Meindert; Takac, Milena Jadrijevic-Mladar; Linden, Hans H; Link, Andreas; Muchitsch, Eva-Maria; Wilson, Clive G; Ohrngren, Per; Dencker, Lennart

    2012-12-18

    biomedical research programmes of long term importance for development of medicines; however, fundamental research initiatives on medicines development will not be competitive in such an environment. In order to strengthen the long term outlook, we must foster innovative research within the university sector, EUFEPS proposes that a fund for such research be set up within Horizon 2020, which would be open for individual research groups and which would include Public-Public Partnerships (complementing already existing Public-Private Partnerships). How do we look for implementation? There is an established research agenda for medicines research that is globally focused, and which incorporates a cooperative model between universities and industry, facilitating integration of complex technologies. Regulatory Science will play an important role in this integration. This agenda uses tools arising from systems approaches (including discovery with systems biology and also systems pharmacology) and has the potential for providing better knowledge management, as well as technological innovation (including manufacturing). It also addresses the drive towards personalised medicines and can, with support from both public and private sectors, foster translation of knowledge to new technologies and from that, to new medicinal products and complex integrated systems. This is a part of a strategy capable of solving unmet medical needs, which would increase the quality of life of patients suffering from chronic and debilitating diseases. The instruments to allow the development of a research agenda should strengthen existing partnerships such as the IMI-JU model; allow for the creation of European-network infrastructures that can bring together existing competences with adequate European coordination, thus promoting advanced training and continuous professional development for the pharmaceutical sciences. This will be the cornerstone of a knowledge management strategy, providing education and

  11. A pilot study on the feasibility of European harmonized human biomonitoring: Strategies towards a common approach, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Casteleyn, L; Dumez, B; Becker, K; Kolossa-Gehring, M; Den Hond, E; Schoeters, G; Castaño, A; Koch, H M; Angerer, J; Esteban, M; Exley, K; Sepai, O; Bloemen, L; Horvat, M; Knudsen, L E; Joas, A; Joas, R; Biot, P; Koppen, G; Dewolf, M-C; Katsonouri, A; Hadjipanayis, A; Cerná, M; Krsková, A; Schwedler, G; Fiddicke, U; Nielsen, J K S; Jensen, J F; Rudnai, P; Közepésy, S; Mulcahy, M; Mannion, R; Gutleb, A C; Fischer, M E; Ligocka, D; Jakubowski, M; Reis, M F; Namorado, S; Lupsa, I-R; Gurzau, A E; Halzlova, K; Jajcaj, M; Mazej, D; Tratnik Snoj, J; Posada, M; López, E; Berglund, M; Larsson, K; Lehmann, A; Crettaz, P; Aerts, D

    2015-08-01

    In 2004 the European Commission and Member States initiated activities towards a harmonized approach for Human Biomonitoring surveys throughout Europe. The main objective was to sustain environmental health policy by building a coherent and sustainable framework and by increasing the comparability of data across countries. A pilot study to test common guidelines for setting up surveys was considered a key step in this process. Through a bottom-up approach that included all stakeholders, a joint study protocol was elaborated. From September 2011 till February 2012, 17 European countries collected data from 1844 mother-child pairs in the frame of DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES).(1) Mercury in hair and urinary cadmium and cotinine were selected as biomarkers of exposure covered by sufficient analytical experience. Phthalate metabolites and Bisphenol A in urine were added to take into account increasing public and political awareness for emerging types of contaminants and to test less advanced markers/markers covered by less analytical experience. Extensive efforts towards chemo-analytical comparability were included. The pilot study showed that common approaches can be found in a context of considerable differences with respect to experience and expertize, socio-cultural background, economic situation and national priorities. It also evidenced that comparable Human Biomonitoring results can be obtained in such context. A European network was built, exchanging information, expertize and experiences, and providing training on all aspects of a survey. A key challenge was finding the right balance between a rigid structure allowing maximal comparability and a flexible approach increasing feasibility and capacity building. Next steps in European harmonization in Human Biomonitoring surveys include the establishment of a joint process for prioritization of substances to cover and biomarkers to develop

  12. 78 FR 79071 - National Maritime Strategy Symposium: Cargo Opportunities and Sealift Capacity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... listen-only information January 10, 2014. distributed to registrants. National Maritime Strategy... additional information, insights and experience to assist in the development of a National Maritime Strategy..., 2000 (65 FR 19476, 04/11/2011) or at http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Authority: 5 U.S.C. 610;...

  13. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR RADON REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides an historical summary of the evolution of the U.S. EPA's national strategy for indoor radon remediation, recent developments, and anticipated future directions. uring the past 10 years, EPA has pursued a national strategy to address radon remediation in buildin...

  14. Reviving the Dead Butler? Towards a Review of Aspects of National Literacy Strategy Grammar Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    In his 2004 article "How was a dead butler killed: The way English national strategies maim grammatical parts" published in "Language and Education" 18, no. 1, Wasyl Cajkler calls for a review of grammar advice to teachers in the UK National Literacy Strategy (NLS) materials. His evidence demonstrates clearly that NLS grammar advice is "a…

  15. National Advisory Groups and their role in immunization policy-making processes in European countries.

    PubMed

    Nohynek, H; Wichmann, O; D Ancona, F

    2013-12-01

    During the twenty-first century, the development of national immunization programmes (NIP) has matured into robust processes where evidence-based methodologies and frameworks have increasingly been adopted. A key role in the decision-making and recommending processes is played by National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs). In a survey performed among European Union member states, Norway and Iceland, in February 2013, 85% of the 27 responding countries reported having established a NITAG, and of these, 45% have formal frameworks in place for the systematic development of vaccination recommendations. Independent of whether a formal framework is in place, common key factors are addressed by all NITAGs and also in countries without NITAGs. The four main factors addressed by all were: disease burden in the country, severity of the disease, vaccine effectiveness or efficacy, and vaccine safety at population level. Mathematical modelling and cost-effectiveness analyses are still not common tools. Differences in the relative weighting of these key factors, differences in data or assumptions on country-specific key factors, and differences in existing vaccination systems and financing, are likely to be reasons for differences in NITAG recommendations, and eventually NIPs, across Europe. Even if harmonization of NIPs is presently not a reasonable aim, systematic reviews and the development of mathematical/economic models could be performed at supranational level, thus sharing resources and easing the present work-load of NITAGs. Nevertheless, it has been argued that harmonization would ease central purchase of vaccines, thus reducing the price and increasing access to new vaccines. PMID:23957860

  16. A pilot study on the feasibility of European harmonized human biomonitoring: Strategies towards a common approach, challenges and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Casteleyn, L.; Dumez, B.; Becker, K.; Kolossa-Gehring, M.; Den Hond, E.; Schoeters, G.; Castaño, A.; Koch, H.M.; Angerer, J.; Esteban, M.; Exley, K.; Sepai, O.; Bloemen, L.; Horvat, M.; Knudsen, L.E.; Joas, A.; Joas, R.; Biot, P.; Koppen, G.; Dewolf, M-C.; and others

    2015-08-15

    In 2004 the European Commission and Member States initiated activities towards a harmonized approach for Human Biomonitoring surveys throughout Europe. The main objective was to sustain environmental health policy by building a coherent and sustainable framework and by increasing the comparability of data across countries. A pilot study to test common guidelines for setting up surveys was considered a key step in this process. Through a bottom-up approach that included all stakeholders, a joint study protocol was elaborated. From September 2011 till February 2012, 17 European countries collected data from 1844 mother–child pairs in the frame of DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES). Mercury in hair and urinary cadmium and cotinine were selected as biomarkers of exposure covered by sufficient analytical experience. Phthalate metabolites and Bisphenol A in urine were added to take into account increasing public and political awareness for emerging types of contaminants and to test less advanced markers/markers covered by less analytical experience. Extensive efforts towards chemo-analytical comparability were included. The pilot study showed that common approaches can be found in a context of considerable differences with respect to experience and expertize, socio-cultural background, economic situation and national priorities. It also evidenced that comparable Human Biomonitoring results can be obtained in such context. A European network was built, exchanging information, expertize and experiences, and providing training on all aspects of a survey. A key challenge was finding the right balance between a rigid structure allowing maximal comparability and a flexible approach increasing feasibility and capacity building. Next steps in European harmonization in Human Biomonitoring surveys include the establishment of a joint process for prioritization of substances to cover and biomarkers to develop

  17. Raising Standards in Reading and Writing: Insights from England's National Literacy Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiel, Gerry

    2003-01-01

    Describes how the purpose of the National Literacy Strategy (NLS) is to provide "a steady and consistent strategy" for raising standards in literacy over a 5- to 10-year period. Discusses reading and writing in the Literacy Hour and evaluation of the strategy. Notes that the NLS in England has been successful to a point. (SG)

  18. [National health strategies in the world and its enlightenment to build healthy China].

    PubMed

    Shi, X M

    2016-08-01

    The national health strategy is a reflection of a country on overall value and development vision of national health, and conducting this strategy will enhance and promote national development and people's welfare. In the current situation of building Healthy China during the 13th Five-Year Plan, it is important to learn experiences in this area from developed countries. This article mainly presents detailed introduction of the formulation, the implementation and the characteristics of National Health Strategies from the United States, United Kingdom and Japan, and also presents suggestions for the construction of Healthy China. PMID:27539518

  19. Developing a National STEM Workforce Strategy: A Workshop Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The future competitiveness of the United States in an increasingly interconnected global economy depends on the nation fostering a workforce with strong capabilities and skills in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). STEM knowledge and skills enable both individual opportunity and national competitiveness, and the nation needs…

  20. European Heritage Landscapes. An Account of the Conference on Planning and Management in European Naturparke/Parcs Naturels/National Parks (U.K.) and Equivalent Category "C" Reserves (Losehill Hall, Castleton, England, September 26-30, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Roland

    Presented are the proceedings of the Conference on Planning and Management in European National Parks and equivalent Category "C" reserves held at the Peak National Park Study Center, Castleton, England, in 1977. Fifty-two representatives from 16 countries focused practical solutions to management and planning problems in national parks. (BT)

  1. Teenagers and young adults with cancer in Europe: from national programmes to a European integrated coordinated project.

