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Sample records for european study mcmdm-1vwd

  1. Identification and characterization of a novel P2Y 12 variant in a patient diagnosed with type 1 von Willebrand disease in the European MCMDM-1VWD study.

    PubMed

    Daly, Martina E; Dawood, Ban B; Lester, William A; Peake, Ian R; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Goodeve, Anne C; Makris, Michael; Wilde, Jonathan T; Mumford, Andrew D; Watson, Stephen P; Mundell, Stuart J

    2009-04-23

    We investigated whether defects in the P2Y(12) ADP receptor gene (P2RY12) contribute to the bleeding tendency in 92 index cases enrolled in the European MCMDM-1VWD study. A heterozygous mutation, predicting a lysine to glutamate (K174E) substitution in P2Y(12), was identified in one case with mild type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD) and a VWF defect. Platelets from the index case and relatives carrying the K174E defect changed shape in response to ADP, but showed reduced and reversible aggregation in response to 10 muM ADP, unlike the maximal, sustained aggregation observed in controls. The reduced response was associated with an approximate 50% reduction in binding of [(3)H]2MeS-ADP to P2Y(12), whereas binding to the P2Y(1) receptor was normal. A hemagglutinin-tagged K174E P2Y(12) variant showed surface expression in CHO cells, markedly reduced binding to [(3)H]2MeS-ADP, and minimal ADP-mediated inhibition of forskolin-induced adenylyl cyclase activity. Our results provide further evidence for locus heterogeneity in type 1 VWD. PMID:19237732

  2. A Cross-sectional Study of Bleeding Phenotype in Haemophilia A Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Paroskie, Allison; Gailani, Dave; DeBaun, Michael R.; Sidonio, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Haemophilia A carriers have historically been thought to demonstrate normal haemostasis. However, recent data demonstrates that despite normal factor VIII, haemophilia A carriers demonstrate an increased bleeding tendency. We tested the hypothesis that obligate haemophilia carriers demonstrate an increase in bleeding symptoms. A cross sectional study was performed comparing haemophilia A carriers to normal women. Questionnaire assessment included a general bleeding questionnaire, condensed MCMDM-1VWD bleeding assessment tool and Pictorial Bleeding Assessment Chart (PBAC). Laboratory assessment included complete blood count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen activity, FVIII activity (FVIII:C), von Willebrand factor antigen level, ristocetin cofactor, platelet function analyser-100™ and ABO blood type. 44 haemophilia A carriers and 43 controls were included. Demographic features were similar. Laboratory results demonstrated a statistically significant difference only in FVIII:C (82.5 versus 134%, p value < 0.001). Carriers reported a higher number of bleeding events, and both condensed MCMDM-1 VWD bleeding scores (5 versus 1, p value < 0.001) and PBAC scores (423 versus 182.5, p value = 0.018) were significantly higher in carriers. Haemophilia A carriers exhibit increased bleeding symptoms when compared to normal women. Further studies are necessary to fully understand the bleeding phenotype in this population and optimize clinical management. PMID:25832012

  3. Study Offers Ways to Better European Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2006-01-01

    School systems that track students into certain classes and academic programs based on ability end up worsening disparities between high and low performers, according to a far-ranging report that offers recommendations for improving education across Europe. The study, commissioned by a branch of the European Union (EU), also found that bilingual…

  4. Contemporary European Studies: A Model for Interdisciplinary Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannerbeck, Francis J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the University of South Carolina's (Columbia) Contemporary European Studies program, which drew on current course offerings and existing financial resources to provide study about post-French Revolution European languages, cultures, politics, history, geography, and economics. Options exist at many other institutions to create broadly…

  5. Survey of studies in European languages.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, S. N.

    The beginnings of the study in European languages of ancient Indian astronomy can hardly be fixed with any degree of certainty. Indian astronomy appears to have reached Europe through Arabic astronomical literature during the eleventh-thirteenth century. In this transmission Spain played a crucial part. With the revival of learning in Latin Europe, particularly during the active period of translation from Arabic into Latin, certain Hindu astronomical elements and tradition inevitably passed into Western Europe.

  6. The Physical Tourist. A European Study Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd; Westfall, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    We organized and led a European study course for American undergraduate university students to explore the early history of relativity and quantum theory. We were inspired by The Physical Tourist articles published in this journal on Munich, Bern, Berlin, Copenhagen, and Göttingen. We describe this adventure both for others wishing to teach such a course and for anyone wishing to walk in the footsteps of the physicists who revolutionized physics in the early decades of the twentieth century.

  7. World Studies in the European Classroom. Education and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Edmund

    The study of world problems in secondary European schools is examined. The study reflects the concerns of a group of teachers from 15 European countries and from a range of disciplines who attended a course on "World Problems in the European Classroom" which was held at Lillehammer in July, 1979 as a contribution by Norway to the Council of…

  8. Discerning the Ancestry of European Americans in Genetic Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Price, Alkes L; Butler, Johannah; Patterson, Nick; Capelli, Cristian; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Scarnicci, Francesca; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Groop, Leif; Saetta, Angelica A; Korkolopoulou, Penelope; Seligsohn, Uri; Waliszewska, Alicja; Schirmer, Christine; Ardlie, Kristin; Ramos, Alexis; Nemesh, James; Arbeitman, Lori; Goldstein, David B

    2008-01-01

    European Americans are often treated as a homogeneous group, but in fact form a structured population due to historical immigration of diverse source populations. Discerning the ancestry of European Americans genotyped in association studies is important in order to prevent false-positive or false-negative associations due to population stratification and to identify genetic variants whose contribution to disease risk differs across European ancestries. Here, we investigate empirical patterns of population structure in European Americans, analyzing 4,198 samples from four genome-wide association studies to show that components roughly corresponding to northwest European, southeast European, and Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry are the main sources of European American population structure. Building on this insight, we constructed a panel of 300 validated markers that are highly informative for distinguishing these ancestries. We demonstrate that this panel of markers can be used to correct for stratification in association studies that do not generate dense genotype data. PMID:18208327

  9. Mineral Metabolism in European Children Living with a Renal Transplant: A European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association–European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; Busutti, Marco; Jager, Kitty J.; Baiko, Sergey; Bakkaloğlu, Sevcan; Battelino, Nina; Gaydarova, Maria; Gianoglio, Bruno; Parvex, Paloma; Gomes, Clara; Heaf, James G.; Podracka, Ludmila; Kuzmanovska, Dafina; Molchanova, Maria S.; Pankratenko, Tatiana E.; Papachristou, Fotios; Reusz, György; Sanahuja, Maria José; Shroff, Rukshana; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Schaefer, Franz; Verrina, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Data on mineral metabolism in pediatric renal transplant recipients largely arise from small single-center studies. In adult patients, abnormal mineral levels are related to a higher risk of graft failure. This study used data from the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association–European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry to study the prevalence and potential determinants of mineral abnormalities, as well as the predictive value of a disturbed mineral level on graft survival in a large cohort of European pediatric renal transplant recipients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study included 1237 children (0–17 years) from 10 European countries, who had serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone measurements from 2000 onward. Abnormalities of mineral metabolism were defined according to European guidelines on prevention and treatment of renal osteodystrophy in children on chronic renal failure. Results Abnormal serum phosphorus levels were observed in 25% (14% hypophosphatemia and 11% hyperphosphatemia), altered serum calcium in 30% (19% hypocalcemia, 11% hypercalcemia), and hyperparathyroidism in 41% of the patients. A longer time since transplantation was associated with a lower risk of having mineral levels above target range. Serum phosphorus levels were inversely associated with eGFR, and levels above the recommended targets were associated with a higher risk of graft failure independently of eGFR. Conclusions Abnormalities in mineral metabolism are common after pediatric renal transplantation in Europe and are associated with graft dysfunction. PMID:25710805

  10. Teaching European Studies Online: The Challenge of Quality Assurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihai, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This paper will be looking into the issue of quality assurance in online learning from the perspective of the e-learning tool developed by the Institute for European Studies in Brussels--the E-modules. The E-modules have been designed with the purpose of offering a structured and interactive way of learning how the European Union functions. As…

  11. [Comparative study of 5 European tables of food composition (study of European tables of food composition)].

    PubMed

    García González, J

    1990-01-01

    A comparative study has been made of the following nutritional data base: (A) C.S.I.C. (Spain); (B) Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Lebensmittel Chemie, Garching; (C) INSERM (France); (D) Geigy; (E) Wander. The following values were researched: calorie, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, magnesium, Vit. B1, Vit B2, Niacin, Folic Acid, Vit. B12 and Vit. C. In order to assess the use of these tables under different conditions, the following were researched: 1) A group of 10 essential representative foods. 2) A group of 25 foods corresponding to a 24-hour count of what can be considered a standard diet. 3) Data obtained from a food survey (24-hour count) applied to 72, 13-year-old students at a Barcelona public school (winter 1988). In this case, the Spanish data base was used as reference. Computerized data processing, especially variation coefficient studies revealed that macronutrients correlated well with the different data bases. On the other hand, the greatest differences were observed among micronutrients, especially vitamin B12, niacin, folic acid, calcium and particularly fiber. The role different national data bases may play within the context of a more integrated european system was assessed. PMID:2078596

  12. Study Assistance in Ten European Countries: Overview and Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Olof; Ricknell, Lars

    Fundamental features of the financial aid systems for college students in 10 European countries are described, as are the theoretical framework and research topics of the study on which this report is based. The study is intended to determine the per capita degree of subsidization in each country; to describe the effects of the financial aid…

  13. Entrepreneurial Training: A Comparative Study across Fifteen European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matricano, Diego

    2014-01-01

    This paper arises from the contents of the Lisbon Strategy, a set of cooperation policies stressing the role of education and training. The findings from a comparative study of the influence that entrepreneurial training--classified as formal or informal--can have on start-up expectations are analysed. The study covers fifteen European countries…

  14. European Curriculum Studies No. 3: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, A.

    The Committee for General and Technical Education of the Council of Europe has initiated several projects to study, compare and evaluate curriculum materials used in the member nations. This publication, a result of such attempts, was prepared after making a survey of the status of biology teaching at the upper secondary school level in 19 member…

  15. European Union Students Studying in English Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Marian; Rutt, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the pathways, intentions and relevant perceptions of (non-UK) European Union (EU) students entering English higher education. It sought to identify why students wished to obtain an English HE qualification, their attitudes towards the uptake and repayment of tuition fee loans and their future career plans. Drawing on…

  16. European and Canadian Studies of Loneliness among Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a commentary on a set of five other articles reporting European and Canadian studies of loneliness among seniors. It places those works involving Canadian, Dutch, Finnish, and Welsh samples in the larger context of research on loneliness; offers reflections on the methods and findings reported in the articles; and addresses…

  17. Teacher Behavior and Student Outcomes: Results of a European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panayiotou, Anastasia; Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.; McMahon, Léan; Vanlaar, Gudrun; Pfeifer, Michael; Rekalidou, Galini; Bren, Matevž

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which the factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness are associated with student achievement gains in six different European countries. At classroom level, the dynamic model refers to eight factors relating to teacher behavior in the classroom: orientation, structuring, questioning,…

  18. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Northern European Foods. Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freepartner, Susan

    This teaching guide focuses on the Northern European food heritage. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective of this unit is to gain familiarity with and appreciate foods from Scandinavia, the Soviet…

  19. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Southern European Foods. Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freepartner, Susan

    This teaching guide focuses on the Southern European food heritage. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective of this unit is to gain familiarity with and appreciate foods from Spain, France,…

  20. Use of Social Media by Western European Hospitals: Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Berben, Sivera AA; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. Objective To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. Methods In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. Results We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Conclusions Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health

  1. The European Atherosclerosis Research Study (EARS): design and objectives.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    The European Atherosclerosis Research Study--EARS--is a multicentre collaborative project sponsored by the European Community. Its main objective is to study, in young people, the biological expression of a paternal history of premature acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the relative share of heredity and environment in this expression. In 14 centres in 11 European countries, the offspring of fathers who suffered from a documented AMI before the age of 55 years (cases) are compared with age- and sex-matched control individuals. Genetic variables (restriction fragment length polymorphisms of candidate genes), lifestyle variables and biochemical variables that are known or suspected to play a role in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD), are studied. The cultural and ethnic diversity within Europe allows a thorough investigation of the relative importance and the potential interactions of genetics and environment in the pathogenesis of CHD. A standardized core methodology and centralized storage of blood samples with particular types of analyses systematically carried out in one or a few specialized laboratories, from a strong basis for valid cross-cultural analyses. The results of this study will offer new clues for the modelling of individual risk for developing CHD. PMID:7960370

  2. Mental Health Services in Pilot Study Areas: Report on a European Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a study to collect data on mental health resources of pilot areas within several European countries. This report presents data from the study and provides a detailed and reliable description of the development of mental health services within the WHO European Region. Part I of the report describes the…

  3. European education on natural disasters - a textbook study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komac, B.; Zorn, M.; Ciglič, R.

    2013-05-01

    Present is the role of formal education on natural disasters in Europe. To ensure a uniform overview, the study used secondary-school geography textbooks from the collection of textbooks at the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research in Braunschweig, Germany. Altogether, more than 160 textbooks from 36 European countries were examined in order to investigate how much their content (pages, text, figures) is related to natural-disasters topics, and to find out which types of hazards are presented more often. In the research it was also analyzed which disaster events are frequently used as an example.

  4. The epidemiology of vertebral fractures. European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study Group.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C; O'Neill, T; Silman, A

    1993-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are recognised as a hallmark of osteoporosis, yet little is known of their epidemiology. This deficiency limits accurate characterisation of the public health importance of osteoporosis. Assessment of the impact of vertebral fractures has been hampered by the absence of formal criteria for identifying fractures on a thoracolumbar radiograph. Initial methods relying upon subjective radiological assessments have given way to morphometric measurements of vertebral heights, with deformities defined according to various algorithms. These methods have been used in a series of studies performed in Rochester, MN, to determine the incidence, outcome, and time trends of vertebral deformities. The results suggest a prevalence rate of vertebral deformity of 25.3 per 100 Rochester women aged 50 years and over (95% CI, 22.3-28.2), with an estimated incidence of 17.8 per 1,000 person-years. The incidence of clinically diagnosed vertebral fractures among women in the same population was 5.3 per 1,000 person-years, suggesting that around 30% of such deformities in women receive clinical attention. Morphometric measurement on the radiographs of women with clinically diagnosed fractures revealed that 80% had grade 2 ( > 4 SD) deformities. Comparable data on the occurrence and health impact of vertebral deformities throughout Europe are urgently required. The European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS) is a multicentre epidemiological study that aims to address this issue. It is designed as a radiographic prevalence study in 34 European centres.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8110529

  5. European Maxillofacial Trauma (EURMAT) project: a multicentre and prospective study.

    PubMed

    Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Zavattero, Emanuele; Dediol, Emil; Uglešić, Vedran; Kovačič, Žiga; Vesnaver, Aleš; Konstantinović, Vitomir S; Petrović, Milan; Stephens, Jonny; Kanzaria, Amar; Bhatti, Nabeel; Holmes, Simon; Pechalova, Petia F; Bakardjiev, Angel G; Malanchuk, Vladislav A; Kopchak, Andrey V; Galteland, Pål; Mjøen, Even; Skjelbred, Per; Koudougou, Carine; Mouallem, Guillaume; Corre, Pierre; Løes, Sigbjørn; Lekven, Njål; Laverick, Sean; Gordon, Peter; Tamme, Tiia; Akermann, Stephanie; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Kommers, Sofie C; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the demographics, causes and characteristics of maxillofacial fractures managed at several European departments of oral and maxillofacial surgery over one year. The following data were recorded: gender, age, aetiology, site of facial fractures, facial injury severity score, timing of intervention, length of hospital stay. Data for a total of 3396 patients (2655 males and 741 females) with 4155 fractures were recorded. The mean age differed from country to country, ranging between 29.9 and 43.9 years. Overall, the most frequent cause of injury was assault, which accounted for the injuries of 1309 patients; assaults and falls alternated as the most important aetiological factor in the various centres. The most frequently observed fracture involved the mandible with 1743 fractures, followed by orbital-zygomatic-maxillary (OZM) fractures. Condylar fractures were the most commonly observed mandibular fracture. The results of the EURMAT collaboration confirm the changing trend in maxillofacial trauma epidemiology in Europe, with trauma cases caused by assaults and falls now outnumbering those due to road traffic accidents. The progressive ageing of the European population, in addition to strict road and work legislation may have been responsible for this change. Men are still the most frequent victims of maxillofacial injuries. PMID:25457465

  6. Ethics teaching in European veterinary schools: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M

    2014-12-13

    Veterinary ethics is recognised as a relevant topic in the undergraduate veterinary curriculum. However, there appears to be no widely agreed view on which contents are best suited for veterinary ethics teaching and there is limited information on the teaching approaches adopted by veterinary schools. This paper provides an inside perspective on the diversity of veterinary ethics teaching topics, based on an in-depth analysis of three European veterinary schools: Copenhagen, Lisbon and Nottingham. The case study approach integrated information from the analysis of syllabi contents and interviews with educators (curricular year 2010-2011). These results show that the curriculum of veterinary ethics is multidimensional and can combine a wide range of scientific, regulatory, professional and philosophical subjects, some of which may not be explicitly set out in the course descriptors. A conceptual model for veterinary ethics teaching is proposed comprising prominent topics included within four overarching concepts: animal welfare science, laws/regulations, professionalism, and theories/concepts. It is intended that this work should inform future curriculum development of veterinary ethics in European schools and assist ethical deliberation in veterinary practice. PMID:25185106

  7. Effectiveness study of atropine for progressive myopia in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Polling, J R; Kok, R G W; Tideman, J W L; Meskat, B; Klaver, C C W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Randomized controlled trials have shown the efficacy of atropine for progressive myopia, and this treatment has become the preferred pattern for this condition in Taiwan. This study explores the effectiveness of atropine 0.5% treatment for progressive high myopia and adherence to therapy in a non-Asian country. Methods An effectiveness study was performed in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Overall 77 children (mean age 10.3 years±2.3), of European (n=53), Asian (n=18), and African (n=6) descent with progressive myopia were prescribed atropine 0.5% eye drops daily. Both parents and children filled in a questionnaire regarding adverse events and adherence to therapy. A standardized eye examination including cycloplegic refraction and axial length was performed at baseline and 1, 4, and 12 months after initiation of therapy. Results Mean spherical equivalent at baseline was −6.6D (±3.3). The majority (60/77, 78%) of children adhered to atropine treatment for 12 months; 11 of the 17 children who discontinued therapy did so within 1 month after the start of therapy. The most prominent reported adverse events were photophobia (72%), followed by reading problems (38%), and headaches (22%). The progression rate of spherical equivalent before treatment (−1.0D/year±0.7) diminished substantially during treatment (−0.1D/year±0.7) compared to those who ceased therapy (−0.5D/year±0.6; P=0.03). Conclusions Despite the relatively high occurrence of adverse events, our study shows that atropine can be an effective and sustainable treatment for progressive high myopia in Europeans. PMID:27101751

  8. Effectiveness study of atropine for progressive myopia in Europeans.

    PubMed

    Polling, J R; Kok, R G W; Tideman, J W L; Meskat, B; Klaver, C C W

    2016-07-01

    PurposeRandomized controlled trials have shown the efficacy of atropine for progressive myopia, and this treatment has become the preferred pattern for this condition in Taiwan. This study explores the effectiveness of atropine 0.5% treatment for progressive high myopia and adherence to therapy in a non-Asian country.MethodsAn effectiveness study was performed in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Overall 77 children (mean age 10.3 years±2.3), of European (n=53), Asian (n=18), and African (n=6) descent with progressive myopia were prescribed atropine 0.5% eye drops daily. Both parents and children filled in a questionnaire regarding adverse events and adherence to therapy. A standardized eye examination including cycloplegic refraction and axial length was performed at baseline and 1, 4, and 12 months after initiation of therapy.ResultsMean spherical equivalent at baseline was -6.6D (±3.3). The majority (60/77, 78%) of children adhered to atropine treatment for 12 months; 11 of the 17 children who discontinued therapy did so within 1 month after the start of therapy. The most prominent reported adverse events were photophobia (72%), followed by reading problems (38%), and headaches (22%). The progression rate of spherical equivalent before treatment (-1.0D/year±0.7) diminished substantially during treatment (-0.1D/year±0.7) compared to those who ceased therapy (-0.5D/year±0.6; P=0.03).ConclusionsDespite the relatively high occurrence of adverse events, our study shows that atropine can be an effective and sustainable treatment for progressive high myopia in Europeans. PMID:27101751

  9. Drug use in children: cohort study in three European countries

    PubMed Central

    Verhamme, Katia M C; Nicolosi, Alfredo; Murray, Macey L; Neubert, Antje; Caudri, Daan; Picelli, Gino; Sen, Elif Fatma; Giaquinto, Carlo; Cantarutti, Luigi; Baiardi, Paola; Felisi, Maria-Grazia; Ceci, Adriana; Wong, Ian C K

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of drug use in children in three European countries. Design Retrospective cohort study, 2000-5. Setting Primary care research databases in the Netherlands (IPCI), United Kingdom (IMS-DA), and Italy (Pedianet). Participants 675 868 children aged up to 14 (Italy) or 18 (UK and Netherlands). Main outcome measure Prevalence of use per year calculated by drug class (anatomical and therapeutic). Prevalence of “recurrent/chronic” use (three or more prescriptions a year) and “non-recurrent” or “acute” use (less than three prescriptions a year) within each therapeutic class. Descriptions of the top five most commonly used drugs evaluated for off label status within each anatomical class. Results Three levels of drug use could be distinguished in the study population: high (>10/100 children per year), moderate (1-10/100 children per year), and low (<1/100 children per year). For all age categories, anti-infective, dermatological, and respiratory drugs were in the high use group, whereas cardiovascular and antineoplastic drugs were always in the low use group. Emollients, topical steroids, and asthma drugs had the highest prevalence of recurrent use, but relative use of low prevalence drugs was more often recurrent than acute. In the top five highest prevalence drugs topical inhaled and systemic steroids, oral contraceptives, and topical or systemic antifungal drugs were most commonly used off label. Conclusion This overview of outpatient paediatric prescription patterns in a large European population could provide information to prioritise paediatric therapeutic research needs. PMID:19029175

  10. Multi-instrumental study of the ionosphere in European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenkova, I.; Krankowski, A.; Cherniak, I.; Rothkaehl, H.

    2013-12-01

    We present the techniques for the investigation of the spatial-temporal structure of the mid-latitude ionosphere on the base of comprehensive analysis of multi-instrumental satellite and ground-based measurements and demonstrates their application at several case study results. For our analysis we used the ionospheric data provided by European ionosondes network (DIAS), as well as GNSS TEC observations. Manually scaled ionosondes' data are used as a benchmark in our study. Two-dimensional maps of vertical TEC over Europe are created using IGS and EUREF permanent networks. These maps have spatial resolution of 1 deg and temporal resolution of 1 h, for investigation of ionosphere response on special events (geomagnetic storms, solar eclipses, etc) there is possibility to create TEC maps with 5-10 min resolution. The high temporal resolution maps give the possibility to study of spatial gradients of electron density. Joint analysis of GPS TEC and FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation data allows us to extract and estimate electron content corresponded to the ionosphere (its bottom and topside parts) and the plasmasphere (h>700 km) for different conditions. Several case-studies of geomagnetic storms were analyzed in order to estimate changes and redistribution of electron content between ionosphere and plasmasphere over Europe. The obtained results were compared with TEC, IEC and PEC estimates retrieved by IRI-Plas Model that has the plasmasphere extension up to 20,000 km (GPS orbit). As a new data source there will be new ionospheric sounding station, located in European mid-latitudes in Olsztyn, Poland, that will start its operation at the end of 2013. One of the possible user of ionospheric products is represented by LOFAR (LOw Frequency Array), a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz. To the summer of 2015 three new LOFAR stations will be installed in Poland: Lazy (East of Krakow), Borowiec near Poznan and Baldy near

  11. Spaceflight studies of tropisms in the European Modular Cultivation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Correll, M. J.; Edelmann, R. E.

    Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at μ g, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station (ISS), we have been performing ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments that will use Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue-light and red-light signaling systems interact with each other, and also with the gravisensing system.

  12. Recent Extremes in European Climate: Assessment, Case Studies and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiou, P.; Vautard, R.; D'Andrea, F.; Cattiaux, J.; Naveau, P.; Ciais, P.; Garnier, E.

    2008-12-01

    During the last centuries and up to the present decade, extreme climate events have certainly had larger economic impacts than any trend of temperature in Europe. In addition to an intrinsic scientific interest, their study is thus essential for society. One of the challenges of their investigation is that, depending on their definition, extreme climate events potentially have a behavior that is not connected to the secular temperature trend in a simple fashion. This presentation will review the statistical assessments of extremes in Europe, focusing on surface temperature, precipitation, and their connections with large-scale features of the atmospheric circulation. In particular, the questions of modeling their severity and frequency will be discussed in the first part of the presentation. I will then give two kinds of examples of European climate extremes: summer heatwaves and droughts, and winter warm waves. The mechanisms leading to such phenomena will be explored, and I will examine some of the impacts on the biosphere that were recently observed. In order to provide a long term perspective of those events, examples of historical droughts in France will be presented and connected with proxy records of temperature. It appears that the mechanisms that are favored for present-day climate might still have been valid during the past centuries. To conclude, new challenges for dynamical and statistical modeling will be explored.

  13. Site Selection for the European ELT: working package included in the European FP6 ``ELT design study'' contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Sarazin, M.; Vernin, J.

    2007-10-01

    The site selection for the future European Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a key issue within the European proposal funded by the European Union (EU), within the ``ELT design study'' proposal. The organization, working scheme and baseline frameworks are reviewed. For the definition of the working package WP12000 ``Site Characterization'', important use has been done of previous work in the definition of techniques and tools for the study of the atmosphere above observing sites. We have also taken advantage of the number of data already available which have naturally defined a ranking among the known places which have also been taken as a base line for pre-selecting the candidate sites. The work will last 4 years, it started in 2005 and is organized in subtasks, working packages WP, whose main objectives are the following: WP12100: to characterize two top astronomical sites (ORM and North-Paranal) and to explore three other alternatives (Macon in Argentina, Izaña in Spain and Aklim in Morocco) suitable to install an ELT under the best conditions (Dome C is been currently under investigation, and no particular effort will be put in this site, but rather its atmospheric properties will be compared to the above mentioned sites). WP12200 is dedicated to design, build and operate a set of standard equipment in all the sites and to perform long term campaign. WP12300 will investigate wavefront properties over large baselines (50-100 m) corresponding to the size of the future ELT, as well as the fine characterization of the optical turbulence within the boundary layer. A similar plan is being carried out by the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) site selection team. For the sake of saving resources (budget and people), the TMT preselected sites (all in the American Continent) are not included in our European study.

  14. European Studies as Answer to Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Michael H.

    European studies can provide a solution to several of the issues raised in Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind." European studies pursue the academic quest for what is truth, what is goodness, and what is beauty. In seeking to answer these questions, the Greeks were among the first to explore many of humanity's problems and their…

  15. An integrated lithospheric study targeting the Holy Cross Mountains of the Eastern European Trans-European Suture Zone in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averill, M.; Bond, T.; Sroda, P.; Keller, G.; Miller, K.

    2003-04-01

    The Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) in Eastern Europe, of which the TTZ is a portion, marks the boundary between Phanerozoic Western European terrains with the Precambrian Eastern European Craton (EEC). The nature of this suture is known primarily from geophysical studies. Seismic velocity and gravity models indicate changes of crustal thickness from 28-35 km to 42-47 km across the TTZ (Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone) from the Paleozoic Platform of Western Europe to the Eastern European Craton. Tectonic models suggest the presence of a Precambrian/Early Paleozoic passive margin beneath the TTZ. The Holy Cross Mountains in southeastern Poland represent an anomalous crustal block whose origin and interaction with the EEC is largely unknown. The subject of this study is the origin and tectonic evolution of this and adjacent crustal blocks in relation to the eastern TESZ and EEC. We have employed a technique to integrate industry acquired well and reflection data, as well as refraction data from the CELEBRATION 2000, POLONAISE '97 and TTZ seismic experiments. We used well check shot surveys from wells and CDP (common depth point) stacking velocities from reflection surveys in addition to refraction data as data input to a 3-D tomographic inversion. Gravity, magnetics, drilling and geologic data support an integrated interpretation of the output velocity model for this region. Gravity modeling based on geologic and velocity model constraints indicate an incomplete docking of Variscan terranes along the EEC margin with deformation of the Paleozoic margin strata associated with uplift in the Holy Cross Mountains region.

  16. Job insecurity and health: A study of 16 European countries

    PubMed Central

    László, Krisztina D.; Pikhart, Hynek; Kopp, Mária S.; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Marmot, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Although the number of insecure jobs has increased considerably over the recent decades, relatively little is known about the health consequences of job insecurity, their international pattern, and factors that may modify them. In this paper, we investigated the association between job insecurity and self-rated health, and whether the relationship differs by country or individual-level characteristics. Cross-sectional data from 3 population-based studies on job insecurity, self-rated health, demographic, socioeconomic, work-related and behavioural factors and lifetime chronic diseases in 23,245 working subjects aged 45–70 years from 16 European countries were analysed using logistic regression and meta-analysis. In fully adjusted models, job insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor health in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia, with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 2.0. Similar, but not significant, associations were observed in Austria, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. We found no effect of job insecurity in Belgium and Sweden. In the pooled data, the odds ratio of poor health by job insecurity was 1.39. The association between job insecurity and health did not differ significantly by age, sex, education, and marital status. Persons with insecure jobs were at an increased risk of poor health in most of the countries included in the analysis. Given these results and trends towards increasing frequency of insecure jobs, attention needs to be paid to the public health consequences of job insecurity. PMID:20060634

  17. Coproducing European Integration Studies: Infrastructures and Epistemic Movements in an Interdisciplinary Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfister, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper is interested in the interdisciplinary characteristics of European integration studies. It explores how the institutional and intellectual, internal and external boundaries of this interdisciplinary field are shaped. For this purpose, it discusses two interlocking dynamics that are most important: on the one hand, the European Union…

  18. Essential elements of treatment: a comparative study between European and American therapeutic communities for addiction.

    PubMed

    Goethals, Ilse; Soyez, Veerle; Melnick, Gerald; De Leon, George; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether European and American therapeutic communities (TCs) for addiction, both traditional and modified, share a common perspective on what is essential in treatment using the Survey of Essential Elements Questionnaire (SEEQ). The European sample (N = 19) was gathered in 2009. For the American sample (N = 19), we used previously published research data. Despite comparable perspectives, European traditional TCs (N = 11) scored significantly higher than their American predecessors (N = 11) on four SEEQ domains. Cluster differences were more pronounced in Europe than in America. PMID:21235341

  19. Water Intake and Hydration Indices in Healthy European Adults: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS)

    PubMed Central

    Malisova, Olga; Athanasatou, Adelais; Pepa, Alex; Husemann, Marlien; Domnik, Kirsten; Braun, Hans; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan F.; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin E.; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males), 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m2 BMI) participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L) than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L) (p = 0.019). Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p < 0.01). Applying urine osmolality cut-offs, approximately 60% of participants were euhydrated and 20% hyperhydrated or dehydrated. Most participants were euhydrated, but a substantial number of people (40%) deviated from a normal hydration level. PMID:27058557

  20. Water Intake and Hydration Indices in Healthy European Adults: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS).

    PubMed

    Malisova, Olga; Athanasatou, Adelais; Pepa, Alex; Husemann, Marlien; Domnik, Kirsten; Braun, Hans; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan F; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin E; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males), 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m² BMI) participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L) than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L) (p = 0.019). Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p < 0.01). Applying urine osmolality cut-offs, approximately 60% of participants were euhydrated and 20% hyperhydrated or dehydrated. Most participants were euhydrated, but a substantial number of people (40%) deviated from a normal hydration level. PMID:27058557

  1. Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. Methods We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and December 2007. We also examined the reference lists of individual papers and reviews. Two independent reviewers classified the studies according to type of air pollutant, duration of exposure and health outcome considered. Among European investigations that examined long-term PM exposure we found 4 cohort studies (considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality), 1 case-control study (considering mortality from myocardial infarction), and 4 ecologic studies (2 studies considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality and 2 studies focused on cardiovascular mortality). Results Measurement indicators of PM exposure used in European studies, including PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate and black smoke, were heterogeneous. This notwithstanding, in all analytic studies total mortality was directly associated with long-term exposure to PM. The excesses in mortality were mainly due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Three out of 4 ecologic studies found significant direct associations between PM indexes and mortality. Conclusion European studies on long-term exposure to PM indicate a direct association with mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. PMID:19995424

  2. Evaluation of exposure parameters in plain radiography: a comparative study with European guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lança, L; Silva, A; Alves, E; Serranheira, F; Correia, M

    2008-01-01

    Typical distribution of exposure parameters in plain radiography is unknown in Portugal. This study aims to identify exposure parameters that are being used in plain radiography in the Lisbon area and to compare the collected data with European references [Commission of European Communities (CEC) guidelines]. The results show that in four examinations (skull, chest, lumbar spine and pelvis), there is a strong tendency of using exposure times above the European recommendation. The X-ray tube potential values (in kV) are below the recommended values from CEC guidelines. This study shows that at a local level (Lisbon region), radiographic practice does not comply with CEC guidelines concerning exposure techniques. Further national/local studies are recommended with the objective to improve exposure optimisation and technical procedures in plain radiography. This study also suggests the need to establish national/local diagnostic reference levels and to proceed to effective measurements for exposure optimisation. PMID:18430717

  3. European adults' physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18-65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55-64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity. PMID:27280072

  4. European adults’ physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey

    PubMed Central

    Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18–65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55–64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity. PMID:27280072

  5. Housing and Health in Europe: Preliminary Results of a Pan-European Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefoy, Xavier R.; Braubach, Matthias; Moissonnier, Brigitte; Monolbaev, Kubanychbek; Röbbel, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. The World Health Organization’s Regional Office for Europe has undertaken a large study to evaluate housing and health in 7 European cities. Methods. Survey tools were used to obtain information about housing and living conditions, health perception, and health status from a representative sample of the population in each city. Results. In Forli, Italy, the first city studied, preliminary findings indicate some important potential links between housing and health. Conclusions. These findings, when combined with those from the remaining European cities, will likely generate concrete recommendations for the allocation of resources to programs that can improve housing and health. PMID:12948980

  6. The European Research Elite: A Cross-National Study of Highly Productive Academics in 11 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on a rare scholarly theme of highly productive academics, statistically confirming their pivotal role in knowledge production across 11 systems studied. The upper 10% of highly productive academics in 11 European countries studied (N = 17,211) provide on average almost half of all academic knowledge production. In contrast…

  7. Executive Coaching: Study of the Evolution of the Program at a Top European Business School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun Jung

    2011-01-01

    To understand how tensions caused by the multidisciplinary nature of executive coaching are perceived and overcome, this modified ethnographic study was conducted at an executive coaching program and leadership center at a prestigious European business school. This study is built on prolonged discussions on the role of psychology in executive…

  8. Maternal and infant health of Eastern Europeans in Bradford, UK: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jessica; Kliner, Merav; Brierley, Shirley; Stroud, Laura

    2014-09-01

    This qualitative study aimed to investigate maternal and infant health needs within Eastern European populations in Bradford. Evidence suggested that migrants from Eastern Europe had poor maternal and child health and increased rates of infant mortality. Health visitors, community midwives and specialist voluntary workers were involved. Eleven interviews took place. They were semi-structured and analysed using a thematic approach. A number of health needs were identified in Eastern European populations, including high rates of smoking and poor diet. Wider determinants of health such as poverty and poor housing were cited as commonplace for Eastern European migrants. There were numerous cultural barriers to health, such as discrimination, mobility, cultural practices regarding age at pregnancy, and disempowerment of women. Lastly, access to health services was identified as a significant issue and this was impacting on staff working with this population. This study demonstrated the complexity and interaction of health and social factors and their influence on utilisation of health services. PMID:25286741

  9. European Space Agency studies of the solar probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roxburgh, I. W.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility and scientific objectives of a solar probe were studied by a Mission Definition Group in 1975 and 1976. The orbit analysis program was developed and an extended study of the orbit analysis was done in 1977. The results of these studies are in the Report of the Mission Definition Study (1976) and an E.S.O.C. report (1978), and the reader is referred to these sources for greater details. In this report, only brief discussion on mission concept and objectives, satellite design, orbit, orbit analysis, are presented.

  10. Generalization and dilution of association results from European GWAS in populations of non-European ancestry: the PAGE study.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Christopher S; Matise, Tara C; North, Kari E; Haiman, Christopher A; Fesinmeyer, Megan D; Buyske, Steven; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Peters, Ulrike; Franceschini, Nora; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Duggan, David J; Spencer, Kylee L; Dumitrescu, Logan; Eaton, Charles B; Thomas, Fridtjof; Young, Alicia; Carty, Cara; Heiss, Gerardo; Le Marchand, Loic; Crawford, Dana C; Hindorff, Lucia A; Kooperberg, Charles L

    2013-09-01

    The vast majority of genome-wide association study (GWAS) findings reported to date are from populations with European Ancestry (EA), and it is not yet clear how broadly the genetic associations described will generalize to populations of diverse ancestry. The Population Architecture Using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study is a consortium of multi-ancestry, population-based studies formed with the objective of refining our understanding of the genetic architecture of common traits emerging from GWAS. In the present analysis of five common diseases and traits, including body mass index, type 2 diabetes, and lipid levels, we compare direction and magnitude of effects for GWAS-identified variants in multiple non-EA populations against EA findings. We demonstrate that, in all populations analyzed, a significant majority of GWAS-identified variants have allelic associations in the same direction as in EA, with none showing a statistically significant effect in the opposite direction, after adjustment for multiple testing. However, 25% of tagSNPs identified in EA GWAS have significantly different effect sizes in at least one non-EA population, and these differential effects were most frequent in African Americans where all differential effects were diluted toward the null. We demonstrate that differential LD between tagSNPs and functional variants within populations contributes significantly to dilute effect sizes in this population. Although most variants identified from GWAS in EA populations generalize to all non-EA populations assessed, genetic models derived from GWAS findings in EA may generate spurious results in non-EA populations due to differential effect sizes. Regardless of the origin of the differential effects, caution should be exercised in applying any genetic risk prediction model based on tagSNPs outside of the ancestry group in which it was derived. Models based directly on functional variation may generalize more robustly, but the identification

  11. Medication use in European primary care patients with lower respiratory tract infection: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Hamoen, Marleen; Broekhuizen, Berna DL; Little, Paul; Melbye, Hasse; Coenen, Samuel; Goossens, Herman; Butler, Chris C; Francis, Nick A; Verheij, Theo JM

    2014-01-01

    Background It is largely unknown what medication is used by patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). Aim To describe the use of self-medication and prescribed medication in adults presenting with LRTI in different European countries, and to relate self-medication to patient characteristics. Design and setting An observational study in 16 primary care networks in 12 European countries. Method A total of 2530 adult patients presenting with LRTI in 12 European countries filled in a diary on any medication used before and after a primary care consultation. Patient characteristics related to self-medication were determined by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The frequency and types of medication used differed greatly between European countries. Overall, 55.4% self-medicated before consultation, and 21.5% after consultation, most frequently with paracetamol, antitussives, and mucolytics. Females, non-smokers, and patients with more severe symptoms used more self-medication. Patients who were not prescribed medication during the consultation self-medicated more often afterwards. Self-medication with antibiotics was relatively rare. Conclusion A considerable amount of medication, often with no proven efficacy, was used by adults presenting with LRTI in primary care. There were large differences between European countries. These findings should help develop patient information resources, international guidelines, and international legislation concerning the availability of over-the-counter medication, and can also support interventions against unwarranted variations in care. In addition, further research on the effects of symptomatic medication is needed. PMID:24567621

  12. Evidence-based practice: reflections from five European case studies.

    PubMed

    Baeza, Juan I; Fraser, Alec; Boaz, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence-based practice (EBP) is now the accepted orthodoxy in clinical practice and developed from evidence-based medicine. EBP is based on a specific type of evidence that is derived from studies based on randomised controlled trials (RCT). This type of evidence is suited to acute medical care and is more problematic for other clinicians such as nurses and therapists, particularly when they are situated within community or primary care settings. Setting Five stroke care services in England (2), Sweden (2) and Poland (1). Aims To reflect on the evidence gained from these case studies to shed light on various aspects of EBP. This paper focuses on three key issues: (1) the importance of context for evidence, (2) the nature of knowledge, and (3) professional hierarchies. Methods Five qualitative case studies into stroke care were carried out in England, Sweden and Poland. One hundred and twenty semi-structured interviews were carried out with a range of healthcare staff who provided specialised and non-specialised stroke care in acute, community and primary care between October 2010 and September 2011. Medical doctors, nurses and different therapists were included in the samples in all five case studies. For this paper, we reflect on some aspects of this work to illuminate the different interprofessional perspectives relating to EBP in stroke care. Results The lack of RCT-based evidence in the community and primary care sectors can lead to the clinicians working in these sectors being perceived as having a lower status. Clinicians use both tacit and encoded knowledge to guide their practice and there existed both intraand interprofessional tensions in these two types of knowledge. The professional hierarchy of stroke teams varies with national context and the role of the non-specialists is less valued in stroke care. PMID:25949726

  13. Intercultural Education in the European Context: Key Remarks from a Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catarci, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on some findings of a comparative study carried out by a network of scholars and researchers who are active in the field of intercultural education in the European context in the main "old immigration countries" (United Kingdom, France and Germany), "new immigration countries" (Italy, Spain and Greece) and…

  14. European Union Students Studying in English Higher Education Institutions. DIUS Research Report 08-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Marian; Rutt, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the pathways, intentions and relevant perceptions of (non-UK) European Union (EU) students entering English higher education. It sought to identify why students wished to obtain an English HE qualification, their attitudes towards the uptake and repayment of tuition fee loans and their future career plans. Drawing on…

  15. Laser surgery for Zenker's diverticulum: European combined study.

    PubMed

    Papaspyrou, Giorgos; Schick, Bernhard; Papaspyrou, Spyros; Wiegand, Susanne; Al Kadah, Basel

    2016-01-01

    Surgical intervention is the gold standard of treatment for Zenker's diverticulum. The aim of this study was to examine the role of laser surgery in a large number of patients with this pathological entity. The data of 91 consecutive patients treated due to Zenker's diverticulum with the aid of CO2 laser in three institutions (Homburg/Saar and Marburg, Germany/Athens, Greece) during the last 10 years were retrospectively analyzed. Parameters examined were sex, age, preoperative symptoms, length of operation and complications, revision surgery necessity and degree of patient satisfaction. All patients had a minimum follow-up of one year. Dysphagia was the most common preoperative symptom (78 %). The most common minor complication was dental injury (6.6 %), but a serious complication in form of emphysema was observed in only two patients (2.2 %). A surgical revision was necessary in 8 (8.8 %) of the treated patients. The majority of treated patients was free of symptoms (86.8 %), or presented mild symptoms (9.9 %) one year after intervention, and only three patients (3.3 %) were dissatisfied. Our study shows that laser treatment of Zenker's diverticulum is an efficient operative technique associated with low complications rates and significant improvement of patients' symptoms in most of the examined cases. PMID:25567345

  16. A collaborative European study of personal inhalable aerosol sampler performance.

    PubMed

    Kenny, L C; Aitken, R; Chalmers, C; Fabriès, J F; Gonzalez-Fernandez, E; Kromhout, H; Lidén, G; Mark, D; Riediger, G; Prodi, V

    1997-04-01

    Following the adoption of new international sampling conventions for inhalable, thoracic and respirable aerosol fractions, a working group of Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) drafted a standard for the performance of workplace aerosol sampling instruments. The present study was set up to verify the experimental, statistical and mathematical procedures recommended in the draft performance standard and to check that they could be applied to inhalable aerosol samplers. This was achieved by applying the tests to eight types of personal inhalable aerosol sampler commonly used for workplace monitoring throughout Europe. The study led to recommendations for revising the CEN draft standard, in order to simplify the tests and reduce their cost. However, some further work will be needed to develop simpler test facilities and methods. Several of the samplers tested were found to perform adequately with respect to the inhalable sampling convention, at least over a limited range of typical workplace conditions. In general the samplers were found to perform best in low external wind speeds, which are the test conditions thought to be closest to those normally found in indoor workplaces. The practical implementation of the CEN aerosol sampling conventions requires decisions on which sampling instruments to use, estimation of the likely impact that changing sampling methods could have on apparent exposures, and adjustment where necessary of exposure limit values. The sampler performance data obtained in this project were affected by large experimental errors, but are nevertheless a useful input to decisions on how to incorporate the CEN inhalable sampling convention into regulation, guidance and occupational hygiene practice. PMID:9155236

  17. Regional aspects of the energy crisis: East European case study

    SciTech Connect

    Merkin, V.O.

    1985-01-01

    The energy crisis occurring in Eastern Europe owes much to the Stalinist model of energy-intensive industrialization applied to a basically energy short region still partially isolated from the world energy market. Systemic factors are thus much more important than in the West. Due to this, solutions to the energy crisis in the East of Europe, be it through supply augmentation or conservation, belong as much in the sphere of politics and ideology as they do in the sphere of economics. The dissertation examines in a systematic manner the evolution and prospects of the energy economy in the region (Chapter 1), the present sectoral pattern of energy consumption (Chapter 2), and conversion (thermo-electric conversion in Chapter 3 and oil refining in Chapter 4). Four subsequent chapters are devoted to individual energy-consuming sectors such as industry, transportation, agriculture, and households. Finally, the potential and problems of energy conservation in Eastern Europe are analyzed in the context of broader economic policies and concerns of the states of the region. In the conclusion, topics in the energy economy of Eastern Europe requiring further study are outlined.

  18. An Integrated Study of the Holy Cross Mountains region of the Eastern European TESZ in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averill, M. G.; Bond, T.; Sroda, P.; Keller, G. R.; Miller, K.

    2002-12-01

    The Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) in Eastern Europe is an anomalous region marking the suture of Phanerozoic Western European terrains with the Precambrian Eastern European Craton (EEC). The nature of this suture is known primarily from geophysical studies. Seismic velocity and gravity models indicate changes of crustal thickness from 28-35 km to 42-47 km across the TTZ (Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone) from the Paleozoic Platform of Western Europe to the Eastern European Craton. Tectonic models suggest the presence of a Precambrian/Early Paleozoic passive margin beneath the TTZ. The Holy Cross Mountains in southeastern Poland represent an anomalous crustal block whose origin and interaction with the EEC is unknown. The subject of this study is the origin and tectonic evolution of this and adjacent crustal blocks in relation to the eastern TESZ and EEC. We have employed a technique to integrate industry acquired well and reflection data, as well as refraction data from the CELEBRATION 2000, POLONAISE '97 and TTZ experiments. We used well check shot surveys and CDP (common depth point) stacking velocities from reflection surveys in addition to refraction data as controls in a tomographic inversion. In turn, gravity, magnetics, drilling and geologic data is incorporated to support an integrated study of this region.

  19. Databases for Studies of Infrasound Propagation in the European Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Ringdal, Frode

    2010-05-01

    Industrial and military sources in northern Fennoscandia and NW Russia generate both seismic and infrasound signals observed at regional distances. Similar seismic signals constrain origin times and explosion yield and, using correlation detectors at the ARCES array, have enabled us to detect and classify hundreds of events from a small number of sites. This has in turn provided superb datasets for infrasound propagation studies. The multi-channel waveform correlation procedure has even had considerable success in detecting closely spaced events when the signals from subsequent events show considerable differences. A post-processing system which examines the alignment of the single-channel cross-correlation traces allows for very low detection thresholds with low false alarm rates. Near-surface explosions at Hukkakero in northern Finland generate infrasound signals on the seismic sensors at ARCES, 175 km to the North, near to the edge of the classical "Zone of Silence". Many tropospheric phase observations can be predicted using ray-tracing given favourable winds at low altitudes. However, the vast majority of the observed infrasound signals - probably refracted from stratospheric heights - are not predicted by ray-tracing, warranting a re-evaluation of propagation models for these distances. In 2008, a mini-array of microbarographs, co-located with ARCES seismometers, also observed later signals probably refracted from thermospheric heights. These signals are more impulsive and of smaller amplitude than the more typically observed signals. A second site near the northern coast of the Kola Peninsula is approximately 250 km from ARCES to the West and Apatity to the South. Despite poor waveform similarity between events, multichannel correlation detectors assign confidently over 350 events over an 8 year period to this site. Infrasound is observed at ARCES for almost all events in the summer and almost no events in the winter, and is observed at Apatity for almost

  20. A comparative study of psychophysical judgment of color reproductions on mobile displays between Europeans and Asians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyungah; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences in the psychophysical judgment of mobile display color appearances between Europeans and Asians. A total of 50 participants, comprising 20 Europeans (9 French, 6 Swedish, 3 Norwegians, and 2 Germans) and 30 Asians (30 Koreans) participated in this experiment. A total of 18 display stimuli with different correlated color temperatures were presented, varying from 2,470 to 18,330 K. Each stimulus was viewed under 11 illuminants ranging from 2,530 to 19,760 K, while their illuminance was consistent around 500 lux. The subjects were asked to assess the optimal level of the display stimuli under different illuminants. In general, confirming the previous studies on color reproduction, we found a positive correlation in the correlated color temperatures between the illuminants and optimal displays. However, Europeans preferred a lower color temperature compared to Asians along the entire range of the illuminants. Two regression equations were derived to predict the optimal display color temperature (y) under varying illuminants (x) as follows: y = α + β*log(x), where α = -8770.37 and β = 4279.29 for European (R2 = 0.95, p < .05), and α = -16076.35 and β = 6388.41 for Asian (R2 = 0.85, p < .05). The findings provide the theoretical basis from which manufacturers can take a cultural-sensitive approach to enhancing their products' appeal in the global markets.

  1. Smoking reduces fecundity: a European multicenter study on infertility and subfecundity. The European Study Group on Infertility and Subfecundity.

    PubMed

    Bolumar, F; Olsen, J; Boldsen, J

    1996-03-15

    Several studies published within the past 10 years indicate that smoking reduces fecundity, but not all studies have found this effect, and smoking cessation is not used routinely in infertility treatment in Europe. The present study was designed to examine male and female smoking at the start of a couple's waiting time to a planned pregnancy. Two types of samples were used: population-based samples of women aged 25-44 years who were randomly selected in different countries from census registers and electoral rolls, in which the unit of analysis was the couple; and pregnancy-based samples of pregnant women (at least 20 weeks' pregnant) who were consecutively recruited during prenatal care visits, in which the unit of analysis was a pregnancy. More than 4,000 couples were included in each sample, and 10 different regions in Europe took part in data collection. The data were collected between August 1991 and February 1993 by personal interview in all population-based samples and in all but three regions of the pregnancy sample, where self-administered questionnaires were used. The results based on the population sample showed a remarkably coherent association between female smoking and subfecundity in each individual country and in all countries together, both with the first pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-2.1, at the upper level of exposure) and during the most recent waiting time to pregnancy (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.1). Results based on the pregnancy sample were similar (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.3). No significant association was found with male smoking (in the population sample, OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.7-1.1 (first pregnancy) and OR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.3 (most recent waiting time); in the pregnancy sample, OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.7-1.1). The fecundity distribution among smokers appeared to be shifted toward longer waiting times without a change in the shape of the distribution. Women who have difficulty conceiving should try to stop smoking

  2. Standardised surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection in European acute care hospitals: a pilot study, 2013.

    PubMed

    van Dorp, Sofie M; Kinross, Pete; Gastmeier, Petra; Behnke, Michael; Kola, Axel; Delmée, Michel; Pavelkovich, Anastasia; Mentula, Silja; Barbut, Frédéric; Hajdu, Agnes; Ingebretsen, André; Pituch, Hanna; Macovei, Ioana S; Jovanović, Milica; Wiuff, Camilla; Schmid, Daniela; Olsen, Katharina Ep; Wilcox, Mark H; Suetens, Carl; Kuijper, Ed J

    2016-07-21

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains poorly controlled in many European countries, of which several have not yet implemented national CDI surveillance. In 2013, experts from the European CDI Surveillance Network project and from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control developed a protocol with three options of CDI surveillance for acute care hospitals: a 'minimal' option (aggregated hospital data), a 'light' option (including patient data for CDI cases) and an 'enhanced' option (including microbiological data on the first 10 CDI episodes per hospital). A total of 37 hospitals in 14 European countries tested these options for a three-month period (between 13 May and 1 November 2013). All 37 hospitals successfully completed the minimal surveillance option (for 1,152 patients). Clinical data were submitted for 94% (1,078/1,152) of the patients in the light option; information on CDI origin and outcome was complete for 94% (1,016/1,078) and 98% (294/300) of the patients in the light and enhanced options, respectively. The workload of the options was 1.1, 2.0 and 3.0 person-days per 10,000 hospital discharges, respectively. Enhanced surveillance was tested and was successful in 32 of the hospitals, showing that C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 was predominant (30% (79/267)). This study showed that standardised multicountry surveillance, with the option of integrating clinical and molecular data, is a feasible strategy for monitoring CDI in Europe. PMID:27472820

  3. European Non-Communicable Respiratory Disease Research, 2002-13: Bibliometric Study of Outputs and Funding

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John S. F.; Pallari, Elena; Sullivan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to map European research in chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs). It was intended to assist the European Commission and other research funders to identify gaps and overlaps in their portfolios, and to suggest ways in which they could improve the effectiveness of their support and increase the impact of the research on patient care and on the reduction of the incidence of the CRDs. Articles and reviews were identified in the Web of Science on research in six non-communicable respiratory diseases that were published in 2002–13 from 31 European countries. They represented only 0.8% of biomedical research output but these diseases accounted for 4.7% of the European disease burden, as measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), so the sub-field is seriously under-researched. Europe is prominent in the sub-field and published 56% of the world total, with the UK the most productive and publishing more than France and Italy, the next two countries, combined. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were the diseases with the most publications and the highest citation rates. They also received the most funding, with around two acknowledgments per paper (in 2009–13), whereas cystic fibrosis and emphysema averaged only one. Just over 37% of papers had no specific funding and depended on institutional support from universities and hospitals. PMID:27111670

  4. European Non-Communicable Respiratory Disease Research, 2002-13: Bibliometric Study of Outputs and Funding.

    PubMed

    Begum, Mursheda; Lewison, Grant; Wright, John S F; Pallari, Elena; Sullivan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to map European research in chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs). It was intended to assist the European Commission and other research funders to identify gaps and overlaps in their portfolios, and to suggest ways in which they could improve the effectiveness of their support and increase the impact of the research on patient care and on the reduction of the incidence of the CRDs. Articles and reviews were identified in the Web of Science on research in six non-communicable respiratory diseases that were published in 2002-13 from 31 European countries. They represented only 0.8% of biomedical research output but these diseases accounted for 4.7% of the European disease burden, as measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), so the sub-field is seriously under-researched. Europe is prominent in the sub-field and published 56% of the world total, with the UK the most productive and publishing more than France and Italy, the next two countries, combined. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were the diseases with the most publications and the highest citation rates. They also received the most funding, with around two acknowledgments per paper (in 2009-13), whereas cystic fibrosis and emphysema averaged only one. Just over 37% of papers had no specific funding and depended on institutional support from universities and hospitals. PMID:27111670

  5. Use of National and International Growth Charts for Studying Height in European Children: Development of Up-To-Date European Height-For-Age Charts

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Verrina, Enrico; Edefonti, Alberto; Molchanova, Elena A.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.; Schaefer, Franz; Jager, Kitty J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Growth charts based on data collected in different populations and time periods are key tools to assess children’s linear growth. We analyzed the impact of geographic factors and the secular trend on height-for-age charts currently used in European populations, developed up-to-date European growth charts, and studied the effect of using different charts in a sample of growth retarded children. Methods and Findings In an international survey we obtained 18 unique national height-for-age charts from 28 European countries and compared them with charts from the World Health Organization (WHO), Euro-Growth reference, and Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). As an example, we obtained height data from 3,534 children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from 13 countries via the ESPN/ERA-EDTA registry, a patient group generally suffering from growth retardation. National growth charts showed a clear secular trend in height (mean height increased on average 0.6 cm/decade) and a North-South height gradient in Europe. For countries without a recent (>1990) national growth chart novel European growth charts were constructed from Northern and Southern European reference populations, reflecting geographic height differences in mean final height of 3.9 cm in boys and 3.8 cm in girls. Mean height SDS of 2- to 17-year-old ESRD patients calculated from recent national or derived European growth charts (−1.91, 95% CI: −1.97 to −1.85) was significantly lower than when using CDC or WHO growth charts (−1.55, 95% CI: −1.61 to −1.49) (P<0.0001). Conclusion Differences between height-for-age charts may reflect true population differences, but are also strongly affected by the secular trend in height. The choice of reference charts substantially affects the clinical decision whether a child is considered short-for-age. Therefore, we advocate using recent national or European height-for-age charts derived from recent national data when monitoring growth

  6. Management of precancerous conditions and lesions in the stomach (MAPS): guideline from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), European Society of Pathology (ESP), and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED)

    PubMed Central

    Dinis-Ribeiro, M.; Areia, M.; de Vries, A. C.; Marcos-Pinto, R.; Monteiro-Soares, M.; O'Connor, A.; Pereira, C.; Pimentel-Nunes, P.; Correia, R.; Ensari, A.; Dumonceau, J. M.; Machado, J. C.; Macedo, G.; Malfertheiner, P.; Matysiak-Budnik, T.; Megraud, F.; Miki, K.; O'Morain, C.; Peek, R. M.; Ponchon, T.; Ristimaki, A.; Rembacken, B.; Carneiro, F.; Kuipers, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and epithelial dysplasia of the stomach are common and are associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. In the absence of guidelines, there is wide disparity in the management of patients with these premalignant conditions. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), the European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), the European Society of Pathology (ESP) and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED) have therefore combined efforts to develop evidence-based guidelines on the management of patients with precancerous conditions and lesions of the stomach (termed MAPS). A multidisciplinary group of 63 experts from 24 countries developed these recommendations by means of repeat online voting and a meeting in June 2011 in Porto, Portugal. The recommendations emphasize the increased cancer risk in patients with gastric atrophy and metaplasia, and the need for adequate staging in the case of high grade dysplasia, and they focus on treatment and surveillance indications and methods. PMID:22198778

  7. Building Evaluation Capacity in Spain: A Case Study of Rural Development and Empowerment in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Yague, Jose L.; Afonso, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The development of European Community administrative authority has greatly influenced the development of an evaluation culture among the southern and central member states of the European Union. The present case study from Spain provides an example of this diffusion through the use of an empowerment evaluation approach to build evaluation capacity…

  8. "Governmentality" in the Origins of European Female PE and Sport: The Spanish Case Study (1883-1936)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Raul Sanchez; Herraiz, Antonio Rivero

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is twofold: (1) to contribute to the analysis of the origins of modern European female PE and sports from a power perspective, inspired by Foucault's work; and (2) to present a detailed analysis of female PE and sport in Spain (1883-1936) as a specific European case study. It is argued that these physical activities…

  9. Changes in mortality inequalities over two decades: register based study of European countries

    PubMed Central

    Kulhánová, Ivana; Artnik, Barbara; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Clemens, Tom; Costa, Giuseppe; Dibben, Chris; Kalediene, Ramune; Lundberg, Olle; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Östergren, Olof; Prochorskas, Remigijus; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Looman, Caspar W N; de Gelder, Rianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether government efforts in reducing inequalities in health in European countries have actually made a difference to mortality inequalities by socioeconomic group. Design Register based study. Data source Mortality data by level of education and occupational class in the period 1990-2010, usually collected in a census linked longitudinal study design. We compared changes in mortality between the lowest and highest socioeconomic groups, and calculated their effect on absolute and relative inequalities in mortality (measured as rate differences and rate ratios, respectively). Setting All European countries for which data on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality were available for the approximate period between years 1990 and 2010. These included Finland, Norway, Sweden, Scotland, England and Wales (data applied to both together), France, Switzerland, Spain (Barcelona), Italy (Turin), Slovenia, and Lithuania. Results Substantial mortality declines occurred in lower socioeconomic groups in most European countries covered by this study. Relative inequalities in mortality widened almost universally, because percentage declines were usually smaller in lower socioeconomic groups. However, as absolute declines were often smaller in higher socioeconomic groups, absolute inequalities narrowed by up to 35%, particularly among men. Narrowing was partly driven by ischaemic heart disease, smoking related causes, and causes amenable to medical intervention. Progress in reducing absolute inequalities was greatest in Spain (Barcelona), Scotland, England and Wales, and Italy (Turin), and absent in Finland and Norway. More detailed studies preferably using individual level data are necessary to identify the causes of these variations. Conclusions Over the past two decades, trends in inequalities in mortality have been more favourable in most European countries than is commonly assumed. Absolute inequalities have decreased in several countries, probably

  10. European project on osteoarthritis: design of a six-cohort study on the personal and societal burden of osteoarthritis in an older European population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of arthritis, is a major contributor to functional impairment and loss of independence in older persons. The European Project on OSteoArthritis (EPOSA) is a collaborative study involving six European cohort studies on ageing. This project focuses on the personal and societal burden and its determinants of osteoarthritis. This paper describes the design of the project, and presents some descriptive analyses on selected variables across countries. Methods/design EPOSA is an observational study including pre-harmonized data from European cohort studies (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom) on older community-dwelling persons aged 65 to 85 years. In total, 2942 persons were included in the baseline study with a mean age of 74.2 years (SD 5.1), just over half were women (51,9%). The baseline assessment was conducted by a face-to-face interview followed by a clinical examination. Measures included physical, cognitive, psychological and social functioning, lifestyle behaviour, physical environment, wellbeing and care utilisation. The clinical examination included anthropometry, muscle strength, physical performance and OA exam. A follow-up assessment was performed 12–18 months after baseline. Discussion The EPOSA study is the first population-based study including a clinical examination of OA, using pre-harmonized data across European countries. The EPOSA study provides a unique opportunity to study the determinants and consequences of OA in general populations of older persons, including both care-seeking and non care-seeking persons. PMID:23597054

  11. Association Study for 26 Candidate Loci in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Patients from Four European Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Amit; Žižková, Veronika; Kocourková, Lenka; Petrkova, Jana; Bouros, Evangelos; Nunes, Hilario; Loštáková, Vladimíra; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Zissel, Gernot; Kolek, Vitezslav; Bouros, Demosthenes; Valeyre, Dominique; Petrek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) affects lung parenchyma with progressing fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to replicate MUC5B rs35705950 variants and determine new plausible candidate variants for IPF among four different European populations. We genotyped 26 IPF candidate loci in 165 IPF patients from four European countries, such as Czech Republic (n = 41), Germany (n = 33), Greece (n = 40), France (n = 51), and performed association study comparing observed variant distribution with that obtained in a genetically similar Czech healthy control population (n = 96) described in our earlier data report. A highly significant association for a promoter variant (rs35705950) of mucin encoding MUC5B gene was observed in all IPF populations, individually and combined [odds ratio (95% confidence interval); p-value as 5.23 (8.94–3.06); 1.80 × 10−11]. Another non-coding variant, rs7934606 in MUC2 was significant among German patients [2.85 (5.05–1.60); 4.03 × 10−4] and combined European IPF cases [2.18 (3.16–1.50); 3.73 × 10−5]. The network analysis for these variants indicated gene–gene and gene–phenotype interactions in IPF and lung biology. With replication of MUC5B rs35705950 previously reported in U.S. populations of European descent and indicating other plausible polymorphic variants relevant for IPF, we provide additional reference information for future extended functional and population studies aimed, ideally with inclusion of clinical parameters, at identification of IPF genetic markers. PMID:27462317

  12. Patient organisations and the reimbursement process for medicines: an exploratory study in eight European countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the role European patient organisations play in the process of deciding on reimbursement for medicines. Therefore we explore the current role of patient organisations in the process of reimbursement for medicines in Western Europe. We focus in particular on collaboration between patient organisations and the pharmaceutical industry in this respect. Methods Sixty-eight patient organisations representing seven medical conditions, from ten Western European countries, were asked to participate in the study. The participating organisations reported their experiences in a web-based questionnaire. Results Twenty-one patient organisations completed the questionnaire (response rate: 31%), of which ten (47.6%) demanded reimbursement for medicines. Organisations demanding reimbursement were larger than those not demanding reimbursement. The main aim of these organisations was to create better accessibility of medicines for patients. Most organisations limited themselves to single actions. Only two engaged in multiple actions. Almost all organisations had general policies on cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry, with autonomy as the key feature. The patient organisations said they were reasonably successful and almost always satisfied with their own role in the reimbursement process. Conclusion Our study has found that the role of European patient organisations in the reimbursement process still seems limited, especially for small patient organisations. PMID:20170557

  13. Drinking behaviours and blood alcohol concentration in four European drinking environments: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC) at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%), Spanish (59.6%) and British (61.4%) samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%). In those drinking < 3 h at interview, there were no differences in BAC by gender or nationality. In UK participants, BAC increased significantly in those who had been drinking longer, reaching 0.13% (median) in females and 0.17% in males drinking > 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08%) was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife. PMID:22151744

  14. Low heel ultrasound parameters predict mortality in men: results from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS)

    PubMed Central

    Pye, Stephen R.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Boonen, Steven; Gielen, Evelien; Adams, Judith E.; Ward, Kate A.; Lee, David M.; Bartfai, György; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Finn, Joseph D.; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S.; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E.; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Wu, Frederick C.; O'Neill, Terence W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: low bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is associated with increased mortality. The relationship between other skeletal phenotypes and mortality is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between quantitative heel ultrasound parameters and mortality in a cohort of European men. Methods: men aged 40–79 years were recruited for participation in a prospective study of male ageing: the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). At baseline, subjects attended for quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel (Hologic—SAHARA) and completed questionnaires on lifestyle factors and co-morbidities. Height and weight were measured. After a median of 4.3 years, subjects were invited to attend a follow-up assessment, and reasons for non-participation, including death, were recorded. The relationship between QUS parameters (broadband ultrasound attenuation [BUA] and speed of sound [SOS]) and mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. Results: from a total of 3,244 men (mean age 59.8, standard deviation [SD] 10.8 years), 185 (5.7%) died during the follow-up period. After adjusting for age, centre, body mass index, physical activity, current smoking, number of co-morbidities and general health, each SD decrease in BUA was associated with a 20% higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per SD = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–1.4). Compared with those in higher quintiles (2nd–5th), those in the lowest quintile of BUA and SOS had a greater mortality risk (BUA: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1–2.3 and SOS: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.2–2.2). Conclusion: lower heel ultrasound parameters are associated with increased mortality in European men. PMID:26162912

  15. Associations of adiponectin with individual European ancestry in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Bidulescu, Aurelian; Choudhry, Shweta; Musani, Solomon K.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Liu, Jiankang; Rotimi, Charles N.; Wilson, James G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Gibbons, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Compared with European Americans, African Americans (AAs) exhibit lower levels of the cardio-metabolically protective adiponectin even after accounting for adiposity measures. Because few studies have examined in AA the association between adiponectin and genetic admixture, a dense panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) was used to estimate the individual proportions of European ancestry (PEA) for the AAs enrolled in a large community-based cohort, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We tested the hypothesis that plasma adiponectin and PEA are directly associated and assessed the interaction with a series of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Methods: Plasma specimens from 1439 JHS participants were analyzed by ELISA for adiponectin levels. Using pseudo-ancestral population genotype data from the HapMap Consortium, PEA was estimated with a panel of up to 1447 genome-wide preselected AIMs by a maximum likelihood approach. Interaction assessment, stepwise linear and cubic multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to analyze the cross-sectional association between adiponectin and PEA. Results: Among the study participants (62% women; mean age 48 ± 12 years), the median (interquartile range) of PEA was 15.8 (9.3)%. Body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.04) and insulin resistance (p = 0.0001) modified the association between adiponectin and PEA. Adiponectin was directly and linearly associated with PEA (β = 0.62 ± 0.28, p = 0.03) among non-obese (n = 673) and insulin sensitive participants (n = 1141; β = 0.74 ± 0.23, p = 0.001), but not among those obese or with insulin resistance. No threshold point effect was detected for non-obese participants. Conclusions: In a large AA population, the individual proportion of European ancestry was linearly and directly associated with plasma adiponectin among non-obese and non insulin-resistant participants, pointing to the interaction of genetic and metabolic factors influencing adiponectin levels. PMID:24575123

  16. Risk factors for atrophic chronic gastritis in a European population: results of the Eurohepygast study

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: The development of atrophic chronic gastritis (ACG) is multifactorial, involving environment as well as host responses to Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of this study was to determine factors involved in ACG in a European dyspeptic population. Methods: Data concerning sociodemographics, social behaviour, biological aspects, diet, and virulence factors of H pylori strains were collected in a cross sectional study from 19 European centres in 14 countries. Dyspeptic H pylori positive patients with ACG or non-ACG (NACG) at histology were included. Anti-CagA antibodies were evaluated by two immunoblot tests and anti-VacA antibodies by one. Logistic regression models were constructed, and estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated from the coefficients. Results: Of the 451 patients included in the study, 267 were analysed: 202 had NACG and 65 ACG. Mean age was 44.4 years and 63% were women. Risk factors for atrophy identified by multivariate analysis were: age over 60 years (OR 4.14, 95% CI 1.79–9.58), coffee consumption (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.07–5.16), sedative consumption (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.04–4.52), and harbouring anti-CagA and anti-VacA antibodies simultaneously (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.26–7.56), while the odds were significantly reduced for those with an anxiety score of 6 or more (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21–0.99). Conclusion: The simultaneous presence of anti-CagA and anti-VacA antibodies enhanced the risk of ACG in European dyspeptic patients. Failure to discern diet and family history as risk factors for ACG may suggest that diet is homogeneous in Europe and that most of the risk factors for ACG identified so far are identical to risk factors for H pylori infection. PMID:12010878

  17. Occupational exposure to endocrine disruptors and lymphoma risk in a multi-centric European study

    PubMed Central

    Costas, L; Infante-Rivard, C; Zock, J-P; Van Tongeren, M; Boffetta, P; Cusson, A; Robles, C; Casabonne, D; Benavente, Y; Becker, N; Brennan, P; Foretova, L; Maynadié, M; Staines, A; Nieters, A; Cocco, P; de Sanjosé, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Incidence rates of lymphoma are usually higher in men than in women, and oestrogens may protect against lymphoma. Methods: We evaluated occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) among 2457 controls and 2178 incident lymphoma cases and subtypes from the European Epilymph study. Results: Over 30 years of exposure to EDCs compared to no exposure was associated with a 24% increased risk of mature B-cell neoplasms (P-trend=0.02). Associations were observed among men, but not women. Conclusions: Prolonged occupational exposure to endocrine disruptors seems to be moderately associated with some lymphoma subtypes. PMID:25742473

  18. European Academies Advise on Gain-of-Function Studies in Influenza Virus Research

    PubMed Central

    Fears, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Gain-of-function (GoF) studies to understand factors affecting transmissibility of potentially pandemic pathogens are controversial. The European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC) recently published consensus recommendations relating to GoF research review and management on self-regulation and harmonization; bioethical considerations; benefit-risk assessment; biosafety, and biosecurity advisory options; and publication of sensitive information. A layered approach to integration of responsibilities must include conforming to the stringent rules and guidance already existing. Further commitment is essential to extend the debate on issues worldwide. PMID:26699646

  19. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

  20. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study.

