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1

Eurycoma longifolia Jack in managing idiopathic male infertility  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of treatment with the proprietary standardized, water-soluble extract of the root of the Malaysian plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack, which is thought to enhance male fertility with regard to higher semen volumes, sperm concentrations, the percentage of normal sperm morphology and sperm motility in male partners of sub-fertile couples with idiopathic infertility. A total of 350 patients were given 200 mg of the extract daily and follow-up semen analyses were performed every 3 months for 9 months. Of these 350 patients, 75 patients completed one full cycle of 3 months. Follow-up semen analyses in these patients showed significant improvement in all semen parameters. The proprietary extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack significantly improved the sperm quality in these patients, allowing for 11 (14.7%) spontaneous pregnancies. PMID:20348942

Bin Mohd Tambi, Mohd Ismail; Imran, M. Kamarul

2010-01-01

2

The Production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one from Callus Cultures of (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) Tongkat Ali.  

PubMed

Plant cell culture technology is potentially useful in producing high-valued secondary metabolites. Eurycoma longifolia root extracts are consumed as a health tonic but more popularly used as an aphrodisiac. Studies on the aphrodisiac properties and the possible compounds involved have been widely studied. There are many potentially useful compounds reported from the root extracts of E. longifolia. However, studies on the in vitro production of useful compounds from this plant have not been reported. This chapter will describe methods of callus induction and extraction of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one from E. longifolia Jack explants with emphasis on the tap and fibrous roots. This compound, known to have anti-tumour activity, is present in intact plant parts and in callus tissues of different explants. PMID:19521859

Maziah, Mahmood; Rosli, Noormi

2009-01-01

3

Sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats after oral administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack.  

PubMed

Eurycoma longifolia Jack commonly known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, has been used in Malaysia to increase male virility and sexual prowess. The objective of this study is to evaluate sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats, 24 months old and retired breeders, receiving 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of various fractions of E. longifolia Jack, twice daily, for 10 days. Control rats received 3 ml/kg of normal saline. The aphrodisiac effect was monitored by the act of yawning and stretching because yawning, either alone or associated with stretching, is considered an ancestral vestige surviving throughout evolution that promotes sexual arousal. The results showed that 800 mg/kg of E. longifolia Jack increased yawning by 50% and stretching by 16.7% in sexually sluggish old male rats, by 676-719% and 31-336%, respectively, in sexually active male rats, and by 22-44% and 75-100%, respectively, in middle aged, 9 months old and retired breeders. We conclude that the results of this study support the folk use of this plant as an aphrodisiac. PMID:15803965

Ang, Hooi Hoon; Lee, Kheng Leng; Kiyoshi, Matsumoto

2004-01-01

4

Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) on the initiation of sexual performance of inexperienced castrated male rats.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack, commonly known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, on the initiation of sexual performance and the weights of sexual accessories in inexperienced castrated male rats. The doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight, which were extracted from E. longifolia Jack, were orally administered to the rats twice daily for 10 days prior to the tests and continued throughout the test period. Testosterone was used as a positive control after injecting 15 mg/kg daily subcutaneously for 32 days. Results showed that E. longifolia Jack produced a dose-dependent increase in sexual performance of the treated animals, but the E. longifolia Jack groups showed lower sexual performance in mounting, intromission and ejaculation than the testosterone group. Further results also showed that E. longifolia Jack promoted the growth of both ventral prostate and seminal vesicles as compared with the control, but the growth of sexual accessories at 800 mg/kg of butanol, methanol, water and chloroform fractions of E. longifolia Jack was less than that of testosterone treated group. The present study therefore gives further evidence of the folkuse of E. longifolia as an aphrodisiac. PMID:10803359

Ang, H H; Cheang, H S; Yusof, A P

2000-01-01

5

Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack): a review on its ethnobotany and pharmacological importance.  

PubMed

Eurycoma longifolia Jack is an herbal medicinal plant of South-East Asian origin, popularly recognized as 'Tongkat Ali.' The plant parts have been traditionally used for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial and anti-pyretic activities, which have also been proved scientifically. The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds (like eurycomaoside, eurycolactone, eurycomalactone, eurycomanone, and pasakbumin-B) among which the alkaloids and quassinoids form a major portion. Even though toxicity and safety evaluation studies have been pursued, still a major gap exists in providing scientific base for commercial utilization and clearance of the Tongkat Ali products with regard to consumer's safety. The present review aims at reviewing the research works undertaken till date, on this plant in order to provide sufficient baseline information for future works and for commercial exploitation. PMID:20434529

Bhat, Rajeev; Karim, A A

2010-10-01

6

The Effect of Eurycoma Longifolia Jack on Spermatogenesis in Estrogen-Treated Rats  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: There is little data concerning the ability of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL) to reverse the inhibitory effects of estrogen on testosterone production and spermatogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of EL on testicular histology and sperm count in estrogen-treated male rats. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200250 g were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group A (control) was given solvent in the same manner as the treated groups were given EL. Group B was treated with EL (8 mg/kg body weight) orally. Group C was treated with estradiol (E2) (intramuscular dose of 500 ?g/kg body weight), and group D received a combined treatment of oral EL and intramuscular E2. After fourteen consecutive days of treatment, rats from all groups were sacrificed and subjected to spermatogenic and epididymal sperm cell counts. RESULTS: The spermatogenic cell count in the E2-treated group was significantly decreased as compared to the control (p < 0.05) and EL+E2-treated groups (p < 0.05). A similar finding was found for the epididymal sperm count; the E2-treated group had a significant decrease in the count compared to the control (p < 0.05) and EL+E2-treated groups (p < 0.05). Rats that were treated with EL alone exhibited significantly higher sperm counts and sperm motility when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: EL extract acts as a potential agent for reversing the effects of estrogen by increasing spermatogenesis and sperm counts in rats after fourteen consecutive days of treatment. PMID:20126351

Wahab, Norhazlina Abdul; Mokhtar, Norfilza M.; Halim, Wan Nurul Heriza A; Das, Srijit

2010-01-01

7

Effects of Eurycoma longifolia jack on laevator ani muscle in both uncastrated and testosterone-stimulated castrated intact male rats.  

PubMed

It has been reported that Eurycoma longifolia Jack commonly known as Tongkat Ali has gained notoreity as a symbol of man's ego and strength by the Malaysian men because it increases male virility and sexual prowess during sexual activities. As such, the effects of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of butanol, methanol, water and chloroform fractions of E. longifolia Jack were studied on the laevator ani muscle in both uncastrated and testosterone-stimulated castrated intact male rats after dosing them for 12 consecutive weeks. Results showed that 800 mg/kg of butanol, methanol, water and chloroform fractions of E. longifolia Jack significantly increased (p<0.05) the leavator ani muscle to 58.56+/-1.22, 58.23+/-0.31, 60.21 +/-0.86 and 62.35 +/-0.98 mg/100 g body weight, respectively, when compared with the control (untreated) in the uncastrated intact male rats and 49.23+/-0.82, 52.23+/-0.36, 50.21+/-0.66 and 52.35+/-0.58 mg/100 g body weight, respectively, when compared to control (untreated) in the testosterone-stimulated castrated intact male rats. Hence, the pro-androgenic effect as shown by this study further supported the traditional use of this plant as an aphrodisiac. PMID:11693547

Ang, H H; Cheang, H S

2001-10-01

8

The ameliorative effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on testosterone-induced reproductive disorders in female rats.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to study the ameliorative effects of a standardized quassinoid-rich extract (TAF 273) of Eurycoma longifolia root on some reproductive disorders in female rats. An irregular estrous cycle and ovarian cystic follicles were induced in 21-day-old females by the daily administration of testosterone (10 mg/kg, sc) for three weeks. The hormone-treated rats exhibited persistent diestrous as well as ovaries containing cystic follicles. Upon treatment with TAF 273, fewer animals showed irregular estrous cycles and there was less follicular morphological damage. The reversal effect may be derived from the anti-estrogenic properties of the plant quassinoids. PMID:22850474

Abdulghani, Mahfoudh; Hussin, Abas Hj; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Chan, Kit Lam

2012-07-01

9

In vitro Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Activity of Root Extract/Fractions of Eurycoma longifolia Jack  

PubMed Central

Background Toxoplasma gondii infection causes toxoplasmosis, an infectious disease with worldwide prevalence. The limited efficiency of drugs against this infection, their side effects and the potential appearance of resistant strains make the search of novel drugs an essential need. We examined Eurycoma longifolia root extract and fractions as potential sources of new compounds with high activity and low toxicity. The main goal of this study was to investigate the anti-T. gondii activity of crude extract (TACME) and four fractions (TAF 273, TAF 355, TAF 191 and TAF 401) from E. longifolia, with clindamycin as the positive control. Methods In vitro toxoplasmacidal evaluation was performed using Vero cells as host for T. gondii. Light microscopy technique was used to study in situ antiparasitic activity. Results Significant anti-T. gondii activity was observed with clindamycin (EC50?=?0.016 ?g/ml), follow by TAF 355 (EC50?=?0.369 ?g/ml) and TAF 401 (EC50?=?0.882 ?g/ml). Light microscopy revealed that most Vero cells were infected after 3 h of exposure to T. gondii. After 36 h of exposure to the E. longifolia fraction, the host Vero cells showed no visible intracellular parasite and no remarkable morphological changes. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that TAF 355 and TAF401 fractions may be the sources of new anti-T. gondii compounds. PMID:22781137

2012-01-01

10

In vivo effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) extract on reproductive functions in the rat.  

PubMed

An aqueous extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali; TA) roots is traditionally used to enhance male sexuality. Because previous studies are limited to only few sperm parameters or testosterone concentration, this study investigated the in vivo effects of TA on body and organ weight as well as functional sperm parameters in terms of safety and efficacy in the management of male infertility. Forty-two male rats were divided into a control, low-dose (200mgkg(-1) BW) and high-dose (800mgkg(-1) BW) group (n=14). Rats were force-fed for 14days and then sacrificed. Total body and organ weights of the prostate, testes, epididymides, gastrocnemius muscle and the omentum were recorded. Moreover, testosterone concentration, sperm concentration, motility, velocity, vitality, acrosome reaction and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed. Whilst TA decreased BW by 5.7% (P=0.0276) and omentum fat by 31.9% (P=0.0496), no changes in organ weights were found for the prostate, testes and epididymides. Testosterone concentration increased by 30.2% (P=0.0544). Muscle weight also increased, yet not significantly. Whilst sperm concentration, total and progressive motility and vitality increased significantly, MMP improved markedly (P=0.0765) by 25.1%. Because no detrimental effect could be observed, TA appears safe for possible treatment of male infertility and ageing male problems. PMID:23464350

Solomon, M C; Erasmus, N; Henkel, R R

2014-05-01

11

Effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat ali) extract on human spermatozoa in vitro.  

PubMed

Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat ali; TA) is a Malaysian shrub used to treat various illnesses including male infertility. Considering that TA is used to improve male fertility and no report regarding its safety has been published, this study investigated the effects of TA extract on various sperm functions. Semen samples of 27 patients and 13 donors were divided into two groups, washed and swim-up spermatozoa, and incubated with different concentrations of TA (1, 10, 20, 100, 2000?gml(-1) ) for 1h at 37C. A sample without addition of TA served as control. For washed spermatozoa, significant dose-dependent trends were found for vitality, total motility, acrosome reaction and reactive oxygen species-positive spermatozoa. However, these trends were only significant if the highest concentrations were included in the calculation. Contrary, the increase in the percentage of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa with increasing TA concentrations is very significant (P<0.0001), and a significant difference (P=0.0069) to the control could even be recorded at 20?g TA per ml. For swim-up spermatozoa, no trend could be observed. Results indicate that the TA extract has no deleterious effects on sperm functions at therapeutically used concentrations (<2.5?gml(-1) ). However, at very high concentrations, TA may have harmful effects in vitro. PMID:22332826

Erasmus, N; Solomon, M C; Fortuin, K A; Henkel, R R

2012-10-01

12

Acute, reproductive toxicity and two-generation teratology studies of a standardized quassinoid-rich extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack in Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

The roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack are popularly sought as herbal medicinal supplements to improve libido and general health amongst the local ethnic population. The major quassinoids of E. longifolia improved spermatogenesis and fertility but toxicity studies have not been well documented. The reproductive toxicity, two generation of foetus teratology and the up-and-down acute toxicity were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats orally treated with quassinoid-rich E. longifolia extract (TAF273). The results showed that the median lethal dose (LD50 ) of TAF273 for female and male rats was 1293 and >2000?mg/kg, respectively. Fertility index and litter size of the TAF273 treated were significantly increased when compared with those of the non-treated animals. The TAF273-treated dams decreased in percentage of pre-implantation loss, post-implantation loss and late resorption. No toxic symptoms were observed on the TAF273-treated pregnant female rats and their foetuses were normal. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) obtained from reproductive toxicity and teratology studies of TAF273 in rats was 100?mg/kg body weight/day, being more than 10-fold lower than the LD50 value. Thus, any human dose derived from converting the rat doses of 100?mg/kg and below may be considered as safe for further clinical studies. PMID:24318772

Low, Bin-Seng; Das, Prashanta Kumar; Chan, Kit-Lam

2014-07-01

13

Evaluation of Acute 13-Week Subchronic Toxicity and Genotoxicity of the Powdered Root of Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack).  

PubMed

Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) is an indigenous traditional herb in Southern Asia. Its powdered root has been processed to produce health supplements, but no detailed toxicology report is available. In this study, neither mutagenicity nor clastogenicity was noted, and acute oral LD50 was more than 6?g/kg b.w. After 4-week subacute and 13-week subchronic exposure paradigms (0, 0.6, 1.2, and 2?g/kg b.w./day), adverse effects attributable to test compound were not observed with respect to body weight, hematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, macropathology, or histopathology. However, the treatment significantly reduced prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and cholesterol levels, especially in males (P < 0.05). These changes were judged as pharmacological effects, and they are beneficial to health. The calculated acceptable daily intake (ADI) was up to 1.2 g/adult/day. This information will be useful for product development and safety management. PMID:24062779

Li, Ching-Hao; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Liao, Po-Lin; Huang, Wei-Kuang; Tse, Ling-Shan; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Kang, Jaw-Jou; Cheng, Yu-Wen

2013-01-01

14

Evaluation of Acute 13-Week Subchronic Toxicity and Genotoxicity of the Powdered Root of Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack)  

PubMed Central

Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) is an indigenous traditional herb in Southern Asia. Its powdered root has been processed to produce health supplements, but no detailed toxicology report is available. In this study, neither mutagenicity nor clastogenicity was noted, and acute oral LD50 was more than 6?g/kg b.w. After 4-week subacute and 13-week subchronic exposure paradigms (0, 0.6, 1.2, and 2?g/kg b.w./day), adverse effects attributable to test compound were not observed with respect to body weight, hematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, macropathology, or histopathology. However, the treatment significantly reduced prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and cholesterol levels, especially in males (P < 0.05). These changes were judged as pharmacological effects, and they are beneficial to health. The calculated acceptable daily intake (ADI) was up to 1.2 g/adult/day. This information will be useful for product development and safety management. PMID:24062779

Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Liao, Po-Lin; Huang, Wei-Kuang; Tse, Ling-Shan; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Kang, Jaw-Jou; Cheng, Yu-Wen

2013-01-01

15

Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes  

PubMed Central

Background: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ElJ) has been shown to elevate serum testosterone and increased muscle strength in humans. This study investigated the effects of Physta a standardized water extract of ElJ (400 mg/day for 6 weeks) on testosterone: epitestosterone (T:E) ratio, liver and renal functions in male recreational athletes. Methods: A total of 13 healthy male recreational athletes were recruited in this double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The participants were required to consume either 400 mg of ElJ or placebo daily for 6 weeks in the first supplementation regimen. Following a 3 week wash-out period, the participants were requested to consume the other supplement for another 6 weeks. Mid-stream urine samples and blood samples were collected prior to and after 6 weeks of supplementation with either ElJ or placebo. The urine samples were subsequently analyzed for T:E ratio while the blood samples were analyzed for liver and renal functions. Results: T:E ratio was not significantly different following 6 weeks supplementation of either ElJ or placebo compared with their respective baseline values. Similarly, there were no significant changes in both the liver and renal functions tests following the supplementation of ElJ. Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions. PMID:25013692

Chen, Chee Keong; Mohamad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Abdullah, Mohamad Rusli; George, Annie

2014-01-01

16

NF-?B Inhibitors from Eurycoma longifolia  

PubMed Central

The roots of Eurycoma longifolia have been used in many countries of Southeast Asia to alleviate various diseases including malaria, dysentery, sexual insufficiency, and rheumatism. Although numerous studies have reported the pharmacological properties of E. longifolia, the mode of action of the anti-inflammatory activity has not been elucidated. Bioguided isolation of NF-?B inhibitors using an NF-?B-driven luciferase reporter gene assay led to the identification of a new quassinoid, eurycomalide C (1), together with 27 known compounds including 11 quassinoids (212), six alkaloids (1318), two coumarins (19, 20), a squalene derivative (21), a triterpenoid (22), and six phenolic compounds (2328) from the extract of E. longifolia. Evaluation of the biological activity revealed that C19-type and C20-type quassinoids, ?-carboline, and canthin-6-one alkaloids are potent NF-?B inhibitors, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range, while C18-type quassinoids, phenolic compounds, coumarins, the squalene derivative, and the triterpenoid turned out to be inactive when tested at a concentration of 30 ?M. Eurycomalactone (2), 14,15?-dihydroklaieanone (7), and 13,21-dehydroeurycomanone (10) were identified as potent NF-?B inhibitors with IC50 values of less than 1 ?M. PMID:24467387

2014-01-01

17

NF-?B inhibitors from Eurycoma longifolia.  

PubMed

The roots of Eurycoma longifolia have been used in many countries of Southeast Asia to alleviate various diseases including malaria, dysentery, sexual insufficiency, and rheumatism. Although numerous studies have reported the pharmacological properties of E. longifolia, the mode of action of the anti-inflammatory activity has not been elucidated. Bioguided isolation of NF-?B inhibitors using an NF-?B-driven luciferase reporter gene assay led to the identification of a new quassinoid, eurycomalide C (1), together with 27 known compounds including 11 quassinoids (2-12), six alkaloids (13-18), two coumarins (19, 20), a squalene derivative (21), a triterpenoid (22), and six phenolic compounds (23-28) from the extract of E. longifolia. Evaluation of the biological activity revealed that C19-type and C20-type quassinoids, ?-carboline, and canthin-6-one alkaloids are potent NF-?B inhibitors, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range, while C18-type quassinoids, phenolic compounds, coumarins, the squalene derivative, and the triterpenoid turned out to be inactive when tested at a concentration of 30 ?M. Eurycomalactone (2), 14,15?-dihydroklaieanone (7), and 13,21-dehydroeurycomanone (10) were identified as potent NF-?B inhibitors with IC50 values of less than 1 ?M. PMID:24467387

Tran, Thi Van Anh; Malainer, Clemens; Schwaiger, Stefan; Atanasov, Atanas G; Heiss, Elke H; Dirsch, Verena M; Stuppner, Hermann

2014-03-28

18

Comparative study on the effect of Eurycoma longifolia and Smilax myosotiflora on male rats fertility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack and Smilax myosotiflora were studied on sperm quality include sperm count, motility, viability and histology of the testis and pregnancy rate after mating with fertile proved females, as well as litter size on Sprague-Dawley (S-D) adult male rats. After dosing them with distilled water group A, group B 150 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of E. longifolia roots, group C 150 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of S. myosotiflora leaf and group D 150 mg/kg body weight of E. longifolia combined with 150 mg/kg S. myosotiflora body weight daily for 14 days of stage (a) and 28 days for stage (b) of treatments. Results exhibited no significant variation (P>0.05) of stage (a),while results showed that E. longifolia Jack increase (P<0.05) the sperm count, motility, viability and histology of the testis and gender (male) of the litter size respectively of stage (b). This study provides evidence that E. longifolia Jack is a potent stimulator of fertility in male rat.

Mahmoud, Amal Salem Farag; Noor, Mahanem Mat

2013-11-01

19

Genetic Diversity of Eurycoma longifolia Inferred from Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms1[w  

PubMed Central

Eurycoma longifolia Jack. is a treelet that grows in the forests of Southeast Asia and is widely used throughout the region because of its reported medicinal properties. Widespread harvesting of wild-grown trees has led to rapid thinning of natural populations, causing a potential decrease in genetic diversity among E. longifolia. Suitable genetic markers would be very useful for propagation and breeding programs to support conservation of this species, although no such markers currently exist. To meet this need, we have applied a genome complexity reduction strategy to identify a series of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genomes of several E. longifolia accessions. We have found that the occurrence of these SNPs reflects the geographic origins of individual plants and can distinguish different natural populations. This work demonstrates the rapid development of molecular genetic markers in species for which little or no genomic sequence information is available. The SNP markers that we have developed in this study will also be useful for identifying genetic fingerprints that correlate with other properties of E. longifolia, such as high regenerability or the appearance of bioactive metabolites. PMID:12644679

Osman, Asiah; Jordan, Barbara; Lessard, Philip A.; Muhammad, Norwati; Haron, M. Rosli; Riffin, Norifiza Mat; Sinskey, Anthony J.; Rha, ChoKyun; Housman, David E.