    PubMed

    Stark, D; Bielack, S; Brugieres, L; Dirksen, U; Duarte, X; Dunn, S; Erdelyi, D J; Grew, T; Hjorth, L; Jazbec, J; Kabickova, E; Konsoulova, A; Kowalczyk, J R; Lassaletta, A; Laurence, V; Lewis, I; Monrabal, A; Morgan, S; Mountzios, G; Olsen, P R; Renard, M; Saeter, G; van der Graaf, W T; Ferrari, A

    2016-05-01

    Over 14 000 patients aged 15-24 are estimated to be diagnosed with cancer in the European Union (EU) each year. Teenagers and young adults (TYA) often fall down gaps between children's and adults cancer services. The specific challenges of providing optimal care to them are described, but we present a summary of recent progress. Progress to overcome these challenges is happening at different rates across Europe. We summarise the European national projects in this field but more recently we have seen the beginnings of European coordination. Within the EU 7th Funding Programme (FP7) European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents programme (ENCCA), a specific European Network for Teenagers and Young Adults with Cancer has held a series of scientific meetings, including professionals, patients and caregivers. This group has proposed unanswered research questions and agreed key features of a high-quality service that can improve outcomes for TYA with cancer, including the primacy of collaboration between adult and paediatric services to eliminate the gap in the management of TYA with cancer. PMID:26239724

  2. Strategies for Preventing Behavioral Incidents in the Nation's Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Johnny; Leonard, Rex

    1985-01-01

    Discusses strategies that can be used to prevent the five most common behavioral problems in secondary schools: (1) failure to complete assigned work, (2) tardiness, (3) inattentiveness, (4) littering, and (5) failure to bring materials to class. (FL)

  3. Nationalism and Rights in the New Europe. Teaching Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Adrian

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan designed to teach upper grade level secondary students about nationalism and civil rights in post-Cold War Europe. Examines the rise of nationalism and discrimination against ethnic minorities in eastern Europe since the end of Communist rule. Includes a map of Europe, suggested teaching procedures, and follow-up activities.…

  4. The origins of the Federal Republic of Germany's space policy, 1959-1965: European and national dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The ESA History Study Reports are preliminary reports of studies carried out within the framework of an ESA (European Space Agency) contract. They will form the basis of a comprehensive study of European Space activities covering the period 1959-1987. The impressive, yet somewhat shady, political past of space research in Germany is discussed in this report. Germany's participation in the initial program of ELDO served to start an ambitious national space program denied to the country since 1945, first by allied prohibitions and then, after 1955, by self-exercised political restraints. German membership in ESRO and ELDO had the advantage that the Federal government would be locked into a structure from which it was extremely difficult to withdraw. Since any successful participation in these international organizations depended on the rapid national build-up of technological know-how and a functioning industrial and scientific infrastructure, the commitment for the Federal government to promote a national space program in parallel was an immediate consequence of the decision to join ESRO and ELDO. This assessment rapidly bore fruit and the Federal Republic soon became one of the major European space powers.

  5. Epistemological Beliefs' Contributions to Study Strategies of Asian Americans and European Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schommer-Aikins, Marlene; Easter, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    Given the increasingly culturally diverse composition of students in American classrooms, understanding the nature of cultural differences is necessary to generate effective instructional interventions. This study examines the individual differences in epistemological beliefs, ways of knowing, study strategies, and academic performance among…

  6. Tritium processing for the European test blanket systems: current status of the design and development strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Ricapito, I.; Calderoni, P.; Poitevin, Y.; Aiello, A.; Utili, M.; Demange, D.

    2015-03-15

    Tritium processing technologies of the two European Test Blanket Systems (TBS), HCLL (Helium Cooled Lithium Lead) and HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed), play an essential role in meeting the main objectives of the TBS experimental campaign in ITER. The compliancy with the ITER interface requirements, in terms of space availability, service fluids, limits on tritium release, constraints on maintenance, is driving the design of the TBS tritium processing systems. Other requirements come from the characteristics of the relevant test blanket module and the scientific programme that has to be developed and implemented. This paper identifies the main requirements for the design of the TBS tritium systems and equipment and, at the same time, provides an updated overview on the current design status, mainly focusing onto the tritium extractor from Pb-16Li and TBS tritium accountancy. Considerations are also given on the possible extrapolation to DEMO breeding blanket. (authors)

  7. An analysis of European shale gas policies: Why EU member states are pursuing divergent 'fracking' strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, Ben

    The recent progression in hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking' has enabled energy companies to extract once-considered, inaccessible hydrocarbons. The United States has been at the forefront of this controversial industry, revolutionizing the energy market by becoming the world's largest oil and natural gas producer as a result of its vast shale deposits. Shale oil and gas deposits are not unique to North America, however. EU member states are faced with the dilemma of whether to permit fracking domestically or suspend operations. The United Kingdom and Romania have issued concessions for exploring their reserves, while France and Bulgaria have halted all drilling efforts, citing environmental concerns. This paper evaluates why these four European countries pursued divergent fracking policies, arguing that energy security and Russian-relations are more relevant and powerful explanatory factors than a country's commitment to protecting the environment.

  8. The Folkeskole Year 2000: A National Strategy for Enhanced Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovsgaard, Joern

    This paper describes the Danish program, Folkeskole year 2000, an educational change strategy that involves an agreement between the teachers' union, the Association of Municipalities, and the Ministry of Education to improve education. The Folkeskole stipulates that the municipal council has the overall responsibility for the municipal school…

  9. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Systems Interim Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate within NASA. Enabling the Vision for Space Exploration. The Role of the Directorate. 2. Strategic Context and Approach. Corporate Focus. Focused, Prioritized Requirements. Spiral Transformation. Management Rigor. 3. Achieving Directorate Objectives. Strategy to Task Process. Capability Development. Research and Technology Development. 4. Beyond the Horizon. Appendices.

  10. 77 FR 19661 - Draft National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... AGENCY Draft National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change AGENCY: Environmental... of water resource management, including how to: address risks to drinking water, wastewater and storm water infrastructure; protect quality of surface water, ground water and drinking water;...

  11. Functionalizing Conflict: Jesse Jackson's Rhetorical Strategy at the 1984 Democratic National Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Mare, Lesley A.

    1987-01-01

    Examines Jesse Jackson's rhetorical strategy of functionalizing conflict among divisive Democrats during the 1984 national convention. Applies conflict theory to Jackson's convention address, which serves as the basis for this rhetorical analysis. (JD)

  12. A national research & development strategy for biomass crop feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.

    1997-07-01

    Planning was initiated in 1996 with the objective of reevaluating current biomass feedstock research and development strategies to: (1) assure that by 2005, one or more commercial lignocellulosic to ethanol projects will be able to acquire a dependable supply of biomass crop feedstocks; (2) assure that recently initiated demonstrations of crops to electricity will be successful and; (3) assure that the research base needed to support future biomass industry expansion is being developed. Multiple trends and analyses indicate that biomass energy research and development strategies must take into account the fact that competition for land will define the upper limits of available biomass energy crop supplies and will largely dictate the price of those supplies. Only crop production and utilization strategies which contribute profit to the farmer or landowner and to energy producers will be used commercially for biomass energy production. Strategies for developing biomass {open_quotes}energy{close_quotes} crop supplies must take into consideration all of the methods by which biomass crops will enter biomass energy markets. The lignocellulosic materials derived from crops can be available as primary residues or crop by-products; secondary residues or processing by-products; co-products (at both the crop production and processing stages); or, as dedicated energy crops. Basic research and development (R&D) leading to yield improvement continues to be recommended as a major long-term focus for dedicated energy crops. Many additional near term topics need attention, some of which are also applicable to by-products and co-products. Switchgrass R&D should be expanded and developed with greater collaboration of USDA and state extension groups. Woody crop research should continue with significant cost-share from industries developing the crops for other commercial products. Co-product options need more investigation.

  13. Urban Fluxes Monitoring and Development of Planning Strategies to Reduce Ghg Emissions in AN European City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marras, S.; Sirca, C.; Bellucco, V.; Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K.; Duce, P.; Blecic, I.; Trunfio, G. A.; Cecchini, A.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Cities and human settlements in general are a primary source of emissions that contribute to human-induced climate change. To investigate the impact of an urbanized area on urban metabolism components, an eddy covariance (EC) tower will be set up in a city (Sassari) located in the center of the Mediterranean basin (Sardinia, Italy). The EC tower, as well as a meteorological station and radiometers, will be set up to monitor energy, water, and carbon fluxes in the city center. A GHG emissions inventory will be also compiled to identify the main emission sources. In addition, a modeling framework will be used to study the impact of different urban planning strategies on carbon emission rates. The modeling framework consists of four models to analyze fluxes both at local and municipality scale: (i) a land surface model ACASA (Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm, ACASA) to simulate the urban metabolism components at local scale; (ii) a Cellular Automata model to simulate the urban land-use dynamics in the near future (20-30 years); (iii) a transportation model to estimate the variation of the transportation network load, and (iv) the coupled model WRF-ACASA will be finally used to simulate the urban metabolism components at municipality scale. The participation of local stakeholders will allow the definition of future planning strategies with the aim to identify low carbon emissions strategies. The projects activities, methodologies applied, as well as the preliminary results will be reported here.

