Science.gov

Sample records for european study mcmdm-1vwd

  1. Identification and characterization of a novel P2Y 12 variant in a patient diagnosed with type 1 von Willebrand disease in the European MCMDM-1VWD study.

    PubMed

    Daly, Martina E; Dawood, Ban B; Lester, William A; Peake, Ian R; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Goodeve, Anne C; Makris, Michael; Wilde, Jonathan T; Mumford, Andrew D; Watson, Stephen P; Mundell, Stuart J

    2009-04-23

    We investigated whether defects in the P2Y(12) ADP receptor gene (P2RY12) contribute to the bleeding tendency in 92 index cases enrolled in the European MCMDM-1VWD study. A heterozygous mutation, predicting a lysine to glutamate (K174E) substitution in P2Y(12), was identified in one case with mild type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD) and a VWF defect. Platelets from the index case and relatives carrying the K174E defect changed shape in response to ADP, but showed reduced and reversible aggregation in response to 10 muM ADP, unlike the maximal, sustained aggregation observed in controls. The reduced response was associated with an approximate 50% reduction in binding of [(3)H]2MeS-ADP to P2Y(12), whereas binding to the P2Y(1) receptor was normal. A hemagglutinin-tagged K174E P2Y(12) variant showed surface expression in CHO cells, markedly reduced binding to [(3)H]2MeS-ADP, and minimal ADP-mediated inhibition of forskolin-induced adenylyl cyclase activity. Our results provide further evidence for locus heterogeneity in type 1 VWD. PMID:19237732

  2. A Cross-sectional Study of Bleeding Phenotype in Haemophilia A Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Paroskie, Allison; Gailani, Dave; DeBaun, Michael R.; Sidonio, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Haemophilia A carriers have historically been thought to demonstrate normal haemostasis. However, recent data demonstrates that despite normal factor VIII, haemophilia A carriers demonstrate an increased bleeding tendency. We tested the hypothesis that obligate haemophilia carriers demonstrate an increase in bleeding symptoms. A cross sectional study was performed comparing haemophilia A carriers to normal women. Questionnaire assessment included a general bleeding questionnaire, condensed MCMDM-1VWD bleeding assessment tool and Pictorial Bleeding Assessment Chart (PBAC). Laboratory assessment included complete blood count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen activity, FVIII activity (FVIII:C), von Willebrand factor antigen level, ristocetin cofactor, platelet function analyser-100™ and ABO blood type. 44 haemophilia A carriers and 43 controls were included. Demographic features were similar. Laboratory results demonstrated a statistically significant difference only in FVIII:C (82.5 versus 134%, p value < 0.001). Carriers reported a higher number of bleeding events, and both condensed MCMDM-1 VWD bleeding scores (5 versus 1, p value < 0.001) and PBAC scores (423 versus 182.5, p value = 0.018) were significantly higher in carriers. Haemophilia A carriers exhibit increased bleeding symptoms when compared to normal women. Further studies are necessary to fully understand the bleeding phenotype in this population and optimize clinical management. PMID:25832012

  3. Study Offers Ways to Better European Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2006-01-01

    School systems that track students into certain classes and academic programs based on ability end up worsening disparities between high and low performers, according to a far-ranging report that offers recommendations for improving education across Europe. The study, commissioned by a branch of the European Union (EU), also found that bilingual…

  4. Contemporary European Studies: A Model for Interdisciplinary Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannerbeck, Francis J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the University of South Carolina's (Columbia) Contemporary European Studies program, which drew on current course offerings and existing financial resources to provide study about post-French Revolution European languages, cultures, politics, history, geography, and economics. Options exist at many other institutions to create broadly…

  5. Survey of studies in European languages.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, S. N.

    The beginnings of the study in European languages of ancient Indian astronomy can hardly be fixed with any degree of certainty. Indian astronomy appears to have reached Europe through Arabic astronomical literature during the eleventh-thirteenth century. In this transmission Spain played a crucial part. With the revival of learning in Latin Europe, particularly during the active period of translation from Arabic into Latin, certain Hindu astronomical elements and tradition inevitably passed into Western Europe.

  6. The Physical Tourist. A European Study Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd; Westfall, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    We organized and led a European study course for American undergraduate university students to explore the early history of relativity and quantum theory. We were inspired by The Physical Tourist articles published in this journal on Munich, Bern, Berlin, Copenhagen, and Göttingen. We describe this adventure both for others wishing to teach such a course and for anyone wishing to walk in the footsteps of the physicists who revolutionized physics in the early decades of the twentieth century.

  7. World Studies in the European Classroom. Education and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Edmund

    The study of world problems in secondary European schools is examined. The study reflects the concerns of a group of teachers from 15 European countries and from a range of disciplines who attended a course on "World Problems in the European Classroom" which was held at Lillehammer in July, 1979 as a contribution by Norway to the Council of…

  8. Discerning the Ancestry of European Americans in Genetic Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Price, Alkes L; Butler, Johannah; Patterson, Nick; Capelli, Cristian; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Scarnicci, Francesca; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Groop, Leif; Saetta, Angelica A; Korkolopoulou, Penelope; Seligsohn, Uri; Waliszewska, Alicja; Schirmer, Christine; Ardlie, Kristin; Ramos, Alexis; Nemesh, James; Arbeitman, Lori; Goldstein, David B

    2008-01-01

    European Americans are often treated as a homogeneous group, but in fact form a structured population due to historical immigration of diverse source populations. Discerning the ancestry of European Americans genotyped in association studies is important in order to prevent false-positive or false-negative associations due to population stratification and to identify genetic variants whose contribution to disease risk differs across European ancestries. Here, we investigate empirical patterns of population structure in European Americans, analyzing 4,198 samples from four genome-wide association studies to show that components roughly corresponding to northwest European, southeast European, and Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry are the main sources of European American population structure. Building on this insight, we constructed a panel of 300 validated markers that are highly informative for distinguishing these ancestries. We demonstrate that this panel of markers can be used to correct for stratification in association studies that do not generate dense genotype data. PMID:18208327

  9. Mineral Metabolism in European Children Living with a Renal Transplant: A European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association–European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; Busutti, Marco; Jager, Kitty J.; Baiko, Sergey; Bakkaloğlu, Sevcan; Battelino, Nina; Gaydarova, Maria; Gianoglio, Bruno; Parvex, Paloma; Gomes, Clara; Heaf, James G.; Podracka, Ludmila; Kuzmanovska, Dafina; Molchanova, Maria S.; Pankratenko, Tatiana E.; Papachristou, Fotios; Reusz, György; Sanahuja, Maria José; Shroff, Rukshana; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Schaefer, Franz; Verrina, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Data on mineral metabolism in pediatric renal transplant recipients largely arise from small single-center studies. In adult patients, abnormal mineral levels are related to a higher risk of graft failure. This study used data from the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association–European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry to study the prevalence and potential determinants of mineral abnormalities, as well as the predictive value of a disturbed mineral level on graft survival in a large cohort of European pediatric renal transplant recipients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study included 1237 children (0–17 years) from 10 European countries, who had serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone measurements from 2000 onward. Abnormalities of mineral metabolism were defined according to European guidelines on prevention and treatment of renal osteodystrophy in children on chronic renal failure. Results Abnormal serum phosphorus levels were observed in 25% (14% hypophosphatemia and 11% hyperphosphatemia), altered serum calcium in 30% (19% hypocalcemia, 11% hypercalcemia), and hyperparathyroidism in 41% of the patients. A longer time since transplantation was associated with a lower risk of having mineral levels above target range. Serum phosphorus levels were inversely associated with eGFR, and levels above the recommended targets were associated with a higher risk of graft failure independently of eGFR. Conclusions Abnormalities in mineral metabolism are common after pediatric renal transplantation in Europe and are associated with graft dysfunction. PMID:25710805

  10. Teaching European Studies Online: The Challenge of Quality Assurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihai, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This paper will be looking into the issue of quality assurance in online learning from the perspective of the e-learning tool developed by the Institute for European Studies in Brussels--the E-modules. The E-modules have been designed with the purpose of offering a structured and interactive way of learning how the European Union functions. As…

  11. [Comparative study of 5 European tables of food composition (study of European tables of food composition)].

    PubMed

    García González, J

    1990-01-01

    A comparative study has been made of the following nutritional data base: (A) C.S.I.C. (Spain); (B) Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Lebensmittel Chemie, Garching; (C) INSERM (France); (D) Geigy; (E) Wander. The following values were researched: calorie, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, magnesium, Vit. B1, Vit B2, Niacin, Folic Acid, Vit. B12 and Vit. C. In order to assess the use of these tables under different conditions, the following were researched: 1) A group of 10 essential representative foods. 2) A group of 25 foods corresponding to a 24-hour count of what can be considered a standard diet. 3) Data obtained from a food survey (24-hour count) applied to 72, 13-year-old students at a Barcelona public school (winter 1988). In this case, the Spanish data base was used as reference. Computerized data processing, especially variation coefficient studies revealed that macronutrients correlated well with the different data bases. On the other hand, the greatest differences were observed among micronutrients, especially vitamin B12, niacin, folic acid, calcium and particularly fiber. The role different national data bases may play within the context of a more integrated european system was assessed. PMID:2078596

  12. Study Assistance in Ten European Countries: Overview and Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Olof; Ricknell, Lars

    Fundamental features of the financial aid systems for college students in 10 European countries are described, as are the theoretical framework and research topics of the study on which this report is based. The study is intended to determine the per capita degree of subsidization in each country; to describe the effects of the financial aid…

  13. Entrepreneurial Training: A Comparative Study across Fifteen European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matricano, Diego

    2014-01-01

    This paper arises from the contents of the Lisbon Strategy, a set of cooperation policies stressing the role of education and training. The findings from a comparative study of the influence that entrepreneurial training--classified as formal or informal--can have on start-up expectations are analysed. The study covers fifteen European countries…

  14. European Curriculum Studies No. 3: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, A.

    The Committee for General and Technical Education of the Council of Europe has initiated several projects to study, compare and evaluate curriculum materials used in the member nations. This publication, a result of such attempts, was prepared after making a survey of the status of biology teaching at the upper secondary school level in 19 member…

  15. European Union Students Studying in English Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Marian; Rutt, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the pathways, intentions and relevant perceptions of (non-UK) European Union (EU) students entering English higher education. It sought to identify why students wished to obtain an English HE qualification, their attitudes towards the uptake and repayment of tuition fee loans and their future career plans. Drawing on…

  16. European and Canadian Studies of Loneliness among Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a commentary on a set of five other articles reporting European and Canadian studies of loneliness among seniors. It places those works involving Canadian, Dutch, Finnish, and Welsh samples in the larger context of research on loneliness; offers reflections on the methods and findings reported in the articles; and addresses…

  17. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Northern European Foods. Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freepartner, Susan

    This teaching guide focuses on the Northern European food heritage. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective of this unit is to gain familiarity with and appreciate foods from Scandinavia, the Soviet…

  18. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Southern European Foods. Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freepartner, Susan

    This teaching guide focuses on the Southern European food heritage. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective of this unit is to gain familiarity with and appreciate foods from Spain, France,…

  19. Teacher Behavior and Student Outcomes: Results of a European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panayiotou, Anastasia; Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.; McMahon, Léan; Vanlaar, Gudrun; Pfeifer, Michael; Rekalidou, Galini; Bren, Matevž

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which the factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness are associated with student achievement gains in six different European countries. At classroom level, the dynamic model refers to eight factors relating to teacher behavior in the classroom: orientation, structuring, questioning,…

  20. Use of Social Media by Western European Hospitals: Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Berben, Sivera AA; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. Objective To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. Methods In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. Results We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Conclusions Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health

  1. The European Atherosclerosis Research Study (EARS): design and objectives.

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    The European Atherosclerosis Research Study--EARS--is a multicentre collaborative project sponsored by the European Community. Its main objective is to study, in young people, the biological expression of a paternal history of premature acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the relative share of heredity and environment in this expression. In 14 centres in 11 European countries, the offspring of fathers who suffered from a documented AMI before the age of 55 years (cases) are compared with age- and sex-matched control individuals. Genetic variables (restriction fragment length polymorphisms of candidate genes), lifestyle variables and biochemical variables that are known or suspected to play a role in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD), are studied. The cultural and ethnic diversity within Europe allows a thorough investigation of the relative importance and the potential interactions of genetics and environment in the pathogenesis of CHD. A standardized core methodology and centralized storage of blood samples with particular types of analyses systematically carried out in one or a few specialized laboratories, from a strong basis for valid cross-cultural analyses. The results of this study will offer new clues for the modelling of individual risk for developing CHD. PMID:7960370

  2. Mental Health Services in Pilot Study Areas: Report on a European Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a study to collect data on mental health resources of pilot areas within several European countries. This report presents data from the study and provides a detailed and reliable description of the development of mental health services within the WHO European Region. Part I of the report describes the…

  3. European education on natural disasters - a textbook study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komac, B.; Zorn, M.; Ciglič, R.

    2013-05-01

    Present is the role of formal education on natural disasters in Europe. To ensure a uniform overview, the study used secondary-school geography textbooks from the collection of textbooks at the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research in Braunschweig, Germany. Altogether, more than 160 textbooks from 36 European countries were examined in order to investigate how much their content (pages, text, figures) is related to natural-disasters topics, and to find out which types of hazards are presented more often. In the research it was also analyzed which disaster events are frequently used as an example.

  4. The epidemiology of vertebral fractures. European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study Group.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C; O'Neill, T; Silman, A

    1993-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are recognised as a hallmark of osteoporosis, yet little is known of their epidemiology. This deficiency limits accurate characterisation of the public health importance of osteoporosis. Assessment of the impact of vertebral fractures has been hampered by the absence of formal criteria for identifying fractures on a thoracolumbar radiograph. Initial methods relying upon subjective radiological assessments have given way to morphometric measurements of vertebral heights, with deformities defined according to various algorithms. These methods have been used in a series of studies performed in Rochester, MN, to determine the incidence, outcome, and time trends of vertebral deformities. The results suggest a prevalence rate of vertebral deformity of 25.3 per 100 Rochester women aged 50 years and over (95% CI, 22.3-28.2), with an estimated incidence of 17.8 per 1,000 person-years. The incidence of clinically diagnosed vertebral fractures among women in the same population was 5.3 per 1,000 person-years, suggesting that around 30% of such deformities in women receive clinical attention. Morphometric measurement on the radiographs of women with clinically diagnosed fractures revealed that 80% had grade 2 ( > 4 SD) deformities. Comparable data on the occurrence and health impact of vertebral deformities throughout Europe are urgently required. The European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS) is a multicentre epidemiological study that aims to address this issue. It is designed as a radiographic prevalence study in 34 European centres.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8110529

  5. Ethics teaching in European veterinary schools: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M

    2014-12-13

    Veterinary ethics is recognised as a relevant topic in the undergraduate veterinary curriculum. However, there appears to be no widely agreed view on which contents are best suited for veterinary ethics teaching and there is limited information on the teaching approaches adopted by veterinary schools. This paper provides an inside perspective on the diversity of veterinary ethics teaching topics, based on an in-depth analysis of three European veterinary schools: Copenhagen, Lisbon and Nottingham. The case study approach integrated information from the analysis of syllabi contents and interviews with educators (curricular year 2010-2011). These results show that the curriculum of veterinary ethics is multidimensional and can combine a wide range of scientific, regulatory, professional and philosophical subjects, some of which may not be explicitly set out in the course descriptors. A conceptual model for veterinary ethics teaching is proposed comprising prominent topics included within four overarching concepts: animal welfare science, laws/regulations, professionalism, and theories/concepts. It is intended that this work should inform future curriculum development of veterinary ethics in European schools and assist ethical deliberation in veterinary practice. PMID:25185106

  6. European Maxillofacial Trauma (EURMAT) project: a multicentre and prospective study.

    PubMed

    Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Zavattero, Emanuele; Dediol, Emil; Uglešić, Vedran; Kovačič, Žiga; Vesnaver, Aleš; Konstantinović, Vitomir S; Petrović, Milan; Stephens, Jonny; Kanzaria, Amar; Bhatti, Nabeel; Holmes, Simon; Pechalova, Petia F; Bakardjiev, Angel G; Malanchuk, Vladislav A; Kopchak, Andrey V; Galteland, Pål; Mjøen, Even; Skjelbred, Per; Koudougou, Carine; Mouallem, Guillaume; Corre, Pierre; Løes, Sigbjørn; Lekven, Njål; Laverick, Sean; Gordon, Peter; Tamme, Tiia; Akermann, Stephanie; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Kommers, Sofie C; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the demographics, causes and characteristics of maxillofacial fractures managed at several European departments of oral and maxillofacial surgery over one year. The following data were recorded: gender, age, aetiology, site of facial fractures, facial injury severity score, timing of intervention, length of hospital stay. Data for a total of 3396 patients (2655 males and 741 females) with 4155 fractures were recorded. The mean age differed from country to country, ranging between 29.9 and 43.9 years. Overall, the most frequent cause of injury was assault, which accounted for the injuries of 1309 patients; assaults and falls alternated as the most important aetiological factor in the various centres. The most frequently observed fracture involved the mandible with 1743 fractures, followed by orbital-zygomatic-maxillary (OZM) fractures. Condylar fractures were the most commonly observed mandibular fracture. The results of the EURMAT collaboration confirm the changing trend in maxillofacial trauma epidemiology in Europe, with trauma cases caused by assaults and falls now outnumbering those due to road traffic accidents. The progressive ageing of the European population, in addition to strict road and work legislation may have been responsible for this change. Men are still the most frequent victims of maxillofacial injuries. PMID:25457465

  7. Effectiveness study of atropine for progressive myopia in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Polling, J R; Kok, R G W; Tideman, J W L; Meskat, B; Klaver, C C W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Randomized controlled trials have shown the efficacy of atropine for progressive myopia, and this treatment has become the preferred pattern for this condition in Taiwan. This study explores the effectiveness of atropine 0.5% treatment for progressive high myopia and adherence to therapy in a non-Asian country. Methods An effectiveness study was performed in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Overall 77 children (mean age 10.3 years±2.3), of European (n=53), Asian (n=18), and African (n=6) descent with progressive myopia were prescribed atropine 0.5% eye drops daily. Both parents and children filled in a questionnaire regarding adverse events and adherence to therapy. A standardized eye examination including cycloplegic refraction and axial length was performed at baseline and 1, 4, and 12 months after initiation of therapy. Results Mean spherical equivalent at baseline was −6.6D (±3.3). The majority (60/77, 78%) of children adhered to atropine treatment for 12 months; 11 of the 17 children who discontinued therapy did so within 1 month after the start of therapy. The most prominent reported adverse events were photophobia (72%), followed by reading problems (38%), and headaches (22%). The progression rate of spherical equivalent before treatment (−1.0D/year±0.7) diminished substantially during treatment (−0.1D/year±0.7) compared to those who ceased therapy (−0.5D/year±0.6; P=0.03). Conclusions Despite the relatively high occurrence of adverse events, our study shows that atropine can be an effective and sustainable treatment for progressive high myopia in Europeans. PMID:27101751

  8. Effectiveness study of atropine for progressive myopia in Europeans.

    PubMed

    Polling, J R; Kok, R G W; Tideman, J W L; Meskat, B; Klaver, C C W

    2016-07-01

    PurposeRandomized controlled trials have shown the efficacy of atropine for progressive myopia, and this treatment has become the preferred pattern for this condition in Taiwan. This study explores the effectiveness of atropine 0.5% treatment for progressive high myopia and adherence to therapy in a non-Asian country.MethodsAn effectiveness study was performed in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Overall 77 children (mean age 10.3 years±2.3), of European (n=53), Asian (n=18), and African (n=6) descent with progressive myopia were prescribed atropine 0.5% eye drops daily. Both parents and children filled in a questionnaire regarding adverse events and adherence to therapy. A standardized eye examination including cycloplegic refraction and axial length was performed at baseline and 1, 4, and 12 months after initiation of therapy.ResultsMean spherical equivalent at baseline was -6.6D (±3.3). The majority (60/77, 78%) of children adhered to atropine treatment for 12 months; 11 of the 17 children who discontinued therapy did so within 1 month after the start of therapy. The most prominent reported adverse events were photophobia (72%), followed by reading problems (38%), and headaches (22%). The progression rate of spherical equivalent before treatment (-1.0D/year±0.7) diminished substantially during treatment (-0.1D/year±0.7) compared to those who ceased therapy (-0.5D/year±0.6; P=0.03).ConclusionsDespite the relatively high occurrence of adverse events, our study shows that atropine can be an effective and sustainable treatment for progressive high myopia in Europeans. PMID:27101751

  9. Drug use in children: cohort study in three European countries

    PubMed Central

    Verhamme, Katia M C; Nicolosi, Alfredo; Murray, Macey L; Neubert, Antje; Caudri, Daan; Picelli, Gino; Sen, Elif Fatma; Giaquinto, Carlo; Cantarutti, Luigi; Baiardi, Paola; Felisi, Maria-Grazia; Ceci, Adriana; Wong, Ian C K

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of drug use in children in three European countries. Design Retrospective cohort study, 2000-5. Setting Primary care research databases in the Netherlands (IPCI), United Kingdom (IMS-DA), and Italy (Pedianet). Participants 675 868 children aged up to 14 (Italy) or 18 (UK and Netherlands). Main outcome measure Prevalence of use per year calculated by drug class (anatomical and therapeutic). Prevalence of “recurrent/chronic” use (three or more prescriptions a year) and “non-recurrent” or “acute” use (less than three prescriptions a year) within each therapeutic class. Descriptions of the top five most commonly used drugs evaluated for off label status within each anatomical class. Results Three levels of drug use could be distinguished in the study population: high (>10/100 children per year), moderate (1-10/100 children per year), and low (<1/100 children per year). For all age categories, anti-infective, dermatological, and respiratory drugs were in the high use group, whereas cardiovascular and antineoplastic drugs were always in the low use group. Emollients, topical steroids, and asthma drugs had the highest prevalence of recurrent use, but relative use of low prevalence drugs was more often recurrent than acute. In the top five highest prevalence drugs topical inhaled and systemic steroids, oral contraceptives, and topical or systemic antifungal drugs were most commonly used off label. Conclusion This overview of outpatient paediatric prescription patterns in a large European population could provide information to prioritise paediatric therapeutic research needs. PMID:19029175

  10. Multi-instrumental study of the ionosphere in European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenkova, I.; Krankowski, A.; Cherniak, I.; Rothkaehl, H.

    2013-12-01

    We present the techniques for the investigation of the spatial-temporal structure of the mid-latitude ionosphere on the base of comprehensive analysis of multi-instrumental satellite and ground-based measurements and demonstrates their application at several case study results. For our analysis we used the ionospheric data provided by European ionosondes network (DIAS), as well as GNSS TEC observations. Manually scaled ionosondes' data are used as a benchmark in our study. Two-dimensional maps of vertical TEC over Europe are created using IGS and EUREF permanent networks. These maps have spatial resolution of 1 deg and temporal resolution of 1 h, for investigation of ionosphere response on special events (geomagnetic storms, solar eclipses, etc) there is possibility to create TEC maps with 5-10 min resolution. The high temporal resolution maps give the possibility to study of spatial gradients of electron density. Joint analysis of GPS TEC and FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation data allows us to extract and estimate electron content corresponded to the ionosphere (its bottom and topside parts) and the plasmasphere (h>700 km) for different conditions. Several case-studies of geomagnetic storms were analyzed in order to estimate changes and redistribution of electron content between ionosphere and plasmasphere over Europe. The obtained results were compared with TEC, IEC and PEC estimates retrieved by IRI-Plas Model that has the plasmasphere extension up to 20,000 km (GPS orbit). As a new data source there will be new ionospheric sounding station, located in European mid-latitudes in Olsztyn, Poland, that will start its operation at the end of 2013. One of the possible user of ionospheric products is represented by LOFAR (LOw Frequency Array), a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz. To the summer of 2015 three new LOFAR stations will be installed in Poland: Lazy (East of Krakow), Borowiec near Poznan and Baldy near

  11. Spaceflight studies of tropisms in the European Modular Cultivation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Correll, M. J.; Edelmann, R. E.

    Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at μ g, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station (ISS), we have been performing ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments that will use Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue-light and red-light signaling systems interact with each other, and also with the gravisensing system.

  12. Recent Extremes in European Climate: Assessment, Case Studies and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiou, P.; Vautard, R.; D'Andrea, F.; Cattiaux, J.; Naveau, P.; Ciais, P.; Garnier, E.

    2008-12-01

    During the last centuries and up to the present decade, extreme climate events have certainly had larger economic impacts than any trend of temperature in Europe. In addition to an intrinsic scientific interest, their study is thus essential for society. One of the challenges of their investigation is that, depending on their definition, extreme climate events potentially have a behavior that is not connected to the secular temperature trend in a simple fashion. This presentation will review the statistical assessments of extremes in Europe, focusing on surface temperature, precipitation, and their connections with large-scale features of the atmospheric circulation. In particular, the questions of modeling their severity and frequency will be discussed in the first part of the presentation. I will then give two kinds of examples of European climate extremes: summer heatwaves and droughts, and winter warm waves. The mechanisms leading to such phenomena will be explored, and I will examine some of the impacts on the biosphere that were recently observed. In order to provide a long term perspective of those events, examples of historical droughts in France will be presented and connected with proxy records of temperature. It appears that the mechanisms that are favored for present-day climate might still have been valid during the past centuries. To conclude, new challenges for dynamical and statistical modeling will be explored.

  13. Site Selection for the European ELT: working package included in the European FP6 ``ELT design study'' contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Sarazin, M.; Vernin, J.

    2007-10-01

    The site selection for the future European Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a key issue within the European proposal funded by the European Union (EU), within the ``ELT design study'' proposal. The organization, working scheme and baseline frameworks are reviewed. For the definition of the working package WP12000 ``Site Characterization'', important use has been done of previous work in the definition of techniques and tools for the study of the atmosphere above observing sites. We have also taken advantage of the number of data already available which have naturally defined a ranking among the known places which have also been taken as a base line for pre-selecting the candidate sites. The work will last 4 years, it started in 2005 and is organized in subtasks, working packages WP, whose main objectives are the following: WP12100: to characterize two top astronomical sites (ORM and North-Paranal) and to explore three other alternatives (Macon in Argentina, Izaña in Spain and Aklim in Morocco) suitable to install an ELT under the best conditions (Dome C is been currently under investigation, and no particular effort will be put in this site, but rather its atmospheric properties will be compared to the above mentioned sites). WP12200 is dedicated to design, build and operate a set of standard equipment in all the sites and to perform long term campaign. WP12300 will investigate wavefront properties over large baselines (50-100 m) corresponding to the size of the future ELT, as well as the fine characterization of the optical turbulence within the boundary layer. A similar plan is being carried out by the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) site selection team. For the sake of saving resources (budget and people), the TMT preselected sites (all in the American Continent) are not included in our European study.

  14. European Studies as Answer to Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Michael H.

    European studies can provide a solution to several of the issues raised in Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind." European studies pursue the academic quest for what is truth, what is goodness, and what is beauty. In seeking to answer these questions, the Greeks were among the first to explore many of humanity's problems and their…

  15. An integrated lithospheric study targeting the Holy Cross Mountains of the Eastern European Trans-European Suture Zone in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averill, M.; Bond, T.; Sroda, P.; Keller, G.; Miller, K.

    2003-04-01

    The Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) in Eastern Europe, of which the TTZ is a portion, marks the boundary between Phanerozoic Western European terrains with the Precambrian Eastern European Craton (EEC). The nature of this suture is known primarily from geophysical studies. Seismic velocity and gravity models indicate changes of crustal thickness from 28-35 km to 42-47 km across the TTZ (Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone) from the Paleozoic Platform of Western Europe to the Eastern European Craton. Tectonic models suggest the presence of a Precambrian/Early Paleozoic passive margin beneath the TTZ. The Holy Cross Mountains in southeastern Poland represent an anomalous crustal block whose origin and interaction with the EEC is largely unknown. The subject of this study is the origin and tectonic evolution of this and adjacent crustal blocks in relation to the eastern TESZ and EEC. We have employed a technique to integrate industry acquired well and reflection data, as well as refraction data from the CELEBRATION 2000, POLONAISE '97 and TTZ seismic experiments. We used well check shot surveys from wells and CDP (common depth point) stacking velocities from reflection surveys in addition to refraction data as data input to a 3-D tomographic inversion. Gravity, magnetics, drilling and geologic data support an integrated interpretation of the output velocity model for this region. Gravity modeling based on geologic and velocity model constraints indicate an incomplete docking of Variscan terranes along the EEC margin with deformation of the Paleozoic margin strata associated with uplift in the Holy Cross Mountains region.

  16. Job insecurity and health: A study of 16 European countries

    PubMed Central

    László, Krisztina D.; Pikhart, Hynek; Kopp, Mária S.; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Marmot, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Although the number of insecure jobs has increased considerably over the recent decades, relatively little is known about the health consequences of job insecurity, their international pattern, and factors that may modify them. In this paper, we investigated the association between job insecurity and self-rated health, and whether the relationship differs by country or individual-level characteristics. Cross-sectional data from 3 population-based studies on job insecurity, self-rated health, demographic, socioeconomic, work-related and behavioural factors and lifetime chronic diseases in 23,245 working subjects aged 45–70 years from 16 European countries were analysed using logistic regression and meta-analysis. In fully adjusted models, job insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor health in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia, with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 2.0. Similar, but not significant, associations were observed in Austria, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. We found no effect of job insecurity in Belgium and Sweden. In the pooled data, the odds ratio of poor health by job insecurity was 1.39. The association between job insecurity and health did not differ significantly by age, sex, education, and marital status. Persons with insecure jobs were at an increased risk of poor health in most of the countries included in the analysis. Given these results and trends towards increasing frequency of insecure jobs, attention needs to be paid to the public health consequences of job insecurity. PMID:20060634

  17. Coproducing European Integration Studies: Infrastructures and Epistemic Movements in an Interdisciplinary Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfister, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper is interested in the interdisciplinary characteristics of European integration studies. It explores how the institutional and intellectual, internal and external boundaries of this interdisciplinary field are shaped. For this purpose, it discusses two interlocking dynamics that are most important: on the one hand, the European Union…

  18. Essential elements of treatment: a comparative study between European and American therapeutic communities for addiction.

    PubMed

    Goethals, Ilse; Soyez, Veerle; Melnick, Gerald; De Leon, George; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether European and American therapeutic communities (TCs) for addiction, both traditional and modified, share a common perspective on what is essential in treatment using the Survey of Essential Elements Questionnaire (SEEQ). The European sample (N = 19) was gathered in 2009. For the American sample (N = 19), we used previously published research data. Despite comparable perspectives, European traditional TCs (N = 11) scored significantly higher than their American predecessors (N = 11) on four SEEQ domains. Cluster differences were more pronounced in Europe than in America. PMID:21235341

  19. Water Intake and Hydration Indices in Healthy European Adults: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS)

    PubMed Central

    Malisova, Olga; Athanasatou, Adelais; Pepa, Alex; Husemann, Marlien; Domnik, Kirsten; Braun, Hans; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan F.; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin E.; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males), 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m2 BMI) participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L) than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L) (p = 0.019). Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p < 0.01). Applying urine osmolality cut-offs, approximately 60% of participants were euhydrated and 20% hyperhydrated or dehydrated. Most participants were euhydrated, but a substantial number of people (40%) deviated from a normal hydration level. PMID:27058557

  20. Water Intake and Hydration Indices in Healthy European Adults: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS).

    PubMed

    Malisova, Olga; Athanasatou, Adelais; Pepa, Alex; Husemann, Marlien; Domnik, Kirsten; Braun, Hans; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan F; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin E; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males), 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m² BMI) participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L) than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L) (p = 0.019). Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p < 0.01). Applying urine osmolality cut-offs, approximately 60% of participants were euhydrated and 20% hyperhydrated or dehydrated. Most participants were euhydrated, but a substantial number of people (40%) deviated from a normal hydration level. PMID:27058557

  1. Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. Methods We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and December 2007. We also examined the reference lists of individual papers and reviews. Two independent reviewers classified the studies according to type of air pollutant, duration of exposure and health outcome considered. Among European investigations that examined long-term PM exposure we found 4 cohort studies (considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality), 1 case-control study (considering mortality from myocardial infarction), and 4 ecologic studies (2 studies considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality and 2 studies focused on cardiovascular mortality). Results Measurement indicators of PM exposure used in European studies, including PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate and black smoke, were heterogeneous. This notwithstanding, in all analytic studies total mortality was directly associated with long-term exposure to PM. The excesses in mortality were mainly due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Three out of 4 ecologic studies found significant direct associations between PM indexes and mortality. Conclusion European studies on long-term exposure to PM indicate a direct association with mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. PMID:19995424

  2. Evaluation of exposure parameters in plain radiography: a comparative study with European guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lança, L; Silva, A; Alves, E; Serranheira, F; Correia, M

    2008-01-01

    Typical distribution of exposure parameters in plain radiography is unknown in Portugal. This study aims to identify exposure parameters that are being used in plain radiography in the Lisbon area and to compare the collected data with European references [Commission of European Communities (CEC) guidelines]. The results show that in four examinations (skull, chest, lumbar spine and pelvis), there is a strong tendency of using exposure times above the European recommendation. The X-ray tube potential values (in kV) are below the recommended values from CEC guidelines. This study shows that at a local level (Lisbon region), radiographic practice does not comply with CEC guidelines concerning exposure techniques. Further national/local studies are recommended with the objective to improve exposure optimisation and technical procedures in plain radiography. This study also suggests the need to establish national/local diagnostic reference levels and to proceed to effective measurements for exposure optimisation. PMID:18430717

  3. European adults' physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18-65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55-64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity. PMID:27280072

  4. European adults’ physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey

    PubMed Central

    Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18–65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55–64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity. PMID:27280072

  5. Housing and Health in Europe: Preliminary Results of a Pan-European Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefoy, Xavier R.; Braubach, Matthias; Moissonnier, Brigitte; Monolbaev, Kubanychbek; Röbbel, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. The World Health Organization’s Regional Office for Europe has undertaken a large study to evaluate housing and health in 7 European cities. Methods. Survey tools were used to obtain information about housing and living conditions, health perception, and health status from a representative sample of the population in each city. Results. In Forli, Italy, the first city studied, preliminary findings indicate some important potential links between housing and health. Conclusions. These findings, when combined with those from the remaining European cities, will likely generate concrete recommendations for the allocation of resources to programs that can improve housing and health. PMID:12948980

  6. The European Research Elite: A Cross-National Study of Highly Productive Academics in 11 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on a rare scholarly theme of highly productive academics, statistically confirming their pivotal role in knowledge production across 11 systems studied. The upper 10% of highly productive academics in 11 European countries studied (N = 17,211) provide on average almost half of all academic knowledge production. In contrast…

  7. Executive Coaching: Study of the Evolution of the Program at a Top European Business School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun Jung

    2011-01-01

    To understand how tensions caused by the multidisciplinary nature of executive coaching are perceived and overcome, this modified ethnographic study was conducted at an executive coaching program and leadership center at a prestigious European business school. This study is built on prolonged discussions on the role of psychology in executive…

  8. Maternal and infant health of Eastern Europeans in Bradford, UK: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jessica; Kliner, Merav; Brierley, Shirley; Stroud, Laura

    2014-09-01

    This qualitative study aimed to investigate maternal and infant health needs within Eastern European populations in Bradford. Evidence suggested that migrants from Eastern Europe had poor maternal and child health and increased rates of infant mortality. Health visitors, community midwives and specialist voluntary workers were involved. Eleven interviews took place. They were semi-structured and analysed using a thematic approach. A number of health needs were identified in Eastern European populations, including high rates of smoking and poor diet. Wider determinants of health such as poverty and poor housing were cited as commonplace for Eastern European migrants. There were numerous cultural barriers to health, such as discrimination, mobility, cultural practices regarding age at pregnancy, and disempowerment of women. Lastly, access to health services was identified as a significant issue and this was impacting on staff working with this population. This study demonstrated the complexity and interaction of health and social factors and their influence on utilisation of health services. PMID:25286741

  9. European Space Agency studies of the solar probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roxburgh, I. W.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility and scientific objectives of a solar probe were studied by a Mission Definition Group in 1975 and 1976. The orbit analysis program was developed and an extended study of the orbit analysis was done in 1977. The results of these studies are in the Report of the Mission Definition Study (1976) and an E.S.O.C. report (1978), and the reader is referred to these sources for greater details. In this report, only brief discussion on mission concept and objectives, satellite design, orbit, orbit analysis, are presented.