    PubMed

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Agueda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries. PMID:23152194

  1. Eliminating Language Barriers Online at European Prisons (ELBEP): A Case-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkan, M.; Toprak, E.; Kumtepe, A. T.; Kumtepe, E. Genc; Ataizi, M.; Pilanci, H.; Mutlu, M. E.; Kayabas, I.; Kayabas, B. Kip

    2011-01-01

    ELBEP (Eliminating Language Barriers in European Prisons Through Open and Distance Education Technology) is a multilateral project funded by the European Union (EU) Lifelong Learning, Grundtvig (Adult Education) Programme. It aims to overcome language/communication problems between prison staff and foreign inmates at European prisons via online…

  2. U.S. Taxation of Business: Relevance of the European Experience. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLure, Charles E., Jr.

    American and European business taxation policies are compared in this booklet. Topics discussed in the paper include effects of the corporation income tax, integration of income taxation, and the value added tax. Two major differences between the American and European systems are noted. First, European countries derive substantial portions of…

  3. Ethical and social issues in presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease: a European Community collaborative study. European Community Huntington's Disease Collaborative Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of social and ethical aspects of presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease has been carried out, based on data on linked DNA markers, from four major testing centres in different European Community countries (Belgium, Italy, Netherlands, and United Kingdom). Information was available on 603 applicants, with 213 final results given, of which 32% gave an increased risk. A series of specific issues and problems were documented systematically for all applicants, results being given on frequency of occurrence and illustrated by individual case histories. The principal issues could be grouped as problems of inappropriate referral, problems involving relatives, and problems relating to disclosure of results. At least one important problem was encountered in 46% of applicants, emphasising the importance of expert counselling, preparation, and support of applicants, and of close liaison between clinical, counselling, and laboratory staff. The extensive and detailed information available for Huntington's disease from this and other studies will be of considerable value in relation to genetic testing for other late onset genetic disorders and will be even more relevant to Huntington's disease now that specific mutation analysis is possible for this disorder. PMID:8133502

  4. Hospital managers' need for information in decision-making--An interview study in nine European countries.

    PubMed

    Kidholm, Kristian; Ølholm, Anne Mette; Birk-Olsen, Mette; Cicchetti, Americo; Fure, Brynjar; Halmesmäki, Esa; Kahveci, Rabia; Kiivet, Raul-Allan; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Wild, Claudia; Sampietro-Colom, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Assessments of new health technologies in Europe are often made at the hospital level. However, the guidelines for health technology assessment (HTA), e.g. the EUnetHTA Core Model, are produced by national HTA organizations and focus on decision-making at the national level. This paper describes the results of an interview study with European hospital managers about their need for information when deciding about investments in new treatments. The study is part of the AdHopHTA project. Face-to-face, structured interviews were conducted with 53 hospital managers from nine European countries. The hospital managers identified the clinical, economic, safety and organizational aspects of new treatments as being the most relevant for decision-making. With regard to economic aspects, the hospital managers typically had a narrower focus on budget impact and reimbursement. In addition to the information included in traditional HTAs, hospital managers sometimes needed information on the political and strategic aspects of new treatments, in particular the relationship between the treatment and the strategic goals of the hospital. If further studies are able to verify our results, guidelines for hospital-based HTA should be altered to reflect the information needs of hospital managers when deciding about investments in new treatments. PMID:26362086

  5. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular. PMID:20550647

  6. Sustaining international partnerships: the European Master of Science Programme in Occupational Therapy, a case study.

    PubMed

    Ilott, Irene; Kottorp, Anders; la Cour, Karen; van Nes, Fenna; Jonsson, Hans; Sadlo, Gaynor

    2013-06-01

    International partnerships are a mechanism for supporting the academic development of occupational therapy and promoting cultural competence. This case study describes the factors that have helped to sustain a post-qualifying programme implemented by five higher education institutions in Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK since 1999. Data collection methods were documentary analysis and the reflections of a purposive sample of six key informants. Cohort and outcome data, from 193 students from 31 countries who enrolled between 1999 and 2011, are reported. Each cohort comprises students from an average of eight countries to optimize inter-cultural dialogue. Four factors support sustainability. These are 1) supportive professional European networks; 2) timeliness and alignment with European higher education policy; 3) partnership structures and processes that emphasize joint decision making and accountability; and 4) the stimulus and satisfaction associated with internationalization. The main limitations are considering the OT-EuroMaster as an intrinsic case study and using opportunistic data collection that undermines the rigor and transferability of the findings. Future opportunities include doctoral networks, transnational research and sharing our curricula design with other Regions to spread the collaborative, capacity building endeavours more widely. PMID:23559568

  7. Detecting Genetic Isolation in Human Populations: A Study of European Language Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Capocasa, Marco; Battaggia, Cinzia; Anagnostou, Paolo; Montinaro, Francesco; Boschi, Ilaria; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Coia, Valentina; Crivellaro, Federica; Bisol, Giovanni Destro

    2013-01-01

    The identification of isolation signatures is fundamental to better understand the genetic structure of human populations and to test the relations between cultural factors and genetic variation. However, with current approaches, it is not possible to distinguish between the consequences of long-term isolation and the effects of reduced sample size, selection and differential gene flow. To overcome these limitations, we have integrated the analysis of classical genetic diversity measures with a Bayesian method to estimate gene flow and have carried out simulations based on the coalescent. Combining these approaches, we first tested whether the relatively short history of cultural and geographical isolation of four “linguistic islands” of the Eastern Alps (Lessinia, Sauris, Sappada and Timau) had left detectable signatures in their genetic structure. We then compared our findings to previous studies of European population isolates. Finally, we explored the importance of demographic and cultural factors in shaping genetic diversity among the groups under study. A combination of small initial effective size and continued genetic isolation from surrounding populations seems to provide a coherent explanation for the diversity observed among Sauris, Sappada and Timau, which was found to be substantially greater than in other groups of European isolated populations. Simulations of micro-evolutionary scenarios indicate that ethnicity might have been important in increasing genetic diversity among these culturally related and spatially close populations. PMID:23418562

  8. A European research infrastructure for the aerosol study on a continental scale: EARLINET-ASOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amodeo, Aldo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Bösenberg, Jens; Ansmann, Albert; Apituley, Arnoud; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Balis, Dimitris; Böckmann, Christine; Chaikovsky, Anatoly; Comeron, Adolfo; Freudenthaler, Volker; Gustaffson, Ove; Hansen, Georg; Mitev, Valentin; Nicolae, Doina; Papayannis, Alexandros; Perrone, Maria Rita; Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Pujadas, Manuel; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Ravetta, Francois; Rizi, Vincenzo; Simeonov, Valentin; Spinelli, Nicola; Stoyanov, Dimitar; Trickl, Thomas; Wiegner, Matthias

    2007-10-01

    The present knowledge of the aerosol distribution is not sufficient to estimate the aerosol influence on global and regional environmental conditions and climate. This observational gap can be closed by using advanced laser remote sensing. EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) is the first aerosol lidar network, established in 2000, with the main goal to provide a comprehensive, quantitative, and statistically significant database for the aerosol distribution on a continental scale. EARLINET is a coordinated network of European stations (25 at present) using advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The network activity is based on simultaneous scheduled measurements, a rigorous quality assurance program addressing both instruments and evaluation algorithms, and a standardised data exchange format. Further observations are performed to monitor special events. EARLINET-ASOS (Advanced Sustainable Observation System) is a five year EC Project started in 2006, based on the EARLINET infrastructure. The main objectives are: to make EARLINET a world-leading instrument for the observation of the 4-D aerosol distribution on continental scale; to foster aerosol-related process studies, validation of satellite sensors, model development and validation, assimilation of aerosol data into operational models; and to build a comprehensive climatology of the aerosol distribution.

  9. Nuclear waste incineration and accelerator aspects from the European PDS-XADS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Alex C.

    2005-04-01

    In the context of general environmental concerns, the issue of waste from nuclear power plants is a question of actual interest. Here fundamental research in Nuclear Science may have great potential impact on society and on the longer-term future. In contrast to certain non-scientifically voiced opininos, it is clear, from basic facts of Nuclear Science, that e.g. fast neutrons can transmute long-lived radio-toxic components of the spent fuel into short-lived species. Because of the flexibility and control needed for the transmutation of large quantities of nuclear waste with a high content of minor actinides, one could favor for a transmuter reactor a sub-critical system, where the needed additional neutrons come from an external source, i.e. a high-energy proton accelerator producing spallation neutrons. In the European context, a roadmap for this technology was developped by a technical expert group. Consecutive to this, the European project PDS-XADS has been launched, as a preliminary design study for an Accelerator-Driven System. Here we shall report the conclusions for the layout of the accelerator and the associated beam-line to the reactor. The technical options have been chosen with the reliability of the accelerator as prime design criterion.

  10. General Practitioners Recognizing Alcohol Dependence: A Large Cross-Sectional Study in 6 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Jürgen; Allamani, Allaman; Vedova, Roberto Della; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Landsmane, Inga; Manthey, Jakob; Moreno-España, José; Pieper, Lars; Probst, Charlotte; Snikere, Sigita; Struzzo, Pierluigi; Voller, Fabio; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Gual, Antoni; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Although alcohol dependence causes marked mortality and disease burden in Europe, the treatment rate is low. Primary care could play a key role in reducing alcohol-attributable harm by screening, brief interventions, and initiating or referral to treatment. This study investigates identification of alcohol dependence in European primary care settings. METHODS Assessments from 13,003 general practitioners, and 9,098 interviews (8,476 joint number of interviewed patients with a physician’s assessment) were collected in 6 European countries. Alcohol dependence, comorbidities, and health service utilization were assessed by the general practitioner and independently using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and other structured interviews. Weighted regression analyses were used to compare the impact of influencing variables on both types of diagnoses. RESULTS The rate of patients being identified as alcohol dependent by the CIDI or a general practitioner was about equally high, but there was not a lot of overlap between cases identified. Alcohol-dependent patients identified by a physician were older, had higher rates of physicial comorbidity (liver disease, hypertension), and were socially more marginalized, whereas average consumption of alcohol and mental comorbidity were equally high in both groups. CONCLUSION General practitioners were able to identify alcohol dependence, but the cases they identified differed from cases identified using the CIDI. The role of the CIDI as the reference standard should be reexamined, as older alcohol-dependent patients with severe comorbidities seemed to be missed in this assessment. PMID:25583889

  11. An European historical reconstruction of sea surface dynamics (waves and storm surge) for coastal impact studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, Melisa; Perez, Jorge; Cid, Alba; Castanedo, Sonia; Losada, Inigo; Medina, Raul; Mendez, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Despite their outstanding relevance in coastal processes, a study of the sea surface dynamics due to atmospheric wind and pressure variations are rather limited in comparison with the mean sea level rise. Data of waves and surges along the European region are scarce and in-homogeneous, not only in terms of spatial coverage but also in terms of temporal coverage. This study presents two databases focused on a historical reconstruction of: (i) the wind-generated waves (GOW) and (ii) the meteorological sea level component (GOS). The GOW and GOS datasets cover the whole European coast (North Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea) at high-spatial resolution from 1979 to present. The meteorological sea level component (storm surge) has been generated by the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). To take into account non-linear interactions between tides and surges, both dynamics were simulated jointly. Final results of meteorological component of sea level were obtained by subtracting the astronomical tide from the simulated sea surface. The model was set-up for Europe using an orthogonal grid, with a horizontal resolution ranging between 3.5 to 11 km. A spatial domain of approximately 5 km was used for the Black Sea. Local coastal waves can be the integrated result of the ocean surface over a large region of influence. GOW-Europe is designed from a multigrid approach based on the overlapping of two-way nested domains. The coarser spatial resolution along the European coast of GOW is 15 km. The generation and propagation of the sea surface waves of GOW-Europe are simulated with the model WAVEWATCH III v4.18. Effects of non-linear wave-wave interactions, whitecapping and depth-induced refraction are considered in the propagation model. In order to validate GOW and GOS over Europe with available observations, an exhaustive comparison with in-situ and remote measurements was developed. In-situ buoys and tide-gauges are used to compare hourly time

  12. Feasibility Study of the Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer (SGG) Flight Test on the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the feasibility of conducting a flight test of the Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer (SGG) Experiment Module on one of the reflights of the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA). EURECA was developed expressly to accommodate space science experimentation, while providing a high quality microgravity environment. As a retrievable carrier, it offers the ability to recover science experiments after a nominal six months of operations in orbit. The study concluded that the SGG Experiment Module can be accommodated and operated in a EURECA reflight mission. It was determined that such a flight test would enable the verification of the SGG Instrument flight performance and validate the design and operation of the Experiment Module. It was also concluded that a limited amount of scientific data could be obtained on this mission.

  13. GREATER KUDU (TRAGELAPHUS STREPSICEROS) MORTALITY IN EUROPEAN ZOOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Antoine; Lamglait, Benjamin; Petit, Thierry; Roman, Yannick; Jebram, Joerg

    2016-06-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 39 European institutions holding greater kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), in order to determine the causes of captive greater kudu mortality. All reported macroscopic lesions and histopathologic observations, as well as other information regarding individuals that died, were analyzed to determine the most affected body systems and causes of death. Overall response rate was 31%, and 131 individuals were included in the study. The most frequently affected body systems were the digestive system (47%), respiratory system (38%), musculoskeletal system (37%), and cardiovascular system (32%). Most frequent causes of death were infectious diseases (27%) and trauma/accidents (18%); the cause was undetermined in 28% of cases. Nutrition-related disorders were difficult to assess, but results highlight possible nutritional imbalances. This retrospective study represents the first overview of greater kudu mortality in a captive population. PMID:27468026

  14. Correlations Between Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma and Other Cancers: An Ecological Study in Forty European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet; Serrano, Jose Luis Fernandez-Crehuet; Allam, Mohamed Farouk; Navajas, Rafael Fernandez-Crehuet

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Methods: Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We analyzed the age-adjusted and gender-stratified incidence rates for different localizations of cancer in forty European countries and calculated their correlation using Pearson's correlation test. Results: In males, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with testicular cancer (r = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68–0.89]), myeloma (r = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.46–0.81]), prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.43–0.80]), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (r = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.39–0.78]). In females, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with breast cancer (r = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.64–0.88]), colorectal cancer (r = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.52–0.83]), and NHL (r = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50–0.83]). Conclusions: These correlations call to conduct new studies about the epidemiology of cancer in general and cutaneous malignant melanoma risk factors in particular. PMID:27217938

  15. Anthropometric measurements and vertebral deformities. European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS) Group.

    PubMed

    Johnell, O; O'Neill, T; Felsenberg, D; Kanis, J; Cooper, C; Silman, A J

    1997-08-15

    To investigate the association between anthropometric indices and morphometrically determined vertebral deformity, the authors carried out a cross-sectional study using data from the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS), a population-based study of vertebral osteoporosis in 36 European centers from 19 countries. A total of 16,047 EVOS subjects were included in this analysis, of whom 1,973 subjects (915 males, 1,058 females) (12.3%) aged 50 years or over had one or more vertebral deformities ("cases"). The cases were compared with the 14,074 subjects (6,539 males, 7,535 females) with morphometrically normal spines ("controls"). Data were collected on self-reported height at age 25 years and minimum weight after age 25 years, as well as on current measured height and weight. Body mass index (BMI) and height and weight change were calculated from these data. The relations between these variables and vertebral deformity were examined separately by sex with logistic regression adjusting for age, smoking, and physical activity. In females, there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing quintile of current weight, current BMI, and weight gain since age 25 years. In males, subjects in the lightest quintile for these measures were at increased risk but there was no evidence of a trend. An ecologic analysis by country revealed a negative correlation between mean BMI and the prevalence of deformity in females but not in males. The authors conclude that low body weight is associated with presence of vertebral deformity. PMID:9270407

  16. Differences in Energy Balance-Related Behaviours in European Preschool Children: The ToyBox-Study

    PubMed Central

    De Craemer, Marieke; Lateva, Mina; Iotova, Violeta; De Decker, Ellen; Verloigne, Maïté; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Androutsos, Odysseas; Socha, Piotr; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Moreno, Luis; Koletzko, Berthold; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to compare levels of energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and dietary behaviours (more specifically water consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and unhealthy snacking)) in four- to six-year-old preschoolers from six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, and Spain) within the ToyBox cross-sectional study. Methods A sample of 4,045 preschoolers (4.77 ± 0.43 years; 52.2% boys) had valid physical activity data (steps per day), parents of 8,117 preschoolers (4.78 ± 0.46 years; 53.0% boys) completed a parental questionnaire with questions on sedentary behaviours (television viewing, computer use, and quiet play), and parents of 7,244 preschoolers (4.77 ± 0.44 years; 52.0% boys) completed a food frequency questionnaire with questions on water consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and unhealthy snacking. Results The highest levels of physical activity were found in Spain (12,669 steps/day on weekdays), while the lowest levels were found in Bulgaria and Greece (9,777 and 9,656 steps/day on weekdays, respectively). German preschoolers spent the least amount of time in television viewing (43.3 min/day on weekdays), while Greek preschoolers spent the most time in television viewing (88.5 min/day on weekdays). A considerable amount of time was spent in quiet play in all countries, with the highest levels in Poland (104.9 min/day on weekdays), and the lowest levels in Spain (60.4 min/day on weekdays). Belgian, German, and Polish preschoolers had the lowest intakes of water and the highest intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages. The intake of snacks was the highest in Belgian preschoolers (73.1 g/day) and the lowest in Greek preschoolers (53.3 g/day). Conclusions Across six European countries, differences in preschoolers’ energy balance-related behaviours were found. Future interventions should target European preschoolers’ energy balance

  17. Investigating the effects of ICT on innovation and performance of European hospitals: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, Spyros; Loukis, Euripidis N

    2016-05-01

    Hospitals are making big investments in various types of ICT, so it is important to investigate their effects on innovation and performance. This paper presents an empirical study in this direction, based on data for 743 hospitals from 18 European countries. We specified and estimated econometrically five equations: one for product innovation, one for process innovation and three equations for the three different dimensions of (ICT-enabled) hospital performance. All five equations included various ICT-related variables reflecting ICT infrastructure and a series of important ICT applications, some of them hospital-specific, and some others of general business use, and also ICT personnel (viewed as a kind of 'soft' ICT investment), while the performance equations also included the two innovation measures. PMID:25822165

  18. Studying snow cover in European Russia with the use of remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telegina, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Satellite data are used to study water balance in large river basins in the East European Plain. For this purpose, the accuracy of estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) based on microwave remote sensing data was evaluated through the comparison of these data with SWE measurements in open and forested areas. The errors of the SWE estimates, evaluated as their relative root-mean-square deviations from the measured values, are maximal in the Northern Dvina basin (53%); for the Oka and Don river basins, the errors are 35 and 33%, respectively. The main problems of remote sensing for northern river basins occur due to the thick canopy and the high snowpack, whose height exceeds the penetration depth. For the southern regions and midland river basins, a priority problem is due to the presence of liquid water in the snowpack during thaws.

  19. Cosmic radiation and cancer mortality among airline pilots: results from a European cohort study (ESCAPE).

    PubMed

    Langner, I; Blettner, M; Gundestrup, M; Storm, H; Aspholm, R; Auvinen, A; Pukkala, E; Hammer, G P; Zeeb, H; Hrafnkelsson, J; Rafnsson, V; Tulinius, H; De Angelis, G; Verdecchia, A; Haldorsen, T; Tveten, U; Eliasch, H; Hammar, N; Linnersjö, A

    2004-02-01

    Cosmic radiation is an occupational risk factor for commercial aircrews. In this large European cohort study (ESCAPE) its association with cancer mortality was investigated on the basis of individual effective dose estimates for 19,184 male pilots. Mean annual doses were in the range of 2-5 mSv and cumulative lifetime doses did not exceed 80 mSv. All-cause and all-cancer mortality was low for all exposure categories. A significant negative risk trend for all-cause mortality was seen with increasing dose. Neither external and internal comparisons nor nested case-control analyses showed any substantially increased risks for cancer mortality due to ionizing radiation. However, the number of deaths for specific types of cancer was low and the confidence intervals of the risk estimates were rather wide. Difficulties in interpreting mortality risk estimates for time-dependent exposures are discussed. PMID:14648170

  20. Joint statement of the European Association for the Study of Obesity and the European Society of Hypertension: obesity and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jens; Toplak, Hermann; Grassi, Guido; Yumuk, Volkan; Kotsis, Vasilios; Engeli, Stefan; Cuspidi, Cesare; Nilsson, Peter M; Finer, Nick; Doehner, Wolfram

    2016-09-01

    Obese individuals are more likely to develop heart failure. Yet, once heart failure is established, the impact of overweight and obesity on prognosis and survival is unclear. The purpose of this joint scientific statement of the European Association for the Study of Obesity and the European Society of Hypertension is to provide an overview on the current scientific literature on obesity and heart failure in terms of prognosis, mechanisms, and clinical management implications. Moreover, the document identifies open questions that ought to be addressed. The need for more tailored weight management recommendations in heart failure will be emphasized and, in line with the emerging evidence, aims to distinguish between primary disease and secondary outcome prevention. In the primary prevention of heart failure, it appears prudent advising obese individuals to lose or achieve a healthy body weight, especially in those with risk factors such as hypertension or type 2 diabetes. However, there is no evidence from clinical trials to guide weight management in overweight or obese patients with established heart failure. Prospective clinical trials are strongly encouraged. PMID:27488547

  1. Fostering Self-Regulated Learning through the European Language Portfolio: An Embedded Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Nicholas Allan

    2014-01-01

    The European Language Portfolio (ELP) is an alternative assessment used in foreign language classes throughout Europe to support and record language learning. Directly linked to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (Council of Europe, 2001) proficiency guidelines, it is designed to achieve an ambitious dual goal: document…

  2. Studies in Business Administration in the European Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavero Rubio, José Antonio; Mullor, Javier Reig; Martín, Agustín Pérez

    2015-01-01

    On signing the Bologna declaration in 1999, European countries committed themselves to addressing the reforms necessary for adapting their university education to the European Higher Education Area. This modification process culminated in 2010, and this research aims to analyse the degree of divergence that currently exists in each course subject…

  3. Towards a European Academic Labour Market?: Some Lessons Drawn from Empirical Studies on Academic Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musselin, Christine

    2004-01-01

    In Europe, academic mobility has a long tradition which began with the birth of the European universities in the middle ages. Recently, European policies were strongly oriented towards the promotion of student and academic mobility and the creation of research networks and projects within Europe. Nevertheless, academic labour markets in Europe…

  4. Study of seismic events in the Central Part of East European Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunova, Ella; Sanina, Irina; Ivanchenko, Galina; Nesterkina, Margarita; Konstantinovskaya, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    A measurement system for location seismic events in the Central Part of East European Platform is situated within the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory of the RAS Institute of Geospheres Dynamics and consists of 12 seismic stations. One vertical station is located in the center of the group in a shaft tunnel. The other stations are located on the periphery in three concentric circles and are almost equally spaced with regard to the terrain to ensure full azimuth coverage to the maximum extent possible. The unique array identifies events with a magnitude up to 3 at the distances until 1000 km within the Central Part of East European platform. Most of the events recorded by the Mikhnevo array at a distance of 60-500 km are man-made events represented by explosions in quarries during the development of mineral deposits. Long-term seismic records of explosions in quarries have been processed for the period from 2004 to 2014 to generate a database containing standard waveforms for each quarry. Some events of unknown origin appear in the records for this period; these do not correspond to the identified seismic forms for explosions in known quarries. Epicenter coordinates for these events do not match the coordinates of the known quarries. A cosmotectonic map of the Central Part of East European Platform was compiled during the studies using the LESSA software package (Lineament Extraction and Stripe Statistical Analysis) and data on the deep crustal structure, which made it possible to define the morphostructural plan and evaluate the geodynamic conditions in the area. The deep basement structure through the sedimentary cover is expressed in the surface texture of the area under study. The region's neotectonics is closely related to the history of deep structures, in particular, aulacogens extending in different directions, which may show in the contemporary morphostructural plan, mainly as inversion and partially inherited forms. Out of events of unknown nature

  5. European survey of fertility and pregnancy in women with Crohn's disease: a case control study by European collaborative group.

    PubMed Central

    Mayberry, J F; Weterman, I T

    1986-01-01

    Two hundred and seventy five patients with Crohn's disease from five countries were interviewed. Each patient was matched with a control of the same age. Of the 275 women with Crohn's disease 224 had been married at some time compared with 208 controls. The mean age at marriage was 23 years. Diagnosis of Crohn's disease was made five years later and the survey was conducted on average 16 years after marriage. Cases and controls had a similar obstetric study before diagnosis. After diagnosis there was a significant reduction in the number of children born to patients (0.4) compared with controls (0.7). Crohn's disease did not increase the rate of miscarriage or Caesarean section but prematurity was more common in patients (16%) than controls (7%). The site of disease at diagnosis did not affect these findings. Medical advice against pregnancy may be partly responsible for this reduction in fertility, but patients practised contraception less than controls and a significantly greater proportion of these (42%) failed to become pregnant compared with controls (28%). Crohn's disease results in subfertility. PMID:3732892

  6. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants' Comfort in European "Modern" Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study.

    PubMed

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A; Saraga, Dikaia E; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G; Bluyssen, Philomena M

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers' comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants' comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 "modern" office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants' comfort. The highest association with occupants' overall comfort was found for "noise", followed by "air quality", "light" and "thermal" satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that "noise inside the buildings" was highly associated with occupants' overall comfort. "Layout of the offices" was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building's location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants. PMID:27120608

  7. The media and cancer: education or entertainment? An ethnographic study of European cancer journalists

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Batura, Rekha; Sullivan, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The media plays a vital role in informing the public about new developments in cancer research and influencing cancer policy. This is no easy task, in view of the myriad of trials and wonder drugs that purport to be the ‘magic bullet’. However, misrepresentation can have profound consequences. In this qualitative study, we sought to understand the interaction between the media and cancer through the perspective of European science journalists by defining their attitudes towards current cancer research and challenges faced when reporting science news. A total of 67 respondents took part in this online survey, which was distributed by the European CanCer Organisation (ECCO) to all its media contacts between June and September 2013. Fifty-three per cent had over 20 years experience in reporting science news stories. The respondents utilised a number of media formats, including newsprint, online services, and radio. Fifty per cent ranked public interest as the greatest influence on their selection of cancer research topics, followed by topicality. Respondents were conscious of being fed ambiguous and exaggerated results from trials by the research community. Sixty-five per cent of respondents would appreciate access to a forum of experts willing to provide comment on new research findings. Seventy per cent highlighted the importance of prompt responses from scientists and researchers during correspondence, and the need to have advance warning of new developments (49%). To conclude – coverage of cancer related issues and scientific advances require greater collaboration between the press and cancer healthcare community to provide both credibility and accountability for the health information disseminated. Key areas include a more precise definition of the research context and differentiation of absolute and relative risks, as well as individual and population risks and an informed discussion about the realities and limitations of cancer care and research. PMID

  8. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    PubMed Central

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A.; Saraga, Dikaia E.; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G.; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G.; Bluyssen, Philomena M.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 “modern” office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants’ comfort. The highest association with occupants’ overall comfort was found for “noise”, followed by “air quality”, “light” and “thermal” satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that “noise inside the buildings” was highly associated with occupants’ overall comfort. “Layout of the offices” was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building’s location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants. PMID:27120608

  9. A Study of Greek Teachers' Satisfaction with the Implementation of the European Pedagogical ICT License Pilot Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouzakis, Charalambos; Roussakis, Ioannis; Tsagarissianos, George

    2010-01-01

    The survey presented in this study examines Greek teachers' satisfaction with the implementation of the European Pedagogical Information and Communication Technology License (EPICT) pilot course. A total of 51 primary and secondary education teachers participated in the study that followed the pilot course concerning the integration of ICT in the…

  10. A Qualitative Assessment of Students' Experiences of Studying Music: A Spanish Perspective on the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faubel, Jose Maria Esteve; Valero, Miguel Angel Molina; Stephens, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate whether or not the allocation of time proposed in the Music Study Guide, adapted from the Espacio Europeo de Educacion Superior (European Higher Education Area) guidelines, is consistent and adequate for students with a minimal musical knowledge. The data for this study arise from a…

  11. What Affects Reintegration of Female Drug Users after Prison Release? Results of a European Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurhold, Heike; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Sanclemente, Cristina; Schmied, Gabriele; Shewan, David; Verthein, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this follow-up study is to explore factors influencing the success or failure of women in reintegrating after their release from prison. Female drug users in five European cities were tracked after being released from prison. Out of 234 female prisoners contacted in prisons, 59 were included in the follow-up study. Structured…

  12. Genome-wide association study of tanning phenotype in a population of European ancestry.

    PubMed

    Nan, Hongmei; Kraft, Peter; Qureshi, Abrar A; Guo, Qun; Chen, Constance; Hankinson, Susan E; Hu, Frank B; Thomas, Gilles; Hoover, Robert N; Chanock, Stephen; Hunter, David J; Han, Jiali

    2009-09-01

    We conducted a multistage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of tanning response after exposure to sunlight in over 9,000 men and women of European ancestry who live in the United States. An initial analysis of 528,173 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped on 2,287 women identified LOC401937 (rs966321) on chromosome 1 as a novel locus highly associated with tanning ability, and we confirmed this association in 870 women controls from a skin cancer case-control study with joint P-value=1.6 x 10(-9). We further genotyped this SNP in two subsequent replication studies (one with 3,750 women and the other with 2,405 men). This association was not replicated in either of these two studies. We found that several SNPs reaching the genome-wide significance level are located in or adjacent to the loci previously known as pigmentation genes: MATP, IRF4, TYR, OCA2, and MC1R. Overall, these tanning ability-related loci are similar to the hair color-related loci previously reported in the GWAS of hair color. PMID:19340012

  13. Active relatives and health-related physical fitness in European adolescents: the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Marcos, Ascensión; Béghin, Laurent; Kafatos, Anthony; González-Gross, Marcela; Zaccaria, Maria; Molnár, Dénes; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

    2012-01-01

    High physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is positively associated with favourable health-related outcomes. Our aim was to examine the relationship between relatives' (father, mother, brother, sister, and best friend) physical activity engagement and encouragement on adolescents' physical fitness. Adolescents were part of the HELENA study, a multi-centre study conducted in 10 cities from nine European countries in 2006-2008. Participants were 3288 adolescents (48% boys, 52% girls) aged 12.5-17.5 years with valid data on at least one of the three fitness variables studied: muscular strength (standing long jump), speed/agility (4×10 m shuttle run), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run). The adolescents reported their relatives' physical activity engagement and encouragement. Analysis of covariance showed that relatives' physical activity engagement (father, mother, brother, and best friend) was positively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (P < 0.05); and mother's and sisters' physical activity engagement were positively associated with higher muscular strength in adolescents (P < 0.05). Furthermore, father's physical activity encouragement was positively linked to physical fitness (all fitness components) in adolescents (P < 0.05). Interventions aimed at improving physical fitness in young people might be more successful when family members, particularly mothers and fathers, are encouraged to engage in physical activity and support adolescents' physical activity. PMID:22906183

  14. Associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness in adolescents: The European Youth Hearts Study.

    PubMed

    Ried-Larsen, M; Grøntved, A; Østergaard, L; Cooper, A R; Froberg, K; Andersen, L B; Møller, N C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness, independent of objectively measured moderate-and-vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 375 adolescents (age 15.7 ± 0.4 years) from the Danish site of the European Youth Heart Study. Total frequency of bicycle usage was assessed by self-report, and carotid arterial stiffness was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. After adjusting for pubertal status, body height, and objectively measured physical activity and other personal lifestyle and demographic factors, boys using their bicycle every day of the week displayed a higher carotid arterial compliance {standard beta 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.87]} and distension [standard beta 0.38 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.81)]. Boys using their bicycle every day of the week furthermore displayed a lower Young's elastic modulus [standard beta -0.48 (95% CI -0.91 to -0.06)]. Similar trends were observed when investigating the association between commuter bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness. These associations were not observed in girls. Our observations suggest that increasing bicycling in adolescence may be beneficial to carotid arterial health among boys. PMID:25156494

  15. Cross-cultural issues in space operations: A survey study among ground personnel of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandal, Gro Mjeldheim; Manzey, Dietrich

    2009-12-01

    Today's space operations involve co-working of people with different ethnical, professional and organisational backgrounds. The aim of this study was to examine the implications of cultural diversity for efficient collaboration within the European Space Agency (ESA), and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. ESA employees from European countries ( N=576) answered to the CULT Ground Survey. The results showed that differences in relation to leadership and decision making were the most important issues thought to interfere with efficient co-working within ESA, and between ESA employees and colleagues from other agencies. Employees who collaborated with more than three nationalities within ESA indicated most challenges in co-working due to differences in compliance, behavioural norms and competitiveness. Challenges in co-working differed between agencies, and these differences were consistent with value differences in the national populations. The results may have applied value for training of European employees working in international space program teams.

  16. Simulation of long term renewable energy feed-in for European power system studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev; Späth, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Renewable energies already play a remarkable role in Europe as of today. It is expected that wind and solar amongst other renewables will contribute strongly to the future European energy generation. However, wind and solar generation facilities have due to the weather dependent nature of their resources highly fluctuating feed-in profiles. To overcome the mismatch between energy demand and generation it is important to study and understand the generation patterns and balancing potentials. The goal of the current work is to investigate how the feed-in time series from different renewable sources like on- and offshore wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal, wave, hydro, geothermal and biomass power and combination of them look like in an European power supply system . The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (BMU) that investigates the requirements for cross-country grid extensions, usage of storage technologies and capacities, the development of new balancing technologies and the conceptual design of the future energy market which is suitable for high generation percentages of solar and wind. High temporally and spatially resolved long term weather data from COSMO-EU, MERRA and Meteosat (MFG/MSG) satellite data has been used to simulate feed-in from several types of renewable energy sources on a 7 x 7 km grid covering Europe. For wind speeds MERRA reanalysis data has been statistically downscaled to account for orography. Generation was aggregated on the country level and production patterns and their variations in time of different resources were investigated for the years ranging from 2002 to 2012. In a first step the quality of the simulated feed in time series has been investigated by comparison to real observations of wind power and PV generation. Furthermore, some sensitivity studies with respect to underlying assumptions like spatial distribution of wind and PV capacities, the chosen hub-height and wind power curve have been done and will be presented. While

  17. Ground-based studies of tropisms in hardware developed for the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Melanie J.; Edelmann, Richard E.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Mullen, Jack L.; Kiss, John Z.

    Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at μg, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station, we have been conducting ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments with Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue- and red-light signaling systems interact with each other and with the gravisensing system.

  18. Review of accidental safety studies for the European HCPB test blanket system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaccini, L. V.; Ciattaglia, S.; Meyder, R.; Jin, X.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a review of safety studies for accidental sequences in the European solid breeder test blanket module (TBM) system. These studies are the starting point for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report of ITER, under preparation to get the construction permit first and then later the operation licence. In general the reduced inventory of activation products and tritium associated with the TBM system makes the impact of this test system almost negligible on the overall safety risk of ITER. Nevertheless, the possibility of jeopardizing the ITER safety concept has been analysed in connection to the consequences of specific accident sequences, e.g. the pressurization of the vacuum vessel due to the He coolant blow-down, the hydrogen production from the Be-steam reaction, the possible interconnection between the port cell and the vacuum vessel causing air ingress and the necessity to assure heat removal in the short and long periods. In the frame of this assessment, three LOCA sequences have been selected as representative of accidents judged to cover all scenarios envisaged in Cat II to IV events involving the TBM, namely, in-vessel LOCA, ex-vessel LOCA and in-box LOCA.

  19. Analysis of Soccer Players' Positional Variability During the 2012 UEFA European Championship: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Moura, Felipe Arruda; Santana, Juliana Exel; Vieira, Nathália Arnosti; Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Cunha, Sergio Augusto

    2015-09-29

    The purpose of this study was to analyse players' positional variability during the 2012 UEFA European Championship by applying principal component analysis (PCA) to data gathered from heat maps posted on the UEFA website. We analysed the teams that reached the finals and semi-finals of the competition. The players' 2D coordinates from each match were obtained by applying an image-processing algorithm to the heat maps. With all the players' 2D coordinates for each match, we applied PCA to identify the directions of greatest variability. Then, two orthogonal segments were centred on each player's mean position for all matches. The segments' directions were driven by the eigenvectors of the PCA, and the length of each segment was defined as one standard deviation around the mean. Finally, an ellipse was circumscribed around both segments. To represent player variability, segment lengths and elliptical areas were analysed. The results demonstrate that Portugal exhibited the lowest variability, followed by Germany, Spain and Italy. Additionally, a graphical representation of every player's ellipse provided insight into the teams' organisational features throughout the competition. The presented study provides important information regarding soccer teams' tactical strategy in high-level championships that allows coaches to better control team organisation on the pitch. PMID:26557206

  20. Chronic morbidity in women, namely in pregnancy. (Comparative study between West, Central and East European centres).

    PubMed

    Kukla, L; Bouchalova, M; Shkiriak-Nyzhnyk, Z; Chyslovska, N; Golding, J; Goodfellow, S; Ignatjeva, R

    2008-01-01

    18 chronic diseases were investigated in a population of 13,115 women living in six settings of West- (Avon UK, the Isle of Man), Central- (the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) and East-Europe (the Ukraine and Russia), that collaborate in the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC project). In prenatal questionnaires filled in after the first half of pregnancy, women reported 25,795 chronic diseases they ever suffered, out of them 11,188 having in present pregnancies. In the whole sample, lifelong prevalence was 11,2%, and prevalence in pregnancy 4,8% which means that 43,4% of all chronic diseases recurred in pregnancy. Up to mean age of 255 years in the whole sample, 39,6% women reported ever having indigestion, 29% back pains, 22,6% migraine, about 16% haemorrhoids, hay fever and eczema, about 10% varicose veins, anorexia nervosa, heavy depression and kidney diseases, over 5% rheumatism and 4% asthma. Less prevalent were infections of pelvic organs, febrile convulsions, joint inflammations, stomach ulcers, psoriasis and epilepsy. Lifetime prevalence of chronic diseases and their prevalence in pregnancy were the highest in the western zone and decreased eastwards, but recurrence grew in the opposite direction, being the highest in the eastern zone. The variation of each morbidity indicator is followed in all diseases between geographical zones as well as between individual study centres. PMID:18822844

  1. The European study of assisted reproduction families: family functioning and child development.

    PubMed

    Golombok, S; Brewaeys, A; Cook, R; Giavazzi, M T; Guerra, D; Mantovani, A; van Hall, E; Crosignani, P G; Dexeus, S

    1996-10-01

    Findings are presented of a European study (conducted in the UK, Italy, Spain and The Netherlands) of family relationships and the social and emotional development of children in families created as a result of the two most widely used reproductive technologies, in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and donor insemination (DI), in comparison with control groups of families with naturally conceived child and adoptive families. Mothers of children conceived by assisted reproduction expressed greater warmth towards their child, were more emotionally involved with their child, interacted more with their child and reported less stress associated with parenting than mothers who conceived their child naturally. Similarly, assisted reproduction fathers were found to interact more with their child and to contribute more to parenting than fathers with a naturally conceived child. With respect to the children themselves, no group differences were found for either the presence of psychological disorder or for children's perceptions of the quality of family relationships. The findings relating to the quality of parenting and the socio-emotional development of the children were similar in each of the four countries studied. PMID:8943550

  2. A prospective multicenter European study on flexible ureterorenoscopy for the management of renal stone

    PubMed Central

    Berardinelli, Francesco; Proietti, Silvia; Cindolo, Luca; Pellegrini, Fabrizio; Peschechera, Roberto; Derek, Hennessey; Dalpiaz, Orietta; Schips, Luigi; Giusti, Guido

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes and the complications of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for renal stones in a multi-institutional working group. Materials and Methods From 2012 to 2014, we conducted a prospective study including all RIRS performed for kidney stones in 4 European centers. Demographic information, disease characteristics, and perioperative and postoperative data were gathered. Patients and stone data, procedure characteristics, results and safety outcomes were analyzed and compared by descriptive statistics. Complications were reported using the standardized Clavien system. Results Three hundred and fifty-six patients underwent 377 RIRS with holmium laser lithotripsy for renal stones. The RIRS was completed in all patients with a mean operative time of 63.5 min. The stone-free status was confirmed endoscopically and through fluoroscopic imaging after the first procedure in 73.6%. The second procedure was performed in twenty patients (5.6%) achieving an overall stone free rate of 78.9%. The overall complication rate was 15.1%. Intra-operative and post-operative complications were seen in 24 (6.7%) and 30 (8.4%) cases, respectively. Conclusions RIRS is a minimally invasive procedure with good results in terms of stone-free and complications rate. PMID:27286110

  3. Analysis of Soccer Players’ Positional Variability During the 2012 UEFA European Championship: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Felipe Arruda; Santana, Juliana Exel; Vieira, Nathália Arnosti; Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Cunha, Sergio Augusto

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse players’ positional variability during the 2012 UEFA European Championship by applying principal component analysis (PCA) to data gathered from heat maps posted on the UEFA website. We analysed the teams that reached the finals and semi-finals of the competition. The players’ 2D coordinates from each match were obtained by applying an image-processing algorithm to the heat maps. With all the players’ 2D coordinates for each match, we applied PCA to identify the directions of greatest variability. Then, two orthogonal segments were centred on each player’s mean position for all matches. The segments’ directions were driven by the eigenvectors of the PCA, and the length of each segment was defined as one standard deviation around the mean. Finally, an ellipse was circumscribed around both segments. To represent player variability, segment lengths and elliptical areas were analysed. The results demonstrate that Portugal exhibited the lowest variability, followed by Germany, Spain and Italy. Additionally, a graphical representation of every player’s ellipse provided insight into the teams’ organisational features throughout the competition. The presented study provides important information regarding soccer teams’ tactical strategy in high-level championships that allows coaches to better control team organisation on the pitch. PMID:26557206

  4. Studying Europe's Languages: The Economic Case for Australia and the Practical Case of the European Community's Language Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staddon, Sally

    1992-01-01

    Explains the relationship between international trade and language competence in Australia and describes programs to enable students to spend part of their study time learning European Community (EC) languages in countries other than their own. Also discusses the status of foreign language learning in the United Kingdom. (SM)

  5. A Quantitative Assessment of Students' Experiences of Studying Music: A Spanish Perspective on the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteve-Faubel, Jose-Maria; Stephens, Jonathan; Molina Valero, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate whether or not the allocation of time proposed in the Music Study Guide, adapted from the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) guidelines, is consistent and adequate for students with minimal musical knowledge. The report takes into account the importance of students' previous knowledge and the…

  6. Trends in Source of Catalog Records for European Monographs 1996-2000: A Preliminary Study of Italian Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellsey, Charlene

    2001-01-01

    Discusses catalog records for non-English books created by European booksellers and loaded into OCLC; describes a study of Italian language monographs to compare vendor records with Library of Congress and OCLC member libraries' records; and considers changes in cataloging workflow needed to edit records to include Library of Congress call numbers…

  7. Lifelong Learning and the Counter/Professionalisation of Childcare: A Case Study of Local Hybridizations of Global European Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenbroeck, Michel; Peeters, Jan; Bouverne-De Bie, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We provide a historical (genealogical) study of the changes in discourses on adult education since the famous UNESCO conference in Montreal, to present day texts of the European Union on lifelong learning. We also analyse how these changing global discourses on lifelong learning have travelled--through the hegemony of English language--to local…

  8. Occupation and Skill Change in the European Retail Sector. A Study for CECD and EURO-FIET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilsbury, Mark; And Others

    A study examined occupational and skill change within the retail sector in Europe so that training and development schemes can be put in place. Data were collected in the following ways: compilation of information on the level of employment, skills, and training in the retail sector of European countries; compilation of national data on…

  9. Combining Mass Spectrometry and Toxicology for a Multi-Country European Epidemiologic Study on Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HiWATE (Health Impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking WATEr) project is the first systematic analysis that combines the epidemiology on adverse pregnancy outcomes with analytical chemistry and analytical biology in the European Union. This study...

  10. Combining Mass Spectrometry and Toxicology for a Multi-Country European Epidemiologic Study on Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HiWATE (Health Impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking WATEr) project is the first systematic analysis that combines the epidemiology on adverse pregnancy outcomes with analytical chemistry and analytical biology in the European Union. This study...

  11. Comparing Civic Competence among European Youth: Composite and Domain-Specific Indicators Using IEA Civic Education Study Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Bryony Louise; Barber, Carolyn; Van Nijlen, Daniel; Villalba, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Addressing the European Union monitoring of civic competence, this article presents a composite indicator of civic competence and four domain indicators. The data used are from the 1999 IEA Civic Education study of 14-year-olds in school. The results demonstrate the complexity of the various influences on the development of civic competencies…

  12. NEETs versus EETs: An Observational Study in Italy on the Framework of the HEALTH25 European Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardi, Bernardo; Lucarelli, Chiara; Talamonti, Marta; Arimatea, Emidio; Fiori, Valentina; Moltedo-Perfetti, Andrès

    2015-01-01

    An observational study of young Italian NEETs (not in education, employment or training) and their EET peers (in education, employment or training) was conducted in the framework of a European Union (EU) project. Main characteristics and behaviours were compared to gain insights into the NEET condition in Italy. The sample included 111 NEETs…

  13. Modeling study of North-Atlantic millennial-timescale variability imprint on Western European loess deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, A.; Rousseau, D.-D.; Kageyama, M.; Ramstein, G.; Schultz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Antoine, P.; Dulac, F.; Hatté, C.

    2009-04-01

    Studies on loess sequences of Western Europe have shown (i) that the loess sedimentation pattern over the last glaciation (approximately 100 to 15 thousand years before present (kyr BP)) has been very similar throughout the European loess belt, indicating a common climate control, and (ii) that the rapid environmental changes on the continent are correlated with the North-Atlantic millennial-timescale variations, the so-called Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) and Heinrich (H) events. Here we test, by means of numerical modelling, if, and by which mechanisms, the dust cycle response to the environmental changes induced by the DO and H events could have led to the recording of these events in the loess deposits of the Western Europe. The LMDZ atmosphere general circulation model, in a version with a stretched grid enhancing the resolution over Western Europe to 60km, is used to simulate (a) a reference glacial state, assimilated to a DO stadial (DOS), (b) a cold perturbation over the North Atlantic, resembling a H event, and (c) a warm perturbation, assimilated to a DO interstadial (DOI). The reference state corresponds to the 40-kyr BP context, in the middle of the typical glacial period (approximately 75 to 15 kyr BP). The subsequent perturbations are obtained by applying cold or warm anomalies of up to 2°C in absolute value to the North-Atlantic sea-surface temperatures in the latitudinal band 30° - 63°N. The three simulated climate states are compared from the point of view of the initial driver of the dust cycle, the dust emission. A detailed analysis is provided for the English Channel and the south of the North Sea (ECSNS), important deflation areas in glacial times, and a source for the Western European loess deposits. In our experiments, the impact of altering the North-Atlantic surface conditions is weak over the ECSNS and loess areas (roughly, the latitudinal band 48° - 53°N) with respect to wind and precipitation. When only considering these factors, and the

  14. INFRAFRONTIER: a European resource for studying the functional basis of human disease.

    PubMed

    Raess, Michael; de Castro, Ana Ambrosio; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fessele, Sabine; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Ageing research and more generally the study of the functional basis of human diseases profit enormously from the large-scale approaches and resources in mouse functional genomics: systematic targeted mutation of the mouse genome, systemic phenotyping in mouse clinics, and the archiving and distribution of the mouse resources in public repositories. INFRAFRONTIER, the European research infrastructure for the development, systemic phenotyping, archiving and distribution of mammalian models, offers access to sustainable mouse resources for biomedical research. INFRAFRONTIER promotes the global sharing of high-quality resources and data and thus contributes to data reproducibility and animal welfare. INFRAFRONTIER puts great effort into international standardisation and quality control and into technology development to improve and expand experimental protocols, reduce the use of animals in research and increase the reproducibility of results. In concert with the research community and the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), INFRAFRONTIER is currently developing new pilot platforms and services for the research on ageing and age-related diseases. PMID:27262858

  15. Risk perception, experience, and objective risk: a cross-national study with European emergency survivors.

    PubMed

    Knuth, Daniela; Kehl, Doris; Hulse, Lynn; Schmidt, Silke

    2014-07-01

    Understanding public risk perceptions and their underlying processes is important in order to learn more about the way people interpret and respond to hazardous emergency events. Direct experience with an involuntary hazard has been found to heighten the perceived risk of experiencing the same hazard and its consequences in the future, but it remains unclear if cross-over effects are possible (i.e., experience with one hazard influencing perceived risk for other hazards also). Furthermore, the impact of objective risk and country of residence on perceived risk is not well understood. As part of the BeSeCu (Behavior, Security, and Culture) Project, a sample of 1,045 survivors of emergencies from seven European countries (i.e., Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, and Italy) was drawn. Results revealed heightened perceived risk for emergency events (i.e., domestic and public fires, earthquakes, floods, and terrorist attacks) when the event had been experienced previously plus some evidence of cross-over effects, although these effects were not so strong. The largest country differences in perceived risk were observed for earthquakes, but this effect was significantly reduced by taking into account the objective earthquake risk. For fires, floods, terrorist attacks, and traffic accidents, only small country differences in perceived risk were found. Further studies including a larger number of countries are welcomed. PMID:24372277

  16. Plant traits as predictor of ecosystem carbon fluxes - a case study across European grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Katja; Bahn, Michael; Acosta, Manuel; Altimir, Nuria; Gimeno, Cristina; Jongen, Marjan; Merbold, Lutz; Moors, Eddy; Pinter, Kistina; Darsonville, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Predicting ecosystem responses to global change has become a major challenge, particularly as terrestrial ecosystems contribute to the mitigation of global climate change through carbon sequestration. Plant traits are major surrogates of ecosystem physiology may thus help to predict carbon (C) fluxes and their consequences for the delivery of ecosystem services (e.g. C sequestration) across climatic gradients and in changing environments. However, linkages between community abundance-weighted means (CWM) of plant functional traits and ecosystem C fluxes have rarely been tested. It is also not known to what degree traits, which are typically measured at a defined point in time, are suitable for predicting annual C fluxes. We analysed the relationships between ecosystem fluxes and community level plant traits for 13 European grasslands under contrasting climate and management regimes, using multiyear eddy covariance data. Plant traits (specific leaf area SLA, leaf dry matter content LDMC, specific root length SLR) were determined at peak biomass. Analyses showed that GPPmax (at maximum radiation) was related to SLA, SRL and LDMC across sites and management, where GPPmax was an excellent indicator for annual GPP. Similar relations were found between for root density (and -diameter) and ecosystem respiration. Ecosystems respiration at GPPmax was also in line with annual respiration, indicating the strong predictive potential of plant community traits. Our study therefore suggests that above- and belowground community level plant traits are well suited surrogates for predicting ecosystem C fluxes at peak biomass and at annual scale.

  17. What do European veterinary codes of conduct actually say and mean? A case study approach.

    PubMed

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M; More, S J; Morton, D B; Osborne, M; Hanlon, A

    2015-06-20

    Codes of Professional Conduct (CPCs) are pivotal instruments of self-regulation, providing the standards to which veterinarians should, and sometimes must, comply. Despite their importance to the training and guidance of veterinary professionals, research is lacking on the scope and emphasis of the requirements set out in veterinary CPCs. This paper provides the first systematic investigation of veterinary CPCs. It relies on a case study approach, combining content and thematic analyses of five purposively selected European CPCs: Federation of Veterinarians of Europe (FVE), Denmark, Ireland, Portugal and the UK. Eight overarching themes were identified, including 'definitions and framing concepts', 'duties to animals', 'duties to clients', 'duties to other professionals', 'duties to competent authorities', 'duties to society', 'professionalism' and 'practice-related issues'. Some differences were observed, which may be indicative of different approaches to the regulation of the veterinary profession in Europe (which is reflected in having a 'code of ethics' or a 'code of conduct'), cultural differences on the status of animals in society, and regulatory bodies' proactivity in adapting to professional needs and to societal changes regarding the status of animals. These findings will contribute to an improved understanding of the roles of CPCs in regulating the veterinary profession in Europe. PMID:25861823

  18. Acculturation of Personality: A Three-Culture Study of Japanese, Japanese Americans, and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H.; De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Cote, Linda; Ceulemans, Eva; Mesquita, Batja

    2013-01-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that involvement with a new culture instigates changes in personality of immigrants that result in (a) better fit with the norms of the culture of destination and (b) reduced fit with the norms of the culture of origin. Participants were 40 Japanese first-generation immigrants to the United States, 57 Japanese monoculturals, and 60 U.S. monoculturals. All participants completed the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI) as a measure of the Big Five; immigrants completed the Japanese American Acculturation Scale. Immigrants’ fits with the cultures of destination and origin were calculated by correlating Japanese American mothers’ patterns of ratings on the Big Five with the average patterns of ratings of European Americans and Japanese on the same personality dimensions. Japanese Americans became more “American” and less “Japanese” in their personality as they reported higher participation in the U.S. culture. The results support the view that personality can be subject to cultural influence. PMID:23935211

  19. Experimental study of European bat lyssavirus type-2 infection in Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas; Vos, Ad; Neubert, Larissa; Freuling, Conrad; Mansfield, Karen L; Kaipf, Ingrid; Denzinger, Annette; Hicks, Dan; Núñez, Alex; Franka, Richard; Rupprecht, Charles E; Müller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R

    2008-11-01

    European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) can be transmitted from Daubenton's bats to humans and cause rabies. EBLV-2 has been repeatedly isolated from Daubenton's bats in the UK but appears to be present at a low level within the native bat population. This has prompted us to investigate the disease in its natural host under experimental conditions, to assess its virulence, dissemination and likely means of transmission between insectivorous bats. With the exception of direct intracranial inoculation, only one of seven Daubenton's bats inoculated by subdermal inoculation became infected with EBLV-2. Both intramuscular and intranasal inoculation failed to infect the bats. No animal inoculated with EBLV-2 seroconverted during the study period. During infection, virus excretion in saliva (both viral RNA and live virus) was confirmed up to 3 days before the development of rabies. Disease was manifested as a gradual loss of weight prior to the development of paralysis and then death. The highest levels of virus were measured in the brain, with much lower levels of viral genomic RNA detected in the tongue, salivary glands, kidney, lung and heart. These observations are similar to those made in naturally infected Daubenton's bats and this is the first documented report of isolation of EBLV-2 in bat saliva. We conclude that EBLV-2 is most likely transmitted in saliva by a shallow bite. PMID:18931061

  20. Study of the efficacy of 18 sun filters authorized in European Union tested in vitro.

    PubMed

    Couteau, C; Pommier, M; Paparis, E; Coiffard, L J M

    2007-06-01

    In this work, the authors study the influence of filter concentration on the SPF in a topical product measured in vitro. Firstly, the method was adapted by determining that a mass of 15 mg of product must be applied on the PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) plate in order to have the best correlation with results obtained in vivo. By using the highest concentration allowed by European legislation, the following ranking was drawn up in ascending order of efficacy: 3-Benzylidene camphor (1.66) < oxybenzone (3.01) < octylsalicylate (3.12) < PABA (3.36) < polysilicone 15 (3.64) < methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol (3.68) < PEG25 PABA (3.81) < benzophenone-4 (3.85) < 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4.22) < homosalate (4.33) < octyltriazone (7.80) < phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid (8.31) < octyldimethyl PABA (8.71) < octocrylene (10.41) < octylmethoxycinnamate (10.42) < diethylhexylbutamidotriazone (12.58)

  1. The long-term studies of CO2 fluxes in southern taiga of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbatova, Juliya; Varlagin, Andrei; Tatarinov, Fedor; Avilov, Vitalii; Astafieva, Elena; Ivanov, Dmitrii; Olchev, Alexander; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    Wetlands and bogged forests located in forest zone are main elements of natural landscapes of Russia, covering about 10% of country. The long-term studies (from 1998 - for present) of CO2 fluxes have conducted in southern taiga of European Russia (Central Forest reserve, Tver region) at ombrotrophic bog and bogged spruce forest. To estimate of seasonal and interannual variations of CO2 fluxes different methods such as eddy covariance, chamber methods and modeling calculations were used. Our researches have allowed to evaluate long-term variations of net ecosystems exchange, soil respiration, gross primary production and their depending on environmental factors. The results of researches have confirmed strong relations between CO2 fluxes and precipitations and/or temperatures and level of ground water. Wetlands and bogged forests can be as sink as source of CO2 for atmosphere. Variation in water level dynamics alone could significantly affect the C balance in wetland ecosystems mainly through altering the decomposition rate of the organic matter accumulated in the soil profile. The modeled results supported the hypothesis that the soil processes, especially the decomposition process, in wetlands could play an important role in altering the C dynamics in the ecosystems.