  14. National Strategy for Violence Prevention in the Austrian Public School System: Development and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiel, Christiane; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a quick succession of several spectacular events in schools, and the ensuing public discussion on the high rates of bullying in Austria, a national strategy for violence prevention in schools and preschools has been developed. In formulating the strategy, a systematic procedure involving international experts and a number of local…

  15. Guidance for Year 6 Pupils. 2001 Revision. The National Literacy Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    England's National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies are designed to raise standards for all pupils. Though the skills they address are basic and need to be built up throughout the primary years, at the early stage of implementing the strategies, many older pupils will not have reached the standards expected of Year 6 pupils in future years. This…

  16. A Bridge to the Future. Australia's National Strategy for Vocational Education and Training 1998-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

    The National Strategy for Vocational Education and Training 1998-2003 expresses the collective commitment by Australian governments, in partnership with Australian industry, to vocational education and training. The strategy includes the following mission: to ensure that the skills of the Australian labor force are sufficient to support…

  17. 75 FR 41685 - Implementation of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, WASHINGTON, July 13, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-17620 Filed 7-15-10; 11:15 am] Billing code... Memorandum of July 13, 2010--Implementation of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy #0; #0; #0; Presidential... HIV/AIDS Strategy Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies As we approach...

  18. Interactive Whole Class Teaching in the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Fay; Hardman, Frank; Wall, Kate; Mroz, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The study set out to investigate the impact of the official endorsement of 'interactive whole class teaching' on the interaction and discourse styles of primary teachers while teaching the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies. In both strategies, interactive whole class teaching is seen as an 'active teaching' model promoting high quality…

  19. A Strategy for Designing Instruction for Educational Television in Developing Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awotua-Efebo, Ebi Bio

    1987-01-01

    Explains a strategy for the design and development of instructional programs for educational television in developing nations using a modified version of the Shannon-Weaver Communication Model. Highlights include design strategy, manner of presentation, and stages of program development. The importance of making materials realistic and culturally…

  20. Breaking the Cycle of Drug Abuse. 1993 Interim National Drug Control Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This Interim Drug Strategy is intended to give a new sense of direction and to reinvigorate the nation's efforts against drug trafficking and abuse. The preface to the report lists eight new strategies that the Administration will implement: (1) make drug policy a cornerstone of domestic and social policy; (2) target pregnant women, children, and…

  1. A Career Practitioner's Response to the National Career Development Strategy Green Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasou, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Career Development Strategy Green Paper is a discussion paper issued by the Department of Employment, Education and Workplace Relations. It is aimed at the formulation of a coherent and structured career development strategy throughout Australia. The Green Paper seeks to lay the foundation for policy change through establishing the…

  2. Changing Practice: The National Literacy Strategy and the Politics of Literacy Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Gemma

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on a recent ESRC-funded research project, this paper will explore some of the contradictory structural features of the National Literacy Strategy (NLS), which have helped shape its evolution over time, and reflect on some of the tension points which have arisen at different levels of implementation as the Strategy unfolds. In the process,…

  3. A Communications Strategy for the National Children's Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The National Children's Study is the largest long term study of children's health and development ever to be conducted in the United States, involving 100,000 children from before birth to age 21. The Study aims to better understand the link between the environments in which children are raised and their physical and mental health and development.…

  4. [Therapeutic strategies. Evolution and current status of the European Guidelines on Cardiovascular disease prevention].

    PubMed

    Guijarro, Carlos; García-Díaz, Juan de Dios

    2013-01-01

    The European Guidelines on Dyslipidaemias (2011) and Cardiovascular Prevention (2012) have incorporated important changes. Firstly, it highlights the identification of a group of "very high risk" patients: patients with atherosclerotic disease in any vascular area, diabetes with associated risk factors, advanced chronic renal failure, or a SCORE estimate >10%. Patients with diabetes and no other risk factors, moderate renal failure, severe hypertension, genetic dyslipidaemias, or a SCORE estimate 5-10%, are considered as "high risk". The HDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels are considered as modulators of risks, but not therapeutic objectives per se. The therapeutic objectives are set at LDL cholesterol levels < 70 mg/dl (or at least a reduction of at least 50%) for patients at very high risk, and an LDL < 100 mg/dl for high risk patients. As well as the changes in lifestyle, pharmacological treatment with statins is the focal point of lipid lowering treatments. Other pharmacological options may be considered if the treatment with the maximum tolerable doses of statins do not achieve the therapeutic objectives. PMID:23769961

  5. Invasive Plant Species: Inventory, Mapping, and Monitoring - A National Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludke, J. Larry; D'Erchia, Frank; Coffelt, Jan; Hanson, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    America is under siege by invasive species of plants and animals, and by diseases. The current environmental, economic, and health-related costs of invasive species could exceed $138 billion per year-more than all other natural disasters combined. Notorious examples include West Nile virus, Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, and purple loose- strife in the Northeast; kudzu, Brazilian peppertree, water hyacinth, nutria, and fire ants in the Southeast; zebra mussels, leafy spurge, and Asian long-horn beetles in the Midwest; salt cedar, Russian olive, and Africanized bees in the Southwest; yellow star thistle, European wild oats, oak wilt disease, Asian clams, and white pine blister rust in California; cheatgrass, various knapweeds, and thistles in the Great Basin; whirling disease of salmonids in the Northwest; hundreds of invasive species from microbes to mammals in Hawaii; and the brown tree snake in Guam. Thousands of species from other countries are introduced intentionally or accidentally into the United States each year. Based on past experience, 10-15 percent can be expected to establish free-living populations and about 1 percent can be expected to cause significant impacts to ecosystems, native species, economic productivity, and (or) human health.

  6. Writing Organisation. Literacy Progress Unit (Adapted for Whole Class Use). Key Stage 3: National Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    Adapted for whole class use, this unit focuses on developing the writing skills pupils need if they are to progress from Level 3 to Level 4 of England's National Curriculum. It is meant to supplement, but not to replace, the English curriculum for Year 7 pupils. The unit builds on the successful approaches of the National Literacy Strategy in…

  7. Changing Classroom Practice through the English National Literacy Strategy: A Micro-Interactional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefstein, Adam

    2008-01-01

    How and why is national policy translated into interactions between teachers and pupils? This article examines the enactment of the English National Literacy Strategy (NLS) in a case study of two literacy lessons, which are drawn from a yearlong ethnographic study of the NLS in one school. Although the teacher taught directly from and adhered…

  8. 76 FR 18552 - Seeking Public Comment on Two Draft Chapters of the National Health Security Strategy Biennial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...To help the Nation achieve national health security and to implement the first quadrennial National Health Security Strategy (NHSS) of the United States of America (2009) and build upon the NHSS Interim Implementation Guide for the National Health Security Strategy of the United States of America (2009) the U.S. Government has drafted a NHSS Biennial Implementation Plan (BIP). This document is......

  9. The National Drug Control Strategy: the first-line approach to decreasing violence in our communities.

    PubMed

    Garcia, F

    1995-01-01

    The National Drug Control Strategy is designed to address all aspects of drug abuse: drug use, drug trafficking, and drug-related crimes. The nine-pronged program encompasses efforts at the federal, state, and local levels, forming a partnership between government and the private and public sectors. The strategy includes prevention initiatives that reduce the demand for drugs; individualized treatment programs for high-risk groups; greater community policing efforts to reduce violent crimes by drug users and pushers; and education aimed at children and adults. It is a national strategy that strives to find solutions at the local level. PMID:7795031

  10. Leader Age and National Condition: A Longitudinal Analysis of 25 European Monarchs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    1984-01-01

    Analyzed the reigns of 25 long-tenured European absolute monarchs for 238 five-year age periods to determine the relationship between age and achievement in the politico-military domain. Results indicated that age negatively correlated with success in foreign wars and with treaty negotiation, and positively correlated with civil instability at…

  11. The European Research Elite: A Cross-National Study of Highly Productive Academics in 11 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on a rare scholarly theme of highly productive academics, statistically confirming their pivotal role in knowledge production across 11 systems studied. The upper 10% of highly productive academics in 11 European countries studied (N = 17,211) provide on average almost half of all academic knowledge production. In contrast…

  12. European and National Qualifications Frameworks--A Challenge for Vocational Education and Training in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanf, Georg; Rein, Volker

    2008-01-01

    In the debate on the draft European Qualifications Framework and the possible development of a German Qualifications Framework (GQF) great interest is being shown in Germany in a qualifications framework that promises transparency and permeability and is based on competences. There has also been opposition on the basis of the fundamental…

  13. Evolving National Strategy Driving Nursing Informatics in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Honey, Michelle; Westbrooke, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    An update to the New Zealand Health Strategy identifying direction and priorities for health services is underway. Three specific areas have implications for nursing informatics and link to education and practice: best use of technology and information, fostering and spreading innovation and quality improvements, and building leaders and capability for the future. An emphasis on prevention and wellness means nursing needs to focus on health promotion and the role of consumers is changing with access to their on-line information a major focus. As the modes of delivery for services such as telehealth and telenursing changes, nurses are increasingly working independently and utilizing information and communication technologies to collaborate with the health team. New Zealand, and other countries, need strong nursing leadership to sustain the nursing voice in policy and planning and ensure nurses develop the required informatics skills. PMID:27332187

  14. A National Strategy for Promoting Physical Activity in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Mabry, Ruth; Owen, Neville; Eakin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of chronic disease in Oman is a public health challenge. Available evidence in Oman on physical inactivity, the fourth leading risk factor for chronic disease, calls for urgent action to reduce physical inactivity as part of a key strategy to address chronic disease in Oman. The public health implications of this evidence for Oman are considered in light of recommendations outlined in the Toronto Charter for Physical Activity. The charter provides a systematic approach of physical activity and outlines an action plan that could be adapted to the Omani context. Urgent intersectoral action focusing on a shared goal and a more deliberate public health response addressing physical inactivity is required. Further research is needed on the determinants of physical inactivity and culturally appropriate interventions in order to guide future public health actions. PMID:24790738

  15. Payload operations management of a planned European SL-Mission employing establishments of ESA and national agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joensson, Rolf; Mueller, Karl L.

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab (SL)-missions with Payload Operations (P/L OPS) from Europe involve numerous space agencies, various ground infrastructure systems and national user organizations. An effective management structure must bring together different entities, facilities and people, but at the same time keep interfaces, costs and schedule under strict control. This paper outlines the management concept for P/L OPS of a planned European SL-mission. The proposal draws on the relevant experience in Europe, which was acquired via the ESA/NASA mission SL-1, by the execution of two German SL-missions and by the involvement in, or the support of, several NASA-missions.