  10. Generalization and dilution of association results from European GWAS in populations of non-European ancestry: the PAGE study.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Christopher S; Matise, Tara C; North, Kari E; Haiman, Christopher A; Fesinmeyer, Megan D; Buyske, Steven; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Peters, Ulrike; Franceschini, Nora; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Duggan, David J; Spencer, Kylee L; Dumitrescu, Logan; Eaton, Charles B; Thomas, Fridtjof; Young, Alicia; Carty, Cara; Heiss, Gerardo; Le Marchand, Loic; Crawford, Dana C; Hindorff, Lucia A; Kooperberg, Charles L

    2013-09-01

    The vast majority of genome-wide association study (GWAS) findings reported to date are from populations with European Ancestry (EA), and it is not yet clear how broadly the genetic associations described will generalize to populations of diverse ancestry. The Population Architecture Using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study is a consortium of multi-ancestry, population-based studies formed with the objective of refining our understanding of the genetic architecture of common traits emerging from GWAS. In the present analysis of five common diseases and traits, including body mass index, type 2 diabetes, and lipid levels, we compare direction and magnitude of effects for GWAS-identified variants in multiple non-EA populations against EA findings. We demonstrate that, in all populations analyzed, a significant majority of GWAS-identified variants have allelic associations in the same direction as in EA, with none showing a statistically significant effect in the opposite direction, after adjustment for multiple testing. However, 25% of tagSNPs identified in EA GWAS have significantly different effect sizes in at least one non-EA population, and these differential effects were most frequent in African Americans where all differential effects were diluted toward the null. We demonstrate that differential LD between tagSNPs and functional variants within populations contributes significantly to dilute effect sizes in this population. Although most variants identified from GWAS in EA populations generalize to all non-EA populations assessed, genetic models derived from GWAS findings in EA may generate spurious results in non-EA populations due to differential effect sizes. Regardless of the origin of the differential effects, caution should be exercised in applying any genetic risk prediction model based on tagSNPs outside of the ancestry group in which it was derived. Models based directly on functional variation may generalize more robustly, but the identification

  11. Medication use in European primary care patients with lower respiratory tract infection: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Hamoen, Marleen; Broekhuizen, Berna DL; Little, Paul; Melbye, Hasse; Coenen, Samuel; Goossens, Herman; Butler, Chris C; Francis, Nick A; Verheij, Theo JM

    2014-01-01

    Background It is largely unknown what medication is used by patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). Aim To describe the use of self-medication and prescribed medication in adults presenting with LRTI in different European countries, and to relate self-medication to patient characteristics. Design and setting An observational study in 16 primary care networks in 12 European countries. Method A total of 2530 adult patients presenting with LRTI in 12 European countries filled in a diary on any medication used before and after a primary care consultation. Patient characteristics related to self-medication were determined by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The frequency and types of medication used differed greatly between European countries. Overall, 55.4% self-medicated before consultation, and 21.5% after consultation, most frequently with paracetamol, antitussives, and mucolytics. Females, non-smokers, and patients with more severe symptoms used more self-medication. Patients who were not prescribed medication during the consultation self-medicated more often afterwards. Self-medication with antibiotics was relatively rare. Conclusion A considerable amount of medication, often with no proven efficacy, was used by adults presenting with LRTI in primary care. There were large differences between European countries. These findings should help develop patient information resources, international guidelines, and international legislation concerning the availability of over-the-counter medication, and can also support interventions against unwarranted variations in care. In addition, further research on the effects of symptomatic medication is needed. PMID:24567621

  12. Evidence-based practice: reflections from five European case studies.

    PubMed

    Baeza, Juan I; Fraser, Alec; Boaz, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence-based practice (EBP) is now the accepted orthodoxy in clinical practice and developed from evidence-based medicine. EBP is based on a specific type of evidence that is derived from studies based on randomised controlled trials (RCT). This type of evidence is suited to acute medical care and is more problematic for other clinicians such as nurses and therapists, particularly when they are situated within community or primary care settings. Setting Five stroke care services in England (2), Sweden (2) and Poland (1). Aims To reflect on the evidence gained from these case studies to shed light on various aspects of EBP. This paper focuses on three key issues: (1) the importance of context for evidence, (2) the nature of knowledge, and (3) professional hierarchies. Methods Five qualitative case studies into stroke care were carried out in England, Sweden and Poland. One hundred and twenty semi-structured interviews were carried out with a range of healthcare staff who provided specialised and non-specialised stroke care in acute, community and primary care between October 2010 and September 2011. Medical doctors, nurses and different therapists were included in the samples in all five case studies. For this paper, we reflect on some aspects of this work to illuminate the different interprofessional perspectives relating to EBP in stroke care. Results The lack of RCT-based evidence in the community and primary care sectors can lead to the clinicians working in these sectors being perceived as having a lower status. Clinicians use both tacit and encoded knowledge to guide their practice and there existed both intraand interprofessional tensions in these two types of knowledge. The professional hierarchy of stroke teams varies with national context and the role of the non-specialists is less valued in stroke care. PMID:25949726

  13. Intercultural Education in the European Context: Key Remarks from a Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catarci, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on some findings of a comparative study carried out by a network of scholars and researchers who are active in the field of intercultural education in the European context in the main "old immigration countries" (United Kingdom, France and Germany), "new immigration countries" (Italy, Spain and Greece) and…

  14. European Union Students Studying in English Higher Education Institutions. DIUS Research Report 08-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Marian; Rutt, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the pathways, intentions and relevant perceptions of (non-UK) European Union (EU) students entering English higher education. It sought to identify why students wished to obtain an English HE qualification, their attitudes towards the uptake and repayment of tuition fee loans and their future career plans. Drawing on…

  15. Laser surgery for Zenker's diverticulum: European combined study.

    PubMed

    Papaspyrou, Giorgos; Schick, Bernhard; Papaspyrou, Spyros; Wiegand, Susanne; Al Kadah, Basel

    2016-01-01

    Surgical intervention is the gold standard of treatment for Zenker's diverticulum. The aim of this study was to examine the role of laser surgery in a large number of patients with this pathological entity. The data of 91 consecutive patients treated due to Zenker's diverticulum with the aid of CO2 laser in three institutions (Homburg/Saar and Marburg, Germany/Athens, Greece) during the last 10 years were retrospectively analyzed. Parameters examined were sex, age, preoperative symptoms, length of operation and complications, revision surgery necessity and degree of patient satisfaction. All patients had a minimum follow-up of one year. Dysphagia was the most common preoperative symptom (78 %). The most common minor complication was dental injury (6.6 %), but a serious complication in form of emphysema was observed in only two patients (2.2 %). A surgical revision was necessary in 8 (8.8 %) of the treated patients. The majority of treated patients was free of symptoms (86.8 %), or presented mild symptoms (9.9 %) one year after intervention, and only three patients (3.3 %) were dissatisfied. Our study shows that laser treatment of Zenker's diverticulum is an efficient operative technique associated with low complications rates and significant improvement of patients' symptoms in most of the examined cases. PMID:25567345

  16. A collaborative European study of personal inhalable aerosol sampler performance.

    PubMed

    Kenny, L C; Aitken, R; Chalmers, C; Fabriès, J F; Gonzalez-Fernandez, E; Kromhout, H; Lidén, G; Mark, D; Riediger, G; Prodi, V

    1997-04-01

    Following the adoption of new international sampling conventions for inhalable, thoracic and respirable aerosol fractions, a working group of Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) drafted a standard for the performance of workplace aerosol sampling instruments. The present study was set up to verify the experimental, statistical and mathematical procedures recommended in the draft performance standard and to check that they could be applied to inhalable aerosol samplers. This was achieved by applying the tests to eight types of personal inhalable aerosol sampler commonly used for workplace monitoring throughout Europe. The study led to recommendations for revising the CEN draft standard, in order to simplify the tests and reduce their cost. However, some further work will be needed to develop simpler test facilities and methods. Several of the samplers tested were found to perform adequately with respect to the inhalable sampling convention, at least over a limited range of typical workplace conditions. In general the samplers were found to perform best in low external wind speeds, which are the test conditions thought to be closest to those normally found in indoor workplaces. The practical implementation of the CEN aerosol sampling conventions requires decisions on which sampling instruments to use, estimation of the likely impact that changing sampling methods could have on apparent exposures, and adjustment where necessary of exposure limit values. The sampler performance data obtained in this project were affected by large experimental errors, but are nevertheless a useful input to decisions on how to incorporate the CEN inhalable sampling convention into regulation, guidance and occupational hygiene practice. PMID:9155236

  17. Regional aspects of the energy crisis: East European case study

    SciTech Connect

    Merkin, V.O.

    1985-01-01

    The energy crisis occurring in Eastern Europe owes much to the Stalinist model of energy-intensive industrialization applied to a basically energy short region still partially isolated from the world energy market. Systemic factors are thus much more important than in the West. Due to this, solutions to the energy crisis in the East of Europe, be it through supply augmentation or conservation, belong as much in the sphere of politics and ideology as they do in the sphere of economics. The dissertation examines in a systematic manner the evolution and prospects of the energy economy in the region (Chapter 1), the present sectoral pattern of energy consumption (Chapter 2), and conversion (thermo-electric conversion in Chapter 3 and oil refining in Chapter 4). Four subsequent chapters are devoted to individual energy-consuming sectors such as industry, transportation, agriculture, and households. Finally, the potential and problems of energy conservation in Eastern Europe are analyzed in the context of broader economic policies and concerns of the states of the region. In the conclusion, topics in the energy economy of Eastern Europe requiring further study are outlined.

  18. An Integrated Study of the Holy Cross Mountains region of the Eastern European TESZ in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averill, M. G.; Bond, T.; Sroda, P.; Keller, G. R.; Miller, K.

    2002-12-01

    The Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) in Eastern Europe is an anomalous region marking the suture of Phanerozoic Western European terrains with the Precambrian Eastern European Craton (EEC). The nature of this suture is known primarily from geophysical studies. Seismic velocity and gravity models indicate changes of crustal thickness from 28-35 km to 42-47 km across the TTZ (Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone) from the Paleozoic Platform of Western Europe to the Eastern European Craton. Tectonic models suggest the presence of a Precambrian/Early Paleozoic passive margin beneath the TTZ. The Holy Cross Mountains in southeastern Poland represent an anomalous crustal block whose origin and interaction with the EEC is unknown. The subject of this study is the origin and tectonic evolution of this and adjacent crustal blocks in relation to the eastern TESZ and EEC. We have employed a technique to integrate industry acquired well and reflection data, as well as refraction data from the CELEBRATION 2000, POLONAISE '97 and TTZ experiments. We used well check shot surveys and CDP (common depth point) stacking velocities from reflection surveys in addition to refraction data as controls in a tomographic inversion. In turn, gravity, magnetics, drilling and geologic data is incorporated to support an integrated study of this region.

  19. Databases for Studies of Infrasound Propagation in the European Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Ringdal, Frode

    2010-05-01

    Industrial and military sources in northern Fennoscandia and NW Russia generate both seismic and infrasound signals observed at regional distances. Similar seismic signals constrain origin times and explosion yield and, using correlation detectors at the ARCES array, have enabled us to detect and classify hundreds of events from a small number of sites. This has in turn provided superb datasets for infrasound propagation studies. The multi-channel waveform correlation procedure has even had considerable success in detecting closely spaced events when the signals from subsequent events show considerable differences. A post-processing system which examines the alignment of the single-channel cross-correlation traces allows for very low detection thresholds with low false alarm rates. Near-surface explosions at Hukkakero in northern Finland generate infrasound signals on the seismic sensors at ARCES, 175 km to the North, near to the edge of the classical "Zone of Silence". Many tropospheric phase observations can be predicted using ray-tracing given favourable winds at low altitudes. However, the vast majority of the observed infrasound signals - probably refracted from stratospheric heights - are not predicted by ray-tracing, warranting a re-evaluation of propagation models for these distances. In 2008, a mini-array of microbarographs, co-located with ARCES seismometers, also observed later signals probably refracted from thermospheric heights. These signals are more impulsive and of smaller amplitude than the more typically observed signals. A second site near the northern coast of the Kola Peninsula is approximately 250 km from ARCES to the West and Apatity to the South. Despite poor waveform similarity between events, multichannel correlation detectors assign confidently over 350 events over an 8 year period to this site. Infrasound is observed at ARCES for almost all events in the summer and almost no events in the winter, and is observed at Apatity for almost

  20. A comparative study of psychophysical judgment of color reproductions on mobile displays between Europeans and Asians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyungah; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences in the psychophysical judgment of mobile display color appearances between Europeans and Asians. A total of 50 participants, comprising 20 Europeans (9 French, 6 Swedish, 3 Norwegians, and 2 Germans) and 30 Asians (30 Koreans) participated in this experiment. A total of 18 display stimuli with different correlated color temperatures were presented, varying from 2,470 to 18,330 K. Each stimulus was viewed under 11 illuminants ranging from 2,530 to 19,760 K, while their illuminance was consistent around 500 lux. The subjects were asked to assess the optimal level of the display stimuli under different illuminants. In general, confirming the previous studies on color reproduction, we found a positive correlation in the correlated color temperatures between the illuminants and optimal displays. However, Europeans preferred a lower color temperature compared to Asians along the entire range of the illuminants. Two regression equations were derived to predict the optimal display color temperature (y) under varying illuminants (x) as follows: y = α + β*log(x), where α = -8770.37 and β = 4279.29 for European (R2 = 0.95, p < .05), and α = -16076.35 and β = 6388.41 for Asian (R2 = 0.85, p < .05). The findings provide the theoretical basis from which manufacturers can take a cultural-sensitive approach to enhancing their products' appeal in the global markets.

  1. Smoking reduces fecundity: a European multicenter study on infertility and subfecundity. The European Study Group on Infertility and Subfecundity.

    PubMed

    Bolumar, F; Olsen, J; Boldsen, J

    1996-03-15

    Several studies published within the past 10 years indicate that smoking reduces fecundity, but not all studies have found this effect, and smoking cessation is not used routinely in infertility treatment in Europe. The present study was designed to examine male and female smoking at the start of a couple's waiting time to a planned pregnancy. Two types of samples were used: population-based samples of women aged 25-44 years who were randomly selected in different countries from census registers and electoral rolls, in which the unit of analysis was the couple; and pregnancy-based samples of pregnant women (at least 20 weeks' pregnant) who were consecutively recruited during prenatal care visits, in which the unit of analysis was a pregnancy. More than 4,000 couples were included in each sample, and 10 different regions in Europe took part in data collection. The data were collected between August 1991 and February 1993 by personal interview in all population-based samples and in all but three regions of the pregnancy sample, where self-administered questionnaires were used. The results based on the population sample showed a remarkably coherent association between female smoking and subfecundity in each individual country and in all countries together, both with the first pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-2.1, at the upper level of exposure) and during the most recent waiting time to pregnancy (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.1). Results based on the pregnancy sample were similar (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.3). No significant association was found with male smoking (in the population sample, OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.7-1.1 (first pregnancy) and OR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.3 (most recent waiting time); in the pregnancy sample, OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.7-1.1). The fecundity distribution among smokers appeared to be shifted toward longer waiting times without a change in the shape of the distribution. Women who have difficulty conceiving should try to stop smoking

  2. Standardised surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection in European acute care hospitals: a pilot study, 2013.

    PubMed

    van Dorp, Sofie M; Kinross, Pete; Gastmeier, Petra; Behnke, Michael; Kola, Axel; Delmée, Michel; Pavelkovich, Anastasia; Mentula, Silja; Barbut, Frédéric; Hajdu, Agnes; Ingebretsen, André; Pituch, Hanna; Macovei, Ioana S; Jovanović, Milica; Wiuff, Camilla; Schmid, Daniela; Olsen, Katharina Ep; Wilcox, Mark H; Suetens, Carl; Kuijper, Ed J

    2016-07-21

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains poorly controlled in many European countries, of which several have not yet implemented national CDI surveillance. In 2013, experts from the European CDI Surveillance Network project and from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control developed a protocol with three options of CDI surveillance for acute care hospitals: a 'minimal' option (aggregated hospital data), a 'light' option (including patient data for CDI cases) and an 'enhanced' option (including microbiological data on the first 10 CDI episodes per hospital). A total of 37 hospitals in 14 European countries tested these options for a three-month period (between 13 May and 1 November 2013). All 37 hospitals successfully completed the minimal surveillance option (for 1,152 patients). Clinical data were submitted for 94% (1,078/1,152) of the patients in the light option; information on CDI origin and outcome was complete for 94% (1,016/1,078) and 98% (294/300) of the patients in the light and enhanced options, respectively. The workload of the options was 1.1, 2.0 and 3.0 person-days per 10,000 hospital discharges, respectively. Enhanced surveillance was tested and was successful in 32 of the hospitals, showing that C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 was predominant (30% (79/267)). This study showed that standardised multicountry surveillance, with the option of integrating clinical and molecular data, is a feasible strategy for monitoring CDI in Europe. PMID:27472820

  3. European Non-Communicable Respiratory Disease Research, 2002-13: Bibliometric Study of Outputs and Funding

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John S. F.; Pallari, Elena; Sullivan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to map European research in chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs). It was intended to assist the European Commission and other research funders to identify gaps and overlaps in their portfolios, and to suggest ways in which they could improve the effectiveness of their support and increase the impact of the research on patient care and on the reduction of the incidence of the CRDs. Articles and reviews were identified in the Web of Science on research in six non-communicable respiratory diseases that were published in 2002–13 from 31 European countries. They represented only 0.8% of biomedical research output but these diseases accounted for 4.7% of the European disease burden, as measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), so the sub-field is seriously under-researched. Europe is prominent in the sub-field and published 56% of the world total, with the UK the most productive and publishing more than France and Italy, the next two countries, combined. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were the diseases with the most publications and the highest citation rates. They also received the most funding, with around two acknowledgments per paper (in 2009–13), whereas cystic fibrosis and emphysema averaged only one. Just over 37% of papers had no specific funding and depended on institutional support from universities and hospitals. PMID:27111670

  4. European Non-Communicable Respiratory Disease Research, 2002-13: Bibliometric Study of Outputs and Funding.

    PubMed

    Begum, Mursheda; Lewison, Grant; Wright, John S F; Pallari, Elena; Sullivan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to map European research in chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs). It was intended to assist the European Commission and other research funders to identify gaps and overlaps in their portfolios, and to suggest ways in which they could improve the effectiveness of their support and increase the impact of the research on patient care and on the reduction of the incidence of the CRDs. Articles and reviews were identified in the Web of Science on research in six non-communicable respiratory diseases that were published in 2002-13 from 31 European countries. They represented only 0.8% of biomedical research output but these diseases accounted for 4.7% of the European disease burden, as measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), so the sub-field is seriously under-researched. Europe is prominent in the sub-field and published 56% of the world total, with the UK the most productive and publishing more than France and Italy, the next two countries, combined. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were the diseases with the most publications and the highest citation rates. They also received the most funding, with around two acknowledgments per paper (in 2009-13), whereas cystic fibrosis and emphysema averaged only one. Just over 37% of papers had no specific funding and depended on institutional support from universities and hospitals. PMID:27111670

  5. Use of National and International Growth Charts for Studying Height in European Children: Development of Up-To-Date European Height-For-Age Charts

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Verrina, Enrico; Edefonti, Alberto; Molchanova, Elena A.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.; Schaefer, Franz; Jager, Kitty J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Growth charts based on data collected in different populations and time periods are key tools to assess children’s linear growth. We analyzed the impact of geographic factors and the secular trend on height-for-age charts currently used in European populations, developed up-to-date European growth charts, and studied the effect of using different charts in a sample of growth retarded children. Methods and Findings In an international survey we obtained 18 unique national height-for-age charts from 28 European countries and compared them with charts from the World Health Organization (WHO), Euro-Growth reference, and Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). As an example, we obtained height data from 3,534 children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from 13 countries via the ESPN/ERA-EDTA registry, a patient group generally suffering from growth retardation. National growth charts showed a clear secular trend in height (mean height increased on average 0.6 cm/decade) and a North-South height gradient in Europe. For countries without a recent (>1990) national growth chart novel European growth charts were constructed from Northern and Southern European reference populations, reflecting geographic height differences in mean final height of 3.9 cm in boys and 3.8 cm in girls. Mean height SDS of 2- to 17-year-old ESRD patients calculated from recent national or derived European growth charts (−1.91, 95% CI: −1.97 to −1.85) was significantly lower than when using CDC or WHO growth charts (−1.55, 95% CI: −1.61 to −1.49) (P<0.0001). Conclusion Differences between height-for-age charts may reflect true population differences, but are also strongly affected by the secular trend in height. The choice of reference charts substantially affects the clinical decision whether a child is considered short-for-age. Therefore, we advocate using recent national or European height-for-age charts derived from recent national data when monitoring growth

  6. Management of precancerous conditions and lesions in the stomach (MAPS): guideline from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), European Society of Pathology (ESP), and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED)

    PubMed Central

    Dinis-Ribeiro, M.; Areia, M.; de Vries, A. C.; Marcos-Pinto, R.; Monteiro-Soares, M.; O'Connor, A.; Pereira, C.; Pimentel-Nunes, P.; Correia, R.; Ensari, A.; Dumonceau, J. M.; Machado, J. C.; Macedo, G.; Malfertheiner, P.; Matysiak-Budnik, T.; Megraud, F.; Miki, K.; O'Morain, C.; Peek, R. M.; Ponchon, T.; Ristimaki, A.; Rembacken, B.; Carneiro, F.; Kuipers, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and epithelial dysplasia of the stomach are common and are associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. In the absence of guidelines, there is wide disparity in the management of patients with these premalignant conditions. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), the European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), the European Society of Pathology (ESP) and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED) have therefore combined efforts to develop evidence-based guidelines on the management of patients with precancerous conditions and lesions of the stomach (termed MAPS). A multidisciplinary group of 63 experts from 24 countries developed these recommendations by means of repeat online voting and a meeting in June 2011 in Porto, Portugal. The recommendations emphasize the increased cancer risk in patients with gastric atrophy and metaplasia, and the need for adequate staging in the case of high grade dysplasia, and they focus on treatment and surveillance indications and methods. PMID:22198778

  7. "Governmentality" in the Origins of European Female PE and Sport: The Spanish Case Study (1883-1936)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Raul Sanchez; Herraiz, Antonio Rivero

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is twofold: (1) to contribute to the analysis of the origins of modern European female PE and sports from a power perspective, inspired by Foucault's work; and (2) to present a detailed analysis of female PE and sport in Spain (1883-1936) as a specific European case study. It is argued that these physical activities…

  8. Building Evaluation Capacity in Spain: A Case Study of Rural Development and Empowerment in the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Yague, Jose L.; Afonso, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The development of European Community administrative authority has greatly influenced the development of an evaluation culture among the southern and central member states of the European Union. The present case study from Spain provides an example of this diffusion through the use of an empowerment evaluation approach to build evaluation capacity…

  9. Changes in mortality inequalities over two decades: register based study of European countries

    PubMed Central

    Kulhánová, Ivana; Artnik, Barbara; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Clemens, Tom; Costa, Giuseppe; Dibben, Chris; Kalediene, Ramune; Lundberg, Olle; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Östergren, Olof; Prochorskas, Remigijus; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Looman, Caspar W N; de Gelder, Rianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether government efforts in reducing inequalities in health in European countries have actually made a difference to mortality inequalities by socioeconomic group. Design Register based study. Data source Mortality data by level of education and occupational class in the period 1990-2010, usually collected in a census linked longitudinal study design. We compared changes in mortality between the lowest and highest socioeconomic groups, and calculated their effect on absolute and relative inequalities in mortality (measured as rate differences and rate ratios, respectively). Setting All European countries for which data on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality were available for the approximate period between years 1990 and 2010. These included Finland, Norway, Sweden, Scotland, England and Wales (data applied to both together), France, Switzerland, Spain (Barcelona), Italy (Turin), Slovenia, and Lithuania. Results Substantial mortality declines occurred in lower socioeconomic groups in most European countries covered by this study. Relative inequalities in mortality widened almost universally, because percentage declines were usually smaller in lower socioeconomic groups. However, as absolute declines were often smaller in higher socioeconomic groups, absolute inequalities narrowed by up to 35%, particularly among men. Narrowing was partly driven by ischaemic heart disease, smoking related causes, and causes amenable to medical intervention. Progress in reducing absolute inequalities was greatest in Spain (Barcelona), Scotland, England and Wales, and Italy (Turin), and absent in Finland and Norway. More detailed studies preferably using individual level data are necessary to identify the causes of these variations. Conclusions Over the past two decades, trends in inequalities in mortality have been more favourable in most European countries than is commonly assumed. Absolute inequalities have decreased in several countries, probably

  10. European project on osteoarthritis: design of a six-cohort study on the personal and societal burden of osteoarthritis in an older European population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of arthritis, is a major contributor to functional impairment and loss of independence in older persons. The European Project on OSteoArthritis (EPOSA) is a collaborative study involving six European cohort studies on ageing. This project focuses on the personal and societal burden and its determinants of osteoarthritis. This paper describes the design of the project, and presents some descriptive analyses on selected variables across countries. Methods/design EPOSA is an observational study including pre-harmonized data from European cohort studies (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom) on older community-dwelling persons aged 65 to 85 years. In total, 2942 persons were included in the baseline study with a mean age of 74.2 years (SD 5.1), just over half were women (51,9%). The baseline assessment was conducted by a face-to-face interview followed by a clinical examination. Measures included physical, cognitive, psychological and social functioning, lifestyle behaviour, physical environment, wellbeing and care utilisation. The clinical examination included anthropometry, muscle strength, physical performance and OA exam. A follow-up assessment was performed 12–18 months after baseline. Discussion The EPOSA study is the first population-based study including a clinical examination of OA, using pre-harmonized data across European countries. The EPOSA study provides a unique opportunity to study the determinants and consequences of OA in general populations of older persons, including both care-seeking and non care-seeking persons. PMID:23597054

  11. Association Study for 26 Candidate Loci in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Patients from Four European Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Amit; Žižková, Veronika; Kocourková, Lenka; Petrkova, Jana; Bouros, Evangelos; Nunes, Hilario; Loštáková, Vladimíra; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Zissel, Gernot; Kolek, Vitezslav; Bouros, Demosthenes; Valeyre, Dominique; Petrek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) affects lung parenchyma with progressing fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to replicate MUC5B rs35705950 variants and determine new plausible candidate variants for IPF among four different European populations. We genotyped 26 IPF candidate loci in 165 IPF patients from four European countries, such as Czech Republic (n = 41), Germany (n = 33), Greece (n = 40), France (n = 51), and performed association study comparing observed variant distribution with that obtained in a genetically similar Czech healthy control population (n = 96) described in our earlier data report. A highly significant association for a promoter variant (rs35705950) of mucin encoding MUC5B gene was observed in all IPF populations, individually and combined [odds ratio (95% confidence interval); p-value as 5.23 (8.94–3.06); 1.80 × 10−11]. Another non-coding variant, rs7934606 in MUC2 was significant among German patients [2.85 (5.05–1.60); 4.03 × 10−4] and combined European IPF cases [2.18 (3.16–1.50); 3.73 × 10−5]. The network analysis for these variants indicated gene–gene and gene–phenotype interactions in IPF and lung biology. With replication of MUC5B rs35705950 previously reported in U.S. populations of European descent and indicating other plausible polymorphic variants relevant for IPF, we provide additional reference information for future extended functional and population studies aimed, ideally with inclusion of clinical parameters, at identification of IPF genetic markers. PMID:27462317

  12. Patient organisations and the reimbursement process for medicines: an exploratory study in eight European countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the role European patient organisations play in the process of deciding on reimbursement for medicines. Therefore we explore the current role of patient organisations in the process of reimbursement for medicines in Western Europe. We focus in particular on collaboration between patient organisations and the pharmaceutical industry in this respect. Methods Sixty-eight patient organisations representing seven medical conditions, from ten Western European countries, were asked to participate in the study. The participating organisations reported their experiences in a web-based questionnaire. Results Twenty-one patient organisations completed the questionnaire (response rate: 31%), of which ten (47.6%) demanded reimbursement for medicines. Organisations demanding reimbursement were larger than those not demanding reimbursement. The main aim of these organisations was to create better accessibility of medicines for patients. Most organisations limited themselves to single actions. Only two engaged in multiple actions. Almost all organisations had general policies on cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry, with autonomy as the key feature. The patient organisations said they were reasonably successful and almost always satisfied with their own role in the reimbursement process. Conclusion Our study has found that the role of European patient organisations in the reimbursement process still seems limited, especially for small patient organisations. PMID:20170557

  13. Drinking behaviours and blood alcohol concentration in four European drinking environments: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC) at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%), Spanish (59.6%) and British (61.4%) samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%). In those drinking < 3 h at interview, there were no differences in BAC by gender or nationality. In UK participants, BAC increased significantly in those who had been drinking longer, reaching 0.13% (median) in females and 0.17% in males drinking > 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08%) was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife. PMID:22151744

  14. Risk factors for atrophic chronic gastritis in a European population: results of the Eurohepygast study

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: The development of atrophic chronic gastritis (ACG) is multifactorial, involving environment as well as host responses to Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of this study was to determine factors involved in ACG in a European dyspeptic population. Methods: Data concerning sociodemographics, social behaviour, biological aspects, diet, and virulence factors of H pylori strains were collected in a cross sectional study from 19 European centres in 14 countries. Dyspeptic H pylori positive patients with ACG or non-ACG (NACG) at histology were included. Anti-CagA antibodies were evaluated by two immunoblot tests and anti-VacA antibodies by one. Logistic regression models were constructed, and estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated from the coefficients. Results: Of the 451 patients included in the study, 267 were analysed: 202 had NACG and 65 ACG. Mean age was 44.4 years and 63% were women. Risk factors for atrophy identified by multivariate analysis were: age over 60 years (OR 4.14, 95% CI 1.79–9.58), coffee consumption (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.07–5.16), sedative consumption (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.04–4.52), and harbouring anti-CagA and anti-VacA antibodies simultaneously (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.26–7.56), while the odds were significantly reduced for those with an anxiety score of 6 or more (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21–0.99). Conclusion: The simultaneous presence of anti-CagA and anti-VacA antibodies enhanced the risk of ACG in European dyspeptic patients. Failure to discern diet and family history as risk factors for ACG may suggest that diet is homogeneous in Europe and that most of the risk factors for ACG identified so far are identical to risk factors for H pylori infection. PMID:12010878

  15. Associations of adiponectin with individual European ancestry in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Bidulescu, Aurelian; Choudhry, Shweta; Musani, Solomon K.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Liu, Jiankang; Rotimi, Charles N.; Wilson, James G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Gibbons, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Compared with European Americans, African Americans (AAs) exhibit lower levels of the cardio-metabolically protective adiponectin even after accounting for adiposity measures. Because few studies have examined in AA the association between adiponectin and genetic admixture, a dense panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) was used to estimate the individual proportions of European ancestry (PEA) for the AAs enrolled in a large community-based cohort, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We tested the hypothesis that plasma adiponectin and PEA are directly associated and assessed the interaction with a series of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Methods: Plasma specimens from 1439 JHS participants were analyzed by ELISA for adiponectin levels. Using pseudo-ancestral population genotype data from the HapMap Consortium, PEA was estimated with a panel of up to 1447 genome-wide preselected AIMs by a maximum likelihood approach. Interaction assessment, stepwise linear and cubic multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to analyze the cross-sectional association between adiponectin and PEA. Results: Among the study participants (62% women; mean age 48 ± 12 years), the median (interquartile range) of PEA was 15.8 (9.3)%. Body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.04) and insulin resistance (p = 0.0001) modified the association between adiponectin and PEA. Adiponectin was directly and linearly associated with PEA (β = 0.62 ± 0.28, p = 0.03) among non-obese (n = 673) and insulin sensitive participants (n = 1141; β = 0.74 ± 0.23, p = 0.001), but not among those obese or with insulin resistance. No threshold point effect was detected for non-obese participants. Conclusions: In a large AA population, the individual proportion of European ancestry was linearly and directly associated with plasma adiponectin among non-obese and non insulin-resistant participants, pointing to the interaction of genetic and metabolic factors influencing adiponectin levels. PMID:24575123

  16. Low heel ultrasound parameters predict mortality in men: results from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS)

    PubMed Central

    Pye, Stephen R.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Boonen, Steven; Gielen, Evelien; Adams, Judith E.; Ward, Kate A.; Lee, David M.; Bartfai, György; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Finn, Joseph D.; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S.; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E.; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Wu, Frederick C.; O'Neill, Terence W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: low bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is associated with increased mortality. The relationship between other skeletal phenotypes and mortality is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between quantitative heel ultrasound parameters and mortality in a cohort of European men. Methods: men aged 40–79 years were recruited for participation in a prospective study of male ageing: the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). At baseline, subjects attended for quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel (Hologic—SAHARA) and completed questionnaires on lifestyle factors and co-morbidities. Height and weight were measured. After a median of 4.3 years, subjects were invited to attend a follow-up assessment, and reasons for non-participation, including death, were recorded. The relationship between QUS parameters (broadband ultrasound attenuation [BUA] and speed of sound [SOS]) and mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. Results: from a total of 3,244 men (mean age 59.8, standard deviation [SD] 10.8 years), 185 (5.7%) died during the follow-up period. After adjusting for age, centre, body mass index, physical activity, current smoking, number of co-morbidities and general health, each SD decrease in BUA was associated with a 20% higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per SD = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–1.4). Compared with those in higher quintiles (2nd–5th), those in the lowest quintile of BUA and SOS had a greater mortality risk (BUA: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1–2.3 and SOS: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.2–2.2). Conclusion: lower heel ultrasound parameters are associated with increased mortality in European men. PMID:26162912

  17. Occupational exposure to endocrine disruptors and lymphoma risk in a multi-centric European study

    PubMed Central

    Costas, L; Infante-Rivard, C; Zock, J-P; Van Tongeren, M; Boffetta, P; Cusson, A; Robles, C; Casabonne, D; Benavente, Y; Becker, N; Brennan, P; Foretova, L; Maynadié, M; Staines, A; Nieters, A; Cocco, P; de Sanjosé, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Incidence rates of lymphoma are usually higher in men than in women, and oestrogens may protect against lymphoma. Methods: We evaluated occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) among 2457 controls and 2178 incident lymphoma cases and subtypes from the European Epilymph study. Results: Over 30 years of exposure to EDCs compared to no exposure was associated with a 24% increased risk of mature B-cell neoplasms (P-trend=0.02). Associations were observed among men, but not women. Conclusions: Prolonged occupational exposure to endocrine disruptors seems to be moderately associated with some lymphoma subtypes. PMID:25742473

  18. European Academies Advise on Gain-of-Function Studies in Influenza Virus Research

    PubMed Central

    Fears, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Gain-of-function (GoF) studies to understand factors affecting transmissibility of potentially pandemic pathogens are controversial. The European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC) recently published consensus recommendations relating to GoF research review and management on self-regulation and harmonization; bioethical considerations; benefit-risk assessment; biosafety, and biosecurity advisory options; and publication of sensitive information. A layered approach to integration of responsibilities must include conforming to the stringent rules and guidance already existing. Further commitment is essential to extend the debate on issues worldwide. PMID:26699646

  19. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

  20. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study.