  2. Social care of children born to HIV-infected mothers in Europe. European Collaborative Study.

    PubMed

    Thorne, C; Newell, M L; Peckham, C

    1998-02-01

    Children of HIV-infected women are likely to be profoundly affected by their mothers' infection, regardless of their own infection status and their number will increase with the spread of infection among women in Europe. This article describes the family circumstances and social care of 1,123 children born to HIV-infected women enrolled in the European Collaborative Study and followed prospectively from birth. Most mothers were white, married or cohabiting, asymptomatic and had a history of drug use, with 45% currently using injecting drugs at the time of enrollment. Seventy percent of children were cared for by their mothers and/or fathers consistently in their first four years of life, but by age eight an estimated 60% will have lived away from their parents (i.e. with foster or adoptive parents, other relatives or in an institution). Whether or not a child was infected did not influence the likelihood of living in alternative care. Maternal injecting drug use, single parenthood and health status were the major reasons necessitating alternative care. The type of alternative care varied according to maternal characteristics, child's age and geographic location. The mothers of 98 children had died and average age at maternal death was four years. PMID:9536198

  3. The European and American use of exploratory approaches for first-in-human studies.

    PubMed

    Silva-Lima, Beatriz; Carlson, David; Jones, David R; Laurie, David; Stahl, Elke; Maria, Vasco; Janssens, Walter; Robinson, William T

    2010-02-01

    Exploratory approaches for first-in-human clinical studies have evolved over the last few years and have stimulated the issuance of national regulatory guidances in some European countries as well as the United States. With the increasing implementation of these approaches and the recent preparation of a multiregional regulatory guidance (ICH M3 rev2), an exchange of experiences on the opportunities and challenges of exploratory clinical trials was desirable; thus, a workshop focusing on the use of this clinical approach was planned and conducted in Lisbon, Portugal, March 18-19, 2009 sponsored by the Portuguese Health Authority (INFARMED) and DIA. The structure of the workshop focused in three main areas. Regulatory representatives from Portugal, Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States formally reviewed their experiences. This was followed by a discussion on issues from an ethics review perspective as well as an insight to the opportunities in the area of biologics. The industry perspective was presented by representatives from Merck, Pfizer, J&J, Novartis, Speedel, AstraZeneca, GSK, and Roche. Finally, through break out sessions, issues were identified to be addressed moving forward. It is the purpose of this paper to report on the outcome of this workshop. PMID:20443952

  4. Cardiovascular mortality in Dutch men during 1996 European football championship: longitudinal population study

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Daniel R; Bots, Michiel L; Hoes, Arno W; Grobbee, Diederick E

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether an important football match increases stress to such an extent that it triggers acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Design Longitudinal study of mortality around 22 June 1996 (the day the Dutch football team was eliminated from the European football championship). Mortality on 22 June was compared with the five days before and after the match and in the same period in 1995 and 1997. Setting Netherlands. Subjects Dutch population aged 45 years or over in June 1996. Main outcome measures All cause mortality and mortality due to coronary heart disease and stroke. Results Mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke was increased in men on the day of the match (relative risk 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 2.09). No clear rise in mortality was observed for women (1.11, 0.80 to 1.56). Among men, about 14 excess cardiovascular deaths occurred on the day of the match. Conclusion Important sporting events may provoke a sufficient level of stress to trigger symptomatic cardiovascular disease. The difference between men and women requires further investigation. PMID:11124170

  5. A European model and case studies for aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Marc C; Glass, C Richard; Bokkers, Bas; Hart, Andy D M; Hamey, Paul Y; Kruisselbrink, Johannes W; de Boer, Waldo J; van der Voet, Hilko; Garthwaite, David G; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    Exposures to plant protection products (PPPs) are assessed using risk analysis methods to protect public health. Traditionally, single sources, such as food or individual occupational sources, have been addressed. In reality, individuals can be exposed simultaneously to multiple sources. Improved regulation therefore requires the development of new tools for estimating the population distribution of exposures aggregated within an individual. A new aggregate model is described, which allows individual users to include as much, or as little, information as is available or relevant for their particular scenario. Depending on the inputs provided by the user, the outputs can range from simple deterministic values through to probabilistic analyses including characterisations of variability and uncertainty. Exposures can be calculated for multiple compounds, routes and sources of exposure. The aggregate model links to the cumulative dietary exposure model developed in parallel and is implemented in the web-based software tool MCRA. Case studies are presented to illustrate the potential of this model, with inputs drawn from existing European data sources and models. These cover exposures to UK arable spray operators, Italian vineyard spray operators, Netherlands users of a consumer spray and UK bystanders/residents. The model could also be adapted to handle non-PPP compounds. PMID:25280924

  6. Linkage and candidate gene studies of autism spectrum disorders in European populations.

    PubMed

    Holt, Richard; Barnby, Gabrielle; Maestrini, Elena; Bacchelli, Elena; Brocklebank, Denise; Sousa, Inês; Mulder, Erik J; Kantojärvi, Katri; Järvelä, Irma; Klauck, Sabine M; Poustka, Fritz; Bailey, Anthony J; Monaco, Anthony P

    2010-09-01

    Over the past decade, research on the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has focused on linkage and candidate gene studies. This research has implicated various chromosomal loci and genes. Candidate gene studies have proven to be particularly intractable, with many studies failing to replicate previously reported associations. In this paper, we investigate previously implicated genomic regions for a role in ASD susceptibility, using four cohorts of European ancestry. Initially, a 384 SNP Illumina GoldenGate array was used to examine linkage at six previously implicated loci. We identify linkage approaching genome-wide suggestive levels on chromosome 2 (rs2885116, MLOD=1.89). Association analysis showed significant associations in MKL2 with ASD (rs756472, P=4.31 x 10(-5)) and between SND1 and strict autism (rs1881084, P=7.76 x 10(-5)) in the Finnish and Northern Dutch populations, respectively. Subsequently, we used a second 384 SNP Illumina GoldenGate array to examine the association in seven candidate genes, and evidence for association was found in RELN (rs362780, P=0.00165). Further increasing the sample size strengthened the association with RELN (rs362780, P=0.001) and produced a second significant result in GRIK2 (rs2518261, P=0.008). Our results strengthen the case for a more detailed study of the role of RELN and GRIK2 in autism susceptibility, as well as identifying two new potential candidate genes, MKL2 and SND1. PMID:20442744

  7. Mathematical modeling approaches in the study of glaucoma disparities among people of African and European descents

    PubMed Central

    Guidoboni, Giovanna; Harris, Alon; Arciero, Julia C.; Siesky, Brent A.; Amireskandari, Annahita; Gerber, Austin L.; Huck, Andrew H.; Kim, Nathaniel J.; Cassani, Simone; Carichino, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Open angle glaucoma (OAG) is a severe ocular disease characterized by progressive and irreversible vision loss. While elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a well-established risk factor for OAG, the progression of OAG in many cases, despite IOP treatment, suggests that other risk factors must play significant roles in the development of the disease. For example, various structural properties of the eye, ocular blood flow properties, and systemic conditions have been identified as risk factors for OAG. Ethnicity has also been indicated as a relevant factor that affects the incidence and prevalence of OAG; in fact, OAG is the leading cause of blindness among people of African descent. Numerous clinical studies have been designed to examine the possible correlation and causation between OAG and these factors; however, these studies are met with the challenge of isolating the individual role of multiple interconnected factors. Over the last decade, various mathematical modeling approaches have been implemented in combination with clinical studies in order to provide a mechanical and hemodynamical description of the eye in relation to the entire human body and to assess the contribution of single risk factors to the development of OAG. This review provides a summary of the clinical evidence of ocular structural differences, ocular vascular differences and systemic vascular differences among people of African and European descent, describes the mathematical approaches that have been proposed to study ocular mechanics and hemodynamics while discussing how they could be used to investigate the relevance to OAG of racial disparities, and outlines possible new directions of research. PMID:24501718

  8. A pilot study on the feasibility of European harmonized human biomonitoring: Strategies towards a common approach, challenges and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Casteleyn, L.; Dumez, B.; Becker, K.; Kolossa-Gehring, M.; Den Hond, E.; Schoeters, G.; Castaño, A.; Koch, H.M.; Angerer, J.; Esteban, M.; Exley, K.; Sepai, O.; Bloemen, L.; Horvat, M.; Knudsen, L.E.; Joas, A.; Joas, R.; Biot, P.; Koppen, G.; Dewolf, M-C.; and others

    2015-08-15

    In 2004 the European Commission and Member States initiated activities towards a harmonized approach for Human Biomonitoring surveys throughout Europe. The main objective was to sustain environmental health policy by building a coherent and sustainable framework and by increasing the comparability of data across countries. A pilot study to test common guidelines for setting up surveys was considered a key step in this process. Through a bottom-up approach that included all stakeholders, a joint study protocol was elaborated. From September 2011 till February 2012, 17 European countries collected data from 1844 mother–child pairs in the frame of DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES). Mercury in hair and urinary cadmium and cotinine were selected as biomarkers of exposure covered by sufficient analytical experience. Phthalate metabolites and Bisphenol A in urine were added to take into account increasing public and political awareness for emerging types of contaminants and to test less advanced markers/markers covered by less analytical experience. Extensive efforts towards chemo-analytical comparability were included. The pilot study showed that common approaches can be found in a context of considerable differences with respect to experience and expertize, socio-cultural background, economic situation and national priorities. It also evidenced that comparable Human Biomonitoring results can be obtained in such context. A European network was built, exchanging information, expertize and experiences, and providing training on all aspects of a survey. A key challenge was finding the right balance between a rigid structure allowing maximal comparability and a flexible approach increasing feasibility and capacity building. Next steps in European harmonization in Human Biomonitoring surveys include the establishment of a joint process for prioritization of substances to cover and biomarkers to develop

  9. Increasing Engineering Student Participation in Study Abroad: A Study of U.S. and European Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klahr, Sabine C.; Ratti, Umberto

    2000-01-01

    Reviews various initiatives in the United States and Europe designed to increase the number of engineering students participating in international study and offers 13 recommendations to remove barriers encountered by engineering students who wish to study abroad. Recommendations address funding, curriculum, and logistical issues such as credit…

  10. A pilot study on the feasibility of European harmonized human biomonitoring: Strategies towards a common approach, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Casteleyn, L; Dumez, B; Becker, K; Kolossa-Gehring, M; Den Hond, E; Schoeters, G; Castaño, A; Koch, H M; Angerer, J; Esteban, M; Exley, K; Sepai, O; Bloemen, L; Horvat, M; Knudsen, L E; Joas, A; Joas, R; Biot, P; Koppen, G; Dewolf, M-C; Katsonouri, A; Hadjipanayis, A; Cerná, M; Krsková, A; Schwedler, G; Fiddicke, U; Nielsen, J K S; Jensen, J F; Rudnai, P; Közepésy, S; Mulcahy, M; Mannion, R; Gutleb, A C; Fischer, M E; Ligocka, D; Jakubowski, M; Reis, M F; Namorado, S; Lupsa, I-R; Gurzau, A E; Halzlova, K; Jajcaj, M; Mazej, D; Tratnik Snoj, J; Posada, M; López, E; Berglund, M; Larsson, K; Lehmann, A; Crettaz, P; Aerts, D

    2015-08-01

    In 2004 the European Commission and Member States initiated activities towards a harmonized approach for Human Biomonitoring surveys throughout Europe. The main objective was to sustain environmental health policy by building a coherent and sustainable framework and by increasing the comparability of data across countries. A pilot study to test common guidelines for setting up surveys was considered a key step in this process. Through a bottom-up approach that included all stakeholders, a joint study protocol was elaborated. From September 2011 till February 2012, 17 European countries collected data from 1844 mother-child pairs in the frame of DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES).(1) Mercury in hair and urinary cadmium and cotinine were selected as biomarkers of exposure covered by sufficient analytical experience. Phthalate metabolites and Bisphenol A in urine were added to take into account increasing public and political awareness for emerging types of contaminants and to test less advanced markers/markers covered by less analytical experience. Extensive efforts towards chemo-analytical comparability were included. The pilot study showed that common approaches can be found in a context of considerable differences with respect to experience and expertize, socio-cultural background, economic situation and national priorities. It also evidenced that comparable Human Biomonitoring results can be obtained in such context. A European network was built, exchanging information, expertize and experiences, and providing training on all aspects of a survey. A key challenge was finding the right balance between a rigid structure allowing maximal comparability and a flexible approach increasing feasibility and capacity building. Next steps in European harmonization in Human Biomonitoring surveys include the establishment of a joint process for prioritization of substances to cover and biomarkers to develop

  11. Impact of physical activity and cardiovascular fitness on total homocysteine concentrations in European adolescents: The HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Benser, Jasmin; Valtueña, Jara; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Breidenassel, Christina; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Ferrari, Marika; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; Sjöström, Michael; Molnar, Denes; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Kafatos, Antony; Palacios, Gonzalo; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J; Stehle, Peter; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association of physical activity (PA), cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and fatness with total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in European adolescents. The present study comprised 713 European adolescents aged 14.8 ± 1.2 y (females 55.3%) from the multicenter HELENA cross-sectional study. PA was assessed through accelerometry, CVF by the 20-m shuttle run test, and body fat by skinfold thicknesses with the Slaughter equation. Plasma folate, cobalamin, and tHcy concentrations were measured. To examine the association of tHcy with PA, CVF, and fatness after controlling for a set of confounders including age, maturity, folate, cobalamin, creatinine, smoking, supplement use, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 genotype (CC 47%, CT 43%, TT 10%), bivariate correlations followed by multiple regression models were performed. In the bivariate correlation analysis, tHcy concentrations were slightly negatively correlated (p<0.05) with CVF in females (measured both by stages: r=-0.118 and by VO2max: r=-0.102) and positively with body mass index (r=0.100). However, daily time spent with moderate and vigorous PA showed a weak positive association with tHcy in females (p<0.05). tHcy concentrations showed a tendency to decrease with increasing CVF and increase with increasing BMI in female European adolescents. However, tHcy concentrations were positively associated with moderate and vigorous PA in female European adolescents. PMID:25994139

  12. Genetics of skin color variation in Europeans: genome-wide association studies with functional follow-up.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fan; Visser, Mijke; Duffy, David L; Hysi, Pirro G; Jacobs, Leonie C; Lao, Oscar; Zhong, Kaiyin; Walsh, Susan; Chaitanya, Lakshmi; Wollstein, Andreas; Zhu, Gu; Montgomery, Grant W; Henders, Anjali K; Mangino, Massimo; Glass, Daniel; Bataille, Veronique; Sturm, Richard A; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Uitterlinden, André G; Palstra, Robert-Jan T S; Spector, Timothy D; Martin, Nicholas G; Nijsten, Tamar E C; Kayser, Manfred

    2015-08-01

    In the International Visible Trait Genetics (VisiGen) Consortium, we investigated the genetics of human skin color by combining a series of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in a total of 17,262 Europeans with functional follow-up of discovered loci. Our GWAS provide the first genome-wide significant evidence for chromosome 20q11.22 harboring the ASIP gene being explicitly associated with skin color in Europeans. In addition, genomic loci at 5p13.2 (SLC45A2), 6p25.3 (IRF4), 15q13.1 (HERC2/OCA2), and 16q24.3 (MC1R) were confirmed to be involved in skin coloration in Europeans. In follow-up gene expression and regulation studies of 22 genes in 20q11.22, we highlighted two novel genes EIF2S2 and GSS, serving as competing functional candidates in this region and providing future research lines. A genetically inferred skin color score obtained from the 9 top-associated SNPs from 9 genes in 940 worldwide samples (HGDP-CEPH) showed a clear gradual pattern in Western Eurasians similar to the distribution of physical skin color, suggesting the used 9 SNPs as suitable markers for DNA prediction of skin color in Europeans and neighboring populations, relevant in future forensic and anthropological investigations. PMID:25963972

  13. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    PubMed

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, p<0.001) and varied widely between countries, from 7.9% in Iceland to 22.8% in Spain. Frequent use of specific online activities (e.g., gambling, social networking, gaming) at least 6 days/week was associated with greater probability of displaying DIB. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that DIB was more frequent among adolescents with a lower educational level of the parents, earlier age at first use of the Internet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB. PMID:24853789

  14. Health impact associated with vertebral deformities: results from the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS).

    PubMed

    Matthis, C; Weber, U; O'Neill, T W; Raspe, H

    1998-01-01

    To study the association between vertebral deformities and subjective health outcome indicators, including back pain and disability, a cross-sectional survey with spinal radiographs and personal interviews was carried out in 36 study centres in 19 European countries on a total of 15,570 men and women aged 50-79 years (population-based stratified random samples). No interventions were done. The main outcome measures were the presence and intensity of current and previous back pain, functional capacity (ADL questionnaire) and overall subjective health. The presence and intensity of back pain and functional and health impairments varied within wide ranges with no obvious regional pattern. However, the associations between negative health outcomes and vertebral deformity were homogeneous between countries and between centres within countries. In logistic regression analyses weak but significant associations between the presence of vertebral deformities and various health indicators were demonstrated. The magnitude of the associations increased with severity and number of deformities. Compared with subjects without deformities those with low-grade deformities had no or only a weakly elevated risk for back pain, disability and impaired subjective health (odds ratios (OR) 1.2-1.3). The odds ratios increased for individuals with single severe deformities (OR 1.3-2.1) and were highest in those with multiple severe deformities (OR 1.7-4.2). The associations between vertebral deformities and negative health outcomes were stronger in men than in women. In this cross-sectional study radiologically assessed vertebral deformities were therefore weakly associated with both current and previous back pain as well as with functional and health impairments in both women and men. Multiple severe deformities were associated with severe and disabling back pain with stronger effects in men. PMID:10024907

  15. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Five Loci Influencing Facial Morphology in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fan; van der Lijn, Fedde; Schurmann, Claudia; Zhu, Gu; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Hysi, Pirro G.; Wollstein, Andreas; Lao, Oscar; de Bruijne, Marleen; Ikram, M. Arfan; van der Lugt, Aad; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J.; Homuth, Georg; de Zubicaray, Greig; McMahon, Katie L.; Thompson, Paul M.; Daboul, Amro; Puls, Ralf; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Bevan, Liisa; Pausova, Zdenka; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Wright, Margaret J.; Wicking, Carol; Boehringer, Stefan; Spector, Timothy D.; Paus, Tomáš; Martin, Nicholas G.; Biffar, Reiner; Kayser, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Inter-individual variation in facial shape is one of the most noticeable phenotypes in humans, and it is clearly under genetic regulation; however, almost nothing is known about the genetic basis of normal human facial morphology. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study for facial shape phenotypes in multiple discovery and replication cohorts, considering almost ten thousand individuals of European descent from several countries. Phenotyping of facial shape features was based on landmark data obtained from three-dimensional head magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and two-dimensional portrait images. We identified five independent genetic loci associated with different facial phenotypes, suggesting the involvement of five candidate genes—PRDM16, PAX3, TP63, C5orf50, and COL17A1—in the determination of the human face. Three of them have been implicated previously in vertebrate craniofacial development and disease, and the remaining two genes potentially represent novel players in the molecular networks governing facial development. Our finding at PAX3 influencing the position of the nasion replicates a recent GWAS of facial features. In addition to the reported GWA findings, we established links between common DNA variants previously associated with NSCL/P at 2p21, 8q24, 13q31, and 17q22 and normal facial-shape variations based on a candidate gene approach. Overall our study implies that DNA variants in genes essential for craniofacial development contribute with relatively small effect size to the spectrum of normal variation in human facial morphology. This observation has important consequences for future studies aiming to identify more genes involved in the human facial morphology, as well as for potential applications of DNA prediction of facial shape such as in future forensic applications. PMID:23028347

  16. Proposal for a European Space Surveillance System - Results of an ESA Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, T.; Flohrer, T.; Michal, T.

    Space Surveillance denotes the task of systematically surveying and tracking all objects above a certain size and maintaining a catalogue with updated orbital and physical characteristics for these objects. Space Surveillance is gaining increased importance as the operational safety of spacecraft is depending on it. Currently, Europe has no capability for routine Space Surveillance covering all space regions of interest and is strongly depending on external information from the United States and Russia. A first design study for a European Space Surveillance System was initiated by ESA in 2002 and led by ONERA as prime contractor. This study proposed a preliminary system covering the LEO and GEO orbit regions including the required survey strategies allowing for the autonomous maintenance of a catalogue of orbital parameters (including cold start capability). For the surveillance of LEO objects with sizes larger than 10 cm, a bistatic UHF radar with a large field of view (20° in elevation and 180° in azimuth) and a long range (1500 km for a 10 cm sphere) was proposed, based on experience gained by the French GRAVES system. For the surveillance of GEO objects larger than 1 m, four sites equipped with survey and tasking telescopes were proposed. It was estimated that such a system would be capable to maintain the orbits of 98 % of the LEO objects and 95 % of the GEO objects contained in the USSTRATCOM catalogue. A subsequent study analyzed the feasibility of a UHF radar and proposed solutions for the surveillance of the MEO region by optical sensors. In fact, this region in space will soon gain major importance for Europe due to the deployment of the GALILEO navigation satellite system.

  17. Spatial variations and development of land use regression models of levoglucosan in four European study areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedynska, A.; Hoek, G.; Wang, M.; Eeftens, M.; Cyrys, J.; Beelen, R.; Cirach, M.; De Nazelle, A.; Nystad, W.; Makarem Akhlaghi, H.; Meliefste, K.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; de Hoogh, K.; Brunekreef, B.; Kooter, I. M.

    2014-05-01

    Relatively little is known about long term effects of wood smoke on population health. A wood burning marker - levoglucosan - was measured using a highly standardized sampling and measurement method in four study areas across Europe (Oslo, the Netherlands, Munich/Augsburg, Catalonia) to assess within and between study area spatial variation. Levoglucosan was analyzed in addition to other components: PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, PM10, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen oxides (NOx), elemental and organic carbon (EC / OC), hopanes, steranes and elemental composition. Measurements were conducted at street, urban and regional background sites. Three two-week samples were taken per site and the annual average concentrations of pollutants were calculated using continuous measurements at one background site as a eference. Land use regression (LUR) models were developed to explain the spatial variation of levoglucosan using standardized procedures. Much larger within than between study area contrast in levoglucosan concentration was found. Spatial variation patterns differed substantially from other measured pollutants including PM2.5, NOx and EC. Levoglucosan had the highest spatial correlation with ΣPAH (r = 0.65) and the lowest with traffic markers - NOx, Σhopanes/steranes (r = -0.22). The correlation of levoglucosan with potassium (K), which is also used as a wood burning marker, was moderate to low (median r = 0.33). Levoglucosan concentrations in the cold (heating) period were between 3 and 20 times higher compared to the warm period. The contribution of wood-smoke calculated based on levoglucosan measurements and previous European emission data to OC and PM2.5 mass were 13 to 28% and 3 to 9% respectively in the full year. Larger contributions were calculated for the cold period. The median model R2 of the LUR models was 60%. In Catalonia the model R2 was the highest (71%). The LUR models included population and natural land related variables but no

  18. Fecal nitrogen concentration as a nutritional quality indicator for European rabbit ecological studies.

    PubMed

    Gil-Jiménez, Esperanza; Villamuelas, Miriam; Serrano, Emmanuel; Delibes, Miguel; Fernández, Néstor

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the quality of the nutritional resources available to wild herbivores is critical to understanding trophic regulation processes. However, the direct assessment of dietary nutritional characteristics is usually difficult, which hampers monitoring nutritional constraints in natural populations. The feeding ecology of ruminant herbivores has been often assessed by analyzing fecal nitrogen (FN) concentrations, although this method has been less evaluated in other taxa. This study analyzed the suitability of FN as an indicator of ingesta quality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), which is a keystone lagomorph species in Mediterranean ecosystems and of great conservation interest. Firstly, domestic O. cuniculus were used to evaluate under experimental conditions the accuracy of total FN and the metabolic FN as diet quality indicators of forages with characteristics similar to those available under natural conditions. Secondly, the accuracy of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to calculate FN was tested using partial least squares regression. Thirdly, a pilot field study was conducted to monitor FN dynamics from wild O. cuniculus in three different habitats during wet and drought periods. A strong association was found between diet type and total FN and metabolic FN (Pseudo-R(2) ≥ 0.89). It was also found that NIRS calibrations were accurate for depicting nitrogen concentrations (R(2) > 0.98 between NIRS and chemical results). Finally, the seasonal FN dynamics measured in the field were consistent with current knowledge on vegetation dynamics and forage limitations in the three habitats. The results support the use of NIRS methods and FN indices as a reliable and affordable approach to monitoring the nutritional quality of rabbit habitats. Potential applications include the assessment of the mechanistic relationships between resource limitations and population abundance, e.g., in relation to natural drought cycles and to habitat interventions

  19. Study of the respiratory health of employees in seven European plants that manufacture ceramic fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Trethowan, W N; Burge, P S; Rossiter, C E; Harrington, J M; Calvert, I A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the relation between occupational exposure to ceramic fibres during manufacture and respiratory health. METHODS--The respiratory health of 628 current employees in the manufacture of ceramic fibres in seven European plants in three countries was studied with a respiratory questionnaire, lung function tests, and chest radiography. Simultaneous plant hygiene surveys measured subjects' current exposure to airborne ceramic fibres from personal samples with optical microscopy fibre counts. The measured exposures were combined with occupational histories to derive estimates of each subject's cumulative exposure to respirable fibres. Symptoms were related to current and cumulative exposure to ceramic fibres and lung function and findings from chest radiographs were related to cumulative exposure. RESULTS--The mean duration of employment was 10.2 years and mean (range) cumulative exposure was 3.84 (0-22.94) (f.ml-1.y). Eye and skin symptoms were frequent in all plants and increased significantly, as did breathlessness and wheeze, with increasing current exposure. Dry cough and stuffy nose were less common in the least exposed group but did not increase with increasing exposure. After adjustment for the effects of age, sex, height, smoking, and past occupational exposures to respiratory hazards, there was a significant decrease in both forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced midexpiratory flow related to cumulative exposure in current smokers (P < 0.05) and in FEV1 in ex-smokers (P < 0.05). Small opacities were found in 13% of the chest radiographs; their prevalence was not related to cumulative exposure to ceramic fibres. CONCLUSIONS--It is concluded that exposure to ceramic fibres is associated with irritant symptoms similar to those seen in other exposures to man made mineral fibres (MMMFs) and that cumulative exposure to respirable ceramic fibres may cause airways obstruction by promoting the effects of cigarette smoke. PMID:7757174

  20. Endovascular Treatment of Visceral Aneurysms and Pseudoaneurysms: Long-term Outcomes from a Multicenter European Study

    SciTech Connect

    Spiliopoulos, Stavros Sabharwal, Tarun; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Brountzos, Elias; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Krokidis, Miltiadis; Gkoutzios, Panagiotis; Siablis, Dimitrios; Adam, Andreas

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To investigate the percutaneous endovascular management of visceral aneurysms (VA) and visceral pseudoaneurysms (VPA) treated in three European interventional radiology departments. Methods: Patient archives from the department's databases were examined and retrospectively analyzed. Patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 with VA and/or VPA, confirmed by computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, or digital subtraction angiography and treated exclusively with percutaneous endovascular methods, were included in the study. The study's primary end points were procedural technical success, target lesion reintervention rate, and periprocedural mortality rate. Secondary end points included major and minor complications rates. Results: The medical records of 54 patients (41 male, mean age 55 {+-} 18.1 years) with 58 VAs or VPAs and treated with various percutaneous endovascular therapeutic modalities were analyzed. In total, 21 VAs (mean diameter 49.4 {+-} 21 mm, range 20-100 mm) and 37 VPAs (mean diameter 25.1 {+-} 14.6 mm, range 8-60 mm) were treated. Procedural technical success was achieved in 100% of the cases, while target lesion reintervention rate was 6.1% (2 of 33) and 14.2% (3 of 21) in the VPA and VA groups, respectively. Mean clinical follow-up period was 19.1 {+-} 21.4 months. Overall periprocedural mortality rate was 3% (1 of 33) in the VPA group and 0% (0 of 21) in the VA group. Conclusion: Percutaneous endovascular treatment of VAs and VPAs is safe and effective with low morbidity and mortality. There is a small but significant reintervention rate, particularly for true aneurysms; dedicated follow-up imaging is recommended. Successful aneurysm exclusion was achieved in all cases with a second procedure.

  1. Further Evidence of Subphenotype Association with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Susceptibility Loci: A European Cases Only Study

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Perez, Elisa; Suarez-Gestal, Marian; Calaza, Manuel; Ordi-Ros, Josep; Balada, Eva; Bijl, Marc; Papasteriades, Chryssa; Carreira, Patricia; Skopouli, Fotini N.; Witte, Torsten; Endreffy, Emöke; Marchini, Maurizio; Migliaresi, Sergio; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Santos, Maria Jose; Suarez, Ana; Blanco, Francisco J.; Barizzone, Nadia; Pullmann, Rudolf; Ruzickova, Sarka; Lauwerys, Bernard R.; Gomez-Reino, Juan J.; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) shows a spectrum of clinical manifestations that complicate its diagnosis, treatment and research. This variability is likely related with environmental exposures and genetic factors among which known SLE susceptibility loci are prime candidates. The first published analyses seem to indicate that this is the case for some of them, but results are still inconclusive and we aimed to further explore this question. Methods European SLE patients, 1444, recruited at 17 centres from 10 countries were analyzed. Genotypes for 26 SLE associated SNPs were compared between patients with and without each of 11 clinical features: ten of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria (except ANAs) and age of disease onset. These analyses were adjusted for centre of recruitment, top ancestry informative markers, gender and time of follow-up. Overlap of samples with previous studies was excluded for assessing replication. Results There were three new associations: the SNPs in XKR6 and in FAM167A-BLK were associated with lupus nephritis (OR = 0.76 and 1.30, Pcorr = 0.007 and 0.03, respectively) and the SNP of MECP2, which is in chromosome X, with earlier age of disease onset in men. The previously reported association of STAT4 with early age of disease onset was replicated. Some other results were suggestive of the presence of additional associations. Together, the association signals provided support to some previous findings and to the characterization of lupus nephritis, autoantibodies and age of disease onset as the clinical features more associated with SLE loci. Conclusion Some of the SLE loci shape the disease phenotype in addition to increase susceptibility to SLE. This influence is more prominent for some clinical features than for others. However, results are only partially consistent between studies and subphenotype specific GWAS are needed to unravel their genetic component. PMID:23049788

  2. Non-fatal injuries in three Central and Eastern European urban population samples: the HAPIEE study

    PubMed Central

    Pikhart, Hynek; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Peasey, Anne; Topor-Madry, Roman; Nikitin, Yuri; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite high mortality from injuries and accidents, data on rates and distribution of non-fatal injuries in Central and Eastern European populations are scarce. Methods: Cross-sectional study of random population samples of 45–69-year-old men and women (n = 28 600) from Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and six Czech towns, participating in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study. Participants provided information on non-fatal injuries in the past 12 months, socio-economic characteristics, alcohol consumption and other covariates. Results: The period prevalence of non-fatal injuries in the last year among Czech, Russian and Polish men was 12.5, 9.4 and 5.3%, respectively; among women, the respective proportions were 9.9, 9.8 and 6.4%. Injury prevalence declined with age in men and increased with age in women. Higher injury prevalence was associated with being unmarried, material deprivation, higher drinking frequency and problem drinking. In the pooled data, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the highest versus lowest material deprivation category was 1.57 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38–1.79]; for problem drinking, the OR was 1.44 (95% CI 1.23–1.69). Alcohol did not mediate the link between socio-economic status and injury. Conclusion: Non-fatal injuries were associated with material deprivation, other socio-economic characteristics and with alcohol. These results not only underscore the universality of the inequality phenomenon, but also suggest that the mediating role of alcohol in social differentials in non-fatal injury remains an unresolved issue. PMID:19959615

  3. Body Image in Young Gender Dysphoric Adults: A European Multi-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Becker, Inga; Nieder, Timo O; Cerwenka, Susanne; Briken, Peer; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Cuypere, GrietDe; Haraldsen, Ira R Hebold; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-04-01

    The alteration of sex-specific body features and the establishment of a satisfactory body image are known to be particularly relevant for individuals with Gender Dysphoria (GD). The aim of the study was to first develop new scales and examine the psychometric properties of the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (Appelt & Strauß 1988). For the second part of this study, the satisfaction with different body features in young GD adults before cross-sex treatment were compared to female and male controls. Data collection took place within the context of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI) including 135 female-to-male (FtMs) and 115 male-to-female (MtFs) young GD adults and 235 female and 379 male age-adjusted controls. The five female and six male body feature subscales revealed good internal consistency. The ENIGI sample reported less satisfaction with overall appearance (d = 0.30) and with all of their body features than controls, but no subgroup differences for sexual orientation (FtM and MtF) and Age of Onset (FtM) were found. Body dissatisfaction was higher with regard to sex-specific body features (largest effect sizes of d = 3.21 for Genitalia in FtMs and d = 2.85 for Androgen-responsive features and genitalia in MtFs) than with those that appeared less related to the natal sex (d = 0.64 for Facial features in FtMs and d = 0.59 for Body shape in MtFs). Not only medical body modifying interventions, but also psychosocial guidance with regard to body image might be helpful for GD individuals before transitioning. PMID:25836027

  4. Fecal Nitrogen Concentration as a Nutritional Quality Indicator for European Rabbit Ecological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Jiménez, Esperanza; Villamuelas, Miriam; Serrano, Emmanuel; Delibes, Miguel; Fernández, Néstor

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the quality of the nutritional resources available to wild herbivores is critical to understanding trophic regulation processes. However, the direct assessment of dietary nutritional characteristics is usually difficult, which hampers monitoring nutritional constraints in natural populations. The feeding ecology of ruminant herbivores has been often assessed by analyzing fecal nitrogen (FN) concentrations, although this method has been less evaluated in other taxa. This study analyzed the suitability of FN as an indicator of ingesta quality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), which is a keystone lagomorph species in Mediterranean ecosystems and of great conservation interest. Firstly, domestic O. cuniculus were used to evaluate under experimental conditions the accuracy of total FN and the metabolic FN as diet quality indicators of forages with characteristics similar to those available under natural conditions. Secondly, the accuracy of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to calculate FN was tested using partial least squares regression. Thirdly, a pilot field study was conducted to monitor FN dynamics from wild O. cuniculus in three different habitats during wet and drought periods. A strong association was found between diet type and total FN and metabolic FN (Pseudo-R2 ≥ 0.89). It was also found that NIRS calibrations were accurate for depicting nitrogen concentrations (R2 > 0.98 between NIRS and chemical results). Finally, the seasonal FN dynamics measured in the field were consistent with current knowledge on vegetation dynamics and forage limitations in the three habitats. The results support the use of NIRS methods and FN indices as a reliable and affordable approach to monitoring the nutritional quality of rabbit habitats. Potential applications include the assessment of the mechanistic relationships between resource limitations and population abundance, e.g., in relation to natural drought cycles and to habitat interventions aimed at

  5. PM2.5 chemical composition in five European Mediterranean cities: A 1-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Dalia; Detournay, Anais; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Liguori, Francesca; Saraga, Dikaia; Bove, Maria Chiara; Brotto, Paolo; Cassola, Federico; Massabò, Dario; Latella, Aurelio; Pillon, Silvia; Formenton, Gianni; Patti, Salvatore; Armengaud, Alexandre; Piga, Damien; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc; Bartzis, John; Tolis, Evangelos; Prati, Paolo; Querol, Xavier; Wortham, Henri; Marchand, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    The seasonal and spatial characteristics of PM2.5 and its chemical composition in the Mediterranean Basin have been studied over a 1-year period (2011-2012) in five European Mediterranean cities: Barcelona (BCN), Marseille (MRS), Genoa (GEN), Venice (VEN), and Thessaloniki (THE). During the year under study, PM10 annual mean concentration ranged from 23 to 46 μg m- 3, while the respective PM2.5 ranged from 14 to 37 μg m- 3, with the highest concentrations observed in THE and VEN. Both cities presented an elevated number of exceedances of the PM10 daily limit value, as 32% and 20% of the days exceeded 50 μg m- 3, respectively. Similarly, exceedances of the WHO guidelines for daily PM2.5 concentrations (25 μg m- 3) were also more frequent in THE with 78% of the days during the period, followed by VEN with 39%. The lowest PM levels were measured in GEN. PM2.5 exhibited significant seasonal variability, with much higher winter concentrations for VEN and MRS, in fall for THE and in spring for BCN. PM2.5 chemical composition was markedly different even for similar PM2.5 levels. On annual average, PM2.5 was dominated by OM except in THE. OM contribution was higher in Marseille (42%), while mineral matter was the most abundant constituent in THE (32%). Moreover, PM2.5 relative mean composition during pollution episodes (PM2.5 > 25 μg m- 3) as well as the origins of the exceedances were also investigated. Results outline mainly the effect of NO3- being the most important driver and highlight the non-negligible impact of atmospheric mixing and aging processes during pollution episodes.

  6. Mortality Prediction after the First Year of Kidney Transplantation: An Observational Study on Two European Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Lorent, Marine; Giral, Magali; Pascual, Manuel; Koller, Michael T.; Steiger, Jürg; Trébern-Launay, Katy; Legendre, Christophe; Kreis, Henri; Mourad, Georges; Garrigue, Valérie; Rostaing, Lionel; Kamar, Nassim; Kessler, Michèle; Ladrière, Marc; Morelon, Emmanuel; Buron, Fanny; Golshayan, Dela; Foucher, Yohann

    2016-01-01

    After the first year post transplantation, prognostic mortality scores in kidney transplant recipients can be useful for personalizing medical management. We developed a new prognostic score based on 5 parameters and computable at 1-year post transplantation. The outcome was the time between the first anniversary of the transplantation and the patient’s death with a functioning graft. Afterwards, we appraised the prognostic capacities of this score by estimating time-dependent Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves from two prospective and multicentric European cohorts: the DIVAT (Données Informatisées et VAlidées en Transplantation) cohort composed of patients transplanted between 2000 and 2012 in 6 French centers; and the STCS (Swiss Transplant Cohort Study) cohort composed of patients transplanted between 2008 and 2012 in 6 Swiss centers. We also compared the results with those of two existing scoring systems: one from Spain (Hernandez et al.) and one from the United States (the Recipient Risk Score, RRS, Baskin-Bey et al.). From the DIVAT validation cohort and for a prognostic time at 10 years, the new prognostic score (AUC = 0.78, 95%CI = [0.69, 0.85]) seemed to present significantly higher prognostic capacities than the scoring system proposed by Hernandez et al. (p = 0.04) and tended to perform better than the initial RRS (p = 0.10). By using the Swiss cohort, the RRS and the the new prognostic score had comparable prognostic capacities at 4 years (AUC = 0.77 and 0.76 respectively, p = 0.31). In addition to the current available scores related to the risk to return in dialysis, we recommend to further study the use of the score we propose or the RRS for a more efficient personalized follow-up of kidney transplant recipients. PMID:27152510

  7. Perceptions of food risk management among key stakeholders: results from a cross-European study.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Ellen; Frewer, Lynn J; Chryssochoidis, George M; Houghton, Julie R; Korzen-Bohr, Sara; Krystallis, Thanassis; Lassen, Jesper; Pfenning, Uwe; Rowe, Gene

    2006-07-01

    In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management. The objective of this study is to identify similarities and differences in perceptions of, and attitudes to, food risk management practices held by consumers and experts with an interest in food safety. Focus groups were conducted in five European countries chosen for their (hypothesised) cultural differences in attitudes towards risk: Denmark, Germany, Greece, Slovenia and the UK. Content analysis was carried out on the resulting texts and (sub) categories were identified within the analysis framework to facilitate the capture of emerging themes. Five key themes were identified as common to the perceptions of both consumers and experts, although these are not represented in the same way by both groups. These key themes are: (1) efforts made by the responsible authorities to manage food risks; (2) responsibility for prevention and management of food risks; (3) how priorities are established within regulatory systems; (4) scientific progress and its implications for food risk management; and (5) media attention and food safety incidents. Although some similarities emerged between the groups, differences were also identified. For example, experts appeared to be highly negative about media influences, whereas consumers appeared more indifferent about media influences and motives. These different perspectives need to be addressed in order to reduce the perceptual distance between key stakeholders, and in particular, to enhance consumer confidence in the food risk management system. Based on the study findings, recommendations for food risk management policies are outlined. PMID:16584811

  8. Genetic association study of systemic lupus erythematosus and disease subphenotypes in European populations.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Larrañaga, Otsanda; Migliorini, Paola; Uribarri, Maria; Czirják, László; Alcaro, Maria C; Del Amo, Jokin; Iriondo, Mikel; Manzano, Carmen; Escorza-Treviño, Sergio; Estonba, Andone

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest a strong contribution of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In the last decades, many risk loci have been identified in several genetic association studies following both candidate gene and genome-wide approaches. The present work was conducted by GAPAID (Genes And Proteins for AutoImmunity Diagnostics) consortium with a dual aim: to replicate the association of several previously reported SLE susceptibility loci in an independent European sample and to explore their relation with some disease subphenotypes. A total of 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 40 associated loci were typed in a cohort of 208 SLE patients and 152 controls from Rheumatology Units of the University Hospital of Pisa (Italy) and University of Pécs Medical Center (Hungary). Regression analyses were performed to detect disease susceptibility loci and to identify genes affecting specific disease manifestations (renal, neurological, or skin involvement; arthritis; secondary Sjögren syndrome; and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome). Association of previously described risk alleles from HLA locus has been replicated, while IRF5, BLK, ITGAM, and IRF8 loci have been found to be consistent with previous published results. In addition, two new subphenotype-specific associations have been detected: SNP rs5754217 (UBE2L3) with skin involvement and rs3093030 (ICAM1-ICAM4-ICAM5) with hematological disorders. Overall, results from GAPAID project are consistent with previously established associations for HLA, IRF5, BLK, ITGAM, and IRF8 SLE susceptibility loci and report for the first time two subphenotype-specific associations. PMID:27021335

  9. The impact of European forests on cloud cover: an observation-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuling, Ryan; Melsen, Lieke; Vila-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi; van Heerwaarden, Chiel; Miralles, Diego; Taylor, Chris; Stegehuis, Annemiek; Fokke Meirink, Jan; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan

    2016-04-01

    The impact of temperate forests on their environment is still uncertain [1]. While forests generally have a lower albedo, the flux partitioning over forests and its relation to weather conditions is still poorly understood [2,3], complicating attempts to study impacts of forest cover on atmospheric conditions through modeling. Effects of land surface conditions on boundary-layer humidity and cloud formation can also be very non-linear [4]. Furthermore, the study of hydrological and climate impacts of temperate European forests is complicated because forests are strongly fragmented and often can be found on hilly terrain, making it impossible to attribute differences in for instance cloud cover or runoff directly to forest cover. Only few regions exist where forests can be found in absence of strong topography of a size large enough to result in near-equilibrium between the atmospheric boundary layer and local surface conditions. In this study, we analyse 10 years (2004-2013) of cloud cover observations from the Meteosat Second Generation satellite platform at a 15-minute temporal resolution. These observations come from a physically-based cloud product at the 6 km resolution [5], and a statistical cloud product based on the high-resolution visible imagery (1 km resolution). We focus on two regions in France where large forests are found which satisfy the following criteria: a) absence of strong topography, and b) presence of sharp contrast between forest and non-forest regions. Cloud occurrence is expressed by the fraction of the daytime that clouds are detected within a pixel. We find that in particular in summer and late summer, clouds are much more likely to occur over forest than over the surrounding non-forest land (difference in the order of 0.2). An opposite signal, but of much weaker magnitude, is found during springtime, when clouds are less likely to develop over forest. Difference in cloud occurrence is consistent with MODIS-derived differences in EVI

  10. Putting EuroPlaNet on the news: The European Planetary Science Congress 2007 case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrosa, M.; Heward, A.

    2008-06-01

    In this article we analyse the exercise of science communication through a very particular medium and in a very specific work environment: the press office of the II European Planetary Science Congress in Potsdam, Germany, from the 19-24 August 2007, hosted by EuroPlaNet - the European Planetology Network. During this event, the most important discoveries and research in planetary science recently made in Europe were presented and discussed by the scientific community. It was the press office's task to try to put these discoveries and research on the news.

  11. Family-based association study of the restless legs syndrome loci 2 and 3 in a European population.

    PubMed

    Kemlink, David; Polo, Olli; Montagna, Pasquale; Provini, Federica; Stiasny-Kolster, Karin; Oertel, Wolfgang; de Weerd, Al; Nevsimalova, Sona; Sonka, Karel; Högl, Birgit; Frauscher, Birgit; Poewe, Werner; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Pramstaller, Peter P; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Zucconi, Marco; Konofal, Eric; Arnulf, Isabelle; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Happe, Svenja; Klein, Christine; Hiller, Anja; Lichtner, Peter; Meitinger, Thomas; Müller-Myshok, Betram; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2007-01-15

    Three loci for the restless legs syndrome (RLS) on chromosomes 12q, 14q, and 9p (RLS1, RLS2, and RLS3) have been mapped, but no gene has been identified as yet. RLS1 has been confirmed in families from three different populations. We conducted a family-based association study of 159 European RLS trios. The subjects were genotyped using microsatellite markers evenly covering the candidate regions on chromosomes 14q and 9p with an average intermarker distance of 1.1 cM. Transmission disequilibrium tests were used to analyze the data, and empirical P values were estimated by permutation testing. On chromosome 14q, a significant association (empirical P = 0.0033) was found with a haplotype formed by markers D14S1014 and D14S1017 when analyzing all families. On chromosome 9p, no significant association in the sample of all families and only marginally significant associations were detected, with a haplotype involving markers D9S1846-D9S171 in a subset of South European trios and with a haplotype at D9S156-D9S157 in a subset of Central European trios (P = 0.0086 and 0.0077, respectively). These results represent the first confirmation of these loci in a mixed European population. Variable results observed in families of different ethnic groups further corroborate the genetic complexity of RLS. PMID:17133505

  12. A longitudinal, multi-level comparative study of quality and safety in European hospitals: the QUASER study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background although there is a wealth of information available about quality improvement tools and techniques in healthcare there is little understanding about overcoming the challenges of day-to-day implementation in complex organisations like hospitals. The 'Quality and Safety in Europe by Research' (QUASER) study will investigate how hospitals implement, spread and sustain quality improvement, including the difficulties they face and how they overcome them. The overall aim of the study is to explore relationships between the organisational and cultural characteristics of hospitals and how these impact on the quality of health care; the findings will be designed to help policy makers, payers and hospital managers understand the factors and processes that enable hospitals in Europe to achieve-and sustain-high quality services for their patients. Methods/design in-depth multi-level (macro, meso and micro-system) analysis of healthcare quality policies and practices in 5 European countries, including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of 10 hospitals. The project design has three major features: • a working definition of quality comprising three components: clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient experience • a conceptualisation of quality as a human, social, technical and organisational accomplishment • an emphasis on translational research that is evidence-based and seeks to provide strategic and practical guidance for hospital practitioners and health care policy makers in the European Union. Throughout the study we will adopt a mixed methods approach, including qualitative (in-depth, narrative-based, ethnographic case studies using interviews, and direct non-participant observation of organisational processes) and quantitative research (secondary analysis of safety and quality data, for example: adverse incident reporting; patient complaints and claims). Discussion the protocol is based on the premise that future research, policy

  13. Quality issues concerning genetic counselling for presymptomatic testing: a European Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Paneque, Milena; Sequeiros, Jorge; Skirton, Heather

    2015-11-01

    Genetic counselling for presymptomatic testing is complex, bringing both ethical and practical questions. There are protocols for counselling but a scarcity of literature regarding quality assessment of such counselling practice. Generic quality assessment tools for genetic services are not specific to presymptomatic testing (PST). Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify aspects of effective counselling practice in PST for late-onset neurological disorders. We used the Delphi method to ascertain the views of relevant European experts in genetic counselling practice, ascertained via published literature and nomination by practitioners. Ethical approval was obtained. Questionnaires were sent electronically to a list of 45 experts, (Medical Doctors, Geneticists, Genetic Counsellors and Genetic Nurses), who each contributed to one to three rounds. In the first round, we provided a list of relevant indicators of quality of practice from a literature review. Experts were requested to evaluate topics in four domains: (a) professional standards; (b) service standards; (c) the consultant's perspective; and (d) protocol standards. We then removed items receiving less than 65% approval and added new issues suggested by experts. The second round was performed for the refinement of issues and the last round was aimed at achieving final consensus on high-standard indicators of quality, for inclusion in the assessment tool. The most relevant indicators were related to (1) consultant-centred practice and (2) advanced counselling and interpersonal skills of professionals. Defined high-standard indicators can be used for the development of a new tool for quality assessment of PST counselling practice. PMID:25689925

  14. Climatological study of ionospheric irregularities over the European mid-latitude sector with GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wautelet, Gilles; Warnant, René

    2014-03-01

    High-frequency variability of the ionosphere, or irregularities, constitutes the main threat for real-time precise positioning techniques based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) measurements. Indeed, during periods of enhanced ionospheric variability, GNSS users in the field—who cannot verify the integrity of their measurements—will experience positioning errors that can reach several decimeters, while the nominal accuracy of the technique is cm-level. In the frame of this paper, a climatological analysis of irregularities over the European mid-latitude region is presented. Based on a 10 years GPS dataset over Belgium, the work analyzes the occurrence rate (as a function of the solar cycle, season and local time) as well as the amplitude of ionospheric irregularities observed at a single GPS station. The study covers irregularities either due to space weather events (solar origin) or of terrestrial origin. If space weather irregularities are responsible for the largest effects in terms of ionospheric error, their occurrence rate highly depends on solar activity. Indeed, the occurrence rate of ionospheric irregularities is about 9 % during solar maximum, whereas it drops to about 0 % during medium or low solar activity periods. Medium-scale ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) occurring during daytime in autumn/winter are the most recurrent pattern of the time series, with yearly proportions slightly varying with the solar cycle and an amplitude of about 10 % of the TEC background. Another recurrent irregularity type, though less frequent than MSTIDs, is the noise-like variability in TEC observed during summer nighttime, under quiet geomagnetic conditions. These summer nighttime irregularities exhibit amplitudes ranging between 8 and 15 % of the TEC background.

  15. Genome-wide association study of kidney function decline in individuals of European descent

    PubMed Central

    Gorski, Mathias; Tin, Adrienne; Garnaas, Maija; McMahon, Gearoid M.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chalmers, John; Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne; Woodward, Marc; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tammara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Smith, Albert V.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Coresh, Josef; Li, Man; Freudenberger, Paul; Hofer, Edith; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; de Boer, Ian H.; Li, Guo; Siscovick, David S.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Corre, Tanguy; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Gupta, Jayanta; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Olden, Matthias; Yang, Qiong; de Andrade, Mariza; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Turner, Stephen T.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Barlassina, Cristina; Cusi, Daniele; Salvi, Erika; Staessen, Jan A; Ridker, Paul M; Grallert, Harald; Meisinger, Christa; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Kramer, Holly; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Snieder, Harold; Del Greco, Fabiola; Franke, Andre; Nöthlings, Ute; Lieb, Wolfgang; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; van der Harst, Pim; Dehghan, Abbas; Franco, Oscar H.; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Uitterlinden, André G.; Coassin, Stefan; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Kronenberg, Florian; Paulweber, Bernhard; Aumann, Nicole; Endlich, Karlhans; Pietzner, Mike; Völker, Uwe; Rettig, Rainer; Chouraki, Vincent; Helmer, Catherine; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Metzger, Marie; Stengel, Benedicte; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Raitakari, Olli; Johnson, Andrew; Parsa, Afshin; Bochud, Murielle; Heid, Iris M.; Goessling, Wolfram; Köttgen, Anna; Kao, H. Linda; Fox, Caroline S.; Böger, Carsten A.

    2014-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple loci associated with cross-sectional eGFR, but a systematic genetic analysis of kidney function decline over time is missing. Here we conducted a GWAS meta-analysis among 63,558 participants of European descent, initially from 16 cohorts with serial kidney function measurements within the CKDGen Consortium, followed by independent replication among additional participants from 13 cohorts. In stage 1 GWAS meta-analysis, SNPs at MEOX2, GALNT11, IL1RAP, NPPA, HPCAL1 and CDH23 showed the strongest associations for at least one trait, in addition to the known UMOD locus which showed genome-wide significance with an annual change in eGFR. In stage 2 meta-analysis, the significant association at UMOD was replicated. Associations at GALNT11 with Rapid Decline (annual eGFRdecline of 3ml/min/1.73m2 or more), and CDH23 with eGFR change among those with CKD showed significant suggestive evidence of replication. Combined stage 1 and 2 meta-analyses showed significance for UMOD, GALNT11 and CDH23. Morpholino knockdowns of galnt11 and cdh23 in zebrafish embryos each had signs of severe edema 72 hours after gentamicin treatment compared to controls, but no gross morphological renal abnormalities before gentamicin administration. Thus, our results suggest a role in the deterioration of kidney function for the loci GALNT11 and CDH23, and show that the UMOD locus is significantly associated with kidney function decline. PMID:25493955

  16. Lost in Translation? A Case Study of Macao in Fabricating a European Education Space in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vong, Teresa Sou-Kuan; Wong, Matilda

    2014-01-01

    The creation of a European education space has been extensively discussed in Europe. Many scholars are concerned about the way in which the emergence of "global governmentality," such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)'s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), has produced a "soft…

  17. THE JOINT EUROPEAN-UNITED STATES NDEA INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY, MANNHEIM-HEIDELBERG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VAN TESLAAR, A.P.

    THE EUROPEAN COORDINATOR AND RESIDENT CO-DIRECTOR OF THE MANNHEIM-HEIDELBERG BRANCH OF THE SUMMER 1966 LANGUAGE INSTITUTE IN FRANCE AND GERMANY PREPARED THIS EVALUATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL VENTURE. DESIGNED TO ANALYZE THE INNOVATIONAL ASPECTS OF THE 1966 INSTITUTE WITH THE IDEA OF STRENGTHENING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THIS AND SIMILAR PROGRAMS, THE…

  18. Ageing and Health Status in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of the European POMONA II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Meindert; Perry, Jonathan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kerr, Mike; Lantman-De Valk, Henny Van Schrojenstein; Van Hove, Geert; Berger, Dasa Moravec; Azema, Bernard; Buono, Serafino; Cara, Alexandra Carmen; Germanavicius, Arunas; Linehan, Christine; Maatta, Tuomo; Tossebro, Jan; Weber, Germain

    2011-01-01

    Background: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). Method: The P15 was completed in a cross-sectional design…

  19. Celestial Symbolism in Central European Later Prehistory - Case Studies from the Bronze Age Carpathian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, Emília

    It is commonly held that the sun played a particularly important cultural role in later prehistoric Europe. The rise of a general European sun cult has even been suggested for the Bronze Age. During this period, the increasing use of special symbols assumed to represent the sun is easily discernible on different types of archaeological finds.

  20. Testing the Validity of the Dynamic Model at School Level: A European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panayiotou, Anastasia; Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.

    2016-01-01

    This European project investigates the impact of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness on student achievement. In each participating country (Belgium/Flanders, Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Ireland and Slovenia), a sample of at least 50 schools was drawn and tests in mathematics and science were administered to…

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Study Satisfaction among Young European Higher Education Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Aracil, Adela

    2012-01-01

    This article identifies those aspects of the academic environment that are associated with graduates' overall satisfaction with their higher education (HE) course. We use REFLEX data, which allow comparison among 14 European countries, based on a pooled sample and individual country regressions. Overall, the degree of satisfaction with HE studies…

  2. Guidelines for the practical stability studies of anticancer drugs: a European consensus conference.

    PubMed

    Bardin, C; Astier, A; Vulto, A; Sewell, G; Vigneron, J; Trittler, R; Daouphars, M; Paul, M; Trojniak, M; Pinguet, F

    2011-07-01

    Stability studies performed by the pharmaceutical industry are only designed to fulfill licensing requirements. Thus, post-dilution or -reconstitution stability data are frequently limited to 24h only for bacteriological reasons regardless of the true chemical stability which could, in many cases, be longer. In practice, the pharmacy-based centralized preparation may require infusions to be made several days in advance to provide, for example, the filling of ambulatory devices for continuous infusions or batch preparations for dose banding. Furthermore, a non-justified limited stability for expensive products is obviously very costly. Thus, there is a compelling need for additional stability data covering practical uses of anticancer drugs. A European conference consensus was held in France, May 2010, under the auspices of the French Society of Oncology Pharmacy (SFPO) to propose adapted rules on stability in practical situations and guidelines to perform corresponding stability studies. For each anticancer drug, considering their therapeutic index, the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) variability, specific clinical use and risks related to degradation products, the classical limit of 10% of degradation can be inappropriate. Therefore, acceptance limits must be clinically relevant and should be defined for each drug individually. Design of stability studies has to reflect the different needs of the clinical practice (preparation for the week-ends, outpatient transportations, implantable devices, dose banding…). It is essential to use validated stability-indicating methods, separating degradation products being formed in the practical use of the drug. Sequential temperature designs should be encouraged to replicate problems seen in daily practice such as rupture of the cold-chain or temperature-cycling between refrigerated storage and ambient in-use conditions. Stressed conditions are recommended to evaluate not only the role of classical variables (p

  3. Case-control studies in cancer patients as a surveillance system of occupational exposure in the European Community. European Community Working Party.

    PubMed Central

    Rona, R J; Taub, N A; Rasmussen, S

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The main aim was to detect known relationships between lung and blood cancers and various occupational exposures (using job titles as proxies) using a case-control design. The suitability of this system for routine surveillance could then be assessed. DESIGN--A case-control study was carried out in 1989. SETTING--Hospitals in eight European Community countries. SUBJECTS--Men aged 25 to 75 years with incident and prevalent cancer of the lung (190 cases), haematopoietic system (210 cases), or gastrointestinal tract (245 controls) were studied. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The crude estimate of the overall odds ratio exposure (OR) for relevant occupational exposure of lung cancer relative to gastrointestinal cancer was 1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82, 1.77). In a logistic regression analysis adjusting for country, age at diagnosis, smoking, and alcohol consumption, the overall OR was not greatly changed. A significant interaction of occupational exposure and age at diagnosis showed that lung cancer patients diagnosed at a younger age had a higher OR than patients diagnosed at an older age. Thus, the overall, insignificant result may have been due to a low reliability of occupational history in older age or to a selective mechanism related to age. The overall OR for occupational exposure of cancer of the blood relative to gastrointestinal cancer was 0.88 (95% CI 0.60, 1.31). The logistic regression analysis did not alter these results. CONCLUSION--A surveillance based on a case-control design using job titles would not be sensitive enough to detect possible occupational risks. PMID:8228771

  4. Asthma medication prescribing before, during and after pregnancy: a study in seven European regions

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Rachel A; Pierini, Anna; Klungsøyr, Kari; Neville, Amanda J; Jordan, Susan; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W; Thayer, Daniel; Bos, H Jens; Puccini, Aurora; Hansen, Anne V; Gini, Rosa; Engeland, Anders; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Dolk, Helen; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore utilisation patterns of asthma medication before, during and after pregnancy as recorded in seven European population-based databases. Design A descriptive drug utilisation study. Setting 7 electronic healthcare databases in Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Italy (Emilia Romagna and Tuscany), Wales, and the Clinical Practice Research Datalink representing the rest of the UK. Participants All women with a pregnancy ending in a delivery that started and ended between 2004 and 2010, who had been present in the database for the year before, throughout and the year following pregnancy. Main outcome measures The percentage of deliveries where the woman received an asthma medicine prescription, based on prescriptions issued (UK) or dispensed (non-UK), during the year before, throughout or during the year following pregnancy. Asthma medicine prescribing patterns were described for 3-month time periods and the choice of asthma medicine and changes in prescribing over the study period were evaluated in each database. Results In total, 1 165 435 deliveries were identified. The prevalence of asthma medication prescribing during pregnancy was highest in the UK and Wales databases (9.4% (CI95 9.3% to 9.6%) and 9.4% (CI95 9.1% to 9.6%), respectively) and lowest in the Norwegian database (3.7% (CI95 3.7% to 3.8%)). In the year before pregnancy, the prevalence of asthma medication prescribing remained constant in all regions. Prescribing levels peaked during the second trimester of pregnancy and were at their lowest during the 3-month period following delivery. A decline was observed, in all regions except the UK, in the prescribing of long-acting β-2-agonists during pregnancy. During the 7-year study period, there were only small changes in prescribing patterns. Conclusions Differences were found in the prevalence of prescribing of asthma medications during and surrounding pregnancy in Europe. Inhaled β-2 agonists and inhaled corticosteroids were

  5. Patient/family views on data sharing in rare diseases: study in the European LeukoTreat project.

    PubMed

    Darquy, Sylviane; Moutel, Grégoire; Lapointe, Anne-Sophie; D'Audiffret, Diane; Champagnat, Julie; Guerroui, Samia; Vendeville, Marie-Louise; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; Duchange, Nathalie

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore patient and family views on the sharing of their medical data in the context of compiling a European leukodystrophies database. A survey questionnaire was delivered with help from referral centers and the European Leukodystrophies Association, and the questionnaires returned were both quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. This study found that patients/families were strongly in favor of participating. Patients/families hold great hope and trust in the development of this type of research. They have a strong need for information and transparency on database governance, the conditions framing access to data, all research conducted, partnerships with the pharmaceutical industry, and they also need access to results. Our findings bring ethics-driven arguments for a process combining initial broad consent with ongoing information. On both, we propose key item-deliverables to database participants. PMID:26081642

  6. Validity Study of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" with English-Speaking Hispanic and European American Children in Head Start Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Cathy H.; Marley, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" (PLS-4) with a sample of English-speaking Hispanic and European American children who attended Head Start programs. Participants were 440 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years (52% male; 86% Hispanic and 14% European American). Participants…

  7. The impact of European forests on cloud cover: an observation-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melsen, L. A.; Teuling, R.; Vila-Guerau Arellano, J.; Nabuurs, G. J.; Miralles, D. G.; Taylor, C.; Stegehuis, A.; Meirink, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of temperate forests on their environment is uncertain [1]. While forests generally have a lower albedo, the flux partitioning over forests and its relation to weather conditions is still poorly understood [2,3], complicating modeling attempts. Effects of land surface conditions on boundary-layer humidity and cloud formation can also be very non-linear [4]. Furthermore, the study of hydrological and climate impacts of temperate European forests is complicated because forests are fragmented and often can be found on hilly terrain, making it impossible to attribute differences in cloud cover directly to forest cover. In this study, we analyse 10 years (2004-2013) of cloud cover data from the SEVIRI instrument aboard the Meteosat Second Generation satellite platform at a 15-minute temporal resolution [5]. We focus on two regions in France where large forests are found which satisfy the following criteria: a) absence of strong topography, and b) presence of sharp contrast between forest and non-forest regions. Cloud occurrence is expressed by the fraction of the daytime that clouds are detected within a ˜6 km MSG pixel. We find that in particular in summer and late summer, clouds are more likely to occur over forest than over the surrounding non-forest land (order of 20%). An opposite signal, but of weaker magnitude, is found in spring, when clouds are less likely to develop over forest. Difference in cloud occurrence is consistent with MODIS-derived differences in EVI, which reflects a more pronounced soil moisture reduction in the non-forested areas. In addition to investigating seasonal and diurnal patterns, we also investigate the effects of windthrow on cloud occurrence. In 2009, storm Klaus caused extensive damage in southern France, resulting in a large-scale disturbance of the forest cover conditions. This disturbance lead to a significantly lower cloud cover over the forest region in the period after the storm in comparison to the period before the

  8. Association between Integration Policies and Immigrants’ Mortality: An Explorative Study across Three European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ikram, Umar Z.; Malmusi, Davide; Juel, Knud; Rey, Grégoire; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Background To integrate immigrants into their societies, European countries have adopted different types of policies, which may influence health through both material and psychosocial determinants. Recent studies have suggested poorer health outcomes for immigrants living in countries with poorly rated integration policies. Objective To analyse mortality differences of immigrants from the same country of origin living in countries with distinct integration policy contexts. Methods From the mortality dataset collected in the Migrant Ethnic Health Observatory (MEHO) project, we chose the Netherlands (linked data from 1996-2006), France (unlinked; 2005-2007) and Denmark (linked; 1992-2001) as representatives of the inclusive, assimilationist and exclusionist policy models, respectively, based on the Migrant Integration Policy Index. We calculated for each country sex- and age-standardized mortality rates for Turkish-, Moroccan- and local-born populations aged 20-69 years. Poisson regression was used to estimate the mortality rate ratios (MRRs) for cross-country and within-country comparisons. The analyses were further stratified by age group and cause of death. Results Compared with their peers in the Netherlands, Turkish-born immigrants had higher all-cause mortality in Denmark (MRR men 1.92; 95% CI 1.74-2.13 and women 2.11; 1.80-2.47) but lower in France (men 0.64; 0.59-0.69 and women 0.58; 0.51-0.67). A similar pattern emerged for Moroccan-born immigrants. The relative differences between immigrants and the local-born population were also largest in Denmark and lowest in France (e.g., Turkish-born men MRR 1.52; 95% CI 1.38-1.67 and 0.62; 0.58-0.66, respectively). These patterns were consistent across all age groups, and more marked for cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions Although confounders and data comparability issues (e.g., French cross-sectional data) may affect the findings, this study suggests that different macro-level policy contexts may influence

  9. Fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a multi-centre, European cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bamia, C; Lagiou, P; Jenab, M; Aleksandrova, K; Fedirko, V; Trichopoulos, D; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Olsen, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Kvaskoff, M; Katzke, V A; Kühn, T; Boeing, H; Nöthlings, U; Palli, D; Sieri, S; Panico, S; Tumino, R; Naccarati, A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB(as); Peeters, P H M; Weiderpass, E; Skeie, G; Quirós, J R; Agudo, A; Chirlaque, M-D; Sanchez, M-J; Ardanaz, E; Dorronsoro, M; Ericson, U; Nilsson, L M; Wennberg, M; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N; Key, T J; Travis, R C; Ferrari, P; Stepien, M; Duarte-Salles, T; Norat, T; Murphy, N; Riboli, E; Trichopoulou, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vegetable and/or fruit intakes in association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been investigated in case–control studies conducted in specific European countries and cohort studies conducted in Asia, with inconclusive results. No multi-centre European cohort has investigated the indicated associations. Methods: In 486 799 men/women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition, we identified 201 HCC cases after 11 years median follow-up. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence for sex-specific quintiles and per 100 g d−1 increments of vegetable/fruit intakes. Results: Higher vegetable intake was associated with a statistically significant, monotonic reduction of HCC risk: HR (100 g d−1 increment): 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71–0.98. This association was consistent in sensitivity analyses with no apparent heterogeneity across strata of HCC risk factors. Fruit intake was not associated with HCC incidence: HR (100 g d−1 increment): 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92–1.11. Conclusions: Vegetable, but not fruit, intake is associated with lower HCC risk with no evidence for heterogeneity of this association in strata of important HCC risk factors. Mechanistic studies should clarify pathways underlying this association. Given that HCC prognosis is poor and that vegetables are practically universally accessible, our results may be important, especially for those at high risk for the disease. PMID:25742480

  10. Genome-wide association study reveals two loci for serum magnesium concentrations in European-American children.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiao; Glessner, Joseph; Tin, Adrienne; Li, Jin; Guo, Yiran; Wei, Zhi; Liu, Yichuan; Mentch, Frank D; Hou, Cuiping; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Tiancheng; Qiu, Haijun; Kim, Cecilia; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium ions are essential to the basic metabolic processes in the human body. Previous genetic studies indicate that serum magnesium levels are highly heritable, and a few genetic loci have been reported involving regulation of serum magnesium in adults. In this study, we examined if additional loci influence serum magnesium levels in children. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 2,267 European-American children genotyped on the Illumina HumanHap550 or Quad610 arrays, sharing over 500,000 markers, as the discovery cohort and 257 European-American children genotyped on the Illumina Human OmniExpress arrays as the replication cohort. After genotype imputation, the strongest associations uncovered were with imputed SNPs residing within the FGFR2 (rs1219515, P = 1.1 × 10(-5)) and PAPSS2 (rs1969821, P = 7.2 × 10(-6)) loci in the discovery cohort, both of which were robustly replicated in our independent patient cohort (rs1219515, P = 3.5 × 10(-3); rs1969821, P = 1.2 × 10(-2)). The associations at the FGFR2 locus were also weakly replicated in a dataset from a previous GWAS of serum magnesium in European adults. Our results indicate that FGFR2 and PAPSS2 may play an important role in the regulation of magnesium homeostasis in children of European-American ancestry. PMID:26685716

  11. A numerical study of the European option by the MLPG method with moving kriging interpolation.

    PubMed

    Phaochoo, P; Luadsong, A; Aschariyaphotha, N

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method is applied for solving a generalized Black-Scholes equation in financial problems. This equation is a PDE governing the price evolution of a European call or a European put under the Black-Scholes model. The θ-weighted method and MLPG are used for discretizing the governing equation in time variable and option pricing, respectively. We show that the spectral radius of amplification matrix with the discrete operator is less than 1. This ensures that this numerical scheme is stable. Numerical experiments are performed with time varying volatility and the results are compared with the analytical and the numerical results of other methods. PMID:27064892

  12. Tuberculosis control and economic recession: longitudinal study of data from 21 European countries, 1991–2012

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; Sandgren, Andreas; Semenza, Jan C

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate whether the economic recession affected the control of tuberculosis in the European Union. Methods Multivariate regression models were used to quantify the association between gross domestic product, public health expenditure and tuberculosis case detection rates, using data from 21 European Union member states (1991–2012). The estimated changes in case detection attributable to the recession were combined with mathematical models of tuberculosis transmission, to project the potential influence of the recession on tuberculosis epidemiology until 2030. Findings Between 1991 and 2007, detection rates for sputum-smear-positive tuberculosis in the European Union were stable at approximately 85%. During the economic recession (2008–2011) detection rates declined by a mean of 5.22% (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.54–7.90) but treatment success rates showed no significant change (P = 0.62). A fall in economic output of 100 United States dollars per capita was associated with a 0.22% (95% CI: 0.05–0.39) mean reduction in the tuberculosis case detection rate. An equivalent fall in spending on public health services was associated with a 2.74% (95% CI: 0.31–5.16) mean reduction in the detection rate. Mathematical models suggest that the recession and consequent austerity policies will lead to increases in tuberculosis prevalence and tuberculosis-attributable mortality that are projected to persist for over a decade. Conclusion Across the European Union, reductions in spending on public health services appear to have reduced tuberculosis case detection and to have increased the long-term risk of a resurgence in the disease. PMID:26240458

  13. Exploring the relationship between cyberbullying and unnatural child death: an ecological study of twenty-four European countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet risk has been recognised as a child safety problem, but evidence is insufficient to conclude that a child’s online risk exposure can lead to physical harm. This study aims to explore the ecological relationship between Internet risk exposure and unnatural child death. Methods Multiple secondary data sources were used: online exposure to content about self-harm, cyberbullying, and Internet addiction data (EU Kids Online survey, 2010); and mortality data (European Detailed Mortality Database, 2010 or the latest year if not available) of 24 European countries. Correlations were found using quasi-Poisson regression. Countries’ prevalence rates of psychiatric problems (European Social Survey Round 3 and 6, 2006 and 2012) were used to test for possible spuriousness. Results This study finds that countries with higher rates of cyberbullying were more likely to have a higher incidence of unnatural child death. A 1 percent rise in the prevalence of cyberbullying translated into a 28% increase in risk of unnatural child death (95% CI: 2%-57%). No evidence was found to substantiate confounding effect of the national prevalence of depressive symptoms or traditional bullying. Conclusions Explanations are given for the findings. We conclude that intervention programs designed to serve as precautionary measures for risk minimisation should be considered. PMID:25079144

  14. Comparative study of the methods used for treatment and final disposal of sewage sludge in European countries.

    PubMed

    Kelessidis, Alexandros; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2012-06-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment results to the production of large quantities of sewage sludge, which requires proper and environmentally accepted management before final disposal. In European Union, sludge management remains an open and challenging issue for the Member States as the relative European legislation is fragmentary and quite old, while the published data concerning sludge treatment and disposal in different European countries are often incomplete and inhomogeneous. The main objective of the current study was to outline the current situation and discuss future perspectives for sludge treatment and disposal in EU countries. According to the results, specific sludge production is differentiated significantly between European countries, ranging from 0.1 kg per population equivalent (p.e.) and year (Malta) to 30.8 kg per p.e. and year (Austria). More stringent legislations comparing to European Directive 86/278/EC have been adopted for sludge disposal in soil by several European countries, setting lower limit values for heavy metals as well as limit values for pathogens and organic micropollutants. A great variety of sludge treatment technologies are used in EU countries, while differences are observed between Member States. Anaerobic and aerobic digestion seems to be the most popular stabilization methods, applying in 24 and 20 countries, respectively. Mechanical sludge dewatering is preferred comparing to the use of drying beds, while thermal drying is mainly applied in EU-15 countries (old Member States) and especially in Germany, Italy, France and UK. Regarding sludge final disposal, sludge reuse (including direct agricultural application and composting) seems to be the predominant choice for sludge management in EU-15 (53% of produced sludge), following by incineration (21% of produced sludge). On the other hand, the most common disposal method in EU-12 countries (new Member States that joined EU after 2004) is still landfilling. Due to the obligations

  15. External Quality Assessment for Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Drug Resistance in the European Union: A Five Year Multicentre Implementation Study

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Elvira; Ahmed, Nada; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Kodmon, Csaba; Drobniewski, Francis; Ruesch-Gerdes, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Background External quality assurance (EQA) systems are essential to ensure accurate diagnosis of TB and drug-resistant TB. The implementation of EQA through organising regular EQA rounds and identification of training needs is one of the key activities of the European TB reference laboratory network (ERLTB-Net). The aim of this study was to analyse the results of the EQA rounds in a systematic manner and to identify potential benefits as well as common problems encountered by the participants. Methods The ERLTB-Net developed seven EQA modules to test laboratories’ proficiency for TB detection and drug susceptibility testing using both conventional and rapid molecular tools. All National TB Reference laboratories in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States were invited to participate in the EQA scheme. Results A total of 32 National TB Reference laboratories participated in six EQA rounds conducted in 2010–2014. The participation rate ranged from 52.9% - 94.1% over different modules and rounds. Overall, laboratories demonstrated very good proficiency proving their ability to diagnose TB and drug-resistant TB with high accuracy in a timely manner. A small number of laboratories encountered problems with identification of specific Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTMs) (N = 5) and drug susceptibility testing to Pyrazinamide, Amikacin, Capreomycin, and Ethambutol (N = 4). Conclusions The European TB Reference laboratories showed a steady and high level of performance in the six EQA rounds. A network such as ERLTB-Net can be instrumental in developing and implementing EQA and in establishing collaboration between laboratories to improve the diagnosis of TB in the EU/EEA. PMID:27055064

  16. Fluid migration in sedimentary basins - a case study from the Central European Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duschl, Florian; van den Kerkhof, Alfons; Leiss, Bernd; Sosa, Graciela; Wiegand, Bettina; Vollbrecht, Axel; Sauter, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Core samples from the cap rock of an Upper Permian dolomitic limestone from the Zechstein formation (Stassfurt carbonate sequence, Ca2) in the Central European Basin were studied for a better understanding of the tectonic control on fluid migration during the burial and uplift of CO2-rich gas reservoirs. Petrographical investigations were carried out by means of optical transmission and cathodoluminescence microscopy. A heating-freezing stage was applied for fluid inclusion analysis; gas compositions were measured by Laser-Raman spectroscopy. The study focuses on the quantification of paleo pressures, temperatures and compositions of diagenetic fluids trapped as inclusions in dolomite, anhydrite, calcite, and fluorite, as well as in postdiagenetic fluorite in mineralized fractures. Limestone matrix mainly consists of early diagenetic, euhedral dolomite with few hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions. Offset veins originating from fine-grained inclusion-free anhydrite nodules consist of coarse-grained recrystallized anhydrite containing primary aqueous CaCl2-rich inclusions. Late calcite cement fills remnant pores between the dolomite rhombs and contains H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 fluid inclusions. Subsequently, the dolomitic limestones were affected by pressure solution due to burial, followed by basin inversion (uplift) starting in Upper Cretaceous. Pressure solution generated carbonate rich fluids, which resulted in dolomite and calcite veinlets. Simultaneously, a first clearly zoned and brown coloured generation of fluorite (I) accumulated in nodules together with sulfides and organic matter. This fluorite (I) contains mostly H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 fluid inclusions with relatively high salinity (17.8 wt% NaCl, 8.9 wt% CaCl2). Colourless fluorite (II) is the latest observable (post-) diagenetic mineral phase filling veinlets in dolomitic limestone that crosscut pressure solution features. Fluorite (II) replaces fluorite (I) within the nodules as well. Carbonic inclusions together with CH4

  17. Physicians searching the web for medical question answering: a European survey and local user studies.

    PubMed

    Samwald, Matthias; Kritz, Marlene; Gschwandtner, Manfred; Stefanov, Veronika; Hanbury, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Medical professionals frequently face unmet information needs during their daily routines. We investigated the use of web search engines through a large-scale survey including 500 European physicians, as well as local user testing that observed the search behavior of physicians when facing clinical questions. We identified several differences in the search requirements and behaviors of different groups of physicians based on level of qualification and level of specialization. We also found user testing a valuable source of information about the search preferences of medical professional. The survey and user tests we conducted are among the largest and most detailed that have been conducted in this domain. PMID:23920877

  18. Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents - the HELENA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since stress is hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of obesity during adolescence, research on associations between adolescent stress and obesity-related parameters and behaviours is essential. Due to lack of a well-established recent stress checklist for use in European adolescents, the study investigated the reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) for assessing perceived stress in European adolescents. Methods The ASQ was translated into the languages of the participating cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Vienna, Zaragoza, Pecs and Athens) and was implemented within the HELENA cross-sectional study. A total of 1140 European adolescents provided a valid ASQ, comprising 10 component scales, used for internal reliability (Cronbach α) and construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis or CFA). Contributions of socio-demographic (gender, age, pubertal stage, socio-economic status) characteristics to the ASQ score variances were investigated. Two-hundred adolescents also provided valid saliva samples for cortisol analysis to compare with the ASQ scores (criterion validity). Test-retest reliability was investigated using two ASQ assessments from 37 adolescents. Results Cronbach α-values of the ASQ scales (0.57 to 0.88) demonstrated a moderate internal reliability of the ASQ, and intraclass correlation coefficients (0.45 to 0.84) established an insufficient test-retest reliability of the ASQ. The adolescents' gender (girls had higher stress scores than boys) and pubertal stage (those in a post-pubertal development had higher stress scores than others) significantly contributed to the variance in ASQ scores, while their age and socio-economic status did not. CFA results showed that the original scale construct fitted moderately with the data in our European adolescent population. Only in boys, four out of 10 ASQ scale scores were a significant positive predictor for baseline wake-up salivary cortisol, suggesting a rather poor

  19. Communication in a Human biomonitoring study: Focus group work, public engagement and lessons learnt in 17 European countries.