  16. National Prehospital Evidence-Based Guidelines Strategy: A Summary for EMS Stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gill, Christian; Gaither, Joshua B; Bigham, Blair L; Myers, J Brent; Kupas, Douglas F; Spaite, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    Multiple national organizations have recommended and supported a national investment to increase the scientific evidence available to guide patient care delivered by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and incorporate that evidence directly into EMS systems. Ongoing efforts seek to develop, implement, and evaluate prehospital evidence-based guidelines (EBGs) using the National Model Process created by a multidisciplinary panel of experts convened by the Federal Interagency Committee on EMS (FICEMS) and the National EMS Advisory Council (NEMSAC). Yet, these and other EBG efforts have occurred in relative isolation, with limited direct collaboration between national projects, and have experienced challenges in implementation of individual guidelines. There is a need to develop sustainable relationships among stakeholders that facilitate a common vision that facilitates EBG efforts. Herein, we summarize a National Strategy on EBGs developed by the National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP) with involvement of 57 stakeholder organizations, and with the financial support of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the EMS for Children program. The Strategy proposes seven action items that support collaborative efforts in advancing prehospital EBGs. The first proposed action is creation of a Prehospital Guidelines Consortium (PGC) representing national medical and EMS organizations that have an interest in prehospital EBGs and their benefits to patient outcomes. Other action items include promoting research that supports creation and evaluates the impact of EBGs, promoting the development of new EBGs through improved stakeholder collaboration, and improving education on evidence-based medicine for all prehospital providers. The Strategy intends to facilitate implementation of EBGs by improving guideline dissemination and incorporation into protocols, and seeks to establish standardized evaluation methods for prehospital EBGs. Finally, the Strategy

  17. Multidisciplinary strategies to improve treatment outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Massimo; Raoul, Jean-Luc; Lencioni, Riccardo; Galle, Peter R; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bañares, Rafael; Seehofer, Daniel; Neuhaus, Peter; Johnson, Philip

    2013-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex disease with a poor prognosis. Incidence and mortality rates are increasing in many geographical regions, indicating a need for better management strategies. Among several risk factors for HCC, the most common are cirrhosis because of chronic hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus infection and alcohol consumption, obesity, and diabetes. In some patients, combined risk factors present additional challenges to the prevention and treatment of HCC. Screening and surveillance of high-risk populations varies widely by geographic regions, and access to optimal surveillance is critical for early diagnosis. The treatment choice for HCC depends on the cancer stage, patient performance status, and liver function and requires a multidisciplinary approach and close cooperation among specialists for the best patient outcomes. Despite advances in surgical treatments and locoregional therapies, recurrence and liver failure remain significant challenges. The pathogenesis of HCC is a multistep and complex process, wherein angiogenesis plays an important role. The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is the only approved targeted agent for advanced HCC, although promising results have been obtained with other targeted agents and combinations, and the results of ongoing trials are eagerly awaited. Clinical trials with rigorous study designs, including molecular classification and validation of new molecular biomarkers, are required to improve the personalized treatment of HCC. This article provides an overview of HCC and was developed through a review of relevant literature, clinical trial data, and updated clinical guidelines. PMID:23628963

  18. Strategies for Obtaining Obsidian in Pre-European Contact Era New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Mark D.; Carpenter, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological evidence of people's choices regarding how they supply themselves with obsidian through direct access and different types of exchanges gives us insight in to mobility, social networks, and property rights in the distant past. Here we use collections of obsidian artefacts that date to a period of endemic warfare among Maori during New Zealand's Late Period (1500–1769 A.D.) to determine what strategies people engaged in to obtain obsidian, namely (1) collecting raw material directly from a natural source, (2) informal trade and exchange, and (3) formal trade and exchange. These deposits represent a good cross-section of Late Period archaeology, including primary working of raw material at a natural source (Helena Bay), undefended sites where people discarded rubbish and worked obsidian (Bream Head), and a heavily fortified site (Mt. Wellington). We find that most of the obsidian described here was likely obtained directly from natural sources, especially those located on off-shore islands within about 60–70 km of sites. A smaller amount comes from blocks of material transported from an off-shore island a greater distance away, called Mayor Island, in a formal trade and exchange network. This study demonstrates the value of conducting tandem lithic technology and geochemical sourcing studies to understand how people create and maintain social networks during periods of warfare. PMID:24416213

  19. Strategies for obtaining obsidian in pre-European contact era New Zealand.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Mark D; Carpenter, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological evidence of people's choices regarding how they supply themselves with obsidian through direct access and different types of exchanges gives us insight in to mobility, social networks, and property rights in the distant past. Here we use collections of obsidian artefacts that date to a period of endemic warfare among Maori during New Zealand's Late Period (1500-1769 A.D.) to determine what strategies people engaged in to obtain obsidian, namely (1) collecting raw material directly from a natural source, (2) informal trade and exchange, and (3) formal trade and exchange. These deposits represent a good cross-section of Late Period archaeology, including primary working of raw material at a natural source (Helena Bay), undefended sites where people discarded rubbish and worked obsidian (Bream Head), and a heavily fortified site (Mt. Wellington). We find that most of the obsidian described here was likely obtained directly from natural sources, especially those located on off-shore islands within about 60-70 km of sites. A smaller amount comes from blocks of material transported from an off-shore island a greater distance away, called Mayor Island, in a formal trade and exchange network. This study demonstrates the value of conducting tandem lithic technology and geochemical sourcing studies to understand how people create and maintain social networks during periods of warfare. PMID:24416213

  20. Implementation of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    This report documents implementation strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. This report details some of the efforts that have been implemented to leverage public and private resources, as well as implementation strategies to further leverage public and private resources.

  1. The LANDFIRE Refresh strategy: updating the national dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Kurtis J.; Connot, Joel A.; Peterson, Birgit; Martin, Charley

    2013-01-01

    The LANDFIRE Program provides comprehensive vegetation and fuel datasets for the entire United States. As with many large-scale ecological datasets, vegetation and landscape conditions must be updated periodically to account for disturbances, growth, and natural succession. The LANDFIRE Refresh effort was the first attempt to consistently update these products nationwide. It incorporated a combination of specific systematic improvements to the original LANDFIRE National data, remote sensing based disturbance detection methods, field collected disturbance information, vegetation growth and succession modeling, and vegetation transition processes. This resulted in the creation of two complete datasets for all 50 states: LANDFIRE Refresh 2001, which includes the systematic improvements, and LANDFIRE Refresh 2008, which includes the disturbance and succession updates to the vegetation and fuel data. The new datasets are comparable for studying landscape changes in vegetation type and structure over a decadal period, and provide the most recent characterization of fuel conditions across the country. The applicability of the new layers is discussed and the effects of using the new fuel datasets are demonstrated through a fire behavior modeling exercise using the 2011 Wallow Fire in eastern Arizona as an example.

  2. Engagement and disarmament: A US National Security Strategy for biological weapons of mass destruction. Strategy research project

    SciTech Connect

    Moilanen, J.H.; McIntyre, A.J.; Johnson, D.V.

    1995-04-18

    The specter of biological weapons -- one of the three weapons of mass destruction (WMD) -- is an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security of the United States. Since the U.S. unilaterally renounced biological warfare in 1969, biotechnology advances, aggressive nation-states, and terrorism have complicated a precarious balance of world and regional stability. U.S. shortfalls in biological warfare preparedness during the Persian Gulf War may convince potential adversaries that the U.S. is incapable of protecting its vital interests from biological assault. This paper examines the menace of biological weapons and global challenges to nonproliferation and counterproliferation. Analysis concludes that the United States can dissuade, deter, and defend against biological warfare and terrorism with an integrated national security strategy for Biological Weapons Engagement and Disarmament.

  3. The Nationalities Question-from Versailles to the Present Day. European Teachers' Seminar (Esneux, Belgium, April 18-19, 1991). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delrot, Jacqueline

    This document is the report of a seminar convened for European teachers on the subject of the nationalities question. The conference was held in the wake of drastic changes that came with the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe. Participants focused on the nationality and border issues that arose from the treaties that ended World War I. The…

  4. Cultural Dimensions of Digital Library Development, Part I: Theory and Methodological Framework for a Comparative Study of the Cultures of Innovation in Five European National Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalbello, Marija

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the influence of culture on digital libraries of the first wave. The local cultures of innovation of five European national libraries (Biblioteca nacional de Portugal, Bibliotheque nationale de France, Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the National Library of Scotland, and the British Library) are reconstructed in case histories from…

  5. Parks and People. A European Conference for Naturparke Parcs Naturels/National Parks (U.K.) and Equivalent Reserves (Losehill Hall, Castleton, England, September 25-29, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youel, Alex J.

    Presented are the proceedings of the European Conference for National Parks and Equivalent Reserves held at the Peak National Park Study Centre, Castleton, England in 1978. Thirty-nine representatives from 10 countries focused on the relationship between the parks and the people connected with them (the local people, the visitors, and the park…

  6. Implementing History and Philosophy in Science Teaching: Strategies, Methods, Results and Experiences from the European HIPST Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höttecke, Dietmar; Henke, Andreas; Riess, Falk

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a rationale for utilizing HPS to teach physics and the NoS developed in the course of a project funded by the European Union. A core feature of this approach is formed by the development of historical case studies for the use in lessons. Furthermore, the learners' perspectives are explicitly taken into account. Teaching methods comprise student-centered activities as creative writing for understanding science and scientists and role-play activities. Emphasis is laid on experimental work which is performed with the help of true-to-the-original replications of historical apparatus, especially built for this purpose. A new characteristic for NoS learning is introduced, namely the reflection corner giving the opportunity to explicitly discussing the relationship between history, knowledge acquisition, and the application of scientific findings. In order to make use of the special skills, creative potentials and experiences of teachers a symbiotic strategy for the development and evaluation process of the teaching material was adopted where a close and long-standing cooperation between science teachers and science educators could be established. On this basis the German partners were able to complete numerous case studies from the fields of mechanics, electricity, magnetism and heat.