2003-01-01

20

Eurycoma longifolia: Medicinal Plant in the Prevention and Treatment of Male Osteoporosis due to Androgen Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis in elderly men is now becoming an alarming health issue due to its relation with a higher mortality rate compared to osteoporosis in women. Androgen deficiency (hypogonadism) is one of the major factors of male osteoporosis and it can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). However, one medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL), can be used as an alternative treatment to prevent and treat male osteoporosis without causing the side effects associated with TRT. EL exerts proandrogenic effects that enhance testosterone level, as well as stimulate osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast apoptosis. This will maintain bone remodelling activity and reduce bone loss. Phytochemical components of EL may also prevent osteoporosis via its antioxidative property. Hence, EL has the potential as a complementary treatment for male osteoporosis. PMID:22844328

Mohd Effendy, Nadia; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Naina Mohamad, Isa; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

2012-01-01

21

Bone Micro-CT Assessments in an Orchidectomised Rat Model Supplemented with Eurycoma longifolia  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggested that Eurycoma longifolia, a herbal plant, may have the potential to treat osteoporosis in elderly male. This study aimed to determine the effects of Eurycoma longifolia supplementation on the trabecular bone microarchitecture of orchidectomised rats (androgen-deficient osteoporosis model). Forty-eight-aged (1012 months old) Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups of sham-operated (SHAM), orchidectomised control (ORX), orchidectomised + 7?mg/rat testosterone enanthate (TEN) and orchidectomised + Eurycoma longifolia 30?mg/kg (EL30), orchidectomised + Eurycoma longifolia 60?mg/kg (EL60), orchidectomised + Eurycoma longifolia 90?mg/kg (EL90). Rats were euthanized following six weeks of treatment. The left femora were used to measure the trabecular bone microarchitecture using micro-CT. Orchidectomy significantly decreased connectivity density, trabecular bone volume, and trabecular number compared to the SHAM group. Testosterone replacement reversed all the orchidectomy-induced changes in the micro-CT parameters. EL at 30 and 60?mg/kg rat worsened the trabecular bone connectivity density and trabecular separation parameters of orchidectomised rats. EL at 90?mg/kg rat preserved the bone volume. High dose of EL (90?mg/kg) may have potential in preserving the bone microarchitecture of orchidectomised rats, but lower doses may further worsen the osteoporotic changes. PMID:22952556

Ramli, Rosmaliza; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

2012-01-01

22

Anti-Tumor Activity of Eurycoma longifolia Root Extracts against K-562 Cell Line: In Vitro and In Vivo Study  

PubMed Central

Eurycoma longifolia Jack has been widely used in traditional medicine for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial and anti-pyretic activities. Its anticancer activity has also been recently reported on different solid tumors, however no anti-leukemic activity of this plant has been reported. Thus the present study assesses the in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative and apoptotic potentials of E. longifolia on K-562 leukemic cell line. The K-562 cells (purchased from ATCC) were isolated from patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) were treated with the various fractions (TAF273, F3 and F4) of E. longifolia root methanolic extract at various concentrations and time intervals and the anti-proliferative activity assessed by MTS assay. Flow cytometry was used to assess the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Nude mice injected subcutaneously with 107 K-562 cells were used to study the anti-leukemic activity of TAF273 in vivo. TAF273, F3 and F4 showed various degrees of growth inhibition with IC50 values of 19, 55 and 62 g/ml, respectively. TAF273 induced apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner. TAF273 arrested cell cycle at G1and S phases. Intraperitoneal administration of TAF273 (50 mg/kg) resulted in a significant growth inhibition of subcutaneous tumor in TAF273-treated mice compared with the control mice (P?=?0.024). TAF273 shows potent anti-proliferative activity in vitro and in vivo models of CML and therefore, justifies further efforts to define more clearly the potential benefits of using TAF273 as a novel therapeutic strategy for CML management. PMID:24409284

Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul; Kit-Lam, Chan; Abdullah, Wan Zaidah; Zaki, Abdelhamid; Jamal Din, Shah Kamal Khan; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd

2014-01-01

23

Anti-tumor activity of Eurycoma longifolia root extracts against K-562 cell line: in vitro and in vivo study.  

PubMed

Eurycoma longifolia Jack has been widely used in traditional medicine for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial and anti-pyretic activities. Its anticancer activity has also been recently reported on different solid tumors, however no anti-leukemic activity of this plant has been reported. Thus the present study assesses the in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative and apoptotic potentials of E. longifolia on K-562 leukemic cell line. The K-562 cells (purchased from ATCC) were isolated from patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) were treated with the various fractions (TAF273, F3 and F4) of E. longifolia root methanolic extract at various concentrations and time intervals and the anti-proliferative activity assessed by MTS assay. Flow cytometry was used to assess the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Nude mice injected subcutaneously with 10(7) K-562 cells were used to study the anti-leukemic activity of TAF273 in vivo. TAF273, F3 and F4 showed various degrees of growth inhibition with IC50 values of 19, 55 and 62 g/ml, respectively. TAF273 induced apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner. TAF273 arrested cell cycle at G1 and S phases. Intraperitoneal administration of TAF273 (50 mg/kg) resulted in a significant growth inhibition of subcutaneous tumor in TAF273-treated mice compared with the control mice (P?=?0.024). TAF273 shows potent anti-proliferative activity in vitro and in vivo models of CML and therefore, justifies further efforts to define more clearly the potential benefits of using TAF273 as a novel therapeutic strategy for CML management. PMID:24409284

Al-Salahi, Omar Saeed Ali; Ji, Dan; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul; Kit-Lam, Chan; Abdullah, Wan Zaidah; Zaki, Abdelhamid; Jamal Din, Shah Kamal Khan; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd; Majid, Aman Shah Abdul

2014-01-01

24

Eurycoma longifolia extract-artemisinin combination: parasitemia suppression of Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice.  

PubMed

Eurycoma longifolia, locally known as 'Tongkat Ali' is a popular local medicinal plant that possess a lot of medicinal properties as claimed traditionally, especially in the treatment of malaria. The claims have been proven scientifically on isolated compounds from the plant. The present study is to investigate the anti malaria properties of Eurycoma longifolia standardized extract (root) (TA164) alone and in combination with artemisinin in vivo. Combination treatment of the standardized extract (TA164) with artemisinin suppressed P. yoelii infection in the experimental mice. The 4 day suppressive test showed that TA164 suppressed the parasitemia of P. yoelii-infected mice as dose dependent manner (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg BW) by oral and subcutaneous treatment. By oral administration, combination of TA164 at 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg BW each with artemisinin respectively showed a significant increase in the parasitemia suppression to 63, 67 and 80 percent as compared to artemisinin single treatment (31%). Using subcutaneous administration, at 10 mg/kg BW of TA164 in combination with 1.7 mg/kg BW of artemisinin gave a suppression of 80% of infection. This study showed that combination treatment of TA164 with artemisinin gives a promising potential anti malaria candidate using both oral and subcutaneous route, the later being the most potent. PMID:17568384

Mohd Ridzuan, M A R; Sow, A; Noor Rain, A; Mohd Ilham, A; Zakiah, I

2007-06-01

25

LC-MS/MS-based metabolites of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) in Malaysia (Perak and Pahang).  

PubMed

A number of three LC-MS/MS hybrid systems (QTof, TripleTof and QTrap) has been used to profile small metabolites (m/z 100-1000) and to detect the targeted metabolites such as quassinoids, alkaloids, triterpene and biphenylneolignans from the aqueous extracts of Eurycoma longifolia. The metabolite profiles of small molecules showed four significant clusters in the principle component analysis for the aqueous extracts of E. longifolia, which had been collected from different geographical terrains (Perak and Pahang) and processed at different extraction temperatures (35C and 100C). A small peptide of leucine (m/z 679) and a new hydroxyl methyl ?-carboline propionic acid have been identified to differentiate E. longifolia extracts that prepared at 35C and 100C, respectively. From the targeted metabolites identification, it was found that 3,4?-dihydroeurycomanone (quassinoids) and eurylene (squalene-type triterpene) could only be detected in the Pahang extract, whereas canthin-6-one-3N-oxide could only be detected in the Perak extract. Overall, quassinoids were present in the highest concentration, particularly eurycomanone and its derivatives compared to the other groups of metabolites. However, the concentration of canthin-6-one and ?-carboline alkaloids was significantly increased when the roots of the plant samples were extracted at 100C. PMID:22119436

Chua, Lee Suan; Amin, Nor Amaiza Mohd; Neo, Jason Chun Hong; Lee, Ting Hun; Lee, Chew Tin; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Aziz, Ramlan Abdul

2011-12-15

26

Plant proteins, minerals and trace elements of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali).  

PubMed

A water extraction method has been used to extract plant proteins from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia harvested from Perak and Pahang, Malaysia. On the basis of the spectroscopic Bradford assay, Tongkat Ali Perak and Pahang contained 0.3868 and 0.9573?mg?mL(-1) of crude protein, respectively. The crude proteins were separated by one dimensional 15% sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into two (49.8 and 5.5?kD) and four (49.8, 24.7, 21.1 and 5.5?kD) protein spots for Tongkat Ali Perak and Pahang, respectively. Isoleucine was present in the highest concentration significantly. Both plant samples showed differences in the mineral and trace element profiles, but the minerals calcium, magnesium and potassium were present in the highest concentration. The highly concerned toxic metals such as arsenic and lead were not detected. PMID:22468741

Chua, Lee Suan; Abdul-Rahman, Nurulaini; Rosidi, Bustanur; Lee, Chew Tin

2013-03-01

27

Effects of Eurycoma longifolia on Testosterone Level and Bone Structure in an Aged Orchidectomised Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Testosterone replacement is the choice of treatment in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. However, long-term use of testosterone is potentially carcinogenic. Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has been reported to enhance testosterone level and prevent bone calcium loss but there is a paucity of research regarding its effect on the bone structural parameters. This study was conducted to explore the bone structural changes following EL treatment in normal and androgen-deficient osteoporosis rat model. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 12 months were divided into normal control, normal rat supplemented with EL, sham-operated, orchidectomised-control, orchidectomised with testosterone replacement, and orchidectomised with EL supplementation groups. Testosterone serum was measured both before and after the completion of the treatment. After 6 weeks of the treatment, the femora were processed for bone histomorphometry. Testosterone replacement was able to raise the testosterone level and restore the bone volume of orchidectomised rats. EL supplementation failed to emulate both these testosterone actions. The inability of EL to do so may be related to the absence of testes in the androgen deficient osteoporosis model for EL to stimulate testosterone production. PMID:22966245

Tajul Ariff, Abdul Shukor; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Pramanik, J.; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

2012-01-01

28

Phytoandrogenic properties of Eurycoma longifolia as natural alternative to testosterone replacement therapy.  

PubMed

The testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is characterised by numerous symptoms, including low libido, increased fat mass, fatigue, erectile dysfunction or osteoporosis, and up to 80% of men will experience some kind of ageing males' symptoms. This is caused by the age-depending decline in serum testosterone levels with concentrations being about 40-50% lower in men older than 60 years compared with young men. This significant decline in testosterone levels is further closely linked with medical conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes or hypertension. The conventional way of treating TDS is the testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), for which preparations are on the market. Apart from the beneficial effects of TRT, significant adverse side effects have been described, and prostate cancer (PCa) as absolute contraindication is debated. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali; TA) is natural alternative to TRT and has been shown to restore serum testosterone levels, thus significantly improving sexual health. This includes significant positive effects on bone health and physical condition of patients. In addition, a significant antihyperglycaemic effect and cytotoxicity against PCas cells has been shown. Thus far, at therapeutic concentrations, no significant side effects of the treatment were obvious. Therefore, TA might be a safe alternative to TRT. PMID:24386995

George, A; Henkel, R

2014-09-01

29

Standardised water-soluble extract of Eurycoma longifolia, Tongkat ali, as testosterone booster for managing men with late-onset hypogonadism?  

PubMed

In most countries, millions of people are relying on herbal medicines as remedy for numerous ailments. In South-East Asia, Eurycoma longifolia Jack, also known as 'Malaysian ginseng' or Tongkat ali, is used to combat stress and disease and to improve physical strength. Moreover, the compounds of the roots of this plant are reported to have aphrodisiac and testosterone enhancing effects in the rat. Considering that human studies are not available, 76 of 320 patients suffering from late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) were given 200 mg of a standardised water-soluble extract of Tongkat ali for 1 month. The Ageing Males' Symptoms (AMS) according to the standardised rating scale and the serum testosterone concentration were taken. Results show that treatment of LOH patients with this Tongkat ali extract significantly (P < 0.0001) improved the AMS score as well as the serum testosterone concentration. While before treatment only 10.5% of the patients did not show any complaint according to the AMS scale and 35.5% had normal testosterone levels, after the completed treatment 71.7% and 90.8% of the patients showed normal values, respectively. Thus, Tongkat ali extract appears to be useful as a supplement in overcoming the symptoms of LOH and for the management of hypogonadism. PMID:21671978

Tambi, M I B M; Imran, M K; Henkel, R R

2012-05-01

30

Eurycoma longifolia upregulates osteoprotegerin gene expression in androgen- deficient osteoporosis rat model  

PubMed Central

Background Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has been shown recently to protect against bone calcium loss in orchidectomised rats, the model for androgen-deficient osteoporosis. The mechanism behind this is unclear but it may be related to its ability to elevate testosterone levels or it may directly affect bone remodeling. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanism involved by investigating the effects of EL extract on serum testosterone levels, bone biomarkers, biomechanical strength and gene expression of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (MCSF) in orchidectomised rats. Methods Thirty-two male SpragueDawley rats were divided into: Sham-operated group (SHAM); orchidectomised-control group (ORX); orchidectomised and given 15?mg/kg EL extract (ORX + EL) and orchidectomised and given 8?mg/kg testosterone (ORX + T). The rats were treated for 6?weeks. The serum levels of testosterone, osteocalcin and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) were measured using the ELISA technique. The femoral bones were subjected to biomechanical testing. The tibial bone gene expressions of RANKL, OPG and MCSF were measured using the branch DNA technique. Results The post-treatment level of testosterone was found to be significantly reduced by orchiectomy (p < 0.05). Both ORX + EL and ORX + T groups have significantly higher post-treatment testosterone levels compared to their pre-treatment levels (p < 0.05). The bone resorption marker (CTx) was elevated after orchiectomy but was suppressed after treatment in the ORX + EL and ORX + T groups (p < 0.05). There was no significant finding for the femoral biomechanical parameters. The tibial OPG gene expression in the ORX group was significantly lower compared to the SHAM and ORX + EL groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion Supplementation with EL extract elevated the testosterone levels, reduced the bone resorption marker and upregulated OPG gene expression of the orchidectomised rats. These actions may be responsible for the protective effects of EL extract against bone resorption due to androgen deficiency. PMID:22967165

2012-01-01

31

Combined Effects of Eurycoma longifolia and Testosterone on Androgen-Deficient Osteoporosis in a Male Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Androgen-deficient osteoporosis in men is treated with testosterone therapy, which is associated with side effects. Eurycoma longifolia (EL) is known to possess androgenic properties and has been reported to protect bone from androgen-deficient osteoporosis in experimental animal models. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of combination therapy of EL and testosterone (T) in treating androgen-deficient osteoporosis. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into: sham-operated (SHAM), orchidectomized-control (ORX), orchidectomized with testosterone (ORX + T), orchidectomized with EL (ORX + EL), and orchidectomized with combined T and EL therapy (ORX + T + EL). EL was administered via oral gavages daily at the dose of 15?mg/kg. T was injected intramuscularly at 8?mg/kg and 4?mg/kg for the ORX + T and ORX + T + EL groups, respectively. Following 6 weeks of treatment, the osteocalcin levels of ORX + T and ORX + T + EL groups were significantly lower than the SHAM group (P < 0.05). The posttreatment CTX levels of ORX + T and ORX + T + EL groups were significantly lower than their pretreatment levels (P < 0.05). Biomechanically, the strain parameter of the ORX + T + EL group was significantly higher than the ORX group (P < 0.05). Thus, the combination therapy of EL and low-dose T has potential for treatment of androgen-deficient osteoporosis. The lower T dose is beneficial in reducing the sideeffects of testosterone therapy. PMID:22924057

Saadiah Abdul Razak, Halimatun; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Naina Mohamed, Isa

2012-01-01

32

Rapid detection of sildenafil analogue in Eurycoma longifolia products using a new two-tier procedure of the near infrared (NIR) spectra database.  

PubMed

A simple and cost-effective two-tier drug screening procedure comprises a 'dedicated' NIR spectral database of common medicines and a 'unified' database was developed to detect the sildenafil analogue in Eurycoma longifolia products. Diffuse reflectance spectra of ten commercial herbal products containing E. longifolia were obtained over the wavelength range of 1100-2500 nm. The spectral search of two products purchased via the internet against a dedicated database of reputable E. longifolia products have resulted in the similarity index of more than 0.1 which indicated significantly different spectra. Further searches against the unified database showed a close match to the spectra of drug containing sildenafil citrate suggesting the presence of a sildenafil analogue. This finding was supported by clustering of these spectra in the PCA score plot within 5% significance level. This approach has alleviated the use of reference product or standard active for direct comparison and has a potential to be used for adulterated food and drugs detection. PMID:24731345

Said, Mazlina Mohd; Gibbons, Simon; Moffat, Anthony C; Zloh, Mire

2014-09-01

33

Randomized Clinical Trial on the Use of PHYSTA Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia for the Improvement of Quality of Life and Sexual Well-Being in Men  

PubMed Central

Eurycoma longifolia is reputed as an aphrodisiac and remedy for decreased male libido. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel group study was carried out to investigate the clinical evidence of E. longifolia in men. The 12-week study in 109 men between 30 and 55 years of age consisted of either treatment of 300?mg of water extract of E. longifolia (Physta) or placebo. Primary endpoints were the Quality of Life investigated by SF-36 questionnaire and Sexual Well-Being investigated by International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Sexual Health Questionnaires (SHQ); Seminal Fluid Analysis (SFA), fat mass and safety profiles. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis was used to compare changes in the endpoints. The E. longifolia (EL) group significantly improved in the domain Physical Functioning of SF-36, from baseline to week 12 compared to placebo (P = 0.006) and in between group at week 12 (P = 0.028). The EL group showed higher scores in the overall Erectile Function domain in IIEF (P < 0.001), sexual libido (14% by week 12), SFA- with sperm motility at 44.4%, and semen volume at 18.2% at the end of treatment. Subjects with BMI ? 25?kg/m2 significantly improved in fat mass lost (P = 0.008). All safety parameters were comparable to placebo. PMID:23243445

Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Wan Mohammad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin; George, Annie; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina; Musthapa Kamal, Zatul Mufiza; Liske, Eckehard

2012-01-01

34

Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300?mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 4065 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers. PMID:24550993

Udani, Jay K.; George, Annie A.; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N.; Abas, Azreena

2014-01-01

35

Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.  

PubMed

Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300?mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40-65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers. PMID:24550993

Udani, Jay K; George, Annie A; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N; Abas, Azreena

2014-01-01

36

Flavone glycosides from Mentha longifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to isoorientin, vicenin-2, hypolaetin, lucenin-1, luteolin 7-O-glucoside and 7-O-neohesperidoside, the aerial parts of Mentha longifolia yielded three new flavonoids, identified as tricetin 7-O-methylether 3?-O glucoside 5?-O-rhamnoside (1), tricetin 3?-O glucoside 5?-O-rhamnoside (2) and tricetin 3?-O-rhamnosyl-(1?4)-rhamnoside (3).

M. Sharaf; M. A. El-Ansari; N. A. M. Saleh

1999-01-01

37

Modelling and Optimisation of Eurycoma longifolia Extraction Utilising a Recirculating Flow Extractor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, Tongkat Ali was extracted with a newly designed recirculating flow extractor with temperature and flow rate as the operating parameters. The optimum duration and ratio for extraction were found to be 90 min and 40:1 w/w, respectively. The determination of optimal operating parameter value for this extractor was based on maximum percentage extract yield and solid diffusivity, Ds,. From the experiments, it was found that the temperature and flow rate that produce the highest yield and solid diffusivity value were at 90C and 400 rpm (22.47 mL sec-1), respectively. The optimal operating parameter values were used to compare the recirculating flow extractor performance with a batch extraction at 90C. The comparison showed that the batch extraction was able to extract more rapidly than the recirculating flow extractor. The solid diffusivity, Ds, value for the batch extraction was found to be is 3.12x10-11 m2 sec-1 while the recirculating flow extractor had a solid diffusivity, Ds, value of 2.98x10-11 m2 sec-1 which indicated the difference in extraction rate. However, by utilizing the recirculating flow extractor, a higher final yield than batch extraction was produced which is 7.70% (w/w) for the recirculating flow extractor and 6.67% (w/w) for the batch extraction. This is possibly caused by the higher rates of solvent losses through evaporation for batch extraction.