    PubMed

    Exley, Karen; Cano, Noemi; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Van de Mieroop, Els; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Cerna, Milena; Krskova, Andrea; Becker, Kerstin; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Seiwert, Margarete; Mørck, Thit A; Rudnai, Peter; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Cullen, Elizabeth; Kellegher, Anne; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Kamińska, Joanna; Namorado, Sónia; Reis, M Fátima; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Gurzau, Anca E; Halzlova, Katarina; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Huetos, Olga; López, Ana; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Sepai, Ovnair

    2015-08-01

    A communication strategy was developed by The Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), as part of its objectives to develop a framework and protocols to enable the collection of comparable human biomonitoring data throughout Europe. The framework and protocols were tested in the pilot study DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale). The aims of the communication strategy were to raise awareness of human biomonitoring, encourage participation in the study and to communicate the study results and their public health significance. It identified the audiences and key messages, documented the procedure for dissemination of results and was updated as the project progressed. A communication plan listed the tools and materials such as press releases, flyers, recruitment letters and information leaflets required for each audience with a time frame for releasing them. Public insight research was used to evaluate the recruitment material, and the feedback was used to improve the documents. Dissemination of results was coordinated in a step by step approach by the participating countries within DEMOCOPHES, taking into account specific national messages according to the needs of each country. Participants received individual results, unless they refused to be informed, along with guidance on what the results meant. The aggregate results and policy recommendations were then communicated to the general public and stakeholders, followed by dissemination at European level. Several lessons were learnt that may assist other future human biomonitoring studies. Recruitment took longer than anticipated and so social scientists, to help with community engagement, should be part of the research team from the start. As a European study, involving multiple countries, additional considerations were needed for the numerous organisations, different languages, cultures, policies and priorities

  20. European Mistletoe

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References American mistletoe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 7, 2009. European mistletoe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July ...

  1. European study of frequency of participation of adolescents with and without cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Michelsen, Susan I.; Flachs, Esben M.; Damsgaard, Mogens T.; Parkes, Jacqueline; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Colver, Allan; Fauconnier, Jerome; Dickinson, Heather O.; Marcelli, Marco; Uldall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy participate less in everyday activities than children in the general populations. During adolescence, rapid physical and psychological changes occur which may be more difficult for adolescents with impairments. Within the European SPARCLE project we measured frequency of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy by administering the Questionnaire of Young People's Participation to 667 adolescents with cerebral palsy or their parents from nine European regions and to 4666 adolescents from the corresponding general populations. Domains and single items were analysed using respectively linear and logistic regression. Adolescents with cerebral palsy spent less time with friends and had less autonomy in their daily life than adolescents in the general populations. Adolescents with cerebral palsy participated much less in sport but played electronic games at least as often as adolescents in the general populations. Severity of motor and intellectual impairment had a significant impact on frequency of participation, the more severely impaired being more disadvantaged. Adolescents with an only slight impairment participated in some domains as often as adolescents in the general populations. Regional variation existed. For example adolescents with cerebral palsy in central Italy were most disadvantaged according to decisional autonomy, while adolescents with cerebral palsy in east Denmark and northern England played sports as often as their general populations. Participation is an important health outcome. Personal and environmental predictors of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy need to be identified in order to design interventions directed to such predictors; and in order to inform the content of services. PMID:24412031

  2. Controlled categorisation processing in brand extension evaluation by Indo-European language speakers. An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Fudali-Czyż, Agnieszka; Ratomska, Marta; Cudo, Andrzej; Francuz, Piotr; Kopiś, Natalia; Tużnik, Przemysław

    2016-08-15

    The purpose of our experiment was to test event-related potentials (ERP) accompanying the process of brand extension evaluation in people speaking Indo-European languages. The experimental procedure consisted of sequential presentations of pairs of stimuli; namely, a beverage brand name and a product name. The products fell into the category of beverages (congruent trials) or clothes (incongruent trials). In the response condition (RC), the participants decided whether they accepted the product as an extension of the brand. In the no-response condition (NRC), the participants' task was to attend the stimuli and try to remember them. In the response condition, the amplitudes of the N270, P300 and N400 components were sensitive to incongruence between the product category and the previously presented brand. However, in the no-response condition, differences emerged only at the level of early P1 and P2 components. Our results suggest that, in people speaking one of the Indo-European languages, the process of categorisation in brand extension evaluation is not automatic. PMID:27289044

  3. European Community.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  4. Immigrant Integration policies and perceived Group Threat: A Multilevel Study of 27 Western and Eastern European Countries.

    PubMed

    Schlueter, Elmar; Meuleman, Bart; Davidov, Eldad

    2013-05-01

    Although immigrant integration policies have long been hypothesized to be associated with majority members' anti-immigrant sentiments, systematic empirical research exploring this relationship is largely absent. To address this gap in the literature, the present research takes a cross-national perspective. Drawing from theory and research on group conflict and intergroup norms, we conduct two studies to examine whether preexisting integration policies that are more permissive promote or impede majority group members' subsequent negative attitudes regarding immigrants. For several Western and Eastern European countries, we link country-level information on immigrant integration policies from 2006 with individual-level survey data from the Eurobarometer 71.3 collected in 2009 (Study 1) and from the fourth wave of the European Value Study collected between 2008 and 2009 (Study 2). For both studies, the results from multilevel regression models demonstrate that immigrant integration policies that are more permissive are associated with decreased perceptions of group threat from immigrants. These findings suggest that immigrant integration policies are of key importance in improving majority members' attitudes regarding immigrants, which is widely considered desirable in modern immigrant-receiving societies. PMID:23521987

  5. Immunohistochemical study on localization of serotonin immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the European catfish (Silurus glanis, L.).

    PubMed

    Köprücü, S; Yaman, M

    2015-02-01

    In this study, it was aimed to identify the distribution of serotonin immunoreactive cells within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of European catfish (Silurus glanis). For this purpose, the tissue samples were taken from the stomach (cardia, fundus and pylorus region) and intestine (anterior, middle and posterior region). They were examined by applying the avidin-biotin-immunoperoxidase method. The serotonin containing immunoreactive cells are presented in all regions of the GIT. It was determined to be localized generally in different distribution within the stomachs and intestines of S. glanis. It was found that the most intensive regions of immunoreactive cells were the cardia stomach and posterior of intestine. PMID:25041659

  6. Perceived safety of area of residence and exercise: a pan-European study.

    PubMed

    Shenassa, Edmond D; Liebhaber, Allison; Ezeamama, Amara

    2006-06-01

    The authors examined the association between perceived safety of neighborhood and likelihood of exercise among adult residents of eight European cities. Data were collected by a survey of neighborhood, housing, and health conducted by the World Health Organization in 2002 and 2003. Baseline category logistic regression models were fit to estimate the association between perceived safety and exercise, accounting for demographic and place-of-residence characteristics. Among women, perception of safety was associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.54) and a 40% (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.91) elevation in the odds of occasional and frequent exercise, respectively. Among men, perception of safety was associated with a 39% elevation in the odds of occasional exercise, but there was no association with frequent exercise. If these findings were replicated, they would suggest that health promotion efforts could target residential areas without the need to identify specific persons. PMID:16571742

  7. Inventory study of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is not notifiable in most European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) countries, the epidemiological situation of the >150 NTM species is largely unknown. We aimed to collect data on the frequency of NTM detection and NTM species types in EU/EEA countries. Methods Officially nominated national tuberculosis reference laboratories of all EU/EEA countries were asked to provide information on: laboratory routines for detection and identification of NTM, including drug sensitivity testing (DST) methods; data on the number and type of NTM species identified; coverage and completeness of the provided data on NTM; type and number of human specimens tested for NTM; and number of specimens tested for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and NTM. This information was summarized and the main results are described. Results In total, 99 different NTM species were identified with M. avium, M. gordonae, M. xenopi , M. intracellulare, and M. fortuitum identified most frequently. Seven percent of the NTM species could not be identified. NTM was cultured from between 0.4-2.0% of the specimens (data from four countries). The laboratories use culturing methods optimised for M. tuberculosis complex. Identification is mainly carried out by a commercial line probe assay supplemented with sequencing. Most laboratories carried out DST for rapid growers and only at the explicit clinical request for slow growers. Conclusion It is likely that the prevalence of NTM is underestimated because diagnostic procedures are not optimized specifically for NTM and isolates may not be referred to the national reference laboratory for identification. Due to the diagnostic challenges and the need to establish the clinical relevance of NTM, we recommend that countries should concentrate detection and identification in only few laboratories. PMID:24502462

  8. Illness perception and related behaviour in lower respiratory tract infections—a European study

    PubMed Central

    Hordijk, Patricia M; Broekhuizen, Berna D L; Butler, Chris C; Coenen, Samuel; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Goossens, Herman; Hood, Kerry; Smith, Richard; van Vugt, Saskia F; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo J M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a common presentation in primary care, but little is known about associated patients’ illness perception and related behaviour. Objective. To describe illness perceptions and related behaviour in patients with LRTI visiting their general practitioner (GP) and identify differences between European regions and types of health care system. Methods. Adult patients presenting with acute cough were included. GPs recorded co morbidities and clinical findings. Patients filled out a diary for up to 4 weeks on their symptoms, illness perception and related behaviour. The chi-square test was used to compare proportions between groups and the Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare means. Results. Three thousand one hundred six patients from 12 European countries were included. Eighty-one per cent (n = 2530) of the patients completed the diary. Patients were feeling unwell for a mean of 9 (SD 8) days prior to consulting. More than half experienced impairment of normal or social activities for at least 1 week and were absent from work/school for a mean of 4 (SD 5) days. On average patients felt recovered 2 weeks after visiting their GP, but 21% (n = 539) of the patients did not feel recovered after 4 weeks. Twenty-seven per cent (n = 691) reported feeling anxious or depressed, and 28% (n = 702) re-consulted their GP at some point during the illness episode. Reported illness duration and days absent from work/school differed between countries and regions (North-West versus South-East), but there was little difference in reported illness course and related behaviour between health care systems (direct access versus gate-keeping). Conclusion. Illness course, perception and related behaviour in LRTI differ considerably between countries. These finding should be taken into account when developing International guidelines for LRTI and interventions for setting realistic expectations about illness course

  9. Anisotropic tomography of the European lithospheric structure from surface wave studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, Blanka; Maurya, Satish; Montagner, Jean-Paul

    2016-06-01

    We present continental-scale seismic isotropic and anisotropic imaging of shear wave upper-mantle structure of tectonically diversified terranes creating the European continent. Taking into account the 36-200 s period range of surface waves enables us to model the deep subcontinental structure at different vertical scale-lengths down to 300 km. After very strict quality selection criteria, we have obtained phase wave speeds at different periods for fundamental Rayleigh and Love modes from about 9000 three-component seismograms. Dispersion measurements are performed by using Fourier-domain waveform inversion technique named "roller-coaster-type" algorithm. We used the reference model with a varying average crustal structure for each source-station path. That procedure led to significant improvement of the quality and number of phase wave speed dispersion measurements compared to the common approach of using a reference model with one average crustal structure. Surface wave dispersion data are inverted at depth for retrieving isotropy and anisotropy parameters. The fast axis directions related to azimuthal anisotropy at different depths constitute a rich database for geodynamical interpretations. Shear wave anomalies of the horizontal dimension larger than 200 km are imaged in our models. They correlate with tectonic provinces of varying age-provenance. Different anisotropy patterns are observed along the most distinctive feature on our maps-the bordering zone between the Palaeozoic and Precambrian Europe. We discuss the depth changes of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary along the profiles crossing the chosen tectonic units of different origin and age: Fennoscandia, East European Craton, Anatolia, Mediterranean subduction zones. Within the flat and stable cratonic lithosphere, we find traces of the midlithospheric discontinuity.

  10. Study of the mid-latitude ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms in the European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berényi, Kitti Alexandra; Barta, Veronika; Kis, Arpad

    2016-07-01

    Geomagnetic storms affect the ionospheric regions of the terrestrial upper atmosphere through different physical and atmospheric processes. The phenomena that can be regarded as a result of these processes, generally is named as "ionospheric storm". The processes depend on altitude, segment of the day, the geomagnetic latitude and longitude, strength of solar activity and the type of the geomagnetic storm. We examine the data of ground-based radio wave ionosphere sounding measurements of European ionospheric stations (mainly the data of Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory) in order to determine how and to what extent a geomagnetic disturbance of a certain strength affects the mid-latitude ionospheric regions in winter and in summer. For our analysis we used disturbed time periods between November 2012 and June 2015. Our results show significant changing of the ionospheric F2 layer parameters on strongly disturbed days compared to quiet ones. We show that the critical frequencies (foF2) increase compared to their quiet day value when the ionospheric storm was positive. On the other hand, the critical frequencies become lower, when the storm was negative. In our analysis we determined the magnitude of these changes on the chosen days. For a more complete analysis we compare also the evolution of the F2 layer parameters of the European ionosonde stations on a North-South geographic longitude during a full storm duration. The results present the evolution of an ionospheric storm over a geographic meridian. Furthermore, we compared the two type of geomagnetic storms, namely the CME caused geomagnetic storm - the so-called Sudden impulse (Si) storms- and the HSS (High Speed Solar Wind Streams) caused geomagnetic storms -the so-called Gradual storms (Gs)- impact on the ionospheric F2-layer (foF2 parameter). The results show a significant difference between the effect of Si and of the Gs storms on the ionospheric F2-layer.

  11. North-Atlantic millennial-timescale variability imprint on Western European loess deposits: a modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, A.; Rousseau, D.; Kageyama, M.; Ramstein, G.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Antoine, P.; Dulac, F.; Hatte, C.

    2008-12-01

    We test if the dust cycle response to the North-Atlantic abrupt climate changes, the Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) and Heinrich (H) events, could have led to the recording of these events in the Western European loess deposits. The LMDZ AGCM is used to simulate a reference glacial state "DOS", assimilated to a DO stadial, a cold perturbation "HE", resembling a H event, and a warm perturbation "DOI", assimilated to a DO interstadial. The reference state corresponds to the 40-kyr BP context, in the middle of the typical glacial period (75-15 kyr BP). The two perturbations are obtained by applying cold, respectively warm anomalies of up to 2°C to the North-Atlantic surface temperatures in the latitudinal band 30°- 63°N. The simulated climates are compared from the point of view of dust emission, with a focus on the English Channel and the south of the North Sea (ECSNS), important dust sources for the Western European loess deposits. When only considering the changes in wind, precipitation, soil moisture and snow cover over the ECSNS and loess deposit areas, the differences of dust emission flux between the simulations are small, in contradiction with the observed stadial-interstadial loess sedimentation rate variations. However, when including the vegetation effect of inhibiting the eolian erosion, the three climates are clearly differentiated, the dust flux for DOI becoming less than half of that for DOS and HE. This shows that vegetation changes have played a key role in the stadial-interstadial dust cycle variations.

  12. Diagnosing changes in European tropospheric ozone: A model study of past and future changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummon, Fiona; Revell, Laura; Stenke, Andrea; Staehelin, Johannes; Peter, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, the negative impacts of tropospheric ozone on human and ecosystem health have led to policy changes aimed at reducing emissions of ozone precursor gases such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO). Although emissions of these species have significantly decreased in Europe and North America since the early 1990s, observational data indicate that free tropospheric ozone over Europe has not decreased as expected. Uncertainty remains as to how much of a role the transport of stratospheric ozone or tropospheric ozone from remote source regions has played in recent trends, as well as to how this will evolve in a changing climate. The global chemistry-climate model SOCOL (SOlar Chemistry Ozone Links) is used to investigate tropospheric ozone over Europe from 1960 to 2100. To fully disentangle the effects of both long-range transport and input from the stratosphere, simulations are run with ozone tracers from 21 different atmospheric regions. In addition to a standard reference run, several sensitivity simulations are run: one with emissions of NOx and CO held constant at 1960 levels, one with methane (CH4) held at constant 1960 levels (in addition to the NOx and CO), and a third with NOx and CO emissions from Asia fixed at 1960 levels. Results suggest that the largest contributions to European tropospheric ozone originate from the tropical and northern mid-latitude boundary layer and free troposphere. Contributions from these regions increase over the historical period (1960-2010), indicating that changes in source gas emissions have affected ozone concentrations in the European free troposphere most strongly. Contributions from these regions then decrease from 2010-2100, but remain considerably larger than input from the stratosphere, which is relatively small in all simulations throughout the entire simulated period (1960-2100). The stratospheric contribution does, however, increase slightly over the 21st century, in tandem with ozone

  13. The Relationship between Social Capital and Quality Management Systems in European Hospitals: A Quantitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Antje; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; DerSarkissian, Maral; Thompson, Caroline A.; Mannion, Russell; Wagner, Cordula; Ommen, Oliver; Sunol, Rosa; Pfaff, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Background Strategic leadership is an important organizational capability and is essential for quality improvement in hospital settings. Furthermore, the quality of leadership depends crucially on a common set of shared values and mutual trust between hospital management board members. According to the concept of social capital, these are essential requirements for successful cooperation and coordination within groups. Objectives We assume that social capital within hospital management boards is an important factor in the development of effective organizational systems for overseeing health care quality. We hypothesized that the degree of social capital within the hospital management board is associated with the effectiveness and maturity of the quality management system in European hospitals. Methods We used a mixed-method approach to data collection and measurement in 188 hospitals in 7 European countries. For this analysis, we used responses from hospital managers. To test our hypothesis, we conducted a multilevel linear regression analysis of the association between social capital and the quality management system score at the hospital level, controlling for hospital ownership, teaching status, number of beds, number of board members, organizational culture, and country clustering. Results The average social capital score within a hospital management board was 3.3 (standard deviation: 0.5; range: 1-4) and the average hospital score for the quality management index was 19.2 (standard deviation: 4.5; range: 0-27). Higher social capital was associated with higher quality management system scores (regression coefficient: 1.41; standard error: 0.64, p=0.029). Conclusion The results suggest that a higher degree of social capital exists in hospitals that exhibit higher maturity in their quality management systems. Although uncontrolled confounding and reverse causation cannot be completely ruled out, our new findings, along with the results of previous research, could

  14. Genome-wide association studies of quantitatively measured skin, hair, and eye pigmentation in four European populations.

    PubMed

    Candille, Sophie I; Absher, Devin M; Beleza, Sandra; Bauchet, Marc; McEvoy, Brian; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Li, Jun Z; Myers, Richard M; Barsh, Gregory S; Tang, Hua; Shriver, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    Pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes varies both within and between human populations. Identifying the genes and alleles underlying this variation has been the goal of many candidate gene and several genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most GWAS for pigmentary traits to date have been based on subjective phenotypes using categorical scales. But skin, hair, and eye pigmentation vary continuously. Here, we seek to characterize quantitative variation in these traits objectively and accurately and to determine their genetic basis. Objective and quantitative measures of skin, hair, and eye color were made using reflectance or digital spectroscopy in Europeans from Ireland, Poland, Italy, and Portugal. A GWAS was conducted for the three quantitative pigmentation phenotypes in 176 women across 313,763 SNP loci, and replication of the most significant associations was attempted in a sample of 294 European men and women from the same countries. We find that the pigmentation phenotypes are highly stratified along axes of European genetic differentiation. The country of sampling explains approximately 35% of the variation in skin pigmentation, 31% of the variation in hair pigmentation, and 40% of the variation in eye pigmentation. All three quantitative phenotypes are correlated with each other. In our two-stage association study, we reproduce the association of rs1667394 at the OCA2/HERC2 locus with eye color but we do not identify new genetic determinants of skin and hair pigmentation supporting the lack of major genes affecting skin and hair color variation within Europe and suggesting that not only careful phenotyping but also larger cohorts are required to understand the genetic architecture of these complex quantitative traits. Interestingly, we also see that in each of these four populations, men are more lightly pigmented in the unexposed skin of the inner arm than women, a fact that is underappreciated and may vary across the world. PMID:23118974

  15. The Occurrence and Toxicity of Disinfection Byproducts in European Drinking Waters in Relation with the HIWATE Epidemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Clara H.; Wagner, Elizabeth D.; Siebert, Vincent R.; Anduri, Sridevi; Richardson, Susan D.; Daiber, Eric J.; McKague, A. Bruce; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Goslan, Emma H.; Luo, Wentai; Isabelle, Lorne M.; Pankow, James F.; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Cordier, Sylvaine; Edwards, Susan C.; Righi, Elena; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Plewa, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The HIWATE (Health Impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection byproducts in drinking WATEr) project was a systematic analysis that combined the epidemiology on adverse pregnancy outcomes and other health effects with long term exposure to low levels of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in the European Union. The present study focused on the relationship of the occurrence and concentration of DBPs with in vitro mammalian cell toxicity. Eleven drinking water samples were collected from 5 European countries. Each sampling location corresponded with an epidemiological study for the HIWATE program. Over 90 DBPs were identified; the range in the number of DBPs and their levels reflected the diverse collection sites, different disinfection processes, and the different characteristics of the source waters. For each sampling site, chronic mammalian cell cytotoxicity correlated highly with the numbers of DBPs identified and the levels of DBP chemical classes. Although there was a clear difference in the genotoxic responses among the drinking waters, these data did not correlate as well with the chemical analyses. Thus, the agents responsible for the genomic DNA damage observed in the HIWATE samples may be due to unresolved associations of combinations of identified DBPs, unknown emerging DBPs that were not identified, or other toxic water contaminants. This study represents the first to integrate quantitative in vitro toxicological data with analytical chemistry and human epidemiologic outcomes for drinking water DBPs. PMID:22958121

  16. Visiting green space is associated with mental health and vitality: A cross-sectional study in four european cities.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Magdalena; van Poppel, Mireille; van Kamp, Irene; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Balseviciene, Birute; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Ellis, Naomi; Hurst, Gemma; Masterson, Daniel; Smith, Graham; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Uzdanaviciute, Inga; Wit, Puck de; Mechelen, Willem van; Gidlow, Christopher; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Maas, Jolanda

    2016-03-01

    Many epidemiological studies have found that people living in environments with more green space report better physical and mental health than those with less green space. However, the association between visits to green space and mental health has seldom been studied. The current study explored the associations between time spent in green spaces by purposeful visits and perceived mental health and vitality in four different European cities, and to what extent gender, age, level of education, attitude towards nature and childhood nature experience moderate these associations. Data was gathered using a questionnaire administered in four European cities (total n=3748). Multilevel analyses showed significant positive associations between time spent visiting green spaces and mental health and vitality in the pooled data, as well as across the four cities. Significant effect modification was found for level of education and childhood nature experience. The findings confirm the hypothesis that more time spent in green space is associated with higher scores on mental health and vitality scales, independent of cultural and climatic contexts. PMID:26796323

  17. Students' experiences of cooperation with nurse teacher during their clinical placements: an empirical study in a Western European context.

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, Mikko; Kaila, Päivi; Lambrinou, Ekaterini; Pérez Cañaveras, Rosa Maria; Tichelaar, Erna; Tomietto, Marco; Warne, Tony

    2013-03-01

    In many European countries during the last decade, the clinical role of the nurse teacher has changed from a clinical skilled practitioner to a liaison person working between educational and health care provider organisations. This study explored pre-registration nursing students' perceptions of cooperation with nurse teachers during their clinical placements in nine Western European countries. The study also assessed the type and range of e-communication between students and nurse teachers and whom the students' perceived as their most important professional role model. The study is a descriptive survey. Quantitative data were collected from 17 higher education institutes of nursing located in the northern, middle and southern parts of Europe. The purposive sample (N = 1903) comprised students who had participated in courses which included clinical placements. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Comparisons between the groups were made using cross-tabulation. The majority (57%) of students met their nurse teacher 1-3 times during their placement while 13% of the students did not meet their nurse teacher at all. Additionally, 66% of respondents used some form of e-communication (e-mail, mobile text messages etc.) to communicate with their nurse teacher. It is important to clarify the division of labour between nurse teachers and Mentors. There are both opportunities and challenges in how to utilise information technology to more effectively promote cooperation between students and nurse teachers. PMID:22902569

  18. Population-based geographic variations in DXA bone density in Europe: the EVOS Study. European Vertebral Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Lunt, M; Felsenberg, D; Adams, J; Benevolenskaya, L; Cannata, J; Dequeker, J; Dodenhof, C; Falch, J A; Johnell, O; Khaw, K T; Masaryk, P; Pols, H; Poor, G; Reid, D; Scheidt-Nave, C; Weber, K; Silman, A J; Reeve, J

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate variations in bone density between 16 European populations, 13 of which were participants in the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS). Men and women aged 50-80 years were recruited randomly from local population registers, stratified in 5-year age bands. The other three centres recruited similarly. Random samples of 20-100% of EVOS subjects were invited for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) densitometry of the lumbar spine and/or proximal femur using Hologic, Lunar or Norland pencil beam machines or, in one centre, a Sopha fan-beam machine. Cross-calibration of the different machines was undertaken using the European Spine Phantom prototype (ESPp). Highly significant differences in mean bone density were demonstrated between centres, giving rise to between centre SDs in bone density that were about a quarter of a population SD. These differences persisted when centres using Hologic machines and centres using Lunar machines were considered separately. The centres were ranked differently according to whether male or female subjects were being considered and according to site of measurement (L2-4, femoral neck or femoral trochanter). As expected, bone mineral density (BMD) had a curvilinear relationship with age, and apparent rates of decrease slowed as age advanced past 50 years in both sexes. In the spine, not only did male BMD usually appear to increase with age, but there was a highly significant difference between centres in the age effect in both sexes, suggesting a variability in the impact of osteoarthritis between centres. Weight was consistently positively associated with BMD, but the effects of height and armspan were less consistent. Logarithmic transformation was needed to normalize the regressions of BMD on the independent variates, and after transformation, all sites except the femoral neck in females showed significant increases in SD with age. Interestingly, the effect of increasing weight was

  19. Income inequality, life expectancy and cause-specific mortality in 43 European countries, 1987-2008: a fixed effects study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-08-01

    Whether income inequality is related to population health is still open to debate. We aimed to critically assess the relationship between income inequality and mortality in 43 European countries using comparable data between 1987 and 2008, controlling for time-invariant and time-variant country-level confounding factors. Annual data on income inequality, expressed as Gini index based on net household income, were extracted from the Standardizing the World Income Inequality Database. Data on life expectancy at birth and age-standardized mortality by cause of death were obtained from the Human Lifetable Database and the World Health Organization European Health for All Database. Data on infant mortality were obtained from the United Nations World Population Prospects Database. The relationships between income inequality and mortality indicators were studied using country fixed effects models, adjusted for time trends and country characteristics. Significant associations between income inequality and many mortality indicators were found in pooled cross-sectional regressions, indicating higher mortality in countries with larger income inequalities. Once the country fixed effects were added, all associations between income inequality and mortality indicators became insignificant, except for mortality from external causes and homicide among men, and cancers among women. The significant results for homicide and cancers disappeared after further adjustment for indicators of democracy, education, transition to national independence, armed conflicts, and economic freedom. Cross-sectional associations between income inequality and mortality seem to reflect the confounding effects of other country characteristics. In a European context, national levels of income inequality do not have an independent effect on mortality. PMID:26177800

  20. Approaches to supporting lactation and breastfeeding for very preterm infants in the NICU: a qualitative study in three European regions

    PubMed Central

    Bonet, Mercedes; Forcella, Emanuela; Blondel, Béatrice; Draper, Elizabeth S; Agostino, Rocco; Cuttini, Marina; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore differences in approaches to supporting lactation and breastfeeding for very preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) in 3 European regions. Design Qualitative cross-sectional study carried out by means of face-to-face semistructured interviews. Verbatim transcripts were coded using a theoretical framework derived from the literature and supplemented by data-driven concepts and codes. Setting 4 purposively selected NICUs in each of 3 European regions in 2010 (Ile-de-France in France, Lazio in Italy, and the former Trent region in the UK). Participants NICU staff members (n=22). Results Policies and practices for managing mother's own milk for very preterm babies differed between regions, and were much more complex in Ile-de-France than in the Trent or Lazio regions. Staff approaches to mothers to initiate lactation differed by region, with an emphasis on the nutritional and immunological value of human milk in the Trent region and on the ‘normalising’ effect of breastfeeding on the mother-child relationship in Lazio. French and English staff expressed conflicting opinions about the use of bottles, which was routine in Italy. Italian informants stressed the importance of early maternal milk expression and feeding, but also mentioned discharging infants home before feeding at the breast was established. In Ile-de-France and Trent, successful feeding from the breast was achieved before discharge, although this was seen as a factor that could prolong hospitalisation and discourage continued breastfeeding for some women. Conclusions Targeted health promotion policies in the NICU are necessary to increase the number of infants receiving their mother's milk and to support mothers with transfer of the infant to the breast. Integrating knowledge about the different approaches to lactation and breastfeeding in European NICUs could improve the relevance of recommendations in multiple cultural settings. PMID:26129632

  1. Sero-conversion of HCV negative patients: a European study on the epidemiology and management of HCV haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zampieron, A; Jayasekera, H; Elseviers, M; Lindley, E; De Vos, J Y; Harrington, M; Ormandy, P

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports part of the findings from a larger study reported earlier, the European study on epidemiology and the management of HCV in the haemodialysis population (1). Centres recruited to the larger study were monitored for a further one year observation period to measure and generate a deeper understanding of HCV sero-conversion. From 4724 patients who were studied at the baseline, in 68 centres, only 13 patients were found to have sero-converted. These sero-conversions occurred in 7 hospitals within 5 different countries. Possible routes of transmission and risk factors are described with respect to the individual centres and good practice recommendations based on current evidence presented. PMID:16700169

  2. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in European Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Food4Me Study

    PubMed Central

    Marsaux, Cyril F. M.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Hoonhout, Jettie; Claassen, Arjan; Goris, Annelies; Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Kolossa, Silvia; Walsh, Marianne C.; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Manios, Yannis; Godlewska, Magdalena; Traczyk, Iwona; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C.; Saris, Wim H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Comparisons of objectively measured physical activity (PA) between residents of European countries measured concurrently with the same protocol are lacking. We aimed to compare PA between the seven European countries involved in the Food4Me Study, using accelerometer data collected remotely via the Internet. Methods Of the 1607 participants recruited, 1287 (539 men and 748 women) provided at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of valid accelerometer data (TracmorD) at baseline and were included in the present analyses. Results Men were significantly more active than women (physical activity level = 1.74 vs. 1.70, p < 0.001). Time spent in light PA and moderate PA differed significantly between countries but only for women. Adherence to the World Health Organization recommendation to accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-equivalent PA weekly was similar between countries for men (range: 54–65%) but differed significantly between countries for women (range: 26–49%). Prevalence estimates decreased substantially for men and women in all seven countries when PA guidelines were defined as achieving 30 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day. Conclusions We were able to obtain valid accelerometer data in real time via the Internet from 80% of participants. Although our estimates are higher compared with data from Sweden, Norway, Portugal and the US, there is room for improvement in PA for all countries involved in the Food4Me Study. PMID:26999053

  3. A genome-wide association study in Europeans and South Asians identifies five new loci for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 11 common variants convincingly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD)¹⁻⁷, a modest number considering the apparent heritability of CAD⁸. All of these variants have been discovered in European populations. We report a meta-analysis of four large genome-wide association studies of CAD, with ∼575,000 genotyped SNPs in a discovery dataset comprising 15,420 individuals with CAD (cases) (8,424 Europeans and 6,996 South Asians) and 15,062 controls. There was little evidence for ancestry-specific associations, supporting the use of combined analyses. Replication in an independent sample of 21,408 cases and 19,185 controls identified five loci newly associated with CAD (P < 5 × 10⁻⁸ in the combined discovery and replication analysis): LIPA on 10q23, PDGFD on 11q22, ADAMTS7-MORF4L1 on 15q25, a gene rich locus on 7q22 and KIAA1462 on 10p11. The CAD-associated SNP in the PDGFD locus showed tissue-specific cis expression quantitative trait locus effects. These findings implicate new pathways for CAD susceptibility. PMID:21378988

  4. Molecular studies on European equine isolates of Leptospira interrogans serovars Bratislava and Muenchen.

    PubMed

    Arent, Zbigniew; Gilmore, Colm; Brem, Siegfried; Ellis, William A

    2015-08-01

    Strains of Leptospira interrogans belonging to two very closely related serovars – Bratislava and Muenchen – are known to cause widespread infection of the horse population in many parts of the world. Conventional serological typing of isolates has been unable to differentiate between wildlife, pig, dog and possibly horse maintained isolates and therefore has been unable to provide further insight into their diversity and the relationship between them. Twenty-one such European isolates of serovar Bratislava and Muenchen were examined by restriction endonuclease analysis and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis in an attempt to elucidate their epidemiology. The restriction pattern types were identified and fell into one of four REA designed pattern types, B1, B2a, M1, M2a. Nine strains from Northern Ireland and two from Germany belonged to B2a, which is a ubiquitous strain being originally isolated from a large number of wild and domestic animal species in the UK. Five strains were identified as B1 and they came from Portugal, The Netherlands, Germany and Northern Ireland; three strains isolated in Germany belong to M1; two strains belonged to M2a. Genotypes B1 and M1 have, with the exception of one hedgehog isolate, been recovered only from horses and it may indicate their adaptation to this species. PMID:26165505

  5. A comparative study of six European databases of medically oriented Web resources

    PubMed Central

    Abad García, Francisca; González Teruel, Aurora; Bayo Calduch, Patricia; de Ramón Frias, Rosa; Castillo Blasco, Lourdes

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The paper describes six European medically oriented databases of Web resources, pertaining to five quality-controlled subject gateways, and compares their performance. Method: The characteristics, coverage, procedure for selecting Web resources, record structure, searching possibilities, and existence of user assistance were described for each database. Performance indicators for each database were obtained by means of searches carried out using the key words, “myocardial infarction.” Results: Most of the databases originated in the 1990s in an academic or library context and include all types of Web resources of an international nature. Five databases use Medical Subject Headings. The number of fields per record varies between three and nineteen. The language of the search interfaces is mostly English, and some of them allow searches in other languages. In some databases, the search can be extended to Pubmed. Organizing Medical Networked Information, Catalogue et Index des Sites Médicaux Francophones, and Diseases, Disorders and Related Topics produced the best results. Conclusions: The usefulness of these databases as quick reference resources is clear. In addition, their lack of content overlap means that, for the user, they complement each other. Their continued survival faces three challenges: the instability of the Internet, maintenance costs, and lack of use in spite of their potential usefulness. PMID:16239943

  6. Spray drift reduction under Southern European conditions: a pilot study in the Ecopest Project in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Glass, C Richard; Tsakirakis, Angelos N; Machera, Kyriaki

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this work was to generate spray drift data from pesticide application in the field comparing spray drift from traditional equipment with emerging, anti-drift technologies. The applications were carried out in the Kopais area in central Greece. Currently few data exist as regards to pesticide spray drift in Southern European conditions. This work details the data for ground and airborne deposition of spray drift using the methodology developed in the UK by the Food and Environment Research Agency (FERA). Three trials were performed in two days using sunset yellow dye which deposited on dosimeters placed at specific distances from the edge of the sprayer boom. The application was carried out with a tractor mounted boom sprayer, which was of local manufacture, as were the nozzles of Trial I, being flat fan brass nozzles. For Trials II and III anti-drift nozzles were used. The boom sprayers were used with the settings as employed by the farmers for the routine pesticide applications. The results of this work indicate that drift was significantly reduced when anti-drift nozzles were utilized. PMID:24561292

  7. Hippocampus and dentate area of the European hedgehog. Comparative histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Crutcher, K A; Danscher, G; Geneser, F A

    1988-01-01

    The hippocampal formation in the European hedgehog was examined with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry and catecholamine histofluorescence in order to define the normal distribution of septohippocampal fibers and noradrenergic fibers, respectively, as well as to compare these inputs with the hippocampal cytoarchitecture as revealed with Nissl stain. In addition, alterations in the histochemical appearance following septohippocampal denervation were examined. Although the overall pattern of AChE-positive and noradrenergic fibers is similar to that observed in other mammals, some striking variations were observed, particularly within the dentate area. Thus, except for a heavily stained supragranular band, the AChE activity of the molecular layer is uniformly low without any obvious lamination, contrasting with the situation in most other mammalian species. The noradrenergic innervation of the dentate area showed the same density of fibers in the molecular layer and hilus, a pattern differing strikingly from the predominance of noradrenergic fibers in the hilus of other mammalian species. Such variations may reflect greater phylogenetic diversity in diffuse modulatory connections as compared with more precise topographical pathways. PMID:3233486

  8. Fossil and nonfossil carbon in fine particulate matter: A study of five European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasius, Marianne; La Cour, Agnete; Lohse, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Fossil carbon in particulate matter comes from anthropogenic use and combustion of fossil fuels, while nonfossil carbon may originate from both biogenic (e.g., pollen, plant debris, fungal spores, and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA)) and anthropogenic sources (e.g., cooking and residential wood combustion). We investigated the relative contributions of fossil and nonfossil sources to fine carbonaceous aerosols in five European cities by radiocarbon analysis of aerosol samples collected at four types of sites in 2002-2004. The average fraction of nonfossil carbon was 43 ± 11%, with the lowest fraction, 36 ± 7%, at urban curbside sites and the highest fraction, 54 ± 11%, at rural background sites, farthest away from the impact of man-made emissions. Generally, fossil carbon concentrations at urban curbside sites are elevated in comparison to background sites, which is expected because of their proximity to vehicular emissions. Contrary to what might be expected, the concentration of nonfossil carbon is also higher at curbside than at background sites. This may be attributable to differences between site categories in levels of primary biological aerosols, brake and tire wear in resuspended road dust, biofuels, emissions from cooking and residential wood combustion, or processes such as anthropogenic enhancement of biogenic SOA and increased partitioning of semivolatile compounds into the aerosol phase at urban sites. The exact causes should be investigated by future detailed source analyses.

  9. Asthma, COPD and overlap syndrome: a longitudinal study in young European adults.

    PubMed

    de Marco, Roberto; Marcon, Alessandro; Rossi, Andrea; Antó, Josep M; Cerveri, Isa; Gislason, Thorarinn; Heinrich, Joachim; Janson, Christer; Jarvis, Deborah; Kuenzli, Nino; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Svanes, Cecilie; Wjst, Matthias; Burney, Peter

    2015-09-01

    We compared risk factors and clinical characteristics, 9-year lung function change and hospitalisation risk across subjects with the asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS), asthma or COPD alone, or none of these diseases.Participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey in 1991-1993 (aged 20-44 years) and 1999-2001 were included. Chronic airflow obstruction was defined as pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity

  10. Accumulation and depuration of okadaic acid esters in the European green crab (Carcinus maenas) during a feeding study.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Cold, Ulrik; Fischer, Knud

    2008-03-01

    Soft shell crab is a seafood delicacy in many parts of the world. In Denmark, it has been investigated whether a commercial production of soft shell European green crabs (Carcinus maenas) would be feasible. In relation to this, a feeding study was performed to examine if occurrence of DSP toxins in the product could be a food safety problem. The crabs were fed with mussels containing DSP toxins (2500 microg total okadaic acid equivalents/kg) for 17 days and then fasted for 19 days. The content of total okadaic acid equivalents in the digestive organs was on average 27 times higher than the corresponding content in the body meat. The highest level of total okadaic acid equivalents measured was 12 microg/kg in body meat and 503 microg/kg in digestive organs. The results show that the content of DSP toxins in a commercial product of soft shell European green crab (without digestive organs) could be regarded as negligible. PMID:17983637

  11. European genome-wide association study identifies SLC14A1 as a new urinary bladder cancer susceptibility gene

    PubMed Central

    Rafnar, Thorunn; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Sulem, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Aben, Katja K.; Witjes, J. Alfred; Grotenhuis, Anne J.; Verhaegh, Gerald W.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A.; Besenbacher, Soren; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Stacey, Simon N.; Gudmundsson, Julius; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Bjarnason, Hjordis; Zanon, Carlo; Helgadottir, Hafdis; Jonasson, Jon Gunnlaugur; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Jonsson, Eirikur; Geirsson, Gudmundur; Nikulasson, Sigfus; Petursdottir, Vigdis; Bishop, D. Timothy; Chung-Sak, Sei; Choudhury, Ananya; Elliott, Faye; Barrett, Jennifer H.; Knowles, Margaret A.; de Verdier, Petra J.; Ryk, Charlotta; Lindblom, Annika; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vineis, Paolo; Polidoro, Silvia; Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panadero, Angeles; Sanz-Velez, José I.; Sanchez, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Garcia-Prats, Maria D.; Hengstler, Jan G.; Selinski, Silvia; Gerullis, Holger; Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Khezri, Abdolaziz; Aminsharifi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Mahyar; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Veldink, Jan H.; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Kellen, Eliane; Fostinelli, Jacopo; Andreoli, Daniele; Arici, Cecilia; Porru, Stefano; Buntinx, Frank; Ghaderi, Abbas; Golka, Klaus; Mayordomo, José I.; Matullo, Giuseppe; Kumar, Rajiv; Steineck, Gunnar; Kiltie, Anne E.; Kong, Augustine; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.

    2011-01-01

    Three genome-wide association studies in Europe and the USA have reported eight urinary bladder cancer (UBC) susceptibility loci. Using extended case and control series and 1000 Genomes imputations of 5 340 737 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we searched for additional loci in the European GWAS. The discovery sample set consisted of 1631 cases and 3822 controls from the Netherlands and 603 cases and 37 781 controls from Iceland. For follow-up, we used 3790 cases and 7507 controls from 13 sample sets of European and Iranian ancestry. Based on the discovery analysis, we followed up signals in the urea transporter (UT) gene SLC14A. The strongest signal at this locus was represented by a SNP in intron 3, rs17674580, that reached genome-wide significance in the overall analysis of the discovery and follow-up groups: odds ratio = 1.17, P = 7.6 × 10−11. SLC14A1 codes for UTs that define the Kidd blood group and are crucial for the maintenance of a constant urea concentration gradient in the renal medulla and, through this, the kidney's ability to concentrate urine. It is speculated that rs17674580, or other sequence variants in LD with it, indirectly modifies UBC risk by affecting urine production. If confirmed, this would support the ‘urogenous contact hypothesis’ that urine production and voiding frequency modify the risk of UBC. PMID:21750109

  12. Instrumentation studies for a European extremely large telescope: a strawman instrument suite and implications for telescope design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Adrian P. G.; Hawarden, Timothy G.; Atad, Eli; Ramsay-Howat, Suzanne K.; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Bacon, Roland; Redfern, R. Michael

    2004-07-01

    Plans for a European Extremely Large Telescope are quite well advanced. However examination of instrument designs has thus far been directed only at covering the anticipated science requirements and has had little impact on telescope design considerations. Nevertheless, the provision of a suitable environment for instruments is a critical part of the design of all large telescopes. We illustrate this point with examples from recent experience. A Work Package, part of a proposed Design Study for a European ELT under the European Union's Framework Programme 6 (FP6), will explore this issue, while also developing designs for a scientifically credible instrument suite. For three instruments mechanical and optical design studies will be carried out in sufficient detail clearly to identify design drivers for the telescope. These are a wide-field seeing limited or ground-layer AO-corrected (GLAO) optical/NIR spectrometer, WFSPEC; an MCAO-corrected O/NIR Multi-Object Multi-field Spectrometer-Imager, MOMSI, which offers particularly daunting challenges; and a mid-infrared high-resolution AO-corrected Imager-Spectrometer instrument, MIDIR. Five instrument designs will be examined in less detail: an extreme-AO (XAO) corrected coronagraphic imager-spectrometer known as Planet Finder (the goal of which is the detection and characterization of terrestrial exo-planets); a very high resolution spectrometer, HISPEC; a high time-resolution instrument, HITRI, intended to allow photometry, polarimetry and phase-resolved spectroscopy of faint rapidly varying objects; a fast-response broad-band multi-function instrument known as GRB-catcher; and a sub-millimeter imager, SCUBA-3. A separate small study will seek innovative designs not included in the main suite. Another will initiate the program by examining the requirements of atmospheric dispersion correction (ADC) for 30 to 100-m diffraction-limited telescopes, which may require active sensing and, possibly, "adaptive" correction on

  13. Assessment of the European classification criteria for Sjögren's syndrome in a series of clinically defined cases: results of a prospective multicentre study. The European Study Group on Diagnostic Criteria for Sjögren's Syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Vitali, C; Bombardieri, S; Moutsopoulos, H M; Coll, J; Gerli, R; Hatron, P Y; Kater, L; Konttinen, Y T; Manthorpe, R; Meyer, O; Mosca, M; Ostuni, P; Pellerito, R A; Pennec, Y; Porter, S R; Richards, A; Sauvezie, B; Schiødt, M; Sciuto, M; Shoenfeld, Y; Skopouli, F N; Smolen, J S; Soromenho, F; Tishler, M; Wattiaux, M J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the recently proposed preliminary criteria for the classification of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in a multicentre European study of a new series of clinically defined cases. METHODS: The criteria included six items: I = ocular symptoms; II = oral symptoms; III = evidence of keratoconjunctivitis sicca; IV = focal sialoadenitis by minor salivary gland biopsy; V = instrumental evidence of salivary gland involvement; VI = presence of autoantibodies. Each centre was asked to provide five patients with primary SS, five with secondary SS, five with connective tissue diseases (CTD) but without SS, and five controls (patients with ocular or oral features that may simulate SS). The preliminary six item classification criteria set was applied to both the SS patients and the non-SS controls, and the performance of the criteria in terms of sensitivity and specificity was tested. RESULTS: The criteria set was tested on a total of 278 cases (157 SS patients and 121 non-SS controls) collected from 16 centres in 10 countries. At least four of the six items in the criteria set (limiting item VI to the presence of Ro(SS-A) or La(SS-B) antibodies) were present in 79 of 81 patients initially classified as having primary SS (sensitivity 97.5%), but in only seven of 121 non-SS controls (specificity 94.2%). When the presence of item I or II plus any two of items III-V of the criteria set was considered as indicative of secondary SS, 97.3% (71 of 73) of the patients initially defined as having this disorder and 91.8% (45 of 49) of the control patients with CTD without SS were correctly classified. CONCLUSION: This prospective study confirmed the high validity and reliability of the classification criteria for SS recently proposed by the European Community Study Group. PMID:8712861

  14. A historical prospective study of European stainless steel, mild steel, and shipyard welders.

    PubMed Central

    Simonato, L; Fletcher, A C; Andersen, A; Anderson, K; Becker, N; Chang-Claude, J; Ferro, G; Gérin, M; Gray, C N; Hansen, K S

    1991-01-01

    A multicentre cohort of 11,092 male welders from 135 companies located in nine European countries has been assembled with the aim of investigating the relation of potential cancer risk, lung cancer in particular, with occupational exposure. The observation period and the criteria for inclusion of welders varied from country to country. Follow up was successful for 96.9% of the cohort and observed numbers of deaths (and for some countries incident cancer cases) were compared with expected numbers calculated from national reference rates. Mortality and cancer incidence ratios were analysed by cause category, time since first exposure, duration of employment, and estimated cumulative dose to total fumes, chromium (Cr), Cr VI, and nickel (Ni). Overall a statistically significant excess was reported for mortality from lung cancer (116 observed v 86.81 expected deaths, SMR = 134). When analysed by type of welding an increasing pattern with time since first exposure was present for both mild steel and stainless steel welders, which was more noticeable for the subcohort of predominantly stainless steel welders. No clear relation was apparent between mortality from lung cancer and duration of exposure to or estimated cumulative dose of Ni or Cr. Whereas the patterns of lung cancer mortality in these results suggest that the risk of lung cancer is higher for stainless steel than mild steel welders the different level of risk for these two categories of welding exposure cannot be quantified with precision. The report of five deaths from pleural mesothelioma unrelated to the type of welding draws attention to the risk of exposure to asbestos in welding activities. PMID:2015204

  15. [Some materials for the study of "labor force differences" of immigrants from outside the European Union].

    PubMed

    Piras, L

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of the productive behavior of immigrants arriving from outside the European Union comprise the phase preceding the immigration, the phase of first permanent residence, and the phase of secondary socialization to labor. The extra-community labor migration carries within itself all the individual cultural patrimony (values, conduct, faith, identity, lifestyle) which are invested into the transformation process and change through contact with the other culture. The differentiated labor-specific evolution of the extra-community migration was analyzed by means of a mathematical formula using the variables of compensation for work (salary), performance (effort), immigration, socialization to work, and the economic impact of differential work contribution, all of which individually and jointly exert an effect on the labor market. In the regular Italian labor market there is, however, a surplus; the irregular (underground) economy is differentiated by the variable of effort that immigrants exert in order to obtain employment. Labor behavior is determined by the competitiveness of the labor force and dangers inherent in leaving one's country and entering a foreign land illegally. Statistically, in the long term, individual situations show a diminishing trend vis-a-vis the risk of repatriation connected to the loss of the residency permit because of gradual integration into the labor market. The initial labor-specific effort (salary/performance) is reduced vis-a-vis a progressive process of socialization owing to work. New lifestyles and consumption patterns are acquired which also facilitate social integration. The human capital of the immigrant increases by progressive acquisition of language and other cultural instruments. PMID:12348671

  16. Systemic antibiotic prescribing to paediatric outpatients in 5 European countries: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To describe the utilisation of antibiotics in children and adolescents across 5 European countries based on the same drug utilisation measures and age groups. Special attention was given to age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups, since comparison in this regard between countries is lacking so far. Methods Outpatient paediatric prescriptions of systemic antibiotics during the years 2005-2008 were analysed using health care databases from the UK, the Netherlands, Denmark, Italy and Germany. Annual antibiotic prescription rates per 1,000 person years were estimated for each database and stratified by age (≤4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-18 years). Age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups were calculated for 2008. Results With 957 prescriptions per 1000 person years, the highest annual prescription rate in the year 2008 was found in the Italian region Emilia Romagna followed by Germany (561), the UK (555), Denmark (481) and the Netherlands (294). Seasonal peaks during winter months were most pronounced in countries with high utilisation. Age-group-specific use varied substantially between countries with regard to total prescribing and distributions of antibiotic subgroups. However, prescription rates were highest among children in the age group ≤4 years in all countries, predominantly due to high use of broad spectrum penicillins. Conclusions Strong increases of antibiotic prescriptions in winter months in high utilising countries most likely result from frequent antibiotic treatment of mostly viral infections. This and strong variations of overall and age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups across countries, suggests that antibiotics are inappropriately used to a large extent. PMID:24997585

  17. Fire Regime and Land Abandonment in European Russia: Case Study of Smolensk Oblast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Manisha, A.; Romanenkov, V.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Hansen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fires in anthropogenically-dominated landscapes are generally attributed to ecosystem management, agriculture, and policy drivers. In European Russia, fire mainly occurring on agricultural lands, wetlands, and abandoned lands. In the agricultural practice in Russia prescribed fires are believed to increase pasture and hay productivity, suppress trees and shrub expansion, and reduce fire hazards, with fire frequency fire dependent on land use and agricultural practices. The large-scale socio-economic transition since the fall of the Soviet Union has led to changes in land use and land management, including land abandonment and changing agricultural practices. In June 2014, an extensive field campaign was completed in the Smolensk Oblast, located approximately two hundred kilometers west of Moscow on the border with Belarus. Our field sampling was based on circa 1985 Landsat-based forest cover map (Potapov et al., 2014). Points were randomly selected from the non-forested class of the 1985 classification, prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Of total field collects, 55% points were sampled on land in either early or late stage of abandonment, 15% from actively cropped fields, and 30% from hay or pasture. Fire frequency was calculated for the 108 field points using 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire data for years 2000-2014. Also we calculated percent of points burned in spring 2014 using 30 m Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data to derive burn scars. Actively cropped fields had lowest burn frequency while abandoned lands - early and late stage abandonment - had highest frequency. Fire frequency was significantly higher on wet soils than dry soils, with no relationship between fire frequency and tree canopy cover. We hypothesize, higher fire frequency on abandoned lands was likely due to greater fuel loads and because of traditional belief in rural Russia that fire is efficient way to suppress tree and shrub expansion.

  18. Safety and tolerability of dienogest in endometriosis: pooled analysis from the European clinical study program

    PubMed Central

    Strowitzki, Thomas; Faustmann, Thomas; Gerlinger, Christoph; Schumacher, Ulrike; Ahlers, Christiane; Seitz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background In four randomized, controlled, European trials, dienogest 2 mg once daily demonstrated significant efficacy for lesion reduction and reduction in pain intensity in endometriosis. We describe a pooled analysis of the safety and tolerability data from these trials to confirm and further characterize the safety profile of dienogest in the treatment of endometriosis. Methods All 332 women treated with dienogest 2 mg who participated in the four clinical trials were included in the pooled analyses for safety assessments, including adverse events, laboratory tests, vital signs, body weight, and bleeding patterns. Safety variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results Pooled analyses of this large patient population confirmed that dienogest 2 mg is well tolerated, with a favorable safety profile extending over a period up to 65 weeks in women with endometriosis. The most common adverse drug reactions were headache, breast discomfort, depressed mood, and acne, each occurring in <10% of women. All these adverse events were generally of mild-to-moderate intensity and associated with low discontinuation rates. The bleeding pattern associated with dienogest 2 mg was well tolerated, and only two women (0.6%) reported bleeding events as the primary reason for premature discontinuation. Laboratory and vital sign assessments indicated no safety concerns for dienogest. Estradiol levels were maintained within the low-physiological range, in support of previous evidence indicating that dienogest 2 mg demonstrates therapeutic efficacy without inducing estradiol deficiency. Conclusion In this pooled analysis of 332 women with endometriosis, dienogest was well tolerated with a favorable safety profile extending over a period of up to 65 weeks. There is a paucity of randomized trial evidence to support the use of many treatments in endometriosis. These pooled analyses from four clinical trials of dienogest 2 mg represent a contribution to evidence-based medicine

  19. Air Pollution Exposure during Pregnancy and Childhood Autistic Traits in Four European Population-Based Cohort Studies: The ESCAPE Project

    PubMed Central

    Guxens, Mònica; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Gong, Tong; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Porta, Daniela; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Almqvist, Catarina; Aranbarri, Aritz; Beelen, Rob; Badaloni, Chiara; Cesaroni, Giulia; de Nazelle, Audrey; Estarlich, Marisa; Forastiere, Francesco; Forns, Joan; Gehring, Ulrike; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Korek, Michal; Lichtenstein, Paul; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Rebagliato, Marisa; Slama, Rémy; Tiemeier, Henning; Verhulst, Frank C.; Volk, Heather E.; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to air pollutants has been suggested as a possible etiologic factor for the occurrence of autism spectrum disorder. Objectives We aimed to assess whether prenatal air pollution exposure is associated with childhood autistic traits in the general population. Methods Ours was a collaborative study of four European population-based birth/child cohorts—CATSS (Sweden), Generation R (the Netherlands), GASPII (Italy), and INMA (Spain). Nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) and particulate matter (PM) with diameters of ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), ≤ 10 μm (PM10), and between 2.5 and 10 μm (PMcoarse), and PM2.5 absorbance were estimated for birth addresses by land-use regression models based on monitoring campaigns performed between 2008 and 2011. Levels were extrapolated back in time to exact pregnancy periods. We quantitatively assessed autistic traits when the child was between 4 and 10 years of age. Children were classified with autistic traits within the borderline/clinical range and within the clinical range using validated cut-offs. Adjusted cohort-specific effect estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Results A total of 8,079 children were included. Prenatal air pollution exposure was not associated with autistic traits within the borderline/clinical range (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.10 per each 10-μg/m3 increase in NO2 pregnancy levels). Similar results were observed in the different cohorts, for the other pollutants, and in assessments of children with autistic traits within the clinical range or children with autistic traits as a quantitative score. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to NO2 and PM was not associated with autistic traits in children from 4 to 10 years of age in four European population-based birth/child cohort studies. Citation Guxens M, Ghassabian A, Gong T, Garcia-Esteban R, Porta D, Giorgis-Allemand L, Almqvist C, Aranbarri A, Beelen R, Badaloni C, Cesaroni G, de Nazelle A, Estarlich M, Forastiere F

  20. Influence of parental socio-economic status on diet quality of European adolescents: results from the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Béghin, L; Dauchet, L; De Vriendt, Tineke; Cuenca-García, M; Manios, Y; Toti, E; Plada, M; Widhalm, K; Repasy, J; Huybrechts, I; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A; Dallongeville, J

    2014-04-14

    Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economic status and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economic status was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14.7 (SD 1.3) years; percentage of girls: 52.8%; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69.1 (SD 0.1) v. 60.4 (SD 2.8), respectively; P < 0.001; Δ = 12.6%). The DQI was positively correlated with both paternal and maternal Par-Educ-Lev. However, this association was more pronounced in northern Europe than in southern Europe (P interaction = 0.004 for the mother and 0.06 for the father). The DQI was also positively correlated with Par-Occ-Lev (all P trends < 0.01), but this correlation was independent of the geographical area (P interaction = 0.51 for the mother and 0.50 for the father). In conclusion, Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev are associated with diet quality in adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe. PMID:24330831

  1. The African, Caribbean and European (ACE) Pathways to Care study: a qualitative exploration of similarities and differences between African-origin, Caribbean-origin and European-origin groups in pathways to care for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Manuela; Flora, Nina; Anderson, Kelly K; Tuck, Andrew; Archie, Suzanne; Kidd, Sean; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper reports on a qualitative exploration of the reasons for differences in pathways to care and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in the African, Caribbean and European (ACE) Pathways to Care study from the perspective of respondents to the study and their families. Setting Ontario, Canada. Participants Thirty-four participants in total. Twenty-five young people who had experienced a first episode of psychosis and nine family members. Participants were part of the ACE Pathways to Care study. Design We implemented six focus groups. Furthermore, we implemented four in-depth interviews with two African-origin young women, one Caribbean-origin woman, and one European-origin woman with lived experience of psychosis. Results Factors that influenced help-seeking delays across the three groups were: personal awareness of symptoms, family members’ knowledge of psychotic symptoms and knowledge of mental health services. Youth and their family members described how stigma played a key role in pathways to care by stopping them from asking for help. The way in which stigma operated on the three groups’ members, from feeling ashamed to feeling guilty for their mental illnesses, helped to explain differences in DUP between the groups. Guilt feelings emerged as a prominent theme among members from the African and Caribbean groups and it was not discussed in the European focus group. Delay in entering into first-episode psychosis programmes was also influenced by the stigma perceived by young people in healthcare settings. This had an impact on the therapeutic relationships, disclosure of symptoms and overall trust in the healthcare system. Conclusions The findings of this paper suggest that stigma, especially internalised stigma, may operate in different ways in European-origin, African-origin and Caribbean-origin groups. These findings could inform the development of more equitable services for people in early stages of psychosis. PMID:25588783

  2. Coffee, tea and decaffeinated coffee in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a European population: multicentre, prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Jenab, Mazda; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Fedirko, Veronika; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Pischon, Tobias; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Kuhn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Benetou, Vasiliki; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Dik, Vincent K; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Lindkvist, Björn; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Stepien, Magdalena; Gunter, Marc; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-04-15

    Inverse associations of coffee and/or tea in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been consistently identified in studies conducted mostly in Asia where consumption patterns of such beverages differ from Europe. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC), we identified 201 HCC cases among 486,799 men/women, after a median follow-up of 11 years. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence in relation to quintiles/categories of coffee/tea intakes. We found that increased coffee and tea intakes were consistently associated with lower HCC risk. The inverse associations were substantial, monotonic and statistically significant. Coffee consumers in the highest compared to the lowest quintile had lower HCC risk by 72% [HR: 0.28; 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.16-0.50, p-trend < 0.001]. The corresponding association of tea with HCC risk was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.22-0.78, p-trend = 0.003). There was no compelling evidence of heterogeneity of these associations across strata of important HCC risk factors, including hepatitis B or hepatitis C status (available in a nested case-control study). The inverse, monotonic associations of coffee intake with HCC were apparent for caffeinated (p-trend = 0.009), but not decaffeinated (p-trend = 0.45) coffee for which, however, data were available for a fraction of subjects. Results from this multicentre, European cohort study strengthen the existing evidence regarding the inverse association between coffee/tea and HCC risk. Given the apparent lack of heterogeneity of these associations by HCC risk factors and that coffee/tea are universal exposures, our results could have important implications for high HCC risk subjects. PMID:25219573

  3. Predictors of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy: A European multi-centre longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Van Mô; Colver, Allan; Dickinson, Heather O.; Marcelli, Marco; Michelsen, Susan I.; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Fauconnier, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether childhood factors that are amenable to intervention (parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain) predicted participation in daily activities and social roles of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). We randomly selected 1174 children aged 8–12 years from eight population-based registers of children with CP in six European countries; 743 (63%) agreed to participate. One further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. These 818 children were visited at home at age 8–12 years, 594 (73%) agreed to follow-up at age 13–17 years. We used the following measures: parent reported stress (Parenting Stress Index Short Form), their child's psychological difficulties (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire) and frequency and severity of pain; either child or parent reported the child's participation (LIFE Habits questionnaire). We fitted a structural equation model to each of the participation domains, regressing participation in childhood and adolescence on parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain, and regressing adolescent factors on the corresponding childhood factors; models were adjusted for impairment, region, age and gender. Pain in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains except Mealtimes and Communication (standardized total indirect effects β −0.05 to −0.18, 0.01 < p < 0.05 to p < 0.001, depending on domain). Psychological problems in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains of social roles, and in Personal Care and Communication (β −0.07 to −0.17, 0.001 < p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). Parenting stress in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in Health Hygiene, Mobility and Relationships (β −0.07 to −0.18, 0.001 < p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). These childhood factors predicted adolescent participation largely via their effects on childhood participation; though in some domains early psychological

  4. Nutrition and lifestyle in european adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  5. Nutrition and Lifestyle in European Adolescents: The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study123

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Luis A.; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  6. The Curricular Reform Initiatives of Turkey in the Fields of Life Science and Social Studies in the Process of Accession to the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinoglu, Orhan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine and assess how the relationships with and candidateship conditions of the European Union have reflected to the Turkish primary educational curricula for the Life Science and Social Studies which were changed in the years of 1968, 1998 and 2004. The study was performed on a qualitative basis by analyzing…

  7. Morphological study by scanning electron microscopy of the lingual papillae in the common European bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus).