  7. Implementing History and Philosophy in Science Teaching: Strategies, Methods, Results and Experiences from the European HIPST Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höttecke, Dietmar; Henke, Andreas; Riess, Falk

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a rationale for utilizing HPS to teach physics and the NoS developed in the course of a project funded by the European Union. A core feature of this approach is formed by the development of historical case studies for the use in lessons. Furthermore, the learners' perspectives are explicitly taken into account. Teaching methods comprise student-centered activities as creative writing for understanding science and scientists and role-play activities. Emphasis is laid on experimental work which is performed with the help of true-to-the-original replications of historical apparatus, especially built for this purpose. A new characteristic for NoS learning is introduced, namely the reflection corner giving the opportunity to explicitly discussing the relationship between history, knowledge acquisition, and the application of scientific findings. In order to make use of the special skills, creative potentials and experiences of teachers a symbiotic strategy for the development and evaluation process of the teaching material was adopted where a close and long-standing cooperation between science teachers and science educators could be established. On this basis the German partners were able to complete numerous case studies from the fields of mechanics, electricity, magnetism and heat.

  8. Microbial assemblages for environmental quality assessment: Knowledge, gaps and usefulness in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Gabriella; La Ferla, Rosabruna; Azzaro, Maurizio; Zoppini, Annamaria; Marino, Giovanna; Petochi, Tommaso; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Leonardi, Marcella; Zaccone, Renata; Fonda Umani, Serena; Caroppo, Carmela; Monticelli, Luis; Azzaro, Filippo; Decembrini, Franco; Maimone, Giovanna; Cavallo, Rosa Anna; Stabili, Loredana; Hristova Todorova, Nadezhda; K Karamfilov, Ventzislav; Rastelli, Eugenio; Cappello, Simone; Acquaviva, Maria Immacolata; Narracci, Marcella; De Angelis, Roberta; Del Negro, Paola; Latini, Mario; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56/EC (MSFD) defines a framework for Community actions in the field of marine environmental policy in order to achieve and/or maintain the Good Environmental Status (GES) of the European seas by 2020. Microbial assemblages (from viruses to microbial-sized metazoa) provide a major contribution to global biodiversity and play a crucial role in the functioning of marine ecosystems, but are largely ignored by the MSFD. Prokaryotes are only seen as "microbial pathogens," without defining their role in GES indicators. However, structural or functional prokaryotic variables (abundance, biodiversity and metabolism) can be easily incorporated into several MSFD descriptors (i.e. D1. biodiversity, D4. food webs, D5. eutrophication, D8. contaminants and D9. contaminants in seafood) with beneficial effects. This review provides a critical analysis of the current MSFD descriptors and illustrates the reliability and advantages of the potential incorporation of some prokaryotic variables within the set of indicators of marine environmental quality. Following a cost/benefit analysis against scientific and economic criteria, we conclude that marine microbial components, and particularly prokaryotes, are highly effective for detecting the effects of anthropogenic pressures on marine environments and for assessing changes in the environmental health status. Thus, we recommend the inclusion of these components in future implementations of the MSFD. PMID:26585708

  9. 76 FR 50719 - Models for a Governance Structure for the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Models for a Governance Structure for the National Strategy... extending the deadline for submitting comments regarding the governance structure for the National Strategy....gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ross J. Micheals via e-mail at ross.micheals@nist.gov...

  10. The Community College and the Human Resources Development Council: Toward a National Training Strategy for the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskow, Seymour

    The key to economic renewal in the United States is a national human resources development strategy in which community colleges assume the national training role. This national strategy must recognize changes in the American economy and workforce, such as a more educated labor force, the demographics of developing countries, the increased…

  11. Oral health and welfare state regimes: a cross-national analysis of European countries

    PubMed Central

    Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol C; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the potential relationship between welfare state regimes and oral health. This study assessed the oral health of adults in a range of European countries clustered by welfare regimes according to Ferrera's typology and the complementary Eastern type. We analysed data from Eurobarometer wave 72.3, a cross-sectional survey of 31 European countries carried out in 2009. We evaluated three self-reported oral health outcomes: edentulousness, no functional dentition (<20 natural teeth), and oral impacts on daily living. Age-standardized prevalence rates were estimated for each country and for each welfare state regime. The Scandinavian regime showed lower prevalence rates for all outcomes. For edentulousness and no functional dentition, there were higher prevalence rates in the Eastern regime but no significant differences between Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, and Southern regimes. The Southern regime presented a higher prevalence of oral impacts on daily living. Results by country indicated that Sweden had the lowest prevalences for edentulousness and no functional dentition, and Denmark had the lowest prevalence for oral impacts. The results suggest that Scandinavian welfare states, with more redistributive and universal welfare policies, had better population oral health. Future research should provide further insights about the potential mechanisms through which welfare-state regimes would influence oral health. PMID:23659239

  12. Barriers to access to opioid medicines: a review of national legislation and regulations of 11 central and eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Lisman, John A; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Jünger, Saskia; Scholten, Willem; Radbruch, Lukas; Payne, Sheila; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B

    2016-01-01

    Control measures designed to prevent the misuse of opioid medicines can often unintentionally restrict legitimate medical use, leaving patients with cancer in pain. This study aimed to develop and validate an assessment instrument based on WHO policy guidelines to systematically identify legal and regulatory barriers to opioid access in 11 European countries (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Turkey) as part of the Access to Opioid Medication in Europe project. Relevant legislation and regulations were independently assessed by three reviewers and potential barriers were identified within nine categories including prescribing, penalties, and others. Potential barriers were identified in all countries, ranging from 22 potential barriers (Cyprus) to 128 potential barriers (Lithuania). The total number of barriers in a single category varied from one (Slovenia, usage category) to 49 (Greece, prescribing category). Differences, such as prescription validity, varied within one category, ranging from 5 days (Hungary) to 13 weeks (Cyprus). The results of this Review should give rise to a national review and revision of provisions that impede access to opioids, disproportionate to their (intended) benefit in preventing misuse, in these 11 European countries. PMID:26758755

  13. Investigating Learning English Strategies and English Needs of Undergraduate Students at the National University of Laos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souriyavongsa, Thongma; Abidin, Mohamad Jafre Zainol; Sam, Rany; Mei, Leong Lai; Aloysius, Ithayaraj Britto

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate learning English strategies and the requirement of English needs of the undergraduate students at the National University of Laos (NUOL). The study employed a survey design which involved in administering questionnaires of rating scales, and adapting the items from (Barakat, 2010; Chengbin, 2008; Kathleen A, 2010;…

  14. Building a National Strategy for Digital Preservation: Issues in Digital Media Archiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    The United States Congress in December 2000 appropriated funds to the Library of Congress (LC) to spearhead an effort to develop a national strategy for the preservation of digital information. LC staff scheduled a series of conversations with representatives from the technology, business, entertainment, academic, legal, archival, and library…

  15. Strategic Leadership for Large-Scale Reform: The Case of England's National Literacy and Numeracy Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Jantzi, Doris; Earl, Lorna; Watson, Nancy; Levin, Benjamin; Fullan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Both 'strategic' and 'distributed' forms of leadership are considered promising responses to the demands placed on school systems by large-scale reform initiatives. Using observation, interview and survey data collected as part of a larger evaluation of England's National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies, this study inquired about sources of…

  16. A Critical Review of the National Skills Development Strategy in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraak, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an update on the Special Edition of the "Journal of Vocational Education and Training" 57, no. 3, 2005, which focused on the launch of the National Skills Development Strategy (NSDS) in South Africa. The analysis here evaluates the impact of the first phase of the NSDS, which ran between 1 April 2001 and 31 March 2005. The…

  17. Adult Learning in the Queer Nation: A Foucauldian Analysis of Educational Strategies for Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Wayland

    2009-01-01

    Adult education for social change can occur within social movements, and the fight for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered and Queer (LGBTQ) rights has included educational strategies designed to challenge heterosexist and homophobic systems of power. This article explores how the Queer Nation movement of the early 1990s deployed a Foucauldian…

  18. 78 FR 19514 - National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... May 24, 2011, notice of intent in the Federal Register (76 FR 30193). After this initial input was... 20, 2012 (77 FR 2996), for a 45-day public comment period. Comments received during the public... Fish and Wildlife Service National Fish, Wildlife, and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy AGENCY:...

  19. Roots and Research. Key Stage 3 English. Key Stage 3: National Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Colin

    In 1998, Roger Beard of the University of Leeds wrote an account of the research underpinning the emerging National Literacy Strategy (NLS). Since Beard published his review, there have been developments both in terms of age groups covered and within the field of literacy research. This document attempts a fresh review of the relationship between…

  20. Not the Whole Story of the National Literacy Strategy: A Response to Dominic Wyse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Roger

    2003-01-01

    There is evidence that the National Literacy Strategy (NLS) has led to a sustained increase in literacy attainment, especially in reading, although recent international comparisons also suggest some additional issues regarding pupil performance in England. The relative success of the NLS may at least partly lie in the policy application of several…

  1. The National Literacy Strategy and Setting: An Investigation in One School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Kate

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the policy of setting that is commonly being seen as an organizational tool for effective delivery of the National Literacy Strategy (NLS). It is suggested that teachers are finding the increased amount of whole-class teaching to a diverse range of abilities, as prescribed by the NLS, problematic. This case-study…

  2. Pedagogical Dilemmas in the National Literacy Strategy: Primary Teachers' Perceptions, Reflections and Classroom Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Eve; Hargreaves, Linda; Hislam, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Argues that the British National Literacy Strategy (NLS) offers teachers contradictory pedagogical advice on interactive teaching. Uses case study evidence and observations of classroom interaction to show that, while teachers vary in sensitivity to dilemmas posed by NLS demands, their Literacy Hour discourse is quantitatively and qualitatively…

  3. "Nice Things Get Said": Corpus Evidence and the National Literacy Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey, Alison; Thompson, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The article compares evidence from an electronic corpus of texts written for a child audience with specifications in the National Literacy Strategy. The concepts and terminology associated with corpus linguistics are introduced and explained, and the research study from which the findings derive is summarised. Results of the analysis are presented…

  4. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (Action Plan B3: Area 5).