Ajib Mohtar, Mohd; Kumaresan, Sivakumar; Roji Sarmidi, Mohd; Aziz, Ramlan Abdul

38

Two antigenotoxic chalcone glycosides from Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Mentha L. (Labiatae) species (mint) with their flavoring properties have been used in food industries for centuries. Besides they have a great importance in drug development and medicinal applications due to various bioactive compounds of several members of the genus. Objective: The aim of this study was to isolate bioactive compounds with antimutagenic potential by bio-guided fractionation and determine their structures by spectroscopic methods. Materials and methods: The structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was done based on spectroscopic methods, including MALDI-MS, UV, IR, and 2D NMR experiments, and the bio-guided fractionation process was done by using the Ames/Salmonella test system. Henceforth, solely genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of the new compounds were also confirmed up to 2?M/plate by using the same test system. Results: Two new chalcone glycosides: (?R)-?,3,2',6'-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxy-4'-O-rutinosyldihydrochalcone and (?R)-?,4,2',6'-tetrahydroxy-4'-O-rutinosyldihydrochalcone, were isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. longifolia, together with known six flavonoid glycosides and one phenolic acid: apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, rosmarinic acid. According to the antimutagenicity results, both new test compounds significantly inhibited the mutagenic activity of 9-aminoacridine in a dose-dependent manner at the tested concentrations from 0.8 to 2?M/plate. (?R)-?,4,2',6'-Tetrahydroxy-4'-O-rutinosyldihydrochalcone showed the maximum inhibition rate as 75.94% at 2?M/plate concentration. Conclusions: This is the first report that two new chalcone glycosides were isolated from Mentha longifolia subsp. longifolia and their antimutagenic potentials by using mutant bacterial tester strains. In conclusion, the two new chalcone glycosides showed a significant antigenotoxic effect on 9-aminoacridine-induced mutagenesis at tested concentrations. PMID:25429992

Guvenalp, Zuhal; Ozbek, Hilal; Karadayi, Mehmet; Gulluce, Medine; Kuruuzum-Uz, Ayse; Salih, Bekir; Demirezer, Omur

2014-11-28

39

Sesquiterpene lactone glycosides from Arnica longifolia.  

PubMed

Flowers of ARNICA LONGIFOLIA were investigated for the occurrence of sesquiterpene lactone glycosides. A mixture containing the two isomeric 11alpha,13-dihydro- and 11beta,13-dihydro-4 H-tomentosin glucosides, previously isolated from A. AMPLEXICAULIS and A. MOLLIS, together with the two isomeric 11alpha,13-dihydro- and 11beta,13-dihydro-4 H-carabrone glucosides were found in A. LONGIFOLIA. All carbon and proton shifts of the glycosides could be assigned by their 2D-COSY and 2D-HETCOR spectra and spectroscopy of their respective aglycones, obtained via enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:17260246

Passreiter, C M; De Carlo, M; Steigel, A

1999-03-01

40

Phytochemical study of Mentha longifolia of Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phytochemical study of Moroccan Mentha longifolia was carried out. The essential oil showed unusual relevant amounts of piperitenone oxide and piperitone oxide, which constitute a new chemotype. From the non-volatile extract, five flavonoids were isolated, among which 5,7,4?-trihydroxy-6,2?,3?-trimethoxyflavone (1) is reported for the first time.

Abdelkader Il Idrissi; Souad Fkih-Tetouani

2001-01-01

41

Phytochemical study of Mentha longifolia of Morocco.  

PubMed

A phytochemical study of Moroccan Mentha longifolia was carried out. The essential oil showed unusual relevant amounts of piperitenone oxide and piperitone oxide, which constitute a new chemotype. From the non-volatile extract, five flavonoids were isolated, among which 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6,2',3'-trimethoxyflavone (1) is reported for the first time. PMID:11429267

Ghoulami, S; Il Idrissi, A; Fkih-Tetouani, S

2001-06-01

42

Two novel iridoids from Morinda longifolia.  

PubMed

Six secondary metabolites, including two novel iridoids, longifolides A (1) and B (2), were isolated by various chromatographic methods from a methanol extract of branches and leaves of Morinda longifolia Craib. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of NMR spectroscopic (1H and 13C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, 1H-1H COSY, NOESY) and FTICR-MS data, as well as by comparison of them with literature values. PMID:25230486

Ban, Ninh Khac; Giang, Vu Huong; Linh, Tran My; Lien, Le Quynh; Ngoc, Ninh Thi; Dat, Le Duc; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Van Pham, Cuong; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Regalado, Jacinto; Van Keo, Huynh; Van Kiem, Phan; Van Minh, Chau

2014-07-01

43

Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the essential oils and methanol extract from Mentha longifolia L. ssp. longifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract from Mentha longifolia ssp. longifolia. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all 30 microorganisms tested whereas the methanol extract almost remained inactive. In contrast, the extract showed much better activity than the essential oil in antioxidant activity assays employed, e.g. in

M. Gulluce; F. Sahin; M. Sokmen; H. Ozer; D. Daferera; A. Sokmen; M. Polissiou; A. Adiguzel; H. Ozkan

2007-01-01

44

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 inhibitory activity of Mentha longifolia.  

PubMed

Extracts from a new chemotype of Mentha longifolia, a mint species that grows spontaneously and widely in the Moroccan mountains, were tested against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We observed that non-toxic concentrations (10 microg/mL) of extracts from this plant, in particular methanol (Ext-1) and ethyl acetate (Ext-3) extracts, significantly inhibit (p < 0.01) HIV-1BaL infection by about 40% and 55%, respectively. In addition, only Ext-3 shows significant (p < 0.008) inhibitory activity (50% inhibition) against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. It is noteworthy that chemical analysis of these extracts suggests that flavonoids, mainly flavones of M. longifolia, may be the major inhibitors of HIV infection. In conclusion, these in vitro data suggest that components of M. longifolia may represent potential anti-HIV agents; the identification of such components is in progress. PMID:15058498

Amzazi, Saad; Ghoulami, Saad; Bakri, Youssef; Il Idrissi, Abdelkader; Fkih-Ttouani, Souad; Benjouad, Abdelaziz

2003-01-01

45

Human Keratinocytes Radioprotection with Mentha Longifolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antioxidants are suggested to act as radioprotectors, and dietary supplements based on antiox-idants have been proposed for astronauts involved in long-term space missions. Plant extracts with antioxidant properties may be used in dietetic supplements for astronauts; in fact recent nutritional guidelines suggest that "fruits and vegetables may become as important on space-going vessels as limes were on the sea-going vessels of old". Mint presents a large variety of biological properties, such as antiallergenic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, an-tiviral, gastrointestinal protective, hepatoprotective, chemopreventive activities, most of which are attributable to its antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant properties and protective bio-efficacy of a phenol enriched Mentha longifolia ex-tract on gamma rays stressed human keratinocytes (NCTC2544). We assessed first the in vitro antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH), and then evaluated different stress markers in order to investigate various oxidative stress targets: cell viability (MTT); retained proliferating ca-pability (CA); DNA damage (histone H2AX) and protein damage (HSP70 induction). Results indicate that this Mint extract has a higher antioxidant activity respect to fresh extracts, that could be responsible of its really interesting radio-protective effects.

Rizzo, Angela Maria; Berselli, P.; Zava, S.; Negroni, M.; Corsetto, P.; Montorfano, G.; Bertolotti, A.; Ranza, E.; Ottolenghi, A.; Berra, B.

46

Volatile Component of Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. from Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil obtained by steam distillation of the aerial parts of Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. was investigated by a combination of GC and GC\\/MS. Among the 15 compounds identified, the major components were piperitenone oxide (23.5%), ?-caryophyllene (23.2%), piperitone oxide (17.5%), germacrene D (17.2%) and bicyclogermacrene (3.8%).

D. Nori-Shargh; H. Norouzi-Arasi; S. Mohammadi; M. Mirza; K. Jaimand

2000-01-01

47

Thomas Jack Lee  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thomas Jack Lee served as the sixth director of the Marshall Space Flight Center from July 6, 1989 to January 6, 1994. Prior to the appointment, Lee held positions as Center Deputy Director (1980 - 1989) and Spacelab Program Manager (1973 - 1980). Lee began his NASA career in July 1960 when he transferred to the newly formed MSFC from Redstone Arsenal's Army Ballistic Missile Agency.

1992-01-01

48

Jumping Jack Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan combines physical activity (jumping jacks) with data collection. The purpose of this activity is to compare and contrast the use of mean, median, and mode as the best measure of central tendency. The lesson plan includes three worksheets, extension questions, and assessment options.

Dankanich, Caitlin L.

2012-01-01

49

Jack Dymond's Deep Insights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most people do not know that Jack Dymond was a major influence on several aspects of current deep-sea research. Along with Margaret Leinen and Jack, we were part of the first Alvin dive program on the Endeavour hydrothermal field in 1984. Jack was working with Rick, on a sediment-trap study of the overall carbon fluxes in the vicinity of the Endeavour hydrothermal systems in an effort to address a question that Cindy Lee had posed about the overall carbon production from hydrothermal vents. At the time we were recognizing and naming many of the 20- to 40-meter-high sulfide structures in the Endeavour field (Hulk, Grotto, Dante, Dudley, Bastille), Jack commented that it was a shame that the world could not see these magnificent edifices or watch endlessly awesome black smokers. His feeling was that some vent sites should be converted to National Parks to preserve them from invasion by enthusiastic scientists, yet he clearly had the vision that the public should be given a sense of the grandeur involved locally, as well as the vastness of the 70,000-km ridge-crest system running through every ocean. Within a year we started talking about the RIDGE Program, and Jack was an early and enthusiastic participant in the design and development of RIDGE. Jack was among the first to encourage multi-disciplinary research at the hydrothermal vent sites. Recognizing that deep currents are important to vent processes, he urged physical oceanographers to work with the chemists, biologists, and geologists and was personally responsible for Rick becoming interested in studying vents. We, the co-authors of this abstract, became close friends as a result of having been introduced to each other by Jack. Several years ago, we co-authored the first paper ever written on the possible influence of hydrothermal activity on the circulation of the Europan Ocean, a paper that we here dedicate to the memory of Jack. Finally, it was in part because of Jack's conviction that the world should know more about submarine hydrothermal systems, albeit in a manner we could not then imagine, that eventually led to developing the concept of a cabled ocean observatory. Technology evolved to allow us to design a system that would deliver considerable power and nearly inexhaustible bandwidth to major portions of the ocean basins, enabling an interactive form of oceanography that will be developed within the ORION program and that is now becoming a reality in the form of the Canadian NEPTUNE program. Within five years, these cabled systems will reach into the newly established Canadian Marine Protected area on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge and will bring live-action high-definition video in stereo to anyone capable of logging onto the Internet. Jack Dymond was an inspiration to many communities, one of which was oceanography. We miss him tremendously.

Thomson, R. E.; Delaney, J. R.

2004-12-01

50

Verti Jack Pumping Unit evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Verti Jack Pumping Unit was tested primarily to establish the energy comsumption efficiency of the unit as compared with that of conventional pumping unit. Before the unit was field tested, extensive static testing was performed to determine the effect of the counterbalance system throughout the operational cycle. The field test included comparing the performance of the Verti Jack Unit and conventional pump jacks - a Bethlehem 16 and Cabot 25 pumping unit. The Verti Jack unit was operated at four different pumping conditions. The Verti Jack unit peformed satisfactorily during the testing. Only minor problems that could not be attributed to the design or operation of the unit were encountered. Changing the stroke length was difficult in the field, but such operational problems were expected in operating the first phototype and can be corrected on future models. During the higher pumping rate tests of the Verti Jack unit, the well ceased to deliver fluid quantities at rates adequate to the pumping rate. These data are shown in table 8. Therefore, evaluation data are based on theoretical pump performance and are presented in table 9. The data show that the Verti Jack is more efficient than the conventional units tested. The most direct comparison was the Verti Jack test at 36-inch stroke and 12 1/2 strokes per minute versus the Cabot unit at 37-inch stroke and 12 strokes per minute. In the comparison the Verti Jack operated about 24 percent more efficiently than the Cabot unit. Comparing the summation of all Verti Jack tests with that of all conventional unit tests, the Verti Jack operated about 15 percent more efficiently. Compared to the Cabot unit only, the Verti Jack was about 17 percent more energy efficient. 13 figs., 12 tabs.

Porter, R.; Spence, K.

1985-11-01

51

Antioxidant and antityrosinase proanthocyanidins from Polyalthia longifolia leaves.  

PubMed

In the present study the structure of proanthocyanidins from Polyalthia longifolia leaves was characterized with (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses. The results showed that the proanthocyanidins were mixture of homopolymers of B-type procyanidins with degree of polymerization up to 14-mer. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the proanthocyanidins was studied through 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free-radical scavenging activities, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assays. In addition, antityrosinase activity of the proanthocyanidins was investigated. The IC50 for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free-radical scavenging activity of the proanthocyanidins were 89.3212.07 and 76.795.88?g/mL, respectively; the ferric reducing/antioxidant power value was 710.54142.82mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g dry weight. The IC50 for antityrosinase activity was 773.091.47?g/mL. In conclusion, the proanthocyanidins from P.longifolia leaves exhibited potent antioxidant and antityrosinase activities. This research would provide scientific evidence for the use of proanthocyanidins from P.longifolia leaves as antioxidant and antityrosinase agents. PMID:24863181

Chen, Xiao-Xin; Liang, Ge; Chai, Wei-Ming; Feng, Hui-Ling; Zhou, Han-Tao; Shi, Yan; Chen, Qing-Xi

2014-11-01

52

Constituents of Essential Oils from Mentha longifolia Growing Wild in Greece.  

PubMed

The essential oils from 9 populations of MENTHA LONGIFOLIA (L.) L., ssp. LONGIFOLIA and ssp. PETIOLATA (Boiss.) Kokkini, growing wild in Greece, were investigated by means of GLC and GLC-MS. Piperitone oxide has been found as the main component in the essential oils of both subspecies while carvone only in some individuals of ssp. PETIOLATA (chemotype 2). PMID:17265207

Kokkini, S; Papageorgiou, V P

1988-02-01

53

Jack London an American Author  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Students will evaluate informational text and build background knowledge about the American Author Jack London. Procedures: Click on the links below and read the biographical information about Jack London, the historical time period in which he wrote, and his writing by reading a few excerpts from Call of The Wild, Sea Wolf, and more tales. London is highly demanding on his readers; ...

Ms. S. Anderson

2008-09-10

54

Comparison of chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of Mentha longifolia L. ssp. longifolia essential oil from two Tunisian localities (Gabes and Sidi Bouzid)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conceived to evaluate the difference in the chemical composition of the essential oil ofMentha longifolia ssp.longifolia from two ecotypes (Sidi Bouzid and Gabes) as well as the difference of the composition of the oils extracted from the leaves\\u000a and stems. The antimicrobial activity was also tested against 16 human pathogenic microorganisms. The chemical composition\\u000a of the hydrodistilled

Hafedh Hajlaoui; Mejdi Snoussi; Hichem Ben Jannet; Zine Mighri; Amina Bakhrouf

2008-01-01

55

Jack London's Writings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the fact that he passed away at the relatively young age of 40, Jack London lived a life that truly lived up to the credo of "rugged individualism". By the time he passed away on November 22, 1916, London had explored the South Pacific, written several important socialist tracts, and authored dozens of short stories, some of which continue to be perennial favorites. This online collection, provided by the Berkeley Digital Library SunSITE project, provides a wealth of material on London, including full-text versions of nearly all of his books, primary documents, and detailed bibliographies and finding aids. The site also provides a biography by Dr. Clarice Stasz of Sonoma State University, a good selection of photographs of London and his family, along with frequently-asked-questions section. Finally, visitors may also want to sign up for the Jack London electronic mailing list, which is intended to allow scholars and the general public to communicate about the author and related subjects.

56

Jack Sheaffer Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Born in 1929, Jack Sheaffer chronicled the explosive growth of Arizona during the better part of the 20th century. He attended Tucson High School, joined the Air Force in 1954, and then started working as a contract photographer for the Arizona Daily Star. Sheaffer was the chief photographer for the paper between 1955 and 1982, and this voluminous collection presents a healthy sampling of his work. Here visitors can make their way through over 10,000 photographs digitized by the University of Arizona Libraries Digital Collections. Visitors can perform a detailed search across the entire collection, but it's also fun to just type in a keyword or two, such as Tucson, roads, or parades. Visitors will note that the subjects covered by Sheaffer are vast, and they include tragic accidents, local beauty pageants, and the Tucson Rodeo. All told, this site offers an amazing portrait of Arizona in the latter half of the 20th century.

57

Antimicrobial potentials of Mentha longifolia by disc diffusion method.  

PubMed

This study was conducted for the assessment of the antimicrobial activities of different solvents extracted samples from the aerial parts of Mentha longifolia against ten microbial species through the disc diffusion assay using two different concentrations of 1 and 2 mg disc1. All extracts from Mentha longifolia showed different ranges of antimicrobial activities. Butanol and ethyl acetate fractions showed inhibitory activities against all microbial species. Methanol fraction showed inhibitory effects against all the tested microbial species except Salmonella typhi. Salmonella typhi was also not controlled by methanol, petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracted samples. The most susceptible gram positive bacteria was Bacillus atropheus and Bacillus subtilis and were inhibited by all extracts and Staphylococus aureus was least susceptible among gram positive bacteria. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most susceptible gram negative bacterium and Salmonella typhi was highly resistant among the gram negative bacteria. Erwinia carotovora and Agrobacterium tumefaciene were susceptible to all fractions. All fractions showed antifungal activities against Candida albicans except water extracted samples. PMID:25015464

Bakht, Jehan; Shaheen, Salma; Shafi, Mohammad

2014-07-01

58

The chemistry, pharmacologic, and therapeutic applications of Polyalthia longifolia  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants are nature's gift to human beings to lead a disease-free, healthy life. They play a vital role in preserving our health. India is one of the most medicoculturally diverse countries in the world, where the medicinal plant sector is part of a time-honored tradition that is respected even today. Medicinal plants are believed to be much safer and proved as elixir in the treatment of various ailments. In our country, more than 2000 medicinal plants are recognized. Polyalthia longifolia cv. pendula (Annonaceae) is native to the drier regions of India and is locally known as Ashoka and is commonly cultivated in Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This plant is used as an antipyretic agent in indigenous systems of medicine. Pharmacologic studies on the bark and leaves of this plant show effective antimicrobial activity, cytotoxic function, antiulcer activity, hypoglycemic activity, and hypotensive effect. The present article includes the detailed exploration of pharmacologic properties of P. longifolia in an attempt to provide a direction for further research. PMID:22228943

Katkar, K. V.; Suthar, A. C.; Chauhan, V. S.

2010-01-01

59

A Piperitenone Oxide Chemotype of Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. Growing Wild in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil obtained from Mentha longifolia plants growing wild in Jordan has been analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The main consituent has been isolated and identified as piperitenone oxide (83.7%).

Ibrahim M. Abu-Al-Futuh; Osama H. Abdelmageed; Raya M. Jamil; Pinarosa Avato

2000-01-01

60

Isolation of some luteolin derivatives from Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. longifolia and determination of their genotoxic potencies.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of luteolin derivatives (luteolin 7-O-glucoside, luteolin 7-O-rutinoside and luteolin 7-O-glucuronide) isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. subsp. longifolia by using Ames Salmonella test (TA 1535 and TA1537 strains). In the antimutagenicity assays, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, luteolin 7-O-rutinoside and luteolin 7-O-glucuronide showed antimutagenic effects on TA1537 and TA1535 strains. The highest inhibition rates for luteolin 7-O-glucoside, luteolin 7-O-rutinoside and luteolin 7-O-glucuronide on TA1537 strain were 84.03%, 87.63% and 67.77%, respectively. Similarly, in the antimutagenicity assays performed with the TA1535 strain, the inhibition rates for luteolin 7-O-glucoside and luteolin 7-O-rutinoside were 23.86% and 23.76% respectively. Our findings showed that the antimutagenic properties of luteolin derivatives on TA1537 and TA1535 strains have been found to be structure dependent. The clarification of differences in antimutagenic potency of these luteolin derivatives based on their structures has been demonstrated in this study. PMID:22868156

Orhan, Furkan; Bar??, zlem; Yanm??, Derya; Bal, Tu?ba; Gvenalp, Zuhal; Gllce, Medine

2012-11-15

61

Isolation of a flavonoid, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, from Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subspecies longifolia and its genotoxic potency.  

PubMed

Mentha is a medicinal and aromatic plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family, which is widely used in food, flavor, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, it has been found that the use of Mentha as a pharmaceutical source is based on its phytochemical constituents that have far been identified as tannins, saponins, phenolic acids and flavonoids. This study was designed to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of apigenin 7-O-glucoside (A7G), a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subspecies longifolia (ML). The possible antimutagenic potential of A7G was examined against mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate and acridine in an eukaryotic cell system Saccharomyces cerevisiae and sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and 9-aminoacridine in S. typhimurium TA1537. According to our findings, any concentrations of the A7G used did not show mutagenic activity but exerted strong antimutagenic activities at tested concentrations. The inhibition rates for the Ames test ranged from 27.2% (S. typhimurium TA1535: 0.4 ?M/plate) to 91.1% (S. typhimurium TA1537: 0.2 ?M/plate) and for the yeast deletion assay from 4% to 57.7%. This genotoxicological study suggests that a flavonoid from ML owing to antimutagenic properties is of great pharmacological importance and might be beneficial to industries producing food additives, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals products. PMID:23377117

Gulluce, Medine; Orhan, Furkan; Yanmis, Derya; Arasoglu, Tulin; Guvenalp, Zuhal; Demirezer, Lutfiye Omur

2013-02-13

62

The Essential Oils from Mentha longifolia Growing in Sinai and Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of Mentha longifolia growing in the Sinai and Judean deserts were studied. Among the thirty-seven components identified in the oil of Sinai variety, 1,8-cineole (28.77%), piperitone (13.87%), cis-piperitone oxide (15.36%) and piperitone (13.84%), are the main ones. Pulegone accounts for over 70% of the oil from M. longifolia found in the Judean desert.

Alexander Fleisher; Zhenia Fleisher

1991-01-01

63

Eliminating Redundant Object Codel Jack W. Davidson$  

E-print Network

Eliminating Redundant Object Codel Jack W. Davidson$ Christopher W. Fraser Department of Computer under Grant MCS-7802545. $Present address: Jack W. Davidson, Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Computer peephole optimizer [Davidson]. With assigner, it implements register allocation. The current implementation

Fraser, Christopher W.