    PubMed

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Agueda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries. PMID:23152194

  1. Eliminating Language Barriers Online at European Prisons (ELBEP): A Case-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkan, M.; Toprak, E.; Kumtepe, A. T.; Kumtepe, E. Genc; Ataizi, M.; Pilanci, H.; Mutlu, M. E.; Kayabas, I.; Kayabas, B. Kip

    2011-01-01

    ELBEP (Eliminating Language Barriers in European Prisons Through Open and Distance Education Technology) is a multilateral project funded by the European Union (EU) Lifelong Learning, Grundtvig (Adult Education) Programme. It aims to overcome language/communication problems between prison staff and foreign inmates at European prisons via online…

  2. U.S. Taxation of Business: Relevance of the European Experience. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLure, Charles E., Jr.

    American and European business taxation policies are compared in this booklet. Topics discussed in the paper include effects of the corporation income tax, integration of income taxation, and the value added tax. Two major differences between the American and European systems are noted. First, European countries derive substantial portions of…

  3. Ethical and social issues in presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease: a European Community collaborative study. European Community Huntington's Disease Collaborative Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of social and ethical aspects of presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease has been carried out, based on data on linked DNA markers, from four major testing centres in different European Community countries (Belgium, Italy, Netherlands, and United Kingdom). Information was available on 603 applicants, with 213 final results given, of which 32% gave an increased risk. A series of specific issues and problems were documented systematically for all applicants, results being given on frequency of occurrence and illustrated by individual case histories. The principal issues could be grouped as problems of inappropriate referral, problems involving relatives, and problems relating to disclosure of results. At least one important problem was encountered in 46% of applicants, emphasising the importance of expert counselling, preparation, and support of applicants, and of close liaison between clinical, counselling, and laboratory staff. The extensive and detailed information available for Huntington's disease from this and other studies will be of considerable value in relation to genetic testing for other late onset genetic disorders and will be even more relevant to Huntington's disease now that specific mutation analysis is possible for this disorder. PMID:8133502

  4. Hospital managers' need for information in decision-making--An interview study in nine European countries.

    PubMed

    Kidholm, Kristian; Ølholm, Anne Mette; Birk-Olsen, Mette; Cicchetti, Americo; Fure, Brynjar; Halmesmäki, Esa; Kahveci, Rabia; Kiivet, Raul-Allan; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Wild, Claudia; Sampietro-Colom, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Assessments of new health technologies in Europe are often made at the hospital level. However, the guidelines for health technology assessment (HTA), e.g. the EUnetHTA Core Model, are produced by national HTA organizations and focus on decision-making at the national level. This paper describes the results of an interview study with European hospital managers about their need for information when deciding about investments in new treatments. The study is part of the AdHopHTA project. Face-to-face, structured interviews were conducted with 53 hospital managers from nine European countries. The hospital managers identified the clinical, economic, safety and organizational aspects of new treatments as being the most relevant for decision-making. With regard to economic aspects, the hospital managers typically had a narrower focus on budget impact and reimbursement. In addition to the information included in traditional HTAs, hospital managers sometimes needed information on the political and strategic aspects of new treatments, in particular the relationship between the treatment and the strategic goals of the hospital. If further studies are able to verify our results, guidelines for hospital-based HTA should be altered to reflect the information needs of hospital managers when deciding about investments in new treatments. PMID:26362086

  5. Sustaining international partnerships: the European Master of Science Programme in Occupational Therapy, a case study.

    PubMed

    Ilott, Irene; Kottorp, Anders; la Cour, Karen; van Nes, Fenna; Jonsson, Hans; Sadlo, Gaynor

    2013-06-01

    International partnerships are a mechanism for supporting the academic development of occupational therapy and promoting cultural competence. This case study describes the factors that have helped to sustain a post-qualifying programme implemented by five higher education institutions in Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK since 1999. Data collection methods were documentary analysis and the reflections of a purposive sample of six key informants. Cohort and outcome data, from 193 students from 31 countries who enrolled between 1999 and 2011, are reported. Each cohort comprises students from an average of eight countries to optimize inter-cultural dialogue. Four factors support sustainability. These are 1) supportive professional European networks; 2) timeliness and alignment with European higher education policy; 3) partnership structures and processes that emphasize joint decision making and accountability; and 4) the stimulus and satisfaction associated with internationalization. The main limitations are considering the OT-EuroMaster as an intrinsic case study and using opportunistic data collection that undermines the rigor and transferability of the findings. Future opportunities include doctoral networks, transnational research and sharing our curricula design with other Regions to spread the collaborative, capacity building endeavours more widely. PMID:23559568

  6. Detecting Genetic Isolation in Human Populations: A Study of European Language Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Capocasa, Marco; Battaggia, Cinzia; Anagnostou, Paolo; Montinaro, Francesco; Boschi, Ilaria; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Coia, Valentina; Crivellaro, Federica; Bisol, Giovanni Destro

    2013-01-01

    The identification of isolation signatures is fundamental to better understand the genetic structure of human populations and to test the relations between cultural factors and genetic variation. However, with current approaches, it is not possible to distinguish between the consequences of long-term isolation and the effects of reduced sample size, selection and differential gene flow. To overcome these limitations, we have integrated the analysis of classical genetic diversity measures with a Bayesian method to estimate gene flow and have carried out simulations based on the coalescent. Combining these approaches, we first tested whether the relatively short history of cultural and geographical isolation of four “linguistic islands” of the Eastern Alps (Lessinia, Sauris, Sappada and Timau) had left detectable signatures in their genetic structure. We then compared our findings to previous studies of European population isolates. Finally, we explored the importance of demographic and cultural factors in shaping genetic diversity among the groups under study. A combination of small initial effective size and continued genetic isolation from surrounding populations seems to provide a coherent explanation for the diversity observed among Sauris, Sappada and Timau, which was found to be substantially greater than in other groups of European isolated populations. Simulations of micro-evolutionary scenarios indicate that ethnicity might have been important in increasing genetic diversity among these culturally related and spatially close populations. PMID:23418562

  7. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular. PMID:20550647

  8. A European research infrastructure for the aerosol study on a continental scale: EARLINET-ASOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amodeo, Aldo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Bösenberg, Jens; Ansmann, Albert; Apituley, Arnoud; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Balis, Dimitris; Böckmann, Christine; Chaikovsky, Anatoly; Comeron, Adolfo; Freudenthaler, Volker; Gustaffson, Ove; Hansen, Georg; Mitev, Valentin; Nicolae, Doina; Papayannis, Alexandros; Perrone, Maria Rita; Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Pujadas, Manuel; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Ravetta, Francois; Rizi, Vincenzo; Simeonov, Valentin; Spinelli, Nicola; Stoyanov, Dimitar; Trickl, Thomas; Wiegner, Matthias

    2007-10-01

    The present knowledge of the aerosol distribution is not sufficient to estimate the aerosol influence on global and regional environmental conditions and climate. This observational gap can be closed by using advanced laser remote sensing. EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) is the first aerosol lidar network, established in 2000, with the main goal to provide a comprehensive, quantitative, and statistically significant database for the aerosol distribution on a continental scale. EARLINET is a coordinated network of European stations (25 at present) using advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The network activity is based on simultaneous scheduled measurements, a rigorous quality assurance program addressing both instruments and evaluation algorithms, and a standardised data exchange format. Further observations are performed to monitor special events. EARLINET-ASOS (Advanced Sustainable Observation System) is a five year EC Project started in 2006, based on the EARLINET infrastructure. The main objectives are: to make EARLINET a world-leading instrument for the observation of the 4-D aerosol distribution on continental scale; to foster aerosol-related process studies, validation of satellite sensors, model development and validation, assimilation of aerosol data into operational models; and to build a comprehensive climatology of the aerosol distribution.

  9. General Practitioners Recognizing Alcohol Dependence: A Large Cross-Sectional Study in 6 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Jürgen; Allamani, Allaman; Vedova, Roberto Della; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Landsmane, Inga; Manthey, Jakob; Moreno-España, José; Pieper, Lars; Probst, Charlotte; Snikere, Sigita; Struzzo, Pierluigi; Voller, Fabio; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Gual, Antoni; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Although alcohol dependence causes marked mortality and disease burden in Europe, the treatment rate is low. Primary care could play a key role in reducing alcohol-attributable harm by screening, brief interventions, and initiating or referral to treatment. This study investigates identification of alcohol dependence in European primary care settings. METHODS Assessments from 13,003 general practitioners, and 9,098 interviews (8,476 joint number of interviewed patients with a physician’s assessment) were collected in 6 European countries. Alcohol dependence, comorbidities, and health service utilization were assessed by the general practitioner and independently using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and other structured interviews. Weighted regression analyses were used to compare the impact of influencing variables on both types of diagnoses. RESULTS The rate of patients being identified as alcohol dependent by the CIDI or a general practitioner was about equally high, but there was not a lot of overlap between cases identified. Alcohol-dependent patients identified by a physician were older, had higher rates of physicial comorbidity (liver disease, hypertension), and were socially more marginalized, whereas average consumption of alcohol and mental comorbidity were equally high in both groups. CONCLUSION General practitioners were able to identify alcohol dependence, but the cases they identified differed from cases identified using the CIDI. The role of the CIDI as the reference standard should be reexamined, as older alcohol-dependent patients with severe comorbidities seemed to be missed in this assessment. PMID:25583889

  10. Nuclear waste incineration and accelerator aspects from the European PDS-XADS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Alex C.

    2005-04-01

    In the context of general environmental concerns, the issue of waste from nuclear power plants is a question of actual interest. Here fundamental research in Nuclear Science may have great potential impact on society and on the longer-term future. In contrast to certain non-scientifically voiced opininos, it is clear, from basic facts of Nuclear Science, that e.g. fast neutrons can transmute long-lived radio-toxic components of the spent fuel into short-lived species. Because of the flexibility and control needed for the transmutation of large quantities of nuclear waste with a high content of minor actinides, one could favor for a transmuter reactor a sub-critical system, where the needed additional neutrons come from an external source, i.e. a high-energy proton accelerator producing spallation neutrons. In the European context, a roadmap for this technology was developped by a technical expert group. Consecutive to this, the European project PDS-XADS has been launched, as a preliminary design study for an Accelerator-Driven System. Here we shall report the conclusions for the layout of the accelerator and the associated beam-line to the reactor. The technical options have been chosen with the reliability of the accelerator as prime design criterion.

  11. An European historical reconstruction of sea surface dynamics (waves and storm surge) for coastal impact studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, Melisa; Perez, Jorge; Cid, Alba; Castanedo, Sonia; Losada, Inigo; Medina, Raul; Mendez, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Despite their outstanding relevance in coastal processes, a study of the sea surface dynamics due to atmospheric wind and pressure variations are rather limited in comparison with the mean sea level rise. Data of waves and surges along the European region are scarce and in-homogeneous, not only in terms of spatial coverage but also in terms of temporal coverage. This study presents two databases focused on a historical reconstruction of: (i) the wind-generated waves (GOW) and (ii) the meteorological sea level component (GOS). The GOW and GOS datasets cover the whole European coast (North Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea) at high-spatial resolution from 1979 to present. The meteorological sea level component (storm surge) has been generated by the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). To take into account non-linear interactions between tides and surges, both dynamics were simulated jointly. Final results of meteorological component of sea level were obtained by subtracting the astronomical tide from the simulated sea surface. The model was set-up for Europe using an orthogonal grid, with a horizontal resolution ranging between 3.5 to 11 km. A spatial domain of approximately 5 km was used for the Black Sea. Local coastal waves can be the integrated result of the ocean surface over a large region of influence. GOW-Europe is designed from a multigrid approach based on the overlapping of two-way nested domains. The coarser spatial resolution along the European coast of GOW is 15 km. The generation and propagation of the sea surface waves of GOW-Europe are simulated with the model WAVEWATCH III v4.18. Effects of non-linear wave-wave interactions, whitecapping and depth-induced refraction are considered in the propagation model. In order to validate GOW and GOS over Europe with available observations, an exhaustive comparison with in-situ and remote measurements was developed. In-situ buoys and tide-gauges are used to compare hourly time

  12. GREATER KUDU (TRAGELAPHUS STREPSICEROS) MORTALITY IN EUROPEAN ZOOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Antoine; Lamglait, Benjamin; Petit, Thierry; Roman, Yannick; Jebram, Joerg

    2016-06-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 39 European institutions holding greater kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), in order to determine the causes of captive greater kudu mortality. All reported macroscopic lesions and histopathologic observations, as well as other information regarding individuals that died, were analyzed to determine the most affected body systems and causes of death. Overall response rate was 31%, and 131 individuals were included in the study. The most frequently affected body systems were the digestive system (47%), respiratory system (38%), musculoskeletal system (37%), and cardiovascular system (32%). Most frequent causes of death were infectious diseases (27%) and trauma/accidents (18%); the cause was undetermined in 28% of cases. Nutrition-related disorders were difficult to assess, but results highlight possible nutritional imbalances. This retrospective study represents the first overview of greater kudu mortality in a captive population. PMID:27468026

  13. Feasibility Study of the Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer (SGG) Flight Test on the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the feasibility of conducting a flight test of the Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer (SGG) Experiment Module on one of the reflights of the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA). EURECA was developed expressly to accommodate space science experimentation, while providing a high quality microgravity environment. As a retrievable carrier, it offers the ability to recover science experiments after a nominal six months of operations in orbit. The study concluded that the SGG Experiment Module can be accommodated and operated in a EURECA reflight mission. It was determined that such a flight test would enable the verification of the SGG Instrument flight performance and validate the design and operation of the Experiment Module. It was also concluded that a limited amount of scientific data could be obtained on this mission.

  14. Anthropometric measurements and vertebral deformities. European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS) Group.

    PubMed

    Johnell, O; O'Neill, T; Felsenberg, D; Kanis, J; Cooper, C; Silman, A J

    1997-08-15

    To investigate the association between anthropometric indices and morphometrically determined vertebral deformity, the authors carried out a cross-sectional study using data from the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS), a population-based study of vertebral osteoporosis in 36 European centers from 19 countries. A total of 16,047 EVOS subjects were included in this analysis, of whom 1,973 subjects (915 males, 1,058 females) (12.3%) aged 50 years or over had one or more vertebral deformities ("cases"). The cases were compared with the 14,074 subjects (6,539 males, 7,535 females) with morphometrically normal spines ("controls"). Data were collected on self-reported height at age 25 years and minimum weight after age 25 years, as well as on current measured height and weight. Body mass index (BMI) and height and weight change were calculated from these data. The relations between these variables and vertebral deformity were examined separately by sex with logistic regression adjusting for age, smoking, and physical activity. In females, there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing quintile of current weight, current BMI, and weight gain since age 25 years. In males, subjects in the lightest quintile for these measures were at increased risk but there was no evidence of a trend. An ecologic analysis by country revealed a negative correlation between mean BMI and the prevalence of deformity in females but not in males. The authors conclude that low body weight is associated with presence of vertebral deformity. PMID:9270407

  15. Correlations Between Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma and Other Cancers: An Ecological Study in Forty European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet; Serrano, Jose Luis Fernandez-Crehuet; Allam, Mohamed Farouk; Navajas, Rafael Fernandez-Crehuet

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Methods: Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We analyzed the age-adjusted and gender-stratified incidence rates for different localizations of cancer in forty European countries and calculated their correlation using Pearson's correlation test. Results: In males, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with testicular cancer (r = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68–0.89]), myeloma (r = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.46–0.81]), prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.43–0.80]), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (r = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.39–0.78]). In females, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with breast cancer (r = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.64–0.88]), colorectal cancer (r = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.52–0.83]), and NHL (r = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50–0.83]). Conclusions: These correlations call to conduct new studies about the epidemiology of cancer in general and cutaneous malignant melanoma risk factors in particular. PMID:27217938

  16. Differences in Energy Balance-Related Behaviours in European Preschool Children: The ToyBox-Study

    PubMed Central

    De Craemer, Marieke; Lateva, Mina; Iotova, Violeta; De Decker, Ellen; Verloigne, Maïté; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Androutsos, Odysseas; Socha, Piotr; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Moreno, Luis; Koletzko, Berthold; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to compare levels of energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and dietary behaviours (more specifically water consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and unhealthy snacking)) in four- to six-year-old preschoolers from six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, and Spain) within the ToyBox cross-sectional study. Methods A sample of 4,045 preschoolers (4.77 ± 0.43 years; 52.2% boys) had valid physical activity data (steps per day), parents of 8,117 preschoolers (4.78 ± 0.46 years; 53.0% boys) completed a parental questionnaire with questions on sedentary behaviours (television viewing, computer use, and quiet play), and parents of 7,244 preschoolers (4.77 ± 0.44 years; 52.0% boys) completed a food frequency questionnaire with questions on water consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and unhealthy snacking. Results The highest levels of physical activity were found in Spain (12,669 steps/day on weekdays), while the lowest levels were found in Bulgaria and Greece (9,777 and 9,656 steps/day on weekdays, respectively). German preschoolers spent the least amount of time in television viewing (43.3 min/day on weekdays), while Greek preschoolers spent the most time in television viewing (88.5 min/day on weekdays). A considerable amount of time was spent in quiet play in all countries, with the highest levels in Poland (104.9 min/day on weekdays), and the lowest levels in Spain (60.4 min/day on weekdays). Belgian, German, and Polish preschoolers had the lowest intakes of water and the highest intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages. The intake of snacks was the highest in Belgian preschoolers (73.1 g/day) and the lowest in Greek preschoolers (53.3 g/day). Conclusions Across six European countries, differences in preschoolers’ energy balance-related behaviours were found. Future interventions should target European preschoolers’ energy balance

  17. Studying snow cover in European Russia with the use of remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telegina, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Satellite data are used to study water balance in large river basins in the East European Plain. For this purpose, the accuracy of estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) based on microwave remote sensing data was evaluated through the comparison of these data with SWE measurements in open and forested areas. The errors of the SWE estimates, evaluated as their relative root-mean-square deviations from the measured values, are maximal in the Northern Dvina basin (53%); for the Oka and Don river basins, the errors are 35 and 33%, respectively. The main problems of remote sensing for northern river basins occur due to the thick canopy and the high snowpack, whose height exceeds the penetration depth. For the southern regions and midland river basins, a priority problem is due to the presence of liquid water in the snowpack during thaws.

  18. Investigating the effects of ICT on innovation and performance of European hospitals: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, Spyros; Loukis, Euripidis N

    2016-05-01

    Hospitals are making big investments in various types of ICT, so it is important to investigate their effects on innovation and performance. This paper presents an empirical study in this direction, based on data for 743 hospitals from 18 European countries. We specified and estimated econometrically five equations: one for product innovation, one for process innovation and three equations for the three different dimensions of (ICT-enabled) hospital performance. All five equations included various ICT-related variables reflecting ICT infrastructure and a series of important ICT applications, some of them hospital-specific, and some others of general business use, and also ICT personnel (viewed as a kind of 'soft' ICT investment), while the performance equations also included the two innovation measures. PMID:25822165

  19. Cosmic radiation and cancer mortality among airline pilots: results from a European cohort study (ESCAPE).

    PubMed

    Langner, I; Blettner, M; Gundestrup, M; Storm, H; Aspholm, R; Auvinen, A; Pukkala, E; Hammer, G P; Zeeb, H; Hrafnkelsson, J; Rafnsson, V; Tulinius, H; De Angelis, G; Verdecchia, A; Haldorsen, T; Tveten, U; Eliasch, H; Hammar, N; Linnersjö, A

    2004-02-01

    Cosmic radiation is an occupational risk factor for commercial aircrews. In this large European cohort study (ESCAPE) its association with cancer mortality was investigated on the basis of individual effective dose estimates for 19,184 male pilots. Mean annual doses were in the range of 2-5 mSv and cumulative lifetime doses did not exceed 80 mSv. All-cause and all-cancer mortality was low for all exposure categories. A significant negative risk trend for all-cause mortality was seen with increasing dose. Neither external and internal comparisons nor nested case-control analyses showed any substantially increased risks for cancer mortality due to ionizing radiation. However, the number of deaths for specific types of cancer was low and the confidence intervals of the risk estimates were rather wide. Difficulties in interpreting mortality risk estimates for time-dependent exposures are discussed. PMID:14648170

  20. Joint statement of the European Association for the Study of Obesity and the European Society of Hypertension: obesity and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jens; Toplak, Hermann; Grassi, Guido; Yumuk, Volkan; Kotsis, Vasilios; Engeli, Stefan; Cuspidi, Cesare; Nilsson, Peter M; Finer, Nick; Doehner, Wolfram

    2016-09-01

    Obese individuals are more likely to develop heart failure. Yet, once heart failure is established, the impact of overweight and obesity on prognosis and survival is unclear. The purpose of this joint scientific statement of the European Association for the Study of Obesity and the European Society of Hypertension is to provide an overview on the current scientific literature on obesity and heart failure in terms of prognosis, mechanisms, and clinical management implications. Moreover, the document identifies open questions that ought to be addressed. The need for more tailored weight management recommendations in heart failure will be emphasized and, in line with the emerging evidence, aims to distinguish between primary disease and secondary outcome prevention. In the primary prevention of heart failure, it appears prudent advising obese individuals to lose or achieve a healthy body weight, especially in those with risk factors such as hypertension or type 2 diabetes. However, there is no evidence from clinical trials to guide weight management in overweight or obese patients with established heart failure. Prospective clinical trials are strongly encouraged. PMID:27488547

  1. Fostering Self-Regulated Learning through the European Language Portfolio: An Embedded Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Nicholas Allan

    2014-01-01

    The European Language Portfolio (ELP) is an alternative assessment used in foreign language classes throughout Europe to support and record language learning. Directly linked to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (Council of Europe, 2001) proficiency guidelines, it is designed to achieve an ambitious dual goal: document…

  2. Towards a European Academic Labour Market?: Some Lessons Drawn from Empirical Studies on Academic Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musselin, Christine

    2004-01-01

    In Europe, academic mobility has a long tradition which began with the birth of the European universities in the middle ages. Recently, European policies were strongly oriented towards the promotion of student and academic mobility and the creation of research networks and projects within Europe. Nevertheless, academic labour markets in Europe…

  3. Studies in Business Administration in the European Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavero Rubio, José Antonio; Mullor, Javier Reig; Martín, Agustín Pérez

    2015-01-01

    On signing the Bologna declaration in 1999, European countries committed themselves to addressing the reforms necessary for adapting their university education to the European Higher Education Area. This modification process culminated in 2010, and this research aims to analyse the degree of divergence that currently exists in each course subject…

  4. Study of seismic events in the Central Part of East European Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunova, Ella; Sanina, Irina; Ivanchenko, Galina; Nesterkina, Margarita; Konstantinovskaya, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    A measurement system for location seismic events in the Central Part of East European Platform is situated within the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory of the RAS Institute of Geospheres Dynamics and consists of 12 seismic stations. One vertical station is located in the center of the group in a shaft tunnel. The other stations are located on the periphery in three concentric circles and are almost equally spaced with regard to the terrain to ensure full azimuth coverage to the maximum extent possible. The unique array identifies events with a magnitude up to 3 at the distances until 1000 km within the Central Part of East European platform. Most of the events recorded by the Mikhnevo array at a distance of 60-500 km are man-made events represented by explosions in quarries during the development of mineral deposits. Long-term seismic records of explosions in quarries have been processed for the period from 2004 to 2014 to generate a database containing standard waveforms for each quarry. Some events of unknown origin appear in the records for this period; these do not correspond to the identified seismic forms for explosions in known quarries. Epicenter coordinates for these events do not match the coordinates of the known quarries. A cosmotectonic map of the Central Part of East European Platform was compiled during the studies using the LESSA software package (Lineament Extraction and Stripe Statistical Analysis) and data on the deep crustal structure, which made it possible to define the morphostructural plan and evaluate the geodynamic conditions in the area. The deep basement structure through the sedimentary cover is expressed in the surface texture of the area under study. The region's neotectonics is closely related to the history of deep structures, in particular, aulacogens extending in different directions, which may show in the contemporary morphostructural plan, mainly as inversion and partially inherited forms. Out of events of unknown nature

  5. European survey of fertility and pregnancy in women with Crohn's disease: a case control study by European collaborative group.

    PubMed Central

    Mayberry, J F; Weterman, I T

    1986-01-01

    Two hundred and seventy five patients with Crohn's disease from five countries were interviewed. Each patient was matched with a control of the same age. Of the 275 women with Crohn's disease 224 had been married at some time compared with 208 controls. The mean age at marriage was 23 years. Diagnosis of Crohn's disease was made five years later and the survey was conducted on average 16 years after marriage. Cases and controls had a similar obstetric study before diagnosis. After diagnosis there was a significant reduction in the number of children born to patients (0.4) compared with controls (0.7). Crohn's disease did not increase the rate of miscarriage or Caesarean section but prematurity was more common in patients (16%) than controls (7%). The site of disease at diagnosis did not affect these findings. Medical advice against pregnancy may be partly responsible for this reduction in fertility, but patients practised contraception less than controls and a significantly greater proportion of these (42%) failed to become pregnant compared with controls (28%). Crohn's disease results in subfertility. PMID:3732892

  6. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants' Comfort in European "Modern" Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study.

    PubMed

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A; Saraga, Dikaia E; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G; Bluyssen, Philomena M

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers' comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants' comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 "modern" office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants' comfort. The highest association with occupants' overall comfort was found for "noise", followed by "air quality", "light" and "thermal" satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that "noise inside the buildings" was highly associated with occupants' overall comfort. "Layout of the offices" was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building's location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants. PMID:27120608

  7. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    PubMed Central

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A.; Saraga, Dikaia E.; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G.; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G.; Bluyssen, Philomena M.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 “modern” office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants’ comfort. The highest association with occupants’ overall comfort was found for “noise”, followed by “air quality”, “light” and “thermal” satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that “noise inside the buildings” was highly associated with occupants’ overall comfort. “Layout of the offices” was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building’s location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants. PMID:27120608

  8. The media and cancer: education or entertainment? An ethnographic study of European cancer journalists

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Batura, Rekha; Sullivan, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The media plays a vital role in informing the public about new developments in cancer research and influencing cancer policy. This is no easy task, in view of the myriad of trials and wonder drugs that purport to be the ‘magic bullet’. However, misrepresentation can have profound consequences. In this qualitative study, we sought to understand the interaction between the media and cancer through the perspective of European science journalists by defining their attitudes towards current cancer research and challenges faced when reporting science news. A total of 67 respondents took part in this online survey, which was distributed by the European CanCer Organisation (ECCO) to all its media contacts between June and September 2013. Fifty-three per cent had over 20 years experience in reporting science news stories. The respondents utilised a number of media formats, including newsprint, online services, and radio. Fifty per cent ranked public interest as the greatest influence on their selection of cancer research topics, followed by topicality. Respondents were conscious of being fed ambiguous and exaggerated results from trials by the research community. Sixty-five per cent of respondents would appreciate access to a forum of experts willing to provide comment on new research findings. Seventy per cent highlighted the importance of prompt responses from scientists and researchers during correspondence, and the need to have advance warning of new developments (49%). To conclude – coverage of cancer related issues and scientific advances require greater collaboration between the press and cancer healthcare community to provide both credibility and accountability for the health information disseminated. Key areas include a more precise definition of the research context and differentiation of absolute and relative risks, as well as individual and population risks and an informed discussion about the realities and limitations of cancer care and research. PMID

  9. What Affects Reintegration of Female Drug Users after Prison Release? Results of a European Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurhold, Heike; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Sanclemente, Cristina; Schmied, Gabriele; Shewan, David; Verthein, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this follow-up study is to explore factors influencing the success or failure of women in reintegrating after their release from prison. Female drug users in five European cities were tracked after being released from prison. Out of 234 female prisoners contacted in prisons, 59 were included in the follow-up study. Structured…

  10. A Study of Greek Teachers' Satisfaction with the Implementation of the European Pedagogical ICT License Pilot Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouzakis, Charalambos; Roussakis, Ioannis; Tsagarissianos, George

    2010-01-01

    The survey presented in this study examines Greek teachers' satisfaction with the implementation of the European Pedagogical Information and Communication Technology License (EPICT) pilot course. A total of 51 primary and secondary education teachers participated in the study that followed the pilot course concerning the integration of ICT in the…

  11. A Qualitative Assessment of Students' Experiences of Studying Music: A Spanish Perspective on the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faubel, Jose Maria Esteve; Valero, Miguel Angel Molina; Stephens, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate whether or not the allocation of time proposed in the Music Study Guide, adapted from the Espacio Europeo de Educacion Superior (European Higher Education Area) guidelines, is consistent and adequate for students with a minimal musical knowledge. The data for this study arise from a…

  12. Genome-wide association study of tanning phenotype in a population of European ancestry.

    PubMed

    Nan, Hongmei; Kraft, Peter; Qureshi, Abrar A; Guo, Qun; Chen, Constance; Hankinson, Susan E; Hu, Frank B; Thomas, Gilles; Hoover, Robert N; Chanock, Stephen; Hunter, David J; Han, Jiali

    2009-09-01

    We conducted a multistage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of tanning response after exposure to sunlight in over 9,000 men and women of European ancestry who live in the United States. An initial analysis of 528,173 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped on 2,287 women identified LOC401937 (rs966321) on chromosome 1 as a novel locus highly associated with tanning ability, and we confirmed this association in 870 women controls from a skin cancer case-control study with joint P-value=1.6 x 10(-9). We further genotyped this SNP in two subsequent replication studies (one with 3,750 women and the other with 2,405 men). This association was not replicated in either of these two studies. We found that several SNPs reaching the genome-wide significance level are located in or adjacent to the loci previously known as pigmentation genes: MATP, IRF4, TYR, OCA2, and MC1R. Overall, these tanning ability-related loci are similar to the hair color-related loci previously reported in the GWAS of hair color. PMID:19340012

  13. Active relatives and health-related physical fitness in European adolescents: the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Marcos, Ascensión; Béghin, Laurent; Kafatos, Anthony; González-Gross, Marcela; Zaccaria, Maria; Molnár, Dénes; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

    2012-01-01

    High physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is positively associated with favourable health-related outcomes. Our aim was to examine the relationship between relatives' (father, mother, brother, sister, and best friend) physical activity engagement and encouragement on adolescents' physical fitness. Adolescents were part of the HELENA study, a multi-centre study conducted in 10 cities from nine European countries in 2006-2008. Participants were 3288 adolescents (48% boys, 52% girls) aged 12.5-17.5 years with valid data on at least one of the three fitness variables studied: muscular strength (standing long jump), speed/agility (4×10 m shuttle run), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run). The adolescents reported their relatives' physical activity engagement and encouragement. Analysis of covariance showed that relatives' physical activity engagement (father, mother, brother, and best friend) was positively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (P < 0.05); and mother's and sisters' physical activity engagement were positively associated with higher muscular strength in adolescents (P < 0.05). Furthermore, father's physical activity encouragement was positively linked to physical fitness (all fitness components) in adolescents (P < 0.05). Interventions aimed at improving physical fitness in young people might be more successful when family members, particularly mothers and fathers, are encouraged to engage in physical activity and support adolescents' physical activity. PMID:22906183

  14. Associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness in adolescents: The European Youth Hearts Study.

    PubMed

    Ried-Larsen, M; Grøntved, A; Østergaard, L; Cooper, A R; Froberg, K; Andersen, L B; Møller, N C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness, independent of objectively measured moderate-and-vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 375 adolescents (age 15.7 ± 0.4 years) from the Danish site of the European Youth Heart Study. Total frequency of bicycle usage was assessed by self-report, and carotid arterial stiffness was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. After adjusting for pubertal status, body height, and objectively measured physical activity and other personal lifestyle and demographic factors, boys using their bicycle every day of the week displayed a higher carotid arterial compliance {standard beta 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.87]} and distension [standard beta 0.38 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.81)]. Boys using their bicycle every day of the week furthermore displayed a lower Young's elastic modulus [standard beta -0.48 (95% CI -0.91 to -0.06)]. Similar trends were observed when investigating the association between commuter bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness. These associations were not observed in girls. Our observations suggest that increasing bicycling in adolescence may be beneficial to carotid arterial health among boys. PMID:25156494

  15. Cross-cultural issues in space operations: A survey study among ground personnel of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandal, Gro Mjeldheim; Manzey, Dietrich

    2009-12-01

    Today's space operations involve co-working of people with different ethnical, professional and organisational backgrounds. The aim of this study was to examine the implications of cultural diversity for efficient collaboration within the European Space Agency (ESA), and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. ESA employees from European countries ( N=576) answered to the CULT Ground Survey. The results showed that differences in relation to leadership and decision making were the most important issues thought to interfere with efficient co-working within ESA, and between ESA employees and colleagues from other agencies. Employees who collaborated with more than three nationalities within ESA indicated most challenges in co-working due to differences in compliance, behavioural norms and competitiveness. Challenges in co-working differed between agencies, and these differences were consistent with value differences in the national populations. The results may have applied value for training of European employees working in international space program teams.