    PubMed

    Pastor, J F; Moro, J A; Verona, J A; Gato, A; Represa, J J; Barbosa, E

    1993-07-01

    There are many accounts of the tongues of mammals observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but apparently only one article about the tongue of the Chiroptera. In the present study the tongue surface (after removing extracellular material) of the European common bat (Pipistrellus pipstrellus) was examined. The tongue is covered with papillae and has an elevation between its medial and posterior half. There are three types of papillae: filiform, fungiform and circumvallate, and the filiform can be classified as strictly filiform, conical and crown-like. The shapes and disposition of these papillae are related to function, which is principally to retain captured food during flight. At higher magnification the surface of the filiform papillae has many pores and microridges, which may serve for the production and distribution of mucus over the papillary surface. PMID:7690226

  8. Bullous pemphigoid and neurodegenerative diseases: a study in a setting of a Central European university dermatology department.

    PubMed

    Pietkiewicz, Paweł; Gornowicz-Porowska, Justyna; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Bartkiewicz, Paweł; Dmochowski, Marian

    2016-08-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering dermatosis of the elderly mediated by IgG and IgE antibodies to skin hemidesmosomal proteins, BP180 and/or BP230, that occur physiologically also in neuronal tissue. It was reported that BP is associated with neurodegenerative diseases (ND). We performed a retrospective study in a setting of a Central European university dermatology department on prevalence of ND in 94 BP patients. 26 out of 94 BP patients had at least one ND. ND included: Parkinson's disease, dementia, stroke, hear loss, tinnitus, blindness, vertigo, neurosyphilis, systemic sclerosis, and epilepsy. Since population aging is conceivably responsible for the rising number of BP cases as a result of immunosenescence-related phenomena, the plausible BP-specific immunopathogenetic relationship between BP and ND deserves to be further experimentally explored. PMID:26420424

  9. Energy and macronutrient intake and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha Linn; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Förster, Jana; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Klinaki, Eleni; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Almquist, Martin; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Schmidt, Julie A; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Cross, Amanda J; Slimani, Nadia; Byrnes, Graham; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Incidence rates of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) have increased in many countries. Adiposity and dietary risk factors may play a role, but little is known on the influence of energy intake and macronutrient composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between TC and the intake of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 477,274 middle-age participants (70.2% women) from ten European countries. Dietary data were collected using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Total carbohydrates, proteins, fats, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (PUFA), starch, sugar, and fiber were computed as g/1,000 kcal. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by intake quartile (Q). After a mean follow-up time of 11 years, differentiated TC was diagnosed in 556 participants (90% women). Overall, we found significant associations only with total energy (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 1.29; 95% CI, 1.00-1.68) and PUFA intakes (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.95). However, the associations with starch and sugar intake and GI were significantly heterogeneous across body mass index (BMI) groups, i.e., positive associations with starch and GI were found in participants with a BMI ≥ 25 and with sugar intake in those with BMI < 25. Moreover, inverse associations with starch and GI were observed in subjects with BMI < 25. In conclusion, our results suggest that high total energy and low PUFA intakes may increase the risk of differentiated TC. Positive associations with starch intake and GI in participants with BMI ≥ 25 suggest that those persons may have a greater insulin response to high starch intake and GI than lean people. PMID:26190646

  10. Participation in life situations of 8-12 year old children with cerebral palsy: cross sectional European study

    PubMed Central

    Fauconnier, Jérôme; Dickinson, Heather O; Beckung, Eva; Marcelli, Marco; McManus, Vicki; Michelsen, Susan I; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn N; Thyen, Ute; Arnaud, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate how involvement in life situations (participation) in children with cerebral palsy varies with type and severity of impairment and to investigate geographical variation in participation. Design Cross sectional study. Trained interviewers visited parents of children with cerebral palsy; multilevel multivariable regression related participation to impairments, pain, and sociodemographic characteristics. Setting Eight European regions with population registers of children with cerebral palsy; one further region recruited children from multiple sources. Participants 1174 children aged 8-12 with cerebral palsy randomly selected from the population registers, 743 (63%) joined in the study; the further region recruited 75 children. Main outcome measure Children’s participation assessed by the Life-H questionnaire covering 10 main areas of daily life. Scoring ignored adaptations or assistance required for participation. Results Children with pain and those with more severely impaired walking, fine motor skills, communication, and intellectual abilities had lower participation across most domains. Type of cerebral palsy and problems with feeding and vision were associated with lower participation for specific domains, but the sociodemographic factors examined were not. Impairment and pain accounted for up to a sixth of the variation in participation. Participation on all domains varied substantially between regions: children in east Denmark had consistently higher participation than children in other regions. For most participation domains, about a third of the unexplained variation could be ascribed to variation between regions and about two thirds to variation between individuals. Conclusions Participation in children with cerebral palsy should be assessed in clinical practice to guide intervention and assess its effect. Pain should be carefully assessed. Some European countries facilitate participation better than others, implying some countries

  11. Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Study of Native Eastern European Cattle Populations: The Case of the Romanian Grey

    PubMed Central

    Cean, Ada; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Gavojdian, Dinu; Ivan, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern European Grey cattle are regarded as the direct descendants of the aurochs (Bos taurus primigenius). Nowadays in Romania, less than 100 Grey animals are being reared and included in the national gene reserve. We examined the genetic diversity among Romanian Grey, Brown, Spotted and Black and White cattle breeds, with a particular focus on Romanian Grey through the use of (i) 11 bovine specific microsatellite markers on 83 animals and (ii) 638 bp length of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region sequence data from a total of 81 animals. Both microsatellite and mtDNA analysis revealed a high level of genetic variation in the studied breeds. In Romanian Grey a total of 100 alleles were found, the mean number of observed alleles per locus was 9.091; the average observed heterozygosity was 0.940; the Wright’s fixation index (FIS) was negative (-0.189) and indicates that there is no inbreeding and no selection pressure. MtDNA analysis revealed 52 haplotypes with 67 variable sites among the Romanian cattle breeds without any insertion or deletion. Haplotype diversity was 0.980 ± 0.007 and ranged from 0.883 ± 0.056 (Brown) to 0.990 ± 0.028 (Spotted and Black and White). The highest genetic variability of the mtDNA was recorded in the Grey breed, where 18 haplotypes were identified. The most frequent mtDNA D-loop region belonged to T3 haplogroup (80.247%), which was found across all studied breeds, while T2 haplotypes (16.049%) was only found in Grey, Spotted and Black and White genotypes. The T1 haplotypes (3.704%) were found in the Grey and Spotted. The current results contribute to the general knowledge on genetic diversity found in Eastern European cattle breeds and could prove a valuable tool for the conservation efforts of animal genetic resources (FAnGR). PMID:26398563

  12. Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Study of Native Eastern European Cattle Populations: The Case of the Romanian Grey.

    PubMed

    Ilie, Daniela Elena; Cean, Ada; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Gavojdian, Dinu; Ivan, Alexandra; Kusza, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern European Grey cattle are regarded as the direct descendants of the aurochs (Bos taurus primigenius). Nowadays in Romania, less than 100 Grey animals are being reared and included in the national gene reserve. We examined the genetic diversity among Romanian Grey, Brown, Spotted and Black and White cattle breeds, with a particular focus on Romanian Grey through the use of (i) 11 bovine specific microsatellite markers on 83 animals and (ii) 638 bp length of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region sequence data from a total of 81 animals. Both microsatellite and mtDNA analysis revealed a high level of genetic variation in the studied breeds. In Romanian Grey a total of 100 alleles were found, the mean number of observed alleles per locus was 9.091; the average observed heterozygosity was 0.940; the Wright's fixation index (FIS) was negative (-0.189) and indicates that there is no inbreeding and no selection pressure. MtDNA analysis revealed 52 haplotypes with 67 variable sites among the Romanian cattle breeds without any insertion or deletion. Haplotype diversity was 0.980 ± 0.007 and ranged from 0.883 ± 0.056 (Brown) to 0.990 ± 0.028 (Spotted and Black and White). The highest genetic variability of the mtDNA was recorded in the Grey breed, where 18 haplotypes were identified. The most frequent mtDNA D-loop region belonged to T3 haplogroup (80.247%), which was found across all studied breeds, while T2 haplotypes (16.049%) was only found in Grey, Spotted and Black and White genotypes. The T1 haplotypes (3.704%) were found in the Grey and Spotted. The current results contribute to the general knowledge on genetic diversity found in Eastern European cattle breeds and could prove a valuable tool for the conservation efforts of animal genetic resources (FAnGR). PMID:26398563

  13. Special Preparatory Programme for the European Social Fund. A Composite Report on the Study Visits--Phase I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document reports on phase 1 of the Special Preparatory Programme for the European Social Fund (SPP-ESF), which was undertaken to gather information on the transfer and exchange of experiences from the European Union (EU) to the 10 accession countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The 2 chapters constituting the first 15% of the report…

  14. Third World Postgraduate Students in a European University--A Case Study from Newcastle upon Tyne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter Hebron, Chris

    1984-01-01

    The conception, development, and outcomes of workshops for Third World students, studying in a British university and having problems with study, research, and written communication skills, are described. The workshops addressed typical frustrations with study in a foreign language as well as specific research project needs. (MSE)

  15. A comprehensive study of the genetic impact of rare variants in SORL1 in European early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Verheijen, Jan; Van den Bossche, Tobi; van der Zee, Julie; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Lladó, Albert; Graff, Caroline; Thonberg, Håkan; Pastor, Pau; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Pastor, Maria A; Benussi, Luisa; Ghidoni, Roberta; Binetti, Giuliano; Clarimon, Jordi; Lleó, Alberto; Fortea, Juan; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Martins, Madalena; Grau-Rivera, Oriol; Gelpi, Ellen; Bettens, Karolien; Mateiu, Ligia; Dillen, Lubina; Cras, Patrick; De Deyn, Peter P; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Sleegers, Kristel

    2016-08-01

    The sortilin-related receptor 1 (SORL1) gene has been associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Rare genetic variants in the SORL1 gene have also been implicated in autosomal dominant early-onset AD (EOAD). Here we report a large-scale investigation of the contribution of genetic variability in SORL1 to EOAD in a European EOAD cohort. We performed massive parallel amplicon-based re-sequencing of the full coding region of SORL1 in 1255 EOAD patients and 1938 age- and origin-matched control individuals in the context of the European Early-Onset Dementia (EOD) consortium, originating from Belgium, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Sweden, Germany, and Czech Republic. We identified six frameshift variants and two nonsense variants that were exclusively present in patients. These mutations are predicted to result in haploinsufficiency through nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, which could be confirmed experimentally for SORL1 p.Gly447Argfs*22 observed in a Belgian EOAD patient. We observed a 1.5-fold enrichment of rare non-synonymous variants in patients (carrier frequency 8.8 %; SkatOMeta p value 0.0001). Of the 84 non-synonymous rare variants detected in the full patient/control cohort, 36 were only detected in patients. Our findings underscore a role of rare SORL1 variants in EOAD, but also show a non-negligible frequency of these variants in healthy individuals, necessitating the need for pathogenicity assays. Premature stop codons due to frameshift and nonsense variants, have so far exclusively been found in patients, and their predicted mode of action corresponds with evidence from in vitro functional studies of SORL1 in AD. PMID:27026413

  16. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  17. Epistemological Beliefs' Contributions to Study Strategies of Asian Americans and European Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schommer-Aikins, Marlene; Easter, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    Given the increasingly culturally diverse composition of students in American classrooms, understanding the nature of cultural differences is necessary to generate effective instructional interventions. This study examines the individual differences in epistemological beliefs, ways of knowing, study strategies, and academic performance among…

  18. An Analysis of Language Teacher Education Programs: A Comparative Study of Turkey and Other European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmisdort, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to analyze and discuss the similarities and the differences between English language teacher educational programs at universities in Turkey, and to identify the undergraduate students' ideas about their current curriculum. In addition to this, the study aims to compare the education of English language teacher…

  19. Frontline nilotinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: results from the European ENEST1st study.

    PubMed

    Hochhaus, A; Rosti, G; Cross, N C P; Steegmann, J L; le Coutre, P; Ossenkoppele, G; Petrov, L; Masszi, T; Hellmann, A; Griskevicius, L; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Rea, D; Coriu, D; Brümmendorf, T H; Porkka, K; Saglio, G; Gastl, G; Müller, M C; Schuld, P; Di Matteo, P; Pellegrino, A; Dezzani, L; Mahon, F-X; Baccarani, M; Giles, F J

    2016-01-01

    The Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Trials as First-Line Treatment (ENEST1st) study included 1089 patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. The rate of deep molecular response (MR(4) (BCR-ABL1⩽0.01% on the International Scale or undetectable BCR-ABL1 with ⩾10,000 ABL1 transcripts)) at 18 months was evaluated as the primary end point, with molecular responses monitored by the European Treatment and Outcome Study network of standardized laboratories. This analysis was conducted after all patients had completed 24 months of study treatment (80.9% of patients) or discontinued early. In patients with typical BCR-ABL1 transcripts and ⩽3 months of prior imatinib therapy, 38.4% (404/1052) achieved MR(4) at 18 months. Six patients (0.6%) developed accelerated or blastic phase, and 13 (1.2%) died. The safety profile of nilotinib was consistent with that of previous studies, although the frequencies of some nilotinib-associated adverse events were lower (for example, rash, 21.4%). Ischemic cardiovascular events occurred in 6.0% of patients. Routine monitoring of lipid and glucose levels was not mandated in the protocol. These results support the use of frontline nilotinib, particularly when achievement of a deep molecular response (a prerequisite for attempting treatment-free remission in clinical trials) is a treatment goal. PMID:26437782

  20. Frontline nilotinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: results from the European ENEST1st study

    PubMed Central

    Hochhaus, A; Rosti, G; Cross, N C P; Steegmann, J L; le Coutre, P; Ossenkoppele, G; Petrov, L; Masszi, T; Hellmann, A; Griskevicius, L; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Rea, D; Coriu, D; Brümmendorf, T H; Porkka, K; Saglio, G; Gastl, G; Müller, M C; Schuld, P; Di Matteo, P; Pellegrino, A; Dezzani, L; Mahon, F-X; Baccarani, M; Giles, F J

    2016-01-01

    The Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Trials as First-Line Treatment (ENEST1st) study included 1089 patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. The rate of deep molecular response (MR4 (BCR-ABL1⩽0.01% on the International Scale or undetectable BCR-ABL1 with ⩾10 000 ABL1 transcripts)) at 18 months was evaluated as the primary end point, with molecular responses monitored by the European Treatment and Outcome Study network of standardized laboratories. This analysis was conducted after all patients had completed 24 months of study treatment (80.9% of patients) or discontinued early. In patients with typical BCR-ABL1 transcripts and ⩽3 months of prior imatinib therapy, 38.4% (404/1052) achieved MR4 at 18 months. Six patients (0.6%) developed accelerated or blastic phase, and 13 (1.2%) died. The safety profile of nilotinib was consistent with that of previous studies, although the frequencies of some nilotinib-associated adverse events were lower (for example, rash, 21.4%). Ischemic cardiovascular events occurred in 6.0% of patients. Routine monitoring of lipid and glucose levels was not mandated in the protocol. These results support the use of frontline nilotinib, particularly when achievement of a deep molecular response (a prerequisite for attempting treatment-free remission in clinical trials) is a treatment goal. PMID:26437782

  1. Risk factors for vertebral deformities in men: relationship to number of vertebral deformities. European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study Group.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A A; O'Neill, T W; Cooper, C; Silman, A J

    2000-02-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a similar overall prevalence of vertebral deformity in men to that in women, though the influence of increasing age on the prevalence of vertebral deformity is less marked in men. However, most affected men have only a single or two vertebral deformities, which may be unrelated to osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to examine the role of risk factors, previously demonstrated to be associated with vertebral osteoporosis in females, in men with single/dual deformities compared to those with multiple deformities. Age stratified random samples of men aged 50 years and over were recruited from population registers in 30 European centers as part of the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS). Subjects had a lateral spinal radiograph and the presence of vertebral deformity was determined using the McCloskey algorithm. Lifestyle and other risk factor data were obtained from an interviewer-administered questionnaire. In all 6937 men with a mean age of 64.4 (SD = 8.5) years were studied of whom 738 (10.6%) subjects had one or two deformities, and 109 (1.6%) subjects had three or more deformities. There was a marked increase in the prevalence of multiple vertebral deformities with increasing age, but only a modest effect of age on the prevalence of single deformities. Associations between various risk factors for osteoporosis and vertebral deformity were analyzed separately in men with single/dual vertebral deformity from those with three or more deformities using logistic regression. After adjustment for age, there were statistically significant associations between the following risk factors and multiple deformities: previous hip fracture (odds ratio [OR] 10.5), lack of regular physical activity (OR 2.9), low body mass (OR 2.5), and previous steroid use (OR 2.3). By contrast, there were only weak associations with these same variables in males with single/dual deformities and, apart from poor self-reported general health, all

  2. Self-Care Practices for Common Colds by Primary Care Patients: Study Protocol of a European Multicenter Survey—The COCO Study

    PubMed Central

    Weltermann, Birgitta M.; Gerasimovska-Kitanovska, Biljana; Thielmann, Anika; Chambe, Juliette; Lingner, Heidrun; Pirrotta, Enzo; Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Tekiner, Selda; Czachowski, Slawomir; Edirne, Tamer; Zielinski, Andrzej; Yikilkan, Hülya; Koskela, Tuomas; Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Hoffman, Robert D.; Petek Šter, Marija; Guede Fernández, Clara; Uludağ, Ayşegül; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Mevsim, Vildan; Kreitmayer Pestic, Sanda

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-care for common colds is frequent, yet little is known about the spectrum, regional differences, and potential risks of self-care practices in patients from various European regions. Methods/Design. We describe the study protocol for a cross-sectional survey in 27 primary care centers from 14 European countries. At all sites, 120 consecutive adult patients, who visit their general practitioner for any reason, filled in a self-administered 27-item questionnaire. This addresses patients' self-care practices for common colds. Separately, the subjective level of discomfort when having a common cold, knowing about the diseases' self-limited nature, and medical and sociodemographic data are requested. Additionally, physicians are surveyed on their use of and recommendations for self-care practices. We are interested in investigating which self-care practices for common colds are used, whether the number of self-care practices used is influenced by knowledge about the self-limited nature of the disease, and the subjective level of discomfort when having a cold and to identify potential adverse interactions with chronic physician-prescribed medications. Further factors that will be considered are, for example, demographic characteristics, chronic conditions, and sources of information for self-care practices. All descriptive and analytical statistics will be performed on the pooled dataset and stratified by country and site. Discussion. To our knowledge, COCO is the first European survey on the use of self-care practices for common colds. The study will provide new insight into patients' and general practitioners' self-care measures for common colds across Europe. PMID:26421048

  3. Self-Care Practices for Common Colds by Primary Care Patients: Study Protocol of a European Multicenter Survey-The COCO Study.

    PubMed

    Weltermann, Birgitta M; Gerasimovska-Kitanovska, Biljana; Thielmann, Anika; Chambe, Juliette; Lingner, Heidrun; Pirrotta, Enzo; Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Tekiner, Selda; Czachowski, Slawomir; Edirne, Tamer; Zielinski, Andrzej; Yikilkan, Hülya; Koskela, Tuomas; Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Hoffman, Robert D; Petek Šter, Marija; Guede Fernández, Clara; Uludağ, Ayşegül; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Mevsim, Vildan; Kreitmayer Pestic, Sanda

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-care for common colds is frequent, yet little is known about the spectrum, regional differences, and potential risks of self-care practices in patients from various European regions. Methods/Design. We describe the study protocol for a cross-sectional survey in 27 primary care centers from 14 European countries. At all sites, 120 consecutive adult patients, who visit their general practitioner for any reason, filled in a self-administered 27-item questionnaire. This addresses patients' self-care practices for common colds. Separately, the subjective level of discomfort when having a common cold, knowing about the diseases' self-limited nature, and medical and sociodemographic data are requested. Additionally, physicians are surveyed on their use of and recommendations for self-care practices. We are interested in investigating which self-care practices for common colds are used, whether the number of self-care practices used is influenced by knowledge about the self-limited nature of the disease, and the subjective level of discomfort when having a cold and to identify potential adverse interactions with chronic physician-prescribed medications. Further factors that will be considered are, for example, demographic characteristics, chronic conditions, and sources of information for self-care practices. All descriptive and analytical statistics will be performed on the pooled dataset and stratified by country and site. Discussion. To our knowledge, COCO is the first European survey on the use of self-care practices for common colds. The study will provide new insight into patients' and general practitioners' self-care measures for common colds across Europe. PMID:26421048

  4. Comparison of 6q25 Breast Cancer Hits from Asian and European Genome Wide Association Studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC)

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Rebecca; Maranian, Melanie; Hopper, John L.; Kapuscinski, Miroslaw K.; Southey, Melissa C.; Park, Daniel J.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Bueno-de-Mesquit, H. Bas; Muir, Kenneth R.; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Rattanamongkongul, Suthee; Puttawibul, Puttisak; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Marmee, Frederick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L.; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Zamora, M. Pilar; Benítez, Javier; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Clarke, Christina A.; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Rahman, Nazneen; Seal, Sheila; Turnbull, Clare; Renwick, Anthony; Meindl, Alfons; Schott, Sarah; Bartram, Claus R.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Dörk, Thilo; Schürmann, Peter; Karstens, Johann H.; Hillemanns, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Zalutsky, Iosif V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokovieva, Darya; Farahtdinova, Albina; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Investigators, kConFab; Lambrechts, Diether; Zhao, Hui; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona A.; Severi, Gianluca; Offit, Kenneth; Robson, Mark; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Figueroa, Jonine D.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Hooning, Maartje; Martens, John W. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Collée, Margriet; Hall, Per; Humpreys, Keith; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Ahmed, Shahana; Ghoussaini, Maya; Pharoah, Paul DP.; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Hou, Ming-Feng; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Newcomb, Polly A.; Titus, Linda; Egan, Kathleen M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Morrison, Jonathan; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Easton, Douglas F.; Dunning, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    The 6q25.1 locus was first identified via a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in Chinese women and marked by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2046210, approximately 180 Kb upstream of ESR1. There have been conflicting reports about the association of this locus with breast cancer in Europeans, and a GWAS in Europeans identified a different SNP, tagged here by rs12662670. We examined the associations of both SNPs in up to 61,689 cases and 58,822 controls from forty-four studies collaborating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, of which four studies were of Asian and 39 of European descent. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Case-only analyses were used to compare SNP effects in Estrogen Receptor positive (ER+) versus negative (ER−) tumours. Models including both SNPs were fitted to investigate whether the SNP effects were independent. Both SNPs are significantly associated with breast cancer risk in both ethnic groups. Per-allele ORs are higher in Asian than in European studies [rs2046210: OR (A/G) = 1.36 (95% CI 1.26–1.48), p = 7.6×10−14 in Asians and 1.09 (95% CI 1.07–1.11), p = 6.8×10−18 in Europeans. rs12662670: OR (G/T) = 1.29 (95% CI 1.19–1.41), p = 1.2×10−9 in Asians and 1.12 (95% CI 1.08–1.17), p = 3.8×10−9 in Europeans]. SNP rs2046210 is associated with a significantly greater risk of ER− than ER+ tumours in Europeans [OR (ER−) = 1.20 (95% CI 1.15–1.25), p = 1.8×10−17 versus OR (ER+) = 1.07 (95% CI 1.04–1.1), p = 1.3×10−7, pheterogeneity = 5.1×10−6]. In these Asian studies, by contrast, there is no clear evidence of a differential association by tumour receptor status. Each SNP is associated with risk after adjustment for the other SNP. These results suggest the presence of two variants at 6q25.1 each independently associated with breast cancer risk in Asians and in Europeans. Of these two, the one

  5. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  6. The Distribution of Job Satisfaction among Young European Graduates: Does the Choice of Study Field Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vila, Luis E.; Garcia-Aracil, Adela; Mora, Jose-Gines

    2007-01-01

    A student's choice of a field of study is a personal decision that combines individual tastes, inclinations, preferences, and prospects related to the working life with a number of financial and academic constraints. Therefore, the analysis of the effects of degree field on job satisfaction should also address the unobserved heterogeneity among…

  7. European Study Tour Applications of Experiential Learning Processes in Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an application of Kolb's (1981; 1984) experiential learning cycle in the context of international marketing education. Two study tours, in which International Marketing students at a U.S. college visited various cities in Europe, are described, with an emphasis on the ways in which differences in the structure of the tours…

  8. Cannabis Supply and Demand Reduction: Evidence from the ESPAD Study of Adolescents in 31 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Steriu, Andreea; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Most national drug policies target both the supply side and the demand side of illicit drug use. Although such policies are intended to affect individual choices, they by definition operate on a national level and cannot be evaluated solely on the basis of individual-level differences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of country-level…

  9. School-Work Transition and New Job Skills: An European Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Teresa; Frazao, Lourenco; Paleocrassas, Stamatis

    The extent to which vocational schools are promoting the new job skills being demanded by employers was examined in complementary studies conducted Portugal and Greece. First, data were collected from questionnaires administered to 22 Portuguese students in initial training in a transports course and 47 Greek students in an electrical course (19…

  10. Adult Guidance Services in the European Learning Society: A Scottish Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Teresa; Bartlett, Will

    1999-01-01

    A study shows adult guidance services in Fife, Scotland, responding to changing labor market conditions with a well-developed infrastructure and network. Although the skills-development model dominates the agenda of external funders, Fife providers tend toward personal development and social learning as the focus of adult guidance. (SK)

  11. The First Use of a Library Questionnaire: Adalbert Blumenschein's Eighteenth-Century Study of European Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1994-01-01

    Examines Blumenschein's "Description of Various Libraries in Europe" as an early example of library research methodology; discusses his methods of data collection; describes his use of a questionnaire; and suggests the necessity of further studies of the development of research in library and information science. (Contains 10 references.) (LRW)

  12. Experiences and Perspectives of African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American Psychology Graduate Students: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Maton, Kenneth I.; Wimms, Harriette E.; Grant, Sheila K.; Wittig, Michele A.; Rogers, Margaret R.; Vasquez, Melba J. T.

    2013-01-01

    A national, web-based survey of 1,222 African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color differed from European-American students in perceptions of fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology, and in aspects of the graduate school experience perceived as linked to ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed. PMID:21341899

  13. The association between aerobic fitness and physical activity in children and adolescents: the European youth heart study.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Peter Lund; Moeller, Niels Christian; Korsholm, Lars; Kolle, Elin; Wedderkopp, Niels; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2010-09-01

    The link between aerobic fitness and physical activity in children has been studied in a number of earlier studies and the results have generally shown weak to moderate correlations. This overall finding has been widely questioned partly because of the difficulty in obtaining valid estimates of physical activity. This study investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between aerobic fitness and physical activity in a representative sample of 9 and 15-year-old children (n = 1260 cross-sectional, n = 153 longitudinal). The specific goal was to improve past studies using an objective method of activity assessment and taking into account a number of major sources of error. Data came from the Danish part of the European youth heart study, 1997-2003. The cross-sectional results generally showed a weak to moderate association between aerobic fitness and physical activity with standardized regression coefficients ranging from 0.14 to 0.33. The longitudinal results revealed a tendency towards an interaction effect of baseline physical activity on the relationship between changes in physical activity and aerobic fitness. Moderate to moderately strong regression effect sizes were observed in the lower quadrant of baseline physical activity compared to weak effect sizes in the remaining quadrants. In conclusion, the present study confirms earlier findings of a weak to moderate association between aerobic fitness and physical activity in total population of children. However, the study also indicates that inactive children can achieve notable increase in aerobic fitness by increasing their habitual physical activity level. A potential physiological explanation for these results is highlighted. PMID:20458593

  14. Glycaemic effects of traditional European plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Swanston-Flatt, S K; Day, C; Flatt, P R; Gould, B J; Bailey, C J

    1989-02-01

    Twelve plants used for the traditional treatment of diabetes mellitus in northern Europe were studied using normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice to evaluate effects on glucose homeostasis. The plants were administered in the diet (6.25% by weight) and/or as decoctions or infusions in place of drinking water, to coincide with the traditional method of preparation. Treatment for 28 days with preparations of burdock (Arctium lappa), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), elder (Sambucus nigra), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), guayusa (Ilex guayusa), hop (Humulus lupulus), nettle (Urtica dioica), cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), sage (Salvia officinale), and wild carrot (Daucus carrota) did not affect the parameters of glucose homeostasis examined in normal mice (basal plasma glucose and insulin, glucose tolerance, insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and glycated haemoglobin). After administration of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg) burdock and nettle aggravated the diabetic condition, while cashew, dandelion, elder, fenugreek, hop, periwinkle, sage and wild carrot did not significantly affect the parameters of glucose homeostasis studied (basal glucose and insulin, insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, glycated haemoglobin and pancreatic insulin concentration). Guayusa and mushroom retarded the development of hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin diabetes and reduced the hyperphagia, polydipsia, body weight loss, and glycated haemoglobin. Mushroom also countered the initial reduction in plasma insulin and the reduction in pancreatic insulin concentration, and improved the hypoglycaemic effect of exogenous insulin. These studies suggest the presence of potentially useful antidiabetic agents in guayusa and mushroom. PMID:2743711

  15. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  16. Understanding the links among neuromedin U gene, beta2-adrenoceptor gene and bone health: an observational study in European children.

    PubMed

    Gianfagna, Francesco; Cugino, Daniela; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bailey, Mark E S; Bammann, Karin; Herrmann, Diana; Koni, Anna C; Kourides, Yiannis; Marild, Staffan; Molnár, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Russo, Paola; Siani, Alfonso; Sieri, Sabina; Sioen, Isabelle; Veidebaum, Toomas; Iacoviello, Licia

    2013-01-01

    Neuromedin U, encoded by the NMU gene, is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that regulates both energy metabolism and bone mass. The beta-2 adrenergic receptor, encoded by the ADRB2 gene, mediates several effects of catecholamine hormones and neurotransmitters in bone. We investigated whether NMU single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes, as well as functional ADRB2 SNPs, are associated with bone stiffness in children from the IDEFICS cohort, also evaluating whether NMU and ADRB2 interact to affect this trait. A sample of 2,274 subjects (52.5% boys, age 6.2 ± 1.8 years) from eight European countries, having data on calcaneus bone stiffness index (SI, mean of both feet) and genotyping (NMU gene: rs6827359, rs12500837, rs9999653; ADRB2 gene: rs1042713, rs1042714), was studied. After false discovery rate adjustment, SI was significantly associated with all NMU SNPs. rs6827359 CC homozygotes showed the strongest association (recessive model, Δ= -1.8, p=0.006). Among the five retrieved haplotypes with frequencies higher than 1% (range 2.0-43.9%), the CCT haplotype (frequency=39.7%) was associated with lower SI values (dominant model, Δ= -1.0, p=0.04) as compared to the most prevalent haplotype. A non-significant decrease in SI was observed in in ADRB2 rs1042713 GG homozygotes, while subjects carrying SI-lowering genotypes at both SNPs (frequency = 8.4%) showed much lower SI than non-carriers (Δ= -3.9, p<0.0001; p for interaction=0.025). The association was more evident in preschool girls, in whom SI showed a curvilinear trend across ages. In subgroup analyses, rs9999653 CC NMU or both GG ADRB2 genotypes were associated with either lower serum calcium or β-CrossLaps levels (p=0.01). This study in European children shows, for the first time in humans, a role for NMU gene through interaction with ADRB2 gene in bone strength regulation, more evident in preschool girls. PMID:23936460

  17. Environmental risk assessment for the serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine: Case study using the European risk assessment framework.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Ken D; Coors, Anja; Escher, Beate I; Fenner, Kathrin; Garric, Jeanne; Gust, Marion; Knacker, Thomas; Küster, Anette; Kussatz, Carola; Metcalfe, Chris D; Monteiro, Sara; Moon, Thomas W; Mennigen, Jan A; Parrott, Joanne; Péry, Alexandre R R; Ramil, Maria; Roennefahrt, Ines; Tarazona, José V; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Ternes, Thomas A; Trudeau, Vance L; Boucard, Tatiana; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Servos, Mark R

    2010-07-01

    The serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine was selected for an environmental risk assessment, using the most recent European guideline (EMEA 2006) within the European Union (EU)-funded Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals (ERAPharm) project due to its environmental persistence, acute toxicity to nontarget organisms, and unique pharmacokinetics associated with a readily ionizable compound. As a widely prescribed psychotropic drug, fluoxetine is frequently detected in surface waters adjacent to urban areas because municipal wastewater effluents are the primary route of entry to aquatic environments. In Phase I of the assessment, the initial predicted environmental concentration of fluoxetine in surface water (initial PEC(SW)) reached or exceeded the action limit of 10 ng/L, when using both a default market penetration factor and prescription data for Sweden, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Consequently, a Phase II risk assessment was conducted in which green algae were identified as the most sensitive species with a NOEC of <0.6 microg/L. From this value, a predicted no effect concentration for surface waters (PNEC(SW)) of 0.012 microg/L was derived. The PEC/PNEC ratio was above the trigger value of 1 in worst-case exposure scenarios indicating a potential risk to the aquatic compartment. Similarly, risks of fluoxetine for sediment-dwelling organisms could not be excluded. No risk assessment was conducted for the terrestrial compartment due to a lack of data on effects of fluoxetine on soil organisms. The need for a separate risk assessment for the main metabolite of fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, was not conducted because of a lack of fate and effect studies. Based on published data, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine appeared to have a low to moderate bioaccumulation potential, which should be confirmed in formal studies according to OECD guidelines. Exposure assessments for fluoxetine according to the current framework rely heavily on K(OC) and K(OW) values

  18. Understanding the Links among neuromedin U Gene, beta2-adrenoceptor Gene and Bone Health: An Observational Study in European Children

    PubMed Central

    Gianfagna, Francesco; Cugino, Daniela; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bailey, Mark E. S.; Bammann, Karin; Herrmann, Diana; Koni, Anna C.; Kourides, Yiannis; Marild, Staffan; Molnár, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A.; Pitsiladis, Yannis P.; Russo, Paola; Siani, Alfonso; Sieri, Sabina; Sioen, Isabelle; Veidebaum, Toomas; Iacoviello, Licia

    2013-01-01

    Neuromedin U, encoded by the NMU gene, is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that regulates both energy metabolism and bone mass. The beta-2 adrenergic receptor, encoded by the ADRB2 gene, mediates several effects of catecholamine hormones and neurotransmitters in bone. We investigated whether NMU single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes, as well as functional ADRB2 SNPs, are associated with bone stiffness in children from the IDEFICS cohort, also evaluating whether NMU and ADRB2 interact to affect this trait. A sample of 2,274 subjects (52.5% boys, age 6.2±1.8 years) from eight European countries, having data on calcaneus bone stiffness index (SI, mean of both feet) and genotyping (NMU gene: rs6827359, rs12500837, rs9999653; ADRB2 gene: rs1042713, rs1042714), was studied. After false discovery rate adjustment, SI was significantly associated with all NMU SNPs. rs6827359 CC homozygotes showed the strongest association (recessive model, Δ = −1.8, p = 0.006). Among the five retrieved haplotypes with frequencies higher than 1% (range 2.0–43.9%), the CCT haplotype (frequency = 39.7%) was associated with lower SI values (dominant model, Δ = −1.0, p = 0.04) as compared to the most prevalent haplotype. A non-significant decrease in SI was observed in in ADRB2 rs1042713 GG homozygotes, while subjects carrying SI-lowering genotypes at both SNPs (frequency = 8.4%) showed much lower SI than non-carriers (Δ = −3.9, p<0.0001; p for interaction = 0.025). The association was more evident in preschool girls, in whom SI showed a curvilinear trend across ages. In subgroup analyses, rs9999653 CC NMU or both GG ADRB2 genotypes were associated with either lower serum calcium or β-CrossLaps levels (p = 0.01). This study in European children shows, for the first time in humans, a role for NMU gene through interaction with ADRB2 gene in bone strength regulation, more evident in preschool girls. PMID:23936460

  19. A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature.

    PubMed

    Nentwig, Wolfgang; Gnädinger, Markus; Fuchs, Joan; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2013-10-01

    During a two-year study, all spider bites recorded by Swiss primary care physicians were reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre and all collected spiders were identified. A total of 14 verified spider bites were recorded, involving five species from four families: Zoropsis spinimana (five cases), Cheiracanthium punctorium (four cases), Tegenaria atrica (three cases) and one case of Malthonica ferruginea (= Tegenaria ferruginea) (both Agelenidae), and one case of Amaurobius ferox (Amaurobiidae). The bites of all spider species produced relatively mild symptoms. Local symptoms such as moderate to severe pain, circumscribed swelling and redness were the only effects in most cases. Systemic symptoms were rare. There was complete recovery in all cases and all lesions healed completely without further damage or secondary disorders. Following a review of the European spider bite literature, the number of spider species capable of biting humans in Europe is considered to be much larger than could be concluded from this study. Most spider bites are restricted to species living synanthropically, thus promoted by climate and habitat change. The annual frequency of spider bites in Switzerland is estimated at 10-100 bites per million inhabitants, but this is predicted to increase due to the continuous arrival of new alien species, many of which have a high potential to establish in urban areas. PMID:23872119

  20. A mixed-methods study of the implementation of medication adherence policy solutions: how do European countries compare?

    PubMed Central

    Clyne, Wendy; McLachlan, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We describe a key informant study that invited national medicines policy leads for the European Union member states to self-assess the level of implementation of medicines adherence initiatives in their country and the adequacy of that implementation. Interviews with medicines policy leads enabled in-depth understanding of the variation in adherence support across nations and the ways in which different nations prioritize, plan, and implement medicines adherence systems and services. Methods Ten national policy leads (Bulgaria, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, and the Netherlands) completed a self-assessment survey, and seven (Estonia, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Lithuania, Malta, and the Netherlands) engaged in a follow-up interview. Key findings Policy leads varied in the level of implementation of medication adherence solutions that they reported in their nations; most initiatives were aimed directly at patients with few initiatives at government or health care commissioner levels of action. Policy leads reported insufficient implementation of medication adherence initiatives across all potential domains. Barriers to implementation included lack of resources, strategic planning, evidence to support action, the “hidden” nature of medication adherence within policy work, and dispersed responsibility for medication adherence as a policy and practice theme. Conclusion This study has international significance and summarizes the emergent characteristics of nations with and without coordinated medication adherence activity. We highlight the importance of sharing good practice in policy formulation and implementation for medication adherence. PMID:26604703

  1. Video games as a complementary therapy tool in mental disorders: PlayMancer, a European multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Santamaría, Juan J.; Gunnard, Katarina; Soto, Antonio; Kalapanidas, Elias; Bults, Richard G. A.; Davarakis, Costas; Ganchev, Todor; Granero, Roser; Konstantas, Dimitri; Kostoulas, Theodoros P.; Lam, Tony; Lucas, Mikkel; Masuet-Aumatell, Cristina; Moussa, Maher H.; Nielsen, Jeppe; Penelo, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous review studies have suggested that computer games can serve as an alternative or additional form of treatment in several areas (schizophrenia, asthma or motor rehabilitation). Although several naturalistic studies have been conducted showing the usefulness of serious video games in the treatment of some abnormal behaviours, there is a lack of serious games specially designed for treating mental disorders. Aim: The purpose of our project was to develop and evaluate a serious video game designed to remediate attitudinal, behavioural and emotional processes of patients with impulse-related disorders. Method and results: The video game was created and developed within the European research project PlayMancer. It aims to prove potential capacity to change underlying attitudinal, behavioural and emotional processes of patients with impulse-related disorders. New interaction modes were provided by newly developed components, such as emotion recognition from speech, face and physiological reactions, while specific impulsive reactions were elicited. The video game uses biofeedback for helping patients to learn relaxation skills, acquire better self-control strategies and develop new emotional regulation strategies. In this article, we present a description of the video game used, rationale, user requirements, usability and preliminary data, in several mental disorders. PMID:22548300

  2. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk: a review of southern European studies.

    PubMed

    Turati, Federica; Rossi, Marta; Pelucchi, Claudio; Levi, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    High intakes of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer at several sites. Evidence has been derived mainly from case-control studies. We reviewed the relationship between consumption of vegetables and fruit and the risk of several common cancers in a network of Italian and Swiss case-control studies including over 10,000 cases of fourteen different cancers and about 17,000 controls. Data were suggestive of a protective role of vegetable intake on the risk of several common epithelial cancers. OR for the highest compared with the lowest levels of consumption ranged from 0.2 (larynx, oral cavity and pharynx) to 0.9 (prostate). Inverse associations were found for both raw and cooked vegetables, although for upper digestive tract cancers the former were somewhat stronger. Similar inverse associations were found for cruciferous vegetables. Frequent consumption of allium vegetables was also associated with reduced risk of several cancers. Fruit was a favourable correlate of the risk of several cancers, particularly of the upper digestive tract, with associations generally weaker than those reported for vegetables. A reduced risk of cancers of the digestive tract and larynx was found for high consumption of citrus fruit. Suggestive protections against several forms of cancer, mainly digestive tract cancers, were found for high consumption of apples and tomatoes. High intakes of fibres, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins were inversely related to various forms of cancer. In conclusion, data from our series of case-control studies suggested a favourable role of high intakes of fruit and vegetables in the risk of many common cancers, particularly of the digestive tract. This adds evidence to the indication that aspects of the Mediterranean diet may have a favourable impact not only on CVD, but also on several common (epithelial) cancers, particularly of the digestive tract. PMID:26148912

  3. Alcohol use in Georgian students; pilot study rigorously following criteria of European school project on alcohol and other drug.

    PubMed

    Sturua, L; Baramidze, L; Gamkrelidze, A; Galdava, G

    2010-02-01

    The main purpose of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) is to collect comparable data on substance use among 15-16 year-old European students in order to monitor trends within as well as between countries. In the article the results of the pilot study of Alcohol Use among Georgian Students, rigorously following Criteria of European School Project on Alcohol and Other Drug (ESPAD) are presented. The survey was conducted according to a standardized methodology and with a standardized questionnaire. Data were collected during February 2009 and the target population was Tbilisi students in the 10-th grade (93% born in 1992), with a mean age of 16.1 years at the time of data collection. Data were collected by group-administered questionnaires. The students answered the questionnaires anonymously in the classroom with researchers. The survey revealed that alcoholic beverages, especially beer and wine are considered easily available; 73% found beer and 70% wine easy to obtain. 90% of the surveyed students have tried alcohol at least once during their lifetime. 80% have done so in the last 12months and 40% in the past 30 days. Gender differences become apparent when frequency of use is considered: boys have used alcohol more often than girls. 7.5% of the students state that, they never drink alcohol at all. Wine and beer are the two most important types of beverage for the students. On average, 40% of students on the latest drinking day consumed wine and 38% - beer. Champagne and spirits consumed 29% and 22% of students, respectively. On average, half of the students have been intoxicated, at least once during their lifetime, to the point of staggering when walking, having slurred speech or throwing up. 40% reported intoxication in the last 12 months and 12% in the past 30 days. Another way to measure drunkenness is to ask about a specific amount of alcohol consumed within a certain period of time. The students were asked if they had had

  4. Sedimentary basin evolution and the link with the deformation of surrounding orogens in European case-studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matenco, Liviu

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentary basin evolution and the link with the deformation of surrounding orogens in European case-studies Liviu C. Matenco Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, Budapestlaan 4, 3584 CD Utrecht, the Netherlands Intra-plate contractional deformation and far-field transmission of strain generated at active deforming plate boundaries play a crucial role in inverting extensional basins and the kinematics of thrust belts in Mediterranean orogens (e.g., Ziegler et al., 1995; Ziegler et al., 1998). At the same time, the structural evolution of rifts is significantly controlled by the lithospheric rheology, the availability of inherited crustal weak zones with potential to be re-activated, the mode of extension and the type of crustal material being deformed (Ziegler and Cloetingh, 2004; Ziegler et al., 2006). These critical inferences has proven of major importance for the study of sedimentary basins, in particular relevant for the evolution of Central and SE European mountain chains and associated sedimentary basins. Far-field transmission of contractional strain has proven to be of important for the geometry of both foreland and back-arc basins, such as the Carpathians or Dinaridic forelands and the Pannonian Basin or Black Sea back-arcs. Crustal scale weak zones and rheological contrasts such as inherited nappe stacks or major plate boundaries have been proven recently to be of major importance in conditioning subsequent basin formation and associated footwall exhumation in extensional domains such as the Aegean, Rhodope or the transition from the Dinarides to the Pannonian basin. At a regional level, areas characterized by changes in contractional polarity have proven to efficiently transmit the strain at large distances and condition the localization of major structures, such as the change from the Alpine to the Dinaridic polarity or the change from the Carpathians to the Dinaridic polarity. The same areas were prone to the first order localization of

  5. Study on accommodation of a heat pump experiment on the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreeb, H.; Riebold, G.

    1983-04-01

    A data base which enables the Dynamic Cooler Experiment (DCE) to be tested on board EURECA was developed. Mechanical, thermal, and electrical interfaces, and operational and safety aspects were studied. The experiment controller is the electrical link between EURECA and the DCE controller. It is reused from the SPAS-01 project. The experiment cooling loop is the active thermal interface to EURECA, and necessitates a design where two component groups are connected in parallel to a bypass. The heat dissipation experiment components discharge via a dedicated cold plate to the cooling loop. Ground support equipment is reused from SPAS-01.

  6. Review Article: Structural flood-protection measures referring to several European case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryžanowski, A.; Brilly, M.; Rusjan, S.; Schnabl, S.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a review of structural measures that were taken to cope with floods in some cities along the Danube River, such as Vienna, Bratislava, and Belgrade. These cities were also considered as case studies within the KULTURisk project. The structural measures are reviewed and compared to each other according to the type, duration of application, the return period of the design flood event, how the project measures are integrated into spatial planning and the problems that occur in the flood defences today. Based on this review, some suggestions are given on how to improve the flood risk management in flood-prone areas.

  7. Cultural Dimensions of Digital Library Development, Part I: Theory and Methodological Framework for a Comparative Study of the Cultures of Innovation in Five European National Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalbello, Marija

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the influence of culture on digital libraries of the first wave. The local cultures of innovation of five European national libraries (Biblioteca nacional de Portugal, Bibliotheque nationale de France, Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the National Library of Scotland, and the British Library) are reconstructed in case histories from…

  8. Nightlife Violence: A Gender-Specific View on Risk Factors for Violence in Nightlife Settings--A Cross-Sectional Study in Nine European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzer, Susanne; Bellis, Mark A.; Anderson, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Within nightlife settings, youth violence places large burdens on both nightlife users and wider society. Internationally, research has identified risk factors for nightlife violence. However, few empirical studies have assessed differences in risk factors between genders. Here, a pan-European cross-sectional survey of 1,341 nightlife users aged…

  9. Innovation and Training in the Agribusiness Complex. Synthesis Report of a Study in Various Product Chains in Five European Countries. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmerdam, J.

    Part of a European project to assess the opportunities and limitations of a sectoral approach to training, this synthesis report focuses on innovation and training in the agribusiness complex. Chapter 1 discusses the study objectives, which were to gain more insight into the relationship between innovation and qualification in product chains; into…

  10. Quality of Agricultural Products and Protection of the Environment: Training, Knowledge Dissemination and Certification. Synthesis Report of a Study in Five European Countries. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadaki-Klavdianou, A.; Menkisoglou-Spiroudi, O.; Tsakiridou, E.

    This book examines existing European environmental education and agricultural practices friendly to the environment. Focus is on studies conducted in five countries Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain--that aimed to define new knowledge qualifications related to environmental issues in producing alternative agricultural products…

  11. Situating Ontario's Colleges between the American and European Models for Providing Opportunity for the Attainment of Baccalaureate Degrees in Applied Fields of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolnik, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    During the last third of the twentieth century, college sectors in many countries took on the role of expanding opportunities for baccalaureate degree attainment in applied fields of study. In many European countries, colleges came to constitute a parallel higher education sector that offered degree programs of an applied nature in contrast to the…

  12. Time to Positivity and Detection of Growth in Anaerobic Blood Culture Vials Predict the Presence of Candida glabrata in Candidemia: a Two-Center European Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaasch, Achim J.; Soriano, Alex; Torres, Jorge-Luis; Vergara, Andrea; Morata, Laura; Zboromyrska, Yuliya; De La Calle, Cristina; Alejo, Izaskun; Hernández, Cristina; Cardozo, Celia; Marco, Franscesc; Del Río, Ana; Almela, Manel; Mensa, Josep; Martínez, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study shows the accuracy of exclusive or earlier growth in anaerobic vials to predict Candida glabrata in a large series of candidemic patients from two European hospitals using the Bactec 9240 system. Alternatively, C. glabrata can be predicted by a time to positivity cutoff value, which should be determined for each setting. PMID:24899027

  13. Influence of Physical Activity and Ambient Temperature on Hydration: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS).

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan F; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin E; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Malisova, Olga; Athanasatou, Adelais; Husemann, Marlien; Domnik, Kirsten; Braun, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effects of physical activity (PA) and ambient temperature on water turnover and hydration status. Five-hundred seventy three healthy men and women (aged 20-60 years) from Spain, Greece and Germany self-reported PA, registered all food and beverage intake, and collected 24-h urine during seven consecutive days. Fasting blood samples were collected at the onset and end of the study. Food moisture was assessed using nutritional software to account for all water intake which was subtracted from daily urine volume to allow calculation of non-renal water loss (i.e., mostly sweating). Hydration status was assessed by urine and blood osmolality. A negative association was seen between ambient temperature and PA (r = -0.277; p < 0.001). Lower PA with high temperatures did not prevent increased non-renal water losses (i.e., sweating) and elevated urine and blood osmolality (r = 0.218 to 0.163 all p < 0.001). When summer and winter data were combined PA was negatively associated with urine osmolality (r = -0.153; p = 0.001). Our data suggest that environmental heat acts to reduce voluntary PA but this is not sufficient to prevent moderate dehydration (increased osmolality). On the other hand, increased PA is associated with improved hydration status (i.e., lower urine and blood osmolality). PMID:27128938

  14. Patterns and trends in the longest hydrological series: A Pan-European study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Neil

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological series from each of the countries (24) involved in the EU COST Action 'Floodfreq' (ES0901) are complied, the longest series were compiled into a centralised dataset, with a maximum of ten stations for any country (96 station series). The data consisted of Annual Maximum (AM) and daily flow data. The longest AM series is from 1799 (Warsaw), with 29 daily data series from the late twentieth century and several series digitised specifically for this analysis (e.g. Turkish sites), with a mean record length is 95 years. The issue of non-stationarity in hydrological series has emerged over the last decade as a function of climate change, but there has been little evidence to suggest that the effects on hydrological systems are clearly manifested within the magnitude, frequency or seasonality of large to extreme flood events. This paper examines the longest series in Europe to evaluate if there is any evidence of changes over the long periods required to access whether postulated changes are evidenced. Within this study the AM dataset are considered, with only the stations of ≥100 years considered (35) and a subset of ≥150 years (13). Previous studies have been severely hampered by their inability to use series of sufficient length to overcome short term fluctuations previously evidenced within series. The results identify that there are a number of different flood-rich and flood-poor phases within the long series, with no clear spatial patterns evident within the results.

  15. Influence of Physical Activity and Ambient Temperature on Hydration: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS)

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan F.; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin E.; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Malisova, Olga; Athanasatou, Adelais; Husemann, Marlien; Domnik, Kirsten; Braun, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effects of physical activity (PA) and ambient temperature on water turnover and hydration status. Five-hundred seventy three healthy men and women (aged 20–60 years) from Spain, Greece and Germany self-reported PA, registered all food and beverage intake, and collected 24-h urine during seven consecutive days. Fasting blood samples were collected at the onset and end of the study. Food moisture was assessed using nutritional software to account for all water intake which was subtracted from daily urine volume to allow calculation of non-renal water loss (i.e., mostly sweating). Hydration status was assessed by urine and blood osmolality. A negative association was seen between ambient temperature and PA (r = −0.277; p < 0.001). Lower PA with high temperatures did not prevent increased non-renal water losses (i.e., sweating) and elevated urine and blood osmolality (r = 0.218 to 0.163 all p < 0.001). When summer and winter data were combined PA was negatively associated with urine osmolality (r = −0.153; p = 0.001). Our data suggest that environmental heat acts to reduce voluntary PA but this is not sufficient to prevent moderate dehydration (increased osmolality). On the other hand, increased PA is associated with improved hydration status (i.e., lower urine and blood osmolality). PMID:27128938

  16. A pan-European study of capabilities to manage mass casualties from the release of chemical agents: the MASH project.

    PubMed

    Baker, David J; Murray, Virginia S G; Carli, Pierre A

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Mass Casualties and Health (MASH) project that ran between 2008 and 2010 was designed to study the management of mass casualties from chemical and radiological releases and associated health implications. One area of study for this project concerned arrangements within EU Member States for the management of mass casualties following a chemical release. This was undertaken via a confidential online questionnaire that was sent to selected points of contact throughout the EU. Responses were obtained from 18 states from respondents holding senior positions in chemical planning and incident response. Information gathered shows a lack of uniformity within the EU about the organization of responses to chemical releases and the provision of medical care. This article presents the overall findings of the study demonstrating differences between countries on planning and organization, decontamination, prehospital emergency medical responses, clinical diagnoses, and therapy and aftercare. Although there may be an understandable reluctance from national respondents to share information on security and other grounds, the findings, nevertheless, revealed substantial differences between current planning and operational responses within the EU states for the management of mass chemical casualties. The existing international networks for response to radiation incidents are not yet matched by equivalent networks for chemical responses yet sufficient information was available from the study to identify potential deficiencies, identify common casualty management pathways, and to make recommendations for future operations within the EU. Improvements in awareness and training and the application of modern information and communications will help to remedy this situation. Specialized advanced life support and other medical care for chemical casualties appear lacking in some countries. A program of specialized training and action are required to apply the findings

  17. Rationale and methods of the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Daily Practice (EURIKA)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The EURIKA study aims to assess the status of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) across Europe. Specifically, it will determine the degree of control of cardiovascular risk factors in current clinical practice in relation to the European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention. It will also assess physicians' knowledge and attitudes about CVD prevention as well as the barriers impeding effective risk factor management in clinical practice. Methods/Design Cross-sectional study conducted simultaneously in 12 countries across Europe. The study has two components: firstly at the physician level, assessing eight hundred and nine primary care and specialist physicians with a daily practice in CVD prevention. A physician specific questionnaire captures information regarding physician demographics, practice settings, cardiovascular prevention beliefs and management. Secondly at the patient level, including 7641 patients aged 50 years or older, free of clinical CVD and with at least one classical risk factor, enrolled by the participating physicians. A patient-specific questionnaire captures information from clinical records and patient interview regarding sociodemographic data, CVD risk factors, and current medications. Finally, each patient provides a fasting blood sample, which is sent to a central laboratory for measuring serum lipids, apolipoproteins, hemoglobin-A1c, and inflammatory biomarkers. Discussion Primary prevention of CVD is an extremely important clinical issue, with preventable circulatory diseases remaining the leading cause of major disease burden. The EURIKA study will provide key information to assess effectiveness of and attitudes toward primary prevention of CVD in Europe. A transnational study creates opportunities for benchmarking good clinical practice across countries and improving outcomes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00882336.) PMID:20591142

  18. Group dynamics during the EXEMSI isolation study. Experimental Campaign for the European Manned Space Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Cazes, C; Rosnet, E; Bachelard, C; Le Scanff, C; Rivolier, J

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the social behavior, interrelations, cohesion, efficiency and team formation of the crew during 60 days of isolation and confinement, to make a critical comparison of a variety of test methods used for this purpose and to formulate recommendations for their applications in selection, training and support for future studies of this kind. The study consisted of three phases: (1) the pre-isolation period, in which initial individual and group assessment were made to understand the motivation, characteristics, and styles of the crew members, the state of the crew, and to make a prognosis for the behavior of the group and its members, (2) the isolation period, with tests and observations to follow and analyze behavior and group dynamics of the crew, and to detect manifestations of stress, and (3) the post-isolation period with final assessment and debriefing. During these three periods individual and group tests were carried out. Direct methods, questionnaires and tests, as well as indirect methods, observations of behavior, were used. These had cognitive, affective-emotional and social components; they were quantitative, qualitative or a combination. Before isolation the crew members expressed strong confidence in the team and in their own personal capability. The leadership of the Commander seemed uncontested. Crew functioning during this period was conflict-free, but was structured in a rather rigid and defensive way (isolation of affects, denial of anxiety). Apparently, the members strongly needed to present a good image image of themselves. The relatively short period of the experiment, and the absence of real risk suggested that the crew would be able to maintain their cohesion, but in a real spaceflight situation this behavior could be inadequate and even dangerous. The pre-isolation prognosis for crew behavior during isolation was validated to a large extent. During isolation there were no clear manifestations of

  19. Cognitive Test Performance in Relation to Health and Function in 12 European Countries: The SHARE Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterniczuk, Roxanne; Theou, Olga; Rusak, Benjamin; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background Even subtle impairments on cognitive test scores can be associated with future cognitive decline and dementia. We assayed the relationships between test score impairment and adverse outcomes. Methods Secondary analyses were performed on data from non-institutionalized participants, 50+ years of age (N = 30,038), from 12 countries taking part in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) longitudinal study on aging. At baseline, participants’ cognition was tested using verbal fluency, immediate recall, and delayed recall tasks. Results Greater levels of cognitive impairment at baseline were strongly associated with future poor health outcomes and functional impairment. Controlling for age, sex and education, those with 1 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.34–1.87) or ≥ 2 (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 2.17–3.09) impaired tests at baseline were more likely to die after an average of 40 months compared to individuals with no impairments. After selecting for participants who reported the absence of dementia initially, those with ≥ 2 cognitive impairments at baseline (OR = 3.34, 95% CI = 2.27–4.92) were more likely to report dementia at follow-up compared to those with no impairment. Conclusions People with impaired cognitive test scores at baseline are at greater risk to die or develop dementia within four years than their less impaired or unimpaired counterparts. PMID:26495048

  20. Source apportionment studies at different european sites with time and size resolved trace element data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Agnes; Furger, Markus; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Lienemann, Peter; Flechsig, Uwe; Rickers-Appel, Karen; Minguillon, Mari-Cruz; Reche, Cristina; Prevot, Andre; Baltensperger, Urs

    2010-05-01

    Although trace elements do not contribute substantially to the total mass of air pollutants they can attribute significantly to source identifications. Apportionment studies performed with positive matrix factorization (PMF) took advantage of the gain in information obtained through a high time resolution (i.e. in the order of hours). Furthermore, aerosols sampled with the rotating drum impactor (RDI) are segregated into three size ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1 and PM0.1-1). This involves the possibility to identify different sources for a single element depending on its emitted particle size. An example is iron, which is attributed to mineral dust in the coarse mode and to mechanical abrasion in the fine mode. A broad range of elements (Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Zr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba) was analyzed with synchrotron-radiation based x-ray fluorescence. Field measurements were carried out during 2008 and 2009 at different places in Europe in the context of EUCAARI (Zürich, CH), EMEP (Payerne, CH) and DAURE (Barcelona, ES) campaigns. Comparison of source profiles from different campaigns shows regional variability due to individual properties of rural and urban sites. As would be expected, urban areas exhibit stronger traffic factors, whereas mineral dust is enhanced at rural sites. Also geographical differences can be distinguished by PMF, as the Barcelona site clearly showed a marine factor and industrial influences, which are absent in Switzerland.

  1. Giardia in symptomatic dogs and cats in Europe--results of a European study.

    PubMed

    Epe, C; Rehkter, G; Schnieder, T; Lorentzen, L; Kreienbrock, L

    2010-10-11

    The percentage of Giardia infection in dogs and cats with gastrointestinal signs presenting to clinics was examined across Europe using the IDEXX SNAP Giardia Test (IDEXX Laboratories). Veterinary practices were asked to identify diarrheic and/or vomiting dogs and cats and to use the test on fecal samples from these animals. A selection for "asymptomatic" testing was also available on the data collection sheet for testing that occurred outside the target "symptomatic" population. Results from 8685 dogs and 4214 cats were submitted during the sampling period from 2005 to 2006. Analysis of the data showed 24.78% of the samples positive for Giardia among tested dogs and 20.3% among tested cats. The younger the dog or the cat, the higher the risk of being positive, peaking in the category below 6 months. The main clinical symptom, diarrhoea, also showed a higher risk of being positive, OR's of acute diarrhoea were almost double of those of the category "asymptomatic" for dogs or cats, the same range was calculated for chronic diarrhoea. Differences in participating countries were also seen. The risk of being positive was half or less in UK, Spain, Netherlands, Italy compared to Germany, and only in Belgium it showed to be higher. The results of this study show that Giardia is a common enteric agent among dogs and cats with gastrointestinal signs in Europe. PMID:20637546

  2. The emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying on victims: a European cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rosario; Elipe, Paz; Mora-Merchán, Joaquin A; Genta, M Luisa; Brighi, Antonella; Guarini, Annalisa; Smith, Peter K; Thompson, Fran; Tippett, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated the effects of bullying can be severe and long term for the individuals involved. The main aim of this study is to analyze the emotional impact on victims of traditional bullying, both direct and indirect forms, and of cyberbullying through mobile phones and the Internet. A sample of 5,862 adolescents from three different countries, Italy (N = 1,964), Spain (N = 1,671), and England (N = 2,227), responded to a questionnaire that asked if they had experience of various forms of bullying, and the consequent emotional impact. The results show that both traditional bullying and cyberbullying have a significant prevalence in the samples. Emotional responses are linked to types of bullying. Analysis of answers identified specific emotional profiles for the different types of bullying and cyberbullying. Direct bullying and cyberbullying via mobile phone showed similar profiles, and also indirect bullying and cyberbullying using the Internet. Similarities and differences between profiles are discussed and some hypotheses are presented to explain the results. In addition, school grade, gender, country, and severity of bullying episodes were related to the specific emotional profiles of each type of bullying. PMID:22782434

  3. Physical activity intensity and subclinical atherosclerosis in Danish adolescents: the European Youth Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Ried-Larsen, M; Grøntved, A; Froberg, K; Ekelund, U; Andersen, L B

    2013-06-01

    The aim was to investigate the associations between physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and intima media thickness (IMT) or stiffness. This was a population-based cross-sectional study (n = 336) of Danish adolescents [mean age (standard deviation, SD): 15.6 (0.4) years]. PA intensity was assessed objectively (ActiGraph model GT3X) and CRF using a progressive maximal bicycle test. Carotid IMT and arterial stiffness were assessed using B-mode ultrasound. In a multivariate analysis (adjusted for pubertal development and smoking status), CRF was inversely associated with measures of carotid stiffness (standard beta: -0.20 to -0.15, P < 0.05) in boys, but not in girls. No associations were observed between any of PA and IMT. Boys in the least fit quartile had significantly stiffer carotid arteries compared to the most fit quartile (difference between lowest and highest quartile ranging between 0.4 and 0.5 SD, P < 0.05). This difference in arterial stiffness between low and high quartiles was similar for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Further adjustment for sedentary time attenuated the difference observed between quartiles MVPA slightly. Adiposity did not attenuate these differences. Our observations suggest that increasing CRF or MVPA in the least active group of the population may be beneficial for vascular health. PMID:23336399

  4. Correlates of dietary energy misreporting among European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.

    PubMed

    Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Julián-Almárcegui, Cristina; González-Gross, Marcela; Mouratidou, Theodora; Börnhorst, Claudia; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Kersting, Mathilde; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Gottrand, Frederic; Molnár, Dénes; Hallström, Lena; Dallongeville, Jean; Plada, Maria; Roccaldo, Romana; Widhalm, Kurt; Moreno, Luis A; Manios, Yannis; De Henauw, Stefaan; Leclercq, Catherine; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Lioret, Sandrine; Gutin, Bernard; Huybrechts, Inge

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the correlates of dietary energy under-reporting (UR) and over-reporting (OV) in European adolescents. Two self-administered computerised 24-h dietary recalls and physical activity data using accelerometry were collected from 1512 adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years from eight European countries. Objective measurements of height and weight were obtained. BMI was categorised according to Cole/International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-off points. Diet-related attitudes were assessed via self-administered questionnaires. Reported energy intake (EI) was compared with predicted total energy expenditure to identify UR and OV using individual physical activity objective measures. Associations between misreporting and covariates were examined by multilevel logistic regression analyses. Among all, 33·3 % of the adolescents were UR and 15·6 % were OV when considering mean EI. Overweight (OR 3·25; 95 % CI 2·01, 5·27) and obese (OR 4·31; 95 % CI 1·92, 9·65) adolescents had higher odds for UR, whereas underweight individuals were more likely to over-report (OR 1·67; 95 % CI 1·01, 2·76). Being content with their own figures (OR 0·61; 95 % CI 0·41, 0·89) decreased the odds for UR, whereas frequently skipping breakfast (OR 2·14; 95 % CI 1·53, 2·99) was linked with higher odds for UR. Those being worried about gaining weight (OR 0·55; 95 % CI 0·33, 0·92) were less likely to OV. Weight status and psychosocial weight-related factors were found to be the major correlates of misreporting. Misreporting may reflect socially desirable answers and low ability to report own dietary intakes, but also may reflect real under-eating in an attempt to lose weight or real over-eating to reflect higher intakes due to growth spurts. Factors influencing misreporting should be identified in youths to clarify or better understand diet-disease associations. PMID:26888046

  5. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer – Prostate Cancer Mortality at 13 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Fritz H.; Hugosson, Jonas; Roobol, Monique J.; Tammela, Teuvo L.J.; Zappa, Marco; Nelen, Vera; Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Lujan, Marcos; Määttänen, Lissa; Lilja, Hans; Denis, Louis J.; Recker, Franz; Paez, Alvaro; Bangma, Chris H.; Carlsson, Sigrid; Puliti, Donella; Villers, Arnauld; Rebillard, Xavier; Hakama, Matti; Stenman, Ulf-Hakan; Kujala, Paula; Taari, Kimmo; Aus, Gunnar; Huber, Andreas; van der Kwast, Theo; van Schaik R, Ron H.N.; de Koning, Harry J.; Moss, Sue M.; Auvinen, Anssi

    2015-01-01

    Background The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) is a randomized multi-center trial with a predefined centralized database, analysis plan and core age group (55–69 years) evaluating prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in eight European countries. Methods The present results are based on prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality truncated at 9, 11, and 13 years of follow-up in the intervention arm (offered PSA testing) relative to the control arm. A secondary analysis corrected for selection bias due to non-participation was performed. Because of incomplete follow-up, only incidence and no mortality data at 9 years follow-up are reported for the French centers. Findings The rate ratio (RR) of PCa incidence between the intervention and control arms was 1.91 after 9 years (1.64 including France), 1.66 after 11 years and 1.57 after 13 years. The RR of PCa mortality was 0.85, 0.78 and 0.79 at 9, 11 and 13 years respectively (95% confidence interval 13-year 0.69–0.91, p = 0.001). This corresponds to a relative risk reduction of 21% and an absolute risk reduction of death from PCa at 13 years of 0.11 per 1,000 person-years or 1.28 per 1,000 men randomized, which is equivalent to one PCa death averted per 781 men invited for screening or one per 27 additional PCa detected. PCa mortality reduction in screened men after adjustment for non–participation was 27%. Interpretation This update of ERSPC confirms a substantial PCa mortality reduction due to PSA testing, with a substantially increased absolute effect at 13 years compared to findings after 9 and 11 years. Funding All sources of funding per center are indicated in the “Web extra material” section. Trial identification This trial is registered under Current Controlled Trials number: ISRCTN49127736. PMID:25108889

  6. The fluid and electrolyte balance of New Zealand European and Māori/Pacific Island athletes: An observational study.

    PubMed

    McLean, Andrew; Brown, Rachel Clare; Black, Katherine Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Observational research on professional athletes from the USA suggests differences may exist in sweat sodium loss based on ethnic differences. The New Zealand (NZ) sporting population is mainly of European or Māori/Pacific Island origin. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the fluid-electrolyte balance of athletes by ethnicity. A total of 20 Māori/Pacific Islanders (MP; body mass 100.97 ± 13.05 kg) and 29 NZ European (NZE; body mass 89.11 ± 11.56 kg) elite male athletes were recruited. Sweat rates were determined by body mass change during a 1-h spin cycle exercise session, during which fluid intakes and heart rate were recorded. Sweat samples were analysed for sodium concentration. Mean ± SD sweat sodium concentrations were 73.4 ± 27.2 mmol·L(-1) and 55.5 ± 26.8 mmol·L(-1) for the MP and NZE groups, respectively (p = 0.070). Sweat rate was 0.93 ± 0.26 L·h(-1) for the MP group and 0.89 ± 0.33 L·h(-1) for the NZE group (p = 0.357). Fluid intake was 1.05 ± 0.48 L and 0.93 ± 0.49 L for MP and NZE, respectively (p = 0.395). Half of the MP group gained weight during the exercise session compared to 37% of the NZE group. Pre-exercise urine specific gravity was significantly lower amongst the NZE group (1.016 ± 0.009 g mL(-1)) than the MP group (1.024 ± 0.008 g mL(-1)) p = 0.001. There was no significant difference in heart rate between the groups, p = 0.082. Hydration practices of athletes in NZ may differ by ethnicity, and this may highlight the need for more targeted education by ethnicity. PMID:25743610

  7. Genome-wide association studies identify several new loci associated with pigmentation traits and skin cancer risk in European Americans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingfeng; Song, Fengju; Liang, Liming; Nan, Hongmei; Zhang, Jiangwen; Liu, Hongliang; Wang, Li-E; Wei, Qingyi; Lee, Jeffrey E; Amos, Christopher I; Kraft, Peter; Qureshi, Abrar A; Han, Jiali

    2013-07-15

    Aiming to identify novel genetic loci for pigmentation and skin cancer, we conducted a series of genome-wide association studies on hair color, eye color, number of sunburns, tanning ability and number of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) among 10 183 European Americans in the discovery stage and 4504 European Americans in the replication stage (for eye color, 3871 males in the discovery stage and 2496 males in the replication stage). We targeted novel chromosome regions besides the known ones for replication. As a result, we identified a new region downstream of the EDNRB gene on 13q22 associated with hair color and the strongest association was the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs975739 (P = 2.4 × 10(-14); P = 5.4 × 10(-9) in the discovery set and P = 1.2 × 10(-6) in the replication set). Using blue, intermediate (including green) and brown eye colors as co-dominant outcomes, we identified the SNP rs3002288 in VASH2 on 1q32.3 associated with brown eye (P = 7.0 × 10(-8); P = 5.3 × 10(-5) in the discovery set and P = 0.02 in the replication set). Additionally, we identified a significant interaction between the SNPs rs7173419 and rs12913832 in the OCA2 gene region on brown eye color (P-value for interaction = 3.8 × 10(-3)). As for the number of NMSCs, we identified two independent SNPs on chr6 and one SNP on chromosome 14: rs12203592 in IRF4 (P = 7.2 × 10(-14); P = 1.8 × 10(-8) in the discovery set and P = 6.7 × 10(-7) in the replication set), rs12202284 between IRF4 and EXOC2 (P = 5.0 × 10(-8); P = 6.6 × 10(-7) in the discovery set and P = 3.0 × 10(-3) in the replication set) and rs8015138 upstream of GNG2 (P = 6.6 × 10(-8); P = 5.3 × 10(-7) in the discovery set and P = 0.01 in the replication set). PMID:23548203

  8. Substantial genetic link between IQ and working memory: implications for molecular genetic studies on schizophrenia. the European twin study of schizophrenia (EUTwinsS).