64

65th birthday Jack Steinberger  

ScienceCinema

Laudatio pour Jack Steinberger n le 25 mai 1921, l'occasion de son 65me anniversaire et sa retraite officielle, pour sa prcieuse collaboration au Cern. Nanmoins son principal activit continuera comme avant dans sa recherche au Cern. Plusieurs orateurs prennent la parole (p.ex. E.Picasso) pour le fliciter et lui rendre hommage

None

2011-04-25

65

Nutritional potential of biochemical components in Galactia longifolia Benth. (Fabaceae).  

PubMed

Seeds of Galactia longifolia Benth. (Fabaceae), locally known as Kaattukollu in Tamil language, used as food by Malayali tribals in the Kolli hills of Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu in South India were analysed for proximate composition, total (true) seed proteins, amino acid composition, fatty acid composition, minerals and antinutritional factors. Crude protein, crude fat, ash and nitrogen free extractives constitute 25.56%, 6.18%, 5.12% and 56.15%, respectively. The caloric value of 100 g dry matter of seed material is 1,601 KJ. The essential amino acids, tryptophan, leucine + isoleucine, arginine and threonine are present relatively in large quantities. The unsaturated fatty acids constitute more than 60%. The seeds are very rich in potassium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus. Antinutritional factors such as total free phenols, tannins, L-DOPA, hydrogen cyanide and phytic acid is present in minute quantities. The seed meal is consumed after eliminating all the antinutritional factors using the conventional method of soaking seeds in water, boiling with water and decanting for four times by Malayali tribals. PMID:11379295

Thangadurai, D; Viswanathan, M B; Ramesh, N

2001-04-01

66

Jack Dongarra University of Tennessee  

E-print Network

1/26/11 1 Jack Dongarra University of Tennessee Oak Ridge National Laboratory University of Tennessee Kraken / Cray Cray XT5 sixCore 2.6 GHz USA 98,928 .831 81 3.09 269 9 Forschungszentrum Juelich of Tennessee Kraken / Cray Cray XT5 sixCore 2.6 GHz USA 98,928 .831 81 3.09 269 9 Forschungszentrum Juelich

67

The World of Jack London  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jack London's life included trips to the Yukon, a front-row seat at the San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 and many journeys aboard his beloved sailing vessel, the Snark. During his short life, London found time to write over a dozen novels, numerous short stories, and hundreds of articles on socialism and other weighty matters of his day. Later, he would also become the hero of another literary "Jack", who happened to enjoy wandering on the road and in various subterranean locales. Maintained by Dave Hartzell, this site is a virtual cornucopia of all things Jack London, including full-text version of his novels, rare articles penned by London, and copious amounts of information about his family and his ranch in the Sonoma Valley. Visitors can also look over a number of scholarly works related to London, including a complete bibliography of his poetry and the first English-language translation of Dr. Vil Bykov's two volume biography of London. Finally, visitors should not depart the site without taking a look at London's first published story, "Two Gold Bricks", which is also available here.

68

JACK LONDON Jack London epitomized the life-long learner. His own education was characterized by  

E-print Network

annually to an innovative educational program in Sonoma County public schools. GOALS OF THE JACK LONDONJACK LONDON 1876-1916 Jack London epitomized the life-long learner. His own education and encourage innovative, educational programs. The Jack London Award for Educational Innovation is given

Ravikumar, B.

69

Determination of antimutagenic properties of apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. longifolia with yeast DEL assay.  

PubMed

Lamiaceae is an important plant family that has been investigated for its medicinal properties due to its large amounts of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Flavonoids have been shown to have antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in different test systems, but their certain mechanisms are still unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of apigenin 7-O-rutinoside, a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. longifolia. The possible antimutagenic potential of apigenin 7-O-rutinoside (A7R) was examined against mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and acridine (AC) in a eukaryotic cell system Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS112. The results showed that A7R has different inhibition rates against EMS and AC-induced mutagenicity. Thus, the properties of A7R are of great pharmacological importance and might be beneficial for reducing the risk of reactive oxygen species-related diseases. PMID:22491724

Gulluce, Medine; Orhan, Furkan; Adiguzel, Ahmet; Bal, Tugba; Guvenalp, Zuhal; Dermirezer, Lutfiye Omur

2013-07-01

70

Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Mentha Longifolia L. and its main constituent, menthol  

PubMed Central

Mentha longifolia (wild mint) is a popular folk remedy. Some parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine of Iran and other countries. Many studies have shown various pharmacological and therapeutic effects of the plant. Our aim in preparing this study was to review the traditional uses of M. longifolia together with the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of its entire extract and major compounds. Mentha longifolia is an herb with a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, gastrointestinal, and nervous system effects. Pulegone is the main compound of the plant responsible for most of its pharmacological effects followed by menthone, isomenthone, menthol, 1, 8-cineole, borneol, and piperitenone. Moreover, the plant may dose-dependently exert toxic effects in different systems of the body. Based on the review of various studies, it can be concluded that M. longifolia is a potential natural source for the development of new drugs. However, further studies are required to determine the precise quality and safety of the plant to be used by clinicians. PMID:25284948

Mikaili, Peyman; Mojaverrostami, Sina; Moloudizargari, Milad; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin

2013-01-01

71

Composition of a Carvone Chemotype of Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. from Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

An essential oil composition of Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty-three components were identified representing 99.3% of the oil. Carvone (61.8%) and limonene (19.4%) were the most abundant constituents.

Aazam Monfared; Mohammad Reza Nabid; Abdolhossein Rustaiyan

2002-01-01

72

Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Mentha Longifolia L. and its main constituent, menthol.  

PubMed

Mentha longifolia (wild mint) is a popular folk remedy. Some parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine of Iran and other countries. Many studies have shown various pharmacological and therapeutic effects of the plant. Our aim in preparing this study was to review the traditional uses of M. longifolia together with the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of its entire extract and major compounds. Mentha longifolia is an herb with a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, gastrointestinal, and nervous system effects. Pulegone is the main compound of the plant responsible for most of its pharmacological effects followed by menthone, isomenthone, menthol, 1, 8-cineole, borneol, and piperitenone. Moreover, the plant may dose-dependently exert toxic effects in different systems of the body. Based on the review of various studies, it can be concluded that M. longifolia is a potential natural source for the development of new drugs. However, further studies are required to determine the precise quality and safety of the plant to be used by clinicians. PMID:25284948

Mikaili, Peyman; Mojaverrostami, Sina; Moloudizargari, Milad; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin

2013-10-01

73

Isolation and identification of antimicrobial compound from Mentha longifolia L. leaves grown wild in Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mentha longifolia L. (Lamiaceae) leaves have been traditionally implemented in the treatment of minor sore throat and minor mouth or throat irritation by the indigenous people of Iraq, although the compounds responsible for the medicinal properties have not been identified. In the present study, an antimicrobial compound was isolated and characterized, and its biological activity was assessed. METHODS: The

Firas A Al-Bayati

2009-01-01

74

Effects of Mentha longifolia essential oil on ruminal and abomasal longitudinal smooth muscle in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mentha longifolia is grown commercially for production of oils and leaves. For centuries, this plant has widely been used traditionally as a folk remedy for treatment of human and ruminant gastrointestinal complaints in the Northwest of Iran. The essential oil of the plant was extracted using hydrodistillation. In the present study a total of 12 constituents, representing 96.6% of the

Ghader Jalilzadeh-Amin; Massoud Maham; Bahram Dalir-Naghadeh; Farshad Kheiri

2012-01-01

75

Antibacterial Activity And Acute Toxicity Effect of Flavonoids Extracted From Mentha longifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Mentha longifolia were tested for their antimicrobial activity against some clinical bacteria. Then, a phytochemical screening was realized for the ethanolic extract and the acute toxicity was measured for the identified flavonoids present in it. The results showed that the ethanolic extract was the most active against the tested bacteria. The phytochemical

Soud Akroum; Dalila Bendjeddou; Dalila Satta; Korrichi Lalaoui

76

Bioactivity and Chemical Properties of Essential Oils from Zataria multiflora Boiss and Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial effects of essential oils isolated from Zataria multiflora Boiss and Mentha longifolia (L.) Hiuls. on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were studied. The disc diffusion method was used to evaluate the zone of microbial growth inhibition at various concentrations of the oils. The antibacterial effect was also studied against three different concentrations of microbial suspension to find out

Iraj Rasooli; Mohammad Baqer Rezaei

2002-01-01

77

Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Arnica longifolia, Aster hesperius and Chrysothamnus nauseosus Essential Oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Essential oils from three different Asteraceae obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Main compounds obtained from each taxon were found as follows: Arnica longifolia: carvacrol 37.3%, a-bisabolol 8.2%...

78

Remembering Jack: A Hampshire County Summer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A former counselor at a summer camp in Hampshire County (West Virginia) recalls his experiences with his campers and Jack Schaffenaker, an Appalachian "mountain man" and guitar picker. Through Jack, the campers engaged in fishing, storytelling, hiking, and folk singing, and shed some negative stereotypes about Appalachian people. (KS)

Olson, Ted

1993-01-01

79

Salt tolerance traits increase the invasive success of Acacia longifolia in Portuguese coastal dunes.  

PubMed

Salt tolerance of two co-occurring legumes in coastal areas of Portugal, a native species--Ulex europaeus, and an invasive species--Acacia longifolia, was evaluated in relation to plant growth, ion content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Plants were submitted to four concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM) for three months, under controlled conditions. The results showed that NaCl affects the growth of both species in different ways. Salt stress significantly reduced the plant height and the dry weight in Acacia longifolia whereas in U. europaeus the effect was not significant. Under salt stress, the root:shoot ratio (W(R):W(S)) and root mass ratio (W(R):W(RS)) increased as a result of increasing salinity in A. longifolia but the same was not observed in U. europaeus. In addition, salt stress caused a significant accumulation of Na+, especially in U. europaeus, and a decrease in K+ content and K+/Na+ ratio. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in A. longifolia compared to U. europaeus. In A. longifolia, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2.) activities increased significantly, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.7) activities remained unchanged in comparison with the control. In U. europaeus, NaCl concentration significantly reduced APX activity but did not significantly affect CAT, GR and POX activities. Our results suggest that the invasive species copes better with salinity stress in part due to a higher rates of CAT and GR activities and a higher K+/Na+ ratio, which may represent an additional advantage when competing with native species in co-occurring salty habitats. PMID:22543107

Morais, Maria Cristina; Panuccio, Maria Rosaria; Muscolo, Adele; Freitas, Helena

2012-06-01

80

Chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Mentha (longifolia L. and viridis) essential oils.  

PubMed

The study was aimed to investigate essential oil chemical composition (gas chromatography/flame ionization detection [GC-FID] and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry [GC-MS]) and antioxidant (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate [ABTS] assays) and antimicrobial (Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and yeast) activities of essential oils extracted from leaves of Mentha longifolia L. and Mentha viridis. GC-MS analysis revealed that M. longifolia was constituted by pulegone (54.41%) as a major component followed by isomenthone (12.02%), 1,8-cineole (7.41%), borneol (6.85%), and piperitenone oxide (3.19%). M. viridis was rich in carvone (50.47%), 1,8-cineole (9.14%), and limonene (4.87%). The antioxidant activity by ABTS assay showed IC(50) values of 476.3 +/- 11.7 and 195.1 +/- 4.2 mg/L for M. longifolia and M. viridis, respectively, the DPPH assays have resulted in a moderate IC(50) (>8000 mg/L and 3476.3 +/- 133 mg/L for M. longifolia and M. viridis, respectively). Antimicrobial activity showed that Listeria monocytogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria were more inhibited by the 2 essential oils tested. Escherichia coli was least susceptible. A strong activity was also observed on fungi and yeasts. Carvone, thymol, and piperitone oxide have not been detected in Tunisian M. longifolia. Camphor is reported for the 1st time for M. viridis. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities were correlated to chemical composition. PMID:19895481

Mkaddem, Mounira; Bouajila, Jalloul; Ennajar, Monia; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Mathieu, Florence; Romdhane, Mehrez

2009-09-01

81

Antipyretic and antinociceptive properties of Mentha longifolia Huds. (Lamiaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rats and mice.  

PubMed

The antipyretic and antinociceptive properties of Mentha longifolia Huds. (Lamiaceae) leaf aqueous extract were investigated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pyrexia in rats, and acetic acid and hot plate analgesia tests in mice. Pentoxifylline, paracetamol and morphine were used as standard drugs for comparison. M. longifolia leaf aqueous extract and pentoxifylline (37.5-150 mg/kg i.p.) significantly (P < 0.05-0.02) reduced the LPS (50 g/kg i.m.)-elicited pyrexia. Pentoxifylline (50 mg/kg i.p.) also significantly (P < 0.01) reduced LPS (50 g/kg i.m.)-induced pyrexia. M. longifolia leaf aqueous extract (6.25-100 mg/kg i.p.) and paracetamol (500 mg/kg i.p.) profoundly inhibited the writhes produced by 3% acetic acid. Furthermore, the plant extract (25-400 mg/kg i.p.) and morphine (10 mg/kg i.p.) significantly (P < 0.001) delayed the hot plate reaction time in mice. The LD(50) values for oral and intraperitoneal administration of the plant extract were > 3200 mg/kg and 1730 mg/kg, respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides and triterpene steroids in the leaves of M. longifolia. These data indicate that M. longifolia leaf aqueous extract has antipyretic and antinociceptive properties. Furthermore, the relatively high LD(50) values obtained for oral and intraperitoneal administration of the plant extract demonstrate that the plant extract is non-toxic to mice. PMID:20140273

Amabeoku, G J; Erasmus, S J; Ojewole, J A O; Mukinda, J T

2009-12-01

82

Light and gibberellin-A 3 interaction in the seedling growth of Asteracantha longifolia nees. and Ruellia tuberosa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary InA. longifolia andR. tuberosa, the radicle growth was inhibited and that of hypocotyl promoted in blue and red lights when compared with the white one. A distinct increase in hypocotyl growth took place in red and blue radiations as an interaction of gibberellin-A3. Thus, this increase in hypocotyl growth in white light was distinct inA. longifolia for all the

D. D. Chawan; K. D. Sharma; D. N. Sen

1971-01-01

83

Studies on the Stellaria longipes complex ( Caryophyllaceae ): Isozyme variability and the relationship between Stellaria longipes and S. longifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation within and the relationship betweenStellaria longipesGoldie andS. longifoliaMuhl. were studied. Ten enzyme systems were assessed in eight natural populations ofS. longipes (25 loci) and three ofS. longifolia (20 loci) using starch and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Patterns of population differentiation corresponded to geographic distance. There was no evidence that polyploidS. longipes had greater electrophoretic variability than diploidS. longipes. The

Q. Cai; S. E. Macdonald; C. C. Chinnappa

1990-01-01

84

Capsicum Annuum L. Lil' Pumpkin and Pepper Jack  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA, ARS announces the release of two new pepper cultivars 05C37-3 (trademarked as Lil Pumpkin) and 05C69-12 (trademarked as Pepper Jack). Lil Pumpkin and Pepper Jack are intended for ornamental applications. Lil Pumpkins unique black foliage and orange pumpkin-like fruit and Pepper Jacks ...

85

Jack-up rig for marine drilling  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a mobile drilling platform of the jack -up type equipped with a special system which allows the said drilling platform to work as a drilling derrick and alternatively as a hoisting crane rig for marine service.

Mueller, S. R.

1981-05-26

86

Cytotoxic cycloartane triterpene and rare isomeric bisclerodane diterpenes from the leaves of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 24-methylenecycloartane-3?, 16?, 23?-triol, Longitriol (1), rare bisclerodane imides, Longimide A (2) and previously known Longimide B (3) were isolated from ethanolic extract of the leaves of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula. This is the first example of isolation of any cycloartane triterpene from this plant source. Structures were determined by extensive (1D and 2D NMR) spectroscopic data analysis combined with

Koneni V. Sashidhara; Suriya P. Singh; Ruchir Kant; Prakas R. Maulik; Jayanta Sarkar; Sanjeev Kanojiya; K. Ravi Kumar

2010-01-01

87

A chlorinated monoterpene ketone, acylated ?-sitosterol glycosides and a flavanone glycoside from Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae), an aromatic herb yielded a new halogenated chloro-derivative of menthone (longifone), two new derivatives of ?-sitosterol glycoside (longiside-A and -B) and a new flavanone-glycoside (longitin). The ?-sitosterol and flavanone glycosides were purified as their acetate derivatives. Structures of all the isolated constituents were elucidated with the aid of HMBC techniques. However, the structure of longifone was also

Muhammad Shaiq Ali; Muhammad Saleem; Waqar Ahmad; Masood Parvez; Raghav Yamdagni

2002-01-01

88

Free and Glycosidically Bound Volatiles of Mentha longifolia Growing in Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glycosides of volatile compounds and the essential oil were isolated from wild Mentha longifolia. After the enzymatic hydrolysis of glycosides, fourteen volatile aglycones were identified by GC\\/MS. The main aglycones were eugenol, 2-phenylethanol, benzyl alcohol, lavandulol, trans- and cis-carveol, 3-octanol, and 3-hexen-1-ol. The content of aglycones was 40.85 mg kg-1 of dried plant material. The main components of the

J. Mastelic; I. Jerkovic

2002-01-01

89

Longifoamide-A and B: Two new ceramides from Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Two new N-acylsphingosines (ceramides) named longifoamide A {6'-tetracosenamide, (6'-Z)-N-[2,3-dihydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)octadecyl]} and B {6'-tetracosenamide, (6'-Z)-N-[2,3,4-trihydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)octadecyl]} were isolated from a methanol extract of Mentha longifolia. Both ceramides were characterized with the aid of 1D and 2DNMR spectroscopic techniques and high resolution mass spectrometry. PMID:16854725

Shaiq Ali, Muhammad; Ahmed, Waqar; Saleem, Muhammad; Khan, Taous

2006-08-01

90

Longifoamide-A and B: Two new ceramides from Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new N-acylsphingosines (ceramides) named longifoamide A {6?-tetracosenamide, (6?-Z)-N-[2,3-dihydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)octadecyl]} and B {6?-tetracosenamide, (6?-Z)-N-[2,3,4-trihydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)octadecyl]} were isolated from a methanol extract of Mentha longifolia. Both ceramides were characterized with the aid of 1D and 2DNMR spectroscopic techniques and high resolution mass spectrometry.

Muhammad Shaiq Ali; Waqar Ahmed; Muhammad Saleem; Taous Khan

2006-01-01

91

Oil composition of Mentha aquatica-M. longifolia F1 hybrids and M. dumetorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

If M. aquatica (2n=96) having the genotype cc AA ff RR, 6080% menthofuran, but almost no menthone, menthol, and menthyl acetate is hybridized with M. longifolia (2n=24) having the genotype cc aa FF rr, 45% piperitone and 66% piperitone oxide all F1 hybrids have the genotype cc Aa Ff Rr. They also differ from either parent in having about 1.25.5%

M. J. Murray; D. E. Lincoln

1972-01-01

92

Mentha longifolia in vitro cultures as safe source of flavouring ingredients.  

PubMed

In vitro plantlets and callus of M. longifolia were established and their volatile constituents characterized by GC-MS analysis of their headspaces (HSs) and essential oils (EOs). Significant quali-quantitative differences were found in the aromatic fingerprints in comparison with the M. longifolia parent plants. In fact, limonene and carvone were the main constituents in the EOs of the mother plants, while the aroma of the in vitro plant material were especially enriched in oxygenated terpenes. In particular, huge amounts of piperitenone and piperitenone oxide (75 %) were found for in vitro plantlets, while trans-carvone oxide (19 %) and trans-piperitone epoxide (9 %) were found in callus EO. However, the established in vitro plant material showed lack of pulegone and menthofurane, thus preserving an important feature observed in the volatile fingerprint of the parent plants. In fact, because of their well-known toxicity significant amounts of pulegone and menthofurane may compromise the safety using of mint essential oil. Therefore the in vitro M. longifolia plantlets and callus may be regarded as a potential source of a safe flavouring agent. PMID:22175048

Bertoli, Alessandra; Leonardi, Michele; Krzyzanowska, Justine; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Pistelli, Luisa

2011-01-01

93

Jack B. Evans Jack Evans is president of The Hall-Perrine Foundation, a  

E-print Network

Jack B. Evans Jack Evans is president of The Hall-Perrine Foundation, a private philanthropic. Evans earned a B.A. from Coe College in 1970 and an MBA from the University of Iowa in 1972. He and the Iowa College Foundation. Evans is also a trustee of the United Way of East Central Iowa

Anstreicher, Kurt M.

94

Antioxidant Activity and Hepatoprotective Potential of Polyalthia longifolia and Cassia spectabilis Leaves against Paracetamol-Induced Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

In the present study, in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging capacity, and hepatoprotective activity of methanol extracts from Polyalthia longifolia and Cassia spectabilis were evaluated using established in vitro models such as ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical (OH), nitric oxide radical (NO) scavenging, metal chelating, and antilipidperoxidation activities. Interestingly, all the extracts showed considerable in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities in a dose-dependent manner when compared to the standard antioxidant which verified the presence of strong antioxidant compound in leaf extracts tested. Phenolic and flavonoid content of these extracts is significantly correlated with antioxidant capacity. Since P. longifolia extract was exhibited better in vitro antioxidant activities, it was subjected for in vivo hepatoprotective activity in paracetamol-intoxicated mice. Therapy of P. longifolia showed the liver protective effect on biochemical and histopathological alterations. Moreover, histological studies also supported the biochemical finding, that is, the maximum improvement in the histoarchitecture of the liver. Results revealed that P. longifolia leaf extract could protect the liver against paracetamol-induced oxidative damage by possibly increasing the antioxidant protection mechanism in mice. Our findings indicated that P. longifolia and C. spectabilis have potential as good sources of natural antioxidant/antiaging compounds. PMID:23243455

Jothy, Subramanion L.; Aziz, Azlan; Chen, Yeng; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

2012-01-01

95

Salad Sensations Turkey, Monterey Jack cheese* and spring mix  

E-print Network

Salad Sensations Turkey, Monterey Jack cheese* and spring mix Turkey Bliss Will Roger's Pride & Joy Chef Salad Turkey and honey ham, Monterey Jack cheese*, cherry tomatoes, and ranch dressing Ham Honey ham, Monterey Jack cheese*, cherry tomatoes, and honey mustard dressing Turkey Turkey, cucumbers

Oklahoma, University of

96

Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of essential oils from Schinus areira L. and Schinus longifolia (Lindl.) Speg.  