  16. Simulation of long term renewable energy feed-in for European power system studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev; Späth, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Renewable energies already play a remarkable role in Europe as of today. It is expected that wind and solar amongst other renewables will contribute strongly to the future European energy generation. However, wind and solar generation facilities have due to the weather dependent nature of their resources highly fluctuating feed-in profiles. To overcome the mismatch between energy demand and generation it is important to study and understand the generation patterns and balancing potentials. The goal of the current work is to investigate how the feed-in time series from different renewable sources like on- and offshore wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal, wave, hydro, geothermal and biomass power and combination of them look like in an European power supply system . The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (BMU) that investigates the requirements for cross-country grid extensions, usage of storage technologies and capacities, the development of new balancing technologies and the conceptual design of the future energy market which is suitable for high generation percentages of solar and wind. High temporally and spatially resolved long term weather data from COSMO-EU, MERRA and Meteosat (MFG/MSG) satellite data has been used to simulate feed-in from several types of renewable energy sources on a 7 x 7 km grid covering Europe. For wind speeds MERRA reanalysis data has been statistically downscaled to account for orography. Generation was aggregated on the country level and production patterns and their variations in time of different resources were investigated for the years ranging from 2002 to 2012. In a first step the quality of the simulated feed in time series has been investigated by comparison to real observations of wind power and PV generation. Furthermore, some sensitivity studies with respect to underlying assumptions like spatial distribution of wind and PV capacities, the chosen hub-height and wind power curve have been done and will be presented. While

  17. Chronic morbidity in women, namely in pregnancy. (Comparative study between West, Central and East European centres).

    PubMed

    Kukla, L; Bouchalova, M; Shkiriak-Nyzhnyk, Z; Chyslovska, N; Golding, J; Goodfellow, S; Ignatjeva, R

    2008-01-01

    18 chronic diseases were investigated in a population of 13,115 women living in six settings of West- (Avon UK, the Isle of Man), Central- (the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) and East-Europe (the Ukraine and Russia), that collaborate in the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC project). In prenatal questionnaires filled in after the first half of pregnancy, women reported 25,795 chronic diseases they ever suffered, out of them 11,188 having in present pregnancies. In the whole sample, lifelong prevalence was 11,2%, and prevalence in pregnancy 4,8% which means that 43,4% of all chronic diseases recurred in pregnancy. Up to mean age of 255 years in the whole sample, 39,6% women reported ever having indigestion, 29% back pains, 22,6% migraine, about 16% haemorrhoids, hay fever and eczema, about 10% varicose veins, anorexia nervosa, heavy depression and kidney diseases, over 5% rheumatism and 4% asthma. Less prevalent were infections of pelvic organs, febrile convulsions, joint inflammations, stomach ulcers, psoriasis and epilepsy. Lifetime prevalence of chronic diseases and their prevalence in pregnancy were the highest in the western zone and decreased eastwards, but recurrence grew in the opposite direction, being the highest in the eastern zone. The variation of each morbidity indicator is followed in all diseases between geographical zones as well as between individual study centres. PMID:18822844

  18. The European study of assisted reproduction families: family functioning and child development.

    PubMed

    Golombok, S; Brewaeys, A; Cook, R; Giavazzi, M T; Guerra, D; Mantovani, A; van Hall, E; Crosignani, P G; Dexeus, S

    1996-10-01

    Findings are presented of a European study (conducted in the UK, Italy, Spain and The Netherlands) of family relationships and the social and emotional development of children in families created as a result of the two most widely used reproductive technologies, in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and donor insemination (DI), in comparison with control groups of families with naturally conceived child and adoptive families. Mothers of children conceived by assisted reproduction expressed greater warmth towards their child, were more emotionally involved with their child, interacted more with their child and reported less stress associated with parenting than mothers who conceived their child naturally. Similarly, assisted reproduction fathers were found to interact more with their child and to contribute more to parenting than fathers with a naturally conceived child. With respect to the children themselves, no group differences were found for either the presence of psychological disorder or for children's perceptions of the quality of family relationships. The findings relating to the quality of parenting and the socio-emotional development of the children were similar in each of the four countries studied. PMID:8943550

  19. A prospective multicenter European study on flexible ureterorenoscopy for the management of renal stone

    PubMed Central

    Berardinelli, Francesco; Proietti, Silvia; Cindolo, Luca; Pellegrini, Fabrizio; Peschechera, Roberto; Derek, Hennessey; Dalpiaz, Orietta; Schips, Luigi; Giusti, Guido

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes and the complications of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for renal stones in a multi-institutional working group. Materials and Methods From 2012 to 2014, we conducted a prospective study including all RIRS performed for kidney stones in 4 European centers. Demographic information, disease characteristics, and perioperative and postoperative data were gathered. Patients and stone data, procedure characteristics, results and safety outcomes were analyzed and compared by descriptive statistics. Complications were reported using the standardized Clavien system. Results Three hundred and fifty-six patients underwent 377 RIRS with holmium laser lithotripsy for renal stones. The RIRS was completed in all patients with a mean operative time of 63.5 min. The stone-free status was confirmed endoscopically and through fluoroscopic imaging after the first procedure in 73.6%. The second procedure was performed in twenty patients (5.6%) achieving an overall stone free rate of 78.9%. The overall complication rate was 15.1%. Intra-operative and post-operative complications were seen in 24 (6.7%) and 30 (8.4%) cases, respectively. Conclusions RIRS is a minimally invasive procedure with good results in terms of stone-free and complications rate. PMID:27286110

  20. Ground-based studies of tropisms in hardware developed for the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Melanie J.; Edelmann, Richard E.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Mullen, Jack L.; Kiss, John Z.

    Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at μg, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station, we have been conducting ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments with Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue- and red-light signaling systems interact with each other and with the gravisensing system.

  1. Review of accidental safety studies for the European HCPB test blanket system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaccini, L. V.; Ciattaglia, S.; Meyder, R.; Jin, X.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a review of safety studies for accidental sequences in the European solid breeder test blanket module (TBM) system. These studies are the starting point for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report of ITER, under preparation to get the construction permit first and then later the operation licence. In general the reduced inventory of activation products and tritium associated with the TBM system makes the impact of this test system almost negligible on the overall safety risk of ITER. Nevertheless, the possibility of jeopardizing the ITER safety concept has been analysed in connection to the consequences of specific accident sequences, e.g. the pressurization of the vacuum vessel due to the He coolant blow-down, the hydrogen production from the Be-steam reaction, the possible interconnection between the port cell and the vacuum vessel causing air ingress and the necessity to assure heat removal in the short and long periods. In the frame of this assessment, three LOCA sequences have been selected as representative of accidents judged to cover all scenarios envisaged in Cat II to IV events involving the TBM, namely, in-vessel LOCA, ex-vessel LOCA and in-box LOCA.

  2. Analysis of Soccer Players' Positional Variability During the 2012 UEFA European Championship: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Moura, Felipe Arruda; Santana, Juliana Exel; Vieira, Nathália Arnosti; Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Cunha, Sergio Augusto

    2015-09-29

    The purpose of this study was to analyse players' positional variability during the 2012 UEFA European Championship by applying principal component analysis (PCA) to data gathered from heat maps posted on the UEFA website. We analysed the teams that reached the finals and semi-finals of the competition. The players' 2D coordinates from each match were obtained by applying an image-processing algorithm to the heat maps. With all the players' 2D coordinates for each match, we applied PCA to identify the directions of greatest variability. Then, two orthogonal segments were centred on each player's mean position for all matches. The segments' directions were driven by the eigenvectors of the PCA, and the length of each segment was defined as one standard deviation around the mean. Finally, an ellipse was circumscribed around both segments. To represent player variability, segment lengths and elliptical areas were analysed. The results demonstrate that Portugal exhibited the lowest variability, followed by Germany, Spain and Italy. Additionally, a graphical representation of every player's ellipse provided insight into the teams' organisational features throughout the competition. The presented study provides important information regarding soccer teams' tactical strategy in high-level championships that allows coaches to better control team organisation on the pitch. PMID:26557206

  3. Analysis of Soccer Players’ Positional Variability During the 2012 UEFA European Championship: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Felipe Arruda; Santana, Juliana Exel; Vieira, Nathália Arnosti; Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Cunha, Sergio Augusto

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse players’ positional variability during the 2012 UEFA European Championship by applying principal component analysis (PCA) to data gathered from heat maps posted on the UEFA website. We analysed the teams that reached the finals and semi-finals of the competition. The players’ 2D coordinates from each match were obtained by applying an image-processing algorithm to the heat maps. With all the players’ 2D coordinates for each match, we applied PCA to identify the directions of greatest variability. Then, two orthogonal segments were centred on each player’s mean position for all matches. The segments’ directions were driven by the eigenvectors of the PCA, and the length of each segment was defined as one standard deviation around the mean. Finally, an ellipse was circumscribed around both segments. To represent player variability, segment lengths and elliptical areas were analysed. The results demonstrate that Portugal exhibited the lowest variability, followed by Germany, Spain and Italy. Additionally, a graphical representation of every player’s ellipse provided insight into the teams’ organisational features throughout the competition. The presented study provides important information regarding soccer teams’ tactical strategy in high-level championships that allows coaches to better control team organisation on the pitch. PMID:26557206

  4. Lifelong Learning and the Counter/Professionalisation of Childcare: A Case Study of Local Hybridizations of Global European Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenbroeck, Michel; Peeters, Jan; Bouverne-De Bie, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We provide a historical (genealogical) study of the changes in discourses on adult education since the famous UNESCO conference in Montreal, to present day texts of the European Union on lifelong learning. We also analyse how these changing global discourses on lifelong learning have travelled--through the hegemony of English language--to local…

  5. Occupation and Skill Change in the European Retail Sector. A Study for CECD and EURO-FIET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilsbury, Mark; And Others

    A study examined occupational and skill change within the retail sector in Europe so that training and development schemes can be put in place. Data were collected in the following ways: compilation of information on the level of employment, skills, and training in the retail sector of European countries; compilation of national data on…

  6. Combining Mass Spectrometry and Toxicology for a Multi-Country European Epidemiologic Study on Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HiWATE (Health Impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking WATEr) project is the first systematic analysis that combines the epidemiology on adverse pregnancy outcomes with analytical chemistry and analytical biology in the European Union. This study...

  7. Combining Mass Spectrometry and Toxicology for a Multi-Country European Epidemiologic Study on Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HiWATE (Health Impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking WATEr) project is the first systematic analysis that combines the epidemiology on adverse pregnancy outcomes with analytical chemistry and analytical biology in the European Union. This study...

  8. Studying Europe's Languages: The Economic Case for Australia and the Practical Case of the European Community's Language Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staddon, Sally

    1992-01-01

    Explains the relationship between international trade and language competence in Australia and describes programs to enable students to spend part of their study time learning European Community (EC) languages in countries other than their own. Also discusses the status of foreign language learning in the United Kingdom. (SM)

  9. A Quantitative Assessment of Students' Experiences of Studying Music: A Spanish Perspective on the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteve-Faubel, Jose-Maria; Stephens, Jonathan; Molina Valero, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate whether or not the allocation of time proposed in the Music Study Guide, adapted from the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) guidelines, is consistent and adequate for students with minimal musical knowledge. The report takes into account the importance of students' previous knowledge and the…

  10. Trends in Source of Catalog Records for European Monographs 1996-2000: A Preliminary Study of Italian Monographs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellsey, Charlene

    2001-01-01

    Discusses catalog records for non-English books created by European booksellers and loaded into OCLC; describes a study of Italian language monographs to compare vendor records with Library of Congress and OCLC member libraries' records; and considers changes in cataloging workflow needed to edit records to include Library of Congress call numbers…

  11. NEETs versus EETs: An Observational Study in Italy on the Framework of the HEALTH25 European Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardi, Bernardo; Lucarelli, Chiara; Talamonti, Marta; Arimatea, Emidio; Fiori, Valentina; Moltedo-Perfetti, Andrès

    2015-01-01

    An observational study of young Italian NEETs (not in education, employment or training) and their EET peers (in education, employment or training) was conducted in the framework of a European Union (EU) project. Main characteristics and behaviours were compared to gain insights into the NEET condition in Italy. The sample included 111 NEETs…

  12. Comparing Civic Competence among European Youth: Composite and Domain-Specific Indicators Using IEA Civic Education Study Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Bryony Louise; Barber, Carolyn; Van Nijlen, Daniel; Villalba, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Addressing the European Union monitoring of civic competence, this article presents a composite indicator of civic competence and four domain indicators. The data used are from the 1999 IEA Civic Education study of 14-year-olds in school. The results demonstrate the complexity of the various influences on the development of civic competencies…

  13. Modeling study of North-Atlantic millennial-timescale variability imprint on Western European loess deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, A.; Rousseau, D.-D.; Kageyama, M.; Ramstein, G.; Schultz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Antoine, P.; Dulac, F.; Hatté, C.

    2009-04-01

    Studies on loess sequences of Western Europe have shown (i) that the loess sedimentation pattern over the last glaciation (approximately 100 to 15 thousand years before present (kyr BP)) has been very similar throughout the European loess belt, indicating a common climate control, and (ii) that the rapid environmental changes on the continent are correlated with the North-Atlantic millennial-timescale variations, the so-called Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) and Heinrich (H) events. Here we test, by means of numerical modelling, if, and by which mechanisms, the dust cycle response to the environmental changes induced by the DO and H events could have led to the recording of these events in the loess deposits of the Western Europe. The LMDZ atmosphere general circulation model, in a version with a stretched grid enhancing the resolution over Western Europe to 60km, is used to simulate (a) a reference glacial state, assimilated to a DO stadial (DOS), (b) a cold perturbation over the North Atlantic, resembling a H event, and (c) a warm perturbation, assimilated to a DO interstadial (DOI). The reference state corresponds to the 40-kyr BP context, in the middle of the typical glacial period (approximately 75 to 15 kyr BP). The subsequent perturbations are obtained by applying cold or warm anomalies of up to 2°C in absolute value to the North-Atlantic sea-surface temperatures in the latitudinal band 30° - 63°N. The three simulated climate states are compared from the point of view of the initial driver of the dust cycle, the dust emission. A detailed analysis is provided for the English Channel and the south of the North Sea (ECSNS), important deflation areas in glacial times, and a source for the Western European loess deposits. In our experiments, the impact of altering the North-Atlantic surface conditions is weak over the ECSNS and loess areas (roughly, the latitudinal band 48° - 53°N) with respect to wind and precipitation. When only considering these factors, and the

  14. A European model and case studies for aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Marc C; Glass, C Richard; Bokkers, Bas; Hart, Andy D M; Hamey, Paul Y; Kruisselbrink, Johannes W; de Boer, Waldo J; van der Voet, Hilko; Garthwaite, David G; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    Exposures to plant protection products (PPPs) are assessed using risk analysis methods to protect public health. Traditionally, single sources, such as food or individual occupational sources, have been addressed. In reality, individuals can be exposed simultaneously to multiple sources. Improved regulation therefore requires the development of new tools for estimating the population distribution of exposures aggregated within an individual. A new aggregate model is described, which allows individual users to include as much, or as little, information as is available or relevant for their particular scenario. Depending on the inputs provided by the user, the outputs can range from simple deterministic values through to probabilistic analyses including characterisations of variability and uncertainty. Exposures can be calculated for multiple compounds, routes and sources of exposure. The aggregate model links to the cumulative dietary exposure model developed in parallel and is implemented in the web-based software tool MCRA. Case studies are presented to illustrate the potential of this model, with inputs drawn from existing European data sources and models. These cover exposures to UK arable spray operators, Italian vineyard spray operators, Netherlands users of a consumer spray and UK bystanders/residents. The model could also be adapted to handle non-PPP compounds. PMID:25280924

  15. Experimental study of European bat lyssavirus type-2 infection in Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas; Vos, Ad; Neubert, Larissa; Freuling, Conrad; Mansfield, Karen L; Kaipf, Ingrid; Denzinger, Annette; Hicks, Dan; Núñez, Alex; Franka, Richard; Rupprecht, Charles E; Müller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R

    2008-11-01

    European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) can be transmitted from Daubenton's bats to humans and cause rabies. EBLV-2 has been repeatedly isolated from Daubenton's bats in the UK but appears to be present at a low level within the native bat population. This has prompted us to investigate the disease in its natural host under experimental conditions, to assess its virulence, dissemination and likely means of transmission between insectivorous bats. With the exception of direct intracranial inoculation, only one of seven Daubenton's bats inoculated by subdermal inoculation became infected with EBLV-2. Both intramuscular and intranasal inoculation failed to infect the bats. No animal inoculated with EBLV-2 seroconverted during the study period. During infection, virus excretion in saliva (both viral RNA and live virus) was confirmed up to 3 days before the development of rabies. Disease was manifested as a gradual loss of weight prior to the development of paralysis and then death. The highest levels of virus were measured in the brain, with much lower levels of viral genomic RNA detected in the tongue, salivary glands, kidney, lung and heart. These observations are similar to those made in naturally infected Daubenton's bats and this is the first documented report of isolation of EBLV-2 in bat saliva. We conclude that EBLV-2 is most likely transmitted in saliva by a shallow bite. PMID:18931061

  16. Study of the efficacy of 18 sun filters authorized in European Union tested in vitro.

    PubMed

    Couteau, C; Pommier, M; Paparis, E; Coiffard, L J M

    2007-06-01

    In this work, the authors study the influence of filter concentration on the SPF in a topical product measured in vitro. Firstly, the method was adapted by determining that a mass of 15 mg of product must be applied on the PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) plate in order to have the best correlation with results obtained in vivo. By using the highest concentration allowed by European legislation, the following ranking was drawn up in ascending order of efficacy: 3-Benzylidene camphor (1.66) < oxybenzone (3.01) < octylsalicylate (3.12) < PABA (3.36) < polysilicone 15 (3.64) < methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol (3.68) < PEG25 PABA (3.81) < benzophenone-4 (3.85) < 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4.22) < homosalate (4.33) < octyltriazone (7.80) < phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid (8.31) < octyldimethyl PABA (8.71) < octocrylene (10.41) < octylmethoxycinnamate (10.42) < diethylhexylbutamidotriazone (12.58)

  17. The long-term studies of CO2 fluxes in southern taiga of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbatova, Juliya; Varlagin, Andrei; Tatarinov, Fedor; Avilov, Vitalii; Astafieva, Elena; Ivanov, Dmitrii; Olchev, Alexander; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    Wetlands and bogged forests located in forest zone are main elements of natural landscapes of Russia, covering about 10% of country. The long-term studies (from 1998 - for present) of CO2 fluxes have conducted in southern taiga of European Russia (Central Forest reserve, Tver region) at ombrotrophic bog and bogged spruce forest. To estimate of seasonal and interannual variations of CO2 fluxes different methods such as eddy covariance, chamber methods and modeling calculations were used. Our researches have allowed to evaluate long-term variations of net ecosystems exchange, soil respiration, gross primary production and their depending on environmental factors. The results of researches have confirmed strong relations between CO2 fluxes and precipitations and/or temperatures and level of ground water. Wetlands and bogged forests can be as sink as source of CO2 for atmosphere. Variation in water level dynamics alone could significantly affect the C balance in wetland ecosystems mainly through altering the decomposition rate of the organic matter accumulated in the soil profile. The modeled results supported the hypothesis that the soil processes, especially the decomposition process, in wetlands could play an important role in altering the C dynamics in the ecosystems.

  18. Social care of children born to HIV-infected mothers in Europe. European Collaborative Study.

    PubMed

    Thorne, C; Newell, M L; Peckham, C

    1998-02-01

    Children of HIV-infected women are likely to be profoundly affected by their mothers' infection, regardless of their own infection status and their number will increase with the spread of infection among women in Europe. This article describes the family circumstances and social care of 1,123 children born to HIV-infected women enrolled in the European Collaborative Study and followed prospectively from birth. Most mothers were white, married or cohabiting, asymptomatic and had a history of drug use, with 45% currently using injecting drugs at the time of enrollment. Seventy percent of children were cared for by their mothers and/or fathers consistently in their first four years of life, but by age eight an estimated 60% will have lived away from their parents (i.e. with foster or adoptive parents, other relatives or in an institution). Whether or not a child was infected did not influence the likelihood of living in alternative care. Maternal injecting drug use, single parenthood and health status were the major reasons necessitating alternative care. The type of alternative care varied according to maternal characteristics, child's age and geographic location. The mothers of 98 children had died and average age at maternal death was four years. PMID:9536198

  19. The European and American use of exploratory approaches for first-in-human studies.

    PubMed

    Silva-Lima, Beatriz; Carlson, David; Jones, David R; Laurie, David; Stahl, Elke; Maria, Vasco; Janssens, Walter; Robinson, William T

    2010-02-01

    Exploratory approaches for first-in-human clinical studies have evolved over the last few years and have stimulated the issuance of national regulatory guidances in some European countries as well as the United States. With the increasing implementation of these approaches and the recent preparation of a multiregional regulatory guidance (ICH M3 rev2), an exchange of experiences on the opportunities and challenges of exploratory clinical trials was desirable; thus, a workshop focusing on the use of this clinical approach was planned and conducted in Lisbon, Portugal, March 18-19, 2009 sponsored by the Portuguese Health Authority (INFARMED) and DIA. The structure of the workshop focused in three main areas. Regulatory representatives from Portugal, Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States formally reviewed their experiences. This was followed by a discussion on issues from an ethics review perspective as well as an insight to the opportunities in the area of biologics. The industry perspective was presented by representatives from Merck, Pfizer, J&J, Novartis, Speedel, AstraZeneca, GSK, and Roche. Finally, through break out sessions, issues were identified to be addressed moving forward. It is the purpose of this paper to report on the outcome of this workshop. PMID:20443952

  20. INFRAFRONTIER: a European resource for studying the functional basis of human disease.

    PubMed

    Raess, Michael; de Castro, Ana Ambrosio; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fessele, Sabine; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Ageing research and more generally the study of the functional basis of human diseases profit enormously from the large-scale approaches and resources in mouse functional genomics: systematic targeted mutation of the mouse genome, systemic phenotyping in mouse clinics, and the archiving and distribution of the mouse resources in public repositories. INFRAFRONTIER, the European research infrastructure for the development, systemic phenotyping, archiving and distribution of mammalian models, offers access to sustainable mouse resources for biomedical research. INFRAFRONTIER promotes the global sharing of high-quality resources and data and thus contributes to data reproducibility and animal welfare. INFRAFRONTIER puts great effort into international standardisation and quality control and into technology development to improve and expand experimental protocols, reduce the use of animals in research and increase the reproducibility of results. In concert with the research community and the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), INFRAFRONTIER is currently developing new pilot platforms and services for the research on ageing and age-related diseases. PMID:27262858

  1. Risk perception, experience, and objective risk: a cross-national study with European emergency survivors.

    PubMed

    Knuth, Daniela; Kehl, Doris; Hulse, Lynn; Schmidt, Silke

    2014-07-01

    Understanding public risk perceptions and their underlying processes is important in order to learn more about the way people interpret and respond to hazardous emergency events. Direct experience with an involuntary hazard has been found to heighten the perceived risk of experiencing the same hazard and its consequences in the future, but it remains unclear if cross-over effects are possible (i.e., experience with one hazard influencing perceived risk for other hazards also). Furthermore, the impact of objective risk and country of residence on perceived risk is not well understood. As part of the BeSeCu (Behavior, Security, and Culture) Project, a sample of 1,045 survivors of emergencies from seven European countries (i.e., Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, and Italy) was drawn. Results revealed heightened perceived risk for emergency events (i.e., domestic and public fires, earthquakes, floods, and terrorist attacks) when the event had been experienced previously plus some evidence of cross-over effects, although these effects were not so strong. The largest country differences in perceived risk were observed for earthquakes, but this effect was significantly reduced by taking into account the objective earthquake risk. For fires, floods, terrorist attacks, and traffic accidents, only small country differences in perceived risk were found. Further studies including a larger number of countries are welcomed. PMID:24372277

  2. Plant traits as predictor of ecosystem carbon fluxes - a case study across European grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Katja; Bahn, Michael; Acosta, Manuel; Altimir, Nuria; Gimeno, Cristina; Jongen, Marjan; Merbold, Lutz; Moors, Eddy; Pinter, Kistina; Darsonville, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Predicting ecosystem responses to global change has become a major challenge, particularly as terrestrial ecosystems contribute to the mitigation of global climate change through carbon sequestration. Plant traits are major surrogates of ecosystem physiology may thus help to predict carbon (C) fluxes and their consequences for the delivery of ecosystem services (e.g. C sequestration) across climatic gradients and in changing environments. However, linkages between community abundance-weighted means (CWM) of plant functional traits and ecosystem C fluxes have rarely been tested. It is also not known to what degree traits, which are typically measured at a defined point in time, are suitable for predicting annual C fluxes. We analysed the relationships between ecosystem fluxes and community level plant traits for 13 European grasslands under contrasting climate and management regimes, using multiyear eddy covariance data. Plant traits (specific leaf area SLA, leaf dry matter content LDMC, specific root length SLR) were determined at peak biomass. Analyses showed that GPPmax (at maximum radiation) was related to SLA, SRL and LDMC across sites and management, where GPPmax was an excellent indicator for annual GPP. Similar relations were found between for root density (and -diameter) and ecosystem respiration. Ecosystems respiration at GPPmax was also in line with annual respiration, indicating the strong predictive potential of plant community traits. Our study therefore suggests that above- and belowground community level plant traits are well suited surrogates for predicting ecosystem C fluxes at peak biomass and at annual scale.

  3. What do European veterinary codes of conduct actually say and mean? A case study approach.

    PubMed

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M; More, S J; Morton, D B; Osborne, M; Hanlon, A

    2015-06-20

    Codes of Professional Conduct (CPCs) are pivotal instruments of self-regulation, providing the standards to which veterinarians should, and sometimes must, comply. Despite their importance to the training and guidance of veterinary professionals, research is lacking on the scope and emphasis of the requirements set out in veterinary CPCs. This paper provides the first systematic investigation of veterinary CPCs. It relies on a case study approach, combining content and thematic analyses of five purposively selected European CPCs: Federation of Veterinarians of Europe (FVE), Denmark, Ireland, Portugal and the UK. Eight overarching themes were identified, including 'definitions and framing concepts', 'duties to animals', 'duties to clients', 'duties to other professionals', 'duties to competent authorities', 'duties to society', 'professionalism' and 'practice-related issues'. Some differences were observed, which may be indicative of different approaches to the regulation of the veterinary profession in Europe (which is reflected in having a 'code of ethics' or a 'code of conduct'), cultural differences on the status of animals in society, and regulatory bodies' proactivity in adapting to professional needs and to societal changes regarding the status of animals. These findings will contribute to an improved understanding of the roles of CPCs in regulating the veterinary profession in Europe. PMID:25861823

  4. Acculturation of Personality: A Three-Culture Study of Japanese, Japanese Americans, and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H.; De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Cote, Linda; Ceulemans, Eva; Mesquita, Batja

    2013-01-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that involvement with a new culture instigates changes in personality of immigrants that result in (a) better fit with the norms of the culture of destination and (b) reduced fit with the norms of the culture of origin. Participants were 40 Japanese first-generation immigrants to the United States, 57 Japanese monoculturals, and 60 U.S. monoculturals. All participants completed the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI) as a measure of the Big Five; immigrants completed the Japanese American Acculturation Scale. Immigrants’ fits with the cultures of destination and origin were calculated by correlating Japanese American mothers’ patterns of ratings on the Big Five with the average patterns of ratings of European Americans and Japanese on the same personality dimensions. Japanese Americans became more “American” and less “Japanese” in their personality as they reported higher participation in the U.S. culture. The results support the view that personality can be subject to cultural influence. PMID:23935211

  5. Cardiovascular mortality in Dutch men during 1996 European football championship: longitudinal population study

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Daniel R; Bots, Michiel L; Hoes, Arno W; Grobbee, Diederick E

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether an important football match increases stress to such an extent that it triggers acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Design Longitudinal study of mortality around 22 June 1996 (the day the Dutch football team was eliminated from the European football championship). Mortality on 22 June was compared with the five days before and after the match and in the same period in 1995 and 1997. Setting Netherlands. Subjects Dutch population aged 45 years or over in June 1996. Main outcome measures All cause mortality and mortality due to coronary heart disease and stroke. Results Mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke was increased in men on the day of the match (relative risk 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 2.09). No clear rise in mortality was observed for women (1.11, 0.80 to 1.56). Among men, about 14 excess cardiovascular deaths occurred on the day of the match. Conclusion Important sporting events may provoke a sufficient level of stress to trigger symptomatic cardiovascular disease. The difference between men and women requires further investigation. PMID:11124170

  6. Linkage and candidate gene studies of autism spectrum disorders in European populations.

    PubMed

    Holt, Richard; Barnby, Gabrielle; Maestrini, Elena; Bacchelli, Elena; Brocklebank, Denise; Sousa, Inês; Mulder, Erik J; Kantojärvi, Katri; Järvelä, Irma; Klauck, Sabine M; Poustka, Fritz; Bailey, Anthony J; Monaco, Anthony P

    2010-09-01

    Over the past decade, research on the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has focused on linkage and candidate gene studies. This research has implicated various chromosomal loci and genes. Candidate gene studies have proven to be particularly intractable, with many studies failing to replicate previously reported associations. In this paper, we investigate previously implicated genomic regions for a role in ASD susceptibility, using four cohorts of European ancestry. Initially, a 384 SNP Illumina GoldenGate array was used to examine linkage at six previously implicated loci. We identify linkage approaching genome-wide suggestive levels on chromosome 2 (rs2885116, MLOD=1.89). Association analysis showed significant associations in MKL2 with ASD (rs756472, P=4.31 x 10(-5)) and between SND1 and strict autism (rs1881084, P=7.76 x 10(-5)) in the Finnish and Northern Dutch populations, respectively. Subsequently, we used a second 384 SNP Illumina GoldenGate array to examine the association in seven candidate genes, and evidence for association was found in RELN (rs362780, P=0.00165). Further increasing the sample size strengthened the association with RELN (rs362780, P=0.001) and produced a second significant result in GRIK2 (rs2518261, P=0.008). Our results strengthen the case for a more detailed study of the role of RELN and GRIK2 in autism susceptibility, as well as identifying two new potential candidate genes, MKL2 and SND1. PMID:20442744

  7. Mathematical modeling approaches in the study of glaucoma disparities among people of African and European descents

    PubMed Central

    Guidoboni, Giovanna; Harris, Alon; Arciero, Julia C.; Siesky, Brent A.; Amireskandari, Annahita; Gerber, Austin L.; Huck, Andrew H.; Kim, Nathaniel J.; Cassani, Simone; Carichino, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Open angle glaucoma (OAG) is a severe ocular disease characterized by progressive and irreversible vision loss. While elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a well-established risk factor for OAG, the progression of OAG in many cases, despite IOP treatment, suggests that other risk factors must play significant roles in the development of the disease. For example, various structural properties of the eye, ocular blood flow properties, and systemic conditions have been identified as risk factors for OAG. Ethnicity has also been indicated as a relevant factor that affects the incidence and prevalence of OAG; in fact, OAG is the leading cause of blindness among people of African descent. Numerous clinical studies have been designed to examine the possible correlation and causation between OAG and these factors; however, these studies are met with the challenge of isolating the individual role of multiple interconnected factors. Over the last decade, various mathematical modeling approaches have been implemented in combination with clinical studies in order to provide a mechanical and hemodynamical description of the eye in relation to the entire human body and to assess the contribution of single risk factors to the development of OAG. This review provides a summary of the clinical evidence of ocular structural differences, ocular vascular differences and systemic vascular differences among people of African and European descent, describes the mathematical approaches that have been proposed to study ocular mechanics and hemodynamics while discussing how they could be used to investigate the relevance to OAG of racial disparities, and outlines possible new directions of research. PMID:24501718

  8. A pilot study on the feasibility of European harmonized human biomonitoring: Strategies towards a common approach, challenges and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Casteleyn, L.; Dumez, B.; Becker, K.; Kolossa-Gehring, M.; Den Hond, E.; Schoeters, G.; Castaño, A.; Koch, H.M.; Angerer, J.; Esteban, M.; Exley, K.; Sepai, O.; Bloemen, L.; Horvat, M.; Knudsen, L.E.; Joas, A.; Joas, R.; Biot, P.; Koppen, G.; Dewolf, M-C.; and others

    2015-08-15

    In 2004 the European Commission and Member States initiated activities towards a harmonized approach for Human Biomonitoring surveys throughout Europe. The main objective was to sustain environmental health policy by building a coherent and sustainable framework and by increasing the comparability of data across countries. A pilot study to test common guidelines for setting up surveys was considered a key step in this process. Through a bottom-up approach that included all stakeholders, a joint study protocol was elaborated. From September 2011 till February 2012, 17 European countries collected data from 1844 mother–child pairs in the frame of DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES). Mercury in hair and urinary cadmium and cotinine were selected as biomarkers of exposure covered by sufficient analytical experience. Phthalate metabolites and Bisphenol A in urine were added to take into account increasing public and political awareness for emerging types of contaminants and to test less advanced markers/markers covered by less analytical experience. Extensive efforts towards chemo-analytical comparability were included. The pilot study showed that common approaches can be found in a context of considerable differences with respect to experience and expertize, socio-cultural background, economic situation and national priorities. It also evidenced that comparable Human Biomonitoring results can be obtained in such context. A European network was built, exchanging information, expertize and experiences, and providing training on all aspects of a survey. A key challenge was finding the right balance between a rigid structure allowing maximal comparability and a flexible approach increasing feasibility and capacity building. Next steps in European harmonization in Human Biomonitoring surveys include the establishment of a joint process for prioritization of substances to cover and biomarkers to develop