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Ximena; Alemany, Silvia; Rosa, Araceli; Picchioni, Marco; Nenadic, Igor; Owens, Sheena F; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Rebollo, Irene; Sauer, Heinrich; Murray, Robin M; Fañanás, Lourdes; Toulopoulou, Timothea

    2013-06-01

    While evidence is accumulating to support specific neurocognitive deficits as putative endophenotypes for schizophrenia, the heritability of these deficits in healthy subjects and whether they share common genetic influences, is not well established. In the present study, 529 healthy adult twins from two centers within the European Twin Study Network on Schizophrenia (EUTwinsS) were assessed on two domains that are consistently found to be particularly compromised in schizophrenia. Specifically, Intellectual Quotient Score (IQ) and the Letter-Number Sequencing Test (LNS), a measure of working memory, were measured in all twins. Latent variable components were explored through structural equation modeling, and common genetic underpinnings were examined using bivariate analyses. Results showed that the phenotypic correlation between IQ and working memory was almost entirely attributed to shared genetic variance (95.5%). We discuss the potential use of a combined measure of IQ and working memory to improve the power of molecular studies in detecting the genetic mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. PMID:23650229

  9. Preliminary Results From the C-Pulse® OPTIONS HF European Multicenter Post-Market Study

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Antonia; Krabatsch, Thomas; Schmitto, Jan D.; Hetzer, Roland; Seidel, Mirko; Dohmen, Pascal M.; Hotz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background The C-Pulse® System is an extra-aortic balloon counterpulsation device. It is used to treat patients with heart failure disease in NYHA functional class III or ambulatory class IV. Material/Methods We present preliminary site-reported 6-month data from 3 centers in Germany as part of the prospective observational post-market OPTIONS HF study. Results Between May 2013 and March 2014, the C-Pulse System was implanted in 8 patients (7 male) with a mean age of 61.6±9.3 years. Four had ischemic and 4 had non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. No stroke, myocardial infarction, major bleeding, or major infection due to the device were reported. One patient developed non-device-related refractory tachycardia with worsening heart failure 12 h after surgery and underwent left ventricular assist device implantation. Within 6 months of observation, functional status improved from NYHA III to II in 5 patients, and 2 remained in NYHA III. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 24.3±7.9% to 44.5±4.5% (p<0.0001). Mean Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall score improved from 28.6±19.1 to 59.1±22.5 (p=0.0183). Six-minute walk test was performed in 6 out of 7 patients at follow-up. The mean distance improved from 252.0±85.1 m to 279.2±87.5 m (p>0.05). One patient was weaned off the device after 6 months of support. Conclusions The C-Pulse System provides a therapeutic option for patients with moderate-to-severe heart failure and seems to improve quality of life and cardiac function over time. PMID:26887528

  10. Urban Heat Island Versus Air Quality - a Numerical Modelling Study for a European City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallmann, J.; Forkel, R.; Emeis, S.

    2014-12-01

    In 2050 70% of the global population is expected to live in urban areas. Climate change will render these areas more vulnerable to heat waves, which often are accompanied by severe air pollution problems. The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a feature that adds to the general temperature increase that is expected. Decreasing the UHI can impact air quality as well, because heat influences atmospheric dynamics and accelerates air chemical processes and often also increases the emission of primary pollutants due to increased demand of energy. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of, e.g., high reflective surfaces and urban greening on mitigating the UHI and the related impact on air quality. A multi-layer urban canopy model is coupled to the mesoscale model WRF-Chem and the urban area of Stuttgart (South-West Germany) is taken as one example. Different scenario runs are executed for short time periods and are compared to a control run. The results show that the UHI effect can be substantially reduced when changing the albedo of roof surfaces, whereas the effect of urban greening is minor. Both scenarios have in common, that they evoke changes in secondary circulation patterns. The effects of these mitigation strategies on chemical composition of the urban atmosphere are complex, attributed to both chemical and dynamical features. Increasing the reflectivity of roof surfaces in the model results in a net decrease of the surface ozone concentration, because ozone formation is highly correlated to temperature. With regard to primary pollutants, e.g. NO, CO and PM10 concentrations are increased when increasing reflectivity. This effect primarily can be ascribed to a reduction of turbulent motion, convection and a decrease of the boundary layer height, coming along with lower temperatures in the urban canopy layer due to increased reflectivity. The table below shows the effect on grid cell mean concentrations for different chemical species and scenarios.

  11. Cerebral vein thrombosis in patients with Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. An European Leukemia Net study.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Ida; De Stefano, Valerio; Carobbio, Alessandra; Randi, Maria L; Santarossa, Claudia; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Finazzi, Maria C; Cervantes, Francisco; Arellano-Rodrigo, Eduardo; Rupoli, Serena; Canafoglia, Lucia; Tieghi, Alessia; Facchini, Luca; Betti, Silvia; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Pieri, Lisa; Cacciola, Rossella; Cacciola, Emma; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Iurlo, Alessandra; Pogliani, Enrico M; Elli, Elena M; Spadea, Antonio; Barbui, Tiziano

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the characteristics and clinical course of cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT) in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) we compared 48 patients with MPN and CVT (group MPN-CVT) to 87 with MPN and other venous thrombosis (group MPN-VT) and 178 with MPN and no thrombosis (group MPN-NoT) matched by sex, age at diagnosis of MPN (±5 years) and type of MPN. The study population was identified among 5,500 patients with MPN, from January 1982 to June 2013. Thrombophilia abnormalities were significantly more prevalent in the MPN-CVT and MPN-VT than in MPN-NoT group (P = 0.015), as well as the JAK2 V617F mutation in patients with essential thrombocythemia (P = 0.059). Compared to MPN-VT, MPN-CVT patients had a higher rate of recurrent thrombosis (42% vs. 25%, P = 0.049) despite a shorter median follow-up period (6.1 vs. 10.3 years, P = 0.019), a higher long-term antithrombotic (94% vs. 84%, P = 0.099) and a similar cytoreductive treatment (79% vs. 70%, P = 0.311). The incidence of recurrent thrombosis was double in MPN-CVT than in MPN-VT group (8.8% and 4.2% patient-years, P = 0.022), and CVT and unprovoked event were the only predictive variables in a multivariate model including also sex, blood count, thrombophilia, cytoreductive, and antithrombotic treatment (HR 1.97, 95%CI 1.05-3.72 and 2.09, 1.09-4.00, respectively). PMID:25042466

  12. Failure rates and complications of interspinous process decompression devices: a European multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Gazzeri, Roberto; Galarza, Marcelo; Neroni, Massimiliano; Fiore, Claudio; Faiola, Andrea; Puzzilli, Fabrizio; Callovini, Giorgio; Alfieri, Alex

    2015-10-01

    OBJECT Spacers placed between the lumbar spinous processes represent a promising surgical treatment alternative for a variety of spinal pathologies. They provide an unloading distractive force to the stenotic motion segment, restoring foraminal height, and have the potential to relieve symptoms of degenerative disc disease. The authors performed a retrospective, multicenter nonrandomized study consisting of 1108 patients to evaluate implant survival and failure modes after the implantation of 8 different interspinous process devices (IPDs). METHODS The medical records of patients who had undergone placement of an IPD were retrospectively evaluated, and demographic information, diagnosis, and preoperative pain levels were recorded. Preoperative and postoperative clinical assessments in the patients were based on the visual analog scale. A minimum of 3 years after IPD placement, information on long-term outcomes was obtained from additional follow-up or from patient medical and radiological records. RESULTS One thousand one hundred eight patients affected by symptomatic 1- or 2-level segmental lumbar spine degenerative disease underwent placement of an IPD. The complication rate was 7.8%. There were 27 fractures of the spinous process and 23 dura mater tears with CSF leakage. The ultimate failure rate requiring additional surgery was 9.6%. The reasons for revision, which always involved removal of the original implant, were acute worsening of low-back pain or lack of improvement (45 cases), recurrence of symptoms after an initial good outcome (42 cases), and implant dislocation (20 cases). CONCLUSIONS The IPD is not a substitute for a more invasive 3-column fusion procedure in cases of major instability and spondylolisthesis. Overdistraction, poor bone density, and poor patient selection may all be factors in the development of complications. Preoperatively, careful attention should be paid to bone density, appropriate implant size, and optimal patient selection

  13. The complexity of managing COPD exacerbations: a grounded theory study of European general practice

    PubMed Central

    Risør, Mette Bech; Spigt, Mark; Iversen, R; Godycki-Cwirko, M; Francis, N; Altiner, A; Andreeva, E; Kung, K; Melbye, H

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To understand the concerns and challenges faced by general practitioners (GPs) and respiratory physicians about primary care management of acute exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design 21 focus group discussions (FGDs) were performed in seven countries with a Grounded Theory approach. Each country performed three rounds of FGDs. Setting Primary and secondary care in Norway, Germany, Wales, Poland, Russia, The Netherlands, China (Hong Kong). Participants 142 GPs and respiratory physicians were chosen to include urban and rural GPs as well as hospital-based and out patient-clinic respiratory physicians. Results Management of acute COPD exacerbations is dealt with within a scope of concerns. These concerns range from ‘dealing with comorbidity’ through ‘having difficult patients’ to ‘confronting a hopeless disease’. The first concern displays medical uncertainty regarding diagnosis, medication and hospitalisation. These clinical processes become blurred by comorbidity and the social context of the patient. The second concern shows how patients receive the label ‘difficult’ exactly because they need complex attention, but even more because they are time consuming, do not take responsibility and are non-compliant. The third concern relates to the emotional reactions by the physicians when confronted with ‘a hopeless disease’ due to the fact that most of the patients do not improve and the treatment slows down the process at best. GPs and respiratory physicians balance these concerns with medical knowledge and practical, situational knowledge, trying to encompass the complexity of a medical condition. Conclusions Knowing the patient is essential when dealing with comorbidities as well as with difficult relations in the consultations on exacerbations. This study suggests that it is crucial to improve the collaboration between primary and secondary care, in terms of, for example, shared consultations

  14. A large Northern European observational study of follitropin alpha filled-by-mass pre-filled pen.

    PubMed

    Hovatta, Outi; McVeigh, Enda; Lass, Amir; Homburg, Roy

    2009-04-01

    This prospective observational post-marketing survey aimed at studying the efficacy and convenience of the follitropin alpha filled-by-mass (FbM) pre-filled pen for patients in routine use. These data were analysed among 3196 non-selected treatment cycles and couples in seven Northern European countries. Valuable information was also obtained regarding the routine assisted reproduction treatment protocols used in Northern Europe. Out of 3196 cycles, human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) was administered in 3104 (97.2%), and an embryo transfer was carried out in 2766 cycles (86.5%). A positive HCG was recorded in 997 cycles (31.2% per started cycle and 36.0% per embryo transfer). The overall clinical pregnancy rate was 23.1% (738/3196) and per embryo transfer it was 26.7% (738/2766), with a miscarriage rate of 3.4% (95/2766) per embryo transfer or 9.5% (95/997) per positive HCG. Among the 732 elective single embryo transfers (eSET), the rate of positive HCG was 38.0% and the clinical pregnancy rate was 29.6%, suggesting that eSET is a valuable option in routine assisted reproduction. Although minor differences were observed between countries, the follitropin alpha FbM pre-filled pen proved clinically effective, was generally well tolerated, and both the women and nurses/midwives found the training easy. PMID:19400991

  15. Fast magnetic fluctuation diagnostics for Alfvén eigenmode and magnetohydrodynamics studies at the Joint European Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeter, R. F.; Fasoli, A. F.; Ali-Arshad, S.; Moret, J. M.

    2000-11-01

    Alfvén eigenmodes and other magnetohydrodynamic phenomena have been studied in tokamak plasmas at the Joint European Torus (JET) using a new eight-channel, 4 s, 1 MHz, 12-bit data acquisition system (KC1F) in conjunction with the JET fast Mirnov magnetic fluctuation pickup coils. To this end, the JET magnetic pickup coils were calibrated in the range 30-460 kHz using a new remote calibration technique which accounts for the presence of the first few LRC circuit resonances. Signal processing software has been developed to implement the calibration via digital filtering. A data analysis program has been written which produces spectrograms of fluctuation amplitude and toroidal mode number versus frequency and time, both interactively and for automatic overnight analyses. Modes with amplitudes δB/B⩾10-8 and toroidal mode numbers |n|<32 are now routinely detected. Since KC1F data are now available for over 4000 JET discharges, a pulse-characterization database has been developed to help select pulses of interest for detailed analysis.

  16. Effective compliance during the first 3 months of continuous positive airway pressure. A European prospective study of 121 patients.

    PubMed

    Pépin, J L; Krieger, J; Rodenstein, D; Cornette, A; Sforza, E; Delguste, P; Deschaux, C; Grillier, V; Lévy, P

    1999-10-01

    Effective compliance (time spent at the effective pressure) with nasal CPAP in obstructive sleep apnea has been reported to be poor. The aim of our study was to evaluate effective compliance in a large European multicenter study. One hundred twenty-one consecutive newly treated patients (initial apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] = 62.0 +/- 29. 5/h, AHI under CPAP = 6.4 +/- 8.1/h, CPAP pressure = 8.7 +/- 2.6 cm H(2)O, BMI = 33.1 +/- 6.8 kg/m(2)) were randomly allocated to a group with (MC(+)) (n = 58) or without (MC(-)) (n = 63) a control unit measuring effective compliance at 1, 2, and 3 mo, which was compared with the built-in time counter data. MC(+) data were 94 +/- 10, 98 +/- 5, and 96 +/- 9% of counter data at 1, 2, and 3 mo, respectively. Using criteria of regular use already reported in the literature (at least 4 h of nCPAP per day of use and nCPAP administered more than 70% of the days) we found 77, 82, and 79% compliant patients at 1, 2, and 3 mo, respectively, 79% of the patients meeting these criteria each month. Although there were no pulmonary functions or polysomnographic differences between the two subgroups, the compliant patients did report a greater improvement in minor symptoms. We found a close correlation between effective use of CPAP and the machine run time. The main result of our study was a higher effective compliance than previously reported, approximately 80% of the patients being regular users versus 46% in a previously published study. This may result from different technical and medical follow-up. PMID:10508797

  17. Life Satisfaction and Risk of Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany Study

    PubMed Central

    Feller, Silke; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine the prospective association between life satisfaction and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cancer. Previous studies suggested that psychosocial factors may affect the development of chronic diseases but the impact of positive attitudes, in particular life satisfaction, is yet to be determined. Methods The analysis included 50,358 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany study in Potsdam and Heidelberg. Life satisfaction was assessed in a baseline interview and incident cases of chronic diseases were identified and verified during follow-up. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models that were systematically multivariable-adjusted for established risk factors and prevalent diseases. Results During an average of 8 years of follow-up 2,293 cases of cancer, 1,840 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 440 cases of stroke, and 562 cases of myocardial infarction were observed. Women who were unsatisfied with life at baseline showed in all models a significantly increased risk of cancer (HR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.18-1.78) and stroke (HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.05-2.73) as well as an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus by trend across categories (p-trend=0.04) compared to women very satisfied with life. In men, a relationship between life satisfaction and stroke was found but did not persist after consideration of lifestyle factors and prevalent diseases. No significant association was observed between life satisfaction and risk of myocardial infarction. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that reduced life satisfaction is related to the development of chronic diseases—particularly in women and partly mediated by established risk factors. PMID:23977388

  18. Construction of Gridded Daily Weather Data and its Use in Central-European Agroclimatic Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Trnka, M.; Skalak, P.

    2013-12-01

    series (e.g. probability of wet day occurrence and lag-1 autocorrelation of daily mean temperature). The WG-friendly scenarios for the present experiment are based on comparison of future vs baseline surface weather series simulated by GCMs from a CMIP3 database. The second part will present results of climate change impact study based on an above methodology applied to Central Europe. The changes in selected climatic (focusing on the extreme precipitation and temperature characteristics) and agroclimatic (including number of days during vegetation season with heat and drought stresses) characteristics will be analysed. In discussing the results, the emphasis will be put on 'added value' of various aspects of above methodology (e.g. inclusion of changes in 'advanced' WG parameters into the climate change scenarios). Acknowledgements: The present experiment is made within the frame of projects WG4VALUE (project LD12029 sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of CR), ALARO-Climate (project P209/11/2405 sponsored by the Czech Science Foundation), and VALUE (COST ES 1102 action).

  19. A European study investigating patterns of transition from home care towards institutional dementia care: the protocol of a RightTimePlaceCare study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health care policies in many countries aim to enable people with dementia to live in their own homes as long as possible. However, at some point during the disease the needs of a significant number of people with dementia cannot be appropriately met at home and institutional care is required. Evidence as to best practice strategies enabling people with dementia to live at home as long as possible and also identifying the right time to trigger admission to a long-term nursing care facility is therefore urgently required. The current paper presents the rationale and methods of a study generating primary data for best-practice development in the transition from home towards institutional nursing care for people with dementia and their informal caregivers. The study has two main objectives: 1) investigate country-specific factors influencing institutionalization and 2) investigate the circumstances of people with dementia and their informal caregivers in eight European countries. Additionally, data for economic evaluation purposes are being collected. Methods/design This paper describes a prospective study, conducted in eight European countries (Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, Spain, United Kingdom). A baseline assessment and follow-up measurement after 3 months will be performed. Two groups of people with dementia and their informal caregivers will be included: 1) newly admitted to institutional long-term nursing care facilities; and 2) receiving professional long-term home care, and being at risk for institutionalization. Data will be collected on outcomes for people with dementia (e.g. quality of life, quality of care), informal caregivers (e.g. caregiver burden, quality of life) and costs (e.g. resource utilization). Statistical analyses consist of descriptive and multivariate regression techniques and cross-country comparisons. Discussion The current study, which is part of a large European project 'RightTimePlaceCare', generates

  20. Occupational risk factors for small bowel carcinoid tumor: a European population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kaerlev, Linda; Teglbjaerg, Peter Stubbe; Sabroe, Svend; Kolstad, Henrik A; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Eriksson, Mikael; Guénel, Pascal; Hardell, Lennart; Cyr, Diane; Ballard, Terri; Zambon, Paola; Morales Suárez-Varela, María M; Stang, Andreas; Olsen, Jorn

    2002-06-01

    Small bowel carcinoid tumor (SBC) is a rare disease of unknown etiology but with an age-, sex-, and place-specific occurrence that may indicate an occupational origin. A European multicenter population-based case-control study was conducted from 1995 through 1997. Incident SBC cases between 35 and 69 years of age (n = 101) were identified, together with 3335 controls sampled from the catchment area of the cases. Histological review performed by a reference pathologist left 99 cases for study; 84 cases and 2070 population controls were interviewed. The industries most closely associated (a twofold or more odds ratio [OR]) with SBC, taking into account a 10-year time lag after exposure were, among women, employment in wholesale industry of food and beverages (OR, 8.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9 to 34.9]) and among men, manufacture of motor vehicle bodies (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.2 to 22.4), footwear (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 0.9 to 16.1), and metal structures (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 10.4). The identified high-risk occupations with an OR above 2 were shoemakers, structural metal preparers, construction painters and other construction workers, bookkeepers, machine fitters, and welders (men). The OR for regular occupational use of organic solvents for at least half a year was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.0 to 4.2). Exposure to rust-preventive paint containing lead was suggested as another potential occupational exposure (OR, 9.1; 95% CI, 0.8 to 107). This explorative study suggests an association between certain occupational exposures and SBC, but some of these associations could be attributable to chance. All findings should be regarded as tentative. PMID:12085477

  1. TMPRSS9 and GRIN2B are associated with neuroticism: a genome-wide association study in a European sample.

    PubMed

    Aragam, Nagesh; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Anderson, James L; Liu, Xuefeng

    2013-06-01

    Major depression disorder (MDD) is a complex and chronic disease that ranks fourth as cause of disability worldwide. About 14 million adults in the USA are believed to have MDD, and an estimated 75 % attempt suicide making MDD a major public health problem. Neuroticism has been recognized as an endophenotype of MDD; however, few genome-wide association (GWA) analyses of neuroticism as a quantitative trait have been reported to date. The aim of this study is to identify genome-wide genetic variants affecting neuroticism using a European sample. A linear regression model was used to analyze the association with neuroticism as a continuous trait in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety and Netherlands Twin Registry population-based sample of 2,748 individuals with Perlegen 600K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In addition, the neuroticism-associated genes/loci of the top 20 SNPs (p < 10⁻⁴) were examined with anti-social personality disorder (ASPD) in an Australian twin family study. Through GWA analysis, 32 neuroticism-associated SNPs (p < 10⁻⁴) were identified. The most significant association was observed with SNP rs4806846 within the TMPRSS9 gene (p = 7.79 × 10⁻⁶) at 19p13.3. The next best signal was in GRIN2B gene (rs220549, p = 1.05 × 10⁻⁵) at 12p12. In addition, several SNPs within GRIN2B showed borderline associations with ASPD in the Australian sample. In conclusion, these results provide a possible genetic basis for the association with neuroticism. Our findings provide a basis for replication in other populations to elucidate the potential role of these genetic variants in neuroticism and MDD along with a possible relationship between ASPD and neuroticism. PMID:23229837

  2. Juvenile animal studies for the development of paediatric medicines: a description and conclusions from a European Medicines Agency workshop on juvenile animal testing for nonclinical assessors.

    PubMed

    Silva-Lima, Beatriz; Due Theilade-Thomsen, Mette; Carleer, Jacqueline; Vidal, Jean-Marc; Tomasi, Paolo; Saint-Raymond, Agnes

    2010-12-01

    A workshop organised by the European Medicines Agency involved assessors and experts present in a Nonclinical Working Group evaluating juvenile animal studies for Paediatric Investigation Plans in collaboration with the Paediatric Committee and the Safety Working Party of the Committee for Human Medicinal Products. The objective of the workshop was to analyse which juvenile animal studies proposals were received and agreed by the Paediatric Committee, to check consistency and how to apply the existing European guideline on juvenile animal studies. A comparison of main organ system development in man vs. animal species was presented to guide the review and to support species selection and protocol design. An analysis of juvenile animal studies included in finalised PIP's was also presented. Out of 109 paediatric investigation plans finalised between November 2008 and March 2009, 43 included one or more juvenile animal studies. In most cases the preferred species was the rat; one species only was requested to be studied (20/22), but in a minority two species were required (2/22). When deciding on the characteristics of the juvenile animal studies, such as age of animals at study start, the age of the children targeted by the medicine was considered. It is expected that the increasing experience gained by Applicants and Regulators will allow further refining the criteria for these juvenile animal studies. Further research on this topic is highly encouraged in the European Regulatory framework. PMID:20632393

  3. Defining Responses to Therapy and Study Outcomes in Clinical Trials of Invasive Fungal Diseases: Mycoses Study Group and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Consensus Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Brahm H.; Herbrecht, Raoul; Stevens, David A.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Sobel, Jack; Viscoli, Claudio; Walsh, Thomas J.; Maertens, Johan; Patterson, Thomas F.; Perfect, John R.; Dupont, Bertrand; Wingard, John R.; Calandra, Thierry; Kauffman, Carol A.; Graybill, John R.; Baden, Lindsey R.; Pappas, Peter G.; Bennett, John E.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Cordonnier, Catherine; Viviani, Maria Anna; Bille, Jacques; Almyroudis, Nikolaos G.; Wheat, L. Joseph; Graninger, Wolfgang; Bow, Eric J.; Holland, Steven M.; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Dismukes, William E.; De Pauw, Ben E.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) have become major causes of morbidity and mortality among highly immunocompromised patients. Authoritative consensus criteria to diagnose IFD have been useful in establishing eligibility criteria for antifungal trials. There is an important need for generation of consensus definitions of outcomes of IFD that will form a standard for evaluating treatment success and failure in clinical trials. Therefore, an expert international panel consisting of the Mycoses Study Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer was convened to propose guidelines for assessing treatment responses in clinical trials of IFDs and for defining study outcomes. Major fungal diseases that are discussed include invasive disease due to Candida species, Aspergillus species and other molds, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Coccidioides immitis. We also discuss potential pitfalls in assessing outcome, such as conflicting clinical, radiological, and/or mycological data and gaps in knowledge. PMID:18637757

  4. Healthy Lifestyle and Risk of Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Fiona; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Rinaldi, Sabina; Chajès, Veronique; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; May, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Ericson, Ulrika; Wirfält, Elisabet; Travis, Ruth C; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    It has been estimated that at least a third of the most common cancers are related to lifestyle and as such are preventable. Key modifiable lifestyle factors have been individually associated with cancer risk; however, less is known about the combined effects of these factors. This study generated a healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) to investigate the joint effect of modifiable factors on the risk of overall cancers, alcohol-related cancers, tobacco-related cancers, obesity-related cancers, and reproductive-related cancers. The study included 391,608 men and women from the multinational European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The HLIS was constructed from 5 factors assessed at baseline (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0 to 4 to categories of each factor, for which higher values indicate healthier behaviors. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional regression and population attributable fractions (PAFs) estimated from the adjusted models. There was a 5% lower risk (adjusted HR 0.952, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.946, 0.958) of all cancers per point score of the index for men and 4% (adjusted HR 0.961, 95% CI: 0.956, 0.966) for women. The fourth versus the second category of the HLIS was associated with a 28% and 24% lower risk for men and women respectively across all cancers, 41% and 33% for alcohol-related, 49% and 46% for tobacco-related, 41% and 26% for obesity-related, and 21% for female reproductive cancers. Findings suggest simple behavior modifications could have a sizeable impact on cancer prevention, especially for men. PMID:27100409

  5. Associations between early body mass index trajectories and later metabolic risk factors in European children: the IDEFICS study.

    PubMed

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Tilling, Kate; Russo, Paola; Kourides, Yannis; Michels, Nathalie; Molnár, Denés; Rodríguez, Gerado; Moreno, Luis A; Krogh, Vittorio; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pigeot, Iris

    2016-05-01

    Faster growth seems to be a common factor in several hypotheses relating early life exposures to subsequent health. This study aims to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) trajectories during infancy/childhood and later metabolic risk in order to identify sensitive periods of growth affecting health. In a first step, BMI trajectories of 3301 European children that participated in the multi-centre Identification and Prevention of Dietary and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants (IDEFICS) study were modelled using linear-spline mixed-effects models. The estimated random coefficients indicating initial subject-specific BMI and rates of change in BMI over time were used as exposure variables in a second step and related to a metabolic syndrome (MetS) score and its single components based on conditional regression models (mean age at outcome assessment: 8.5 years). All exposures under investigation, i.e. BMI at birth, rates of BMI change during infancy (0 to <9 months), early childhood (9 months to <6 years) and later childhood (≥6 years) as well as current BMI z-score were significantly associated with the later MetS score. Associations were strongest for the rate of BMI change in early childhood (1.78 [1.66; 1.90]; β estimate and 99 % confidence interval) and current BMI z-score (1.16 [0.96; 1.38]) and less pronounced for BMI at birth (0.62 [0.47; 0.78]). Results slightly differed with regard to the single metabolic factors. Starting from birth rapid BMI growth, especially in the time window of 9 months to <6 years, is significantly related to later metabolic risk in children. Much of the associations of early BMI growth may further be mediated through the effects on subsequent BMI growth. PMID:26297214

  6. Molecular and physiological study of the artificial maturation process in European eel males: from brain to testis.

    PubMed

    Peñaranda, David S; Pérez, Luz; Gallego, Víctor; Jover, Miguel; Tveiten, Helge; Baloche, Sylvie; Dufour, Sylvie; Asturiano, Juan F

    2010-03-01

    European eel males can be artificially matured (1.5IU hCG/g fish), but the regulatory mechanisms of their reproductive development are practically unknown. Spermatogenic stages (S1-S6), biometric characters [eye index (EI), gonadosomatic index (GSI), hepatosomatic index (HSI)] and sperm quality parameters (motility, viability and head spermatozoa morphometry) were analysed. Moreover, the present study evaluated the expression of GnRHs (mammal and chicken II Gonadotropin Release Hormone I) and gonadotrophins (FSHbeta and LHbeta) during hormonal treatment, as well as 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-P) plasma levels. One week was enough to observe the S2 of gonad development, but it was necessary to reach the 7th week of treatment to obtain animals that presented the most advanced stage of development (S6). Differential regulation of the two GnRH expressions was found, supporting the main role of mGnRH in the control of gonadotrophin release. One hCG injection was enough to dramatically decrease the FSHbeta expression, being close to zero during the rest of the treatment. LHbeta expression and 17,20beta-P registered a significant increase in the same stage of development, S3/4, confirming the role of this gonadotrophin in the last steps of maturation and 17,20beta-P in the spermatozoa maturation. The 11-KT increased with GSI, and the highest 11-KT values coincided with the advanced steps of spermatogenesis prior to spermiation. Being consistent with the known role of the steroid in these processes. Furthermore, this study supports a role for 11-KT in stimulating eye growth, presenting high values when EI increased. Sperm production was obtained from the 4th week of treatment, but it was in the 8th week when a significant increase was observed in sperm quality [viability, high motility (>75%)]. PMID:19699741

  7. Diet Quality Scores and Prediction of All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality in a Pan-European Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lassale, Camille; Gunter, Marc J.; Romaguera, Dora; Peelen, Linda M.; Van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Freisling, Heinz; Muller, David C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Huybrechts, Inge; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Affret, Aurélie; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C.; Olsen, Anja; Roswall, Nina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Katzke, Verena A.; Kühn, Tilman; Buijsse, Brian; Quirós, José-Ramón; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Etxezarreta, Nerea; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bonet, Catalina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Renström, Frida; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Moons, Karel G. M.; Riboli, Elio; Tzoulaki, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Scores of overall diet quality have received increasing attention in relation to disease aetiology; however, their value in risk prediction has been little examined. The objective was to assess and compare the association and predictive performance of 10 diet quality scores on 10-year risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 451,256 healthy participants to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, followed-up for a median of 12.8y. All dietary scores studied showed significant inverse associations with all outcomes. The range of HRs (95% CI) in the top vs. lowest quartile of dietary scores in a composite model including non-invasive factors (age, sex, smoking, body mass index, education, physical activity and study centre) was 0.75 (0.72–0.79) to 0.88 (0.84–0.92) for all-cause, 0.76 (0.69–0.83) to 0.84 (0.76–0.92) for CVD and 0.78 (0.73–0.83) to 0.91 (0.85–0.97) for cancer mortality. Models with dietary scores alone showed low discrimination, but composite models also including age, sex and other non-invasive factors showed good discrimination and calibration, which varied little between different diet scores examined. Mean C-statistic of full models was 0.73, 0.80 and 0.71 for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Dietary scores have poor predictive performance for 10-year mortality risk when used in isolation but display good predictive ability in combination with other non-invasive common risk factors. PMID:27409582

  8. Healthy Lifestyle and Risk of Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Fiona; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Rinaldi, Sabina; Chajès, Veronique; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; May, Anne; Peeters, Petra H.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Ericson, Ulrika; Wirfält, Elisabet; Travis, Ruth C.; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It has been estimated that at least a third of the most common cancers are related to lifestyle and as such are preventable. Key modifiable lifestyle factors have been individually associated with cancer risk; however, less is known about the combined effects of these factors. This study generated a healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) to investigate the joint effect of modifiable factors on the risk of overall cancers, alcohol-related cancers, tobacco-related cancers, obesity-related cancers, and reproductive-related cancers. The study included 391,608 men and women from the multinational European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The HLIS was constructed from 5 factors assessed at baseline (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0 to 4 to categories of each factor, for which higher values indicate healthier behaviors. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional regression and population attributable fractions (PAFs) estimated from the adjusted models. There was a 5% lower risk (adjusted HR 0.952, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.946, 0.958) of all cancers per point score of the index for men and 4% (adjusted HR 0.961, 95% CI: 0.956, 0.966) for women. The fourth versus the second category of the HLIS was associated with a 28% and 24% lower risk for men and women respectively across all cancers, 41% and 33% for alcohol-related, 49% and 46% for tobacco-related, 41% and 26% for obesity-related, and 21% for female reproductive cancers. Findings suggest simple behavior modifications could have a sizeable impact on cancer prevention, especially for men. PMID:27100409

  9. Association of Sleep Duration with Chronic Diseases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study

    PubMed Central

    von Ruesten, Anne; Weikert, Cornelia; Fietze, Ingo; Boeing, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Background In view of the reduced number of hours devoted to sleep in modern western societies the question arises what effects might result from sleep duration on occurrence of chronic diseases. Methods Data from 23 620 middle-aged participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study, that were recruited between 1994–1998, were analyzed by using Cox proportional hazard regression to examine the association between self-reported sleep duration at baseline and incidence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cancer. Results During a mean follow-up period of 7.8 years 841 incident cases of type 2 diabetes, 197 cases of myocardial infarction, 169 incident strokes, and 846 tumor cases were observed. Compared to persons sleeping 7-<8 h/day, participants with sleep duration of <6 h had a significantly increased risk of stroke (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18–3.59), cancer (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.09–1.87), and overall chronic diseases (HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.10–1.55) in multivariable adjusted models. Self-reported daytime sleep at baseline was not associated with incident chronic diseases in the overall study sample. However, there had been an effect modification of daytime sleep by hypertension showing that daytime sleep was inversely related to chronic disease risk among non-hypertensive participants but directly related to chronic diseases among hypertensives. Conclusion Sleep duration of less than 6 h is a risky behavior for the development of chronic diseases, particularly stroke and cancer, and should be therefore addressed in public health campaigns. PMID:22295122

  10. Diet Quality Scores and Prediction of All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality in a Pan-European Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lassale, Camille; Gunter, Marc J; Romaguera, Dora; Peelen, Linda M; Van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Beulens, Joline W J; Freisling, Heinz; Muller, David C; Ferrari, Pietro; Huybrechts, Inge; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Affret, Aurélie; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C; Olsen, Anja; Roswall, Nina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Buijsse, Brian; Quirós, José-Ramón; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Etxezarreta, Nerea; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bonet, Catalina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Boer, Jolanda M A; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Renström, Frida; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Moons, Karel G M; Riboli, Elio; Tzoulaki, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Scores of overall diet quality have received increasing attention in relation to disease aetiology; however, their value in risk prediction has been little examined. The objective was to assess and compare the association and predictive performance of 10 diet quality scores on 10-year risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 451,256 healthy participants to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, followed-up for a median of 12.8y. All dietary scores studied showed significant inverse associations with all outcomes. The range of HRs (95% CI) in the top vs. lowest quartile of dietary scores in a composite model including non-invasive factors (age, sex, smoking, body mass index, education, physical activity and study centre) was 0.75 (0.72-0.79) to 0.88 (0.84-0.92) for all-cause, 0.76 (0.69-0.83) to 0.84 (0.76-0.92) for CVD and 0.78 (0.73-0.83) to 0.91 (0.85-0.97) for cancer mortality. Models with dietary scores alone showed low discrimination, but composite models also including age, sex and other non-invasive factors showed good discrimination and calibration, which varied little between different diet scores examined. Mean C-statistic of full models was 0.73, 0.80 and 0.71 for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Dietary scores have poor predictive performance for 10-year mortality risk when used in isolation but display good predictive ability in combination with other non-invasive common risk factors. PMID:27409582

  11. Navigating the maze of requirements for obtaining approval of non-interventional studies (NIS) in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the complexities and unexpected regulatory requirements for obtaining approval of multinational and multicentre non-interventional studies (NIS) in the European Union (EU). Methods: The websites of national competent authorities (CAs), ethics committees (ECs) and data protection (DP) authorities were consulted to find regulations and guidance information related to the authorisation of NIS in various member states of the EU. Results: Many additional hurdles, neither disclosed nor clear in the various regulations/guidances for NIS, were identified. Although approval from the CA is not needed for NIS, in many countries request of CA opinion is nevertheless recommended, prior to submission to the EC, to obtain confirmation that the planned NIS does not fall in the interventional trial category. Clinical trial insurance was required in some countries. In countries like Belgium and Italy, the multicentre NIS required the approval from a central EC and local ECs as a single central EC opinion was not considered sufficient. The EC document requirements for submission and the fees were extremely variable among all member states. Additional approvals from data protection authorities and insurance companies were required in some countries. Conclusions: The process of obtaining approval for multicentre and multinational NIS is time consuming due to lack of transparency and the different regulatory requirements among member states. The EU pharmacovigilance legislation and clinical trial regulation No 536/2014 is a step forward in providing a regulatory framework for PASS (post-authorisation safety studies) and low intervention clinical trials, but since regulation No 536/2014 excludes NIS, it will be difficult to enforce harmonization of requirements for approval of NIS among member states. PMID:26633964

  12. Epidemiological studies on Echinococcus in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) and European hare (Lepus europaeus) in Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Scioscia, Nathalia Paula; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín; Petrigh, Romina Sandra; Pierangeli, Nora; Denegri, Guillermo María

    2013-10-01

    In Argentina, hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus is widespread. The south of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, is one of the three regions where hydatidosis is endemic. Although domestic dogs and sheep are considered to be the main hosts for E. granulosus, the potential role of wildlife in the local transmission of E. granulosus has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the hydatidosis/echinococcosis prevalence in European hare (Lepus europaeus) and Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), two abundant species with a strong predator-prey relationship in rural areas of Buenos Aires province using different diagnostic tests. A total of 61 fox intestines were examined, finding that 52 (85.2%) harbored at least one helminth species. However, no adult or immature form of Echinococcus sp. was found in the intestinal contents. Coproparasitological analysis and Copro-ELISA followed by Copro-PCR were used as supplementary diagnostic tests. Only one (1.7%) of 59 fecal samples was positive to Taeniidae eggs by coproparasitological analysis, but this same sample was negative by the Copro-ELISA test. The analysis by Copro-ELISA showed 6 of 57 (10.6%) positive samples, but the Copro-PCR tests carried out on these samples were negative to E. granulosus. A total of 6,808 lungs, 3,576 livers, and 3,542 hearts of hunted hares were examined and palpated, but no structure resembling hydatid cysts were detected. Our results suggest that hares and Pampas foxes are not currently important wild reservoirs of E. granulosus in the studied area. PMID:23892482

  13. Sarcocystis and related organisms in Australian Wildlife: IV. Studies on Sarcocystis cuniculi in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Munday, B L; Smith, D D; Frenkel, J K

    1980-04-01

    The role of the cat (Felis domestica) as a definitive host for Sarcocystis cuniculi of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was confirmed. It was shown that after dosing with sporocysts from cats, rabbits developed sarcocysts and these became infective for cats at not less than 93 days post-infection (p.i.). The earliest infection detected was at 142 days p.i. Infected muscle from an experimental rabbit did not transmit Sarcocystis when fed to other rabbits. Microscopically, sarcocysts in European rabbits (O. cuniculus) were morphologically indistinguishable from those in cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus). PMID:6776293

  14. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Jelsma, Judith G. M.; van Leeuwen, Karen M.; Oostdam, Nicolette; Bunn, Christopher; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M.; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans Andre; Devlieger, Roland; Timmerman, Dirk; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Rebollo, Pablo; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G.; del Prato, Stefano; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M.; Andersen, Lise Lotte T.; Snoek, Frank J.; van Poppel, Mireille N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods. An explorative mixed methods, two-staged study was conducted to gather information from pregnant European women (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). In three European countries 21 interviews were conducted, followed by 71 questionnaires in six other European countries. Content analysis and descriptive and chi-square statistics were applied (p < 0.05). Results. Women preferred to obtain detailed information about their personal risk. The health of their baby was a major motivating factor. Perceived barriers for physical activity included pregnancy-specific issues such as tiredness and experiencing physical complaints. Insufficient time was a barrier more frequently reported by women with children. Abstaining from snacking was identified as a challenge for the majority of women, especially for those without children. Women preferred to obtain support from their partner, as well as health professionals and valued flexible lifestyle programs. Conclusions. Healthcare professionals need to inform overweight pregnant women about their personal risk, discuss lifestyle modification, and assist in weight management. Lifestyle programs should be tailored to the individual, taking into account barriers experienced by overweight first-time mothers and multipara women. PMID:26885396

  15. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A.; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M. R.

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week−1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week−1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent “factor” describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week−1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10–15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations. PMID:27529339

  16. Europeanizing Education: Governing a New Policy Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin; Grek, Sotiria

    2012-01-01

    The study of common and diverse effects in the field of education across Europe is a growing field of inquiry and research. It is the result of many actions, networks and programmes over the last few decades and the development of common European education policies. "Europeanizing Education" describes the origins of European education policy, as…

  17. Management of adrenal incidentalomas: European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guideline in collaboration with the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Fassnacht, Martin; Arlt, Wiebke; Bancos, Irina; Dralle, Henning; Newell-Price, John; Sahdev, Anju; Tabarin, Antoine; Terzolo, Massimo; Tsagarakis, Stylianos; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2016-08-01

    'autonomous cortisol secretion' who also have comorbidities that are potentially related to cortisol excess. (vi) In principle, the appropriateness of surgical intervention should be guided by the likelihood of malignancy, the presence and degree of hormone excess, age, general health and patient preference. (vii) Surgery is not usually indicated in patients with an asymptomatic, nonfunctioning unilateral adrenal mass and obvious benign features on imaging studies. We provide guidance on which surgical approach should be considered for adrenal masses with radiological findings suspicious of malignancy. Furthermore, we offer recommendations for the follow-up of patients with adrenal incidentaloma who do not undergo adrenal surgery, for those with bilateral incidentalomas, for patients with extra-adrenal malignancy and adrenal masses and for young and elderly patients with adrenal incidentalomas. PMID:27390021

  18. Identification of Serum Metabolites Associated With Incident Hypertension in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Stefan; Floegel, Anna; Weikert, Cornelia; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner; Drogan, Dagmar

    2016-08-01

    Metabolomics is a promising tool to gain new insights into early metabolic alterations preceding the development of hypertension in humans. We therefore aimed to identify metabolites associated with incident hypertension using measured data of serum metabolites of the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study. Targeted metabolic profiling was conducted on serum blood samples of a randomly drawn EPIC-Potsdam subcohort consisting of 135 cases and 981 noncases of incident hypertension, all of them being free of hypertension and not on antihypertensive therapy at the time of blood sampling. Mean follow-up was 9.9 years. A validated set of 127 metabolites was statistically analyzed with a random survival forest backward selection algorithm to identify predictive metabolites of incident hypertension taking into account important epidemiological hypertension risk markers. Six metabolites were identified to be most predictive for the development of hypertension. Higher concentrations of serine, glycine, and acyl-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines C42:4 and C44:3 tended to be associated with higher and diacyl-phosphatidylcholines C38:4 and C38:3 with lower predicted 10-year hypertension-free survival, although visualization by partial plots revealed some nonlinearity in the above associations. The identified metabolites improved prediction of incident hypertension when used together with known risk markers of hypertension. In conclusion, these findings indicate that metabolic alterations occur early in the development of hypertension. However, these alterations are confined to a few members of the amino acid or phosphatidylcholine metabolism, respectively. PMID:27245178

  19. Multi-centre European study of breakthrough cancer pain: pain characteristics and patient perceptions of current and potential management strategies.

    PubMed

    Davies, Andrew; Zeppetella, Giovambattista; Andersen, Steen; Damkier, Anette; Vejlgaard, Tove; Nauck, Friedemann; Radbruch, Lukas; Sjolund, Karl-Frederik; Stenberg, Mariann; Buchanan, Alison

    2011-08-01

    This study involved 320 cancer patients from four Northern European countries. Patients with breakthrough pain were questioned about the characteristics of their pain, the current management of their pain, and the acceptability/utility of alternative routes of administration. The median number of episodes was 3/day. Forty-four percent patients reported incident-type pain, 39% spontaneous-type pain, and 17% a combination of these pains. The median duration was 60 min, and the median time to peak intensity was 15 min. Three percent patients reported "mild" pain, 37% "moderate" pain, and 60% "severe" pain. Ninety percent patients stated that the pain interfered with their daily activities. All patients were using opioids as rescue medication (mainly oral morphine/oxycodone), whilst 28% patients were using non-opioids, and 50% patients were using non-pharmacological interventions. Only 55% patients took rescue medication every time they experienced breakthrough pain. Sixty-five percent patients would definitely consider using an oral transmucosal product; patients from Denmark were less likely to answer positively, and a positive response was associated with previous use of the route for breakthrough pain. Seventy-three percent patients reported regular oral problems. Forty-two percent patients would definitely consider using an intranasal product, with 26% patients stating they would definitely not use such a preparation; patients from Denmark and Sweden were less likely to answer positively, and a positive response was associated with male gender, and previous use of the route. Forty-four percent patients reported regular nasal problems. Sixty percent patients would definitely consider using a subcutaneous product, and 44% patients would definitely consider using an intrapulmonary product. PMID:21251860

  20. Neuronal calcium sensor-1 and cocaine addiction: A genetic association study in African-Americans and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Multani, Pushpinder K.; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Narasimhan, Sneha; Ambrose-Lanci, Lisa; Kampman, Kyle M.; Pettinati, Helen M.; Oslin, David W.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Berrettini, Wade H.; Lohoff, Falk W.

    2013-01-01

    Genes involved in drug reward pathways are plausible candidates for susceptibility to substance use disorders. Given the prominent role of dopamine in drug reward, dopamine receptor-interacting proteins (DRIPs) such as the neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) protein have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathophysiology of cocaine addiction (CA). In this study, we investigated whether genetic variants in the NCS-1 gene confer risk to CA. We genotyped 8 SNPs (rs4837479, rs7849345, rs3824544, rs10819611, rs947513, rs2277200, rs7873936 and rs1342043) in our discovery sample (cases n = 796, controls n = 416) of African descent. Confirmation of associated or trending SNPs (rs7849345, rs10819611, rs1342043) was attempted using a replication sample of African American (AA) ethnicity (cases n = 335, controls n = 336) and European-American (EA) ancestry (cases n = 336, controls n = 656). Secondary sex specific analysis was also carried out for each SNP in both AA and EA individuals. Genotyping of the discovery cohort showed significant genotypic (p = 0.0005, corrected q-value) as well as allelic (p = 0.005, corrected q-value) associations of rs1342043 with CA in AAs; however, this marker could not be confirmed in either the AA or EA replication sample. Combined analysis of all AA samples (n = 1883) for rs1342043 showed a significant association with CA (genotypic p = 0.0001, allelic p = 0.002) with a gender specific effect for males (allelic p = 0.005, genotypic p = 0.0003). Our data suggest that genetic variants in the NCS-1 gene contribute to susceptibility of CA in individuals of African descent. PMID:22999924

  1. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias: Results from a European multinational epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned; McCluggage, W Glenn; Pirog, Edyta C; Collas De Souza, Sabrina; Tjalma, Wiebren A; Rosenlund, Mats; Fiander, Alison; Castro Sánchez, Maria; Damaskou, Vasileia; Joura, Elmar A; Kirschner, Benny; Koiss, Robert; O'Leary, John; Quint, Wim; Reich, Olaf; Torné, Aureli; Wells, Michael; Rob, Lukas; Kolomiets, Larisa; Molijn, Anco; Savicheva, Alevtina; Shipitsyna, Elena; Rosillon, Dominique; Jenkins, David

    2015-12-15

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing uncertain evidence to support prophylactic vaccination and HPV screening. This study [108288/108290] assessed HPV prevalence and type-distribution in women diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, N = 49), adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC, N = 104), and various adenocarcinoma subtypes (ADC, N = 461) from 17 European countries, using centralised pathology review and sensitive HPV testing. The highest HPV-positivity rates were observed in AIS (93.9%), ASC (85.6%), and usual-type ADC (90.4%), with much lower rates in rarer ADC subtypes (clear-cell: 27.6%; serous: 30.4%; endometrioid: 12.9%; gastric-type: 0%). The most common HPV types were restricted to HPV16/18/45, accounting for 98.3% of all HPV-positive ADC. There were variations in HPV prevalence and ADC type-distribution by country. Age at diagnosis differed by ADC subtype, with usual-type diagnosed in younger women (median: 43 years) compared to rarer subtypes (medians between 57 and 66 years). Moreover, HPV-positive ADC cases were younger than HPV-negative ADC. The six years difference in median age for women with AIS compared to those with usual-type ADC suggests that cytological screening for AIS may be suboptimal. Since the great majority of CGN are HPV16/18/45-positive, the incorporation of prophylactic vaccination and HPV testing in cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies. Our results suggest that special attention should be given to certain rarer ADC subtypes as most appear to be unrelated to HPV. PMID:26096203

  2. Reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use in relation to risk of glioma and meningioma in a large European cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Dominique S.; Gallo, Valentina; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Boeing, Heiner; Schütze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Kyrozis, Andreas; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Agnoli, Claudia; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ros, Martine M.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Lund, Eiliv; Bakken, Kjersti; Gram, Inger T.; Barricarte, Aurelio; Navarro, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sánchez, Maria José; Rodríguez, Laudina; Duell, Eric J; Hallmans, Göran; Melin, Beatrice S.; Manjer, Jonas; Borgquist, Signe; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Romieu, Isabelle; Rinaldi, Sabina; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Background The aetiologies of glioma and meningioma tumors are largely unknown. Although reproductive hormones are thought to influence the risk of these tumors, epidemiologic data are not supportive of this hypothesis; however, few cohort studies have published on this topic. We examined the relation between reproductive factors and risk of glioma and meningioma among women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods After a mean of 8.4 years of follow-up, 193 glioma and 194 meningioma were identified among 276,212 women. Information on reproductive factors and hormone use was collected at baseline. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results No associations were observed between glioma or meningioma risk and reproductive factors, including age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, menopausal status, and age at menopause. A higher risk of meningioma was observed among postmenopausal women who were current users of hormone replacement therapy (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.04-2.54) compared with never users. Similarly, current users of oral contraceptives were at higher risk of meningioma than never users (HR = 3.61, 95% CI = 1.75-7.46). Conclusion Our results do not support a role for estrogens and glioma risk. Use of exogenous hormones, especially current use, appears to increase meningioma risk. However, these findings could be due to diagnostic bias and require confirmation. Impact Elucidating the role of hormones in brain tumor development has important implications and needs to be further examined using biological measurements. PMID:20802020

  3. Physiological and functional evaluation of healthy young and older men and women: design of the European MyoAge study.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Jamie S; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Maier, Andrea B; Seppet, Enn; Seynnes, Olivier R; Sipilä, Sarianna; Bottinelli, Roberto; Barnouin, Yoann; Bijlsma, Astrid Y; Gapeyeva, Helena; Maden-Wilkinson, Thomas M; Meskers, Carel G; Pääsuke, Mati; Sillanpää, Elina; Stenroth, Lauri; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Narici, Marco V; Jones, David A

    2013-06-01

    Within the European multi-centre MyoAge project, one workpackage was designed to investigate the contribution of age-related changes to muscle mass, contractile characteristics and neural control in relation to reductions in mobility in older age. The methodology has been described here. Test centres were located in Manchester, UK; Paris, France; Leiden, The Netherlands; Tartu, Estonia and Jyväskylä, Finland. In total, 182 young (18-30 years old, 52.2 % female) and 322 older adults (69-81 years old, 50 % female) have been examined. The participants were independent living, socially active and free from disease that impaired mobility levels. The older participants were selected based on physical activity levels, such that half exceeded current recommended physical activity levels and the other half had lower physical activity levels than is recommended to maintain health. Measurements consisted of blood pressure; anthropometry and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging); lung function; standing balance and cognitive function (CANTAB). Mobility was assessed using the Timed Up and Go, a 6 min walk, activity questionnaires and accelerometers to monitor habitual daily activities. Muscle strength, power, fatigue and neural activation were assessed using a combination of voluntary and electrically stimulated contractions. Fasting blood samples and skeletal muscle biopsies were collected for detailed examination of cell and molecular differences between young and older individuals. The results from this study will provide a detailed insight into "normal, healthy" ageing, linking whole-body function to the structure and function of the neuromuscular system and the molecular characteristics of skeletal muscle. PMID:23722256

  4. Correlates of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Identifying leisure time activities performed before and after school that influence time in physical activity (PA) and/or time spent sedentary can provide useful information when designing interventions aimed to promote an active lifestyle in young people. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between mode of transportation to school, outdoor play after school, participation in exercise in clubs, and TV viewing with objectively assessed PA and sedentary behaviour in children. Methods A total of 1327 nine- and 15-year-old children from three European countries (Norway, Estonia, Portugal) participated as part of the European Youth Heart Study. PA was measured during two weekdays and two weekend days using the MTI accelerometer, and average percent of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and time spent sedentary were derived. Potential correlates were assessed by self-report. Independent associations between self-reported correlates with percent time in MVPA and percent time sedentary were analysed by general linear models, adjusted by age, gender, country, measurement period, monitored days and parental socio-economic status. Results In 9-year-olds, playing outdoors after school was associated with higher percent time in MVPA (P < 0.01), while participation in sport clubs was associated with higher percent time in MVPA (P < 0.01) in 15-year-olds. No associations with percent time sedentary were observed in either age group. Conclusion Frequency of outdoor play after school is a significant correlate for daily time in MVPA in 9-year-olds, while this correlate is attenuated in favour of participation in sport and exercise in clubs in 15-year-olds. Targeting walking to school or reduced TV viewing time in order to increase time in daily MVPA in children is unlikely to be sufficient. Correlates related to time spent sedentary need further examination. PMID:19735565

  5. The Aspect of "Accessibility" in the Light of European Lifelong Learning Strategies: Adult Education Centres--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastamatis, Adamantios; Panitsidou, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    The problems faced by a postmodern European Union, due to internationalisation of the economy, loss of competitiveness, rise in unemployment and negative demographic outcomes, call for transformations able to promote excellence in knowledge, technology and economic effectiveness, which also promote social cohesion. Thus, investment in human…

  6. Reflections on International Comparative Education Survey Methodology: A Case Study of the European Survey on Language Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects on the methodology used in international comparative education surveys by conducting a systematic review of the European Survey on Language Competences (ESLC). The ESLC was administered from February to March 2011, with final results released in June 2012. The survey tested approximately 55,000 students across 14 European…

  7. Authority, Autonomy, and Parent-Adolescent Conflict and Cohesion: A Study of Adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, Filipino, and European Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuligni, Andrew J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined whether parent-child conflict and cohesion during adolescence vary among families characterized as having different cultural traditions regarding parental authority and individual autonomy. Despite holding different beliefs about parental authority and individual autonomy, Mexican-, Chinese-, Filipino-, and European-American adolescents…

  8. Alcohol Use among Abused and Non-Abused Older Persons Aged 60-84 Years: An European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tredal, Ingrid; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Sundin, Orjan; Viitasara, Eija; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Describing alcohol use by abuse type (e.g. psychological) and considering other factors (e.g. depression). Methods: The respondents were 4467 (2559 women, 57.3%) randomly selected elders (60-84 years) from seven European cities. The cross-sectional data were collected with scales covering various areas and examined with…

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Graduate Employment Prospects in European Labour Markets: A Study of Graduate Recruitment in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branine, Mohamed; Avramenko, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of higher education and the graduate labour markets in selected European countries (France, Germany, Spain and United Kingdom) in the context of the expectations of graduates and prospective employers, and respective recruitment and selection practices. Expectations of graduating students…

  10. Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, than the host population in Sweden. It also examined the particular factors which might determine the self-reported mental health of these immigrants. Methods The cross-sectional national sample included 25–84-year-old Swedish-born persons (n = 35,459) and immigrants from Poland (n = 161), other East European countries (n = 164), and the former Soviet Union (n = 60) who arrived in Sweden after 1944 and were interviewed during 1994–2001. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used in the analyses. Results The findings indicated that the country of birth had a profound influence on self-reported mental health. Polish and other East European immigrants in general had a twofold higher odds ratio of reporting psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, which fact could not be explained by adjustments for the demographic and socioeconomic variables. However, immigrants from the former Soviet Union had odds similar to those of the Swedish-born reference group. Adjustments for migration-related variables (language spoken at home and years in Sweden) changed the association between the country of birth and the outcomes only to a limited extent. Conclusion Since poor mental health may hinder acculturation, the mental health of immigrants from Poland and other East European countries should be acknowledged, particularly with the expansion of the European Union and inclusion of nine former Soviet Bloc countries by 2007. PMID:17328817

  11. A repetition-prediction study on European parasuicide populations. Part II of the WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide in cooperation with the EC Concerted Action on Attempted Suicide.

    PubMed

    Bille-Brahe, U; Kerkhof, A; De Leo, D; Schmidtke, A; Crepet, P; Lönnqvist, J; Michel, K; Salander-Renberg, E; Stiles, T C; Wasserman, D; Egebo, H

    1996-01-01

    One of the aims of the inter-European study on parasuicide, which was initiated by WHO/Euro in the mid-1980s, was to try and identify social and personal characteristics predictive of future suicidal behavior. A follow-up interview study (the Repetition-Prediction Study) was designed, and so far 1145 interviews have been carried out at nine research centers, representing seven European countries. The study and the instrument used (the European Parasuicide Study Interview Schedules, EPSIS I and II) are described here. Some basic characteristics of the material from the various centers are presented and compared, and the representativeness of the samples are discussed. There were differences between the centers in several respects. Results from analyses based on pooled data have to be treated with some caution because of the possible lack of representativeness. PMID:8768403

  12. Adverse effect of diabetes and hyperglycaemia on arterial stiffness in Europeans, South Asians, and African Caribbeans in the SABRE study.

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chloe M; Tillin, Therese; March, Katherine; Jones, Siana; Whincup, Peter H; Mayet, Jamil; Chaturvedi, Nish; Hughes, Alun D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Ethnic minority groups in the UK experience marked differences in cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated differences in arterial central hemodynamics, stiffness and load in a tri-ethnic population-based cohort. Methods 1312 participants (70±6y) underwent echocardiography and measurement of brachial and central blood pressure to assess central arterial hemodynamics including central pulse pressure (cPP), arterial stiffness (cPP/stroke volume (SV)), systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and load (Ea). Results Brachial and central systolic blood pressures were similar in all ethnic groups. Compared to Europeans, cPP, cPP/SV and Ea were higher in South Asians. In contrast, cPP/SV was lower in African Caribbeans despite higher mean arterial pressure, higher SVR and higher diabetes prevalence. cPP/SV and Ea remained significantly higher in South Asians and significantly lower in African Caribbeans after multivariate adjustment. Diabetes and higher HbA1c were more strongly associated with higher cPP/SV in South Asians than in Europeans (p interaction=0.045 and 0.005 respectively); higher HbA1c was also more strongly associated with increased Ea in South Asians than Europeans (p interaction=0.01). There was no evidence of an interaction between glycemia and cPP/SV in African Caribbeans. Conclusion Compared to Europeans, South Asians have unfavourable arterial function. Diabetes and hyperglycemia have a more deleterious effect on cPP/SV and Ea in South Asians. In contrast African Caribbeans have more favourable arterial function than Europeans and South Asians. These differences may contribute to the differential ethnic rates of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26628109

  13. Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers’ sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. Results The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers’ sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. Conclusions A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with

  14. Reference intervals of bone turnover markers in healthy premenopausal women: results from a cross-sectional European study.

    PubMed

    Eastell, Richard; Garnero, Patrick; Audebert, Christine; Cahall, David L

    2012-05-01

    Robust validated reference intervals for bone turnover markers (BTMs) are required to assess fracture risk and effectiveness of therapy. However, there are currently limited reference intervals for BTMs in premenopausal women, especially comparing manual and automated assays. This study determined the BTM reference intervals using automated and manual assays, compared the results obtained from two different assays, and evaluated the factors that may affect BTM levels. This was a cross-sectional registry study in 194 healthy, premenopausal, European Caucasian women aged 35 to 39years from France (n=98) and Denmark (n=96). Two independent specialized laboratories, one in France (Synarc) and the other in Denmark (Nordic Bioscience), analyzed blood and urine samples from each woman for BTM levels. The type of assay used in this study significantly affected the reference intervals obtained for serum cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (sCTX) and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (uNTX/Cr; both P<0.001), but not for serum procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide (PINP; P=0.28). The Serum Crosslaps® ELISA; Microtitre-plate based ELISA; Metra BAP EIA; and UniQ® PINP RIA assays yielded higher BTM reference values. The reference intervals for the BTMs, as measured with Serum β-Crosslaps, Elecsys® 2010 Systems; VITROS® ECI System; Ostase®, Access® Immunoassay System; and Total PINP, Elecsys® 2010 Systems assays, were 0.111-0.791ng/mL for sCTX, 12.3-59.7nmol BCE/mmol creatinine for uNTX/Cr, 5.8-17.5ng/mL for bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and 17.3-83.4ng/mL for PINP, respectively. When measured with Serum Crosslaps® ELISA, Microtitre-plate based ELISA, Metra BAP EIA, and UniQ® PINP RIA, the reference intervals were 0.177-0.862ng/mL for sCTX, 22.6-95.7nmol BCE/mmol creatinine for uNTX/Cr, 14.8-38.8U/L for bone ALP, and 19.5-75.2ng/mL for PINP, respectively. The clinical interpretation of the BTMs of a subject

  15. The Benefits of Comparing Grapefruits and Tangerines: A Toolbox for European Cross-Cultural Comparisons in Engineering Education--Using This Toolbox to Study Gendered Images of Engineering among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfroy-Genin, Anne-Sophie; Pinault, Cloe

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of the WomEng European research project was to assess when, how and why women decide to or not to study engineering. This question was addressed through an international cross-comparison by an interdisciplinary research team in seven European countries. This article presents, in the first part, the methodological toolbox…

  16. Eastern European Studies in the Secondary School Curriculum: Report of the Proceedings of a Conference (8th, University of Sussex, England, April 10, 1974). Curriculum Development Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Francis, Ed.