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G; Hellings, P; Bel, E H; Bewick, M; Chavannes, N H; de Sousa, J Correia; Cruz, A A; Haahtela, T; Joos, G; Khaltaev, N; Malva, J; Muraro, A; Nogues, M; Palkonen, S; Pedersen, S; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Strandberg, T; Valiulis, A; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Bedbrook, A; Aberer, W; Adachi, M; Agusti, A; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Ankri, J; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ansotegui, I J; Anto, J M; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Bai, C; Baiardini, I; Bachert, C; Baigenzhin, A K; Barbara, C; Bateman, E D; Beghé, B; Kheder, A Ben; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bergmann, K C; Bieber, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bjermer, L; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Boner, A L; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Bosnic-Anticevitch, S; Boulet, L P; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Braido, F; Briggs, A H; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M A; Calverley, P M; Camargos, P A M; Canonica, G W; Camuzat, T; Carlsen, K H; Carr, W; Carriazo, A; Casale, T; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Chatzi, L; Chen, Y Z; Chiron, R; Chkhartishvili, E; Chuchalin, A G; Chung, K F; Ciprandi, G; Cirule, I; Cox, L; Costa, D J; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Darsow, U; De Carlo, G; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; De Manuel Keenoy, E; Demoly, P; Denburg, J A; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dray, G; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Dykewicz, M S; El-Gamal, Y; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L M; Fletcher, M; Fiocchi, A; Fink Wagner, A; Fonseca, J; Fokkens, W J; Forastiere, F; Frith, P; Gaga, M; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gemicioğlu, B; Gereda, J E; González Diaz, S; Gotua, M; Grisle, I; Grouse, L; Gutter, Z; Guzmán, M A; Heaney, L G; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Henderson, D; Hendry, A; Heinrich, J; Heve, D; Horak, F; Hourihane, J O' B; Howarth, P; Humbert, M; Hyland, M E; Illario, M; Ivancevich, J C; Jardim, J R; Jares, E J; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Julge, K; Jung, K S; Just, J; Kaidashev, I; Kaitov, M R; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keil, T; Keith, P K; Klimek, L; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kolek, V; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lambrecht, B; Lau, S; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Laune, D; Le, L T T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Li, J; Lodrup Carlsen, K; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Magard, Y; Magnan, A; Mahboub, B; Mair, A; Majer, I; Makela, M J; Manning, P; Mara, S; Marshall, G D; Masjedi, M R; Matignon, P; Maurer, M; Mavale-Manuel, S; Melén, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Meltzer, E O; Menzies-Gow, A; Merk, H; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Mohammad, G M Y; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Naclerio, R; Neou, A; Neffen, H; Nekam, K; Niggemann, B; Ninot, G; Nyembue, T D; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Okamoto, Y; Okubo, K; Ouedraogo, S; Paggiaro, P; Pali-Schöll, I; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N; Papi, A; Park, H S; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pawankar, R; Pengelly, R; Pfaar, O; Picard, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Plavec, D; Poethig, D; Pohl, W; Popov, T A; Portejoie, F; Potter, P; Postma, D; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Raciborski, F; Radier Pontal, F; Repka-Ramirez, S; Reitamo, S; Rennard, S; Rodenas, F; Roberts, J; Roca, J; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Rolland, C; Roman Rodriguez, M; Romano, A; Rosado-Pinto, J; Rosario, N; Rosenwasser, L; Rottem, M; Ryan, D; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Simons, F E R; Sisul, J C; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Solé, D; Sooronbaev, T; Spranger, O; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Sunyer, J; Thijs, C; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valia, E; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Vichyanond, P; Viegi, G; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagenmann, M; Wallaert, B; Walker, S; Wang, D Y; Wahn, U; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Williams, S; Wright, J; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yusuf, O M; Zaidi, A; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zhang, L; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Mercier, J

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS integrated care pathways (ICPs), (2) the joint initiative between the Reference site MACVIA-LR (Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif) and ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma), (3) Commitments for Action to the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing and the AIRWAYS ICPs network. It is deployed in collaboration with the World Health Organization Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD). The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing has proposed a 5-step framework for developing an individual scaling up strategy: (1) what to scale up: (1-a) databases of good practices, (1-b) assessment of viability of the scaling up of good practices, (1-c) classification of good practices for local replication and (2) how to scale up: (2-a) facilitating partnerships for scaling up, (2-b) implementation of key success factors and lessons learnt, including emerging technologies for individualised and predictive medicine. This strategy has already been applied to the chronic respiratory disease action plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. PMID:27478588

  5. EAC and the Development of National and European Gateways to Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottosson, Per-Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    In the development of gateways to archives there are two different approaches, one focusing on the descriptions of the material and the other on the creators. Search and retrieval with precision and quality require controlled access points and name authority control. National registries of private archives have a long tradition in implementing the…

  6. Risk perception, experience, and objective risk: a cross-national study with European emergency survivors.

    PubMed

    Knuth, Daniela; Kehl, Doris; Hulse, Lynn; Schmidt, Silke

    2014-07-01

    Understanding public risk perceptions and their underlying processes is important in order to learn more about the way people interpret and respond to hazardous emergency events. Direct experience with an involuntary hazard has been found to heighten the perceived risk of experiencing the same hazard and its consequences in the future, but it remains unclear if cross-over effects are possible (i.e., experience with one hazard influencing perceived risk for other hazards also). Furthermore, the impact of objective risk and country of residence on perceived risk is not well understood. As part of the BeSeCu (Behavior, Security, and Culture) Project, a sample of 1,045 survivors of emergencies from seven European countries (i.e., Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, and Italy) was drawn. Results revealed heightened perceived risk for emergency events (i.e., domestic and public fires, earthquakes, floods, and terrorist attacks) when the event had been experienced previously plus some evidence of cross-over effects, although these effects were not so strong. The largest country differences in perceived risk were observed for earthquakes, but this effect was significantly reduced by taking into account the objective earthquake risk. For fires, floods, terrorist attacks, and traffic accidents, only small country differences in perceived risk were found. Further studies including a larger number of countries are welcomed. PMID:24372277

  7. European cardiovascular magnetic resonance (EuroCMR) registry – multi national results from 57 centers in 15 countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The EuroCMR registry sought to evaluate indications, image quality, safety and impact on patient management of clinical routine CMR in a multi-national European setting. Furthermore, interim analysis of the specific protocols should underscore the prognostic potential of CMR. Methods Multi-center registry with consecutive enrolment of patients in 57 centers in 15 countries. More than 27000 consecutive patients were enrolled. Results The most important indications were risk stratification in suspected CAD/Ischemia (34.2%), workup of myocarditis/cardiomyopathies (32.2%), as well as assessment of viability (14.6%). Image quality was diagnostic in more than 98% of cases. Severe complications occurred in 0.026%, always associated with stress testing. No patient died during or due to CMR. In 61.8% CMR findings impacted on patient management. Importantly, in nearly 8.7% the final diagnosis based on CMR was different to the diagnosis before CMR, leading to a complete change in management. Interim analysis of suspected CAD and risk stratification in HCM specific protocols revealed a low rate of adverse events for suspected CAD patients with normal stress CMR (1.0% per year), and for HCM patients without LGE (2.7% per year). Conclusion The most important indications in Europe are risk stratification in suspected CAD/Ischemia, work-up of myocarditis and cardiomyopathies, as well as assessment of viability. CMR imaging is a safe procedure, has diagnostic image quality in more than 98% of cases, and its results have strong impact on patient management. Interim analyses of the specific protocols underscore the prognostic value of clinical routine CMR in CAD and HCM. Condensed abstract The EuroCMR registry sought to evaluate indications, image quality, safety and impact on patient management of clinical routine CMR in a multi-national European setting in a large number of cases (n > 27000). Based on our data CMR is frequently performed in European

  8. A Better Prescription: Advice for a National Strategy on Pharmaceutical Policy in Canada.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Gagnon, Marc-André; Mintzes, Barbara; Lexchin, Joel

    2016-08-01

    Canada needs a national strategy to fulfill its obligation to ensure universal access to necessary healthcare, including prescription drugs. A 2004 attempt at a national strategy for pharmaceutical policy failed because it lacked clear vision, logical planning and commitment from federal and provincial governments. The result of uncoordinated pharmaceutical policies in Canada has been more than a decade of poor system performance. In this essay, we present a framework for a renewed national strategy for pharmaceutical policy. Building on published research and international frameworks, we propose that pharmaceutical policies of federal, provincial and territorial governments be coordinated around a core health-focused goal. We strongly suggest policy actions be taken on four core objectives that are necessary to support the overarching health goal. If implemented, the proposed strategy would offer clear benefits to all Canadians who use medicines, federal and provincial governments and to the economy as a whole. We therefore argue that political leadership is now needed to articulate and implement such a plan on behalf of Canadians. PMID:27585023

  9. Chicago partners in the American dream: A local effort within the national homeownership strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, E.; Cavallo, J.; Peterson, N.; Nelson, M.