  9. A pilot study on the feasibility of European harmonized human biomonitoring: Strategies towards a common approach, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Casteleyn, L; Dumez, B; Becker, K; Kolossa-Gehring, M; Den Hond, E; Schoeters, G; Castaño, A; Koch, H M; Angerer, J; Esteban, M; Exley, K; Sepai, O; Bloemen, L; Horvat, M; Knudsen, L E; Joas, A; Joas, R; Biot, P; Koppen, G; Dewolf, M-C; Katsonouri, A; Hadjipanayis, A; Cerná, M; Krsková, A; Schwedler, G; Fiddicke, U; Nielsen, J K S; Jensen, J F; Rudnai, P; Közepésy, S; Mulcahy, M; Mannion, R; Gutleb, A C; Fischer, M E; Ligocka, D; Jakubowski, M; Reis, M F; Namorado, S; Lupsa, I-R; Gurzau, A E; Halzlova, K; Jajcaj, M; Mazej, D; Tratnik Snoj, J; Posada, M; López, E; Berglund, M; Larsson, K; Lehmann, A; Crettaz, P; Aerts, D

    2015-08-01

    In 2004 the European Commission and Member States initiated activities towards a harmonized approach for Human Biomonitoring surveys throughout Europe. The main objective was to sustain environmental health policy by building a coherent and sustainable framework and by increasing the comparability of data across countries. A pilot study to test common guidelines for setting up surveys was considered a key step in this process. Through a bottom-up approach that included all stakeholders, a joint study protocol was elaborated. From September 2011 till February 2012, 17 European countries collected data from 1844 mother-child pairs in the frame of DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES).(1) Mercury in hair and urinary cadmium and cotinine were selected as biomarkers of exposure covered by sufficient analytical experience. Phthalate metabolites and Bisphenol A in urine were added to take into account increasing public and political awareness for emerging types of contaminants and to test less advanced markers/markers covered by less analytical experience. Extensive efforts towards chemo-analytical comparability were included. The pilot study showed that common approaches can be found in a context of considerable differences with respect to experience and expertize, socio-cultural background, economic situation and national priorities. It also evidenced that comparable Human Biomonitoring results can be obtained in such context. A European network was built, exchanging information, expertize and experiences, and providing training on all aspects of a survey. A key challenge was finding the right balance between a rigid structure allowing maximal comparability and a flexible approach increasing feasibility and capacity building. Next steps in European harmonization in Human Biomonitoring surveys include the establishment of a joint process for prioritization of substances to cover and biomarkers to develop

  10. Increasing Engineering Student Participation in Study Abroad: A Study of U.S. and European Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klahr, Sabine C.; Ratti, Umberto

    2000-01-01

    Reviews various initiatives in the United States and Europe designed to increase the number of engineering students participating in international study and offers 13 recommendations to remove barriers encountered by engineering students who wish to study abroad. Recommendations address funding, curriculum, and logistical issues such as credit…

  11. Impact of physical activity and cardiovascular fitness on total homocysteine concentrations in European adolescents: The HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Benser, Jasmin; Valtueña, Jara; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Breidenassel, Christina; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Ferrari, Marika; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; Sjöström, Michael; Molnar, Denes; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Kafatos, Antony; Palacios, Gonzalo; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J; Stehle, Peter; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association of physical activity (PA), cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and fatness with total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in European adolescents. The present study comprised 713 European adolescents aged 14.8 ± 1.2 y (females 55.3%) from the multicenter HELENA cross-sectional study. PA was assessed through accelerometry, CVF by the 20-m shuttle run test, and body fat by skinfold thicknesses with the Slaughter equation. Plasma folate, cobalamin, and tHcy concentrations were measured. To examine the association of tHcy with PA, CVF, and fatness after controlling for a set of confounders including age, maturity, folate, cobalamin, creatinine, smoking, supplement use, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 genotype (CC 47%, CT 43%, TT 10%), bivariate correlations followed by multiple regression models were performed. In the bivariate correlation analysis, tHcy concentrations were slightly negatively correlated (p<0.05) with CVF in females (measured both by stages: r=-0.118 and by VO2max: r=-0.102) and positively with body mass index (r=0.100). However, daily time spent with moderate and vigorous PA showed a weak positive association with tHcy in females (p<0.05). tHcy concentrations showed a tendency to decrease with increasing CVF and increase with increasing BMI in female European adolescents. However, tHcy concentrations were positively associated with moderate and vigorous PA in female European adolescents. PMID:25994139

  12. Genetics of skin color variation in Europeans: genome-wide association studies with functional follow-up.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fan; Visser, Mijke; Duffy, David L; Hysi, Pirro G; Jacobs, Leonie C; Lao, Oscar; Zhong, Kaiyin; Walsh, Susan; Chaitanya, Lakshmi; Wollstein, Andreas; Zhu, Gu; Montgomery, Grant W; Henders, Anjali K; Mangino, Massimo; Glass, Daniel; Bataille, Veronique; Sturm, Richard A; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Uitterlinden, André G; Palstra, Robert-Jan T S; Spector, Timothy D; Martin, Nicholas G; Nijsten, Tamar E C; Kayser, Manfred

    2015-08-01

    In the International Visible Trait Genetics (VisiGen) Consortium, we investigated the genetics of human skin color by combining a series of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in a total of 17,262 Europeans with functional follow-up of discovered loci. Our GWAS provide the first genome-wide significant evidence for chromosome 20q11.22 harboring the ASIP gene being explicitly associated with skin color in Europeans. In addition, genomic loci at 5p13.2 (SLC45A2), 6p25.3 (IRF4), 15q13.1 (HERC2/OCA2), and 16q24.3 (MC1R) were confirmed to be involved in skin coloration in Europeans. In follow-up gene expression and regulation studies of 22 genes in 20q11.22, we highlighted two novel genes EIF2S2 and GSS, serving as competing functional candidates in this region and providing future research lines. A genetically inferred skin color score obtained from the 9 top-associated SNPs from 9 genes in 940 worldwide samples (HGDP-CEPH) showed a clear gradual pattern in Western Eurasians similar to the distribution of physical skin color, suggesting the used 9 SNPs as suitable markers for DNA prediction of skin color in Europeans and neighboring populations, relevant in future forensic and anthropological investigations. PMID:25963972

  13. Health impact associated with vertebral deformities: results from the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS).

    PubMed

    Matthis, C; Weber, U; O'Neill, T W; Raspe, H

    1998-01-01

    To study the association between vertebral deformities and subjective health outcome indicators, including back pain and disability, a cross-sectional survey with spinal radiographs and personal interviews was carried out in 36 study centres in 19 European countries on a total of 15,570 men and women aged 50-79 years (population-based stratified random samples). No interventions were done. The main outcome measures were the presence and intensity of current and previous back pain, functional capacity (ADL questionnaire) and overall subjective health. The presence and intensity of back pain and functional and health impairments varied within wide ranges with no obvious regional pattern. However, the associations between negative health outcomes and vertebral deformity were homogeneous between countries and between centres within countries. In logistic regression analyses weak but significant associations between the presence of vertebral deformities and various health indicators were demonstrated. The magnitude of the associations increased with severity and number of deformities. Compared with subjects without deformities those with low-grade deformities had no or only a weakly elevated risk for back pain, disability and impaired subjective health (odds ratios (OR) 1.2-1.3). The odds ratios increased for individuals with single severe deformities (OR 1.3-2.1) and were highest in those with multiple severe deformities (OR 1.7-4.2). The associations between vertebral deformities and negative health outcomes were stronger in men than in women. In this cross-sectional study radiologically assessed vertebral deformities were therefore weakly associated with both current and previous back pain as well as with functional and health impairments in both women and men. Multiple severe deformities were associated with severe and disabling back pain with stronger effects in men. PMID:10024907

  14. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Five Loci Influencing Facial Morphology in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fan; van der Lijn, Fedde; Schurmann, Claudia; Zhu, Gu; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Hysi, Pirro G.; Wollstein, Andreas; Lao, Oscar; de Bruijne, Marleen; Ikram, M. Arfan; van der Lugt, Aad; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J.; Homuth, Georg; de Zubicaray, Greig; McMahon, Katie L.; Thompson, Paul M.; Daboul, Amro; Puls, Ralf; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Bevan, Liisa; Pausova, Zdenka; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Wright, Margaret J.; Wicking, Carol; Boehringer, Stefan; Spector, Timothy D.; Paus, Tomáš; Martin, Nicholas G.; Biffar, Reiner; Kayser, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Inter-individual variation in facial shape is one of the most noticeable phenotypes in humans, and it is clearly under genetic regulation; however, almost nothing is known about the genetic basis of normal human facial morphology. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study for facial shape phenotypes in multiple discovery and replication cohorts, considering almost ten thousand individuals of European descent from several countries. Phenotyping of facial shape features was based on landmark data obtained from three-dimensional head magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and two-dimensional portrait images. We identified five independent genetic loci associated with different facial phenotypes, suggesting the involvement of five candidate genes—PRDM16, PAX3, TP63, C5orf50, and COL17A1—in the determination of the human face. Three of them have been implicated previously in vertebrate craniofacial development and disease, and the remaining two genes potentially represent novel players in the molecular networks governing facial development. Our finding at PAX3 influencing the position of the nasion replicates a recent GWAS of facial features. In addition to the reported GWA findings, we established links between common DNA variants previously associated with NSCL/P at 2p21, 8q24, 13q31, and 17q22 and normal facial-shape variations based on a candidate gene approach. Overall our study implies that DNA variants in genes essential for craniofacial development contribute with relatively small effect size to the spectrum of normal variation in human facial morphology. This observation has important consequences for future studies aiming to identify more genes involved in the human facial morphology, as well as for potential applications of DNA prediction of facial shape such as in future forensic applications. PMID:23028347

  15. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    PubMed

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, p<0.001) and varied widely between countries, from 7.9% in Iceland to 22.8% in Spain. Frequent use of specific online activities (e.g., gambling, social networking, gaming) at least 6 days/week was associated with greater probability of displaying DIB. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that DIB was more frequent among adolescents with a lower educational level of the parents, earlier age at first use of the Internet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB. PMID:24853789

  16. Proposal for a European Space Surveillance System - Results of an ESA Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, T.; Flohrer, T.; Michal, T.

    Space Surveillance denotes the task of systematically surveying and tracking all objects above a certain size and maintaining a catalogue with updated orbital and physical characteristics for these objects. Space Surveillance is gaining increased importance as the operational safety of spacecraft is depending on it. Currently, Europe has no capability for routine Space Surveillance covering all space regions of interest and is strongly depending on external information from the United States and Russia. A first design study for a European Space Surveillance System was initiated by ESA in 2002 and led by ONERA as prime contractor. This study proposed a preliminary system covering the LEO and GEO orbit regions including the required survey strategies allowing for the autonomous maintenance of a catalogue of orbital parameters (including cold start capability). For the surveillance of LEO objects with sizes larger than 10 cm, a bistatic UHF radar with a large field of view (20° in elevation and 180° in azimuth) and a long range (1500 km for a 10 cm sphere) was proposed, based on experience gained by the French GRAVES system. For the surveillance of GEO objects larger than 1 m, four sites equipped with survey and tasking telescopes were proposed. It was estimated that such a system would be capable to maintain the orbits of 98 % of the LEO objects and 95 % of the GEO objects contained in the USSTRATCOM catalogue. A subsequent study analyzed the feasibility of a UHF radar and proposed solutions for the surveillance of the MEO region by optical sensors. In fact, this region in space will soon gain major importance for Europe due to the deployment of the GALILEO navigation satellite system.

  17. Spatial variations and development of land use regression models of levoglucosan in four European study areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedynska, A.; Hoek, G.; Wang, M.; Eeftens, M.; Cyrys, J.; Beelen, R.; Cirach, M.; De Nazelle, A.; Nystad, W.; Makarem Akhlaghi, H.; Meliefste, K.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; de Hoogh, K.; Brunekreef, B.; Kooter, I. M.

    2014-05-01

    Relatively little is known about long term effects of wood smoke on population health. A wood burning marker - levoglucosan - was measured using a highly standardized sampling and measurement method in four study areas across Europe (Oslo, the Netherlands, Munich/Augsburg, Catalonia) to assess within and between study area spatial variation. Levoglucosan was analyzed in addition to other components: PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, PM10, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen oxides (NOx), elemental and organic carbon (EC / OC), hopanes, steranes and elemental composition. Measurements were conducted at street, urban and regional background sites. Three two-week samples were taken per site and the annual average concentrations of pollutants were calculated using continuous measurements at one background site as a eference. Land use regression (LUR) models were developed to explain the spatial variation of levoglucosan using standardized procedures. Much larger within than between study area contrast in levoglucosan concentration was found. Spatial variation patterns differed substantially from other measured pollutants including PM2.5, NOx and EC. Levoglucosan had the highest spatial correlation with ΣPAH (r = 0.65) and the lowest with traffic markers - NOx, Σhopanes/steranes (r = -0.22). The correlation of levoglucosan with potassium (K), which is also used as a wood burning marker, was moderate to low (median r = 0.33). Levoglucosan concentrations in the cold (heating) period were between 3 and 20 times higher compared to the warm period. The contribution of wood-smoke calculated based on levoglucosan measurements and previous European emission data to OC and PM2.5 mass were 13 to 28% and 3 to 9% respectively in the full year. Larger contributions were calculated for the cold period. The median model R2 of the LUR models was 60%. In Catalonia the model R2 was the highest (71%). The LUR models included population and natural land related variables but no

  18. PM2.5 chemical composition in five European Mediterranean cities: A 1-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Dalia; Detournay, Anais; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Liguori, Francesca; Saraga, Dikaia; Bove, Maria Chiara; Brotto, Paolo; Cassola, Federico; Massabò, Dario; Latella, Aurelio; Pillon, Silvia; Formenton, Gianni; Patti, Salvatore; Armengaud, Alexandre; Piga, Damien; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc; Bartzis, John; Tolis, Evangelos; Prati, Paolo; Querol, Xavier; Wortham, Henri; Marchand, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    The seasonal and spatial characteristics of PM2.5 and its chemical composition in the Mediterranean Basin have been studied over a 1-year period (2011-2012) in five European Mediterranean cities: Barcelona (BCN), Marseille (MRS), Genoa (GEN), Venice (VEN), and Thessaloniki (THE). During the year under study, PM10 annual mean concentration ranged from 23 to 46 μg m- 3, while the respective PM2.5 ranged from 14 to 37 μg m- 3, with the highest concentrations observed in THE and VEN. Both cities presented an elevated number of exceedances of the PM10 daily limit value, as 32% and 20% of the days exceeded 50 μg m- 3, respectively. Similarly, exceedances of the WHO guidelines for daily PM2.5 concentrations (25 μg m- 3) were also more frequent in THE with 78% of the days during the period, followed by VEN with 39%. The lowest PM levels were measured in GEN. PM2.5 exhibited significant seasonal variability, with much higher winter concentrations for VEN and MRS, in fall for THE and in spring for BCN. PM2.5 chemical composition was markedly different even for similar PM2.5 levels. On annual average, PM2.5 was dominated by OM except in THE. OM contribution was higher in Marseille (42%), while mineral matter was the most abundant constituent in THE (32%). Moreover, PM2.5 relative mean composition during pollution episodes (PM2.5 > 25 μg m- 3) as well as the origins of the exceedances were also investigated. Results outline mainly the effect of NO3- being the most important driver and highlight the non-negligible impact of atmospheric mixing and aging processes during pollution episodes.

  19. Fecal nitrogen concentration as a nutritional quality indicator for European rabbit ecological studies.

    PubMed

    Gil-Jiménez, Esperanza; Villamuelas, Miriam; Serrano, Emmanuel; Delibes, Miguel; Fernández, Néstor

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the quality of the nutritional resources available to wild herbivores is critical to understanding trophic regulation processes. However, the direct assessment of dietary nutritional characteristics is usually difficult, which hampers monitoring nutritional constraints in natural populations. The feeding ecology of ruminant herbivores has been often assessed by analyzing fecal nitrogen (FN) concentrations, although this method has been less evaluated in other taxa. This study analyzed the suitability of FN as an indicator of ingesta quality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), which is a keystone lagomorph species in Mediterranean ecosystems and of great conservation interest. Firstly, domestic O. cuniculus were used to evaluate under experimental conditions the accuracy of total FN and the metabolic FN as diet quality indicators of forages with characteristics similar to those available under natural conditions. Secondly, the accuracy of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to calculate FN was tested using partial least squares regression. Thirdly, a pilot field study was conducted to monitor FN dynamics from wild O. cuniculus in three different habitats during wet and drought periods. A strong association was found between diet type and total FN and metabolic FN (Pseudo-R(2) ≥ 0.89). It was also found that NIRS calibrations were accurate for depicting nitrogen concentrations (R(2) > 0.98 between NIRS and chemical results). Finally, the seasonal FN dynamics measured in the field were consistent with current knowledge on vegetation dynamics and forage limitations in the three habitats. The results support the use of NIRS methods and FN indices as a reliable and affordable approach to monitoring the nutritional quality of rabbit habitats. Potential applications include the assessment of the mechanistic relationships between resource limitations and population abundance, e.g., in relation to natural drought cycles and to habitat interventions

  20. Study of the respiratory health of employees in seven European plants that manufacture ceramic fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Trethowan, W N; Burge, P S; Rossiter, C E; Harrington, J M; Calvert, I A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the relation between occupational exposure to ceramic fibres during manufacture and respiratory health. METHODS--The respiratory health of 628 current employees in the manufacture of ceramic fibres in seven European plants in three countries was studied with a respiratory questionnaire, lung function tests, and chest radiography. Simultaneous plant hygiene surveys measured subjects' current exposure to airborne ceramic fibres from personal samples with optical microscopy fibre counts. The measured exposures were combined with occupational histories to derive estimates of each subject's cumulative exposure to respirable fibres. Symptoms were related to current and cumulative exposure to ceramic fibres and lung function and findings from chest radiographs were related to cumulative exposure. RESULTS--The mean duration of employment was 10.2 years and mean (range) cumulative exposure was 3.84 (0-22.94) (f.ml-1.y). Eye and skin symptoms were frequent in all plants and increased significantly, as did breathlessness and wheeze, with increasing current exposure. Dry cough and stuffy nose were less common in the least exposed group but did not increase with increasing exposure. After adjustment for the effects of age, sex, height, smoking, and past occupational exposures to respiratory hazards, there was a significant decrease in both forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced midexpiratory flow related to cumulative exposure in current smokers (P < 0.05) and in FEV1 in ex-smokers (P < 0.05). Small opacities were found in 13% of the chest radiographs; their prevalence was not related to cumulative exposure to ceramic fibres. CONCLUSIONS--It is concluded that exposure to ceramic fibres is associated with irritant symptoms similar to those seen in other exposures to man made mineral fibres (MMMFs) and that cumulative exposure to respirable ceramic fibres may cause airways obstruction by promoting the effects of cigarette smoke. PMID:7757174

  1. Endovascular Treatment of Visceral Aneurysms and Pseudoaneurysms: Long-term Outcomes from a Multicenter European Study

    SciTech Connect

    Spiliopoulos, Stavros Sabharwal, Tarun; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Brountzos, Elias; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Krokidis, Miltiadis; Gkoutzios, Panagiotis; Siablis, Dimitrios; Adam, Andreas

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To investigate the percutaneous endovascular management of visceral aneurysms (VA) and visceral pseudoaneurysms (VPA) treated in three European interventional radiology departments. Methods: Patient archives from the department's databases were examined and retrospectively analyzed. Patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 with VA and/or VPA, confirmed by computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, or digital subtraction angiography and treated exclusively with percutaneous endovascular methods, were included in the study. The study's primary end points were procedural technical success, target lesion reintervention rate, and periprocedural mortality rate. Secondary end points included major and minor complications rates. Results: The medical records of 54 patients (41 male, mean age 55 {+-} 18.1 years) with 58 VAs or VPAs and treated with various percutaneous endovascular therapeutic modalities were analyzed. In total, 21 VAs (mean diameter 49.4 {+-} 21 mm, range 20-100 mm) and 37 VPAs (mean diameter 25.1 {+-} 14.6 mm, range 8-60 mm) were treated. Procedural technical success was achieved in 100% of the cases, while target lesion reintervention rate was 6.1% (2 of 33) and 14.2% (3 of 21) in the VPA and VA groups, respectively. Mean clinical follow-up period was 19.1 {+-} 21.4 months. Overall periprocedural mortality rate was 3% (1 of 33) in the VPA group and 0% (0 of 21) in the VA group. Conclusion: Percutaneous endovascular treatment of VAs and VPAs is safe and effective with low morbidity and mortality. There is a small but significant reintervention rate, particularly for true aneurysms; dedicated follow-up imaging is recommended. Successful aneurysm exclusion was achieved in all cases with a second procedure.

  2. Further Evidence of Subphenotype Association with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Susceptibility Loci: A European Cases Only Study

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Perez, Elisa; Suarez-Gestal, Marian; Calaza, Manuel; Ordi-Ros, Josep; Balada, Eva; Bijl, Marc; Papasteriades, Chryssa; Carreira, Patricia; Skopouli, Fotini N.; Witte, Torsten; Endreffy, Emöke; Marchini, Maurizio; Migliaresi, Sergio; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Santos, Maria Jose; Suarez, Ana; Blanco, Francisco J.; Barizzone, Nadia; Pullmann, Rudolf; Ruzickova, Sarka; Lauwerys, Bernard R.; Gomez-Reino, Juan J.; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) shows a spectrum of clinical manifestations that complicate its diagnosis, treatment and research. This variability is likely related with environmental exposures and genetic factors among which known SLE susceptibility loci are prime candidates. The first published analyses seem to indicate that this is the case for some of them, but results are still inconclusive and we aimed to further explore this question. Methods European SLE patients, 1444, recruited at 17 centres from 10 countries were analyzed. Genotypes for 26 SLE associated SNPs were compared between patients with and without each of 11 clinical features: ten of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria (except ANAs) and age of disease onset. These analyses were adjusted for centre of recruitment, top ancestry informative markers, gender and time of follow-up. Overlap of samples with previous studies was excluded for assessing replication. Results There were three new associations: the SNPs in XKR6 and in FAM167A-BLK were associated with lupus nephritis (OR = 0.76 and 1.30, Pcorr = 0.007 and 0.03, respectively) and the SNP of MECP2, which is in chromosome X, with earlier age of disease onset in men. The previously reported association of STAT4 with early age of disease onset was replicated. Some other results were suggestive of the presence of additional associations. Together, the association signals provided support to some previous findings and to the characterization of lupus nephritis, autoantibodies and age of disease onset as the clinical features more associated with SLE loci. Conclusion Some of the SLE loci shape the disease phenotype in addition to increase susceptibility to SLE. This influence is more prominent for some clinical features than for others. However, results are only partially consistent between studies and subphenotype specific GWAS are needed to unravel their genetic component. PMID:23049788

  3. Perceptions of food risk management among key stakeholders: results from a cross-European study.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Ellen; Frewer, Lynn J; Chryssochoidis, George M; Houghton, Julie R; Korzen-Bohr, Sara; Krystallis, Thanassis; Lassen, Jesper; Pfenning, Uwe; Rowe, Gene

    2006-07-01

    In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management. The objective of this study is to identify similarities and differences in perceptions of, and attitudes to, food risk management practices held by consumers and experts with an interest in food safety. Focus groups were conducted in five European countries chosen for their (hypothesised) cultural differences in attitudes towards risk: Denmark, Germany, Greece, Slovenia and the UK. Content analysis was carried out on the resulting texts and (sub) categories were identified within the analysis framework to facilitate the capture of emerging themes. Five key themes were identified as common to the perceptions of both consumers and experts, although these are not represented in the same way by both groups. These key themes are: (1) efforts made by the responsible authorities to manage food risks; (2) responsibility for prevention and management of food risks; (3) how priorities are established within regulatory systems; (4) scientific progress and its implications for food risk management; and (5) media attention and food safety incidents. Although some similarities emerged between the groups, differences were also identified. For example, experts appeared to be highly negative about media influences, whereas consumers appeared more indifferent about media influences and motives. These different perspectives need to be addressed in order to reduce the perceptual distance between key stakeholders, and in particular, to enhance consumer confidence in the food risk management system. Based on the study findings, recommendations for food risk management policies are outlined. PMID:16584811

  4. Fecal Nitrogen Concentration as a Nutritional Quality Indicator for European Rabbit Ecological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Jiménez, Esperanza; Villamuelas, Miriam; Serrano, Emmanuel; Delibes, Miguel; Fernández, Néstor

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the quality of the nutritional resources available to wild herbivores is critical to understanding trophic regulation processes. However, the direct assessment of dietary nutritional characteristics is usually difficult, which hampers monitoring nutritional constraints in natural populations. The feeding ecology of ruminant herbivores has been often assessed by analyzing fecal nitrogen (FN) concentrations, although this method has been less evaluated in other taxa. This study analyzed the suitability of FN as an indicator of ingesta quality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), which is a keystone lagomorph species in Mediterranean ecosystems and of great conservation interest. Firstly, domestic O. cuniculus were used to evaluate under experimental conditions the accuracy of total FN and the metabolic FN as diet quality indicators of forages with characteristics similar to those available under natural conditions. Secondly, the accuracy of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to calculate FN was tested using partial least squares regression. Thirdly, a pilot field study was conducted to monitor FN dynamics from wild O. cuniculus in three different habitats during wet and drought periods. A strong association was found between diet type and total FN and metabolic FN (Pseudo-R2 ≥ 0.89). It was also found that NIRS calibrations were accurate for depicting nitrogen concentrations (R2 > 0.98 between NIRS and chemical results). Finally, the seasonal FN dynamics measured in the field were consistent with current knowledge on vegetation dynamics and forage limitations in the three habitats. The results support the use of NIRS methods and FN indices as a reliable and affordable approach to monitoring the nutritional quality of rabbit habitats. Potential applications include the assessment of the mechanistic relationships between resource limitations and population abundance, e.g., in relation to natural drought cycles and to habitat interventions aimed at

  5. Body Image in Young Gender Dysphoric Adults: A European Multi-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Becker, Inga; Nieder, Timo O; Cerwenka, Susanne; Briken, Peer; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Cuypere, GrietDe; Haraldsen, Ira R Hebold; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-04-01

    The alteration of sex-specific body features and the establishment of a satisfactory body image are known to be particularly relevant for individuals with Gender Dysphoria (GD). The aim of the study was to first develop new scales and examine the psychometric properties of the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (Appelt & Strauß 1988). For the second part of this study, the satisfaction with different body features in young GD adults before cross-sex treatment were compared to female and male controls. Data collection took place within the context of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI) including 135 female-to-male (FtMs) and 115 male-to-female (MtFs) young GD adults and 235 female and 379 male age-adjusted controls. The five female and six male body feature subscales revealed good internal consistency. The ENIGI sample reported less satisfaction with overall appearance (d = 0.30) and with all of their body features than controls, but no subgroup differences for sexual orientation (FtM and MtF) and Age of Onset (FtM) were found. Body dissatisfaction was higher with regard to sex-specific body features (largest effect sizes of d = 3.21 for Genitalia in FtMs and d = 2.85 for Androgen-responsive features and genitalia in MtFs) than with those that appeared less related to the natal sex (d = 0.64 for Facial features in FtMs and d = 0.59 for Body shape in MtFs). Not only medical body modifying interventions, but also psychosocial guidance with regard to body image might be helpful for GD individuals before transitioning. PMID:25836027

  6. Mortality Prediction after the First Year of Kidney Transplantation: An Observational Study on Two European Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Lorent, Marine; Giral, Magali; Pascual, Manuel; Koller, Michael T.; Steiger, Jürg; Trébern-Launay, Katy; Legendre, Christophe; Kreis, Henri; Mourad, Georges; Garrigue, Valérie; Rostaing, Lionel; Kamar, Nassim; Kessler, Michèle; Ladrière, Marc; Morelon, Emmanuel; Buron, Fanny; Golshayan, Dela; Foucher, Yohann

    2016-01-01

    After the first year post transplantation, prognostic mortality scores in kidney transplant recipients can be useful for personalizing medical management. We developed a new prognostic score based on 5 parameters and computable at 1-year post transplantation. The outcome was the time between the first anniversary of the transplantation and the patient’s death with a functioning graft. Afterwards, we appraised the prognostic capacities of this score by estimating time-dependent Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves from two prospective and multicentric European cohorts: the DIVAT (Données Informatisées et VAlidées en Transplantation) cohort composed of patients transplanted between 2000 and 2012 in 6 French centers; and the STCS (Swiss Transplant Cohort Study) cohort composed of patients transplanted between 2008 and 2012 in 6 Swiss centers. We also compared the results with those of two existing scoring systems: one from Spain (Hernandez et al.) and one from the United States (the Recipient Risk Score, RRS, Baskin-Bey et al.). From the DIVAT validation cohort and for a prognostic time at 10 years, the new prognostic score (AUC = 0.78, 95%CI = [0.69, 0.85]) seemed to present significantly higher prognostic capacities than the scoring system proposed by Hernandez et al. (p = 0.04) and tended to perform better than the initial RRS (p = 0.10). By using the Swiss cohort, the RRS and the the new prognostic score had comparable prognostic capacities at 4 years (AUC = 0.77 and 0.76 respectively, p = 0.31). In addition to the current available scores related to the risk to return in dialysis, we recommend to further study the use of the score we propose or the RRS for a more efficient personalized follow-up of kidney transplant recipients. PMID:27152510

  7. Non-fatal injuries in three Central and Eastern European urban population samples: the HAPIEE study

    PubMed Central

    Pikhart, Hynek; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Peasey, Anne; Topor-Madry, Roman; Nikitin, Yuri; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite high mortality from injuries and accidents, data on rates and distribution of non-fatal injuries in Central and Eastern European populations are scarce. Methods: Cross-sectional study of random population samples of 45–69-year-old men and women (n = 28 600) from Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and six Czech towns, participating in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study. Participants provided information on non-fatal injuries in the past 12 months, socio-economic characteristics, alcohol consumption and other covariates. Results: The period prevalence of non-fatal injuries in the last year among Czech, Russian and Polish men was 12.5, 9.4 and 5.3%, respectively; among women, the respective proportions were 9.9, 9.8 and 6.4%. Injury prevalence declined with age in men and increased with age in women. Higher injury prevalence was associated with being unmarried, material deprivation, higher drinking frequency and problem drinking. In the pooled data, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the highest versus lowest material deprivation category was 1.57 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38–1.79]; for problem drinking, the OR was 1.44 (95% CI 1.23–1.69). Alcohol did not mediate the link between socio-economic status and injury. Conclusion: Non-fatal injuries were associated with material deprivation, other socio-economic characteristics and with alcohol. These results not only underscore the universality of the inequality phenomenon, but also suggest that the mediating role of alcohol in social differentials in non-fatal injury remains an unresolved issue. PMID:19959615

  8. Genetic association study of systemic lupus erythematosus and disease subphenotypes in European populations.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Larrañaga, Otsanda; Migliorini, Paola; Uribarri, Maria; Czirják, László; Alcaro, Maria C; Del Amo, Jokin; Iriondo, Mikel; Manzano, Carmen; Escorza-Treviño, Sergio; Estonba, Andone

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest a strong contribution of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In the last decades, many risk loci have been identified in several genetic association studies following both candidate gene and genome-wide approaches. The present work was conducted by GAPAID (Genes And Proteins for AutoImmunity Diagnostics) consortium with a dual aim: to replicate the association of several previously reported SLE susceptibility loci in an independent European sample and to explore their relation with some disease subphenotypes. A total of 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 40 associated loci were typed in a cohort of 208 SLE patients and 152 controls from Rheumatology Units of the University Hospital of Pisa (Italy) and University of Pécs Medical Center (Hungary). Regression analyses were performed to detect disease susceptibility loci and to identify genes affecting specific disease manifestations (renal, neurological, or skin involvement; arthritis; secondary Sjögren syndrome; and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome). Association of previously described risk alleles from HLA locus has been replicated, while IRF5, BLK, ITGAM, and IRF8 loci have been found to be consistent with previous published results. In addition, two new subphenotype-specific associations have been detected: SNP rs5754217 (UBE2L3) with skin involvement and rs3093030 (ICAM1-ICAM4-ICAM5) with hematological disorders. Overall, results from GAPAID project are consistent with previously established associations for HLA, IRF5, BLK, ITGAM, and IRF8 SLE susceptibility loci and report for the first time two subphenotype-specific associations. PMID:27021335

  9. The impact of European forests on cloud cover: an observation-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuling, Ryan; Melsen, Lieke; Vila-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi; van Heerwaarden, Chiel; Miralles, Diego; Taylor, Chris; Stegehuis, Annemiek; Fokke Meirink, Jan; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan

    2016-04-01

    The impact of temperate forests on their environment is still uncertain [1]. While forests generally have a lower albedo, the flux partitioning over forests and its relation to weather conditions is still poorly understood [2,3], complicating attempts to study impacts of forest cover on atmospheric conditions through modeling. Effects of land surface conditions on boundary-layer humidity and cloud formation can also be very non-linear [4]. Furthermore, the study of hydrological and climate impacts of temperate European forests is complicated because forests are strongly fragmented and often can be found on hilly terrain, making it impossible to attribute differences in for instance cloud cover or runoff directly to forest cover. Only few regions exist where forests can be found in absence of strong topography of a size large enough to result in near-equilibrium between the atmospheric boundary layer and local surface conditions. In this study, we analyse 10 years (2004-2013) of cloud cover observations from the Meteosat Second Generation satellite platform at a 15-minute temporal resolution. These observations come from a physically-based cloud product at the 6 km resolution [5], and a statistical cloud product based on the high-resolution visible imagery (1 km resolution). We focus on two regions in France where large forests are found which satisfy the following criteria: a) absence of strong topography, and b) presence of sharp contrast between forest and non-forest regions. Cloud occurrence is expressed by the fraction of the daytime that clouds are detected within a pixel. We find that in particular in summer and late summer, clouds are much more likely to occur over forest than over the surrounding non-forest land (difference in the order of 0.2). An opposite signal, but of much weaker magnitude, is found during springtime, when clouds are less likely to develop over forest. Difference in cloud occurrence is consistent with MODIS-derived differences in EVI

  10. Family-based association study of the restless legs syndrome loci 2 and 3 in a European population.

    PubMed

    Kemlink, David; Polo, Olli; Montagna, Pasquale; Provini, Federica; Stiasny-Kolster, Karin; Oertel, Wolfgang; de Weerd, Al; Nevsimalova, Sona; Sonka, Karel; Högl, Birgit; Frauscher, Birgit; Poewe, Werner; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Pramstaller, Peter P; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Zucconi, Marco; Konofal, Eric; Arnulf, Isabelle; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Happe, Svenja; Klein, Christine; Hiller, Anja; Lichtner, Peter; Meitinger, Thomas; Müller-Myshok, Betram; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2007-01-15

    Three loci for the restless legs syndrome (RLS) on chromosomes 12q, 14q, and 9p (RLS1, RLS2, and RLS3) have been mapped, but no gene has been identified as yet. RLS1 has been confirmed in families from three different populations. We conducted a family-based association study of 159 European RLS trios. The subjects were genotyped using microsatellite markers evenly covering the candidate regions on chromosomes 14q and 9p with an average intermarker distance of 1.1 cM. Transmission disequilibrium tests were used to analyze the data, and empirical P values were estimated by permutation testing. On chromosome 14q, a significant association (empirical P = 0.0033) was found with a haplotype formed by markers D14S1014 and D14S1017 when analyzing all families. On chromosome 9p, no significant association in the sample of all families and only marginally significant associations were detected, with a haplotype involving markers D9S1846-D9S171 in a subset of South European trios and with a haplotype at D9S156-D9S157 in a subset of Central European trios (P = 0.0086 and 0.0077, respectively). These results represent the first confirmation of these loci in a mixed European population. Variable results observed in families of different ethnic groups further corroborate the genetic complexity of RLS. PMID:17133505

  11. Putting EuroPlaNet on the news: The European Planetary Science Congress 2007 case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrosa, M.; Heward, A.