PubMed

The essential oils of Schinus areira L. and S. longifolia (Lindl.) Speg. (Anacardiaceae) have been studied for their in vitro anti-acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was determined by GC-MS. Fruit and leaf oils of S. areira were analyzed separately. The essential oil from S. longifolia elicited marked enzymatic inhibition (IC50 = 20.0 +/- 1.0 microg/mL) and showed radical scavenger activity (IC50 = 25.2 +/- 2.4 microg/mL). The essential oil from S. areira leaves was more active than that of the fruits in both bioassays. PMID:19634341

Murray, Ana P; Gurovic, Maria S Vela; Rodriguez, Silvana A; Murray, Mara G; Ferrero, Adriana A

2009-06-01

97

From Jack polynomials to minimal model spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this note, a deep connection between free field realizations of conformal field theories and symmetric polynomials is presented. We give a brief introduction into the necessary prerequisites of both free field realizations and symmetric polynomials, in particular Jack symmetric polynomials. Then we combine these two fields to classify the irreducible representations of the minimal model vertex operator algebras as an illuminating example of the power of these methods. While these results on the representation theory of the minimal models are all known, this note exploits the full power of Jack polynomials to present significant simplifications of the original proofs in the literature.

Ridout, David; Wood, Simon

2015-01-01

98

Ileal relaxation induced by Mentha longifolia (L.) leaf extract in rat.  

PubMed

The effect of Mentha longifolia (L.) leaf hydroalcoholic extract (MLE) was examined on rat ileal smooth muscle contractions. Last portion of ileum from male adult Wistar rat was mounted in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution. The tissue was contracted by carbachol (CCh, 10 microM), KCl (60 mM) and BaC12 (4 mM) and then MLE (0.0625-1 mg mL(-1)) was added to the bath cumulatively. The effect of MLE on KCl-induced contraction was examined after tissue incubation with propranolol (1 microM), naloxone (1 microM) and N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM). The effect of MLE on CaCl2-induced ileal contraction in Ca(2+)-free with high potassium Tyrode solution was also evaluated. The role of potassium channels was examined by ileum incubation (5 mim) with tetraethylammonium (TEA, 1 mM). The results showed that KCl-, CCh and BaCl2-induced ileal contractions were inhibited (p < 0.001) by cumulative concentrations of MLE with the same potency. In addition, MLE (0.25-1 mg mL(-1)) inhibited (p < 0.01) ileal contractions induced by CaCl2 (0.45-2.7 mM) in a concentration-related manner. The antispasmodic effect of MLE was affected neither by propranolol, L-NAME nor by naloxone. The MLE concentration-response curve was shifted to the right (p < 0.05) by tissue incubation with TEA. From results it may be suggested that Mentha longifolia hydroalcoholic leaf extract induces its spasmolytic activity mainly through disturbance in calcium mobilization and partly by potassium channels activation. Present results show that Mentha longifolia leaf extract exerts relaxant effects on intestinal smooth muscle, consistent with the traditional use of the plant to treat gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and colic. PMID:18819647

Naseri, Mohammad Kazem Gharib; Naseri, Zahra Gharib; Mohammadian, Maryam; Birgani, Marzie Omidi

2008-06-15

99

Toxicological evaluation of the essential oil from Mentha longifolia L. subsp. capensis leaves in rats.  

PubMed

The effects of the essential oil from the leaves of Mentha longifolia L. subsp. capensis on some biochemical parameters of Wistar rats were studied. The oil at 125, 250, 375, and 500 microL/kg of body weight reduced (P < .05) the red blood cells and lymphocytes with no definite pattern on the white blood cells and mean cell volume. The doses significantly increased the neutrophils, monocytes, large unstained cells, liver-body weight ratio, and serum concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and inorganic phosphate but had no effect on the heart body weight ratio and serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, Na(+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), K(+), creatinine, and uric acid. The oil at 500 microL/kg of body weight also increased the kidney-body weight ratio. In contrast, the oil reduced the serum urea and atherogenic index. The total and conjugated bilirubin, together with the total protein and albumin, in the serum increased only with oil at 125 microL/kg of body weight. The serum alkaline phosphatase activity also increased with no significant change in those of gamma-glutamyl transferase and alanine and aspartate aminotransferase. The results indicate dose- and parameter-specific effect of the essential oil. Although the essential oil from M. longifolia leaves may not predispose to atherosclerosis, it may increase the functional activity of the rat liver at the lowest dose investigated. Therefore, the essential oil from M. longifolia may not be completely "safe" at the doses investigated. PMID:19627219

Odeyemi, O O; Yakubu, M T; Masika, P J; Afolayan, A J

2009-06-01

100

Piperitone from Mentha longifolia var. chorodictya Rech F. reduces the nitrofurantoin resistance of strains of enterobacteriaceae.  

PubMed

The diluted essential oil of Mentha longifolia (L.) var. chlorodictya Rech F. foliage enhanced the bactericidal activity of nitrofurantoin decreasing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nitrofurantoin for nitrofurantoin-resistant strains of Enterobacteriaceae. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of the essential oil detected a fraction (R(f) = 0.35, UV lambda(max) of 232.5), which was the most effective in enhancement of nitrofurantoin activity. Using gas liquid chromatography and known standards, the active fraction was identified as piperitone. 1 microl of the piperitone fraction decreased the MIC of nitrofurantoin 3-20 fold for the different strains of Enterobacteriaceae tested. PMID:15597306

Shahverdi, A R; Rafii, F; Tavassoli, F; Bagheri, M; Attar, F; Ghahraman, A

2004-11-01

101

A Chemotype of Mentha longifolia L. from Lithuania Rich in Piperitenone Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile constituents of Mentha longifolia L. were isolated by hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation-extraction method in the Likens-Nickerson apparatus and analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Seventy compounds were identified, 62 positively and 8 tentatively. The major constituents were piperitenone oxide (44.2% and 57.2%), 1,8-cineole (15.14% and 8.44%), myrcene (10.02% and 6.27%), limonene (4.28% and 3.45%), ?-caryophyllene (1.72% and 3.34%) and

Petras Rimantas Venskutonis

1996-01-01

102

Mentha longifolia syrup in secondary amenorrhea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials  

PubMed Central

Background Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day) for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks), the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no) of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study. Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p?longifolia L. syrup. Conclusion In conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. PMID:23351184

2012-01-01

103

GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS Jack DiEnna  

E-print Network

by DOE, "a Geothermal heat pump is a highly efficient RENEWABLE energy technology". #12;ArgumentGEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS THE "PLAYBOOK" Jack DiEnna Executive Director The Geothermal National What do we call it... Geothermal, Ground Source, GeoExchange. The feds call it geothermal heat pumps

104

Measuring Black Hole Spin Jack Steiner  

E-print Network

Measuring Black Hole Spin Jack Steiner Astrostatistics Forum Nov 13, `07 #12;Overview Objects #12;Black Holes are Extremely Simple Mass: M Spin: J = a*GM2/c (0 evolutionary model of binary black-hole formation Were GRS 1915+105, GRO J1655-40?, etc. GRB sources

Wolfe, Patrick J.

105

The Jack Hills greenstone belt, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jack Hills greenstone belt is situated along the southern margin of the Narryer Terrane in the northwest of the Yilgarn Craton, in fault contact with Archean granitic gneiss and granitic rocks. The belt has endured a long deformation history and the effects of recrystallisation, alteration, and the occurrence of a substantial proportion of lithologically similar metasedimentary rocks makes it

Catherine V. Spaggiari; Robert T. Pidgeon; Simon A. Wilde

2007-01-01

106

Lively Jack-O'-Lantern Still Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pumpkin carving is a favorite classroom activity. Around late October, the halls are filled with the sour smell of raw pumpkin innards, as parents, teachers and students are up to their elbows in yellowish strings and slime. These round, orange squash are transformed into jack-o'-lanterns that are placed around the school. The day after Halloween,

Sanzaro, Christy

2010-01-01

107

Jack D.Farmer University Kansas  

E-print Network

.... . in Jack D.Farmer Albert University Kansas University of Kansas ABSTRACT The study is based of Geology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, 66044 #12;378 Variation in the decora the latter typically of the Lecompton Limestone of northeastern Kansas. In addition, the strati- graphy of the Beil Limestone is known

Farmer, Jack D.

108

The Jack Ells Automatic Photoelectric Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT) designed and built by the late Jack Ells has been in the custody of the Crayford Manor House Astronomical Society since 1991 December. A summary is presented of the results obtained during the 1992 observing period.

Pickard, R.

1994-06-01

109

What does population structure analysis reveal about the Pterostylis longifolia complex (Orchidaceae)?  

PubMed Central

Morphologically similar groups of species are common and pose significant challenges for taxonomists. Differences in approaches to classifying unique species can result in some species being overlooked, whereas others are wrongly conserved. The genetic diversity and population structure of the Pterostylis longifolia complex (Orchidaceae) in Tasmania was investigated to determine if four species, and potential hybrids, could be distinguished through genomic AFLP and chloroplast restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) results indicated that little genetic variation was present among taxa, whereas PCoA analyses revealed genetic variation at a regional scale irrespective of taxa. Population genetic structure analyses identified three clusters that correspond to regional genetic and single taxon-specific phenotypic variation. The results from this study suggest that longifolia species have persisted throughout the last glacial maximum in Tasmania and that the complex may be best treated as a single taxon with several morphotypes. These results could have serious evolutionary and conservation implications as taxonomic changes could result in the instatement of a single, widespread taxon in which rarer morphotypes are not protected. PMID:23170201

Janes, Jasmine K; Steane, Dorothy A; Vaillancourt, Ren E

2012-01-01

110

Effect of Asteracantha longifolia seeds on the sexual behaviour of male rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to study the effect of seeds of Asteracantha longifolia on the sexual behaviour of male albino rats. The ethanolic extract of seeds of A. longifolia was administered to groups of rats in 100, 150 and 200 mg kg? doses for a period of 28 days, and the action compared with control rats. The changes in body and organ weight, sexual behaviour, histo-architecture and fructose levels of seminal vesicles were observed. The sexual behaviour was assessed by determining parameters such as mount frequency (MF), intromission latency, mount latency (ML) and post-ejaculatory latency. The ethanolic extract exhibited pronounced anabolic effects in treated animals, as evidenced by gains in the body and reproductive organ weights. Increased spermatogenesis due to treatment with extracts was also witnessed in transverse section. The treatment further markedly affected sexual behaviour of the animals, as reflected by the reduction of ML, increase in MF and enhanced attractability towards females. A significant increase in the sperm count as well as fructose levels of seminal vesicles was noted. PMID:19753500

Chauhan, Nagendra S; Sharma, Vikas; Dixit, V K

2011-09-01

111

Cytogeography of essential oil chemotypes of Eremophila longifolia F. Muell (Scrophulariaceae).  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that the widely distributed desert plant Eremophila longifolia has at least six geographically defined essential oil chemotypes. The focus of the present study is to extend and enhance information concerning known chemotypes and to investigate the involvement of cell nuclei ploidy in this variation. Forty field collected specimens of E. longifolia were taken from most of the mainland states of Australia then subjected to hydrodistillation to produce essential oils, which were then chemically characterised. Ploidy was determined using relative fluorescence of cell nuclei stained with propidium iodide, measured in a flow cytometer. Using principal component analysis (PCA), at least three essential oil chemotypes, in addition to the six already described, were identified in the present study. Previously described high yielding essential oil chemotypes were also characterised in terms of diploidy. For the first time diploid populations were identified in New South Wales, correlating with high yielding isomenthone/menthone and karahanaenone chemotypes. Furthermore, the separate diploid population previously described from Western Australia was demonstrated to be the safrole/methyl eugenol type, which is restricted to a small geographic range in far north-west Western Australia (Murchison District). All other chemotypes were shown to be tetraploid, including apparently randomly emerging individuals, representative of chemotypes producing low yields of isomenthone/menthone and karahanaenone similar in composition to the high yielding diploid types. PMID:24874947

Sadgrove, Nicholas John; Jones, Graham Lloyd

2014-09-01

112

Solicitation of HPLC and HPTLC Techniques for Determination of Rutin from Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites  

PubMed Central

Background: Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites is an important traditional plant in India. Rutin, an active constituent has been reported to possess good amount of pharmacological as well as therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to find out by analytical techniques how much percentage of rutin is present in the plant leaves ethanolic extract by analytical techniques. Materials and Methods: Shade dried leaves of Polyalthia longifolia were subjected to cold ethanolic extraction followed by monitoring the isolated rutin high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) after carrying out preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Extraction yield was found to be 13.94% w/w. Phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, diterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and phenolic compounds and mucilage. From the Rf value, the ethanolic extract was found to be having constituent identical to rutin. By HPTLC and HPLC the amount of rutin was found to be 11.60% w/w and 4.03% w/v, respectively. Conclusion: The active constituent isolated was found to be equal to rutin. PMID:25002804

Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Zine, Sandeep Prabhakar; Chaskar, Pratip Kashinath; Une, Hemant Devidas

2014-01-01

113

Chemical and morphological diversity in wild populations of Mentha longifolia in Israel.  

PubMed

Populations of Mentha longifolia, an endangered species in Israel, were tested for essential oil composition and conservational ability. In 2002-2003, 25 wild populations country-wide were tested, indicating population divergence into two chemotypes. Chemotype A was characterized by high levels of menthone and pulegone, and chemotype B by high levels of piperitenone oxide and piperitone oxide. Chemotype A was more abundant (22 of 25 populations) than chemotype B (11 of 25 populations). However, a chemotype/population interaction was not recorded (P?>?0.05). In spring 2003, seven of the 25 wild populations were resampled, propagated, and cultivated at the Newe Ya'ar campus. Then, in 2004, the propagated plants were tested for essential oil composition. The propagated plants maintained the essential oil composition as well as the chemotype-frequency distribution of the original wild population from which they were obtained. Since a chemotype/population interaction was not recorded, and the cultivated plants displayed the wild population essential oil composition, it can be concluded that i) the chemotype diversity is genetically based, and ii) the M. longifolia populations sampled can be horticulturally conserved. PMID:22422525

Segev, Daniel; Nitzan, Nadav; Chaimovitsh, David; Eshel, Amram; Dudai, Nativ

2012-03-01

114

Biological activities of the essential oils and methanol extract of tow cultivated mint species ( Mentha longifolia and Mentha pulegium ) used in the Tunisian folkloric medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oils and methanolic extracts of two cultivated mint species (M. longifolia and M. pulegium), as well as the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract of Mentha longifolia and Mentha pulegium were compared. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil identified 41 compounds constituting 96.66 and 96.13% of the total

Hafedh Hajlaoui; Najla Trabelsi; Emira Noumi; Mejdi Snoussi; Hanen Fallah; Riadh Ksouri; Amina Bakhrouf

2009-01-01

115

Antioxidant Activity and Volatile and Phenolic Profiles of Essential Oil and Different Extracts of Wild Mint (Mentha longifolia) from the Pakistani Flora.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil and three different extracts of wildly grown Mentha longifolia (M. longifolia) were studied. The essential oil from M. longifolia aerial parts was isolated by hydrodistillation technique using Clevenger-type apparatus. The extracts were prepared with three solvents of different polarity (n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol) using Soxhlet extractor. Maximum extract yield was obtained with methanol (12.6?g/100?g) while the minimum with dichloromethane (3.50?g/100?g). The essential oil content was found to be 1.07?g/100?g. A total of 19 constituents were identified in the M. longifolia oil using GC/MS. The main components detected were piperitenone oxide, piperitenone, germacrene D, borneol, and ? -caryophyllene. The total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) contents of the methanol extract of M. longifolia were found to be significantly higher than dichloromethane and hexane extracts. The dichloromethane and methanol extracts exhibited excellent antioxidant activity as assessed by 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, bleaching ? -carotene, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation assays. The essential oil and hexane extract showed comparatively weaker antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The results of the study have validated the medicinal and antioxidant potential of M. longifolia essential oil and extracts. PMID:24224115

Iqbal, Tahseen; Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain

2013-01-01

116

29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305 Section 1926.305...Jackslever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. ...otherwise secured at once. (ii) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing...

2010-07-01

117

Longifoside-A and -B: two new cerebrosides from Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Two new N-acyl-glycosphingosines (cerebrosides) named longifoside-A {6'-tetracosenamide, N-[3,4-dihydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl) heptadecyl]-(6'E)} and B {6'-tetracosenamide, N-[3-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-4Z-heptadecenyl]-(6'E)} have been obtained from the methanolic extract of Mentha longifolia belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Both the cerebrosides were purified as their acetate-derivatives: 6'-tetracosenamide, N-[3,4-diacetoxy-1-(acetoxymethyl)-2-(tetraacetoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl) heptadecyl]-(6'E) and 6'-tetracosenamide, N-[3-acetoxy-1-(acetoxymethyl)-2-(tetraacetoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-4Z-heptadecenyl]-(6'E). They were characterized with the aid of 1D and sophisticated 2D-NMR spectroscopic techniques. PMID:16753903

Shaiq Ali, Muhammad; Ahmed, Waqar; Saleem, Muhammad; Ashfaq Ali, Mohammad

2006-07-10

118

Longifoside-A and B: Two new cerebrosides from Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new N-acyl-glycosphingosines (cerebrosides) named longifoside-A {6?-tetracosenamide, N-[3,4-dihydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(?-D-glucopyranosyl) heptadecyl]-(6?E)} and B {6?-tetracosenamide, N-[3-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(?-D-glucopyranosyl)-4Z-heptadecenyl]-(6?E)} have been obtained from the methanolic extract of Mentha longifolia belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Both the cerebrosides were purified as their acetate-derivatives: 6?-tetracosenamide, N-[3,4-diacetoxy-1-(acetoxymethyl)-2-(tetraacetoxy-?-D-glucopyranosyl) heptadecyl]-(6?E) and 6?-tetracosenamide, N-[3-acetoxy-1-(acetoxymethyl)-2-(tetraacetoxy-?-D-glucopyranosyl)-4Z-heptadecenyl]-(6?E). They were characterized with the aid of 1D and sophisticated 2D-NMR spectroscopic techniques.

Muhammad Shaiq Ali; Waqar Ahmed; Muhammad Saleem; Mohammad Ashfaq Ali

2006-01-01

119

C3 Photosynthesis in the Gametophyte of the Epiphytic CAM Fern Pyrrosia Longifolia (Polypodiaceae)  

E-print Network

American Journal of Botany 82(4): pp. 441-444. 1995. C 3 P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S I N T H E G A M E T O P H Y T E O F T H E E P I P H Y T I C CAM F E R N PYRROSIA LONGIFOLIA ( P O L Y P O D I A C E A E ) 1 CRAIG E . M A R T I N , 2 MITCHELL... is understood. LITERATURE CITED BRULFERT, J. , A. MRICHA, L. SOSSOUNTZOV, AND O. QUEIROZ. 1987. CAM induction by photoperiodism in green callus cultures from a CAM plant. Plant, Cell and Environment 10: 443-449. CUSHMAN, J. C , C. B. MICHALOWSKI, AND H. J...

Martin, Craig E.; Allen, Mitchell T.; Haufler, Christopher H.