    Three components of a conference are reviewed to explore how teaching and learning about Eastern Europe might contribute to European Studies in British secondary schools. A series of lectures provided information about contemporary East European societies and broke down preconceptions of Eastern Europe as a monolithic block. Workshop sessions…

  17. Telemedicine and European law.

    PubMed

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues. PMID:15074761

  18. The effect of urban geometry on mean radiant temperature under future climate change: a study of three European cities.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rayner, David; Thorsson, Sofia

    2015-07-01

    Future anthropogenic climate change is likely to increase the air temperature (T(a)) across Europe and increase the frequency, duration and magnitude of severe heat stress events. Heat stress events are generally associated with clear-sky conditions and high T(a), which give rise to high radiant heat load, i.e. mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). In urban environments, T mrt is strongly influenced by urban geometry. The present study examines the effect of urban geometry on daytime heat stress in three European cities (Gothenburg in Sweden, Frankfurt in Germany and Porto in Portugal) under present and future climates, using T(mrt) as an indicator of heat stress. It is found that severe heat stress occurs in all three cities. Similar maximum daytime T(mrt) is found in open areas in all three cities despite of the latitudinal differences in average daytime T(mrt). In contrast, dense urban structures like narrow street canyons are able to mitigate heat stress in the summer, without causing substantial changes in T(mrt) in the winter. Although the T(mrt) averages are similar for the north-south and east-west street canyons in each city, the number of hours when T(mrt) exceeds the threshold values of 55.5 and 59.4 °C-used as indicators of moderate and severe heat stress-in the north-south canyons is much higher than that in the east-west canyons. Using statistically downscaled data from a regional climate model, it is found that the study sites were generally warmer in the future scenario, especially Porto, which would further exacerbate heat stress in urban areas. However, a decrease in solar radiation in Gothenburg and Frankfurt reduces T(mrt) in the spring, while the reduction in T(mrt) is somewhat offset by increasing T(a) in other seasons. It suggests that changes in the T(mrt) under the future scenario are dominated by variations in T(a). Nonetheless, the intra-urban differences remain relatively stable in the future. These findings suggest that dense urban

  19. Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study

    PubMed Central

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Siani, Alfonso; Russo, Paola; Kourides, Yannis; Sion, Isabelle; Molnár, Denés; Moreno, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Howe, Laura; Lissner, Lauren; Mehlig, Kirsten; Regber, Susann; Bammann, Karin; Foraita, Ronja

    2016-01-01

    Background Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI) trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences. Methods The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden) participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008) and follow-up examination (2009/2010) supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences. Results Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries) with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG) was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers’ smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found. Conclusion Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed

  20. The effect of urban geometry on mean radiant temperature under future climate change: a study of three European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rayner, David; Thorsson, Sofia

    2015-07-01

    Future anthropogenic climate change is likely to increase the air temperature ( T a ) across Europe and increase the frequency, duration and magnitude of severe heat stress events. Heat stress events are generally associated with clear-sky conditions and high T a , which give rise to high radiant heat load, i.e. mean radiant temperature ( T mrt ). In urban environments, T mrt is strongly influenced by urban geometry. The present study examines the effect of urban geometry on daytime heat stress in three European cities (Gothenburg in Sweden, Frankfurt in Germany and Porto in Portugal) under present and future climates, using T mrt as an indicator of heat stress. It is found that severe heat stress occurs in all three cities. Similar maximum daytime T mrt is found in open areas in all three cities despite of the latitudinal differences in average daytime T mrt . In contrast, dense urban structures like narrow street canyons are able to mitigate heat stress in the summer, without causing substantial changes in T mrt in the winter. Although the T mrt averages are similar for the north-south and east-west street canyons in each city, the number of hours when T mrt exceeds the threshold values of 55.5 and 59.4 °C—used as indicators of moderate and severe heat stress—in the north-south canyons is much higher than that in the east-west canyons. Using statistically downscaled data from a regional climate model, it is found that the study sites were generally warmer in the future scenario, especially Porto, which would further exacerbate heat stress in urban areas. However, a decrease in solar radiation in Gothenburg and Frankfurt reduces T mrt in the spring, while the reduction in T mrt is somewhat offset by increasing T a in other seasons. It suggests that changes in the T mrt under the future scenario are dominated by variations in T a . Nonetheless, the intra-urban differences remain relatively stable in the future. These findings suggest that dense urban structure

  1. Ifosfamide in previously untreated disseminated neuroblastoma. Results of Study 3A of the European Neuroblastoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kellie, S J; De Kraker, J; Lilleyman, J S; Bowman, A; Pritchard, J

    1988-05-01

    A prospective study of the effectiveness of ifosfamide as a single agent in the management of previously untreated patients with Evans stage IV neuroblastoma was undertaken. Eighteen children aged more than 1 year were treated with ifosfamide (IFX) 3 g/m2 daily for 2 days immediately after diagnosis and 3 weeks later. Treatment was continued with combination chemotherapy using vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatinum and etoposide (OPEC) or a variant. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sulphonate) was given to all patients during IFX treatment to prevent urotoxicity. Eight of the 18 patients (44%) responded to IFX. Nine had greater than 66% reduction in baseline tumor volume. Of 15 evaluable patients with raised pre-treatment urinary catecholamine excretion, six (40%) achieved greater than 50% reduction in pretreatment levels. Two of 10 patients evaluable for bone marrow response had complete clearance. Toxicity was mild in all patients. Upon completing 'first line' therapy, only four patients (22%) achieved a good partial remission (GPR) or complete response (CR). Median survival was 11 months. There was a lower rate of attaining GPR and shortened median survival in patients receiving phase II IFX before OPEC or variant, compared to patients with similar pre-treatment characteristics treated with OPEC from diagnosis in an earlier study. PMID:3169095

  2. A pan-European study of the C9orf72 repeat associated with FTLD: geographic prevalence, genomic instability, and intermediate repeats.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Julie; Gijselinck, Ilse; Dillen, Lubina; Van Langenhove, Tim; Theuns, Jessie; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Philtjens, Stéphanie; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sleegers, Kristel; Sieben, Anne; Bäumer, Veerle; Maes, Githa; Corsmit, Ellen; Borroni, Barbara; Padovani, Alessandro; Archetti, Silvana; Perneczky, Robert; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Miltenberger-Miltenyi, Gabriel; Pereira, Sónia; Pimentel, José; Nacmias, Benedetta; Bagnoli, Silvia; Sorbi, Sandro; Graff, Caroline; Chiang, Huei-Hsin; Westerlund, Marie; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Llado, Albert; Gelpi, Ellen; Santana, Isabel; Almeida, Maria Rosário; Santiago, Beatriz; Frisoni, Giovanni; Zanetti, Orazio; Bonvicini, Cristian; Synofzik, Matthis; Maetzler, Walter; Vom Hagen, Jennifer Müller; Schöls, Ludger; Heneka, Michael T; Jessen, Frank; Matej, Radoslav; Parobkova, Eva; Kovacs, Gabor G; Ströbel, Thomas; Sarafov, Stayko; Tournev, Ivailo; Jordanova, Albena; Danek, Adrian; Arzberger, Thomas; Fabrizi, Gian Maria; Testi, Silvia; Salmon, Eric; Santens, Patrick; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Cras, Patrick; Vandenberghe, Rik; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Cruts, Marc; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; van der Zee, Julie; Gijselinck, Ilse; Dillen, Lubina; Van Langenhove, Tim; Theuns, Jessie; Philtjens, Stéphanie; Sleegers, Kristel; Bäumer, Veerle; Maes, Githa; Corsmit, Ellen; Cruts, Marc; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; van der Zee, Julie; Gijselinck, Ilse; Dillen, Lubina; Van Langenhove, Tim; Philtjens, Stéphanie; Theuns, Jessie; Sleegers, Kristel; Bäumer, Veerle; Maes, Githa; Cruts, Marc; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P; Cras, Patrick; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Borroni, Barbara; Padovani, Alessandro; Archetti, Silvana; Perneczky, Robert; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Synofzik, Matthis; Maetzler, Walter; Müller Vom Hagen, Jennifer; Schöls, Ludger; Synofzik, Matthis; Maetzler, Walter; Müller Vom Hagen, Jennifer; Schöls, Ludger; Heneka, Michael T; Jessen, Frank; Ramirez, Alfredo; Kurzwelly, Delia; Sachtleben, Carmen; Mairer, Wolfgang; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Miltenberger-Miltenyi, Gabriel; Pereira, Sónia; Firmo, Clara; Pimentel, José; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Llado, Albert; Antonell, Anna; Molinuevo, Jose; Gelpi, Ellen; Graff, Caroline; Chiang, Huei-Hsin; Westerlund, Marie; Graff, Caroline; Kinhult Ståhlbom, Anne; Thonberg, Håkan; Nennesmo, Inger; Börjesson-Hanson, Anne; Nacmias, Benedetta; Bagnoli, Silvia; Sorbi, Sandro; Bessi, Valentina; Piaceri, Irene; Santana, Isabel; Santiago, Beatriz; Santana, Isabel; Helena Ribeiro, Maria; Rosário Almeida, Maria; Oliveira, Catarina; Massano, João; Garret, Carolina; Pires, Paula; Frisoni, Giovanni; Zanetti, Orazio; Bonvicini, Cristian; Sarafov, Stayko; Tournev, Ivailo; Jordanova, Albena; Tournev, Ivailo; Kovacs, Gabor G; Ströbel, Thomas; Heneka, Michael T; Jessen, Frank; Ramirez, Alfredo; Kurzwelly, Delia; Sachtleben, Carmen; Mairer, Wolfgang; Jessen, Frank; Matej, Radoslav; Parobkova, Eva; Danel, Adrian; Arzberger, Thomas; Maria Fabrizi, Gian; Testi, Silvia; Ferrari, Sergio; Cavallaro, Tiziana; Salmon, Eric; Santens, Patrick; Cras, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    We assessed the geographical distribution of C9orf72 G(4) C(2) expansions in a pan-European frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) cohort (n = 1,205), ascertained by the European Early-Onset Dementia (EOD) consortium. Next, we performed a meta-analysis of our data and that of other European studies, together 2,668 patients from 15 Western European countries. The frequency of the C9orf72 expansions in Western Europe was 9.98% in overall FTLD, with 18.52% in familial, and 6.26% in sporadic FTLD patients. Outliers were Finland and Sweden with overall frequencies of respectively 29.33% and 20.73%, but also Spain with 25.49%. In contrast, prevalence in Germany was limited to 4.82%. In addition, we studied the role of intermediate repeats (7-24 repeat units), which are strongly correlated with the risk haplotype, on disease and C9orf72 expression. In vitro reporter gene expression studies demonstrated significantly decreased transcriptional activity of C9orf72 with increasing number of normal repeat units, indicating that intermediate repeats might act as predisposing alleles and in favor of the loss-of-function disease mechanism. Further, we observed a significantly increased frequency of short indels in the GC-rich low complexity sequence adjacent to the G(4) C(2) repeat in C9orf72 expansion carriers (P < 0.001) with the most common indel creating one long contiguous imperfect G(4) C(2) repeat, which is likely more prone to replication slippage and pathological expansion. PMID:23111906

  3. Education and European integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, John

    1992-11-01

    The main purpose of this article is to discuss the implications for education and training of the movement towards integration in Europe in the historic context of the creation of a single market within the European Community (EC) and the end of the Communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe. The experience of the EC is used to illustrate trends and problems in the development of international cooperation in education and training. Common concerns and priorities throughout the new Europe are then identified and discussed. These include the pursuit of quality in schooling, efforts to serve the interests of disadvantaged learners, and the treatment of European Studies in the curriculum, including the improvement of the teaching of foreign languages.

  4. A preliminary observation on the pond culture of European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758) in Egypt: recommendations for future studies.

    PubMed

    El-Shebly, Abdalla A; El-kady, Mohamed A H; Hossain, M Yeamin

    2007-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the potential of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla for earthen pond aquaculture without supplementary feeding at Lake Manzala, Egypt. Juvenile A. anguilla of mean length 11.7 cm and 2.4 g weight were stocked in earthen ponds measuring 3 feddans (about 12,600 m2) and 1 m deep. Stocking was done in May 2003 at a rate of 5000 fish feddan(-1) in a polyculture system including tilapia and mullets and fed mainly on natural occurring prey (natural spawned tilapia) and small shrimp. The eels were culture for a period of 2 years, May 2003 to April 2005. Sampling for growth and survival were evaluated yearly. At the end of the culture period, the gross weight of the harvested eels was measured and the net pond production calculated by the difference between weight stocked and weight harvested. Temperature varied from 11.5 to 28.2 degrees C and 12.2 to 29.3 degrees C; P(H), 7.3 to 8.9 and 7.5 to 8.8; Dissolved Oxygen (DO), 5.2 to 9.8 mg L(-1) and 4.1 to 8.3 mg L(-1); and Salinity, 2.5 to 5.5 psu and 3.0 to 6.8 psu for first year and second year, respectively. At the end of the culture period, A. anguilla attained average weight of 121.4 g fish(-1) at the end of the first year and a weight range of 152.5 to 430 g fish(-1) with an average of 280.36 g fish(-1) at the end of the second year. Survival rate ranged from 91% during the first year to 100% during the second year. Net eel production was 540.18 kg feddan(-1) at the end of the first year and 723.36 kg feddan(-1) at the end of the second year. Daily increments in weight per fish were 0.33 and 0.44 for first and second year, respectively. This experiment demonstrated the possibility of cultivation of eels as well as the higher growth rate in earthen ponds. The aquaculture strategy of eel with high stocking densities through low cost artificial feeds are recommended in future studies. PMID:19070049

  5. Soils evolution and treeline fluctuations under late Holocene climatic changes: a case study from Upper Valtellina (European Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masseroli, Anna; Leonelli, Giovanni; Pelfini, Manuela; Trombino, Luca

    2016-04-01

    High-altitude areas in the European Alps have been widely investigated through time for reconstructing the Holocene climate fluctuations, by analyzing both biological and abiological indicators. In high-altitude areas the ongoing temperature increase caused some effects in the natural environments such as the upward shift of the vegetation belts and, in particular, of the treeline. In fact, the treeline is considered a sensitive climate indicator; in high-altitude areas, the vegetation growth and dynamics are strongly influenced not only by climate but also by abiotic factors, like geomorphological processes and soil development. The aim of this study is the reconstruction of late Holocene soil evolution and environmental changes at the treeline on the SW slope of the Monte Confinale in the Upper Valtellina, Central Italian Alps. We performed a detailed reconstruction of the treeline altitudinal dynamics together with the field and laboratory characterization of a transect of nine soil profiles developing at an altitude ranging from 1800 m a.s.l. (closed forest) to 2600 m a.s.l. (species line), in order to understand the relationship between colonization by arboreal vegetation and soil development. The upward shift of the treeline was assessed analyzing tree age distribution on the slope by means of a tree-ring based approach. The treeline elevation over time (based on the years in which the trees reached 2 m in height) increased from 2505 m a.s.l. (period 1990-1999) to 2531 m (period 2000-2009) to 2545 m (in 2013) with a rate of upward shift of up to 2.6 m/y in the period 2000-2009. The investigated soils showed a decreasing development with increasing altitude, in fact at higher altitude we found less developed soils (i.e. Ranker), on the contrary in the forest area (about 2000 m a.s.l.) we found a more developed soil (i.e. Podzol). Moreover, the soil development may also be affected by the conditions of the slope, characterized by broad alpine grasslands that

  6. Self-reported health and comfort in 'modern' office buildings: first results from the European OFFICAIR study.

    PubMed

    Bluyssen, P M; Roda, C; Mandin, C; Fossati, S; Carrer, P; de Kluizenaar, Y; Mihucz, V G; de Oliveira Fernandes, E; Bartzis, J

    2016-04-01

    In the European research project OFFICAIR, a procedure was developed to determine associations between characteristics of European offices and health and comfort of office workers, through a checklist and a self-administered questionnaire including environmental, physiological, psychological, and social aspects. This procedure was applied in 167 office buildings in eight European countries (Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, France, Hungary, the Netherlands, and Finland) during the winter of 2011-2012. About 26 735 survey invitation e-mails were sent, and 7441 office workers were included in the survey. Among respondents who rated an overall comfort less than 4 (23%), 'noise (other than from building systems)', air 'too dry', and temperature 'too variable' were the main complaints selected. An increase of perceived control over indoor climate was positively associated with the perceived indoor environment quality. Almost one-third of office workers suffered from dry eyes and headache in the last 4 weeks. Physical building characteristics were associated with occupants' overall satisfaction (acoustical solutions, mold growth, complaints procedure, cleaning activities) and health (number of occupants, lack of operable windows, presence of carpet and cleaning activities). OFFICAIR project provides a useful database to identify stressors related to indoor environmental quality and office worker's health. PMID:25727348

  7. Study of a European male champion in 10-km road races in the age group >85 years.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Kohler, Götz; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    An 86-year-old man became a double champion in the European championship for road running in 2009. He won the 10-km road run with a time of 58:01 minutes, setting a new European record for men aged 85 and older. Two days later, he became a European champion in the same age group for the half-marathon, with a time of 2:17 hours. He started his running career at the age of 64 years and has trained for about an hour three times a week every year since. During these 22 years, he has performed several road runs each year, ranging from 2.5 to 10 km, and also completed a number of half-marathons. Although his running speeds had progressively slowed since the age of 64, there was an increased rate of decline at the age of 82. This man's outstanding performance should encourage other master runners to continue running and competing past the age of 85. PMID:20671823

  8. Increasing scientific standards, independence and transparency in post-authorisation studies: the role of the European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Blake, Kevin V; Devries, Corinne S; Arlett, Peter; Kurz, Xavier; Fitt, Henry

    2012-07-01

    PURPOSE: The European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance (ENCePP), an initiative coordinated by the European Medicines Agency, aims to build capacity for and increase trust in post-authorisation studies to further support medicine decision making. METHODS: ENCePP seeks to promote and support high standards throughout the post-authorisation research process based on robust methodologies, transparency and scientific independence. RESULTS: ENCePP provides a point of access to researchers for industry, academia and regulatory authorities seeking collaboration for the conduct of post-authorisation studies. As of 30 November 2011, the network consisted of 98 research centres, 13 networks and 18 data sources, mostly academic and publicly funded institutions but also data source providers and contract research organisations with expertise in the conduct of post-authorisation studies. All are listed in the free, public and fully searchable electronic Database of Research Resources. A guide and a checklist on methodological standards have been published; the concept of an 'ENCePP study', including a Code of Conduct, introduced; and an electronic register of studies have been launched. CONCLUSION: It is envisaged that application of the ENCePP study concept will result in an increase in trust in post-authorisation studies of medicines. The register of studies will allow for ready access to study protocols and results, thereby enhancing transparency and facilitating review. Through the network, standards, transparency and clarity of relationships, ENCePP is expected to add to the European Union capacity to conduct robust post-authorisation studies, thereby benefiting public health. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22522622

  9. Possibilities of using the European bison (Bison bonasus) epididymal spermatozoa collected post-mortem for cryopreservation and artificial insemination: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background European bison is the largest mammal in Europe with the population of approximately 4000 individuals. However, there is no report of post-mortem spermatozoa collection and cryopreservation from this species and the aim of this study was to test if the epididymal spermatozoa collected post-mortem from European bison are suitable for cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI). Methods Epididymides were collected post-mortem from two European bison bulls at age of 8 (bull 1) and 11 year (bull 2). Epididymal sperm was harvested by making multiple incisions in caudae epididymidis, which were then rinsed with extender. The left epididymis of bull 1 was rinsed with BioXcell (IMV, France), whereas the right epididymis of bull 1 and the right and left epididymides of bull 2 were rinsed with the extender based on Tris, citric acid, glucose, egg yolk, glycerol, antibiotics and distilled water (extender II). The diluted semen was cooled to 5 degrees C, and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour. Then, properties of the frozen/thawed semen were examined with the use of computer-assisted semen analysis system, and thirty cows and nine heifers of domestic cattle were artificially inseminated. Results Motility of fresh spermatozoa collected from the right epididymis of bull 1 was 70% (spermatozoa diluted with extender II), and from the left one was 60% (spermatozoa diluted with BioXcell), whereas motility of fresh spermatozoa collected from bull 2 was 90% (spermatozoa diluted with extender II). Spermatozoa motility just after thawing were 11 and 13% in bull 1, respectively for spermatozoa collected from the left and right epididymis and 48% in bull 2. As a result of AI of domestic cows and heifers with the frozen/thawed European bison spermatozoa, two pregnancies were obtained in heifers. One pregnancy finished with a premature labour after 253 days of pregnancy, and the second one after 264 days of pregnancy. Conclusions This is the first report showing pregnancy in

  10. Causes and effects of a highly successful marine invasion: Case-study of the introduced Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in continental NW European estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troost, Karin

    2010-10-01

    Since the 1960's, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas has been introduced for mariculture at several locations within NW Europe. The oyster established itself everywhere and expanded rapidly throughout the receiving ecosystems, forming extensive and dense reef structures. It became clear that the Pacific oyster induced major changes in NW European estuaries. This paper reviews the causes of the Pacific oyster's remarkably successful establishment and spread in The Netherlands and neighbouring countries, and includes a comprehensive review of consequences for the receiving communities. Ecosystem engineering by C. gigas and a relative lack of natural enemies in receiving ecosystems are identified as the most important characteristics facilitating the invader's successful establishment and expansion. The Pacific oyster's large filtration capacity and eco-engineering characteristics induced many changes in receiving ecosystems. Different estuaries are affected differently; in the Dutch Oosterschelde estuary expanding stocks saturate the carrying capacity whereas in the Wadden Sea no such problems exist. In general, the Pacific oyster seems to fit well within continental NW European estuarine ecosystems and there is no evidence that the invader outcompetes native bivalves. C. gigas induces changes in plankton composition, habitat heterogeneity and biodiversity, carrying capacity, food webs and parasite life cycles. The case of the Pacific oyster in NW European estuaries is only one example in an increasing series of biological invasions mediated by human activities. This case-study will contribute to further elucidating general mechanisms in marine invasions; invasions that sometimes appear a threat, but can also contribute to ecological complexity.

  11. Bone density variation and its effects on risk of vertebral deformity in men and women studied in thirteen European centers: the EVOS Study.

    PubMed

    Lunt, M; Felsenberg, D; Reeve, J; Benevolenskaya, L; Cannata, J; Dequeker, J; Dodenhof, C; Falch, J A; Masaryk, P; Pols, H A; Poor, G; Reid, D M; Scheidt-Nave, C; Weber, K; Varlow, J; Kanis, J A; O'Neill, T W; Silman, A J

    1997-11-01

    In Europe there is a 3-fold variation, according to geographical center, in risk of vertebral deformity in men and women over the age of 50. We investigated the relationship between bone density, as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) of the spine and hip and prevalent vertebral deformities in 13 of the 36 centers participating in the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS). Each center recruited an age-stratified sample of men and women aged 50 years and over, and of those who agreed to densitometry, 288/2088 women and 233/1908 men were found to have one or more deformities of the vertebrae between T4 and L4 as assessed by the McCloskey algorithm. DEXA was in each case performed on L2-L4, the proximal femur, or both. Bone densitometry results were cross-calibrated between centers using the European Spine Phantom prototype and results expressed as bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2). In both genders, subjects with deformities involving loss of anterior vertebral body height alone comprised over 20% of the total with deformities and these related poorly to BMD. Other classes of deformity were found by logistic regression to relate significantly to BMD in one or both genders, with odds ratios for the risk of any of these ranging from 1.67 to 2.11 for a 1 SD reduction in bone density at spine, femoral neck, or trochanter (p < 0.001). Adjusting for anthropometric variables and BMD did not remove the effect of age on risk which rose 1.67- to 1.78-fold per decade according to gender. The greater unadjusted rate of increase in deformity risk with age in women was attributable to their faster rate of bone loss with age; after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), and BMD at the trochanter in grams per square centimeter, men had a 2-fold higher risk of deformity than women. Analysis of the relationship between mean bone density and the prevalence of deformity in each center demonstrated no significant differences between centers in either gender

  12. European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) summaries for the public: are they fit for purpose? A user-testing study

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, David K; Bryant, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Apply ‘user testing’ methodology to test the readability of a European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) summary—which describes how the decision was made by the European Medicines Agency to approve a medicine. Design User testing uses mixed methods (questionnaire and semistructured interview), applied iteratively, to assess document performance—can people find and understand key points of information. Setting and participants Testing was undertaken with 40 members of the public in four consecutive rounds of 10. Inclusion criteria, matched across rounds, included range of ages and educational attainment. Tested documents In round 1 we tested 19 key points of information in a printed version of the EPAR summary for Bondronat (a cancer medicine). This was then revised to address the findings, and tested in round 2. In round 3 we tested the summary on-screen, and in round 4, tested a revised on-screen version, after addressing findings from both rounds 1 and 3. Primary outcome measure The target followed European guidance for medicine leaflets: for each point of information 90% of participants should be able to find, and of those, 90% able to show understanding of the point. Results For the original EPAR summary, 6 of the 19 points of information reached the target (both paper-based and on-screen). After revisions to format and content, using good practice in information writing and design, 14 and 16 points, respectively, met the target. The problems related to both finding (dependent on layout, headings and design) and understanding (words and sentences used, as well as design). We devised a new heading structure, increased use of bullet points, replaced difficult and technical words and divided long sentences. Conclusions People had difficulty finding and understanding key messages in the summary, but user testing identified the problems, and application of good practice resulted in a revised format which performed well. PMID:24048625

  13. Free vascular fibular transfer in congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia: results of the EPOS multicenter study. European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society (EPOS).

    PubMed

    Romanus, B; Bollini, G; Dungl, P; Fixsen, J; Grill, F; Hefti, F; Ippolito, E; Tudisco, C; Wientroub, S

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature, describes the principal author's (B.R.) personal experience and provides the results of the European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society (EPOS) multicenter study. The objective is to evaluate the present status and future role of free vascular fibular transfer in treating congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia. Variables such as the selection of cases, age at operation, technical surgical details and postoperative results will be considered. The data on the EPOS study were incomplete at the time of writing, but the considerable amount of information already amassed is a valuable contribution to this updated report. PMID:10868357

  14. Current European guidelines for management of arterial hypertension: Are they adequate for use in primary care? Modelling study based on the Norwegian HUNT 2 population

    PubMed Central

    Petursson, Halfdan; Getz, Linn; Sigurdsson, Johann A; Hetlevik, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that clinical guidelines using combined risk evaluation for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) may overestimate risk. The aim of this study was to model and discuss implementation of the current (2007) hypertension guidelines in a general Norwegian population. Methods Implementation of the current European Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension was modelled on data from a cross-sectional, representative Norwegian population study (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995-97), comprising 65,028 adults, aged 20-89, of whom 51,066 (79%) were eligible for modelling. Results Among individuals with blood pressure ≥120/80 mmHg, 93% (74% of the total, adult population) would need regular clinical attention and/or drug treatment, based on their total CVD risk profile. This translates into 296,624 follow-up visits/100,000 adults/year. In the Norwegian healthcare environment, 99 general practitioner (GP) positions would be required in the study region for this task alone. The number of GPs currently serving the adult population in the study area is 87 per 100,000 adults. Conclusion The potential workload associated with the European hypertension guidelines could destabilise the healthcare system in Norway, one of the world's most long- and healthy-living nations, by international comparison. Large-scale, preventive medical enterprises can hardly be regarded as scientifically sound and ethically justifiable, unless issues of practical feasibility, sustainability and social determinants of health are considered. PMID:19878542

  15. Association between consumption of dairy products and incident type 2 diabetes—insights from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The public health burden of type 2 diabetes has risen unabated over the past decades, fueled by obesity and lifestyle influences, including diet quality. Epidemiological evidence is accumulating for an inverse association between dairy product intake and type 2 diabetes risk; this is somewhat counterintuitive to the saturated fat and cardiometabolic disease paradigm. The present report reviews the contribution that the findings of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) study have made to this debate, noting that types of dairy products, particularly fermented dairy products including yogurt, may be more relevant than overall dairy intake for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. The EPIC study has contributed evidence through complementary approaches of a large prospective study across 8 European countries with heterogeneous dietary intakes assessed using food-frequency questionnaires (EPIC-InterAct study) and through a more detailed examination of diet assessed using a 7-day food diary (EPIC-Norfolk study). The implications of these findings are placed in the wider context, including the use of individual fatty acid blood biomarkers in the EPIC-InterAct study and an appraisal of current research gaps and suggestions for future research directions. PMID:26175485

  16. Developing the intervention material to increase physical activity levels of European preschool children: the ToyBox-study.

    PubMed

    Duvinage, K; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; Androutsos, O; Lateva, M; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Zych, K; Mouratidou, T; Mesana Graffe, M I; Manios, Y; Koletzko, B

    2014-08-01

    Early childhood is an important period for adopting positive health-related behaviours. More than 95% of European preschool children attend kindergartens, making these settings ideal for the implementation of health promotion interventions. The ToyBox-intervention addressed preschool children, their parents/caregivers and teachers. The aim of the intervention was to improve four energy balance-related behaviours (i.e. healthy snacking, water consumption, physical activity and sedentary behaviour) by implementing a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain). The intervention material was developed following the intervention mapping protocol, taking into account local and cultural differences among the intervention countries. The present paper focuses on the development of the physical activity component of the intervention. Parental involvement was addressed by providing parents/caregivers with two newsletters, two tip cards and a poster. Teachers received a handbook with guidance on environmental changes in the classroom, 26 physical education sessions and suggestions for fun, interactive classroom activities aiming at total class participation to increase preschoolers' physical activity levels. The ToyBox-intervention material was distributed according to a standard time frame. Teachers received their material prior to the start of the intervention and parents/caregivers received their material during the intervention when each energy balance-related behaviour was implemented. PMID:25047376

  17. Fat mass- and obesity-associated genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometric measures in European adults: the Food4Me study.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Forster, Hannah; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Kolossa, Silvia; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Moschonis, George; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne C; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C

    2016-02-14

    The interplay between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and diet has been implicated in the development of obesity. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate associations between FTO genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometrics among European adults. Participants in the Food4Me randomised controlled trial were genotyped for FTO genotype (rs9939609) and their dietary intakes, and diet quality scores (Healthy Eating Index and PREDIMED-based Mediterranean diet score) were estimated from FFQ. Relationships between FTO genotype, diet and anthropometrics (weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI) were evaluated at baseline. European adults with the FTO risk genotype had greater WC (AA v. TT: +1·4 cm; P=0·003) and BMI (+0·9 kg/m2; P=0·001) than individuals with no risk alleles. Subjects with the lowest fried food consumption and two copies of the FTO risk variant had on average 1·4 kg/m2 greater BMI (Ptrend=0·028) and 3·1 cm greater WC (Ptrend=0·045) compared with individuals with no copies of the risk allele and with the lowest fried food consumption. However, there was no evidence of interactions between FTO genotype and dietary intakes on BMI and WC, and thus further research is required to confirm or refute these findings. PMID:26620191

  18. Human Papillomavirus Antibodies and Future Risk of Anogenital Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    PubMed Central

    Kreimer, Aimée R.; Brennan, Paul; Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Waterboer, Tim; Clifford, Gary; Franceschi, Silvia; Michel, Angelika; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Riboli, Elio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Hildesheim, Allan; Fortner, Renée Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Palli, Domenico; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Panico, Salvatore; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H.; Cross, Amanda J.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vineis, Paolo; Larrañaga, Nerea; Pala, Valeria; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tumino, Rosario; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Travis, Ruth C.; Quirós, J. Ramón; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pawlita, Michael; Johansson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) causes cancer at several anatomic sites. In the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition study, HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before oropharyngeal cancer diagnosis and was nearly absent in controls. The current study sought to evaluate the extent to which HPV16 E6 antibodies are present before diagnosis of anogenital cancers within the same cohort. Methods Four hundred incident anogenital cancers (273 cervical, 24 anal, 67 vulvar, 12 vaginal, and 24 penile cancers) with prediagnostic blood samples (collected on average 3 and 8 years before diagnosis for cervix and noncervix cancers, respectively) and 718 matched controls were included. Plasma was analyzed for antibodies against HPV16 E6 and multiple other HPV proteins and genotypes and evaluated in relation to risk using unconditional logistic regression. Results HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present in 29.2% of individuals (seven of 24 individuals) who later developed anal cancer compared with 0.6% of controls (four of 718 controls) who remained cancer free (odds ratio [OR], 75.9; 95% CI, 17.9 to 321). HPV16 E6 seropositivity was less common for cancers of the cervix (3.3%), vagina (8.3%), vulva (1.5%), and penis (8.3%). No associations were seen for non–type 16 HPV E6 antibodies, apart from anti-HPV58 E6 and anal cancer (OR, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 33.1). HPV16 E6 seropositivity tended to increase in blood samples drawn closer in time to cancer diagnosis. Conclusion HPV16 E6 seropositivity is relatively common before diagnosis of anal cancer but rare for other HPV-related anogenital cancers. PMID:25667279

  19. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus vs. Hymenoscyphus albidus – A comparative light microscopic study on the causal agent of European ash dieback and related foliicolous, stroma-forming species

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Hans-Otto; Bemmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Five species of Hymenoscyphus that fruit on black stromatized parts of dead leaves of deciduous trees are presented, giving details on their morphological and ecological characteristics. Several of these species have previously been misplaced in rutstroemiaceous genera because of the presence of a substratal stroma. However, the heteropolar, scutuloid ascospores with an often hook-like lateral protrusion at the rounded apex and the ascus apical ring of the Hymenoscyphus-type represent two reliable morphological characteristics that, together with molecular data, provide clear evidence for their placement in the genus Hymenoscyphus (Helotiaceae). Among the species treated is Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (=Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus), the causal agent of the European ash dieback disease. Since 1992 this species started within Europe to replace the rather uncommon Hymenoscyphus albidus, which is likewise confined to leaves of Fraxinus. Hy. fraxineus has been recorded already since 1990 in Eastern Asia (Japan, Korea, northeast of China), where it had been initially misidentified as Lambertella albida (≡Hy. albidus). In these regions, it occurs as a harmless saprotroph on Fraxinus mandshurica and Fraxinus rhynchophylla, suggesting that those populations are native while the European ash dieback disease has a recent Eastern Asiatic origin. The distinctly higher genetic diversity found in Japanese Hy. fraxineus in contrast to European Hy. fraxineus supports this view. Genetic similarities between Japanese Hy. fraxineus and European Hy. albidus suggest that also Hy. albidus might be a descendant of Asian Hy. fraxineus, though having invaded Europe much earlier. However, consistent genetic deviation between European and Asian Hy. fraxineus at two nucleotide positions of the ITS region indicates that the European ash disease originates from a region different from the presently known areas in Eastern Asia. Our results underline the importance of detailed morphological studies

  20. European Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups and Metabolic Changes during Antiretroviral Therapy in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5142

    PubMed Central

    Hulgan, Todd; Haubrich, Richard; Riddler, Sharon A.; Tebas, Pablo; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; McComsey, Grace A.; Haas, David W.; Canter, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) influences metabolic diseases and perhaps antiretroviral therapy (ART) complications. We explored associations between European mtDNA haplogroups and metabolic changes among A5142 participants. Methods 757 ART-naïve subjects were randomized to one of three class-sparing ART regimens including efavirenz and/or lopinavir/ritonavir with or without nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Non-randomized NRTIs included stavudine, tenofovir, or zidovudine, each with lamivudine. Fasting lipid profiles and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were performed. Nine European mtDNA haplogroups were determined for 231 self-identified non-Hispanic white subjects. Metabolic changes from baseline to 96 weeks were analyzed by haplogroup. Results Median age was 39 years, 9% were female, and 37%, 32%, and 30% were randomized to NRTI-containing regimens with either efavirenz or lopinavir/ritonavir, and an NRTI-sparing regimen respectively. Among NRTI-containing regimens, 51% included zidovudine, 28% tenofovir, and 21% stavudine. Compared with other haplogroups, mtDNA haplogroup I (N=10) had higher baseline non-HDL cholesterol (160 mg/dL [interquartile range 137–171] vs. 120 mg/dL [104–136]; p=0.005), a decrease in non-HDL cholesterol over 96 weeks (−14% [−20-+6] vs. +25% [+8-+51]; p<0.001), tended to have more baseline extremity fat, and had more extremity fat loss by DEXA (−13% [−31-+12] vs. +9% [−13-+26]; p=0.08) and lipoatrophy (50% vs. 20%; p=0.04). Haplogroup W (N=5; all randomized to NRTI-sparing regimens) had the greatest increase in extremity fat (+35.5% [+26.8 - +54.9]; P=0.02). Conclusions Lipids and extremity fat were associated with European mtDNA haplogroups in this HIV-infected population. These preliminary results suggest that mitochondrial genomics may influence metabolic parameters before and during ART. PMID:20871389

  1. Patterns of body size and adiposity among UK children of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin: Child Heart And health Study in England (CHASE Study)

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, Claire M; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Chris G; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine adiposity patterns in UK South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European children using a range of adiposity markers. A cross-sectional survey in London, Birmingham and Leicester primary schools was conducted. Weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thickness values (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac) were measured. Fat mass was derived from bioimpedance; optimally height-standardized indices were derived for all adiposity markers. Ethnic origin was based on parental self-report. Multilevel models were used to obtain adjusted means and ethnic differences adjusted for gender, age, month, observer and school (fitted as a random effect). A total of 5887 children aged 9–10 years participated (response rate 68%), including 1345 white Europeans, 1523 South Asians and 1570 black African–Caribbeans. Results Compared with white Europeans, South Asians had a higher sum of all skinfolds and fat mass percentage, and their body mass index (BMI) was lower. South Asians were slightly shorter but use of optimally height-standardized indices did not materially affect these comparisons. At any given fat mass, BMI was lower in South Asians than white Europeans. In similar comparisons, black African–Caribbeans had a lower sum of all skinfolds but a higher fat mass percentage, and their BMI was higher. Black African–Caribbeans were markedly taller. Use of optimally height-standardized indices yielded markedly different findings; sum of skinfolds index was markedly lower, whereas fat mass index and weight-for-height index were similar. At any given fat mass, BMI was similar in black African–Caribbeans and white Europeans. Conclusions UK South Asian children have higher adiposity levels and black African–Caribbeans have similar or lower adiposity levels when compared with white Europeans. However, these differences are not well represented by comparisons based on BMI, which systematically

  2. Perspectives on superpower summitry: a content analytic study of US and western European newspaper account of the October, 1986 Reykjavik meeting between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev

    SciTech Connect

    Denk, J.

    1987-01-01

    The arms race and the proposed disarmament agreements stand at the center of this study as do how those issues are presented in various US and Western European newspapers. This study provides insight into these issues, the positions of the parties involved, and their goals and intentions. A major part focuses on how the Reykjavik Summit was used by the superpowers to achieve goals other than disarmament. The method used is content analysis, both quantitative and qualitative, with an emphasis on the latter. Analyzed and compared were articles of six major national newspapers, three from the United States and one each from France, Great Britain, and West Germany. The content analysis allowed for inferences about how the superpowers prepared for the talks, carried them out and used the talks in their ongoing relationship. The study also reveals how Western European powers understand the superpowers relationship and their role in nuclear disarmament. Also, the study highlights the influence of the planned SDI program and how it might change deterrence and mutual assured destruction toward an atmosphere of greater uncertainty with respect to nuclear strategy.

  3. Main traumatic events in Europe: PTSD in the European study of the epidemiology of mental disorders survey.

    PubMed

    Darves-Bornoz, Jean-Michel; Alonso, Jordi; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep-Maria; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Nachbaur, Gaëlle; Negre-Pages, Laurence; Vilagut, Gemma; Gasquet, Isabelle

    2008-10-01

    A potentially traumatic event (PTE) contributes to trauma through its frequency, conditional probability of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and experience of other PTEs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, enrolling 21,425 adults nationally representative of six European countries. Using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 8,797 were interviewed on 28 PTEs and PTSD. Prevalence of 12-month PTSD was 1.1%. When PTSD was present, the mean number of PTEs experienced was 3.2. In a multivariate analysis on PTEs and gender, six PTEs were found to be more traumatic, and to explain a large percentage of PTSD, as estimated by their attributable risk of PTSD: rape, undisclosed private event, having a child with serious illness, beaten by partner, stalked, beaten by caregiver. PMID:18956444

  4. Survey on European studies of the chemical characterisation of tattoo ink products and the measurement of potentially harmful ingredients.

    PubMed

    Agnello, Manuela; Fontana, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The results of the detection of carcinogenic aromatic amines in about 300 ink samples are discussed. All analysed inks contained at least one or more azo compound pigments, and the presence of aromatic amines could only have originated from these compounds through a chemical process named 'reductive cleavage'. Sometimes, aromatic amines were also present as impurities derived from the processing of the pigments. A systematic surveillance programme in Italy, promoted by the Italian Ministry of Health with the involvement of Italian regions, local public health authorities and Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione Ambiente del Piemonte (Environmental Protection Agency), has shown that about 40% of the monitored inks are not regular according to European Resolution ResAP(2008):1. The method utilised for the detection of aromatic amines has allowed the identification of other substances that are not carcinogenic but are toxic or have sensitisation properties that are derived from reductive cleavage or that are present as impurities. PMID:25833636

  5. Morphology of the European species of the aphid genus Eulachnus (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Lachninae) - A SEM comparative and integrative study.

    PubMed

    Kanturski, Mariusz; Karcz, Jagna; Wieczorek, Karina

    2015-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods were used for the first time to elucidate the external morphology of the European species of the genus Eulachnus (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Lachninae), a representative genus of the conifer-feeding aphids tribe Eulachnini. We examined and compared the external morphology of apterous and alate viviparous females from the parthenogenetic generation as well as oviparous females and alate males belonging to the sexual generation. FE-SEM images based on HMDS and cryo-SEM preparation techniques revealed better image quality than the CPD technique in regard to surface tension and morphological signs of cell deteriorations (i.e., existence of depressions, drying artifacts and membrane blebs). Three morphologically different species groups "agilis", "brevipilosus" and "cembrae" were proposed due to the differences in head, antennae, legs and dorsal chaetotaxy as well as dorsal sclerotization. The most characteristic features and differences of representatives of these groups are presented and discussed. PMID:26021259

  6. Object Based Image Analysis to Support Environmental Monitoring Under the European Habitat Directive: a Case Study from Decover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, O.; Peter, B.; Völker, A.; Donning, A.

    2011-09-01

    DeCOVER serves as a national extension of the European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative. It was initiated to develop land cover information services adapted to German user needs. One of its three service developments pillars is the application of Remote Sensing to support environmental monitoring schemes under the European Habitats Directive.Within two DeCOVER test sites located in North-Rhine Westphalia/Germany an object-based indicator classification approach is currently being developed to monitor heath habitats of importance under the Habitats Directive. While many previous Remote Sensing projects have focused on the discrete classification of habitat types to replace fieldwork, our approach is embedded in a strong operational context to a) focus and direct fieldwork efforts by pre-field visit assessment of habitat changes (change detection) and b) support fieldwork by contributing quality parameters and GIS-ready geometries. Using Geoeye satellite data (VHR component) and RapidEye satellite images (Multi-temporal HR component) together with existing habitat and biotope maps (knowledge and post-classification component) an image analysis approach is realised using object-based classification routines based on data mining tools to derive training information. To extract meaningful objects of heath-, sand- and grassland from the VHR-data, training sample areas have to be assigned. Thresholds and appropriate features for describing these samples are analysed by statistical algorithms and are used in the following classification. A multi-temporal approach for the acquisition of tree habitat areas integrates two RapidEye scenes into the classification process. To validate classification accuracies and potential transects were sampled in the field and analyzed for their structural composition using top view field photos of 1m2. First results demonstrate the realistic option to directly support the fieldwork or reduce its post

  7. Effect and Process Evaluation of a Cluster Randomized Control Trial on Water Intake and Beverage Consumption in Preschoolers from Six European Countries: The ToyBox-Study

    PubMed Central

    Pinket, An-Sofie; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Cardon, Greet; Androutsos, Odysseas; Koletzko, Berthold; Moreno, Luis A.; Socha, Piotr; Iotova, Violeta; Manios, Yannis; De Craemer, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    Background Within the ToyBox-study, a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention was developed to prevent overweight and obesity in European preschoolers, targeting four key behaviours related to early childhood obesity, including water consumption. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention (cluster randomized controlled trial) on water intake and beverage consumption in European preschoolers and to investigate if the intervention effects differed by implementation score of kindergartens and parents/caregivers. Method A sample of 4964 preschoolers (4.7±0.4 years; 51.5% boys) from six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, Spain) was included in the data analyses. A standardized protocol was used and parents/caregivers filled in socio-demographic data and a food-frequency questionnaire. To assess intervention effects, multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted for the total sample and for the six country-specific samples. Based on the process evaluation questionnaire of teachers and parents/caregivers, an implementation score was constructed. To assess differences in water intake and beverage consumption by implementation score in the total sample, multilevel repeated measures analyses were performed. Results Limited intervention effects on water intake from beverages and overall beverage consumption were found. However, important results were found on prepacked fruit juice consumption, with a larger decrease in the intervention group compared to the control group. However, also a decline in plain milk consumption was found. Implementation scores were rather low in both kindergartens and parents/caregivers. Nevertheless, more favorable effects on beverage choices were found in preschoolers whose parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers had higher implementation scores compared to those with lower implementation scores. Conclusion The ToyBox-intervention can provide the basis for the

  8. Prevalence of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease in Europe: the EUROPARKINSON Collaborative Study. European Community Concerted Action on the Epidemiology of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    de Rijk, M C; Tzourio, C; Breteler, M M; Dartigues, J F; Amaducci, L; Lopez-Pousa, S; Manubens-Bertran, J M; Alpérovitch, A; Rocca, W A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the prevalence of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease in five European populations that were surveyed with similar methodology and diagnostic criteria. METHODS: Joint analysis of five community surveys--Gironde (France), eight centres in Italy, Rotterdam (The Netherlands), Girona (Spain), and Pamplona (Spain)--in which subjects were screened in person for parkinsonism. Overall, these surveys comprised 14,636 participants aged 65 years or older. RESULTS: The overall prevalence (per 100 population), age adjusted to the 1991 European standard population, was 2.3 for parkinsonism and 1.6 for Parkinson's disease. The overall prevalence of parkinsonism for the age groups 65 to 69, 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and 85 to 89 years was respectively, 0.9, 1.5, 3.7, 5.0, and 5.1. The corresponding age specific figures for Parkinson's disease were 0.6, 1.0, 2.7, 3.6, and 3.5. After adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence figures did not differ significantly across studies, except for the French study in which prevalence was lower. Prevalence was similar in men and women. Overall, 24% of the subjects with Parkinson's disease were newly detected through the surveys. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of both parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease increased with age, without significant differences between men and women. There was no convincing evidence for differences in prevalence across European countries. A substantial proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease went undetected in the general population. PMID:9010393

  9. Prevalence of negative life events and chronic adversities in European pre- and primary-school children: results from the IDEFICS study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Children are not always recognized as being susceptible to stress, although childhood stressors may originate from multiple events in their everyday surroundings with negative effects on children’s health. Methods As there is a lack of large-scale, European prevalence data on childhood adversities, this study presents the prevalence of (1) negative life events and (2) familial and social adversities in 4637 European pre- and primary-school children (4–11 years old), using a parentally-reported questionnaire embedded in the IDEFICS project (‘Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS’). Results The following findings were observed: (1) Certain adversities occur only rarely, while others are very regular (i.e. parental divorce); (2) A large percentage of children is shielded from stressors, while a small group of children is exposed to multiple, accumulating adversities; (3) The prevalence of childhood adversity is influenced by geographical location (e.g. north versus south), age group and sex; (4) Childhood adversities are associated and co-occur, resulting in potential cumulative childhood stress. Conclusions This study demonstrated the importance of not only studying traumatic events but also of focusing on the early familial and social environment in childhood stress research and indicated the importance of recording or monitoring childhood adversities. PMID:23173879

  10. Cross-Cultural Issues of Intra- and Inter-Organisational Cooperation in Space Operations: A Survey Study with Ground Personnel of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Manzey, Dietrich

    Today's space operations often involve close co-working of people with different ethnical, professional and organizational backgrounds. The aim of the study was to examine the implications of cultural diversity for efficient collaboration within the European Space Agency (ESA), and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. Methods: A web-based survey was answered by 905 employees at the European Astronaut Centre and at the European Space Technology Centre. An adapted version of the Flight Management Attitude Questionnaire by Helmreich and Merrit was used. Personnel were also asked about interpersonal and operational issues that interfered with efficient co-working within ESA and in relation to other space agencies. Results: Collaboration within ESA: A descriptive analysis was conducted of the rank orders of challenges perceived by members of different nationalities (the Netherlands (N=68), German (N=138), Italian (N=135), French (N=124), British (N=84) and Scandinavian (27).Rank orders show a surprisingly uniformity across nationalities. Most respondents perceived differences in the preferred leadership style as the main challenge for co-working in multi-national groups followed by differences in dealing with conflicts and misunderstandings. In contrast communication problems due different languages and differences in non-verbal behaviour, as well as differences in gender stereotypes were among the lowest rated issues. However, Scandinavian respondents showed a different pattern from other nationalities. Collaboration between agencies: The most significant issues reported to interfere with the efficiency of inter-agency collaboration varied. Most difficulties were reported in relation to clarity of communication, insufficient sharing of task related information, understanding the process of decision making in partner organization, and authoritarian leadership style in the partner organization Conclusion: Cultural differences in leadership and

  11. Cross-cultural, age and gender validation of a computerised questionnaire measuring personal, social and environmental associations with children's physical activity: the European Youth Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Ommundsen, Yngvar; Page, Angie; Ku, Po-Wen; Cooper, Ashley R

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the construct validity of a computerised self-assessment tool to measure psychological, social and environmental influences of young peoples' physical activity. First, analyses of the measure's factorial validity, invariance across, age, gender culture were conducted. Second, the ability of the derived subscales to discriminate between children representing different levels of self-reported and objectively measured physical activity behaviour was examined. Methods Participants were 1875 boys and 2078 girls (total = 3958) aged 9–10 years (n = 1955, mean age = 9.65 ± 0.42) and 15–16 years (n = 2003, mean age = 15.49 ± 0.50) from four European countries in Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe who took part in the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Children completed the computerised self-assessment tool with support from the researcher if requested. Self-reported exercise and an objective measure of physical activity (Actigraph model 7164) were used for additional construct validation purposes. Results Overall evidence of good fit indicating satisfactory factorial validity and cross-cultural, age and gender invariance for 3 of the 4 measurement models were obtained. The majority of measures were also significantly different for those with high versus low levels of physical activity. Conclusion Overall, the computerised questionnaire holds promise for use cross-culturally with male and female children and adolescents to measure perceived personal, social and environmental influences on physical activity. Further development of the measures pertaining to perceived environmental influences seems warranted. PMID:18489736

  12. Exposure assessment within a Total Diet Study: a comparison of the use of the pan-European classification system FoodEx-1 with national food classification systems.

    PubMed

    Akhandaf, Y; Van Klaveren, J; De Henauw, S; Van Donkersgoed, G; Van Gorcum, T; Papadopoulos, A; Sirot, V; Kennedy, M; Pinchen, H; Ruprich, J; Rehurkova, I; Perelló, G; Sioen, I

    2015-04-01

    A Total Diet Study (TDS) consists of selecting, collecting and preparing commonly consumed foods purchased at retail level and analysing them for harmful and/or beneficial chemical substances. A food classification system is needed to link food consumption data with the contaminant concentration data obtained in the TDS for the exposure assessment. In this study a comparison was made between the use of a national food classification systems and the use of FoodEx-1, developed and recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The work was performed using data of six European countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, France, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. For each population, exposure to contaminant A (organic compounds) and/or contaminant B (inorganic compound) was assessed by the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software using the national classification system and FoodEx-1 for food consumption data and for TDS laboratory results. Minimal differences between both approaches were observed. This observation applied for both contaminant A and contaminant B. In general risk assessment will be similar for both approaches; however, this is not guaranteed. FoodEx-1 proved to be a valuable hierarchic classification system in order to harmonise exposure assessment based on existing TDS results throughout Europe. PMID:25662864

  13. Winter and summer-autumn flash floods as "drivers" of drought and seasonal flood characteristics (case study of European Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireeva, Maria; Frolova, Natalia; Rets, Ekaterina; Ezerova, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    The presence of occasional flood periods on rivers is a typical feature of the hydrological regime of European Russia. Despite the fact that the main high-water phase of a hydrological year here is related to spring, flash floods in other seasons play an equally important role. For example, increased water content during autumn determines soil moisture content that determines the loss of runoff during spring flood. Winter floods caused by thaws result in a significant drawdown of a snow pack. And when it is followed by a return of cold weather an ice crust is formed on the surface of snowpack that significantly reduces rates of melt water filtration process.In recent decades, most of the rivers in the European part of Russia have experienced a significant increase of occasional flood flow share in total annual runoff. For example, in the Don basin this parameter has increased by almost 2 times, in the basin of Oka by 1.5. Though less intense, these trends can be traced in the eastern part of the region - in the basins of Kama and Vyatka. The increase here can is approximately 15-20%. In the north of the Eastern Plain (North Dvina, etc.) this tendency isn't observed. The number of flood waves has several times increased. Until 1970s 1-3 occasional floods a year were generally observed on the rivers of Central and Southern Russia. In the past three decades almost every year there are from 4 to 8 or more periods of high water. They are superimposed on each other, as well as the phase of the spring flood and low flow period. The ratio of the maximum discharge of occasional flood to maximum discharge of seasonal flood has increased several times. Now some outstanding floods can be compared with the spring flood wave or even exceed it.Thus, through winter floods an "interception" of spring flood runoff occurs. Spring floods have a lower height and volume and as a result they don't fully recharge a basin. Dry period in this case begins much earlier and though the moisture

  14. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS - From dedicated field studies to routine observations of the atmosphere by instrumented passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Gerbig, Christoph; Thouret, Valerie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Iagos Team

    2013-04-01

    The global distribution of trace species is controlled by a complex interplay between natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks, atmospheric short- to long-range transport, and in future by diverse, largely not yet quantified feedback mechanisms such as enhanced evaporation of water vapour in a warming climate or possibly the release of methane from melting marine clathrates. Improving global trace gas budgets and reducing the uncertainty of climate predictions crucially requires representative data from routine long-term observations as independent constraint for the evaluation and improvement of model parameterizations. IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) is a new European Research Infrastructure which operates a unique global observing system by deploying autonomous instruments aboard a fleet of passenger aircraft. IAGOS consists of two complementary building blocks: IAGOS-CORE deploys newly developed high-tech instrumentation for regular in-situ measurements of atmospheric chemical species (O3, CO, CO2, NOx, NOy, H2O, CH4), aerosols and cloud particles. Involved airlines ensure global operation of the network. In IAGOS-CARIBIC a cargo container is operated as a flying laboratory aboard one passenger aircraft. IAGOS aims at the provision of long-term, frequent, regular, accurate, and spatially resolved in-situ observations of the atmospheric chemical composition in the UTLS and the extra tropical troposphere and on vertical profiles of greenhouse gases, reactive trace gases and aerosols throughout the troposphere. It builds on almost 20 years of scientific and technological expertise gained in the research projects MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapour on Airbus In-service Aircraft) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The European consortium includes research centres, universities, national weather services, airline operators and aviation

  15. Release of Bet v 1 from birch pollen from 5 European countries. Results from the HIALINE study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Thibaudon, Michel; Smith, Matt; Kennedy, Roy; Rantio-Lehtimäki, Auli; Albertini, Roberto; Reese, Gerald; Weber, Bernhard; Galan, Carmen; Brandao, Rui; Antunes, Celia M.; Jäger, Siegfried; Berger, Uwe; Celenk, Sevcan; Grewling, Łukasz; Jackowiak, Bogdan; Sauliene, Ingrida; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; Pusch, Gudrun; Sarioglu, Hakan; Ueffing, Marius; Behrendt, Heidrun; Prank, Marje; Sofiev, Mikhail; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Hialine Working Group

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to allergens is pivotal in determining sensitization and allergic symptoms in individuals. Pollen grain counts in ambient air have traditionally been assessed to estimate airborne allergen exposure. However, the exact allergen content of ambient air is unknown. We therefore monitored atmospheric concentrations of birch pollen grains and the matched major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 simultaneously across Europe within the EU-funded project HIALINE (Health Impacts of Airborne Allergen Information Network). Pollen count was assessed with Hirst type pollen traps at 10 l min-1 at sites in France, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and Finland. Allergen concentrations in ambient air were sampled at 800 l min-1 with a Chemvol® high-volume cascade impactor equipped with stages PM > 10 μm, 10 μm > PM > 2.5 μm, and in Germany also 2.5 μm > PM > 0.12 μm. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was determined with an allergen specific ELISA. Bet v 1 isoform patterns were analyzed by 2D-SDS-PAGE blots and mass spectrometric identification. Basophil activation was tested in an FcɛR1-humanized rat basophil cell line passively sensitized with serum of a birch pollen symptomatic patient. Compared to 10 previous years, 2009 was a representative birch pollen season for all stations. About 90% of the allergen was found in the PM > 10 μm fraction at all stations. Bet v 1 isoforms pattern did not vary substantially neither during ripening of pollen nor between different geographical locations. The average European allergen release from birch pollen was 3.2 pg Bet v 1/pollen and did not vary much between the European countries. However, in all countries a >10-fold difference in daily allergen release per pollen was measured which could be explained by long-range transport of pollen with a deviating allergen release. Basophil activation by ambient air extracts correlated better with airborne allergen than with pollen concentration. Although Bet v 1 is a mixture of different

  16. Release of Bet v 1 from birch pollen from 5 European countries. Results from the HIALINE study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The HIALINE working Group; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Thibaudon, Michel; Smith, Matt; Kennedy, Roy; Rantio-Lehtimäki, Auli; Albertini, Roberto; Reese, Gerald; Weber, Bernhard; Galan, Carmen; Brandao, Rui; Antunes, Celia M.; Jäger, Siegfried; Berger, Uwe; Celenk, Sevcan; Grewling, Łukasz; Jackowiak, Bogdan; Sauliene, Ingrida; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; Pusch, Gudrun; Sarioglu, Hakan; Ueffing, Marius; Behrendt, Heidrun; Prank, Marje; Sofiev, Mikhail; Cecchi, Lorenzo

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to allergens is pivotal in determining sensitization and allergic symptoms in individuals. Pollen grain counts in ambient air have traditionally been assessed to estimate airborne allergen exposure. However, the exact allergen content of ambient air is unknown. We therefore monitored atmospheric concentrations of birch pollen grains and the matched major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 simultaneously across Europe within the EU-funded project HIALINE (Health Impacts of Airborne Allergen Information Network).Pollen count was assessed with Hirst type pollen traps at 10 l min-1 at sites in France, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and Finland. Allergen concentrations in ambient air were sampled at 800 l min-1 with a Chemvol® high-volume cascade impactor equipped with stages PM > 10 μm, 10 μm > PM > 2.5 μm, and in Germany also 2.5 μm > PM > 0.12 μm. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was determined with an allergen specific ELISA. Bet v 1 isoform patterns were analyzed by 2D-SDS-PAGE blots and mass spectrometric identification. Basophil activation was tested in an FcɛR1-humanized rat basophil cell line passively sensitized with serum of a birch pollen symptomatic patient.Compared to 10 previous years, 2009 was a representative birch pollen season for all stations. About 90% of the allergen was found in the PM > 10 μm fraction at all stations. Bet v 1 isoforms pattern did not vary substantially neither during ripening of pollen nor between different geographical locations. The average European allergen release from birch pollen was 3.2 pg Bet v 1/pollen and did not vary much between the European countries. However, in all countries a >10-fold difference in daily allergen release per pollen was measured which could be explained by long-range transport of pollen with a deviating allergen release. Basophil activation by ambient air extracts correlated better with airborne allergen than with pollen concentration.Although Bet v 1 is a mixture of different

  17. A study of emissions from a Euro 4 light duty diesel vehicle with the European particulate measurement programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Harry; Ayala, Alberto; Zhang, Sherry; Collins, John; Huai, Tao; Herner, Jorn; Chau, Wilson

    2010-09-01

    The California Air Resources Board, CARB, has participated in a program to quantify particulate matter (PM) emissions with a European methodology, which is known as the Particulate Measurement Programme (PMP). The essence of the PMP methodology is that the diesel PM from a Euro 4 vehicle equipped with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) consists primarily of solid particles with a size range greater than 23 nm. The PMP testing and the enhanced testing performed by CARB have enabled an increased understanding of both the progress that has been made in PM reduction, and the future remaining challenges for new and improved DPF-equipped diesel vehicles. A comparison of measured regulated emissions and solid particle number emissions with the results obtained by the PMP participating international laboratories was a success, and CARB's measurements and standard deviations compared well with the other laboratories. Enhanced measurements of the influence of vehicle conditioning prior to testing on PM mass and solid particle number results were performed, and some significant influences were discovered. For example, the influence of vehicle preconditioning on particle number results was significant for both the European and USA test driving cycles. However, the trends for the cycles were opposite with one cycle showing an increase and the other cycle showing a decrease in particle number emissions. If solid particle size distribution and total particle numbers are to be used as proposed in PMP, then a greater understanding of the quality and errors associated with measurement technologies is advisable. In general, particle counting instruments gave results with similar trends, but cycle-to-cycle testing variation was observed. Continuous measurements of particle number concentrations during test cycles have given detailed insight into PM generation. At the present time there is significant variation in the capabilities of the particle counting instruments in terms of

  18. Clinical trials update from the joint European Society and World Congress of Cardiology meeting: PEP-CHF, ACCLAIM and the HHH study.

    PubMed

    Cleland, John G F; Coletta, Alison P; Clark, Andrew L

    2006-10-01

    This article provides information and a commentary on trials relevant to the pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of heart failure, presented at the joint European Society and World Congress of Cardiology meeting held in Barcelona in September 2006. All reports should be considered as preliminary data, as analyses may change in the final publication. The PEP-CHF study suggests that perindopril improves symptoms and functional capacity and may reduce heart failure hospitalisations in patients with diastolic heart failure. Although immune modulation therapy failed to reduce the incidence of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospitalisations in the ACCLAIM study, the observed differences in outcome in some heart failure patients warrants further investigation. The HHH study failed to show a beneficial effect of telemonitoring over usual care in patients with heart failure but potentially important country interactions were observed. PMID:17045839

  19. Hostility in schizophrenia: An integrated analysis of the combined Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) and the European First Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST) studies

    PubMed Central

    Volavka, J.; Van Dorn, R.A.; Citrome, L.; Kahn, R.S.; Fleischhacker, W.W.; Czobor, P.

    2016-01-01

    Phase 1 of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study enrolled a sample of 1493 chronic schizophrenia patients. The European First Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST) enrolled 498 patients. We have combined these two samples to study the effects of hostility on study discontinuation as well as to examine correlates and predictors of hostility. Individual data from 1154 patients with complete data were used for analyses. Survival analysis demonstrated that higher hostility was associated with earlier all-cause treatment discontinuation. Furthermore, regression analysis indicated that increased hostility was associated with more severe positive symptoms, lower adherence to pharmacological treatment, younger age, impaired insight, and more drug or alcohol consumption. The clinical implications of the results point to the importance of establishing therapeutic alliance while managing patient’s symptoms of hostility with antipsychotics such as olanzapine combined with psychosocial interventions to improve insight and reduce substance use. PMID:26657597

  20. Cultural differences in self- and other-evaluations and well-being: a study of European and Asian Canadians.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunji; Schimmack, Ulrich; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2012-04-01

    Anusic, Schimmack, Pinkus, and Lockwood (2009) developed the halo-alpha-beta (HAB) model to separate halo variance from variance due to valid personality traits and other sources of measurement error in self-ratings of personality. The authors used a twin-HAB model of self-ratings and ratings of a partner (friend or dating partner) to test several hypotheses about culture, evaluative biases in self- and other-perceptions, and well-being. Participants were friends or dating partners who reported on their own and their partner's personality and well-being (N = 906 students). European Canadians had higher general evaluative biases (GEB) than Asian Canadians. There were no cultural differences in self-enhancement or other-enhancement. GEB significantly predicted self-ratings of life satisfaction, but not informant ratings of well-being. GEB fully mediated the effect of culture on self-ratings of life satisfaction. The results suggest that North American culture encourages positive biases in self- and other-perceptions. These biases also influence self-ratings of life satisfaction but have a much weaker effect on informant ratings of life satisfaction. The implications of these findings for cultural differences in well-being are discussed. PMID:22288531

  1. Bayesian Inference for Time Trends in Parameter Values: Case Study for the Ageing PSA Network of the European Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Dana L. Kelly; Albert Malkhasyan

    2010-06-01

    There is a nearly ubiquitous assumption in PSA that parameter values are at least piecewise-constant in time. As a result, Bayesian inference tends to incorporate many years of plant operation, over which there have been significant changes in plant operational and maintenance practices, plant management, etc. These changes can cause significant changes in parameter values over time; however, failure to perform Bayesian inference in the proper time-dependent framework can mask these changes. Failure to question the assumption of constant parameter values, and failure to perform Bayesian inference in the proper time-dependent framework were noted as important issues in NUREG/CR-6813, performed for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards in 2003. That report noted that “industry lacks tools to perform time-trend analysis with Bayesian updating.” This paper describes an application of time-dependent Bayesian inference methods developed for the European Commission Ageing PSA Network. These methods utilize open-source software, implementing Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. The paper also illustrates the development of a generic prior distribution, which incorporates multiple sources of generic data via weighting factors that address differences in key influences, such as vendor, component boundaries, conditions of the operating environment, etc.

  2. Institutional guidelines and ongoing studies in management of liver tumours: the experience of the European Institute of Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Biffi, R; Orsi, F; Zampino, MG; Chiappa, A; Fazio, N; De Braud, F; Bonomo, G; Monfardini, L; Vigna, PD; Luca, F; Bodei, L; Bartolomei, M; Catalano, G; Leonardi, MC; Ferrari, M; Andreoni, B; Goldhirsch, A; Paganelli, G; Orecchia, R

    2008-01-01

    Background: An institutional task force on upper gastrointestinal tumours is active at the European Institute of Oncology (EIO). Members decided to collate the institutional guidelines on management of liver tumours (primary and metastatic) into a document. This article is aimed at presenting the current treatment guidelines as well as ongoing research protocols and trials in this field at the EIO. Methods: A steering committee convened to assign tasks to individual members. Contributions from experts in each treatment area were collated in a single document, in order to produce a draft for subsequent review from the aforementioned committee. Six drafts have been discussed and the final version approved. Results: Surgical, medical oncology, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation therapy approaches, their roles in management of liver tumours and ongoing research trials are presented and discussed in this article. Conclusions: At the EIO a multi-disciplinary integrated approach to liver tumours is standard and several ongoing research projects are currently active in this field. PMID:22275961

  3. Teachers' and prospective teachers' explanations of liquid-state phenomena: A comparative study involving three European countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Laurinda; Mendoza, José; Borsese, Aldo

    2007-02-01

    As contact with liquids occurs from an early stage in individuals' lives, children construct explanations for liquids and liquid-state phenomena. These may differ from the accepted scientific explanations, interfere with formal teaching, and even persist until entry into higher education. The objective of this investigation is to compare student-teachers' and in-service science teachers' explanations for liquid-state phenomena, in three European countries. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire applied to 195 Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish in-service science teachers. Data analysis revealed poor performance among participants, showing low percentages of correct answers. In addition, no systematic differences were found between participants from the three countries, and teaching experience seems to minimize some of the conceptual difficulties showed by in-service teachers. Globally, science education seems to have had a limited effect on student-teachers' and in-service science teachers' conceptions. We conclude that more attention should be paid to the liquid state in both initial and continuing teacher education programs so that teachers can understand more clearly liquid-state phenomena and succeed in explaining them to their students.