    2008-06-01

    In this article we analyse the exercise of science communication through a very particular medium and in a very specific work environment: the press office of the II European Planetary Science Congress in Potsdam, Germany, from the 19-24 August 2007, hosted by EuroPlaNet - the European Planetology Network. During this event, the most important discoveries and research in planetary science recently made in Europe were presented and discussed by the scientific community. It was the press office's task to try to put these discoveries and research on the news.

  12. A longitudinal, multi-level comparative study of quality and safety in European hospitals: the QUASER study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background although there is a wealth of information available about quality improvement tools and techniques in healthcare there is little understanding about overcoming the challenges of day-to-day implementation in complex organisations like hospitals. The 'Quality and Safety in Europe by Research' (QUASER) study will investigate how hospitals implement, spread and sustain quality improvement, including the difficulties they face and how they overcome them. The overall aim of the study is to explore relationships between the organisational and cultural characteristics of hospitals and how these impact on the quality of health care; the findings will be designed to help policy makers, payers and hospital managers understand the factors and processes that enable hospitals in Europe to achieve-and sustain-high quality services for their patients. Methods/design in-depth multi-level (macro, meso and micro-system) analysis of healthcare quality policies and practices in 5 European countries, including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of 10 hospitals. The project design has three major features: • a working definition of quality comprising three components: clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient experience • a conceptualisation of quality as a human, social, technical and organisational accomplishment • an emphasis on translational research that is evidence-based and seeks to provide strategic and practical guidance for hospital practitioners and health care policy makers in the European Union. Throughout the study we will adopt a mixed methods approach, including qualitative (in-depth, narrative-based, ethnographic case studies using interviews, and direct non-participant observation of organisational processes) and quantitative research (secondary analysis of safety and quality data, for example: adverse incident reporting; patient complaints and claims). Discussion the protocol is based on the premise that future research, policy

  13. Quality issues concerning genetic counselling for presymptomatic testing: a European Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Paneque, Milena; Sequeiros, Jorge; Skirton, Heather

    2015-11-01

    Genetic counselling for presymptomatic testing is complex, bringing both ethical and practical questions. There are protocols for counselling but a scarcity of literature regarding quality assessment of such counselling practice. Generic quality assessment tools for genetic services are not specific to presymptomatic testing (PST). Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify aspects of effective counselling practice in PST for late-onset neurological disorders. We used the Delphi method to ascertain the views of relevant European experts in genetic counselling practice, ascertained via published literature and nomination by practitioners. Ethical approval was obtained. Questionnaires were sent electronically to a list of 45 experts, (Medical Doctors, Geneticists, Genetic Counsellors and Genetic Nurses), who each contributed to one to three rounds. In the first round, we provided a list of relevant indicators of quality of practice from a literature review. Experts were requested to evaluate topics in four domains: (a) professional standards; (b) service standards; (c) the consultant's perspective; and (d) protocol standards. We then removed items receiving less than 65% approval and added new issues suggested by experts. The second round was performed for the refinement of issues and the last round was aimed at achieving final consensus on high-standard indicators of quality, for inclusion in the assessment tool. The most relevant indicators were related to (1) consultant-centred practice and (2) advanced counselling and interpersonal skills of professionals. Defined high-standard indicators can be used for the development of a new tool for quality assessment of PST counselling practice. PMID:25689925

  14. Climatological study of ionospheric irregularities over the European mid-latitude sector with GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wautelet, Gilles; Warnant, René

    2014-03-01

    High-frequency variability of the ionosphere, or irregularities, constitutes the main threat for real-time precise positioning techniques based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) measurements. Indeed, during periods of enhanced ionospheric variability, GNSS users in the field—who cannot verify the integrity of their measurements—will experience positioning errors that can reach several decimeters, while the nominal accuracy of the technique is cm-level. In the frame of this paper, a climatological analysis of irregularities over the European mid-latitude region is presented. Based on a 10 years GPS dataset over Belgium, the work analyzes the occurrence rate (as a function of the solar cycle, season and local time) as well as the amplitude of ionospheric irregularities observed at a single GPS station. The study covers irregularities either due to space weather events (solar origin) or of terrestrial origin. If space weather irregularities are responsible for the largest effects in terms of ionospheric error, their occurrence rate highly depends on solar activity. Indeed, the occurrence rate of ionospheric irregularities is about 9 % during solar maximum, whereas it drops to about 0 % during medium or low solar activity periods. Medium-scale ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) occurring during daytime in autumn/winter are the most recurrent pattern of the time series, with yearly proportions slightly varying with the solar cycle and an amplitude of about 10 % of the TEC background. Another recurrent irregularity type, though less frequent than MSTIDs, is the noise-like variability in TEC observed during summer nighttime, under quiet geomagnetic conditions. These summer nighttime irregularities exhibit amplitudes ranging between 8 and 15 % of the TEC background.

  15. Genome-wide association study of kidney function decline in individuals of European descent

    PubMed Central

    Gorski, Mathias; Tin, Adrienne; Garnaas, Maija; McMahon, Gearoid M.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chalmers, John; Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne; Woodward, Marc; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tammara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Smith, Albert V.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Coresh, Josef; Li, Man; Freudenberger, Paul; Hofer, Edith; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; de Boer, Ian H.; Li, Guo; Siscovick, David S.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Corre, Tanguy; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Gupta, Jayanta; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Olden, Matthias; Yang, Qiong; de Andrade, Mariza; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Turner, Stephen T.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Barlassina, Cristina; Cusi, Daniele; Salvi, Erika; Staessen, Jan A; Ridker, Paul M; Grallert, Harald; Meisinger, Christa; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Kramer, Holly; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Snieder, Harold; Del Greco, Fabiola; Franke, Andre; Nöthlings, Ute; Lieb, Wolfgang; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; van der Harst, Pim; Dehghan, Abbas; Franco, Oscar H.; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Uitterlinden, André G.; Coassin, Stefan; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Kronenberg, Florian; Paulweber, Bernhard; Aumann, Nicole; Endlich, Karlhans; Pietzner, Mike; Völker, Uwe; Rettig, Rainer; Chouraki, Vincent; Helmer, Catherine; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Metzger, Marie; Stengel, Benedicte; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Raitakari, Olli; Johnson, Andrew; Parsa, Afshin; Bochud, Murielle; Heid, Iris M.; Goessling, Wolfram; Köttgen, Anna; Kao, H. Linda; Fox, Caroline S.; Böger, Carsten A.

    2014-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple loci associated with cross-sectional eGFR, but a systematic genetic analysis of kidney function decline over time is missing. Here we conducted a GWAS meta-analysis among 63,558 participants of European descent, initially from 16 cohorts with serial kidney function measurements within the CKDGen Consortium, followed by independent replication among additional participants from 13 cohorts. In stage 1 GWAS meta-analysis, SNPs at MEOX2, GALNT11, IL1RAP, NPPA, HPCAL1 and CDH23 showed the strongest associations for at least one trait, in addition to the known UMOD locus which showed genome-wide significance with an annual change in eGFR. In stage 2 meta-analysis, the significant association at UMOD was replicated. Associations at GALNT11 with Rapid Decline (annual eGFRdecline of 3ml/min/1.73m2 or more), and CDH23 with eGFR change among those with CKD showed significant suggestive evidence of replication. Combined stage 1 and 2 meta-analyses showed significance for UMOD, GALNT11 and CDH23. Morpholino knockdowns of galnt11 and cdh23 in zebrafish embryos each had signs of severe edema 72 hours after gentamicin treatment compared to controls, but no gross morphological renal abnormalities before gentamicin administration. Thus, our results suggest a role in the deterioration of kidney function for the loci GALNT11 and CDH23, and show that the UMOD locus is significantly associated with kidney function decline. PMID:25493955

  16. THE JOINT EUROPEAN-UNITED STATES NDEA INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY, MANNHEIM-HEIDELBERG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VAN TESLAAR, A.P.

    THE EUROPEAN COORDINATOR AND RESIDENT CO-DIRECTOR OF THE MANNHEIM-HEIDELBERG BRANCH OF THE SUMMER 1966 LANGUAGE INSTITUTE IN FRANCE AND GERMANY PREPARED THIS EVALUATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL VENTURE. DESIGNED TO ANALYZE THE INNOVATIONAL ASPECTS OF THE 1966 INSTITUTE WITH THE IDEA OF STRENGTHENING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THIS AND SIMILAR PROGRAMS, THE…

  17. Ageing and Health Status in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of the European POMONA II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Meindert; Perry, Jonathan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kerr, Mike; Lantman-De Valk, Henny Van Schrojenstein; Van Hove, Geert; Berger, Dasa Moravec; Azema, Bernard; Buono, Serafino; Cara, Alexandra Carmen; Germanavicius, Arunas; Linehan, Christine; Maatta, Tuomo; Tossebro, Jan; Weber, Germain

    2011-01-01

    Background: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). Method: The P15 was completed in a cross-sectional design…

  18. Celestial Symbolism in Central European Later Prehistory - Case Studies from the Bronze Age Carpathian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, Emília

    It is commonly held that the sun played a particularly important cultural role in later prehistoric Europe. The rise of a general European sun cult has even been suggested for the Bronze Age. During this period, the increasing use of special symbols assumed to represent the sun is easily discernible on different types of archaeological finds.

  19. Lost in Translation? A Case Study of Macao in Fabricating a European Education Space in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vong, Teresa Sou-Kuan; Wong, Matilda

    2014-01-01

    The creation of a European education space has been extensively discussed in Europe. Many scholars are concerned about the way in which the emergence of "global governmentality," such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)'s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), has produced a "soft…

  20. Testing the Validity of the Dynamic Model at School Level: A European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panayiotou, Anastasia; Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.

    2016-01-01

    This European project investigates the impact of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness on student achievement. In each participating country (Belgium/Flanders, Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Ireland and Slovenia), a sample of at least 50 schools was drawn and tests in mathematics and science were administered to…

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Study Satisfaction among Young European Higher Education Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Aracil, Adela

    2012-01-01

    This article identifies those aspects of the academic environment that are associated with graduates' overall satisfaction with their higher education (HE) course. We use REFLEX data, which allow comparison among 14 European countries, based on a pooled sample and individual country regressions. Overall, the degree of satisfaction with HE studies…

  2. Guidelines for the practical stability studies of anticancer drugs: a European consensus conference.

    PubMed

    Bardin, C; Astier, A; Vulto, A; Sewell, G; Vigneron, J; Trittler, R; Daouphars, M; Paul, M; Trojniak, M; Pinguet, F

    2011-07-01

    Stability studies performed by the pharmaceutical industry are only designed to fulfill licensing requirements. Thus, post-dilution or -reconstitution stability data are frequently limited to 24h only for bacteriological reasons regardless of the true chemical stability which could, in many cases, be longer. In practice, the pharmacy-based centralized preparation may require infusions to be made several days in advance to provide, for example, the filling of ambulatory devices for continuous infusions or batch preparations for dose banding. Furthermore, a non-justified limited stability for expensive products is obviously very costly. Thus, there is a compelling need for additional stability data covering practical uses of anticancer drugs. A European conference consensus was held in France, May 2010, under the auspices of the French Society of Oncology Pharmacy (SFPO) to propose adapted rules on stability in practical situations and guidelines to perform corresponding stability studies. For each anticancer drug, considering their therapeutic index, the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) variability, specific clinical use and risks related to degradation products, the classical limit of 10% of degradation can be inappropriate. Therefore, acceptance limits must be clinically relevant and should be defined for each drug individually. Design of stability studies has to reflect the different needs of the clinical practice (preparation for the week-ends, outpatient transportations, implantable devices, dose banding…). It is essential to use validated stability-indicating methods, separating degradation products being formed in the practical use of the drug. Sequential temperature designs should be encouraged to replicate problems seen in daily practice such as rupture of the cold-chain or temperature-cycling between refrigerated storage and ambient in-use conditions. Stressed conditions are recommended to evaluate not only the role of classical variables (p

  3. Case-control studies in cancer patients as a surveillance system of occupational exposure in the European Community. European Community Working Party.

    PubMed Central

    Rona, R J; Taub, N A; Rasmussen, S

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The main aim was to detect known relationships between lung and blood cancers and various occupational exposures (using job titles as proxies) using a case-control design. The suitability of this system for routine surveillance could then be assessed. DESIGN--A case-control study was carried out in 1989. SETTING--Hospitals in eight European Community countries. SUBJECTS--Men aged 25 to 75 years with incident and prevalent cancer of the lung (190 cases), haematopoietic system (210 cases), or gastrointestinal tract (245 controls) were studied. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The crude estimate of the overall odds ratio exposure (OR) for relevant occupational exposure of lung cancer relative to gastrointestinal cancer was 1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82, 1.77). In a logistic regression analysis adjusting for country, age at diagnosis, smoking, and alcohol consumption, the overall OR was not greatly changed. A significant interaction of occupational exposure and age at diagnosis showed that lung cancer patients diagnosed at a younger age had a higher OR than patients diagnosed at an older age. Thus, the overall, insignificant result may have been due to a low reliability of occupational history in older age or to a selective mechanism related to age. The overall OR for occupational exposure of cancer of the blood relative to gastrointestinal cancer was 0.88 (95% CI 0.60, 1.31). The logistic regression analysis did not alter these results. CONCLUSION--A surveillance based on a case-control design using job titles would not be sensitive enough to detect possible occupational risks. PMID:8228771

  4. Asthma medication prescribing before, during and after pregnancy: a study in seven European regions

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Rachel A; Pierini, Anna; Klungsøyr, Kari; Neville, Amanda J; Jordan, Susan; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W; Thayer, Daniel; Bos, H Jens; Puccini, Aurora; Hansen, Anne V; Gini, Rosa; Engeland, Anders; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Dolk, Helen; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore utilisation patterns of asthma medication before, during and after pregnancy as recorded in seven European population-based databases. Design A descriptive drug utilisation study. Setting 7 electronic healthcare databases in Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Italy (Emilia Romagna and Tuscany), Wales, and the Clinical Practice Research Datalink representing the rest of the UK. Participants All women with a pregnancy ending in a delivery that started and ended between 2004 and 2010, who had been present in the database for the year before, throughout and the year following pregnancy. Main outcome measures The percentage of deliveries where the woman received an asthma medicine prescription, based on prescriptions issued (UK) or dispensed (non-UK), during the year before, throughout or during the year following pregnancy. Asthma medicine prescribing patterns were described for 3-month time periods and the choice of asthma medicine and changes in prescribing over the study period were evaluated in each database. Results In total, 1 165 435 deliveries were identified. The prevalence of asthma medication prescribing during pregnancy was highest in the UK and Wales databases (9.4% (CI95 9.3% to 9.6%) and 9.4% (CI95 9.1% to 9.6%), respectively) and lowest in the Norwegian database (3.7% (CI95 3.7% to 3.8%)). In the year before pregnancy, the prevalence of asthma medication prescribing remained constant in all regions. Prescribing levels peaked during the second trimester of pregnancy and were at their lowest during the 3-month period following delivery. A decline was observed, in all regions except the UK, in the prescribing of long-acting β-2-agonists during pregnancy. During the 7-year study period, there were only small changes in prescribing patterns. Conclusions Differences were found in the prevalence of prescribing of asthma medications during and surrounding pregnancy in Europe. Inhaled β-2 agonists and inhaled corticosteroids were

  5. Patient/family views on data sharing in rare diseases: study in the European LeukoTreat project.

    PubMed

    Darquy, Sylviane; Moutel, Grégoire; Lapointe, Anne-Sophie; D'Audiffret, Diane; Champagnat, Julie; Guerroui, Samia; Vendeville, Marie-Louise; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; Duchange, Nathalie

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore patient and family views on the sharing of their medical data in the context of compiling a European leukodystrophies database. A survey questionnaire was delivered with help from referral centers and the European Leukodystrophies Association, and the questionnaires returned were both quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. This study found that patients/families were strongly in favor of participating. Patients/families hold great hope and trust in the development of this type of research. They have a strong need for information and transparency on database governance, the conditions framing access to data, all research conducted, partnerships with the pharmaceutical industry, and they also need access to results. Our findings bring ethics-driven arguments for a process combining initial broad consent with ongoing information. On both, we propose key item-deliverables to database participants. PMID:26081642

  6. Validity Study of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" with English-Speaking Hispanic and European American Children in Head Start Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Cathy H.; Marley, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" (PLS-4) with a sample of English-speaking Hispanic and European American children who attended Head Start programs. Participants were 440 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years (52% male; 86% Hispanic and 14% European American). Participants…

  7. The impact of European forests on cloud cover: an observation-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melsen, L. A.; Teuling, R.; Vila-Guerau Arellano, J.; Nabuurs, G. J.; Miralles, D. G.; Taylor, C.; Stegehuis, A.; Meirink, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of temperate forests on their environment is uncertain [1]. While forests generally have a lower albedo, the flux partitioning over forests and its relation to weather conditions is still poorly understood [2,3], complicating modeling attempts. Effects of land surface conditions on boundary-layer humidity and cloud formation can also be very non-linear [4]. Furthermore, the study of hydrological and climate impacts of temperate European forests is complicated because forests are fragmented and often can be found on hilly terrain, making it impossible to attribute differences in cloud cover directly to forest cover. In this study, we analyse 10 years (2004-2013) of cloud cover data from the SEVIRI instrument aboard the Meteosat Second Generation satellite platform at a 15-minute temporal resolution [5]. We focus on two regions in France where large forests are found which satisfy the following criteria: a) absence of strong topography, and b) presence of sharp contrast between forest and non-forest regions. Cloud occurrence is expressed by the fraction of the daytime that clouds are detected within a ˜6 km MSG pixel. We find that in particular in summer and late summer, clouds are more likely to occur over forest than over the surrounding non-forest land (order of 20%). An opposite signal, but of weaker magnitude, is found in spring, when clouds are less likely to develop over forest. Difference in cloud occurrence is consistent with MODIS-derived differences in EVI, which reflects a more pronounced soil moisture reduction in the non-forested areas. In addition to investigating seasonal and diurnal patterns, we also investigate the effects of windthrow on cloud occurrence. In 2009, storm Klaus caused extensive damage in southern France, resulting in a large-scale disturbance of the forest cover conditions. This disturbance lead to a significantly lower cloud cover over the forest region in the period after the storm in comparison to the period before the

  8. Association between Integration Policies and Immigrants’ Mortality: An Explorative Study across Three European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ikram, Umar Z.; Malmusi, Davide; Juel, Knud; Rey, Grégoire; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Background To integrate immigrants into their societies, European countries have adopted different types of policies, which may influence health through both material and psychosocial determinants. Recent studies have suggested poorer health outcomes for immigrants living in countries with poorly rated integration policies. Objective To analyse mortality differences of immigrants from the same country of origin living in countries with distinct integration policy contexts. Methods From the mortality dataset collected in the Migrant Ethnic Health Observatory (MEHO) project, we chose the Netherlands (linked data from 1996-2006), France (unlinked; 2005-2007) and Denmark (linked; 1992-2001) as representatives of the inclusive, assimilationist and exclusionist policy models, respectively, based on the Migrant Integration Policy Index. We calculated for each country sex- and age-standardized mortality rates for Turkish-, Moroccan- and local-born populations aged 20-69 years. Poisson regression was used to estimate the mortality rate ratios (MRRs) for cross-country and within-country comparisons. The analyses were further stratified by age group and cause of death. Results Compared with their peers in the Netherlands, Turkish-born immigrants had higher all-cause mortality in Denmark (MRR men 1.92; 95% CI 1.74-2.13 and women 2.11; 1.80-2.47) but lower in France (men 0.64; 0.59-0.69 and women 0.58; 0.51-0.67). A similar pattern emerged for Moroccan-born immigrants. The relative differences between immigrants and the local-born population were also largest in Denmark and lowest in France (e.g., Turkish-born men MRR 1.52; 95% CI 1.38-1.67 and 0.62; 0.58-0.66, respectively). These patterns were consistent across all age groups, and more marked for cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions Although confounders and data comparability issues (e.g., French cross-sectional data) may affect the findings, this study suggests that different macro-level policy contexts may influence

  9. Fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a multi-centre, European cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bamia, C; Lagiou, P; Jenab, M; Aleksandrova, K; Fedirko, V; Trichopoulos, D; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Olsen, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Kvaskoff, M; Katzke, V A; Kühn, T; Boeing, H; Nöthlings, U; Palli, D; Sieri, S; Panico, S; Tumino, R; Naccarati, A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB(as); Peeters, P H M; Weiderpass, E; Skeie, G; Quirós, J R; Agudo, A; Chirlaque, M-D; Sanchez, M-J; Ardanaz, E; Dorronsoro, M; Ericson, U; Nilsson, L M; Wennberg, M; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N; Key, T J; Travis, R C; Ferrari, P; Stepien, M; Duarte-Salles, T; Norat, T; Murphy, N; Riboli, E; Trichopoulou, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vegetable and/or fruit intakes in association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been investigated in case–control studies conducted in specific European countries and cohort studies conducted in Asia, with inconclusive results. No multi-centre European cohort has investigated the indicated associations. Methods: In 486 799 men/women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition, we identified 201 HCC cases after 11 years median follow-up. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence for sex-specific quintiles and per 100 g d−1 increments of vegetable/fruit intakes. Results: Higher vegetable intake was associated with a statistically significant, monotonic reduction of HCC risk: HR (100 g d−1 increment): 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71–0.98. This association was consistent in sensitivity analyses with no apparent heterogeneity across strata of HCC risk factors. Fruit intake was not associated with HCC incidence: HR (100 g d−1 increment): 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92–1.11. Conclusions: Vegetable, but not fruit, intake is associated with lower HCC risk with no evidence for heterogeneity of this association in strata of important HCC risk factors. Mechanistic studies should clarify pathways underlying this association. Given that HCC prognosis is poor and that vegetables are practically universally accessible, our results may be important, especially for those at high risk for the disease. PMID:25742480

  10. Genome-wide association study reveals two loci for serum magnesium concentrations in European-American children.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiao; Glessner, Joseph; Tin, Adrienne; Li, Jin; Guo, Yiran; Wei, Zhi; Liu, Yichuan; Mentch, Frank D; Hou, Cuiping; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Tiancheng; Qiu, Haijun; Kim, Cecilia; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium ions are essential to the basic metabolic processes in the human body. Previous genetic studies indicate that serum magnesium levels are highly heritable, and a few genetic loci have been reported involving regulation of serum magnesium in adults. In this study, we examined if additional loci influence serum magnesium levels in children. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 2,267 European-American children genotyped on the Illumina HumanHap550 or Quad610 arrays, sharing over 500,000 markers, as the discovery cohort and 257 European-American children genotyped on the Illumina Human OmniExpress arrays as the replication cohort. After genotype imputation, the strongest associations uncovered were with imputed SNPs residing within the FGFR2 (rs1219515, P = 1.1 × 10(-5)) and PAPSS2 (rs1969821, P = 7.2 × 10(-6)) loci in the discovery cohort, both of which were robustly replicated in our independent patient cohort (rs1219515, P = 3.5 × 10(-3); rs1969821, P = 1.2 × 10(-2)). The associations at the FGFR2 locus were also weakly replicated in a dataset from a previous GWAS of serum magnesium in European adults. Our results indicate that FGFR2 and PAPSS2 may play an important role in the regulation of magnesium homeostasis in children of European-American ancestry. PMID:26685716

  11. A numerical study of the European option by the MLPG method with moving kriging interpolation.

    PubMed

    Phaochoo, P; Luadsong, A; Aschariyaphotha, N

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method is applied for solving a generalized Black-Scholes equation in financial problems. This equation is a PDE governing the price evolution of a European call or a European put under the Black-Scholes model. The θ-weighted method and MLPG are used for discretizing the governing equation in time variable and option pricing, respectively. We show that the spectral radius of amplification matrix with the discrete operator is less than 1. This ensures that this numerical scheme is stable. Numerical experiments are performed with time varying volatility and the results are compared with the analytical and the numerical results of other methods. PMID:27064892

  12. Tuberculosis control and economic recession: longitudinal study of data from 21 European countries, 1991–2012

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; Sandgren, Andreas; Semenza, Jan C

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate whether the economic recession affected the control of tuberculosis in the European Union. Methods Multivariate regression models were used to quantify the association between gross domestic product, public health expenditure and tuberculosis case detection rates, using data from 21 European Union member states (1991–2012). The estimated changes in case detection attributable to the recession were combined with mathematical models of tuberculosis transmission, to project the potential influence of the recession on tuberculosis epidemiology until 2030. Findings Between 1991 and 2007, detection rates for sputum-smear-positive tuberculosis in the European Union were stable at approximately 85%. During the economic recession (2008–2011) detection rates declined by a mean of 5.22% (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.54–7.90) but treatment success rates showed no significant change (P = 0.62). A fall in economic output of 100 United States dollars per capita was associated with a 0.22% (95% CI: 0.05–0.39) mean reduction in the tuberculosis case detection rate. An equivalent fall in spending on public health services was associated with a 2.74% (95% CI: 0.31–5.16) mean reduction in the detection rate. Mathematical models suggest that the recession and consequent austerity policies will lead to increases in tuberculosis prevalence and tuberculosis-attributable mortality that are projected to persist for over a decade. Conclusion Across the European Union, reductions in spending on public health services appear to have reduced tuberculosis case detection and to have increased the long-term risk of a resurgence in the disease. PMID:26240458

  13. Exploring the relationship between cyberbullying and unnatural child death: an ecological study of twenty-four European countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet risk has been recognised as a child safety problem, but evidence is insufficient to conclude that a child’s online risk exposure can lead to physical harm. This study aims to explore the ecological relationship between Internet risk exposure and unnatural child death. Methods Multiple secondary data sources were used: online exposure to content about self-harm, cyberbullying, and Internet addiction data (EU Kids Online survey, 2010); and mortality data (European Detailed Mortality Database, 2010 or the latest year if not available) of 24 European countries. Correlations were found using quasi-Poisson regression. Countries’ prevalence rates of psychiatric problems (European Social Survey Round 3 and 6, 2006 and 2012) were used to test for possible spuriousness. Results This study finds that countries with higher rates of cyberbullying were more likely to have a higher incidence of unnatural child death. A 1 percent rise in the prevalence of cyberbullying translated into a 28% increase in risk of unnatural child death (95% CI: 2%-57%). No evidence was found to substantiate confounding effect of the national prevalence of depressive symptoms or traditional bullying. Conclusions Explanations are given for the findings. We conclude that intervention programs designed to serve as precautionary measures for risk minimisation should be considered. PMID:25079144

  14. Comparative study of the methods used for treatment and final disposal of sewage sludge in European countries.

    PubMed

    Kelessidis, Alexandros; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2012-06-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment results to the production of large quantities of sewage sludge, which requires proper and environmentally accepted management before final disposal. In European Union, sludge management remains an open and challenging issue for the Member States as the relative European legislation is fragmentary and quite old, while the published data concerning sludge treatment and disposal in different European countries are often incomplete and inhomogeneous. The main objective of the current study was to outline the current situation and discuss future perspectives for sludge treatment and disposal in EU countries. According to the results, specific sludge production is differentiated significantly between European countries, ranging from 0.1 kg per population equivalent (p.e.) and year (Malta) to 30.8 kg per p.e. and year (Austria). More stringent legislations comparing to European Directive 86/278/EC have been adopted for sludge disposal in soil by several European countries, setting lower limit values for heavy metals as well as limit values for pathogens and organic micropollutants. A great variety of sludge treatment technologies are used in EU countries, while differences are observed between Member States. Anaerobic and aerobic digestion seems to be the most popular stabilization methods, applying in 24 and 20 countries, respectively. Mechanical sludge dewatering is preferred comparing to the use of drying beds, while thermal drying is mainly applied in EU-15 countries (old Member States) and especially in Germany, Italy, France and UK. Regarding sludge final disposal, sludge reuse (including direct agricultural application and composting) seems to be the predominant choice for sludge management in EU-15 (53% of produced sludge), following by incineration (21% of produced sludge). On the other hand, the most common disposal method in EU-12 countries (new Member States that joined EU after 2004) is still landfilling. Due to the obligations

  15. External Quality Assessment for Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Drug Resistance in the European Union: A Five Year Multicentre Implementation Study

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Elvira; Ahmed, Nada; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Kodmon, Csaba; Drobniewski, Francis; Ruesch-Gerdes, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Background External quality assurance (EQA) systems are essential to ensure accurate diagnosis of TB and drug-resistant TB. The implementation of EQA through organising regular EQA rounds and identification of training needs is one of the key activities of the European TB reference laboratory network (ERLTB-Net). The aim of this study was to analyse the results of the EQA rounds in a systematic manner and to identify potential benefits as well as common problems encountered by the participants. Methods The ERLTB-Net developed seven EQA modules to test laboratories’ proficiency for TB detection and drug susceptibility testing using both conventional and rapid molecular tools. All National TB Reference laboratories in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States were invited to participate in the EQA scheme. Results A total of 32 National TB Reference laboratories participated in six EQA rounds conducted in 2010–2014. The participation rate ranged from 52.9% - 94.1% over different modules and rounds. Overall, laboratories demonstrated very good proficiency proving their ability to diagnose TB and drug-resistant TB with high accuracy in a timely manner. A small number of laboratories encountered problems with identification of specific Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTMs) (N = 5) and drug susceptibility testing to Pyrazinamide, Amikacin, Capreomycin, and Ethambutol (N = 4). Conclusions The European TB Reference laboratories showed a steady and high level of performance in the six EQA rounds. A network such as ERLTB-Net can be instrumental in developing and implementing EQA and in establishing collaboration between laboratories to improve the diagnosis of TB in the EU/EEA. PMID:27055064

  16. Fluid migration in sedimentary basins - a case study from the Central European Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duschl, Florian; van den Kerkhof, Alfons; Leiss, Bernd; Sosa, Graciela; Wiegand, Bettina; Vollbrecht, Axel; Sauter, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Core samples from the cap rock of an Upper Permian dolomitic limestone from the Zechstein formation (Stassfurt carbonate sequence, Ca2) in the Central European Basin were studied for a better understanding of the tectonic control on fluid migration during the burial and uplift of CO2-rich gas reservoirs. Petrographical investigations were carried out by means of optical transmission and cathodoluminescence microscopy. A heating-freezing stage was applied for fluid inclusion analysis; gas compositions were measured by Laser-Raman spectroscopy. The study focuses on the quantification of paleo pressures, temperatures and compositions of diagenetic fluids trapped as inclusions in dolomite, anhydrite, calcite, and fluorite, as well as in postdiagenetic fluorite in mineralized fractures. Limestone matrix mainly consists of early diagenetic, euhedral dolomite with few hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions. Offset veins originating from fine-grained inclusion-free anhydrite nodules consist of coarse-grained recrystallized anhydrite containing primary aqueous CaCl2-rich inclusions. Late calcite cement fills remnant pores between the dolomite rhombs and contains H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 fluid inclusions. Subsequently, the dolomitic limestones were affected by pressure solution due to burial, followed by basin inversion (uplift) starting in Upper Cretaceous. Pressure solution generated carbonate rich fluids, which resulted in dolomite and calcite veinlets. Simultaneously, a first clearly zoned and brown coloured generation of fluorite (I) accumulated in nodules together with sulfides and organic matter. This fluorite (I) contains mostly H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 fluid inclusions with relatively high salinity (17.8 wt% NaCl, 8.9 wt% CaCl2). Colourless fluorite (II) is the latest observable (post-) diagenetic mineral phase filling veinlets in dolomitic limestone that crosscut pressure solution features. Fluorite (II) replaces fluorite (I) within the nodules as well. Carbonic inclusions together with CH4

  17. Physicians searching the web for medical question answering: a European survey and local user studies.

    PubMed

    Samwald, Matthias; Kritz, Marlene; Gschwandtner, Manfred; Stefanov, Veronika; Hanbury, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Medical professionals frequently face unmet information needs during their daily routines. We investigated the use of web search engines through a large-scale survey including 500 European physicians, as well as local user testing that observed the search behavior of physicians when facing clinical questions. We identified several differences in the search requirements and behaviors of different groups of physicians based on level of qualification and level of specialization. We also found user testing a valuable source of information about the search preferences of medical professional. The survey and user tests we conducted are among the largest and most detailed that have been conducted in this domain. PMID:23920877

  18. Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents - the HELENA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since stress is hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of obesity during adolescence, research on associations between adolescent stress and obesity-related parameters and behaviours is essential. Due to lack of a well-established recent stress checklist for use in European adolescents, the study investigated the reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) for assessing perceived stress in European adolescents. Methods The ASQ was translated into the languages of the participating cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Vienna, Zaragoza, Pecs and Athens) and was implemented within the HELENA cross-sectional study. A total of 1140 European adolescents provided a valid ASQ, comprising 10 component scales, used for internal reliability (Cronbach α) and construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis or CFA). Contributions of socio-demographic (gender, age, pubertal stage, socio-economic status) characteristics to the ASQ score variances were investigated. Two-hundred adolescents also provided valid saliva samples for cortisol analysis to compare with the ASQ scores (criterion validity). Test-retest reliability was investigated using two ASQ assessments from 37 adolescents. Results Cronbach α-values of the ASQ scales (0.57 to 0.88) demonstrated a moderate internal reliability of the ASQ, and intraclass correlation coefficients (0.45 to 0.84) established an insufficient test-retest reliability of the ASQ. The adolescents' gender (girls had higher stress scores than boys) and pubertal stage (those in a post-pubertal development had higher stress scores than others) significantly contributed to the variance in ASQ scores, while their age and socio-economic status did not. CFA results showed that the original scale construct fitted moderately with the data in our European adolescent population. Only in boys, four out of 10 ASQ scale scores were a significant positive predictor for baseline wake-up salivary cortisol, suggesting a rather poor

  19. Communication in a Human biomonitoring study: Focus group work, public engagement and lessons learnt in 17 European countries.