1995-01-01

120

Isolation and identification of antimicrobial compound from Mentha longifolia L. leaves grown wild in Iraq  

PubMed Central

Background Mentha longifolia L. (Lamiaceae) leaves have been traditionally implemented in the treatment of minor sore throat and minor mouth or throat irritation by the indigenous people of Iraq, although the compounds responsible for the medicinal properties have not been identified. In the present study, an antimicrobial compound was isolated and characterized, and its biological activity was assessed. Methods The compound was isolated and characterized from the extracted essential oil using different spectral techniques: TLC, FTIR spectra and HPLC. Antimicrobial activity of the compound was assessed using both disc diffusion and microdilution method in 96 multi-well microtiter plates. Results A known compound was isolated from the essential oil of the plant and was identified as (-) menthol. The isolated compound was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against seven selected pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the yeast Candida albicans. Menthol at different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20) was active against all tested bacteria except for P. aeruginosa, and the highest inhibitory effect was observed against S. mutans (zone of inhibition: 25.3 mm) using the disc diffusion method. Minimal inhibitory concentration MIC values ranged from 15.6125.0 ?g/ml, and the most promising results were observed against S. aureus and S. mutans (MIC 15.6 ?g/ml) while, S. faecalis, S. pyogenis and L. acidophilus ranked next (MIC 31.2 ?g/ml). Furthermore, menthol achieved considerable antifungal activity against the yeast C. albicans (zone of inhibition range: 7.118.5 mm; MIC: 125.0). Conclusion The isolation of an antimicrobial compound from M. longifolia leaves validates the use of this plant in the treatment of minor sore throat and minor mouth or throat irritation. PMID:19523224

Al-Bayati, Firas A

2009-01-01

121

Morphological variation among members of the Stellaria longipes complex: S. longipes, S. longifolia , and S. porsildii ( Caryophyllaceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological relationships were investigated among diploidStellaria porsildii, polyploidS. longipes, and diploidS. longifolia. Canonical discriminant analysis, based on a priori assumptions to maximize differences among groups, showed thatS. longipes clusters equally distant between the two diploid species along an axis connecting the diploids' centroids, but it differs along an axis perpendicular to this axis. The intermediacy along the former axis is

R. J. N. Emery; C. C. Chinnappa

1994-01-01

122

Carvone-Rich Essential Oils from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. schimperi Briq. and Mentha spicata L. Grown in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steam distillation of the aerial parts of Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. schimperi Briq. and Mentha spicata L. growing in Sudan yielded oil contents of 1.8% and 0.9%, respectively. Analysis of the oils by GC and GC\\/MS revealed that both oils were found to be rich in carvone. Twenty-two compounds were identified in each oil, the major ones being carvone

Younis M. H. Younis; Shadia M. Beshir

2004-01-01

123

Volatile Extract of Mentha longifolia Growing in Israel. Aromatic Plants of the Holy Land and the Sinai. Part XIII  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils from wild populations of Mentha longifolia (L.) growing in three distinctive geographic areas of Israel were investigated and compared to the results of earlier studies. The major constituent of all three oils was found to be 1,8-cineole (26.434.5%) followed by menthone (10.016.7%), pulegone (7.07.5%), and isomenthone (4.77.8%). Despite some differences in the component proportions, the plants of

Zhenia Fleisher; Alexander Fleisher

1998-01-01

124

A chlorinated monoterpene ketone, acylated beta-sitosterol glycosides and a flavanone glycoside from Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae), an aromatic herb yielded a new halogenated chloro-derivative of menthone (longifone), two new derivatives of beta-sitosterol glycoside (longiside-A and -B) and a new flavanone-glycoside (longitin). The beta-sitosterol and flavanone glycosides were purified as their acetate derivatives. Structures of all the isolated constituents were elucidated with the aid of HMBC techniques. However, the structure of longifone was also determined through X-ray crystallography. PMID:11937172

Shaiq Ali, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Waqar; Parvez, Masood; Yamdagni, Raghav

2002-04-01

125

The effect of CO 2 and 1-methylcyclopropene on the regulation of postharvest senescence of mint, Mentha longifolia L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulatory effects of 5kPa CO2 and of the ethylene action inhibitor, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at 0.5?mol\\/l on the senescence of harvested mint, Mentha longifolia L. were assessed. Visual parameters of senescence including yellowing, browning, decay and leaf abscission were recorded and scored on scales linking the onset and progression of senescence to marketability. The effects of plant age on the

David Kenigsbuch; Daniel Chalupowicz; Zion Aharon; Dalia Maurer; Nehemia Aharoni

2007-01-01

126

Effects of drying methods on the quality and quantity of the essential oil of Mentha longifolia L. subsp. Capensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various methods of drying on the content and chemical quality of the essential oil of Mentha longifolia was studied. The most prominent component in both the air-dried and sun-dried leaf oils was menthone (47.9% and 38.3%, respectively), while oven-dried leaf oil had limonene as the major compound (40.8%), whereas pulegone was the major compound from the original

O. T. Asekun; D. S. Grierson; A. J. Afolayan

2007-01-01

127

Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils from Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson var. asiatica (Boriss.) Rech. f. from Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile constituents of Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. var. asiatica (Boriss.) Rech. f. were isolated by steam distillation and analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The major constituents of the leaf oil were piperitone (67.6%), isomenthone (6.6%) and cis-piperitol (4.2 %), while the flower oil contained piperitone (55.7%), carvone (16.2%) and pulegone (4.1%).

K. Jaimand; M. B. Rezaee

2002-01-01

128

DESCRIPTION OF EGGS AND LARVAE OF JACK MACKEREL (Trachurus symmetricus)  

E-print Network

DESCRIPTION OF EGGS AND LARVAE OF JACK MACKEREL (Trachurus symmetricus) AND DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF LARVAE IN 1950 AND 1951 BY ELBERT H. AHLSTROM AND ORVILLE P. BALL FISHERY BULLETIN 97 UNITED in the identification of jack-mackerel eggs. The larva, on hatching, is about 2 mm. in length. The oil globnle occupies

129

Graduate Council Meeting Agenda 310 Jack K. Williams Administration Building  

E-print Network

Graduate Council Meeting Agenda 310 Jack K. Williams Administration Building 2:30 p.m., February 7 Jack K. Williams Administration Building December 6, 2012 In attendance: Mark Zoran, Sam Kirkpatrick, Taylor Smith, Sara Khalifa, Nancy Duran, Doug Eckel, Sarel Lavy, George Cunningham, R. Saravanan, Leslie

130

Phenolic content, antioxidant and astroprotective response to oxidative stress of ethanolic extracts of Mentha longifolia from Sinai.  

PubMed

The aerial parts ofMentha longifolia L. are used as herbal remedies for curing different diseases through traditional Bedouin medicine. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts of M longifolia was investigated measuring peroxyl radical-scavenging activity by ORAC assay, with Trolox (a water-soluble analogue of ?-tocopherol) employed as reference compound. In addition, the total content of phenolic compounds estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and the identification of the polyphenols using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) have been performed. Furthermore, the effect of these extracts on cell viability and intracellular ROS production was assayed using the U373-MG human astrocytoma cell line in a H2O2-induced oxidative stress model. Results showed that the major type of polyphenols found were benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, flavones and flavanones. The total phenolic content was 37.7 mg gallic acid/g sample and the ORAC value was 1.355 .mol TE/mg sample. The data obtained in cellular assays demonstrated that these ethanolic extracts protected H2O2-induced astrocyte damage by increasing cell viability and inhibiting production of intracellular ROS. These results suggest that the investigated extracts obtained from the aerial parts of M longifolia have antioxidant potential related to their phenol content which have important beneficial health effects, especially in those disease associated with ROS. PMID:25522540

Eissa, Tarek F; Gonzlez-Burgos, Elena; Carretero, M Emilia; Gmez-Serranillos, M Pilar

2014-10-01

131

Advanced jack up rig breaking U.S. construction drought  

SciTech Connect

A new heavy duty jack up, due in mid-1998, will be able to simultaneously drill and produce wells in harsher environments and deeper water than current jack ups in the worldwide fleet. Rowan Cos. Inc.`s Gorilla V is the only mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) currently under construction in the US. Two more enhanced Gorilla design rigs are planned before the year 2000. The enhanced Gorilla class jack up represents the most technologically advanced jack up unit constructed to date. The rigs are structurally designed to meet year-round weather challenges in the harshest geographical environments. Rising demand for drilling rigs, coupled with a dwindling fleet, is generating supply shortages around the world, particularly at the high-specification end of the market. Even increasing the historical retirement age from 20 to 25 years, rig attrition continues at a level of about 18 rigs per year. Apart from the jack up market per se, however, Rowan`s strategy in designing and building enhanced Gorillas is to improve existing jack up drilling technology and offer the versatility to operate as a drilling unit, a mobile production unit, or both simultaneously in either open water locations or alongside existing platforms. The paper discusses the market for these heavy jack-ups, the use of one on the Cohasset project in Nova Scotia, the Gorilla V and enhanced Gorillas, geographical range of use, and MOPU economics.

Kelly, P. [Rowan Companies Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-03-10

132

[Study on the antioxidant activity of Menthae longifoliae folium and effect of pesticide treatment with Topsin M on the antioxidant activity].  

PubMed

This study evaluated both the antioxidant activity of Menthae longifoliae folium and the influence of Topsin M (a pesticide which is widely used nowadays) upon the antioxidant activity of the drug. In this respect, there have been used leaves of Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds., both untreated and treated with Topsin M. The leaves were dried, powdered and extracted with aqueous methanol. Taking into account the fact that polyphenols, and especially flavonoids act as antioxidants, these compounds were quantified in the crude extracts. Both the capacity of inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase and the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging capacity were also evaluated. The undergone study highlighted the fact that crude extracts of Menthae longifoliae folium had a good antioxidant activity; the extracts were active both as diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavengers and as 15-lipoxygenase inhibitors. Treatment with Topsin M did not consistently influence the antioxidant activity of the drug. PMID:16004227

Miron, Anca; Aprotosoaie, Clara; H?ncianu, Monica; T?n?sescu, Violeta; St?nescu, Ursula

2004-01-01

133

In Vitro Antihyperlipidemic Potential of Triterpenes from Stem Bark of Protorhus longifolia.  

PubMed

Two lanostane triterpenes, 3?-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oic acid (1) and methyl-3?-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oate (2), were isolated from the stem bark of Protorhus longifolia. Their structures were deduced on the basis of spectroscopic analysis (NMR, HRMS, IR). This study investigated the in vitro anti-adipogenic activity of the two triterpenes. Their inhibitory activity was evaluated on selected lipid digestive enzymes (pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase). The inhibitory activity of the compounds on hormone-sensitive lipase and their ability to bind bile acids were also evaluated. The effect of the compounds on glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and on triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was investigated. The triterpenes effectively inhibited the activities of the enzymes with IC50 values ranging from 0.04 to 0.31?mg/mL. The compounds showed a high affinity for secondary bile acids. Both compounds stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Compound 1 significantly reduced triglyceride accumulation in mature differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. It is apparent that these lanostane triterpenes enhance glucose uptake and suppress adipogenesis, which together with their inhibitory effects on lipid digestive enzymes suggests that they have antihyperlipidemic potential. PMID:25389058

Mosa, Rebamang A; Naidoo, Javan J; Nkomo, Fezile S; Mazibuko, Sithandiwe E; Muller, Christo J F; Opoku, Andy R

2014-12-01

134

2. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack E. Boucher for CFA, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack E. Boucher for CFA, 1970 STAIR DETAIL AT FIRST- SECOND- FLOOR LEVEL - Wilkins House, 1700 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

135

1. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack E. Boucher, for CFA, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey Jack E. Boucher, for CFA, 1970 SOUTHEAST CORNER AND MASSACHUSETTS AVE., FACADE - Clarence Moore House, 1746 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

136

Jack Boucher in bucket of cherry picker photographing Train Shed. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Jack Boucher in bucket of cherry picker photographing Train Shed. - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

137

17. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT AND CAR JACKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT AND CAR JACKING PADS, FACING EAST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

138

Graduate Council Meeting Agenda 310 Jack K. Williams Administration Building  

E-print Network

Graduate Council Meeting Agenda 310 Jack K. Williams Administration Building June 7, 2012 1:30 p. ECEN 687 VLSI Physical Design Automation e. ENTO 619 Insect Toxicology 4. Course Withdrawal Requests: a

139

Model Fractional Quantum Hall States and Jack Polynomials  

SciTech Connect

We describe an occupation-number-like picture of fractional quantum Hall states in terms of polynomial wave functions characterized by a dominant occupation-number configuration. The bosonic variants of single-component Abelian and non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall states are modeled by Jack symmetric polynomials (Jacks), characterized by dominant occupation-number configurations satisfying a generalized Pauli principle. In a series of well-known quantum Hall states, including the Laughlin, Read-Moore, and Read-Rezayi, the Jack polynomials naturally implement a ''squeezing rule'' that constrains allowed configurations to be restricted to those obtained by squeezing the dominant configuration. The Jacks presented in this Letter describe new trial uniform states, but it is yet to be determined to which actual experimental fractional quantum Hall effect states they apply.

Bernevig, B. Andrei [Princeton Center for Theoretical Physics, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Haldane, F. D. M. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2008-06-20

140

4. Jack E. Boucher, Photograher, May 1974. VALVE LINKAGES. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Jack E. Boucher, Photograher, May 1974. VALVE LINKAGES. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

141

6. Jack E. Boucher, Photogrpaher, May 1974. VIEW OF HP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Jack E. Boucher, Photogrpaher, May 1974. VIEW OF HP CYLINDER. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

142

JACK Intelligent Agents - Components for Intelligent Agents in Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is organised as follows.Section 2 introduces JACK IntelligentAgents, presenting the approach taken byAOS to its design and outlining its majorengineering characteristics. The BDImodel is discussed briefly in Section 3.Section 4 gives an outline of how to buildan application with JACK IntelligentAgents. Finally, in Section 5 we discusshow the use of this framework can bebeneficial to both engineers and

Paolo Busetta; Ralph Rnnquist; Andrew Hodgson; Andrew Lucas

1999-01-01

143

In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea, Madhuca Longifolia, Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 0.15/34.4 0.24 ?g/ml, 19.0 0.05/32.2 0.0 ?g/ml and 21.2 0.35/39.0 0.30 ?g/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 0.20/43.0 0.40 ?g/ml, 29.0 0.30/39.6 0.12 ?g/ml and 20.2 0.05/36.8 0.23 ?g/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases. PMID:23323183

Jyothi, K. S.; Seshagiri, M.

2012-01-01

144

Calcium channel blocking activity of Mentha longifolia L. explains its medicinal use in diarrhoea and gut spasm.  

PubMed

Mentha longifolia has a reputation in traditional medicine in the indications of diarrhoea and gut spasm. This study was carried out to provide a possible pharmacological basis for its medicinal use in hyperactive gut disorders. In a castor oil induced diarrhoeal model, the crude extract of Mentha longifolia (Ml.Cr), at doses of 100-1000 mg/kg, provided 31-80% protection, similar to loperamide. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, Ml.Cr caused inhibition of spontaneous and high K(+)-induced contractions, with respective EC50 values of 1.80 (1.34-2.24; n = 6-8) and 0.60 mg/mL (0.37-0.85; n = 6-8), which suggests spasmolytic activity, mediated possibly through calcium channel blockade (CCB). The CCB activity was further confirmed when pretreatment of the tissue with Ml.Cr (0.3-1 mg/mL) caused a rightward shift in the Ca(++) concentration-response curves (CRCs), similar to verapamil. Loperamide also inhibited spontaneous and high K(+)-induced contractions and shifted the Ca(++) CRCs to the right. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the petroleum spirit fraction was more potent than the parent crude extract and aqueous fraction. These data indicate that the antidiarrhoeal and spasmolytic effects of the crude extract of Mentha longifolia are mediated through the presence of CCB-like constituent(s), concentrated in the petroleum spirit fraction and this study provides indirect evidence for its medicinal use in diarrhoea and spasm. PMID:20669262

Shah, Abdul Jabbar; Bhulani, Nizar Noorali; Khan, Sara Haroon; Ur Rehman, Najeeb; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

2010-09-01

145

Herbs in exercise and sports  

PubMed Central

The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size. PMID:22738233

2012-01-01

146

Cytotoxic activity of methanolic extract of Mentha longifolia and Ocimum basilicum against human breast cancer.  

PubMed

Labiatae family is represented in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the present study was to go insight to investigate the anticancer activity and antioxidative potentials of methanolic extracts of Mentha longifolia L. (ML) and Ocimum basilicum L. (OB) that grown in Madina province, western region, Saudi Arabia. OB exhibited the greater phenolic contents as mg gallic acid equivalent/g weight (mg GAE/g) for a value of 105 +/- 5.5 mg GAE/g. On the other hand, ML produced 29 +/- 3.12 mg GAE/g. The standard antioxidant vitamin E used in this experiment elicited a value of total phenolic contents equal 22 +/- 2.2 mg GAE/g. The percentage scavenging activity of against diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was 850 and 160% for OB and ML extracts, respectively. Vitamin E elicited% scavenging activity of against DPPH equal to 198%. Brine shrimp cytotoxic assay clearly indicated the cytotoxic effects of either ML or OB extract. The brine shrimp survival is inversely proportional to the concentration of either ML or OB extract used with LD50 191.23 and 235.50 ppm, respectively. Toxic effects on brine shrimps indicated the anticancer potential of ML or OB extract. The ML or OB extract was unable to produce pbluescript (pBS) plasmid DNA damage, while the plasmid DNA treated with EcoRI produced a single band as a result of DNA damage. Also, both ML and OB extract exhibited marked cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cells at various concentrations (20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 microg mL(-1)). The 160 and 320 microg mL(-1) showed more cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells. Based on results achieved, we can concluded that, OB and ML extracts have the potency to act as powerful antioxidants and protect against DNA damage and have cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell line. PMID:24506042

Al-Ali, Khalil H; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; El-Badry, Ayman A; Alkhalaf, Moussa

2013-12-01

147

Determination of polyphenols in Mentha longifolia and M. piperita field-grown and in vitro plant samples using UPLC-TQ-MS.  

PubMed

Nine polyphenols in the aerial parts of Mentha longifolia have been separated by chromatographic techniques. Their structures have been confirmed by HPLC/electrospray ionization-MS/MS. The compounds identified included rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid L, dedihydro-salvianolic acid, luteolin-glucuronide, luteolin-diglucuronide, luteolin-glucopyranosyl-rhamnopyranoside, and eriodictyol-glucopyranosyl-rhamnopyranoside. The extracts of M. longifolia and M. piperita field plants, in vitro plants, callus tissues, and cell suspension cultures were profiled, and their polyphenol composition was compared in different tissues and quantified using ultra-performance column liquid chromatography (UPLC)/triple-quadrupole-MS in the selected-ion recording detection mode. Determination of desired compounds was based on calibration curves obtained for standards, which were previously isolated from M. longifolia aerial parts. The UPLC profiles revealed considerable differences in the synthesis of secondary metabolites among samples coming from field plants, in vitro plants, callus tissues, and cell suspension cultures. Plant tissues coming from field cultivation (for both M. piperita and M. longifolia) contained several phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids), whereas plants from in vitro conditions, callus tissues, and suspension cultures contained only a few of them. Rosmarinic acid dominated in all of these samples. These results show that under in vitro conditions, the metabolism of phenolics undergoes a fundamental change. PMID:21391480

Krzyzanowska, Justyna; Janda, Bogdan; Pecio, Lukasz; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Czubacka, Anna; Przybys, Marcin; Doroszewska, Teresa

2011-01-01

148

JACK - ANTHROPOMETRIC MODELING SYSTEM FOR SILICON GRAPHICS WORKSTATIONS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JACK is an interactive graphics program developed at the University of Pennsylvania that displays and manipulates articulated geometric figures. JACK is typically used to observe how a human mannequin interacts with its environment and what effects body types will have upon the performance of a task in a simulated environment. Any environment can be created, and any number of mannequins can be placed anywhere in that environment. JACK includes facilities to construct limited geometric objects, position figures, perform a variety of analyses on the figures, describe the motion of the figures and specify lighting and surface property information for rendering high quality images. JACK is supplied with a variety of body types pre-defined and known to the system. There are both male and female bodies, ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentile, based on NASA Standard 3000. Each mannequin is fully articulated and reflects the joint limitations of a normal human. JACK is an editor for manipulating previously defined objects known as "Peabody" objects. Used to describe the figures as well as the internal data structure for representing them, Peabody is a language with a powerful and flexible mechanism for representing connectivity between objects, both the joints between individual segments within a figure and arbitrary connections between different figures. Peabody objects are generally comprised of several individual figures, each one a collection of segments. Each segment has a geometry represented by PSURF files that consist of polygons or curved surface patches. Although JACK does not have the capability to create new objects, objects may be created by other geometric modeling programs and then translated into the PSURF format. Environment files are a collection of figures and attributes that may be dynamically moved under the control of an animation file. The animation facilities allow the user to create a sequence of commands that duplicate the movements of a human figure in an environment. Integrated into JACK is a set of vision tools that allow predictions about visibility and legibility. The program is capable of displaying environment perspectives corresponding to what the mannequin would see while in the environment, indicating potential problems with occlusion and visibility. It is also possible to display view cones emanating from the figure's eyes, indicating field of view. Another feature projects the environment onto retina coordinates which gives clues regarding visual angles, acuity and occlusion by the biological blind spots. A retina editor makes it possible to draw onto the retina and project that into 3-dimensional space. Another facility, Reach, causes the mannequin to move a specific portion of its anatomy to a chosen point in space. The Reach facility helps in analyzing problems associated with operator size and other constraints. The 17-segment torso makes it possible to set a figure into realistic postures, simulating human postures closely. The JACK application software is written in C-language for Silicon Graphics workstations running IRIX versions 4.0.5 or higher and is available only in executable form. Since JACK is a copyrighted program (copyright 1991 University of Pennsylvania), this executable may not be redistributed. The recommended minimum hardware configuration for running the executable includes a floating-point accelerator, an 8-megabyte program memory, a high resolution (1280 x 1024) graphics card, and at least 50Mb of free disk space. JACK's data files take up millions of bytes of storage space, so additional disk space is highly recommended. The standard distribution medium for JACK is a .25 inch streaming magnetic IRIX tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. JACK was originally developed in 1988. Jack v4.8 was released for distribution through COSMIC in 1993.

Smith, B.

1994-01-01

149

Moving a VOIP Phone Confirm that a network jack exists in the new location  

E-print Network

Moving a VOIP Phone Phone Only Confirm that a network jack exists in the new location Unplug the phone cable from the wall jack in the original location Plug the phone cable into the wall jack in the new location The phone should turn on and register with your existing extension If you experience

Lennard, William N.

150

Precambrian Research 135 (2004) 251279 Internal zoning and UThPb chemistry of Jack Hills detrital  

E-print Network

they are largely indistinguishable from zircons produced in common felsic magmas. The Jack Hills zircons within the belt. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Jack Hills; SHRIMP; ZirconPrecambrian Research 135 (2004) 251­279 Internal zoning and U­Th­Pb chemistry of Jack Hills

Carlson, Anders

151

Integrability and Transition Coefficients Related to Jack Polynomials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrability plays a central role in solving many body problems in physics. The explicit construction of the Jack polynomials is an essential ingredient in solving the CalogeroSutherland model, which is a one-dimensional integrable system. Starting from a special class of the Jack polynomials associated to the hook Young diagram, we find a systematic way in the explicit construction of the transition coefficients in the power-sum basis, which is closely related to a set of mutually commuting operators, i.e. the conserved charges.