  4. Collaborative study for the establishment of a European Phamacopoeia Biological reference preparation for Bordetella pertussis mouse antiserum for serological potency testing of acellular pertussis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Bertrand; Bornstein, Nicole; Andre, Murielle; Marmonier, Denis; Pares, Monique; Vanhooren, Gerard; Rautmann, Guy; Behr-Gross, Marie-Emmanuelle; Dobbelaer, Roland; Fuchs, Florence

    2003-03-01

    A collaborative study was organised by the European Directorate For the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) to assess the suitability of a candidate mouse antiserum as a European Pharmacopoeia Biological reference preparation (BRP) for acellular pertussis vaccine potency testing. The candidate antiserum was obtained by immunising mice with a five-component acellular pertussis vaccine: pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN) and Fimbrial 2/Fimbrial 3 (Fim 2&3). The study has been divided into two separate phases. Phase I was a pre-qualification study including three laboratories. This phase was aimed at pre-qualifying the candidate BRP (cBRP) and at documenting the impact of differences in the antibody detection methodology enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures on results of pertussis antisera calibration versus the currently used standard US standard pertussis antiserum (mouse) Lot 1 (SPAM-1) (United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) reference serum) and the cBRP. As no significant difference between the antibody titres determined by using the different ELISA methodologies was found, a large-scale study enrolling 13 laboratories (Phase II) was carried out, each participant performing its in-house methodology. Its aim was to calibrate the cBRP (in terms of the SPAM-1 reference) and to demonstrate its equivalence or superiority to internal references. The study showed that there was no difference in positive sera titres expressed relative to their corresponding internal reference (homologous situation) or the proposed standard (heterologous situation) reference. The cBRP can, therefore, reliably act as replacement for the in-house reference preparations. Further analysis of the outcome of this study enabled to assign to the cBRP a potency of 39, 138, 34 and 56 ELISA unit per millilitre, respectively, to its anti-PT, anti-FHA, anti-PRN and anti-Fim 2&3 antibody contents. The cBRP has been adopted by the European

  5. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and bipolar disorder in European populations: A risk association in case-control, family-based and GWAS studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Chang, Hong; Xiao, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a nerve growth factor that has antidepressant-like effects in animal models and may be implicated in the etiology of mood-related phenotypes. A functional polymorphism (Val66Met) in the BDNF gene was demonstrated to influence BDNF's secretion and function, as well as mood and cognitive related phenotypes. However, previous genetic association studies of Val66Met polymorphism in the clinical risk of mood disorders have been complicated, possibly due to phenotypic diversity, underpowered statistical association or ancestry-specific effects. Here, we collected mood phenotypic and genetic data in over 90,000 individuals from diverse ethnic groups and conducted a systematic meta-analysis. The results showed that the Val66Met polymorphism was significantly associated with BPD in Europeans (Pmeta=0.0029, OR=1.136), but not in Asians (Pmeta=0.443). Also, it appears that the risk for MDD conferred by BDNF is waning, as the Val66Met variant was not associated with MDD in either European or Asian samples (Pmeta>0.5). PMID:27236043

  6. Cross-sectional study of ethnic differences in physical fitness among children of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Kerry, S R; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Brage, S; Westgate, K L; Ekelund, U; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Little is known about levels of physical fitness in children from different ethnic groups in the UK. We therefore studied physical fitness in UK children (aged 9–10 years) of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Primary schools in the UK. Participants 1625 children (aged 9–10 years) of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin in the UK studied between 2006 and 2007. Outcome measures A step test assessed submaximal physical fitness from which estimated VO2 max was derived. Ethnic differences in estimated VO2 max were estimated using multilevel linear regression allowing for clustering at school level and adjusting for age, sex and month as fixed effects. Results The study response rate was 63%. In adjusted analyses, boys had higher levels of estimated VO2 max than girls (mean difference 3.06 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI 2.66 to 3.47, p<0.0001). Levels of estimated VO2 max were lower in South Asians than those in white Europeans (mean difference −0.79 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI −1.41 to −0.18, p=0.01); levels of estimated VO2 max in black African–Caribbeans were higher than those in white Europeans (mean difference 0.60 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.17, p=0.04); these patterns were similar in boys and girls. The lower estimated VO2 max in South Asians, compared to white Europeans, was consistent among Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi children and was attenuated by 78% after adjustment for objectively measured physical activity (average daily steps). Conclusions South Asian children have lower levels of physical fitness than white Europeans and black African–Caribbeans in the UK. This ethnic difference in physical fitness is at least partly explained by ethnic differences in physical activity. PMID:27324713

  7. Feasibility study and optimization of image tasking in the context of the European Union CAP CwRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajsova, Blanka; Åstrand, Pär. Johan; Oddone, Axel; Ellis, George

    2012-09-01

    CwRS (Control with Remote Sensing) is a control method foreseen by the CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) of the European Union (EU) which is used to check if agriculture area-based subsidies are correctly granted to EU farmers. A series of Very High Resolution (VHR) and High Resolution (HR) satellite sensors participate in the acquisition program. Imagery is collected in specific multi-temporal, short time-windows and used for parcel area determination, for crop identification and for control of Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAECs). In the 2003 Campaign 37 VHR zones with an overall area of 12.500 km2 were checked with the CwRS technique; in the 2011 Campaign 426 VHR control zones were acquired covering an overall area of 242.000 km2, with a total expenditure of 7.1 M euro. This is an enormous increase due to the success of the methodology which needs pointing out. Of interest is also the increasing requirements put on the imagery quality (higher elevation angle, better resolution and better radiometry.). One of the crucial features requested by EU Member States (MS) is window length, for VHR this is usually quite short (6-8 weeks). A feasibility analysis for all zones is therefore done before each VHR Campaign starts to ensure a maximal statistical success rate. This paper describes the complexity of the technical and competitive feasibility assessment taking into account parameters such as satellite characteristics (revisit capacity, number of passes), zone size, shape and latitude; elevation angle, acquisition window length, programming priority level, weather forecast and competitive conflicting tasking. To increase the efficiency of the image acquisition a real local tasking with the use of a Direct Access Facility (DAF) can be compared to a tasking performed through an Imaging and Processing Facility (IPF). Both approaches allow the integration of last minute information into the collection plan and yield for instance better chances of

  8. The economic implications of changing regulations for deep sea fishing under the European Common Fisheries Policy: UK case study.

    PubMed

    Mangi, Stephen C; Kenny, Andrew; Readdy, Lisa; Posen, Paulette; Ribeiro-Santos, Ana; Neat, Francis C; Burns, Finlay

    2016-08-15

    Economic impact assessment methodology was applied to UK fisheries data to better understand the implications of European Commission proposal for regulations to fishing for deep-sea stocks in the North-East Atlantic (EC COM 371 Final 2012) under the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). The aim was to inform the on-going debate to develop the EC proposal, and to assist the UK fishing industry and Government in evaluating the most effective options to manage deep sea fish stocks. Results indicate that enforcing the EC proposal as originally drafted results in a number of implications for the UK fleet. Because of the proposed changes to the list of species defined as being deep sea species, and a new definition of what constitutes a vessel targeting deep sea species, a total of 695 active UK fishing vessels would need a permit to fish for deep sea species. However, due to existing and capped capacity limits many vessels would potentially not be able to obtain such a permit. The economic impact of these changes from the status quo reveals that in the short term, landings would decrease by 6540 tonnes, reducing gross value added by £3.3 million. Alternative options were also assessed that provide mitigation measures to offset the impacts of the proposed regulations whilst at the same time providing more effective protection of deep sea Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs). The options include setting a 400m depth rule that identifies a depth beyond which vessels would potentially be classified as fishing for deep sea species and designating 'core areas' for deep sea fishing at depths>400m to minimise the risk of further impacts of bottom fishing gear on deep sea habitats. Applying a 400m depth limit and 'core fishing' area approach deeper than 400m, the impact of the EC proposal would essentially be reduced to zero, that is, on average no vessels (using the status quo capacity baseline) would be impacted by the proposal. PMID:27100006

  9. Social Network Type and Long-Term Condition Management Support: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Network types and characteristics have been linked to the capacity of inter-personal environments to mobilise and share resources. The aim of this paper is to examine personal network types in relation to long-term condition management in order to identify the properties of network types most likely to provide support for those with a long-term condition. Method A cross-sectional observational survey of people with type 2 diabetes using interviews and questionnaires was conducted between April and October 2013 in six European countries: Greece, Spain, Bulgaria, Norway, United Kingdom, and Netherlands. 1862 people with predominantly lower socio-economic status were recruited from each country. We used k-means clustering analysis to derive the network types, and one-way analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression analysis to explore the relationship between network type socio-economic characteristics, self-management monitoring and skills, well-being, and network member work. Results Five network types of people with long-term conditions were identified: restricted, minimal family, family, weak ties, and diverse. Restricted network types represented those with the poorest self-management skills and were associated with limited support from social network members. Restricted networks were associated with poor indicators across self-management capacity, network support, and well-being. Diverse networks were associated with more enhanced self-management skills amongst those with a long-term condition and high level of emotional support. It was the three network types which had a large number of network members (diverse, weak ties, and family) where healthcare utilisation was most likely to correspond to existing health needs. Discussion Our findings suggest that type of increased social involvement is linked to greater self-management capacity and potentially lower formal health care costs indicating that diverse networks constitute the optimal

  10. Simulation Studies of the Role of Reconnection in the ''Current Hole'' Experiments in the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Breslau; S.C. Jardin; W. Park

    2003-01-21

    Injection of lower-hybrid current drive into the current ramp-up phase of the Joint European Torus (JET) plasma discharges has been observed to produce an annular current distribution with a core region of essentially zero current density [Hawkes, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 115001]. Similar ''current holes'' have been observed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) Tokamak 60 Upgrade (JT-60U) plasma discharges with off-axis current drive supplied by the bootstrap current [T. Fujita, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 245001]. In both cases, the central current does not go negative although current diffusion calculations indicate that there is sufficient noninductive current drive for this to occur. This is explained by the Multi-level 3-D code (M3D) nonlinear 2-D and 3-D resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations in toroidal geometry, which predict that these plasma discharges undergo n = 0 reconnection events--''axisymmetric sawteeth''--that redistribute th e current to hold its core density near zero. Unlike conventional sawteeth, these events retain the symmetry of the equilibrium, and thus are best viewed as a transient loss of equilibrium caused when an iota = 0 rational surface enters the plasma. If the current-density profile has a central minimum, this surface will enter on axis; otherwise it will enter off-axis. In the first case, the reconnection is limited to a small region around the axis and clamps the core current at zero. In the second case, more typical of the JET experiments, the core current takes on a finite negative value before the iota = 0 surface appears, resulting in discrete periodic axisymmetric sawtooth events with a finite minor radius. Interpretation of the simulation results is given in terms of analytic equilibrium theory, and the relation to conventional sawteeth and to a recent reduced-MHD analysis of this phenomenon in cylindrical geometry [Huysmans, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 245002] is

  11. Prospects for comparing European hospitals in terms of quality and safety: lessons from a comparative study in five countries

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Susan; Renz, Anna; Wiig, Siri; Fernandes, Alexandra; Weggelaar, Anne Marie; Calltorp, Johan; Anderson, Janet E.; Robert, Glenn; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Being able to compare hospitals in terms of quality and safety between countries is important for a number of reasons. For example, the 2011 European Union directive on patients' rights to cross-border health care places a requirement on all member states to provide patients with comparable information on health-care quality, so that they can make an informed choice. Here, we report on the feasibility of using common process and outcome indicators to compare hospitals for quality and safety in five countries (England, Portugal, The Netherlands, Sweden and Norway). Main Challenges Identified The cross-country comparison identified the following seven challenges with respect to comparing the quality of hospitals across Europe: different indicators are collected in each country; different definitions of the same indicators are used; different mandatory versus voluntary data collection requirements are in place; different types of organizations oversee data collection; different levels of aggregation of data exist (country, region and hospital); different levels of public access to data exist; and finally, hospital accreditation and licensing systems differ in each country. Conclusion Our findings indicate that if patients and policymakers are to compare the quality and safety of hospitals across Europe, then further work is urgently needed to agree the way forward. Until then, patients will not be able to make informed choices about where they receive their health care in different countries, and some governments will remain in the dark about the quality and safety of care available to their citizens as compared to that available in neighbouring countries. PMID:23292003

  12. Field study analysis of the influences of deworming regimens and housing conditions on parasites and sperm output in 21 European boar studs.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Martin; Ammon, Christian; Nürnberg, Gerd; Rüdiger, Karin; Jung, Markus; Demeler, Janina

    2016-03-01

    The current study reports the parasitological results of a quality control audit in 21 European boar studs. Field investigations were performed over a 2-year period (2012-2013) during the winter and spring. From each stud, an average of 30 (range, 25-33) individual faecal samples and ejaculates from 615 randomly selected Pietrain boars were analysed. Statistical analysis revealed a significant effect (P < 0.0001) of deworming regimen (DR) × age class of boar (A) and housing condition (H) × A on the presence of parasites. A second model indicated a significant effect (P = 0.0262) of DR × H × A on the presence of parasites. Sperm output was significantly affected (P < 0.0001) by the DR. Based on this study, recommendations for deworming AI boars are proposed. PMID:26831176

  13. Expert consensus document: Cholangiocarcinoma: current knowledge and future perspectives consensus statement from the European Network for the Study of Cholangiocarcinoma (ENS-CCA).

    PubMed

    Banales, Jesus M; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Carpino, Guido; Marzioni, Marco; Andersen, Jesper B; Invernizzi, Pietro; Lind, Guro E; Folseraas, Trine; Forbes, Stuart J; Fouassier, Laura; Geier, Andreas; Calvisi, Diego F; Mertens, Joachim C; Trauner, Michael; Benedetti, Antonio; Maroni, Luca; Vaquero, Javier; Macias, Rocio I R; Raggi, Chiara; Perugorria, Maria J; Gaudio, Eugenio; Boberg, Kirsten M; Marin, Jose J G; Alvaro, Domenico

    2016-05-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a heterogeneous group of malignancies with features of biliary tract differentiation. CCA is the second most common primary liver tumour and the incidence is increasing worldwide. CCA has high mortality owing to its aggressiveness, late diagnosis and refractory nature. In May 2015, the "European Network for the Study of Cholangiocarcinoma" (ENS-CCA: www.enscca.org or www.cholangiocarcinoma.eu) was created to promote and boost international research collaboration on the study of CCA at basic, translational and clinical level. In this Consensus Statement, we aim to provide valuable information on classifications, pathological features, risk factors, cells of origin, genetic and epigenetic modifications and current therapies available for this cancer. Moreover, future directions on basic and clinical investigations and plans for the ENS-CCA are highlighted. PMID:27095655

  14. Epigenome-wide association of DNA methylation markers in peripheral blood from Indian Asians and Europeans with incident type 2 diabetes: a nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Simone; Elliott, Hannah R; Rota, Federica; Scott, William R; Zhang, Weihua; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Campanella, Gianluca; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Yengo, Loic; Richmond, Rebecca C; Adamowicz-Brice, Martyna; Afzal, Uzma; Bozaoglu, Kiymet; Mok, Zuan Yu; Ng, Hong Kiat; Pattou, François; Prokisch, Holger; Rozario, Michelle Ann; Tarantini, Letizia; Abbott, James; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Albetti, Benedetta; Ammerpohl, Ole; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Blancher, Christine; Caiazzo, Robert; Danesh, John; Gaunt, Tom R; de Lusignan, Simon; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Jha, Sujeet; Jones, Simon; Jowett, Jeremy; Kangas, Antti J; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Kato, Norihiro; Kotea, Navaratnam; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Punjabi, Prakash; Saleheen, Danish; Schafmayer, Clemens; Soininen, Pasi; Tai, E-Shyong; Thorand, Barbara; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Wickremasinghe, Ananda Rajitha; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Aitman, Timothy J; Herder, Christian; Hampe, Jochen; Cauchi, Stéphane; Relton, Caroline L; Froguel, Philippe; Soong, Richie; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Indian Asians, who make up a quarter of the world’s population, are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether DNA methylation is associated with future type 2 diabetes incidence in Indian Asians and whether differences in methylation patterns between Indian Asians and Europeans are associated with, and could be used to predict, differences in the magnitude of risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Methods We did a nested case-control study of DNA methylation in Indian Asians and Europeans with incident type 2 diabetes who were identified from the 8-year follow-up of 25 372 participants in the London Life Sciences Prospective Population (LOLIPOP) study. Patients were recruited between May 1, 2002, and Sept 12, 2008. We did epigenome-wide association analysis using samples from Indian Asians with incident type 2 diabetes and age-matched and sex-matched Indian Asian controls, followed by replication testing of top-ranking signals in Europeans. For both discovery and replication, DNA methylation was measured in the baseline blood sample, which was collected before the onset of type 2 diabetes. Epigenome-wide significance was set at p<1 × 10−7. We compared methylation levels between Indian Asian and European controls without type 2 diabetes at baseline to estimate the potential contribution of DNA methylation to increased risk of future type 2 diabetes incidence among Indian Asians. Findings 1608 (11·9%) of 13 535 Indian Asians and 306 (4·3%) of 7066 Europeans developed type 2 diabetes over a mean of 8·5 years (SD 1·8) of follow-up. The age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence of type 2 diabetes was 3·1 times (95% CI 2·8–3·6; p<0·0001) higher among Indian Asians than among Europeans, and remained 2·5 times (2·1–2·9; p<0·0001) higher after adjustment for adiposity, physical activity, family history of type 2 diabetes, and baseline glycaemic measures. The mean absolute difference in methylation level between

  15. A European multicentre, placebo-controlled supplementation study with alpha-tocopherol, carotene-rich palm oil, lutein or lycopene: analysis of serum responses.

    PubMed

    Olmedilla, Begoña; Granado, Fernando; Southon, Susan; Wright, Anthony J A; Blanco, Inmaculada; Gil-Martinez, Enrique; van den Berg, Henk; Thurnham, David; Corridan, Bernice; Chopra, Mridula; Hininger, Isabelle

    2002-04-01

    Increased levels of oxidative stress have been implicated in tissue damage and the development of chronic diseases, and dietary antioxidants may reduce the risk of oxidative tissue damage. As part of a European multicentre project, several studies were undertaken with the aim of testing whether the consumption of foods rich in carotenoids reduces oxidative damage to human tissue components. We describe here the serum response of carotenoids and tocopherols upon supplementation with carotenoids from natural extracts (alpha-carotene+beta-carotene, lutein or lycopene; 15 mg/day) and/or with alpha-tocopherol (100 mg/day) in a multicentre, placebo-controlled intervention study in 400 healthy male and female volunteers, aged 25-45 years, from five European regions (France, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland, The Netherlands and Spain). Supplementation with alpha-tocopherol increased serum alpha-tocopherol levels, while producing a marked decrease in serum gamma-tocopherol. Supplementation with alpha- + beta-carotene (carotene-rich palm oil) resulted in 14-fold and 5-fold increases respectively in serum levels of these carotenoids. Supplementation with lutein (from marigold extracts) elevated serum lutein (approx. 5-fold), zeaxanthin (approx. doubled) and ketocarotenoids (although these were not present in the supplement), whereas lycopene supplementation (from tomato paste) resulted in a 2-fold increase in serum lycopene. The isomer distributions of beta-carotene and lycopene in serum remained constant regardless of the isomer composition in the capsules. In Spanish volunteers, additional data showed that the serum response to carotenoid supplementation reached a plateau after 4 weeks, and no significant side effects (except carotenodermia) or changes in biochemical or haematological indices were observed throughout the study. This part of the study describes dose-time responses, isomer distribution, subject variability and side effects during supplementation with the

  16. Dietary vitamin D intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition – the EPIC-InterAct study

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Sascha; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Beulens, Joline WJ; Buijsse, Brian; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay Tee; Masters, Tilman Kühn; Mattiello, Amalia; Molina-Montes, Esther; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Saieva, Calogero; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Sharp, Stephen J; Langenberg, Claudia; Forouhi, Nita G; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Background Prospective cohort studies have indicated that serum vitamin D levels are inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes. However, such studies cannot determine the source of vitamin D. Therefore, we examined the association of dietary vitamin D intake with incident type 2 diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study in a heterogeneous European population including 8 countries with large geographical variation. Methods Using a case-cohort design, 11,245 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort (N=15,798) were included in the analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated using a Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. 24-h diet recall data from a subsample (N=2347) were used to calibrate habitual intake data derived from dietary questionnaires. Results Median follow-up time was 10.8 years. Dietary vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. HR and 95 % CIs for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of uncalibrated vitamin D intake was 1.09 (0.97-1.22), (ptrend=0.17). No associations were observed in a sex-specific analysis. The overall pooled effect [HR (95% CI)] using the continuous calibrated variable was 1.00 (0.97-1.03) per increase of 1 μg/day dietary vitamin D. Conclusion This observational study does not support an association between higher dietary vitamin D intake and type-2 diabetes incidence. This result has to be interpreted in light of the limited contribution of dietary vitamin D on the overall vitamin D status of a person. PMID:24253760

  17. InternationaL cross-sectIonAl and longItudinal assessment on aSthma cONtrol in European adult patients - the LIAISON study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background According to international guidelines, the goal of asthma management is to achieve and maintain control of the disease, which can be assessed using composite measures. Prospective studies are required to determine how these measures are associated with asthma outcomes and/or future risk. The ‘InternationaL cross-sectIonAl and longItudinal assessment on aSthma cONtrol (LIAISON)’ observational study has been designed to evaluate asthma control and its determinants, including components of asthma management. Methods/design The LIAISON study will be conducted in 12 European countries and comprises a cross-sectional phase and a 12-month prospective phase. Both phases will aim at assessing asthma control (six-item Asthma Control Questionnaire, ACQ), asthma-related quality of life (Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire, Mini-AQLQ), risk of non-adherence to treatment (four-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, MMAS-4), potential reasons for poor control, treatment strategies and associated healthcare costs. The cross-sectional phase will recruit > 8,000 adult patients diagnosed with asthma for at least 6 months and receiving the same asthma treatment in the 4 weeks before enrolment. The prospective phase will include all patients with uncontrolled/poorly controlled asthma at the initial visit to assess the proportion reaching control during follow-up and to examine predictors of future risk. Visits will take place after 3, 6 and 12 months. Discussion The LIAISON study will provide important information on the prevalence of asthma control and on the quality of life in a broad spectrum of real-life patient populations from different European countries and will also contribute to evaluate differences in management strategies and their impact on healthcare costs over 12 months of observation. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01567280. PMID:23530817

  18. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners. PMID:27256149

  19. Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events: prospective cohort study and meta-analysis in 11 European cohorts from the ESCAPE Project

    PubMed Central

    Forastiere, Francesco; Stafoggia, Massimo; Andersen, Zorana J; Badaloni, Chiara; Beelen, Rob; Caracciolo, Barbara; de Faire, Ulf; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Fratiglioni, Laura; Galassi, Claudia; Hampel, Regina; Heier, Margit; Hennig, Frauke; Hilding, Agneta; Hoffmann, Barbara; Houthuijs, Danny; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Korek, Michal; Lanki, Timo; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Migliore, Enrica; Ostenson, Caes-Göran; Overvad, Kim; Pedersen, Nancy L; J, Juha Pekkanen; Penell, Johanna; Pershagen, Göran; Pyko, Andrei; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ranzi, Andrea; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Salomaa, Veikko; Swart, Wim; Turunen, Anu W; Vineis, Paolo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Wolf, Kathrin; de Hoogh, Kees; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Peters, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Design Prospective cohort studies and meta-analysis of the results. Setting Cohorts in Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy. Participants 100 166 people were enrolled from 1997 to 2007 and followed for an average of 11.5 years. Participants were free from previous coronary events at baseline. Main outcome measures Modelled concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2.5-10 μm (PMcoarse), and <10 μm (PM10) in aerodynamic diameter, soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and traffic exposure at the home address based on measurements of air pollution conducted in 2008-12. Cohort specific hazard ratios for incidence of acute coronary events (myocardial infarction and unstable angina) per fixed increments of the pollutants with adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors, and pooled random effects meta-analytic hazard ratios. Results 5157 participants experienced incident events. A 5 μg/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM2.5 was associated with a 13% increased risk of coronary events (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.30), and a 10 μg/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM10 was associated with a 12% increased risk of coronary events (1.12, 1.01 to 1.25) with no evidence of heterogeneity between cohorts. Positive associations were detected below the current annual European limit value of 25 μg/m3 for PM2.5 (1.18, 1.01 to 1.39, for 5 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5) and below 40 μg/m3 for PM10 (1.12, 1.00 to 1.27, for 10 μg/m3 increase in PM10). Positive but non-significant associations were found with other pollutants. Conclusions Long term exposure to particulate matter is associated with incidence of coronary events, and this association persists at levels of exposure below the current European

  20. Transnational Lives in European Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Transnational collaboration by educational researchers in Europe has grown fast since the mid-1990s and the means to support it have become more easily accessible. A study of the growth of the European Educational Research Association (EERA) since its foundation in the mid-1990s shows how transnational research in European education began, and how…

  1. The Words That Buoy the European Impulse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogenraad, Robert; Tousignant, Nathalie; Castano, Emanuele; Bestgen, Yves; Dumoulin, Michel

    With a view on analyzing the deeper trends in the European discourse that will shape the European Union's (EU's) future, a study examined 121 speeches made by EU political leaders over the period 1985-1997 and concorded and statisticized which words were used, how often, where, and when with the help of a computer-aided content analysis engine.…

  2. Mathematics Teaching in Four European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul; Sayers, Judy

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses a comparative study, funded by the European Union, of the teaching of mathematics in five European countries, (Flanders, England, Finland, Hungary and Spain) to students in the upper primary (ages 10-12) and lower secondary (12-14) years. These ages were chosen as they represent a time when many students' experiences of…

  3. European Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    González-Barrio, David; Maio, Elisa; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2015-01-01

    We studied the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a reservoir for Coxiella burnetii in the Iberian region. High individual and population seroprevalences observed in wild and farmed rabbits, evidence of systemic infections, and vaginal shedding support the reservoir role of the European rabbit for C. burnetii. PMID:25988670

  4. Different trends in euthanasia acceptance across Europe. A study of 13 western and 10 central and eastern European countries, 1981-2008.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Landeghem, Paul; Carpentier, Nico; Deliens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    We examined how acceptance of euthanasia among the general public has changed between 1981 and 2008 in western and central and eastern European (CEE) countries using data of the European Values Surveys. Data were collected in 1981, 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 13 western European countries and in 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 10 CEE countries. Euthanasia acceptance increased each decade up until 2008 in 11 of 13 western European countries; in CEE countries, it decreased or did not increase between 1999-2008 in 8 of 10 countries. A number of explanations for and implications of this apparent east-west polarization are suggested. PMID:23275485

  5. Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC)123456

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Heather A; Norat, Teresa; Luan, Jian’an; May, Anne M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sharp, Stephen J; Overvad, Kim; Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Tjønneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fagherazzi, Guy; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Jenab, Mazda; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Monnikhof, Evelyn; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet; Sund, Malin; Johansson, Mattias; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Riboli, Elio

    2015-01-01

    Background: The higher risk of death resulting from excess adiposity may be attenuated by physical activity (PA). However, the theoretical number of deaths reduced by eliminating physical inactivity compared with overall and abdominal obesity remains unclear. Objective: We examined whether overall and abdominal adiposity modified the association between PA and all-cause mortality and estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the years of life gained for these exposures. Design: This was a cohort study in 334,161 European men and women. The mean follow-up time was 12.4 y, corresponding to 4,154,915 person-years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured in the clinic. PA was assessed with a validated self-report instrument. The combined associations between PA, BMI, and WC with mortality were examined with Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by center and age group, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, and alcohol intake. Center-specific PAF associated with inactivity, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (>30), and WC (≥102 cm for men, ≥88 cm for women) were calculated and combined in random-effects meta-analysis. Life-tables analyses were used to estimate gains in life expectancy for the exposures. Results: Significant interactions (PA × BMI and PA × WC) were observed, so HRs were estimated within BMI and WC strata. The hazards of all-cause mortality were reduced by 16–30% in moderately inactive individuals compared with those categorized as inactive in different strata of BMI and WC. Avoiding all inactivity would theoretically reduce all-cause mortality by 7.35% (95% CI: 5.88%, 8.83%). Corresponding estimates for avoiding obesity (BMI >30) were 3.66% (95% CI: 2.30%, 5.01%). The estimates for avoiding high WC were similar to those for physical inactivity. Conclusion: The greatest reductions in mortality risk were observed between the 2 lowest activity groups across levels of general and abdominal adiposity, which

  6. Flavonoid and lignan intake in relation to bladder cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Ros, R; Sacerdote, C; Ricceri, F; Weiderpass, E; Roswall, N; Buckland, G; St-Jules, D E; Overvad, K; Kyrø, C; Fagherazzi, G; Kvaskoff, M; Severi, G; Chang-Claude, J; Kaaks, R; Nöthlings, U; Trichopoulou, A; Naska, A; Trichopoulos, D; Palli, D; Grioni, S; Mattiello, A; Tumino, R; Gram, I T; Engeset, D; Huerta, J M; Molina-Montes, E; Argüelles, M; Amiano, P; Ardanaz, E; Ericson, U; Lindkvist, B; Nilsson, L M; Kiemeney, L A; Ros, M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H M; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N J; Knaze, V; Romieu, I; Scalbert, A; Brennan, P; Wark, P; Vineis, P; Riboli, E; González, C A

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of the protective role of dietary intake of flavonoids and lignans on cancer, but the association with bladder cancer has not been thoroughly investigated in epidemiological studies. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and subclasses of flavonoids and lignans and risk of bladder cancer and its main morphological type, urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: A cohort of 477 312 men and women mostly aged 35–70 years, were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary flavonoid and lignan intakes were estimated using centre-specific validated questionnaires and a food composition database based on the Phenol-Explorer, the UK Food Standards Agency and the US Department of Agriculture databases. Results: During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 1575 new cases of primary bladder cancer were identified, of which 1425 were UCC (classified into aggressive (n=430) and non-aggressive (n=413) UCC). No association was found between total flavonoid intake and bladder cancer risk. Among flavonoid subclasses, significant inverse associations with bladder cancer risk were found for intakes of flavonol (hazard ratio comparing fifth with first quintile (HRQ5–Q1) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61–0.91; P-trend=0.009) and lignans (HRQ5–Q1 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62–0.96; P-trend=0.046). Similar results were observed for overall UCC and aggressive UCC, but not for non-aggressive UCC. Conclusions: Our study suggests an inverse association between the dietary intakes of flavonols and lignans and risk of bladder cancer, particularly aggressive UCC. PMID:25121955

  7. DALI: Vitamin D and lifestyle intervention for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) prevention: an European multicentre, randomised trial – study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an increasing problem world-wide. Lifestyle interventions and/or vitamin D supplementation might help prevent GDM in some women. Methods/design Pregnant women at risk of GDM (BMI≥29 (kg/m2)) from 9 European countries will be invited to participate and consent obtained before 19+6 weeks of gestation. After giving informed consent, women without GDM will be included (based on IADPSG criteria: fasting glucose<5.1mmol; 1 hour glucose <10.0 mmol; 2 hour glucose <8.5 mmol) and randomized to one of the 8 intervention arms using a 2×(2×2) factorial design: (1) healthy eating (HE), 2) physical activity (PA), 3) HE+PA, 4) control, 5) HE+PA+vitamin D, 6) HE+PA+placebo, 7) vitamin D alone, 8) placebo alone), pre-stratified for each site. In total, 880 women will be included with 110 women allocated to each arm. Between entry and 35 weeks of gestation, women allocated to a lifestyle intervention will receive 5 face-to-face, and 4 telephone coaching sessions, based on the principles of motivational interviewing. The lifestyle intervention includes a discussion about the risks of GDM, a weight gain target <5kg and either 7 healthy eating ‘messages’ and/or 5 physical activity ‘messages’ depending on randomization. Fidelity is monitored by the use of a personal digital assistance (PDA) system. Participants randomized to the vitamin D intervention receive either 1600 IU vitamin D or placebo for daily intake until delivery. Data is collected at baseline measurement, at 24–28 weeks, 35–37 weeks of gestation and after delivery. Primary outcome measures are gestational weight gain, fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity, with a range of obstetric secondary outcome measures including birth weight. Discussion DALI is a unique Europe-wide randomised controlled trial, which will gain insight into preventive measures against the development of GDM in overweight and obese women. Trial registration ISRCTN70595832 PMID:23829946

  8. Tumours of the thymus: a cohort study of prognostic factors from the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons database

    PubMed Central

    Ruffini, Enrico; Detterbeck, Frank; Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Rocco, Gaetano; Thomas, Pascal; Weder, Walter; Brunelli, Alessandro; Evangelista, Andrea; Venuta, Federico; Khaled, AlKattan; Arame, Alex; Refai, Majed; Casadio, Caterina; Carbognani, Paolo; Cerfolio, Robert; Donati, Giovanni; Foroulis, Christophoros N; Gebitekin, Cengiz; de Antonio, David Gomez; Kernstine, Kemp H; Keshavjee, Shaf; Moser, Bernhard; Lequaglie, Cosimo; Liberman, Moishe; Lim, Eric; Nicholson, Andrew G; Lang-Lazdunski, Loic; Mancuso, Maurizio; Altorki, Nasser; Nosotti, Mario; Novoa, Nuria M; Brioude, Geoffrey; Oliaro, Alberto; Filosso, Pier Luigi; Saita, Salvatore; Scarci, Marco; Schützner, Jan; Terzi, Alberto; Toker, Alper; Van Veer, Hans; Anile, Marco; Rendina, Erino; Voltolini, Luca; Zurek, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES A retrospective database was developed by the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons, collecting patients submitted to surgery for thymic tumours to analyse clinico-pathological prognostic predictors. METHODS A total of 2151 incident cases from 35 institutions were collected from 1990 to 2010. Clinical-pathological characteristics were analysed, including age, gender, associated myasthenia gravis stage (Masaoka), World Health Organization histology, type of thymic tumour [thymoma, thymic carcinoma (TC), neuroendocrine thymic tumour (NETT)], type of resection (complete/incomplete), tumour size, adjuvant therapy and recurrence. Primary outcome was overall survival (OS); secondary outcomes were the proportion of incomplete resections, disease-free survival and the cumulative incidence of recurrence (CIR). RESULTS A total of 2030 patients were analysed for OS (1798 thymomas, 191 TCs and 41 NETTs). Ten-year OS was 0.73 (95% confidence interval 0.69–0.75). Complete resection (R0) was achieved in 88% of the patients. Ten-year CIR was 0.12 (0.10–0.15). Predictors of shorter OS were increased age (P < 0–001), stage [III vs I HR 2.66, 1.80–3.92; IV vs I hazard ratio (HR) 4.41, 2.67–7.26], TC (HR 2.39, 1.68–3.40) and NETT (HR 2.59, 1.35–4.99) vs thymomas and incomplete resection (HR 1.74, 1.18–2.57). Risk of recurrence increased with tumour size (P = 0.003), stage (III vs I HR 5.67, 2.80–11.45; IV vs I HR 13.08, 5.70–30.03) and NETT (HR 7.18, 3.48–14.82). Analysis using a propensity score indicates that the administration of adjuvant therapy was beneficial in increasing OS (HR 0.69, 0.49–0.97) in R0 resections. CONCLUSIONS Masaoka stages III–IV, incomplete resection and non-thymoma histology showed a significant impact in increasing recurrence and in worsening survival. The administration of adjuvant therapy after complete resection is associated with improved survival. PMID:24482389

  9. A prospective study of the effects of marital status and family relations on young children's adjustment among African American and European American families.

    PubMed

    Shaw, D S; Winslow, E B; Flanagan, C

    1999-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of divorce and family relations on young children's development prospectively, using an ethnically diverse sample of approximately 300 low-income families. We also were able to examine the moderating effects of ethnicity on child adjustment in always two-parent, to-be-divorced, already-divorced, and always single-parent families. Results indicated that to-be-divorced European American and African American families demonstrated higher rates of preschool-age behavior problems, and already-divorced families showed similar trends. Parental conflict and behavior problems accounted for predivorce differences in child behavior problems, whereas rejecting parenting accounted for differences in problem behavior between always single-parent and always two-parent families. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of ethnicity in influencing young, low-income children's adjustment to different family structures. PMID:10368919

  10. A report from the European Association for the Study of the Liver's 50th International Liver Congress (April 22-26 - Vienna, Austria).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2015-04-01

    While Vienna's Prater park offers a varied selection of options, from theme parks to lush gardens and prairies to enjoy the sun, the nearby Messe Wien convention center was the focus of attention in April 2015 for all the scientists, researchers and clinicians interested in viral hepatitis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma and a variety of other liver diseases. Treatments and potential new therapeutic strategies for these hepatopathies were discussed during the 50th International Liver Congress organized by the European Association for the Study of the Liver. Echoing epidemiological facts and a high social interest for hepatitis C virus infection, new findings with investigational and potential new therapies for the disease centered much of the attention at the conference. Nevertheless, new research was also reported related to potential improvements in how other liver diseases, particularly hepatitis B virus infection, hepatocellular carcinoma and a range of inflammatory and immune-mediated liver diseases, including rare hereditary diseases that should never be forgotten. PMID:26020068

  11. Failure of replicating the association between hippocampal volume and 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified from the European genome-wide association study in Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Ohi, Kazutaka; Chen, Chunhui; He, Qinghua; Liu, Jie-Wei; Chen, Chuansheng; Luo, Xiong-Jian; Dong, Qi; Hashimoto, Ryota; Su, Bing

    2014-12-01

    Hippocampal volume is a key brain structure for learning ability and memory process, and hippocampal atrophy is a recognized biological marker of Alzheimer's disease. However, the genetic bases of hippocampal volume are still unclear although it is a heritable trait. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on hippocampal volume have implicated several significantly associated genetic variants in Europeans. Here, to test the contributions of these GWASs identified genetic variants to hippocampal volume in different ethnic populations, we screened the GWAS-identified candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 3 independent healthy Asian brain imaging samples (a total of 990 subjects). The results showed that none of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with hippocampal volume in either individual or combined Asian samples. The replication results suggested a complexity of genetic architecture for hippocampal volume and potential genetic heterogeneity between different ethnic populations. PMID:25131003

  12. A Request for Planning Funds for a Research and Study Abroad Facility in Geneva, Switzerland in Affiliation with the European Laboratory for Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    campbell, myron

    2013-03-31

    To create a research and study abroad program that would allow U.S. undergraduate students access to the world-leading research facilities at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the World Health Organization, various operations of the United Nations and other international organizations based in Geneva.The proposal is based on the unique opportunities currently existing in Geneva. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is now operational at CERN, data are being collected, and research results are already beginning to emerge. At the same time, a related reduction of activity at U.S. facilities devoted to particle physics is expected. In addition, the U.S. higher-education community has an ever-increasing focus on international organizations dealing with world health pandemics, arms control and human rights, a nexus also centered in Geneva.

  13. The relationship between legal status, perceived pressure and motivation in treatment for drug dependence: results from a European study of Quasi-Compulsory Treatment.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Alex; Berto, Daniele; Frick, Ulrich; Hunt, Neil; Kerschl, Viktoria; McSweeney, Tim; Oeuvray, Kerrie; Puppo, Irene; Santa Maria, Alberto; Schaaf, Susanne; Trinkl, Barbara; Uchtenhagen, Ambros; Werdenich, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on intake data from Quasi-Compulsory Treatment in Europe, a study of quasi-compulsory treatment (QCT) for drug dependent offenders. It explores the link between formal legal coercion, perceived pressure to be in treatment and motivation amongst a sample of 845 people who entered treatment for drug dependence in five European countries, half of them in quasi-compulsory treatment and half 'voluntarily'. Using both quantitative and qualitative data, it suggests that those who enter treatment under QCT do perceive greater pressure to be in treatment, but that this does not necessarily lead to higher or lower motivation than 'volunteers'. Many drug-dependent offenders value QCT as an opportunity to get treatment. Motivation is mutable and can be developed or diminished by the quality of support and services offered to drug-dependent offenders. PMID:16968995

  14. Weight-based antibiotic dosing in a real-world European study of complicated skin and soft-tissue infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Lawson, W; Nathwani, D; Eckmann, C; Corman, S; Stephens, J; Solem, C; Macahilig, C; Li, J; Baillon-Plot, N; Charbonneau, C; Haider, S

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to characterize real-world dosing of weight-based intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy in patients hospitalized for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) complicated skin and soft-tissue infections (cSSTIs). This was a subgroup analysis of a retrospective chart review that captured data from 12 European countries. The study included patients ≥18 years old, hospitalized with an MRSA cSSTI between 1 July 2010 and 30 June 2011 and discharged alive by 31 July 2011. Patients treated with IV vancomycin, teicoplanin or daptomycin at any stage during hospitalization were included in this analysis. Analyses were conducted at the regimen level (dosing in mg/kg or in mg, frequency, and total daily dose (TDD)), with potentially multiple regimens per patient, and the patient level, categorizing patients into low, standard (labelled) and high dosing groups according to their initial MRSA-targeted regimen. Among the 1502 patients in the parent study, 998 patients contributed a total of 1050 daptomycin, teicoplanin or vancomycin regimens. Across all regimens, the mean initial TDDs were 6.3 ± 1.9 mg/kg for daptomycin, 10.5 ± 4.9 mg/kg for teicoplanin and 28.5 ± 11.5 mg/kg for vancomycin. A total of 789 patients received first-line therapy with one of the above antibiotics. The majority of patients receiving first-line teicoplanin and daptomycin (96% and 80%, respectively) received higher than labelled cSSTI doses, whereas vancomycin doses were lower than labelled doses in >40% of patients. These real-world data reveal significant deviation from labelled antibiotic dosing in 12 European countries and the potential for suboptimal outcomes in patients with MRSA cSSTIs. PMID:26206621

  15. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and breast cancer risk according to menopause and hormone receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Ferrari, Pietro; González, Carlos A; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Bredsdorff, Lea; Overvad, Kim; Touillaud, Marina; Perquier, Florence; Fagherazzi, Guy; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tikk, Kaja; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Dilis, Vardis; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Menéndez, Virginia; Travier, Noémie; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Wallström, Peter; Sonestedt, Emily; Sund, Malin; Landberg, Rikard; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Travis, Ruth C; Scalbert, Augustin; Ward, Heather A; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-05-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary flavonoids and lignans and breast cancer (BC) risk is inconclusive, with the possible exception of isoflavones in Asian countries. Therefore, we investigated prospectively dietary total and subclasses of flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk according to menopause and hormonal receptor status in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 334,850 women, mostly aged between 35 and 70 years from ten European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires were used. A flavonoid and lignan food composition database was developed from the US Department of Agriculture, the Phenol-Explorer and the UK Food Standards Agency databases. Cox regression models were used to analyse the association between dietary flavonoid/lignan intake and the risk of developing BC. During an average 11.5-year follow-up, 11,576 incident BC cases were identified. No association was observed between the intake of total flavonoids [hazard ratio comparing fifth to first quintile (HRQ5-Q1) 0.97, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.90-1.04; P trend = 0.591], isoflavones (HRQ5-Q1 1.00, 95 % CI: 0.91-1.10; P trend = 0.734), or total lignans (HRQ5-Q1 1.02, 95 % CI: 0.93-1.11; P trend = 0.469) and overall BC risk. The stratification of the results by menopausal status at recruitment or the differentiation of BC cases according to oestrogen and progesterone receptors did not affect the results. This study shows no associations between flavonoid and lignan intake and BC risk, overall or after taking into account menopausal status and BC hormone receptors. PMID:23572295

  16. Age-dependent expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3B in PBMCs from a large European population enrolled in the MARK-AGE study.

    PubMed

    Ciccarone, Fabio; Malavolta, Marco; Calabrese, Roberta; Guastafierro, Tiziana; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Reale, Anna; Franceschi, Claudio; Capri, Miriam; Hervonen, Antti; Hurme, Mikko; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Koller, Bernhard; Bernhardt, Jürgen; Schӧn, Christiane; Slagboom, P Eline; Toussaint, Olivier; Sikora, Ewa; Gonos, Efstathios S; Breusing, Nicolle; Grune, Tilman; Jansen, Eugène; Dollé, Martijn; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Sindlinger, Thilo; Bürkle, Alexander; Zampieri, Michele; Caiafa, Paola

    2016-08-01

    Aging is associated with alterations in the content and patterns of DNA methylation virtually throughout the entire human lifespan. Reasons for these variations are not well understood. However, several lines of evidence suggest that the epigenetic instability in aging may be traced back to the alteration of the expression of DNA methyltransferases. Here, the association of the expression of DNA methyltransferases DNMT1 and DNMT3B with age has been analysed in the context of the MARK-AGE study, a large-scale cross-sectional study of the European general population. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we assessed the variation of DNMT1 and DNMT3B gene expression in more than two thousand age-stratified women and men (35-75 years) recruited across eight European countries. Significant age-related changes were detected for both transcripts. The level of DNMT1 gradually dropped with aging but this was only observed up to the age of 64 years. By contrast, the expression of DNMT3B decreased linearly with increasing age and this association was particularly evident in females. We next attempted to trace the age-related changes of both transcripts to the influence of different variables that have an impact on changes of their expression in the population, including demographics, dietary and health habits, and clinical parameters. Our results indicate that age affects the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3B as an almost independent variable in respect of all other variables evaluated. PMID:27169697

  17. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  18. European Trends in the Development of Occupations and Qualifications. Findings of Research, Studies and Analyses for Policy and Practice. Volume II. CEDEFOP Reference Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellin, Burkart, Ed.

    This document contains 23 papers on European trends in vocational education and training (VET) and the development of occupations and qualifications. The following papers are included: "Vocational Socialisation and Competence Development: The Historical Dimension" (Walter R. Heinz); "European Trends in the Development of Vocational Education and…

  19. Nursing Care. Summary of a European Study. A Study of People's Needs for Nursing Care and of the Planning, Implementation and Evaluation of Care Provided by Nurses in Two Selected Groups of People in the European Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Pat; And Others

    A study which was the collaborative effort of 23 centers in 11 countries and which was carried out between 1976 and 1985, identified and described the needs of persons for nursing care and the objectives, nursing interventions, and outcomes related to those needs. The study involved three phases which covered two programming cycles in WHO and two…

  20. European survey on the opinion and use of micronutrition in age-related macular degeneration: 10 years on from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Tariq; Delcourt, Cécile; Holz, Frank; García-Layana, Alfredo; Leys, Anita; Silva, Rufino M; Souied, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate ophthalmologists’ opinion of, and use of, micronutritional dietary supplements 10 years after publication of the first Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) study. Methods Participation was solicited from 4,000 European ophthalmologists. Responding physicians were screened, and those treating at least 40 patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) per month and prescribing nutrition supplements at least 4 times per month were admitted and completed a 40-item questionnaire. Results The surveyed sample included 112 general ophthalmologists and 104 retinal specialists. Most nutritional supplements (46%) were initiated when early/intermediate AMD was confirmed, although 18% were initiated on confirmation of neovascular AMD. Clinical studies were well known: 90% were aware of AREDS, with 88% aware of AREDS1 and 36% aware of the, as-yet-unpublished, AREDS2 studies. Respondents considered lutein, zeaxanthin, zinc, omega-3, and vitamins to be the most important components of nutritional supplements, with the results of AREDS2 already having been taken into consideration by many. Ophthalmologists anticipate more scientific studies as well as improved product quality but identify cost as a barrier to wider uptake. Conclusion Micronutrition is now part of the routine management of AMD for many ophthalmologists. Ophthalmologists choosing to use nutritional supplements are well-informed regarding current scientific studies. PMID:25336904

  1. What Deters Students from Studying Abroad? Evidence from Four European Countries and Its Implications for Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netz, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    This study examines factors that deter students in Austria, Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands from studying abroad. Using an adaptation of the Rubicon model of action phases, the path to gaining study abroad experience is conceptualised as a process involving two thresholds: the decision threshold and the realisation threshold. Theoretical…

  2. Study of Bilingual-Bicultural Projects Involving Native American, Indo-European, Asian and Pacific Language Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battiste, Marie A.; And Others

    This is the final report of one of three studies in an overall project entitled "Evaluation of Bilingual Education Programs." This study was sponsored in response to a need for more information regarding bilingual-bicultural education for other than Spanish language groups. The study's objectives were to: (1) identify the major issues involved in…

  3. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30): translation and validation study of the Iranian version.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, A; Harirchi, I; Vahdani, M; Khaleghi, F; Jarvandi, S; Ebrahimi, M; Haji-Mahmoodi, M

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). The English-language version of the questionnaire was translated into Persian (Iranian language), and its final form was approved by the EORTC Study Group on Quality of Life before it was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered at two time points to a consecutive sample of 168 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, and almost all of them (99%) found the questions easy to understand and acceptable. Crohnbach's alpha coefficient for multi-item scales (to test reliability) ranged from 0.48 to 0.95 at baseline and from 0.52 to 0.98 at follow-up administration of the questionnaire. Validity was checked using two methods: inter-scale correlation and known-groups comparison. Almost all inter-scale correlations were statistically significant in the expected direction. Known-groups comparison analysis showed that all functioning and symptom scales discriminated between subgroups of patients differing in clinical status as defined by their performance status and disease stage. In general, the findings of this study indicate that the Iranian version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 is a reliable and valid measure of quality of life in cancer patients and can be used in clinical trials and studies of outcome research in oncology. PMID:10541982

  4. The European Round Table of Industrialists and the Restructuring of European Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The restructuring of European higher education (EHE) since the 1980s is a widely studied subject. However, this paper argues that previous studies have paid insufficient attention to the role of transnational policy-making groups in this complex and multilevel process. This argument is supported by focusing on how the European Round Table of…

  5. EMSO: European multidisciplinary seafloor observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo; Beranzoli, Laura

    2009-04-01

    EMSO has been identified by the ESFRI Report 2006 as one of the Research Infrastructures that European members and associated states are asked to develop in the next decades. It will be based on a European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the aim of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes, providing long time series data for the different phenomenon scales which constitute the new frontier for study of Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry, and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on past EU projects and is supported by several EU initiatives, such as the on-going ESONET-NoE, aimed at strengthening the ocean observatories' scientific and technological community. The EMSO development relies on the synergy between the scientific community and industry to improve European competitiveness with respect to countries such as USA, Canada and Japan. Within the FP7 Programme launched in 2006, a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) was issued in order to support the foundation of the legal and organisational entity in charge of building up and managing the infrastructure, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. The EMSO-PP project, coordinated by the Italian INGV with participation by 11 institutions from as many European countries, started in April 2008 and will last four years.

  6. Gender Differences in Filicide Offense Characteristics--A Comprehensive Register-Based Study of Child Murder in Two European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putkonen, Hanna; Amon, Sabine; Eronen, Markku; Klier, Claudia M.; Almiron, Maria P.; Cederwall, Jenny Yourstone; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study searched for gender differences in filicidal offense characteristics and associated variables. Methods: In this binational register-based study all filicide perpetrators (75 mothers and 45 fathers) and their crimes in Austria and Finland 1995-2005 were examined for putative gender differences. The assessed variables were…

  7. Expert Groups in the Building of European Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to building European public action, expertise is ubiquitous and polymorphic. This article intends to study the ways expertise is being used in the European Commission and the logics underlying its use. The massive use of expertise also has consequences for the practices and identities of actors with whom European institutions…

  8. The European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroos, M.; Bousson, S.; Calaga, R.; Danared, H.; Devanz, G.; Duperrier, R.; Eguia, J.; Eshraqi, M.; Gammino, S.; Hahn, H.; Jansson, A.; Oyon, C.; Pape-Møller, S.; Peggs, S.; Ponton, A.; Rathsman, K.; Ruber, R.; Satogata, T.; Trahern, G.

    2011-12-01

    In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

  9. Importance of Weight Loss Maintenance and Risk Prediction in the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes: Analysis of European Diabetes Prevention Study RCT

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Linda; White, Martin; Lindström, Jaana; den Boer, Annemieke Th.; Blaak, Ellen; Eriksson, Johan G.; Feskens, Edith; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Walker, Mark; Mathers, John C.; Uusitupa, Matti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. T2D prevention by lifestyle intervention is effective. Pragmatic scalable interventions are needed, with evidence to efficiently target and monitor such interventions. We report pooled analyses of data from three European trial cohorts: to analyse T2D incidence, sustained weight loss and utility of risk predictors. Methods We analysed data on 749 adults with impaired glucose tolerance (278 men and 471 women, mean age 56 years, mean BMI 31 kgm−2) recruited between 1993 and 2003, and randomised to intensive lifestyle intervention (I) or lifestyle advice control (C). The intervention aimed to increase physical activity, modify diet, and promote weight loss≥5%. Using Cox-regression survival analysis, we assessed T2D incidence and the impact on T2D incidence of sustained weight loss, and of baseline cut-point values of FINDRISC score, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and HbA1c. Results Mean follow-up duration was 3.1 years. T2D was diagnosed in 139 participants (I = 45/379, C = 94/370). Cumulative T2D incidence was 57% lower in the intervention compared with the control group (HR 0.42 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.60) P<0.001). Participants with ≥5% weight loss at one year had 65% lower T2D incidence (HR 0.35 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.56) P<0.001); maintaining ≥5% weight loss for two and three years further reduced T2D incidence. Recommended cut-points to identify those at high risk for T2D would have identified different proportions of European Diabetes Prevention Study (EDIPS) participants with similar hazard-ratios for intervention effect. Conclusions Pooled analysis of EDIPS trial data reinforces evidence for T2D prevention by lifestyle intervention. Analysis showed the preventive effect of ≥5% weight loss, especially if maintained long term, which has utility for intervention monitoring. Analysis of proposed cut-points demonstrates difficulties in balancing risk and benefit, to efficiently target

  10. HEIMDAL: A thermal neutron powder diffractometer with high and flexible resolution combined with SANS and neutron imaging - Designed for materials science studies at the European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Sonja L.; Lefmann, Kim; Henry, Paul F.; Bertelsen, Mads; Schefer, Jürg; Christensen, Mogens

    2016-08-01

    HEIMDAL will be a multi length scale neutron scattering instrument for the study of structures covering almost nine orders of magnitude from 0.01 nm to 50 mm. The instrument is accepted for construction at the European Spallation Source (ESS) and features a variable resolution thermal neutron powder diffractometer (TNPD), combined with small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron imaging (NI). The instrument uses a novel combination of a cold and a thermal guide to fulfill the diverse requirements for diffraction and SANS. With an instrument length of 170 m, HEIMDAL will take advantage of the high neutron flux of the long pulse at ESS, whilst maintaining a high q-resolution due to the long flight path. The q-range coverage is up to 20 Å-1 allowing low-resolution PDF analysis. With the addition of SANS, HEIMDAL will be able to cover a uniquely broad length scale within a single instrumental set-up. HEIMDAL will be able to accommodate modern materials research in a broad variety of fields, and the task of the instrument will be to study advanced functional materials in action, as in situ and in operandi at multiple length scales (0.01-100 nm) quasi simultaneously. The instrument combines state-of-the-art neutron scattering techniques (TNPD, SANS, and NI) with the goal of studying real materials, in real time, under real conditions. This article describes the instrument design ideas, calculations and results of simulations and virtual experiments.

  11. Description of the SAGhE Cohort: A Large European Study of Mortality and Cancer Incidence Risks after Childhood Treatment with Recombinant Growth Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, Anthony J; Cooke, Rosi; Albertsson-Wikland, Kersti; Borgström, Birgi; Butler, Gar; Cianfarani, Stefan; Clayton, Pete; Coste, Joë; Deodati, Annalis; Ecosse, Emmanue; Gausche, Rut; Giacomozzi, Claudi; Kiess, Wielan; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C.S; Kuehni, Claudia E; Landier, Fabienn; Maes, Mar; Mullis, Primus-E; Pfaffle, Rolan; Sävendahl, Lar; Sommer, Gri; Thomas, Murie; Tollerfield, Sall; Zandwijken, Gladys R.J; Carel, Jean-Claud

    2015-01-01

    Background The long-term safety of growth hormone treatment is uncertain. Raised risks of death and certain cancers have been reported inconsistently, based on limited data or short-term follow-up by pharmaceutical companies. Patients and Methods: The SAGhE (Safety and Appropriateness of Growth Hormone Treatments in Europe) study assembled cohorts of patients treated in childhood with recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) in 8 European countries since the first use of this treatment in 1984 and followed them for cause-specific mortality and cancer incidence. Expected rates were obtained from national and local general population data. The cohort consisted of 24,232 patients, most commonly treated for isolated growth failure (53%), Turner syndrome (13%) and growth hormone deficiency linked to neoplasia (12%). This paper describes in detail the study design, methods and data collection and discusses the strengths, biases and weaknesses consequent on this. Conclusion The SAGhE cohort is the largest and longest follow-up cohort study of growth hormone-treated patients with follow-up and analysis independent of industry. It forms a major resource for investigating cancer and mortality risks in r-hGH patients. The interpretation of SAGhE results, however, will need to take account of the methods of cohort assembly and follow-up in each country. PMID:26227295

  12. Non-participants differ from participants as regards risk factors for vertebral deformities: a source of misinterpretation in the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study.

    PubMed

    Hasserius, Ralph; Karlsson, Magnus K; Nilsson, Bo E; Redlund-Johnell, Inga; Johnell, Olof

    2002-08-01

    Interpretation of data in epidemiological cohort studies may be confounded if differences exist between non-participants and participants. In the Malmö part of the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS), which was designed to evaluate the prevalence of vertebral deformity in 50-80-year-old persons, we compared 74 men and 95 women who had been invited, but declined to participate with age- and gender-matched participants as regards alcohol abuse, previous fractures and subsequent mortality, factors known to affect the prevalence of vertebral deformity. We found more men with alcohol abuse, more men with a previous fragility fracture and a tendency to more men with a previous clinical vertebral fracture among the non-participants than in the male participants. In contrast, there were fewer female non-participants than female participants with a previous clinical vertebral fracture. The mortality rate during the decade after the baseline examination was higher among both male and female non-participants. The "true" prevalence of vertebral deformity in the whole male population at risk in Malmö seems to be underestimated in the EVOS study. In women, it is more difficult to estimate the combined result of the confounding factors. Conclusions based on the EVOS participants may not be applicable to the whole population at risk. PMID:12358120

  13. The structure of pedicle and hard antler bone in the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): a light microscope and backscattered electron imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Flohr, Stefan; Gomez, Santiago; Landete-Castillejos, Tomas; Kierdorf, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Deer antlers are deciduous bony structures that develop from permanent frontal outgrowths, the pedicles. While growth and bone architecture of antlers have been studied in greater detail, information on pedicle formation and structure is scarce. The present study provides information on the structure of pedicle and hard antler bone in the European roe deer. A pronounced seasonal variation in pedicle architecture was observed, with high porosity around antler casting and a very compact bone structure during the hard antler stage. These observations suggest a corresponding marked variation also in the biomechanical properties of the pedicles. The seasonally alternating extensive resorption and formation processes make the pedicles of older deer heavily remodeled structures. Pedicles increase in thickness by apposition of primary bone that subsequently becomes replaced by secondary osteons. The antler cortex of roe deer is largely composed of a tubular framework of woven bone trabeculae with some remnants of mineralized cartilage, and primary osteons that have filled in the intertrabecular spaces. Secondary osteons are scarce, denoting little remodeling in antlers, which can be related to their short lifespan. The occurrence of cement lines around primary osteons indicates resorption on the trabecular scaffold prior to infilling of the intertrabecular spaces. The outer cortex showed a higher autofluorescence and a more immature structure than the main cortex, suggesting that it was secondarily formed by periosteal activity. Pedicles and antlers constitute a functional entity, and future histological and/or biomechanical studies should therefore consider both components of the cranial appendages. PMID:23961846

  14. Addressing the challenge of intergroup studies in oncology: the EORTC experience. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zurlo, A; Therasse, P

    2002-03-01

    Intergroup studies are conducted by more than one clinical research group. There are several difficulties that hamper in practice the possibility of conducting such trials, as all interested parties will have to address unusual and complex issues. These are mainly related to differences in size, interests, motivations and means among different research organisations. The EORTC recognises the importance to promote intergroup collaboration providing to all interested groups the necessary expertise and organisational support to conduct intergroup studies. The role of the EORTC evolved from the spontaneous organisations of intergroup trials to the definition of a basic set of principles and criteria that groups have to fulfil to participate in intergroup trials. Recently, a specific EORTC Intergroup Office started its activity devoted to solve the issues related to the intergroup co-operation. This office will have an increasing role to promote and help in conducting intergroup studies. PMID:11858988

  15. European psychotraumatology – alongside the recent European history

    PubMed Central

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a personal reflection of experiences within the field of traumatic stress, especially in relation to specific events, which affected the author's professional life. Conclusions for further challenges for European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) are delineated. ESTSS's role in the global network of traumatic stress societies is discussed. This is a personal view of Brigitte Lueger-Schuster, president of ESTSS on behalf of the 20th birthday of ESTSS. PMID:23755321

  16. Rare Cancers Europe (RCE) methodological recommendations for clinical studies in rare cancers: a European consensus position paper.

    PubMed

    Casali, P G; Bruzzi, P; Bogaerts, J; Blay, J-Y

    2015-02-01

    While they account for one-fifth of new cancer cases, rare cancers are difficult to study. A higher than average degree of uncertainty should be accommodated for clinical as well as for population-based decision making. Rules of rational decision making in conditions of uncertainty should be rigorously followed and would need widely informative clinical trials. In principle, any piece of new evidence would need to be exploited in rare cancers. Methodologies to explicitly weigh and combine all the available evidence should be refined, and the Bayesian logic can be instrumental to this end. Likewise, Bayesian-design trials may help optimize the low number of patients liable to be enrolled in clinical studies on rare cancers, as well as adaptive trials in general, with their inherent potential of flexibility when properly applied. While clinical studies are the mainstay to test hypotheses, the potential of electronic patient records should be exploited to generate new hypotheses, to create external controls for future studies (when internal controls are unpractical), to study effectiveness of new treatments in real conditions. Framework study protocols in specific rare cancers to sequentially test sets of new agents, as from the early post-phase I development stage, should be encouraged. Also the compassionate and the off-label settings should be exploited to generate new evidence, and flexible regulatory innovations such as adaptive licensing could convey new agents early to rare cancer patients, while generating evidence. Though validation of surrogate end points is problematic in rare cancers, the use of an updated notion of tumor response may be of great value in the single patient to optimize the use of therapies, all the more the new ones. Disease-based communities, involving clinicians and patients, should be regularly consulted by regulatory bodies when setting their policies on drug approval and reimbursement in specific rare cancers. PMID:25274616

  17. Opportunities to Learn about Europe at School. A Comparative Analysis among European Adolescents in 21 European Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhaegen, Soetkin; Hooghe, Marc; Meeusen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the relationship between different learning methods and the formation of European identity among adolescents. The analysis is based on the European module of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (2009), with 70,502 respondents in 21 European member states. The results show that offering…

  18. The Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) algorithm for AMSU/MHS observations: description and application to European case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanò, P.; Panegrossi, G.; Casella, D.; Di Paola, F.; Milani, L.; Mugnai, A.; Petracca, M.; Dietrich, S.

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a new algorithm based on a neural network approach (Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval - PNPR) for precipitation rate estimation from AMSU/MHS observations, and to provide examples of its performance for specific case studies over the European/Mediterranean area. The algorithm optimally exploits the different characteristics of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) and the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) channels, and their combinations, including the brightness temperature (TB) differences of the 183.31 channels, with the goal of having a single neural network for different types of background surfaces (vegetated land, snow-covered surface, coast and ocean). The training of the neural network is based on the use of a cloud-radiation database, built from cloud-resolving model simulations coupled to a radiative transfer model, representative of the European and Mediterranean Basin precipitation climatology. The algorithm provides also the phase of the precipitation and a pixel-based confidence index for the evaluation of the reliability of the retrieval. Applied to different weather conditions in Europe, the algorithm shows good performance both in the identification of precipitation areas and in the retrieval of precipitation, which is particularly valuable over the extremely variable environmental and meteorological conditions of the region. The PNPR is particularly efficient in (1) screening and retrieval of precipitation over different background surfaces; (2) identification and retrieval of heavy rain for convective events; and (3) identification of precipitation over a cold/iced background, with increased uncertainties affecting light precipitation. In this paper, examples of good agreement of precipitation pattern and intensity with ground-based data (radar and rain gauges) are provided for four different case studies. The algorithm has been developed in order to be easily tailored to new

  19. The Crusades from Medieval European and Muslim Perspectives. A Unit of Study for Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghaie, Kamran Scot

    This unit of study seeks to supplement the information presented in world history textbooks about the Crusades. The Crusades were instigated by the call for "holy war" against Muslims by Pope Urban II in 1095 and spanned several centuries. The unit notes that usually the depth and breadth of coverage varies substantially, and the Crusades are…

  20. Investigation of the cold drops in the European area, study based on ERA Interim and ECMWF ensemble model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaal, Nikolett; Ihasz, Istvan

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to analyze the cold drops and the upper level lows formed in the middle troposphere - which are often difficult to be predicted - by means of the statistical methods and case studies. Cold drops are often followed by intensive events such as heavy rainfall, rainstorm, at times tubas and non mesocyclonical tornadoes. Due to the above mentioned events and the incentive of Aviation and Severe Weather Forecasting Division at Hungarian Meteorological Service, the phenomenon was analyzed in a complex way by a self-developed multiple method. Upper-Level Lows (ULL-s) are closed; cyclonically circulating eddies isolated from the main western stream in the middle and upper troposphere. They are also sometimes called "cold drops" because the air within an Upper Level low is colder than in its surroundings. The cold air within usually does not show up on the surface, meaning the vertical temperature gradient is high, which in turn causes instability and heavy storms, especially during the summer. An ULL-s diameter is about a couple hundred km-s, so it looks like a miniature cyclone. ERA INTERIM is the current state of reanalysis that is still in development. It also has the best possible spatial resolution, which leads to its usage in a wide area of fields. Our studies focused mainly on the cold drops' statistics and meteorology, as well as a few case studies. Since ULL's occur rarely, we developed a new ULL-recognition process to increase the number of samples available. First of all, we gathered 70days when cold drops occurred in the past 10 years. Then we analyzed them in 6-hour periods, for a total of 280 separate time periods. Finally, we have four main case studies in the paper. In the future, we would like to run further tests with our ULL-recognition algorithm to study the last 30 years of cold drops, and we would also like to experiment more with ULL forecasting as well.