    1997-03-01

    President Clinton and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) have set a goal of increasing homeownership in America. Currently the rate of homeownership is approximately 64 percent of the population. The goal is to raise that rate to 67.5 percent by the year 2000, a higher rate than ever recorded in U.S. history. Achieving the goal will require about 8 million families to acquire homes of their own. HUD has developed a plan for reaching the national homeownership goal. The plan is known as the National Homeownership Strategy. It was formulated with input from more than 50 public- and private-sector groups and consists of 100 objectives designed to make homeownership easier and affordable for American families. Among the objectives are expanded use of energy conservation and new construction technologies. The groups participating in the formulation of the National Homeownership Strategy formed a collaboration that was named the National Partners in Homeownership. Chicago Partners in the American Dream is a collaboration of Chicago organizations implementing the National Homeownership Strategy on a local level. It has made achieving the objectives of the Strategy the foundation for its local partnership. The Chicago Partners in the American Dream is a grassroots collaboration, combining the experience, resources, and expertise of a variety of local organizations. The fundamental goal of the Chicago Partners in the American Dream is to create 5,000 homeownership opportunities in nine to twelve focused areas within Empowerment Zone/Enterprise Communities in the Chicagoland market by the end of the year 2000.

  10. Cross-National User Priorities for Housing Provision and Accessibility — Findings from the European innovAge Project

    PubMed Central

    Haak, Maria; Slaug, Björn; Oswald, Frank; Schmidt, Steven M.; Rimland, Joseph M.; Tomsone, Signe; Ladö, Thomas; Svensson, Torbjörn; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    To develop an innovative information and communication technology (ICT) tool intended to help older people in their search for optimal housing solutions, a first step in the development process is to gain knowledge from the intended users. Thus the aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge about needs and expectations about housing options as expressed and prioritized by older people, people ageing with disabilities and professionals. A participatory design focus was adopted; 26 people with a range of functional limitations representing the user perspective and 15 professionals with a variety of backgrounds, participated in research circles that were conducted in four European countries. An additional 20 experts were invited as guests to the different research circle meetings. Three themes illustrating cross-national user priorities for housing provision and accessibility were identified: “Information barrier: accessible housing”, “Information barrier: housing adaptation benefits”, and “Cost barrier: housing adaptations”. In conclusion, early user involvement and identification of cross-national differences in priorities and housing options will strengthen the development of a user-friendly ICT tool that can empower older people and people with disabilities to be more active consumers regarding housing provision. PMID:25739003

  11. Cross-national user priorities for housing provision and accessibility--findings from the European innovAge Project.

    PubMed

    Haak, Maria; Slaug, Björn; Oswald, Frank; Schmidt, Steven M; Rimland, Joseph M; Tomsone, Signe; Ladö, Thomas; Svensson, Torbjörn; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-03-01

    To develop an innovative information and communication technology (ICT) tool intended to help older people in their search for optimal housing solutions, a first step in the development process is to gain knowledge from the intended users. Thus the aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge about needs and expectations about housing options as expressed and prioritized by older people, people ageing with disabilities and professionals. A participatory design focus was adopted; 26 people with a range of functional limitations representing the user perspective and 15 professionals with a variety of backgrounds, participated in research circles that were conducted in four European countries. An additional 20 experts were invited as guests to the different research circle meetings. Three themes illustrating cross-national user priorities for housing provision and accessibility were identified: "Information barrier: accessible housing", "Information barrier: housing adaptation benefits", and "Cost barrier: housing adaptations". In conclusion, early user involvement and identification of cross-national differences in priorities and housing options will strengthen the development of a user-friendly ICT tool that can empower older people and people with disabilities to be more active consumers regarding housing provision. PMID:25739003

  12. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  13. Identification of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    This report documents the identification of strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP).There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. The leveraging of dollars serves many purposes. These include increasing the amount of training that can be delivered and therefore increasing the number of people reached, increasing the number and quality of public/private partnerships, and increasing the number of businesses that are involved in the training of their future workforce.

  14. Creating the laboratory`s future; A strategy for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    ``Creating The Laboratory`s Future`` describes Livermore`s roles and responsibilities as a Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory and sets the foundation for decisions about the Laboratory`s programs and operations. It summarizes Livermore`s near-term strategy, which builds on recent Lab achievements and world events affecting their future. It also discusses their programmatic and operational emphases and highlights program areas that the authors believe can grow through application of Lab science and technology. Creating the Laboratory`s Future reflects their very strong focus on national security, important changes in the character of their national security work, major efforts are under way to overhaul their administrative and operational systems, and the continuing challenge of achieving national consensus on the role of the government in energy, environment, and the biosciences.

  15. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No. 6.1: Recommended Guidelines on National Registration Schemes for Medical Physicists.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Stelios; Isidoro, Jorge; Pesznyak, Csilla; Bumbure, Lada; Cremers, Florian; Schmidt, Werner F O

    2016-01-01

    This EFOMP Policy Statement is an update of Policy Statement No. 6 first published in 1994. The present version takes into account the European Union Parliament and Council Directive 2013/55/EU that amends Directive 2005/36/EU on the recognition of professional qualifications and the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM laying down the basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation. The European Commission Radiation Protection Report No. 174, Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert and the EFOMP Policy Statement No. 12.1, Recommendations on Medical Physics Education and Training in Europe 2014, are also taken into consideration. The EFOMP National Member Organisations are encouraged to update their Medical Physics registration schemes where these exist or to develop registration schemes taking into account the present version of this EFOMP Policy Statement (Policy Statement No. 6.1"Recommended Guidelines on National Registration Schemes for Medical Physicists"). PMID:26851162

  16. Using remote sensing as a support to the implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive in SW Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristina, Sónia; Icely, John; Costa Goela, Priscila; Angel DelValls, Tomás; Newton, Alice

    2015-10-01

    The exclusive economic zones (EEZ) of coastal countries are coming under increasing pressure from various economic sectors such as fishing, aquaculture, shipping and energy production. In Europe, there is a policy to expand the maritime economic sector without damaging the environment by ensuring that these activities comply with legally binding Directives, such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). However, monitoring an extensive maritime area is a logistical and economic challenge. Remote sensing is considered one of the most cost effective methods for providing the spatial and temporal environmental data that will be necessary for the effective implementation of the MSFD. However, there is still a concern about the uncertainties associated with remote sensed products. This study has tested how a specific satellite product can contribute to the monitoring of a MSFD Descriptor for "good environmental status" (GES). The results show that the quality of the remote sensing product Algal Pigment Index 1 (API 1) from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) sensor of the European Space Agency for ocean colour products can be effectively validated with in situ data from three stations off the SW Iberian Peninsula. The validation results show good agreement between the MERIS API 1 and the in situ data for the two more offshore stations, with a higher coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.79, and with lower uncertainties for the average relative percentage difference (RPD) of 24.6% and 27.9% and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.40 and 0.38 for Stations B and C, respectively. Near to the coast, Station A has the lowest R2 of 0.63 and the highest uncertainties with an RPD of 112.9% and a RMSE of 1.00. It is also the station most affected by adjacency effects from the land: when the Improved Contrast between Ocean and Land processor (ICOL) is applied the R2 increases to 0.77 and there is a 30% reduction in the uncertainties estimated by RPD. The

  17. Trans-Nationalization of Educational Policy Making: From European Innovation Projects in Adult Education to an Emerging European Space for Lifelong Learning: What Model for the European Vocational Education and Training Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnafous, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    This article is drawn from broader qualitative research on innovation in the field of professional adult training within the framework of European pilot projects such as the LEONARDO projects. This research aims at contributing to a general understanding of the phenomenon of innovation, in the context of European calls for projects, as an…

  18. Marine legislation--the ultimate 'horrendogram': international law, European directives & national implementation.

    PubMed

    Boyes, Suzanne J; Elliott, Michael

    2014-09-15

    The EU is a pre-eminent player in sustainable development, adopting more than 200 pieces of legislation that have direct repercussions for marine environmental policy and management. Over five decades, measures have aimed to protect the marine environment by tackling the impact of human activities, but maritime affairs have been dealt with by separate sectoral policies without fully integrating all relevant sectors. Such compartmentalisation has resulted in a patchwork of EU legislation and resultant national legislation leading to a piecemeal approach to marine protection. These are superimposed on international obligations emanating from UN and other bodies and are presented here as complex 'horrendograms' showing the complexity across vertical governance. These horrendograms have surprised marine experts despite them acknowledging the many uses and users of the marine environment. Encouragingly since 2000, the evolution in EU policy has progressed to more holistic directives and here we give an overview of this change. PMID:25088540

  19. The Labour Market Situation of EU and of Third Country Nationals in the European Union. Labour Market Research Topics No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiehl, Melanie; Werner, Heinz

    The nonnational population and labor force in the 15 European Union (EU) member states were characterized from the standpoints of size and structure, and the labor market conditions faced by nationals and nonnationals were compared. In 1995, the nonnational labor force in the EU totaled approximately 7.8 million; nearly 3 million were citizens of…

  20. The Stranger within: Luxembourg's Early School System as a European Prototype of Nationally Legitimized International Blends (ca. 1794-1844)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyssen, Geert

    2013-01-01

    This comparative analysis of Luxembourg's early school (law) system reveals the extent to which European school systems reflect "national-cultural idiosyncrasies" apart from "structural isomorphism". It first examines the legal soil into which the Luxembourg school system was implanted. Legislative pendular swings,…

  1. Applying change management metaphors to a national e-Health strategy.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Chad; Scott, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Recent attempts at a collective understanding of how to develop an e-Health strategy have addressed the individual organisation, collection of organisations, and national levels. At the national level the World Health Organisation's National eHealth Strategy Toolkit serves as an exemplar that consolidates knowledge in this area, guides practical implementations, and identifies areas for future research. A key implication of this toolkit is the considerable number of organisational changes required to successfully apply their ideas in practice. This study looks critically at the confluence of change management and e-Health strategy using metaphors that underpin established models of change management. Several of Morgan's organisational metaphors are presented (highlighting varied beliefs and assumptions regarding how change is enacted, who is responsible for the change, and guiding principles for that change), and used to provide a framework. Attention is then directed to several prominent models of change management that exemplify one or more of these metaphors, and these theoretical insights are applied to evaluate the World Health Organisation's National eHealth Strategy Toolkit. The paper presents areas for consideration when using the WHO/ITU toolkit, and suggestions on how to improve its use in practice. The goal is to seek insight regarding the optimal sequence of steps needed to ensure successful implementation and integration of e-health into health systems using change management models. No single model, toolkit, or guideline will offer all the needed answers, but clarity around the underlying metaphors informing the change management models being used provides valuable insight so potentially challenging areas can be avoided or mitigated. PMID:25365672

  2. Strategies for International Cooperation in Support of Energy Development in Pacific Island Nations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.; Voss, P.; Warren, A.; Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been partnering with island communities around the world to address the technical, policy, social, and economic hurdles to deploying energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies (RETs) on small, islanded systems. The lessons learned from these partnerships are briefly summarized in this document with the goal of supporting the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the development of specific near-term and longer-term strategies for island RET deployment.