Liu, Zhi-Sheng; Xu, Ying-Ying; Yu, Ming

2014-05-01

152

4. Unit 4 Turbine Pit Oil Jacking Pump and Wicket ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Unit 4 Turbine Pit Oil Jacking Pump and Wicket Gate Linkages, view to the north. The jacking pump, located along the wall on the left side of photograph, is used for pumping oil to lift the thrust bearing prior to starting the unit. Note the wicket gate linkages attached to the operating ring and visible in the lower center of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

153

Birdhabitat relationships in jack pine boreal forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We made counts of 42 bird species at 217 points in 44 jack pine Pinus banksiana stands in the boreal region of north-central Saskatchewan, Canada because of concerns about the impact of forestry on avian biodiversity. Using multivariate analyses we describe the main patterns of bird species abundance and composition in relation to local habitat variables. According to canonical correspondence

David A Kirk; Keith A Hobson

2001-01-01

154

7. Photocopy by Jack Boucher, VIEW OF FORT TOTTEN, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Photocopy by Jack Boucher, VIEW OF FORT TOTTEN, LOOKING NORTHWEST, 1880s. Original photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. B 370 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

155

Jack Colby Continues Stellar Legacy of APPA Fellows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles 2011 APPA Fellow Jack K. Colby, assistant vice chancellor for facilities operations at North Carolina State University. Colby has a history of nonstop service to his profession and to APPA that makes that ever-active, never-stop rabbit look like a piker. Like previous APPA Fellows, Colby could easily rest on his laurels of

Thaler-Carter, Ruth E.

2011-01-01

156

Risk communication for critical civil infrastructure systems Jack Baker1  

E-print Network

1 Risk communication for critical civil infrastructure systems Jack Baker1 , Jason Coray2 , Paul De for communicating risk within the context of infrastructure management decision support systems. A generic model of a risk-based infrastructure management system is presented to illustrate important relationships of key

Baker, Jack W.

157

Random Number Selection in Self-Assembly , Jack H. Lutz  

E-print Network

Random Number Selection in Self-Assembly David Doty , Jack H. Lutz , Matthew J. Patitz , Scott M unbounded space. 1 Introduction The development of DNA tile self-assembly has moved nanotechnology closer self-assembly that enables us to explore the potentialities and limitations of this kind of molecular

Doty, David

158

Multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism for controlling a nuclear reactor is provided. The mechanism includes an elongate pressure housing in which a plurality of closely spaced drive rods are located. Each drive rod is connected to a rod which is insertable in the reactor core. An electromechanical stationary latch device is provided which is actuatable to hold each

L. R. Bollinger; D. C. Crawford

1983-01-01

159

Multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism for controlling a nuclear reactor is provided. The mechanism includes an elongate pressure housing in which a plurality of closely spaced drive rods are located. Each drive rod is connected to a rod which is insertable in the reactor core. An electromechanical stationary latch device is provided which is actuatable to hold each

Lawrence R. Bollinger; Donald C. Crawford

1986-01-01

160

Multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism is described for controlling a nuclear reactor comprising: an elongate pressure housing; closely-spaced drive rods located in the pressure housing, the drive rod being connected to a reactor rod which is insertable in a reactor core; electrochemical stationary latch means which are selectively actuatable for holding a respective one of the drive rods

L. R. Bollinger; D. C. Crawford

1986-01-01

161

Note on refined topological vertex, Jack polynomials and instanton counting  

E-print Network

In this article, we calculated the refined topological vertex for the one parameter case using the Jack symmetric functions. Also, we obtain the partition function for elliptic N=2 models, the results coincide with those of Nekrasov instanton counting partition functions for the $N=2^{\\ast}$ theories.

Jianfeng Wu

2010-12-10

162

Which Spectral Acceleration Are You Jack W. Baker,a...  

E-print Network

Which Spectral Acceleration Are You Using? Jack W. Baker,a... M.EERI, and C. Allin Cornell,a... M pieces are often linked using an intensity measure such as spectral acceleration. However, earth scientists typically use the geometric mean of the spectral accelerations of the two horizontal components

Baker, Jack W.

163

Detecting Jack Pine Budworm Defoliation Using Spectral Mixture Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect defoliation is a major disturbance force in forested ecosystems. Monitoring outbreaks, and estimating the areas affected, is therefore important for both forest managers and forest ecologists. The objective of our study was to classify jack pine budworm defoliation levels in Landsat TM imagery recorded previous to and during the 19901995 outbreak in our 450,000 ha study area in northwestern

Volker C. Radeloff; David J. Mladenoff; Mark S. Boyce

1999-01-01

164

Wendy Gong, Jack Sinden, Mike Braysher and Randall Jones  

E-print Network

Wendy Gong, Jack Sinden, Mike Braysher and Randall Jones Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Animals Cooperative Research Centre. Postal address: University of Canberra, ACT 2600. Office Location ISBN: 978-0-9806716-1-2 © Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre 2009 This work is copyright

Canberra, University of

165

Hadean diamonds in zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detrital zircons more than 4 billion years old from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt, Yilgarn craton, Western Australia, are the oldest identified fragments of the Earth's crust and are unique in preserving information on the earliest evolution of the Earth. Inclusions of quartz, K-feldspar and monazite in the zircons, in combination with an enrichment of light rare-earth elements and an

Martina Menneken; Alexander A. Nemchin; Thorsten Geisler; Robert T. Pidgeon; Simon A. Wilde

2007-01-01

166

The Sandhouse Gang presents.... John W. (Jack) Barriger  

E-print Network

as the TRANSCON) was shut down in the vicinity of Kansas City by extremely heavy rainfall in the Kansas River (KAW Lower Level ­ Ruan Conference Center Santa Fe's 1951 Kansas City Flood Sandhouse Gang member, Jack Barriger, will provide insights into the 1951 Kansas City flood and how the Santa Fe dealt

Bustamante, Fabián E.

167

JACK AND PEARL RESNICK CAMPUS JACOBI MEDICAL CENTER Rhinelander Ave  

E-print Network

Faculty Parking AdditionalParking ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE JACK AND PEARL RESNICK CAMPUS 1 A U N I V E R S I T Y Albert Einstein College of Medicine #12;......................... 1225 Morris Park Ave 20. Einstein Boiler Plant............................1199 Sackett Ave. JACOBI

Yates, Andrew

168

Georgia Southern University Jack N. Averitt College of Graduate Studies  

E-print Network

Georgia Southern University Jack N. Averitt College of Graduate Studies PsyD Candidacy of Study signed by the Major Professor, Department Chair, CLASS Association Dean, and approved by the College of Graduate Studies; 3. Maintained a GPA of at least 3.5 on all doctoral courses on the approved

Hutcheon, James M.

169

Georgia Southern University Jack N Averitt College of Graduate Studies  

E-print Network

Georgia Southern University Jack N Averitt College of Graduate Studies Official Education Specialist Program of Study Form Last Name First Name Middle ID# - - Street Address Home Phone: - - City State Zip - Work Phone: - - Email Address: Degree: EDS Major: Study Concentration The Program of Study

Hutcheon, James M.

170

Improved technological suitability of reduction gears for oil pumping jacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the possibility of eliminating keys in joints transmitting torque from gear wheels to layshafts and to the driven shaft of the reduction gear from the point of view of the strength of the joint for oil pumping jacks. The possibility of utilizing the properties of the material in deformation beyond the elastic limit was investigated. A comparison

N. K. Lytkina; M. K. Kravtsov; L. P. Shishkina; I. I. Rikunov

1987-01-01

171

Graduate Council Meeting Minutes 310 Jack K. Williams Administration Building  

E-print Network

Graduate Council Meeting Minutes 310 Jack K. Williams Administration Building 1:30 p.m., March 7, Sara Khalifa, Jane Welsh, Taylor Smith, Sam Kirkpatrick, Dave Reed, Nicole Kinslow, Carmelita Pickett, Kirsten Pullen, Sue Bloomfield, Sandra Williams, Kimberly Vannest, Dennis Jansen, Julie Wilson, Karen

172

Graduate Council Meeting Minutes 310 Jack K. Williams Administration Building  

E-print Network

Graduate Council Meeting Minutes 310 Jack K. Williams Administration Building December 6, 2012 In attendance: Mark Zoran, Sam Kirkpatrick, Taylor Smith, Sara Khalifa, Nancy Duran, Doug Eckel, Sarel Lavy Pickett, Simon Sheather, Myra Gonzalez, David Kessler, Sandra Williams, Jana Corley 1. Approval

173

Graduate Council Meeting Minutes 310 Jack K. Williams Administration Building  

E-print Network

Graduate Council Meeting Minutes 310 Jack K. Williams Administration Building September 6, 2012 In attendance: Mark Burris, Sam Kirkpatrick, Taylor Smith, Jane Welsh, Nancy Duran, Adam Seipp, Patricia Hurley, Sandra Williams, David Martin, Mark Zoran, Kevin Heinz, Jana Corley 1. Discussion Items: a. Graduate

174

Passive GPS-Free Navigation for Small UAVs Jack Langelaan  

E-print Network

-free navigation of a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with a minimal sensor suite (limited to an inertial measurement objects on the ground we can obtain a navigation solution. Fusing inertial measurements with bearingsPassive GPS-Free Navigation for Small UAVs Jack Langelaan Steve Rock Department of Aeronautics

Langelaan, Jack W.

175

STUDIES OF INTERFACE FRICTION BETWEEN JACKING PIPE MATERIALS AND FRICTIONAL SOILS AND THE IMPACT ON JACKING FORCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of studies have been conducted at Georgia Institute of Technology to study the interface frictional behavior between a variety of jacking pipe materials and frictional soils. The pipe materials which included Polycrete, Hobas, Vitrified Clay, Permalok, and Concrete (both dry-packerhead and wet cast) were characterized to define the surface roughness. Each pipe material was then sheared against a

Kimberlie Staheli; David Frost; Mehmet Iscimen

176

Piperitone Oxide-Rich Essential Oils from Mentha longifolia subsp. petiolata and M. x villoso-nervata Grown Wild on the Island of Crete (S Greece)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of Mentha longifolia subsp. petiolata and M. x villoso-nervata growing wild on scattered localities on the island of Crete (S Greece) are studied. The results of qualitative and quantitative analyses, by means of GC and GC\\/MS, have shown that all oils are characterized by the high contribution of C-3 p-menthane components, and in particular, by trans-piperitone oxide.

Regina Karousou; Tom Lanaras; Stella Kokkini

1998-01-01

177

In vitro KOLH?S?N UYGULAMASI ?LE POL?PLO?D NANE (Mentha longifolia L.) B?TK?LER?N?N ELDE ED?LMES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to obtain poliploid mint plants through in vitro colchicine. Single node explants of Mentha longifolia L. were aseptically removed from actively growing plants and transferred into in vitro MS medium that contained 30 gl-1 sucrose, 6 gl-1 agar, 0.5 mgl-1 BA. After one month shoot tips and single node explants were prepared by using

Rukiye TIPIRDAMAZ

178

Isolation of a Ve homolog, mVe1 , and its relationship to verticillium wilt resistance in Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a step toward greater understanding of the genetics of verticillium wilt resistance in plants, we report the sequencing\\u000a of a candidate wilt resistance gene, mVe1, from the mint diploid model species, Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae). mVe1 is a putative homolog of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) verticillium wilt (Ve) resistance genes. The mVe1 gene has a coding region of 3,051bp. The

Kelly Vining; Thomas Davis

2009-01-01

179

Early Archean crustal evolution of the Jack Hills Zircon source terrane inferred from LuHf, 207Pb\\/ 206Pb, and ? 18O systematics of Jack Hills zircons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lines of isotopic evidence the most direct of which is from Hadean Jack Hills zircons suggest a very early history of crust formation on Earth that began by about 4.5Ga. To constrain both the fate of the reservoir for this crust and the nature of crustal evolution in the sediment source region of the Jack Hills, Western

Elizabeth A. Bell; T. Mark Harrison; Malcolm T. McCulloch; Edward D. Young

2011-01-01

180

Jack-Laurent symmetric functions for special values of parameters  

E-print Network

We consider the Jack--Laurent symmetric functions for special values of parameters p_0=n+k^{-1}m, where k is not rational and m and n are natural numbers. In general, the coefficients of such functions may have poles at these values of p_0. The action of the corresponding algebra of quantum Calogero-Moser integrals D(k,p_0) on the space of Laurent symmetric functions defines the decomposition into generalised eigenspaces. We construct a basis in each generalised eigenspace as certain linear combinations of the Jack--Laurent symmetric functions, which are regular at p_0=n+k^{-1}m, and describe the action of D(k,p_0) in these eigenspaces.

A. N. Sergeev; A. P. Veselov

2014-12-29

181

Jack Rabbit Pretest Shadowplate Drawings For TATB IHE Model Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) series consisted of 5 focused hydrodynamic experiments 2021E PT3, PT4, PT5, PT6, and PT7. They were fired in March and April of 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. These experiments measured deadzone formation and impulse gradients created during the detonation of TATB based insensitive high explosive. When

M M Hart; D W McDaniel

2009-01-01

182

Error threshold for topological color codes on Union Jack lattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitivity to noise makes most of the current quantum computing schemes prone to error and nonscalable, allowing only for very small proof of principle devices. Topologically-protected quantum computing aimes to solve this problem by encoding quantum bits and gates in topological properties of the hardware medium that are immune to noise that does not impact the entire medium at once. There are different approaches to achieve topological protection. While traditional approaches use quasiparticle braidings, topological color codes use string-net condensates in 3-colexes. We study the error threshold of topological color codes on Union Jack lattices that allow for the implementation of the whole Clifford group of quantum gates. After mapping the error-correction process onto a statistical mechanical random 3-body Ising model on a Union Jack lattice, we compute its phase diagram in the temperature-disorder plane using Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that topological color codes on Union Jack lattices have similar error stability than color codes on triangular lattices, as well as the Kitaev toric code.

Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Andrist, Ruben S.; Bombin, Hector; Martin-Delgado, Miguel Angel

2010-03-01

183

Hadean diamonds in zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia.  

PubMed

Detrital zircons more than 4 billion years old from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt, Yilgarn craton, Western Australia, are the oldest identified fragments of the Earth's crust and are unique in preserving information on the earliest evolution of the Earth. Inclusions of quartz, K-feldspar and monazite in the zircons, in combination with an enrichment of light rare-earth elements and an estimated low zircon crystallization temperature, have previously been used as evidence for early recycling of continental crust, leading to the production of granitic melts in the Hadean era. Here we present the discovery of microdiamond inclusions in Jack Hills zircons with an age range from 3,058 +/- 7 to 4,252 +/- 7 million years. These include the oldest known diamonds found in terrestrial rocks, and introduce a new dimension to the debate on the origin of these zircons and the evolution of the early Earth. The spread of ages indicates that either conditions required for diamond formation were repeated several times during early Earth history or that there was significant recycling of ancient diamond. Mineralogical features of the Jack Hills diamonds-such as their occurrence in zircon, their association with graphite and their Raman spectroscopic characteristics-resemble those of diamonds formed during ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism and, unless conditions on the early Earth were unique, imply a relatively thick continental lithosphere and crust-mantle interaction at least 4,250 million years ago. PMID:17713532

Menneken, Martina; Nemchin, Alexander A; Geisler, Thorsten; Pidgeon, Robert T; Wilde, Simon A

2007-08-23

184

Anti-inflammatory effect of Mentha longifolia in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages: reduction of nitric oxide production through inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase.  

PubMed

Mentha longifolia is an aromatic plant used in flavoring and preserving foods and as an anti-inflammatory folk medicine remedy. The present study assessed the effects of M. longifolia extracts, including essential oil and crude methanol extract and its fractions (ethyl acetate, butanol and hexane), on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774A.1 cells using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The cytotoxic effects of the extracts on the cells were examined and non-cytotoxic concentrations (<0.2?mg/ml) were used to examine their effects on NO production and iNOS mRNA expression. Only the hexane fraction that contained high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds at concentrations from 0.05-0.20?mg/ml significantly reduced NO production in LPS-stimulated cells (p?longifolia possibly reduces NO secretion in macrophages by scavenging NO and inhibiting iNOS mRNA expression, and also decreases TNF? pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, thus showing its usefulness in the inflammatory disease process. PMID:23350953

Karimian, Parastoo; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Amirghofran, Zahra

2013-01-01

185

Jack's Frost: Controllable Magic Frost Simulations for 'Rise of the Guardians' David Lipton*  

E-print Network

Jack's Frost: Controllable Magic Frost Simulations for 'Rise of the Guardians' David Lipton* Ken Jack Frost has the ability to cover objects in swirling, magical frost. The frost is an extension. To achieve this, we built a Houdini based system that allowed for precise control over the frost's animation

186

Transitional Experiences of Post-16 Sports Education: Jack's Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the layered transitional experiences of a semi-professional athlete named Jack (a pseudonym) between the fields of professional sport and further and higher education. Our analysis is framed by the quadripartite framework of structuration and focuses on Jack's "in-situ" practices at his college and university in

Aldous, David C. R.; Sparkes, Andrew C.; Brown, David H. K.

2014-01-01

187

14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Jacking and tie-down provisions. 25.519 Section... Ground Loads 25.519 Jacking and tie-down provisions. (a) General...reaction applied in any direction. (c) Tie-down. If tie-down points are...

2013-01-01

188

14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Jacking and tie-down provisions. 25.519 Section... Ground Loads 25.519 Jacking and tie-down provisions. (a) General...reaction applied in any direction. (c) Tie-down. If tie-down points are...

2014-01-01

189

14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Jacking and tie-down provisions. 25.519 Section... Ground Loads 25.519 Jacking and tie-down provisions. (a) General...reaction applied in any direction. (c) Tie-down. If tie-down points are...

2011-01-01

190

14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Jacking and tie-down provisions. 25.519 Section... Ground Loads 25.519 Jacking and tie-down provisions. (a) General...reaction applied in any direction. (c) Tie-down. If tie-down points are...

2012-01-01

191

DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF MAGNETIC JACK-TYPE CONTROL ROD DRIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic jack is a hermetically sealed, step-motion linear motor ; which saiisfies the need for a reliable, lowcost, nuclear reactor conirol rod ; drive. It is especially applicable for operation under adverse conditions ; peculiar to pressurized water-cooled reactors. The jack consists of a pressure ; shell, four sets of external magnet coils, and one internal moving part ivhich

Young

1957-01-01

192

Jack N. Summe Director, Navy Insider Threat to Cyber Security (ITCS)  

E-print Network

Jack N. Summe Director, Navy Insider Threat to Cyber Security (ITCS) Mr. Jack Summe currently serves as the Director of the Navy Insider Threat to Cyber Security Office within the Office.S. Cyber Command, and the National Security Agency. From 2009-2010, Mr. Summe served as the Assistant

193

Tough new jack-up for rough seas  

SciTech Connect

Rowan Company's new deepwater jack-up, Rowan Gorilla I, is scheduled to spud its initial well off the east coast of Canada later this month for a consortium of oil companies including Bow Valley-Husky and ATS Exploration Ltd. The new rig's class designation--Gorilla--reflects designers' expectations for the drilling unit that is suited to work in virtually all ice-free hostile environmental areas of the world. Rowan's confidence in the design, built by Marathon LeTourneau's Vicksburg, Mississippi yard, is reiterated by the fact that two additional rigs in the Gorilla class are being built. Rowan Gorilla II is being constructed at Marathon's Singapore yard, and the Rowan Gorilla III is in early construction stages at the firm's Vicksburg yard. The three Gorilla-class rigs will cost in excess of $85 million each, including owner-furnished drilling equipment. This, according to owners, will make them among the costliest jack-ups in the world. Another record being claimed by the Gorilla-class drilling units is that they are the largest jack-ups in the world. Fully outfitted, a Gorilla contains 16,000 tons of steel. Its triangular hull measures 297 ft from bow to stern and 292 ft across the stern. The rig has a variable load of 2,750 tons for drilling consumables and 42,265 sq ft of deck space. Its ample storage capacity, along with its 503-ft leg length and certain design features, makes the rig compatible with hostile offshore areas, where it can continue drilling for long periods unattended.

Not Available

1984-01-01

194

Teaching Scientists to Fish, as Inspired by Jack Dymond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is almost inconceivable that as Jack Dymond's graduate student for eight years, I never mastered the skill of fly-fishing, a pursuit so near and dear to his heart. In fact, Jack did inspire me, not to tie flies and cast, but eventually to teach fellow scientists to fish. The work I'll present - connecting scientists and educators to achieve societal benefit - is profoundly influenced by Jack's dedication to applying scientific understanding and critical thinking to societal issues. With colleagues in the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE), http://www.cosee.net/, I enable scientists to efficiently make meaningful contributions to educational outreach. A key goal of the multi-Center, national COSEE Network is helping scientists build the skills and acquire the resources needed to share their science with diverse audiences. At Scripps, we are piloting an innovative approach to helping scientists meet funding agencies' broader impact requirements. Key elements of the approach include: 1) services to identify educational outreach options that best fit scientists' research and preferences; 2) assistance establishing partnerships with educational outreach providers who have the skills and resources to develop and implement effective programs and exhibits; and 3) nuts and bolts (line and fly) assistance writing proposal text, drafting budgets, and coordinating with institutional business offices to ensure that the proposed educational outreach effort is compelling and sufficiently funded. Where does the fishing lesson come in? We facilitators of scientist-educator partnerships empower scientists to launch enduring collaborations. Once comfortable working with top-notch educational organizations, scientists can tap these resources, project after project, often with little or no additional involvement on our part. Our initial investment in brokering the relationships is richly rewarded. By helping scientists get started, it's as if we are teaching them to fish, rather than merely giving them fish.