    PubMed

    Exley, Karen; Cano, Noemi; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Van de Mieroop, Els; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Cerna, Milena; Krskova, Andrea; Becker, Kerstin; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Seiwert, Margarete; Mørck, Thit A; Rudnai, Peter; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Cullen, Elizabeth; Kellegher, Anne; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Kamińska, Joanna; Namorado, Sónia; Reis, M Fátima; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Gurzau, Anca E; Halzlova, Katarina; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Huetos, Olga; López, Ana; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Sepai, Ovnair

    2015-08-01

    A communication strategy was developed by The Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), as part of its objectives to develop a framework and protocols to enable the collection of comparable human biomonitoring data throughout Europe. The framework and protocols were tested in the pilot study DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale). The aims of the communication strategy were to raise awareness of human biomonitoring, encourage participation in the study and to communicate the study results and their public health significance. It identified the audiences and key messages, documented the procedure for dissemination of results and was updated as the project progressed. A communication plan listed the tools and materials such as press releases, flyers, recruitment letters and information leaflets required for each audience with a time frame for releasing them. Public insight research was used to evaluate the recruitment material, and the feedback was used to improve the documents. Dissemination of results was coordinated in a step by step approach by the participating countries within DEMOCOPHES, taking into account specific national messages according to the needs of each country. Participants received individual results, unless they refused to be informed, along with guidance on what the results meant. The aggregate results and policy recommendations were then communicated to the general public and stakeholders, followed by dissemination at European level. Several lessons were learnt that may assist other future human biomonitoring studies. Recruitment took longer than anticipated and so social scientists, to help with community engagement, should be part of the research team from the start. As a European study, involving multiple countries, additional considerations were needed for the numerous organisations, different languages, cultures, policies and priorities

  20. European Mistletoe

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References American mistletoe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 7, 2009. European mistletoe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July ...

  1. Controlled categorisation processing in brand extension evaluation by Indo-European language speakers. An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Fudali-Czyż, Agnieszka; Ratomska, Marta; Cudo, Andrzej; Francuz, Piotr; Kopiś, Natalia; Tużnik, Przemysław

    2016-08-15

    The purpose of our experiment was to test event-related potentials (ERP) accompanying the process of brand extension evaluation in people speaking Indo-European languages. The experimental procedure consisted of sequential presentations of pairs of stimuli; namely, a beverage brand name and a product name. The products fell into the category of beverages (congruent trials) or clothes (incongruent trials). In the response condition (RC), the participants decided whether they accepted the product as an extension of the brand. In the no-response condition (NRC), the participants' task was to attend the stimuli and try to remember them. In the response condition, the amplitudes of the N270, P300 and N400 components were sensitive to incongruence between the product category and the previously presented brand. However, in the no-response condition, differences emerged only at the level of early P1 and P2 components. Our results suggest that, in people speaking one of the Indo-European languages, the process of categorisation in brand extension evaluation is not automatic. PMID:27289044

  2. European study of frequency of participation of adolescents with and without cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Michelsen, Susan I.; Flachs, Esben M.; Damsgaard, Mogens T.; Parkes, Jacqueline; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Colver, Allan; Fauconnier, Jerome; Dickinson, Heather O.; Marcelli, Marco; Uldall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy participate less in everyday activities than children in the general populations. During adolescence, rapid physical and psychological changes occur which may be more difficult for adolescents with impairments. Within the European SPARCLE project we measured frequency of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy by administering the Questionnaire of Young People's Participation to 667 adolescents with cerebral palsy or their parents from nine European regions and to 4666 adolescents from the corresponding general populations. Domains and single items were analysed using respectively linear and logistic regression. Adolescents with cerebral palsy spent less time with friends and had less autonomy in their daily life than adolescents in the general populations. Adolescents with cerebral palsy participated much less in sport but played electronic games at least as often as adolescents in the general populations. Severity of motor and intellectual impairment had a significant impact on frequency of participation, the more severely impaired being more disadvantaged. Adolescents with an only slight impairment participated in some domains as often as adolescents in the general populations. Regional variation existed. For example adolescents with cerebral palsy in central Italy were most disadvantaged according to decisional autonomy, while adolescents with cerebral palsy in east Denmark and northern England played sports as often as their general populations. Participation is an important health outcome. Personal and environmental predictors of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy need to be identified in order to design interventions directed to such predictors; and in order to inform the content of services. PMID:24412031

  3. European Community.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  4. Immigrant Integration policies and perceived Group Threat: A Multilevel Study of 27 Western and Eastern European Countries.

    PubMed

    Schlueter, Elmar; Meuleman, Bart; Davidov, Eldad

    2013-05-01

    Although immigrant integration policies have long been hypothesized to be associated with majority members' anti-immigrant sentiments, systematic empirical research exploring this relationship is largely absent. To address this gap in the literature, the present research takes a cross-national perspective. Drawing from theory and research on group conflict and intergroup norms, we conduct two studies to examine whether preexisting integration policies that are more permissive promote or impede majority group members' subsequent negative attitudes regarding immigrants. For several Western and Eastern European countries, we link country-level information on immigrant integration policies from 2006 with individual-level survey data from the Eurobarometer 71.3 collected in 2009 (Study 1) and from the fourth wave of the European Value Study collected between 2008 and 2009 (Study 2). For both studies, the results from multilevel regression models demonstrate that immigrant integration policies that are more permissive are associated with decreased perceptions of group threat from immigrants. These findings suggest that immigrant integration policies are of key importance in improving majority members' attitudes regarding immigrants, which is widely considered desirable in modern immigrant-receiving societies. PMID:23521987

  5. Immunohistochemical study on localization of serotonin immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the European catfish (Silurus glanis, L.).

    PubMed

    Köprücü, S; Yaman, M

    2015-02-01

    In this study, it was aimed to identify the distribution of serotonin immunoreactive cells within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of European catfish (Silurus glanis). For this purpose, the tissue samples were taken from the stomach (cardia, fundus and pylorus region) and intestine (anterior, middle and posterior region). They were examined by applying the avidin-biotin-immunoperoxidase method. The serotonin containing immunoreactive cells are presented in all regions of the GIT. It was determined to be localized generally in different distribution within the stomachs and intestines of S. glanis. It was found that the most intensive regions of immunoreactive cells were the cardia stomach and posterior of intestine. PMID:25041659

  6. Perceived safety of area of residence and exercise: a pan-European study.

    PubMed

    Shenassa, Edmond D; Liebhaber, Allison; Ezeamama, Amara

    2006-06-01

    The authors examined the association between perceived safety of neighborhood and likelihood of exercise among adult residents of eight European cities. Data were collected by a survey of neighborhood, housing, and health conducted by the World Health Organization in 2002 and 2003. Baseline category logistic regression models were fit to estimate the association between perceived safety and exercise, accounting for demographic and place-of-residence characteristics. Among women, perception of safety was associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.54) and a 40% (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.91) elevation in the odds of occasional and frequent exercise, respectively. Among men, perception of safety was associated with a 39% elevation in the odds of occasional exercise, but there was no association with frequent exercise. If these findings were replicated, they would suggest that health promotion efforts could target residential areas without the need to identify specific persons. PMID:16571742

  7. The Relationship between Social Capital and Quality Management Systems in European Hospitals: A Quantitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Antje; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; DerSarkissian, Maral; Thompson, Caroline A.; Mannion, Russell; Wagner, Cordula; Ommen, Oliver; Sunol, Rosa; Pfaff, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Background Strategic leadership is an important organizational capability and is essential for quality improvement in hospital settings. Furthermore, the quality of leadership depends crucially on a common set of shared values and mutual trust between hospital management board members. According to the concept of social capital, these are essential requirements for successful cooperation and coordination within groups. Objectives We assume that social capital within hospital management boards is an important factor in the development of effective organizational systems for overseeing health care quality. We hypothesized that the degree of social capital within the hospital management board is associated with the effectiveness and maturity of the quality management system in European hospitals. Methods We used a mixed-method approach to data collection and measurement in 188 hospitals in 7 European countries. For this analysis, we used responses from hospital managers. To test our hypothesis, we conducted a multilevel linear regression analysis of the association between social capital and the quality management system score at the hospital level, controlling for hospital ownership, teaching status, number of beds, number of board members, organizational culture, and country clustering. Results The average social capital score within a hospital management board was 3.3 (standard deviation: 0.5; range: 1-4) and the average hospital score for the quality management index was 19.2 (standard deviation: 4.5; range: 0-27). Higher social capital was associated with higher quality management system scores (regression coefficient: 1.41; standard error: 0.64, p=0.029). Conclusion The results suggest that a higher degree of social capital exists in hospitals that exhibit higher maturity in their quality management systems. Although uncontrolled confounding and reverse causation cannot be completely ruled out, our new findings, along with the results of previous research, could

  8. Anisotropic tomography of the European lithospheric structure from surface wave studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, Blanka; Maurya, Satish; Montagner, Jean-Paul

    2016-06-01

    We present continental-scale seismic isotropic and anisotropic imaging of shear wave upper-mantle structure of tectonically diversified terranes creating the European continent. Taking into account the 36-200 s period range of surface waves enables us to model the deep subcontinental structure at different vertical scale-lengths down to 300 km. After very strict quality selection criteria, we have obtained phase wave speeds at different periods for fundamental Rayleigh and Love modes from about 9000 three-component seismograms. Dispersion measurements are performed by using Fourier-domain waveform inversion technique named "roller-coaster-type" algorithm. We used the reference model with a varying average crustal structure for each source-station path. That procedure led to significant improvement of the quality and number of phase wave speed dispersion measurements compared to the common approach of using a reference model with one average crustal structure. Surface wave dispersion data are inverted at depth for retrieving isotropy and anisotropy parameters. The fast axis directions related to azimuthal anisotropy at different depths constitute a rich database for geodynamical interpretations. Shear wave anomalies of the horizontal dimension larger than 200 km are imaged in our models. They correlate with tectonic provinces of varying age-provenance. Different anisotropy patterns are observed along the most distinctive feature on our maps-the bordering zone between the Palaeozoic and Precambrian Europe. We discuss the depth changes of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary along the profiles crossing the chosen tectonic units of different origin and age: Fennoscandia, East European Craton, Anatolia, Mediterranean subduction zones. Within the flat and stable cratonic lithosphere, we find traces of the midlithospheric discontinuity.

  9. Study of the mid-latitude ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms in the European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berényi, Kitti Alexandra; Barta, Veronika; Kis, Arpad

    2016-07-01

    Geomagnetic storms affect the ionospheric regions of the terrestrial upper atmosphere through different physical and atmospheric processes. The phenomena that can be regarded as a result of these processes, generally is named as "ionospheric storm". The processes depend on altitude, segment of the day, the geomagnetic latitude and longitude, strength of solar activity and the type of the geomagnetic storm. We examine the data of ground-based radio wave ionosphere sounding measurements of European ionospheric stations (mainly the data of Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory) in order to determine how and to what extent a geomagnetic disturbance of a certain strength affects the mid-latitude ionospheric regions in winter and in summer. For our analysis we used disturbed time periods between November 2012 and June 2015. Our results show significant changing of the ionospheric F2 layer parameters on strongly disturbed days compared to quiet ones. We show that the critical frequencies (foF2) increase compared to their quiet day value when the ionospheric storm was positive. On the other hand, the critical frequencies become lower, when the storm was negative. In our analysis we determined the magnitude of these changes on the chosen days. For a more complete analysis we compare also the evolution of the F2 layer parameters of the European ionosonde stations on a North-South geographic longitude during a full storm duration. The results present the evolution of an ionospheric storm over a geographic meridian. Furthermore, we compared the two type of geomagnetic storms, namely the CME caused geomagnetic storm - the so-called Sudden impulse (Si) storms- and the HSS (High Speed Solar Wind Streams) caused geomagnetic storms -the so-called Gradual storms (Gs)- impact on the ionospheric F2-layer (foF2 parameter). The results show a significant difference between the effect of Si and of the Gs storms on the ionospheric F2-layer.

  10. Inventory study of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is not notifiable in most European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) countries, the epidemiological situation of the >150 NTM species is largely unknown. We aimed to collect data on the frequency of NTM detection and NTM species types in EU/EEA countries. Methods Officially nominated national tuberculosis reference laboratories of all EU/EEA countries were asked to provide information on: laboratory routines for detection and identification of NTM, including drug sensitivity testing (DST) methods; data on the number and type of NTM species identified; coverage and completeness of the provided data on NTM; type and number of human specimens tested for NTM; and number of specimens tested for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and NTM. This information was summarized and the main results are described. Results In total, 99 different NTM species were identified with M. avium, M. gordonae, M. xenopi , M. intracellulare, and M. fortuitum identified most frequently. Seven percent of the NTM species could not be identified. NTM was cultured from between 0.4-2.0% of the specimens (data from four countries). The laboratories use culturing methods optimised for M. tuberculosis complex. Identification is mainly carried out by a commercial line probe assay supplemented with sequencing. Most laboratories carried out DST for rapid growers and only at the explicit clinical request for slow growers. Conclusion It is likely that the prevalence of NTM is underestimated because diagnostic procedures are not optimized specifically for NTM and isolates may not be referred to the national reference laboratory for identification. Due to the diagnostic challenges and the need to establish the clinical relevance of NTM, we recommend that countries should concentrate detection and identification in only few laboratories. PMID:24502462

  11. Illness perception and related behaviour in lower respiratory tract infections—a European study

    PubMed Central

    Hordijk, Patricia M; Broekhuizen, Berna D L; Butler, Chris C; Coenen, Samuel; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Goossens, Herman; Hood, Kerry; Smith, Richard; van Vugt, Saskia F; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo J M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a common presentation in primary care, but little is known about associated patients’ illness perception and related behaviour. Objective. To describe illness perceptions and related behaviour in patients with LRTI visiting their general practitioner (GP) and identify differences between European regions and types of health care system. Methods. Adult patients presenting with acute cough were included. GPs recorded co morbidities and clinical findings. Patients filled out a diary for up to 4 weeks on their symptoms, illness perception and related behaviour. The chi-square test was used to compare proportions between groups and the Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare means. Results. Three thousand one hundred six patients from 12 European countries were included. Eighty-one per cent (n = 2530) of the patients completed the diary. Patients were feeling unwell for a mean of 9 (SD 8) days prior to consulting. More than half experienced impairment of normal or social activities for at least 1 week and were absent from work/school for a mean of 4 (SD 5) days. On average patients felt recovered 2 weeks after visiting their GP, but 21% (n = 539) of the patients did not feel recovered after 4 weeks. Twenty-seven per cent (n = 691) reported feeling anxious or depressed, and 28% (n = 702) re-consulted their GP at some point during the illness episode. Reported illness duration and days absent from work/school differed between countries and regions (North-West versus South-East), but there was little difference in reported illness course and related behaviour between health care systems (direct access versus gate-keeping). Conclusion. Illness course, perception and related behaviour in LRTI differ considerably between countries. These finding should be taken into account when developing International guidelines for LRTI and interventions for setting realistic expectations about illness course

  12. Diagnosing changes in European tropospheric ozone: A model study of past and future changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummon, Fiona; Revell, Laura; Stenke, Andrea; Staehelin, Johannes; Peter, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, the negative impacts of tropospheric ozone on human and ecosystem health have led to policy changes aimed at reducing emissions of ozone precursor gases such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO). Although emissions of these species have significantly decreased in Europe and North America since the early 1990s, observational data indicate that free tropospheric ozone over Europe has not decreased as expected. Uncertainty remains as to how much of a role the transport of stratospheric ozone or tropospheric ozone from remote source regions has played in recent trends, as well as to how this will evolve in a changing climate. The global chemistry-climate model SOCOL (SOlar Chemistry Ozone Links) is used to investigate tropospheric ozone over Europe from 1960 to 2100. To fully disentangle the effects of both long-range transport and input from the stratosphere, simulations are run with ozone tracers from 21 different atmospheric regions. In addition to a standard reference run, several sensitivity simulations are run: one with emissions of NOx and CO held constant at 1960 levels, one with methane (CH4) held at constant 1960 levels (in addition to the NOx and CO), and a third with NOx and CO emissions from Asia fixed at 1960 levels. Results suggest that the largest contributions to European tropospheric ozone originate from the tropical and northern mid-latitude boundary layer and free troposphere. Contributions from these regions increase over the historical period (1960-2010), indicating that changes in source gas emissions have affected ozone concentrations in the European free troposphere most strongly. Contributions from these regions then decrease from 2010-2100, but remain considerably larger than input from the stratosphere, which is relatively small in all simulations throughout the entire simulated period (1960-2100). The stratospheric contribution does, however, increase slightly over the 21st century, in tandem with ozone

  13. North-Atlantic millennial-timescale variability imprint on Western European loess deposits: a modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, A.; Rousseau, D.; Kageyama, M.; Ramstein, G.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Antoine, P.; Dulac, F.; Hatte, C.

    2008-12-01

    We test if the dust cycle response to the North-Atlantic abrupt climate changes, the Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) and Heinrich (H) events, could have led to the recording of these events in the Western European loess deposits. The LMDZ AGCM is used to simulate a reference glacial state "DOS", assimilated to a DO stadial, a cold perturbation "HE", resembling a H event, and a warm perturbation "DOI", assimilated to a DO interstadial. The reference state corresponds to the 40-kyr BP context, in the middle of the typical glacial period (75-15 kyr BP). The two perturbations are obtained by applying cold, respectively warm anomalies of up to 2°C to the North-Atlantic surface temperatures in the latitudinal band 30°- 63°N. The simulated climates are compared from the point of view of dust emission, with a focus on the English Channel and the south of the North Sea (ECSNS), important dust sources for the Western European loess deposits. When only considering the changes in wind, precipitation, soil moisture and snow cover over the ECSNS and loess deposit areas, the differences of dust emission flux between the simulations are small, in contradiction with the observed stadial-interstadial loess sedimentation rate variations. However, when including the vegetation effect of inhibiting the eolian erosion, the three climates are clearly differentiated, the dust flux for DOI becoming less than half of that for DOS and HE. This shows that vegetation changes have played a key role in the stadial-interstadial dust cycle variations.

  14. Genome-wide association studies of quantitatively measured skin, hair, and eye pigmentation in four European populations.

    PubMed

    Candille, Sophie I; Absher, Devin M; Beleza, Sandra; Bauchet, Marc; McEvoy, Brian; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Li, Jun Z; Myers, Richard M; Barsh, Gregory S; Tang, Hua; Shriver, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    Pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes varies both within and between human populations. Identifying the genes and alleles underlying this variation has been the goal of many candidate gene and several genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most GWAS for pigmentary traits to date have been based on subjective phenotypes using categorical scales. But skin, hair, and eye pigmentation vary continuously. Here, we seek to characterize quantitative variation in these traits objectively and accurately and to determine their genetic basis. Objective and quantitative measures of skin, hair, and eye color were made using reflectance or digital spectroscopy in Europeans from Ireland, Poland, Italy, and Portugal. A GWAS was conducted for the three quantitative pigmentation phenotypes in 176 women across 313,763 SNP loci, and replication of the most significant associations was attempted in a sample of 294 European men and women from the same countries. We find that the pigmentation phenotypes are highly stratified along axes of European genetic differentiation. The country of sampling explains approximately 35% of the variation in skin pigmentation, 31% of the variation in hair pigmentation, and 40% of the variation in eye pigmentation. All three quantitative phenotypes are correlated with each other. In our two-stage association study, we reproduce the association of rs1667394 at the OCA2/HERC2 locus with eye color but we do not identify new genetic determinants of skin and hair pigmentation supporting the lack of major genes affecting skin and hair color variation within Europe and suggesting that not only careful phenotyping but also larger cohorts are required to understand the genetic architecture of these complex quantitative traits. Interestingly, we also see that in each of these four populations, men are more lightly pigmented in the unexposed skin of the inner arm than women, a fact that is underappreciated and may vary across the world. PMID:23118974

  15. Visiting green space is associated with mental health and vitality: A cross-sectional study in four european cities.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Magdalena; van Poppel, Mireille; van Kamp, Irene; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Balseviciene, Birute; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Ellis, Naomi; Hurst, Gemma; Masterson, Daniel; Smith, Graham; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Uzdanaviciute, Inga; Wit, Puck de; Mechelen, Willem van; Gidlow, Christopher; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Maas, Jolanda

    2016-03-01

    Many epidemiological studies have found that people living in environments with more green space report better physical and mental health than those with less green space. However, the association between visits to green space and mental health has seldom been studied. The current study explored the associations between time spent in green spaces by purposeful visits and perceived mental health and vitality in four different European cities, and to what extent gender, age, level of education, attitude towards nature and childhood nature experience moderate these associations. Data was gathered using a questionnaire administered in four European cities (total n=3748). Multilevel analyses showed significant positive associations between time spent visiting green spaces and mental health and vitality in the pooled data, as well as across the four cities. Significant effect modification was found for level of education and childhood nature experience. The findings confirm the hypothesis that more time spent in green space is associated with higher scores on mental health and vitality scales, independent of cultural and climatic contexts. PMID:26796323

  16. The Occurrence and Toxicity of Disinfection Byproducts in European Drinking Waters in Relation with the HIWATE Epidemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Clara H.; Wagner, Elizabeth D.; Siebert, Vincent R.; Anduri, Sridevi; Richardson, Susan D.; Daiber, Eric J.; McKague, A. Bruce; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Goslan, Emma H.; Luo, Wentai; Isabelle, Lorne M.; Pankow, James F.; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Cordier, Sylvaine; Edwards, Susan C.; Righi, Elena; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Plewa, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The HIWATE (Health Impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection byproducts in drinking WATEr) project was a systematic analysis that combined the epidemiology on adverse pregnancy outcomes and other health effects with long term exposure to low levels of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in the European Union. The present study focused on the relationship of the occurrence and concentration of DBPs with in vitro mammalian cell toxicity. Eleven drinking water samples were collected from 5 European countries. Each sampling location corresponded with an epidemiological study for the HIWATE program. Over 90 DBPs were identified; the range in the number of DBPs and their levels reflected the diverse collection sites, different disinfection processes, and the different characteristics of the source waters. For each sampling site, chronic mammalian cell cytotoxicity correlated highly with the numbers of DBPs identified and the levels of DBP chemical classes. Although there was a clear difference in the genotoxic responses among the drinking waters, these data did not correlate as well with the chemical analyses. Thus, the agents responsible for the genomic DNA damage observed in the HIWATE samples may be due to unresolved associations of combinations of identified DBPs, unknown emerging DBPs that were not identified, or other toxic water contaminants. This study represents the first to integrate quantitative in vitro toxicological data with analytical chemistry and human epidemiologic outcomes for drinking water DBPs. PMID:22958121

  17. Students' experiences of cooperation with nurse teacher during their clinical placements: an empirical study in a Western European context.

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, Mikko; Kaila, Päivi; Lambrinou, Ekaterini; Pérez Cañaveras, Rosa Maria; Tichelaar, Erna; Tomietto, Marco; Warne, Tony

    2013-03-01

    In many European countries during the last decade, the clinical role of the nurse teacher has changed from a clinical skilled practitioner to a liaison person working between educational and health care provider organisations. This study explored pre-registration nursing students' perceptions of cooperation with nurse teachers during their clinical placements in nine Western European countries. The study also assessed the type and range of e-communication between students and nurse teachers and whom the students' perceived as their most important professional role model. The study is a descriptive survey. Quantitative data were collected from 17 higher education institutes of nursing located in the northern, middle and southern parts of Europe. The purposive sample (N = 1903) comprised students who had participated in courses which included clinical placements. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Comparisons between the groups were made using cross-tabulation. The majority (57%) of students met their nurse teacher 1-3 times during their placement while 13% of the students did not meet their nurse teacher at all. Additionally, 66% of respondents used some form of e-communication (e-mail, mobile text messages etc.) to communicate with their nurse teacher. It is important to clarify the division of labour between nurse teachers and Mentors. There are both opportunities and challenges in how to utilise information technology to more effectively promote cooperation between students and nurse teachers. PMID:22902569

  18. Population-based geographic variations in DXA bone density in Europe: the EVOS Study. European Vertebral Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Lunt, M; Felsenberg, D; Adams, J; Benevolenskaya, L; Cannata, J; Dequeker, J; Dodenhof, C; Falch, J A; Johnell, O; Khaw, K T; Masaryk, P; Pols, H; Poor, G; Reid, D; Scheidt-Nave, C; Weber, K; Silman, A J; Reeve, J

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate variations in bone density between 16 European populations, 13 of which were participants in the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS). Men and women aged 50-80 years were recruited randomly from local population registers, stratified in 5-year age bands. The other three centres recruited similarly. Random samples of 20-100% of EVOS subjects were invited for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) densitometry of the lumbar spine and/or proximal femur using Hologic, Lunar or Norland pencil beam machines or, in one centre, a Sopha fan-beam machine. Cross-calibration of the different machines was undertaken using the European Spine Phantom prototype (ESPp). Highly significant differences in mean bone density were demonstrated between centres, giving rise to between centre SDs in bone density that were about a quarter of a population SD. These differences persisted when centres using Hologic machines and centres using Lunar machines were considered separately. The centres were ranked differently according to whether male or female subjects were being considered and according to site of measurement (L2-4, femoral neck or femoral trochanter). As expected, bone mineral density (BMD) had a curvilinear relationship with age, and apparent rates of decrease slowed as age advanced past 50 years in both sexes. In the spine, not only did male BMD usually appear to increase with age, but there was a highly significant difference between centres in the age effect in both sexes, suggesting a variability in the impact of osteoarthritis between centres. Weight was consistently positively associated with BMD, but the effects of height and armspan were less consistent. Logarithmic transformation was needed to normalize the regressions of BMD on the independent variates, and after transformation, all sites except the femoral neck in females showed significant increases in SD with age. Interestingly, the effect of increasing weight was

  19. Sero-conversion of HCV negative patients: a European study on the epidemiology and management of HCV haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zampieron, A; Jayasekera, H; Elseviers, M; Lindley, E; De Vos, J Y; Harrington, M; Ormandy, P

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports part of the findings from a larger study reported earlier, the European study on epidemiology and the management of HCV in the haemodialysis population (1). Centres recruited to the larger study were monitored for a further one year observation period to measure and generate a deeper understanding of HCV sero-conversion. From 4724 patients who were studied at the baseline, in 68 centres, only 13 patients were found to have sero-converted. These sero-conversions occurred in 7 hospitals within 5 different countries. Possible routes of transmission and risk factors are described with respect to the individual centres and good practice recommendations based on current evidence presented. PMID:16700169

  20. Income inequality, life expectancy and cause-specific mortality in 43 European countries, 1987-2008: a fixed effects study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-08-01

    Whether income inequality is related to population health is still open to debate. We aimed to critically assess the relationship between income inequality and mortality in 43 European countries using comparable data between 1987 and 2008, controlling for time-invariant and time-variant country-level confounding factors. Annual data on income inequality, expressed as Gini index based on net household income, were extracted from the Standardizing the World Income Inequality Database. Data on life expectancy at birth and age-standardized mortality by cause of death were obtained from the Human Lifetable Database and the World Health Organization European Health for All Database. Data on infant mortality were obtained from the United Nations World Population Prospects Database. The relationships between income inequality and mortality indicators were studied using country fixed effects models, adjusted for time trends and country characteristics. Significant associations between income inequality and many mortality indicators were found in pooled cross-sectional regressions, indicating higher mortality in countries with larger income inequalities. Once the country fixed effects were added, all associations between income inequality and mortality indicators became insignificant, except for mortality from external causes and homicide among men, and cancers among women. The significant results for homicide and cancers disappeared after further adjustment for indicators of democracy, education, transition to national independence, armed conflicts, and economic freedom. Cross-sectional associations between income inequality and mortality seem to reflect the confounding effects of other country characteristics. In a European context, national levels of income inequality do not have an independent effect on mortality. PMID:26177800

  1. Approaches to supporting lactation and breastfeeding for very preterm infants in the NICU: a qualitative study in three European regions

    PubMed Central

    Bonet, Mercedes; Forcella, Emanuela; Blondel, Béatrice; Draper, Elizabeth S; Agostino, Rocco; Cuttini, Marina; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore differences in approaches to supporting lactation and breastfeeding for very preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) in 3 European regions. Design Qualitative cross-sectional study carried out by means of face-to-face semistructured interviews. Verbatim transcripts were coded using a theoretical framework derived from the literature and supplemented by data-driven concepts and codes. Setting 4 purposively selected NICUs in each of 3 European regions in 2010 (Ile-de-France in France, Lazio in Italy, and the former Trent region in the UK). Participants NICU staff members (n=22). Results Policies and practices for managing mother's own milk for very preterm babies differed between regions, and were much more complex in Ile-de-France than in the Trent or Lazio regions. Staff approaches to mothers to initiate lactation differed by region, with an emphasis on the nutritional and immunological value of human milk in the Trent region and on the ‘normalising’ effect of breastfeeding on the mother-child relationship in Lazio. French and English staff expressed conflicting opinions about the use of bottles, which was routine in Italy. Italian informants stressed the importance of early maternal milk expression and feeding, but also mentioned discharging infants home before feeding at the breast was established. In Ile-de-France and Trent, successful feeding from the breast was achieved before discharge, although this was seen as a factor that could prolong hospitalisation and discourage continued breastfeeding for some women. Conclusions Targeted health promotion policies in the NICU are necessary to increase the number of infants receiving their mother's milk and to support mothers with transfer of the infant to the breast. Integrating knowledge about the different approaches to lactation and breastfeeding in European NICUs could improve the relevance of recommendations in multiple cultural settings. PMID:26129632

  2. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in European Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Food4Me Study

    PubMed Central

    Marsaux, Cyril F. M.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Hoonhout, Jettie; Claassen, Arjan; Goris, Annelies; Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Kolossa, Silvia; Walsh, Marianne C.; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Manios, Yannis; Godlewska, Magdalena; Traczyk, Iwona; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C.; Saris, Wim H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Comparisons of objectively measured physical activity (PA) between residents of European countries measured concurrently with the same protocol are lacking. We aimed to compare PA between the seven European countries involved in the Food4Me Study, using accelerometer data collected remotely via the Internet. Methods Of the 1607 participants recruited, 1287 (539 men and 748 women) provided at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of valid accelerometer data (TracmorD) at baseline and were included in the present analyses. Results Men were significantly more active than women (physical activity level = 1.74 vs. 1.70, p < 0.001). Time spent in light PA and moderate PA differed significantly between countries but only for women. Adherence to the World Health Organization recommendation to accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-equivalent PA weekly was similar between countries for men (range: 54–65%) but differed significantly between countries for women (range: 26–49%). Prevalence estimates decreased substantially for men and women in all seven countries when PA guidelines were defined as achieving 30 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day. Conclusions We were able to obtain valid accelerometer data in real time via the Internet from 80% of participants. Although our estimates are higher compared with data from Sweden, Norway, Portugal and the US, there is room for improvement in PA for all countries involved in the Food4Me Study. PMID:26999053

  3. A genome-wide association study in Europeans and South Asians identifies five new loci for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 11 common variants convincingly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD)¹⁻⁷, a modest number considering the apparent heritability of CAD⁸. All of these variants have been discovered in European populations. We report a meta-analysis of four large genome-wide association studies of CAD, with ∼575,000 genotyped SNPs in a discovery dataset comprising 15,420 individuals with CAD (cases) (8,424 Europeans and 6,996 South Asians) and 15,062 controls. There was little evidence for ancestry-specific associations, supporting the use of combined analyses. Replication in an independent sample of 21,408 cases and 19,185 controls identified five loci newly associated with CAD (P < 5 × 10⁻⁸ in the combined discovery and replication analysis): LIPA on 10q23, PDGFD on 11q22, ADAMTS7-MORF4L1 on 15q25, a gene rich locus on 7q22 and KIAA1462 on 10p11. The CAD-associated SNP in the PDGFD locus showed tissue-specific cis expression quantitative trait locus effects. These findings implicate new pathways for CAD susceptibility. PMID:21378988

  4. Hippocampus and dentate area of the European hedgehog. Comparative histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Crutcher, K A; Danscher, G; Geneser, F A

    1988-01-01

    The hippocampal formation in the European hedgehog was examined with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry and catecholamine histofluorescence in order to define the normal distribution of septohippocampal fibers and noradrenergic fibers, respectively, as well as to compare these inputs with the hippocampal cytoarchitecture as revealed with Nissl stain. In addition, alterations in the histochemical appearance following septohippocampal denervation were examined. Although the overall pattern of AChE-positive and noradrenergic fibers is similar to that observed in other mammals, some striking variations were observed, particularly within the dentate area. Thus, except for a heavily stained supragranular band, the AChE activity of the molecular layer is uniformly low without any obvious lamination, contrasting with the situation in most other mammalian species. The noradrenergic innervation of the dentate area showed the same density of fibers in the molecular layer and hilus, a pattern differing strikingly from the predominance of noradrenergic fibers in the hilus of other mammalian species. Such variations may reflect greater phylogenetic diversity in diffuse modulatory connections as compared with more precise topographical pathways. PMID:3233486

  5. Molecular studies on European equine isolates of Leptospira interrogans serovars Bratislava and Muenchen.

    PubMed

    Arent, Zbigniew; Gilmore, Colm; Brem, Siegfried; Ellis, William A

    2015-08-01

    Strains of Leptospira interrogans belonging to two very closely related serovars – Bratislava and Muenchen – are known to cause widespread infection of the horse population in many parts of the world. Conventional serological typing of isolates has been unable to differentiate between wildlife, pig, dog and possibly horse maintained isolates and therefore has been unable to provide further insight into their diversity and the relationship between them. Twenty-one such European isolates of serovar Bratislava and Muenchen were examined by restriction endonuclease analysis and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis in an attempt to elucidate their epidemiology. The restriction pattern types were identified and fell into one of four REA designed pattern types, B1, B2a, M1, M2a. Nine strains from Northern Ireland and two from Germany belonged to B2a, which is a ubiquitous strain being originally isolated from a large number of wild and domestic animal species in the UK. Five strains were identified as B1 and they came from Portugal, The Netherlands, Germany and Northern Ireland; three strains isolated in Germany belong to M1; two strains belonged to M2a. Genotypes B1 and M1 have, with the exception of one hedgehog isolate, been recovered only from horses and it may indicate their adaptation to this species. PMID:26165505

  6. A comparative study of six European databases of medically oriented Web resources

    PubMed Central

    Abad García, Francisca; González Teruel, Aurora; Bayo Calduch, Patricia; de Ramón Frias, Rosa; Castillo Blasco, Lourdes

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The paper describes six European medically oriented databases of Web resources, pertaining to five quality-controlled subject gateways, and compares their performance. Method: The characteristics, coverage, procedure for selecting Web resources, record structure, searching possibilities, and existence of user assistance were described for each database. Performance indicators for each database were obtained by means of searches carried out using the key words, “myocardial infarction.” Results: Most of the databases originated in the 1990s in an academic or library context and include all types of Web resources of an international nature. Five databases use Medical Subject Headings. The number of fields per record varies between three and nineteen. The language of the search interfaces is mostly English, and some of them allow searches in other languages. In some databases, the search can be extended to Pubmed. Organizing Medical Networked Information, Catalogue et Index des Sites Médicaux Francophones, and Diseases, Disorders and Related Topics produced the best results. Conclusions: The usefulness of these databases as quick reference resources is clear. In addition, their lack of content overlap means that, for the user, they complement each other. Their continued survival faces three challenges: the instability of the Internet, maintenance costs, and lack of use in spite of their potential usefulness. PMID:16239943

  7. Spray drift reduction under Southern European conditions: a pilot study in the Ecopest Project in Greece.

    PubMed

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Glass, C Richard; Tsakirakis, Angelos N; Machera, Kyriaki

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this work was to generate spray drift data from pesticide application in the field comparing spray drift from traditional equipment with emerging, anti-drift technologies. The applications were carried out in the Kopais area in central Greece. Currently few data exist as regards to pesticide spray drift in Southern European conditions. This work details the data for ground and airborne deposition of spray drift using the methodology developed in the UK by the Food and Environment Research Agency (FERA). Three trials were performed in two days using sunset yellow dye which deposited on dosimeters placed at specific distances from the edge of the sprayer boom. The application was carried out with a tractor mounted boom sprayer, which was of local manufacture, as were the nozzles of Trial I, being flat fan brass nozzles. For Trials II and III anti-drift nozzles were used. The boom sprayers were used with the settings as employed by the farmers for the routine pesticide applications. The results of this work indicate that drift was significantly reduced when anti-drift nozzles were utilized. PMID:24561292

  8. Fossil and nonfossil carbon in fine particulate matter: A study of five European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasius, Marianne; La Cour, Agnete; Lohse, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Fossil carbon in particulate matter comes from anthropogenic use and combustion of fossil fuels, while nonfossil carbon may originate from both biogenic (e.g., pollen, plant debris, fungal spores, and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA)) and anthropogenic sources (e.g., cooking and residential wood combustion). We investigated the relative contributions of fossil and nonfossil sources to fine carbonaceous aerosols in five European cities by radiocarbon analysis of aerosol samples collected at four types of sites in 2002-2004. The average fraction of nonfossil carbon was 43 ± 11%, with the lowest fraction, 36 ± 7%, at urban curbside sites and the highest fraction, 54 ± 11%, at rural background sites, farthest away from the impact of man-made emissions. Generally, fossil carbon concentrations at urban curbside sites are elevated in comparison to background sites, which is expected because of their proximity to vehicular emissions. Contrary to what might be expected, the concentration of nonfossil carbon is also higher at curbside than at background sites. This may be attributable to differences between site categories in levels of primary biological aerosols, brake and tire wear in resuspended road dust, biofuels, emissions from cooking and residential wood combustion, or processes such as anthropogenic enhancement of biogenic SOA and increased partitioning of semivolatile compounds into the aerosol phase at urban sites. The exact causes should be investigated by future detailed source analyses.