  3. United Nations/European Space Agency Workshops on Basic Space Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, H. J.; Ocampo, A.; Torres, S.; Wamsteker, W.

    1995-02-01

    In 1958, the United Nations (UN) formally recognized a new potential for international cooperation by establishing an ad hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). A year later the Committee became a permanent body, and by 1983 membership had expanded to 53 states, with more than half of the members coming from the developing world. In 1970, COPUOS established the UN Program on Space Applications in order to strengthen cooperation in space science and technology between non-industrialized and industrialized countries. In the last few years, the UN and its COPUOS have paid increasing attention to education and research in space science and technology, including basic space science. In 1991 the UN, in cooperation with ESA, initiated the organization of annual Workshops in Basic Space Science for developing countries. These Workshops are designed to be held in one of the following major regions: Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. Accordingly, Basic Space Science Workshops have already been held in India (1991), Costa Rica and Colombia (1992), and Nigeria (1993). The fourth Workshop was held from 27 June to 1 July 1994 at the Cairo University, in Egypt, for Western Asia.

  4. United Nations/European Space Agency Workshops on Basic Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haubold, H. J.; Ocampo, A.; Torres, S.; Wamsteker, W.

    1995-01-01

    In 1958, the United Nations (UN) formally recognized a new potential for international cooperation by establishing an ad hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). A year later the Committee became a permanent body, and by 1983 membership had expanded to 53 states, with more than half of the members coming from the developing world. In 1970, COPUOS established the UN Program on Space Applications in order to strengthen cooperation in space science and technology between non-industrialized and industrialized countries. In the last few years, the UN and its COPUOS have paid increasing attention to education and research in space science and technology, including basic space science. In 1991 the UN, in cooperation with ESA, initiated the organization of annual Workshops in Basic Space Science for developing countries. These Workshops are designed to be held in one of the following major regions: Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. Accordingly, Basic Space Science Workshops have already been held in India (1991), Costa Rica andColombia (1992), and Nigeria (1993). The fourth Workshop was held from 27 June to 1 July 1994 at the Cairo University, in Egypt, for Western Asia.

  5. Role and goals of the EUR-OCEANS Consortium - Bringing marine scientists priorities and strategies to the European research planning agenda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cury, Philippe; Baisnée, Pierre-François

    2010-05-01

    The EUR-OCEANS Consortium is the follow-up structure of the homonym European Network of Excellence (NoE; 2005-2008, FP6 contract number 511106). It is a scientific network, benefiting from and relying upon the institutional commitment of the 27 research performing organisations forming its core (paying) membership. It aims at the long-term harmonization of European research efforts related to ocean ecosystems undergoing anthropogenic and natural forcing. More specifically, its objectives are to facilitate and promote: (1) top-level scientific research on the impacts of anthropogenic and natural forcing on ocean ecosystems, fostering collaborations across the European Research Area; (2) the optimal use of any shared technical infrastructures and scientific facilities; and (3) activities to spread excellence, such as the training of scientific personnel and students, or knowledge dissemination towards the general public and socio-economic users. A particular focus is put during the first scientific coordination mandate on the building of scenarios for marine ecosystems under anthropogenic and natural forcing in the XXI Century, and on the improvement of the science-policy interface. Through calls for projects and networking activities, the Consortium seeks to favour the emergence of coordinated projects on key hot topics on one hand, and the crystallisation of scientific priorities and strategies that could serve as input to ERA-NETs, ESFRI, Joint Programming Initiatives and European Research Planning actors in general. While being an active standalone structure, the Consortium is also engaged in the Euromarine FP7 project (submitted) aiming at the definition of a common coordinating or integrating structure for the three follow-up entities of FP6 marine science NoEs (Marine Genomics Europe, MarBEF, EUR-OCEANS). The 2009-2011 strategy and activity plan of EUR-OCEANS will be presented and the involvement of EUR-OCEANS members in other key projects or programmes will

  6. The Swedish strategy and method for development of a national healthcare information architecture.

    PubMed

    Rosenälv, Jessica; Lundell, Karl-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    "We need a precise framework of regulations in order to maintain appropriate and structured health care documentation that ensures that the information maintains a sufficient level of quality to be used in treatment, in research and by the actual patient. The users shall be aided by clearly and uniformly defined terms and concepts, and there should be an information structure that clarifies what to document and how to make the information more useful. Most of all, we need to standardize the information, not just the technical systems." (eHälsa - nytta och näring, Riksdag report 2011/12:RFR5, p. 37). In 2010, the Swedish Government adopted the National e-Health - the national strategy for accessible and secure information in healthcare. The strategy is a revision and extension of the previous strategy from 2006, which was used as input for the most recent efforts to develop a national information structure utilizing business-oriented generic models. A national decision on healthcare informatics standards was made by the Swedish County Councils, which decided to follow and use EN/ISO 13606 as a standard for the development of a universally applicable information structure, including archetypes and templates. The overall aim of the Swedish strategy for development of National Healthcare Information Architecture is to achieve high level semantic interoperability for clinical content and clinical contexts. High level semantic interoperability requires consistently structured clinical data and other types of data with coherent traceability to be mapped to reference clinical models. Archetypes that are formal definitions of the clinical and demographic concepts and some administrative data were developed. Each archetype describes the information structure and content of overarching core clinical concepts. Information that is defined in archetypes should be used for different purposes. Generic clinical process model was made concrete and analyzed. For each decision

  7. Experiences and Perspectives of African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American Psychology Graduate Students: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Maton, Kenneth I.; Wimms, Harriette E.; Grant, Sheila K.; Wittig, Michele A.; Rogers, Margaret R.; Vasquez, Melba J. T.

    2013-01-01

    A national, web-based survey of 1,222 African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color differed from European-American students in perceptions of fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology, and in aspects of the graduate school experience perceived as linked to ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed. PMID:21341899

  8. Malocclusion prevalence and orthodontic treatment need in central Anatolian adolescents compared to European and other nations' adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Fundagul; Gelgor, Ibrahim Erhan; Celebi, Ahmet Arif

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in a large sample of Central Anatolian adolescents and compare them with European-other nations' adolescents. Methods: The sample included 1125 boys and 1204 girls aged between 12 and 16 years with no previous orthodontic treatment history. Occlusal variables examined were molar relationship, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, posterior crossbite, and scissors bite. The dental health (DHC) and aesthetic components (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) were used as an assessment measure of the need for orthodontic treatment for the total sample. Results: The results indicated a high prevalence of Class I (34.9%) and Class II, Division 1 malocclusions (40.0%). Moreover, increased (18%) and reduced bites (14.%), and increased (25.1%) and reversed overjet (10.%) were present in the sample. Conclusion: Using the DHC of the IOTN, the proportion of subjects estimated to have great and very great treatment need (grades 4 and 5) was 28.%. However, only 16.7% of individuals were in need (grades 8-10) of orthodontic treatment according to the AC. PMID:26691973

  9. The Regina Elena National Cancer Institute process of accreditation according to the standards of the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes.

    PubMed

    Canitano, Stefano; Di Turi, Annunziata; Caolo, Giuseppina; Pignatelli, Adriana C; Papa, Elena; Branca, Marta; Cerimele, Marina; De Maria, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    The accreditation process is, on the one hand, a tool used to homogenize procedures, rendering comparable and standardized processes of care, and on the other, a methodology employed to develop a culture of quality improvement. Although not yet proven by evidence-based studies that health outcomes improve as a result of an accreditation to excellence, it is undeniable that better control of healthcare processes results in better quality and safety of diagnostic and therapeutic pathways. The Regina Elena National Cancer Institute underwent the accreditation process in accordance with the standards criteria set by the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI), and it has recently completed the process, acquiring its designation as a Comprehensive Cancer Center (CCC). This was an invaluable opportunity for the Regina Elena Institute to create a more cohesive environment, to widely establish a culture of quality, to implement an institutional information system, and to accelerate the process of patient involvement in strategic decisions. The steps of the process allowed us to evaluate the performance and the organization of the institute and put amendments in place designed to be adopted through 26 improvement actions. These actions regarded several aspects of the institute, including quality culture, information communication technology system, care, clinical trials unit, disease management team, nursing, and patient empowerment and involvement. Each area has a timeline. We chose to present the following 3 improvement actions: clinical trial center, computerized ambulatory medical record, and centrality of patient and humanization of clinical pathway. PMID:27096274

  10. Different welfare states--different policies? An analysis of the substance of national health promotion policies in three European countries.

    PubMed

    Fosse, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This study examines healthy public policy development in three European countries representing different welfare regimes: England representing the liberal model; Norway, the social democratic model; and the Netherlands, the corporatist model. National policy documents were used for the analysis. In England and Norway, health promotion has a prominent place and there is a political focus on the broader determinants of health. However, while the Norwegian policies have an explicit focus on the social gradient, the English policies have a much clearer focus on disadvantaged groups and geographic areas. In the Netherlands, the main focus is on disease prevention and risk behaviors. In the Netherlands and England there is a strong focus on the free will of the population in changing unhealthy lifestyles. By analyzing the different policies in the light of Esping-Andersen's typology of welfare state regimes, it is possible to better understand the differences among the countries. While all types of regimes seem willing to develop targeted measures, the social democratic regime seems the most willing to also develop structural measures addressing the wider social determinants of health. PMID:21563624