  9. Asthma, COPD and overlap syndrome: a longitudinal study in young European adults.

    PubMed

    de Marco, Roberto; Marcon, Alessandro; Rossi, Andrea; Antó, Josep M; Cerveri, Isa; Gislason, Thorarinn; Heinrich, Joachim; Janson, Christer; Jarvis, Deborah; Kuenzli, Nino; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Svanes, Cecilie; Wjst, Matthias; Burney, Peter

    2015-09-01

    We compared risk factors and clinical characteristics, 9-year lung function change and hospitalisation risk across subjects with the asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS), asthma or COPD alone, or none of these diseases.Participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey in 1991-1993 (aged 20-44 years) and 1999-2001 were included. Chronic airflow obstruction was defined as pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity

  10. Accumulation and depuration of okadaic acid esters in the European green crab (Carcinus maenas) during a feeding study.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Cold, Ulrik; Fischer, Knud

    2008-03-01

    Soft shell crab is a seafood delicacy in many parts of the world. In Denmark, it has been investigated whether a commercial production of soft shell European green crabs (Carcinus maenas) would be feasible. In relation to this, a feeding study was performed to examine if occurrence of DSP toxins in the product could be a food safety problem. The crabs were fed with mussels containing DSP toxins (2500 microg total okadaic acid equivalents/kg) for 17 days and then fasted for 19 days. The content of total okadaic acid equivalents in the digestive organs was on average 27 times higher than the corresponding content in the body meat. The highest level of total okadaic acid equivalents measured was 12 microg/kg in body meat and 503 microg/kg in digestive organs. The results show that the content of DSP toxins in a commercial product of soft shell European green crab (without digestive organs) could be regarded as negligible. PMID:17983637

  11. European genome-wide association study identifies SLC14A1 as a new urinary bladder cancer susceptibility gene

    PubMed Central

    Rafnar, Thorunn; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Sulem, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Aben, Katja K.; Witjes, J. Alfred; Grotenhuis, Anne J.; Verhaegh, Gerald W.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A.; Besenbacher, Soren; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Stacey, Simon N.; Gudmundsson, Julius; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Bjarnason, Hjordis; Zanon, Carlo; Helgadottir, Hafdis; Jonasson, Jon Gunnlaugur; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Jonsson, Eirikur; Geirsson, Gudmundur; Nikulasson, Sigfus; Petursdottir, Vigdis; Bishop, D. Timothy; Chung-Sak, Sei; Choudhury, Ananya; Elliott, Faye; Barrett, Jennifer H.; Knowles, Margaret A.; de Verdier, Petra J.; Ryk, Charlotta; Lindblom, Annika; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vineis, Paolo; Polidoro, Silvia; Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panadero, Angeles; Sanz-Velez, José I.; Sanchez, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Garcia-Prats, Maria D.; Hengstler, Jan G.; Selinski, Silvia; Gerullis, Holger; Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Khezri, Abdolaziz; Aminsharifi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Mahyar; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Veldink, Jan H.; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Kellen, Eliane; Fostinelli, Jacopo; Andreoli, Daniele; Arici, Cecilia; Porru, Stefano; Buntinx, Frank; Ghaderi, Abbas; Golka, Klaus; Mayordomo, José I.; Matullo, Giuseppe; Kumar, Rajiv; Steineck, Gunnar; Kiltie, Anne E.; Kong, Augustine; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.

    2011-01-01

    Three genome-wide association studies in Europe and the USA have reported eight urinary bladder cancer (UBC) susceptibility loci. Using extended case and control series and 1000 Genomes imputations of 5 340 737 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we searched for additional loci in the European GWAS. The discovery sample set consisted of 1631 cases and 3822 controls from the Netherlands and 603 cases and 37 781 controls from Iceland. For follow-up, we used 3790 cases and 7507 controls from 13 sample sets of European and Iranian ancestry. Based on the discovery analysis, we followed up signals in the urea transporter (UT) gene SLC14A. The strongest signal at this locus was represented by a SNP in intron 3, rs17674580, that reached genome-wide significance in the overall analysis of the discovery and follow-up groups: odds ratio = 1.17, P = 7.6 × 10−11. SLC14A1 codes for UTs that define the Kidd blood group and are crucial for the maintenance of a constant urea concentration gradient in the renal medulla and, through this, the kidney's ability to concentrate urine. It is speculated that rs17674580, or other sequence variants in LD with it, indirectly modifies UBC risk by affecting urine production. If confirmed, this would support the ‘urogenous contact hypothesis’ that urine production and voiding frequency modify the risk of UBC. PMID:21750109

  12. Instrumentation studies for a European extremely large telescope: a strawman instrument suite and implications for telescope design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Adrian P. G.; Hawarden, Timothy G.; Atad, Eli; Ramsay-Howat, Suzanne K.; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Bacon, Roland; Redfern, R. Michael

    2004-07-01

    Plans for a European Extremely Large Telescope are quite well advanced. However examination of instrument designs has thus far been directed only at covering the anticipated science requirements and has had little impact on telescope design considerations. Nevertheless, the provision of a suitable environment for instruments is a critical part of the design of all large telescopes. We illustrate this point with examples from recent experience. A Work Package, part of a proposed Design Study for a European ELT under the European Union's Framework Programme 6 (FP6), will explore this issue, while also developing designs for a scientifically credible instrument suite. For three instruments mechanical and optical design studies will be carried out in sufficient detail clearly to identify design drivers for the telescope. These are a wide-field seeing limited or ground-layer AO-corrected (GLAO) optical/NIR spectrometer, WFSPEC; an MCAO-corrected O/NIR Multi-Object Multi-field Spectrometer-Imager, MOMSI, which offers particularly daunting challenges; and a mid-infrared high-resolution AO-corrected Imager-Spectrometer instrument, MIDIR. Five instrument designs will be examined in less detail: an extreme-AO (XAO) corrected coronagraphic imager-spectrometer known as Planet Finder (the goal of which is the detection and characterization of terrestrial exo-planets); a very high resolution spectrometer, HISPEC; a high time-resolution instrument, HITRI, intended to allow photometry, polarimetry and phase-resolved spectroscopy of faint rapidly varying objects; a fast-response broad-band multi-function instrument known as GRB-catcher; and a sub-millimeter imager, SCUBA-3. A separate small study will seek innovative designs not included in the main suite. Another will initiate the program by examining the requirements of atmospheric dispersion correction (ADC) for 30 to 100-m diffraction-limited telescopes, which may require active sensing and, possibly, "adaptive" correction on

  13. Assessment of the European classification criteria for Sjögren's syndrome in a series of clinically defined cases: results of a prospective multicentre study. The European Study Group on Diagnostic Criteria for Sjögren's Syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Vitali, C; Bombardieri, S; Moutsopoulos, H M; Coll, J; Gerli, R; Hatron, P Y; Kater, L; Konttinen, Y T; Manthorpe, R; Meyer, O; Mosca, M; Ostuni, P; Pellerito, R A; Pennec, Y; Porter, S R; Richards, A; Sauvezie, B; Schiødt, M; Sciuto, M; Shoenfeld, Y; Skopouli, F N; Smolen, J S; Soromenho, F; Tishler, M; Wattiaux, M J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the recently proposed preliminary criteria for the classification of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in a multicentre European study of a new series of clinically defined cases. METHODS: The criteria included six items: I = ocular symptoms; II = oral symptoms; III = evidence of keratoconjunctivitis sicca; IV = focal sialoadenitis by minor salivary gland biopsy; V = instrumental evidence of salivary gland involvement; VI = presence of autoantibodies. Each centre was asked to provide five patients with primary SS, five with secondary SS, five with connective tissue diseases (CTD) but without SS, and five controls (patients with ocular or oral features that may simulate SS). The preliminary six item classification criteria set was applied to both the SS patients and the non-SS controls, and the performance of the criteria in terms of sensitivity and specificity was tested. RESULTS: The criteria set was tested on a total of 278 cases (157 SS patients and 121 non-SS controls) collected from 16 centres in 10 countries. At least four of the six items in the criteria set (limiting item VI to the presence of Ro(SS-A) or La(SS-B) antibodies) were present in 79 of 81 patients initially classified as having primary SS (sensitivity 97.5%), but in only seven of 121 non-SS controls (specificity 94.2%). When the presence of item I or II plus any two of items III-V of the criteria set was considered as indicative of secondary SS, 97.3% (71 of 73) of the patients initially defined as having this disorder and 91.8% (45 of 49) of the control patients with CTD without SS were correctly classified. CONCLUSION: This prospective study confirmed the high validity and reliability of the classification criteria for SS recently proposed by the European Community Study Group. PMID:8712861

  14. Systemic antibiotic prescribing to paediatric outpatients in 5 European countries: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To describe the utilisation of antibiotics in children and adolescents across 5 European countries based on the same drug utilisation measures and age groups. Special attention was given to age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups, since comparison in this regard between countries is lacking so far. Methods Outpatient paediatric prescriptions of systemic antibiotics during the years 2005-2008 were analysed using health care databases from the UK, the Netherlands, Denmark, Italy and Germany. Annual antibiotic prescription rates per 1,000 person years were estimated for each database and stratified by age (≤4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-18 years). Age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups were calculated for 2008. Results With 957 prescriptions per 1000 person years, the highest annual prescription rate in the year 2008 was found in the Italian region Emilia Romagna followed by Germany (561), the UK (555), Denmark (481) and the Netherlands (294). Seasonal peaks during winter months were most pronounced in countries with high utilisation. Age-group-specific use varied substantially between countries with regard to total prescribing and distributions of antibiotic subgroups. However, prescription rates were highest among children in the age group ≤4 years in all countries, predominantly due to high use of broad spectrum penicillins. Conclusions Strong increases of antibiotic prescriptions in winter months in high utilising countries most likely result from frequent antibiotic treatment of mostly viral infections. This and strong variations of overall and age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups across countries, suggests that antibiotics are inappropriately used to a large extent. PMID:24997585

  15. A historical prospective study of European stainless steel, mild steel, and shipyard welders.

    PubMed Central

    Simonato, L; Fletcher, A C; Andersen, A; Anderson, K; Becker, N; Chang-Claude, J; Ferro, G; Gérin, M; Gray, C N; Hansen, K S

    1991-01-01

    A multicentre cohort of 11,092 male welders from 135 companies located in nine European countries has been assembled with the aim of investigating the relation of potential cancer risk, lung cancer in particular, with occupational exposure. The observation period and the criteria for inclusion of welders varied from country to country. Follow up was successful for 96.9% of the cohort and observed numbers of deaths (and for some countries incident cancer cases) were compared with expected numbers calculated from national reference rates. Mortality and cancer incidence ratios were analysed by cause category, time since first exposure, duration of employment, and estimated cumulative dose to total fumes, chromium (Cr), Cr VI, and nickel (Ni). Overall a statistically significant excess was reported for mortality from lung cancer (116 observed v 86.81 expected deaths, SMR = 134). When analysed by type of welding an increasing pattern with time since first exposure was present for both mild steel and stainless steel welders, which was more noticeable for the subcohort of predominantly stainless steel welders. No clear relation was apparent between mortality from lung cancer and duration of exposure to or estimated cumulative dose of Ni or Cr. Whereas the patterns of lung cancer mortality in these results suggest that the risk of lung cancer is higher for stainless steel than mild steel welders the different level of risk for these two categories of welding exposure cannot be quantified with precision. The report of five deaths from pleural mesothelioma unrelated to the type of welding draws attention to the risk of exposure to asbestos in welding activities. PMID:2015204

  16. [Some materials for the study of "labor force differences" of immigrants from outside the European Union].

    PubMed

    Piras, L

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of the productive behavior of immigrants arriving from outside the European Union comprise the phase preceding the immigration, the phase of first permanent residence, and the phase of secondary socialization to labor. The extra-community labor migration carries within itself all the individual cultural patrimony (values, conduct, faith, identity, lifestyle) which are invested into the transformation process and change through contact with the other culture. The differentiated labor-specific evolution of the extra-community migration was analyzed by means of a mathematical formula using the variables of compensation for work (salary), performance (effort), immigration, socialization to work, and the economic impact of differential work contribution, all of which individually and jointly exert an effect on the labor market. In the regular Italian labor market there is, however, a surplus; the irregular (underground) economy is differentiated by the variable of effort that immigrants exert in order to obtain employment. Labor behavior is determined by the competitiveness of the labor force and dangers inherent in leaving one's country and entering a foreign land illegally. Statistically, in the long term, individual situations show a diminishing trend vis-a-vis the risk of repatriation connected to the loss of the residency permit because of gradual integration into the labor market. The initial labor-specific effort (salary/performance) is reduced vis-a-vis a progressive process of socialization owing to work. New lifestyles and consumption patterns are acquired which also facilitate social integration. The human capital of the immigrant increases by progressive acquisition of language and other cultural instruments. PMID:12348671

  17. Safety and tolerability of dienogest in endometriosis: pooled analysis from the European clinical study program

    PubMed Central

    Strowitzki, Thomas; Faustmann, Thomas; Gerlinger, Christoph; Schumacher, Ulrike; Ahlers, Christiane; Seitz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background In four randomized, controlled, European trials, dienogest 2 mg once daily demonstrated significant efficacy for lesion reduction and reduction in pain intensity in endometriosis. We describe a pooled analysis of the safety and tolerability data from these trials to confirm and further characterize the safety profile of dienogest in the treatment of endometriosis. Methods All 332 women treated with dienogest 2 mg who participated in the four clinical trials were included in the pooled analyses for safety assessments, including adverse events, laboratory tests, vital signs, body weight, and bleeding patterns. Safety variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results Pooled analyses of this large patient population confirmed that dienogest 2 mg is well tolerated, with a favorable safety profile extending over a period up to 65 weeks in women with endometriosis. The most common adverse drug reactions were headache, breast discomfort, depressed mood, and acne, each occurring in <10% of women. All these adverse events were generally of mild-to-moderate intensity and associated with low discontinuation rates. The bleeding pattern associated with dienogest 2 mg was well tolerated, and only two women (0.6%) reported bleeding events as the primary reason for premature discontinuation. Laboratory and vital sign assessments indicated no safety concerns for dienogest. Estradiol levels were maintained within the low-physiological range, in support of previous evidence indicating that dienogest 2 mg demonstrates therapeutic efficacy without inducing estradiol deficiency. Conclusion In this pooled analysis of 332 women with endometriosis, dienogest was well tolerated with a favorable safety profile extending over a period of up to 65 weeks. There is a paucity of randomized trial evidence to support the use of many treatments in endometriosis. These pooled analyses from four clinical trials of dienogest 2 mg represent a contribution to evidence-based medicine

  18. Fire Regime and Land Abandonment in European Russia: Case Study of Smolensk Oblast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Manisha, A.; Romanenkov, V.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Hansen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fires in anthropogenically-dominated landscapes are generally attributed to ecosystem management, agriculture, and policy drivers. In European Russia, fire mainly occurring on agricultural lands, wetlands, and abandoned lands. In the agricultural practice in Russia prescribed fires are believed to increase pasture and hay productivity, suppress trees and shrub expansion, and reduce fire hazards, with fire frequency fire dependent on land use and agricultural practices. The large-scale socio-economic transition since the fall of the Soviet Union has led to changes in land use and land management, including land abandonment and changing agricultural practices. In June 2014, an extensive field campaign was completed in the Smolensk Oblast, located approximately two hundred kilometers west of Moscow on the border with Belarus. Our field sampling was based on circa 1985 Landsat-based forest cover map (Potapov et al., 2014). Points were randomly selected from the non-forested class of the 1985 classification, prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Of total field collects, 55% points were sampled on land in either early or late stage of abandonment, 15% from actively cropped fields, and 30% from hay or pasture. Fire frequency was calculated for the 108 field points using 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire data for years 2000-2014. Also we calculated percent of points burned in spring 2014 using 30 m Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data to derive burn scars. Actively cropped fields had lowest burn frequency while abandoned lands - early and late stage abandonment - had highest frequency. Fire frequency was significantly higher on wet soils than dry soils, with no relationship between fire frequency and tree canopy cover. We hypothesize, higher fire frequency on abandoned lands was likely due to greater fuel loads and because of traditional belief in rural Russia that fire is efficient way to suppress tree and shrub expansion.

  19. Air Pollution Exposure during Pregnancy and Childhood Autistic Traits in Four European Population-Based Cohort Studies: The ESCAPE Project

    PubMed Central

    Guxens, Mònica; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Gong, Tong; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Porta, Daniela; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Almqvist, Catarina; Aranbarri, Aritz; Beelen, Rob; Badaloni, Chiara; Cesaroni, Giulia; de Nazelle, Audrey; Estarlich, Marisa; Forastiere, Francesco; Forns, Joan; Gehring, Ulrike; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Korek, Michal; Lichtenstein, Paul; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Rebagliato, Marisa; Slama, Rémy; Tiemeier, Henning; Verhulst, Frank C.; Volk, Heather E.; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to air pollutants has been suggested as a possible etiologic factor for the occurrence of autism spectrum disorder. Objectives We aimed to assess whether prenatal air pollution exposure is associated with childhood autistic traits in the general population. Methods Ours was a collaborative study of four European population-based birth/child cohorts—CATSS (Sweden), Generation R (the Netherlands), GASPII (Italy), and INMA (Spain). Nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) and particulate matter (PM) with diameters of ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), ≤ 10 μm (PM10), and between 2.5 and 10 μm (PMcoarse), and PM2.5 absorbance were estimated for birth addresses by land-use regression models based on monitoring campaigns performed between 2008 and 2011. Levels were extrapolated back in time to exact pregnancy periods. We quantitatively assessed autistic traits when the child was between 4 and 10 years of age. Children were classified with autistic traits within the borderline/clinical range and within the clinical range using validated cut-offs. Adjusted cohort-specific effect estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Results A total of 8,079 children were included. Prenatal air pollution exposure was not associated with autistic traits within the borderline/clinical range (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.10 per each 10-μg/m3 increase in NO2 pregnancy levels). Similar results were observed in the different cohorts, for the other pollutants, and in assessments of children with autistic traits within the clinical range or children with autistic traits as a quantitative score. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to NO2 and PM was not associated with autistic traits in children from 4 to 10 years of age in four European population-based birth/child cohort studies. Citation Guxens M, Ghassabian A, Gong T, Garcia-Esteban R, Porta D, Giorgis-Allemand L, Almqvist C, Aranbarri A, Beelen R, Badaloni C, Cesaroni G, de Nazelle A, Estarlich M, Forastiere F

  20. Influence of parental socio-economic status on diet quality of European adolescents: results from the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Béghin, L; Dauchet, L; De Vriendt, Tineke; Cuenca-García, M; Manios, Y; Toti, E; Plada, M; Widhalm, K; Repasy, J; Huybrechts, I; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A; Dallongeville, J

    2014-04-14

    Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economic status and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economic status was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14.7 (SD 1.3) years; percentage of girls: 52.8%; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69.1 (SD 0.1) v. 60.4 (SD 2.8), respectively; P < 0.001; Δ = 12.6%). The DQI was positively correlated with both paternal and maternal Par-Educ-Lev. However, this association was more pronounced in northern Europe than in southern Europe (P interaction = 0.004 for the mother and 0.06 for the father). The DQI was also positively correlated with Par-Occ-Lev (all P trends < 0.01), but this correlation was independent of the geographical area (P interaction = 0.51 for the mother and 0.50 for the father). In conclusion, Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev are associated with diet quality in adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe. PMID:24330831

  1. The African, Caribbean and European (ACE) Pathways to Care study: a qualitative exploration of similarities and differences between African-origin, Caribbean-origin and European-origin groups in pathways to care for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Manuela; Flora, Nina; Anderson, Kelly K; Tuck, Andrew; Archie, Suzanne; Kidd, Sean; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper reports on a qualitative exploration of the reasons for differences in pathways to care and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in the African, Caribbean and European (ACE) Pathways to Care study from the perspective of respondents to the study and their families. Setting Ontario, Canada. Participants Thirty-four participants in total. Twenty-five young people who had experienced a first episode of psychosis and nine family members. Participants were part of the ACE Pathways to Care study. Design We implemented six focus groups. Furthermore, we implemented four in-depth interviews with two African-origin young women, one Caribbean-origin woman, and one European-origin woman with lived experience of psychosis. Results Factors that influenced help-seeking delays across the three groups were: personal awareness of symptoms, family members’ knowledge of psychotic symptoms and knowledge of mental health services. Youth and their family members described how stigma played a key role in pathways to care by stopping them from asking for help. The way in which stigma operated on the three groups’ members, from feeling ashamed to feeling guilty for their mental illnesses, helped to explain differences in DUP between the groups. Guilt feelings emerged as a prominent theme among members from the African and Caribbean groups and it was not discussed in the European focus group. Delay in entering into first-episode psychosis programmes was also influenced by the stigma perceived by young people in healthcare settings. This had an impact on the therapeutic relationships, disclosure of symptoms and overall trust in the healthcare system. Conclusions The findings of this paper suggest that stigma, especially internalised stigma, may operate in different ways in European-origin, African-origin and Caribbean-origin groups. These findings could inform the development of more equitable services for people in early stages of psychosis. PMID:25588783

  2. Coffee, tea and decaffeinated coffee in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a European population: multicentre, prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Jenab, Mazda; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Fedirko, Veronika; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Pischon, Tobias; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Kuhn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Benetou, Vasiliki; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Dik, Vincent K; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Lindkvist, Björn; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Stepien, Magdalena; Gunter, Marc; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-04-15

    Inverse associations of coffee and/or tea in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been consistently identified in studies conducted mostly in Asia where consumption patterns of such beverages differ from Europe. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC), we identified 201 HCC cases among 486,799 men/women, after a median follow-up of 11 years. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence in relation to quintiles/categories of coffee/tea intakes. We found that increased coffee and tea intakes were consistently associated with lower HCC risk. The inverse associations were substantial, monotonic and statistically significant. Coffee consumers in the highest compared to the lowest quintile had lower HCC risk by 72% [HR: 0.28; 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.16-0.50, p-trend < 0.001]. The corresponding association of tea with HCC risk was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.22-0.78, p-trend = 0.003). There was no compelling evidence of heterogeneity of these associations across strata of important HCC risk factors, including hepatitis B or hepatitis C status (available in a nested case-control study). The inverse, monotonic associations of coffee intake with HCC were apparent for caffeinated (p-trend = 0.009), but not decaffeinated (p-trend = 0.45) coffee for which, however, data were available for a fraction of subjects. Results from this multicentre, European cohort study strengthen the existing evidence regarding the inverse association between coffee/tea and HCC risk. Given the apparent lack of heterogeneity of these associations by HCC risk factors and that coffee/tea are universal exposures, our results could have important implications for high HCC risk subjects. PMID:25219573

  3. Predictors of participation of adolescents with cerebral palsy: A European multi-centre longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Van Mô; Colver, Allan; Dickinson, Heather O.; Marcelli, Marco; Michelsen, Susan I.; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Rapp, Marion; Arnaud, Catherine; Nystrand, Malin; Fauconnier, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether childhood factors that are amenable to intervention (parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain) predicted participation in daily activities and social roles of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). We randomly selected 1174 children aged 8–12 years from eight population-based registers of children with CP in six European countries; 743 (63%) agreed to participate. One further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. These 818 children were visited at home at age 8–12 years, 594 (73%) agreed to follow-up at age 13–17 years. We used the following measures: parent reported stress (Parenting Stress Index Short Form), their child's psychological difficulties (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire) and frequency and severity of pain; either child or parent reported the child's participation (LIFE Habits questionnaire). We fitted a structural equation model to each of the participation domains, regressing participation in childhood and adolescence on parenting stress, child psychological problems and pain, and regressing adolescent factors on the corresponding childhood factors; models were adjusted for impairment, region, age and gender. Pain in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains except Mealtimes and Communication (standardized total indirect effects β −0.05 to −0.18, 0.01 < p < 0.05 to p < 0.001, depending on domain). Psychological problems in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in all domains of social roles, and in Personal Care and Communication (β −0.07 to −0.17, 0.001 < p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). Parenting stress in childhood predicted restricted adolescent participation in Health Hygiene, Mobility and Relationships (β −0.07 to −0.18, 0.001 < p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). These childhood factors predicted adolescent participation largely via their effects on childhood participation; though in some domains early psychological

  4. Nutrition and Lifestyle in European Adolescents: The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study123

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Luis A.; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  5. Nutrition and lifestyle in european adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  6. The Curricular Reform Initiatives of Turkey in the Fields of Life Science and Social Studies in the Process of Accession to the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinoglu, Orhan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine and assess how the relationships with and candidateship conditions of the European Union have reflected to the Turkish primary educational curricula for the Life Science and Social Studies which were changed in the years of 1968, 1998 and 2004. The study was performed on a qualitative basis by analyzing…

  7. Bullous pemphigoid and neurodegenerative diseases: a study in a setting of a Central European university dermatology department.

    PubMed

    Pietkiewicz, Paweł; Gornowicz-Porowska, Justyna; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Bartkiewicz, Paweł; Dmochowski, Marian

    2016-08-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering dermatosis of the elderly mediated by IgG and IgE antibodies to skin hemidesmosomal proteins, BP180 and/or BP230, that occur physiologically also in neuronal tissue. It was reported that BP is associated with neurodegenerative diseases (ND). We performed a retrospective study in a setting of a Central European university dermatology department on prevalence of ND in 94 BP patients. 26 out of 94 BP patients had at least one ND. ND included: Parkinson's disease, dementia, stroke, hear loss, tinnitus, blindness, vertigo, neurosyphilis, systemic sclerosis, and epilepsy. Since population aging is conceivably responsible for the rising number of BP cases as a result of immunosenescence-related phenomena, the plausible BP-specific immunopathogenetic relationship between BP and ND deserves to be further experimentally explored. PMID:26420424

  8. Morphological study by scanning electron microscopy of the lingual papillae in the common European bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus).

    PubMed

    Pastor, J F; Moro, J A; Verona, J A; Gato, A; Represa, J J; Barbosa, E

    1993-07-01

    There are many accounts of the tongues of mammals observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but apparently only one article about the tongue of the Chiroptera. In the present study the tongue surface (after removing extracellular material) of the European common bat (Pipistrellus pipstrellus) was examined. The tongue is covered with papillae and has an elevation between its medial and posterior half. There are three types of papillae: filiform, fungiform and circumvallate, and the filiform can be classified as strictly filiform, conical and crown-like. The shapes and disposition of these papillae are related to function, which is principally to retain captured food during flight. At higher magnification the surface of the filiform papillae has many pores and microridges, which may serve for the production and distribution of mucus over the papillary surface. PMID:7690226

  9. Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Study of Native Eastern European Cattle Populations: The Case of the Romanian Grey

    PubMed Central

    Cean, Ada; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Gavojdian, Dinu; Ivan, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern European Grey cattle are regarded as the direct descendants of the aurochs (Bos taurus primigenius). Nowadays in Romania, less than 100 Grey animals are being reared and included in the national gene reserve. We examined the genetic diversity among Romanian Grey, Brown, Spotted and Black and White cattle breeds, with a particular focus on Romanian Grey through the use of (i) 11 bovine specific microsatellite markers on 83 animals and (ii) 638 bp length of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region sequence data from a total of 81 animals. Both microsatellite and mtDNA analysis revealed a high level of genetic variation in the studied breeds. In Romanian Grey a total of 100 alleles were found, the mean number of observed alleles per locus was 9.091; the average observed heterozygosity was 0.940; the Wright’s fixation index (FIS) was negative (-0.189) and indicates that there is no inbreeding and no selection pressure. MtDNA analysis revealed 52 haplotypes with 67 variable sites among the Romanian cattle breeds without any insertion or deletion. Haplotype diversity was 0.980 ± 0.007 and ranged from 0.883 ± 0.056 (Brown) to 0.990 ± 0.028 (Spotted and Black and White). The highest genetic variability of the mtDNA was recorded in the Grey breed, where 18 haplotypes were identified. The most frequent mtDNA D-loop region belonged to T3 haplogroup (80.247%), which was found across all studied breeds, while T2 haplotypes (16.049%) was only found in Grey, Spotted and Black and White genotypes. The T1 haplotypes (3.704%) were found in the Grey and Spotted. The current results contribute to the general knowledge on genetic diversity found in Eastern European cattle breeds and could prove a valuable tool for the conservation efforts of animal genetic resources (FAnGR). PMID:26398563

  10. Energy and macronutrient intake and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha Linn; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Förster, Jana; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Klinaki, Eleni; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Almquist, Martin; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Schmidt, Julie A; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Cross, Amanda J; Slimani, Nadia; Byrnes, Graham; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Incidence rates of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) have increased in many countries. Adiposity and dietary risk factors may play a role, but little is known on the influence of energy intake and macronutrient composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between TC and the intake of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 477,274 middle-age participants (70.2% women) from ten European countries. Dietary data were collected using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Total carbohydrates, proteins, fats, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (PUFA), starch, sugar, and fiber were computed as g/1,000 kcal. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by intake quartile (Q). After a mean follow-up time of 11 years, differentiated TC was diagnosed in 556 participants (90% women). Overall, we found significant associations only with total energy (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 1.29; 95% CI, 1.00-1.68) and PUFA intakes (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.95). However, the associations with starch and sugar intake and GI were significantly heterogeneous across body mass index (BMI) groups, i.e., positive associations with starch and GI were found in participants with a BMI ≥ 25 and with sugar intake in those with BMI < 25. Moreover, inverse associations with starch and GI were observed in subjects with BMI < 25. In conclusion, our results suggest that high total energy and low PUFA intakes may increase the risk of differentiated TC. Positive associations with starch intake and GI in participants with BMI ≥ 25 suggest that those persons may have a greater insulin response to high starch intake and GI than lean people. PMID:26190646