Franks, S. E.

2004-12-01

195

The Influence of Musical Cadence into Aquatic Jumping Jacks Kinematics  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between the head-out aquatic exercise Jumping jacks kinematics and the musical cadence in healthy and fit subjects. Five young women, with at least one year of experience conducting head- out aquatic programs were videotaped in the frontal plane, with a pair of cameras providing a double projection (above and below the water surface). Subjects performed an incremental protocol of five bouts (120 bmin-1, 135 bmin-1, 150 bmin-1, 165 bmin-1 and 180 bmin-1) with 16 full cycles of the Jumping jacks exercise. Data processing and calculation of upper limbs (i.e. hands), lower limbs (i.e. feet) and center of mass 2D linear velocity and displacement were computed with the software Ariel Performance Analysis System and applying the 2D-DLT algorithm. Subjects decreased the cycle period during the incremental protocol. Significant and negative relationships with the musical cadence were verified for the center of mass and upper limbs vertical displacement. On the other hand, for the lower limbs lateral velocity, a significant and positive relationship was observed. It is concluded that expert and fit subjects increase the lower limbs velocity to maintain the range of motion, while the upper limbs displacement is reduced to coupe the music cadence. Key points While performing the Jumping Jacks, expert and fit subjects increase their lower limbs segmental velocity to maintain the range of motion. The upper limbs displacement is reduced to maintain the music cadence. Expert and fit subjects present similar response for alternating or simultaneously head-out aquatic exercises when increasing the music cadence. PMID:24149548

Costa, Mrio J.; Oliveira, Cristiana; Teixeira, Genoveva; Marinho, Daniel A; Silva, Antnio J.; Barbosa, Tiago M

2011-01-01

196

Astronaut Jack Lousma seen outside Skylab space station during EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, is seen outside the Skylab space station in Earth orbit during the August 5, 1973 Skylab 3 extravehicular activity (EVA) in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the space station. Lousma is at the Apollo Telescope Mount EVA work station assembling one of the two 55-foot long sectionalized poles for the twin pole solar shield which was deployed to help cool the Orbital Workshop. Part of the Airlock Module's thermal/meteoroid curtain is in the left foreground.

1973-01-01

197

Method for installing offshore jack-up structures  

SciTech Connect

A method for installing an offshore jack-up structure having a buoyant platform to be towed and legs, is described comprising the steps of: (a) providing a pair of ultrasonic transmitter-receivers on a longitudinal and horizontal center line of the platform, (b) providing the ultrasonic transmitters on a longitudinal and horizontal center line of a target structure to which the rig is approached; and (c) receiving signals transmitted from the ultrasonic transmitters of the target structure by the ultrasonic transmitter-receivers of the platform to determine a relative distance between the rig and the target structure.

Kawagoe, A.; Akiyama, J.; Tateishi, H.

1988-04-05

198

Isolation of a Ve homolog, mVe1, and its relationship to Verticillium wilt resistance in Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds.  

PubMed

As a step toward greater understanding of the genetics of verticillium wilt resistance in plants, we report the sequencing of a candidate wilt resistance gene, mVe1, from the mint diploid model species, Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae). mVe1 is a putative homolog of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) verticillium wilt (Ve) resistance genes. The mVe1 gene has a coding region of 3,051 bp. The predicted mVe1 protein contains a leucine-rich repeat domain, a common feature of plant disease resistance proteins. We compared 13 mVe1 alleles from three mint species. These alleles shared 96.2-99.6% nucleotide identity. We analyzed four M. longifolia populations segregating with respect to mVe1 alleles and wilt resistance versus susceptibility and found one association between mVe1 genotype and wilt phenotype. We conclude that mVe1 may play a role in mint verticillium wilt resistance, but variation for resistance in our segregating progenies is likely polygenic. Therefore, further investigations of mVe1 and identification of additional candidate genes are both warranted. PMID:19424725

Vining, Kelly; Davis, Thomas

2009-08-01

199

Determination of in vitro antioxidative and antimicrobial properties and total phenolic contents of Ziziphora clinopodioides, Cyclotrichium niveum, and Mentha longifolia ssp. typhoides var. typhoides.  

PubMed

The aerial parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides, Cyclotrichium niveum, and Mentha longifolia ssp. typhoides var. typhoides were screened for their possible antioxidant and antimicrobial activities in addition to their penolic contents. Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems: 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging and beta-carotene/linoleic acid. In the first case, Z. clinopodioides was superior to the other species with a 50% inhibitory concentration value of 37.73 +/- 1.18 microg/mg. Similar results were obtained from the beta-carotene/linoleic acid system. Inhibition capacity of the linoleic acid of Z. clinopodioides was 83.56 +/- 1.19%. Additionally, antioxidant activities of butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, and ascorbic acid were determined in parallel experiments. Methanol extracts obtained from the plants studied were found to have moderate antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested. In general, Z. clinopodioides extract exhibited stronger activity than the other extracts. On the other hand, Acinetobacter lwoffii and Candida krusei were the most sensitive microorganisms for the all extracts. The amount of the total phenolics was highest in Z. clinopodioides extract (129.55 +/- 2.26 microg/mg), followed by M. longifolia ssp. typhoides var. typhoides (93.47 +/-1.84 microg/mg). It is extremely important to note that there is a positive correlation between antioxidant activity potential and amount of phenolic compounds. PMID:19627221

Gursoy, Nevcihan; Sihoglu-Tepe, Arzuhan; Tepe, Bektas

2009-06-01

200

Applying the vantage PDMS to jack-up drilling ships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plant design management system (PDMS) is an integrated application which includes a database and is useful when designing complex 3-D industrial projects. It could be used to simplify the most difficult part of a subsea oil extraction projectdetailed pipeline design. It could also be used to integrate the design of equipment, structures, HVAC, E-ways as well as the detailed designs of other specialists. This article mainly examines the applicability of the Vantage PDMS database to pipeline projects involving jack-up drilling ships. It discusses the catalogue (CATA) of the pipeline, the spec-world (SPWL) of the pipeline, the bolt tables (BLTA) and so on. This article explains the main methods for CATA construction as well as problem in the process of construction. In this article, the authors point out matters needing attention when using the Vantage PDMS database in the design process and discuss partial solutions to these questions.

Yin, Peng; Chen, Yuan-Ming; Cui, Tong-Kai; Wang, Zi-Shen; Gong, Li-Jiang; Yu, Xiang-Fen

2009-09-01

201

EFFECT OF STARVATION ON THE HISTOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF JACK MACKEREL,  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF STARVATION ON THE HISTOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF JACK MACKEREL, TRACHURUS SYMMETRICUS, LARVAE GAIL H. THEILACKER' ABSTRACT Histological and morphological criteria were, larvae. A comparison of the histological features offed and starved larvae revealed that the digestive

202

Topological color codes on Union Jack lattices: a stable implementation of the whole Clifford group  

SciTech Connect

We study the error threshold of topological color codes on Union Jack lattices that allow for the full implementation of the whole Clifford group of quantum gates. After mapping the error-correction process onto a statistical mechanical random three-body Ising model on a Union Jack lattice, we compute its phase diagram in the temperature-disorder plane using Monte Carlo simulations. Surprisingly, topological color codes on Union Jack lattices have a similar error stability to color codes on triangular lattices, as well as to the Kitaev toric code. The enhanced computational capabilities of the topological color codes on Union Jack lattices with respect to triangular lattices and the toric code combined with the inherent robustness of this implementation show good prospects for future stable quantum computer implementations.

Katzgraber, Helmut G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Theoretische Physik, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Bombin, H. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Andrist, Ruben S. [Theoretische Physik, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Martin-Delgado, M. A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2010-01-15

203

GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-240 Tree-Mediated Interactions Between the Jack Pine  

E-print Network

lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon)-dominated forests to the jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb (Choristoneura pinus pinus, JPBW). We simulated MPB attacks with one of its fungal associates, Grosmannia

Standiford, Richard B.

204

From left, Richard Rogers, Rep. Ellen Story (D-Amherst), President Jack Wilson, Provost Charlena Seymour,  

E-print Network

From left, Richard Rogers, Rep. Ellen Story (D-Amherst), President Jack Wilson, Provost Charlena of the American Friends Service Committee, the papers of former Students for a Demo- cratic Society president Carl

Schweik, Charles M.

205

Tropical Cyclone Jack in Satellite 3-D - Duration: 0:13.  

NASA Video Gallery

This 3-D flyby from NASA's TRMM satellite of Tropical Cyclone Jack on April 21 shows that some of the thunderstorms were shown by TRMM PR were still reaching height of at least 17 km (10.5 miles). ...

206

Jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles use jellyfish for predator avoidance and as a prey collector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juveniles of carangid fishes including jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus are known to associate with jellyfishes. The function of this association behavior was studied through rearing experiments\\u000a and underwater visual observations. Association behavior of jack mackerel with moon jellyfish in experimental tanks was more\\u000a frequent in the presence compared to the absence of predators (chub mackerel Scomber japonicus). In the experimental

Reiji Masuda; Yoh Yamashita; Michiya Matsuyama

2008-01-01

207

Jacking mechanism for upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor  

DOEpatents

A jacking mechanism for raising the upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor which jacking mechanism uses a system of gears and drive shafts to transmit force from a single motor to four mechanically synchronized ball jacks to raise and lower support columns which support the upper internals structure. The support columns have a pin structure which rides up and down in a slot in a housing fixed to the reactor head. The pin has two locking plates which can be rotated around the pin to bring bolt holes through the locking plates into alignment with a set of bolt holes in the housing, there being a set of such housing bolt holes corresponding to both a raised and a lowered position of the support column. When the locking plate is so aligned, a surface of the locking plate mates with a surface in the housing such that the support column is then supported by the locking plate and not by the ball jacks. Since the locking plates are to be installed and bolted to the housing during periods of reactor operation, the ball jacks need not be sized to react the large forces which occur or potentially could occur on the upper internals structure of the reactor during operation. The locking plates react these loads. The ball jacks, used only during refueling, can be smaller, which enable conventionally available equipment to fulfill the precision requirements for the task within available space.

Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Wineman, Arthur L. (Greensburg, PA)

1984-01-01

208

Jack Rabbit Pretest Shadowplate Drawings For TATB IHE Model Development  

SciTech Connect

The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) series consisted of 5 focused hydrodynamic experiments 2021E PT3, PT4, PT5, PT6, and PT7. They were fired in March and April of 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. These experiments measured deadzone formation and impulse gradients created during the detonation of TATB based insensitive high explosive. When setting up computer simulations of the Jack Rabbit Pretest series, the modeler or code developer can execute simulations with increasing degrees of refinement using detail found in the shadowplate design. The easiest way to get started is by treating the shadowplate in each experiment as a monolithic homogeneous piece of stainless steel. The simulation of detonation would begin as a point initiation below the center, bottom surface of the shadowplate. The detonation running through the ultrafine TATB booster can be simulated using program burn and then switched over to a reactive flow detonation model as the detonation front crosses the boundary into the main charge LX-17 IHE. A modeler wanting to further refine the simulation and progression of shock through the shadowplate can use the more detailed shadowplate design information presented in this document. The source drawings are included in Appendix A of this document. Their titles and drawing numbers are listed. Each experiment's shadowplate consists of two major components. A 303 stainless steel shape that defines the outer dimensions of shadowplate and a cylindrical 303 stainless steel detonator housing that is located in a closely machined pocket in the shape. The SIMPLE ASSY drawing accurately represents the dimensions of the outer shape, it's machined cylindrical pocket, and detonator body which is treated as a monolithic, homogeneous piece of stainless steel. The detonator body cross section shows an accurately dimensioned void where the slapper flyer barrel, LX-16 (pressed PETN) pellet, and pellet can flyer barrel are located. The FULL ASSY drawing accurately represents the dimensions of the outer shadowplate shape and it's machined pocket. The detonator dimensions and materials are detailed in cross section and exploded view. All diameters, thicknesses, and materials are called out in the drawing. You will notice that the detonator includes a multilayer slapper assembly with two layers of electrically insulating Kapton sandwiching the copper foil bridge circuit. The Kapton insulated circuit is sandwiched between two thin stainless steel sheets. This slapper assembly is secured to the detonator body with two screws. There is a 0.25 mm gap between the slapper assembly and the outer shadowplate shape. The stainless steel detonator body contains an off-center titanium wheel. This titanium wheel is secured to the detonator body with one screw and two pins to maintain position and orientation of the pellet can assembly in the center of the detonator body. The titanium wheel contains a tantalum/tungsten washer and pellet can assembly. The pellet can assembly consists of a pressed LX-16 initiator pellet contained in an extruded aluminum foil can. It may be useful for the modeler to include some of the details of the shadowplate and detonator design to further refine simulations of the Jack Rabbit Pretest experiments. These details may be relevant to the progression of shock originating from the PETN initiation pellet and ultrafine TATB booster that propagates through the shadowplate.

Hart, M M; McDaniel, D W

2009-07-10

209

Stress analysis of jacks, frame and bearing connections, and drill rod for core sampler truck No. 2  

SciTech Connect

This analysis evaluates the structural design adequacy of several components and connections for the rotary mode core sampler truck (RMCST) No. 2. This analysis was requested by the Characterization Equipment Group (WHC 1994a). The components addressed in this report are listed below: front jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; rear jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; center outrigger jacks and connection to the truck chassis; lower frame assembly and connection to the truck chassis; bolt connections for bearing plate assembly (for path of maximum load); traverse slide brackets and mounting of the traverse jack cylinders; and drill rod (failure loads).

Ziada, H.H.

1995-02-28

210

Jack Rabbit Pretest Data For TATB Based IHE Model Development  

SciTech Connect

The Jack Rabbit Pretest series consisted of 5 focused hydrodynamic experiments, 2021E PT3, PT4, PT5, PT6, and PT7. They were fired in March and April of 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. These experiments measured dead-zone formation and impulse gradients created during the detonation of TATB based insensitive high explosive. This document contains reference data tables for all 5 experiments. These data tables include: (1) Measured laser velocimetry of the experiment diagnostic plate (2) Computed diagnostic plate profile contours through velocity integration (3) Computed center axis pressures through velocity differentiation. All times are in microseconds, referenced from detonator circuit current start. All dimensions are in millimeters. Schematic axi-symmetric cross sections are shown for each experiment. These schematics detail the materials used and dimensions of the experiment and component parts. This should allow anyone wanting to evaluate their TATB based insensitive high explosive detonation model against experiment. These data are particularly relevant in examining reactive flow detonation model prediction in computational simulation of dead-zone formation and resulting impulse gradients produced by detonating TATB based explosive.

Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T

2008-06-18

211

Unforgivable Blackness: The Rise and Fall of Jack Johnson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jack Johnson, the first African-American heavyweight boxing champion of the world, is the subject of a new documentary by the well-regarded filmmaker Ken Burns. The program recently aired for the first time on PBS, and this companion website offers a number of primary documents, short essays, and educational materials that will be of great interest to the Web-browsing public and educators seeking to use the documentary in the classroom. On the site, visitors can learn about the life of this rather remarkable man, and also learn about the broader social and cultural milieu of the times in which he found himself, both in terms of race relations and in terms of the history of the sport of boxing. One particularly well-developed feature here is the section that deals with ??The Fight of the Century?, which pitted Johnson versus Jim Jeffries, who at that point was the retired white heavyweight champion of the world. The site is rounded out by a number of lesson plans and additional resources (such as books and other online sites) for educators.

212

The subunit structure of jack-bean urease  

PubMed Central

1. Urease of specific activity 160180 Sumner units/g. (Sumner, 1951) was purified from jack-bean meal. The preparation was pure on the basis of polyacryl-amide-gel electrophoresis and N-terminal studies. 2. By using both the 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene method and the phenyl isothiocyanate method a single N-terminal methionine residue was found. 3. A single C-terminal sequence -Tyr-Leu-Phe was found by studies with carboxypeptidase A, carboxypeptidase B and hydrazinolysis. 4. N-Bromosuccinimide cleavage showed that five unique tryptophan sequences were present: Trp-Ala, Trp-Glu, Trp-Gly, Trp-Met and Trp-Arg. 5. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate showed that urease had a subunit molecular weight of 76000. 6. The yield of N- and C-terminal amino acids, the number of tryptic peptides and tryptophan sequences and the above polyacrylamide-gel electrophoretic measurement all suggest that urease contains a single structural subunit of molecular weight 75000. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:5386187

Bailey, C. J.; Boulter, D.

1969-01-01

213

Multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism  

DOEpatents

A multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism for controlling a nuclear reactor is provided. The mechanism includes an elongate pressure housing in which a plurality of closely spaced drive rods are located. Each drive rod is connected to a rod which is insertable in the reactor core. An electromechanical stationary latch device is provided which is actuatable to hold each drive rod stationary with respect to the pressure housing. An electromechanical movable latch device is also provided for each one of the drive rods. Each movable latch device is provided with a base and is actuatable to hold a respective drive rod stationary with respect to the base. An electromechanical lift device is further provided for each base which is actuatable for moving a respective base longitudinally along the pressure housing. In this manner, one or more drive rods can be moved in the pressure housing by sequentially and repetitively operating the electromechanical devices. Preferably, each latch device includes a pair of opposed latches which grip teeth located on the respective drive rod. Two, three, or four drive rods can be located symmetrically about the longitudinal axis of the pressure housing.

Bollinger, L.R.; Crawford, D.C.

1983-10-06

214

Serologic survey of selected zoonotic disease agents in black-tailed jack rabbits from western Texas.  

PubMed

A serologic survey for the agents of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) (Rickettsia rickettsii), Borrelia spp. including the causative agent for Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and plague (Yersinia pestis) was conducted on blood samples collected from 30 and 46 black-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus californicus) from an urban environment in Lubbock, Texas (USA) during winter 1987 and the following spring 1988, respectively. Antibody titers to the agents of RMSF and borreliosis were detected in sera of 28 and 1% of the jack rabbits, respectively. Neither organisms (rickettsiae and/or spirochetes) nor their associated antigens were detected in any of the tissue or whole blood samples; plague antibodies were not detected in the 76 jack rabbits sampled. Four of 18 ticks (Dermacentor parumapertus) removed from 12 jack rabbits were positive for RMSF using the fluorescent antibody test. The black-tailed jack rabbit is a common wildlife species living in close proximity to higher density human populations in many areas of the southwestern United States. Our results indicate the potential importance of urban populations of this mammal as reservoirs for at least one important zoonotic disease, RMSF, in western Texas. PMID:2106044

Henke, S E; Pence, D B; Demarais, S; Johnson, J R

1990-01-01

215

Early Archean crustal evolution of the Jack Hills Zircon source terrane inferred from Lu-Hf, 207Pb\\/206Pb, and delta18O systematics of Jack Hills zircons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lines of isotopic evidence - the most direct of which is from Hadean Jack Hills zircons - suggest a very early history of crust formation on Earth that began by about 4.5 Ga. To constrain both the fate of the reservoir for this crust and the nature of crustal evolution in the sediment source region of the Jack Hills,

Elizabeth A. Bell; T. Mark Harrison; Malcolm T. McCulloch; Edward D. Young

2011-01-01

216

Hadean crustal evolution revisited: New constraints from PbHf isotope systematics of the Jack Hills zircons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detrital zircon crystals from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt, Western Australia, are the only surviving vestiges of Hadean crust and represent an extraordinary archive into the nature of the early Earth. We report the results of an in situ isotopic study of 68 Jack Hills zircons in which the Hf and Pb isotope ratios were measured concurrently, allowing a better

A. I. S. Kemp; S. A. Wilde; C. J. Hawkesworth; C. D. Coath; A. Nemchin; R. T. Pidgeon; J. D. Vervoort; S. A. DuFrane

2010-01-01

217

Hadean crustal evolution revisited: New constraints from Pb-Hf isotope systematics of the Jack Hills zircons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detrital zircon crystals from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt, Western Australia, are the only surviving vestiges of Hadean crust and represent an extraordinary archive into the nature of the early Earth. We report the results of an in situ isotopic study of 68 Jack Hills zircons in which the Hf and Pb isotope ratios were measured concurrently, allowing a better

A. I. S. Kemp; S. A. Wilde; C. J. Hawkesworth; C. D. Coath; A. Nemchin; R. T. Pidgeon; J. D. Vervoort; S. A. Dufrane

2010-01-01

218

Towards the Proof of AGT Relations with the Help of the Generalized Jack Polynomials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Original proofs of the AGT relations with the help of the Hubbard-Stratanovich duality of the modified Dotsenko-Fateev matrix model did not work for ? ? 1, because Nekrasov functions were not properly reproduced by Selberg-Kadell integrals of Jack polynomials. We demonstrate that if the generalized Jack polynomials, depending on the N-ples of Young diagrams from the very beginning, are used instead of the N-linear combinations of ordinary Jacks, this resolves the problem. Such polynomials naturally arise as special elements in the equivariant cohomologies of the GL( N)-instanton moduli spaces, and this also establishes connection to alternative ABBFLT approach to the AGT relations, studying the action of chiral algebras on the instanton moduli spaces. In this paper, we describe a complete proof of AGT in the simple case of GL(2) ( N = 2) Yang-Mills theory, i.e., the 4-point spherical conformal block of the Virasoro algebra.

Morozov, Alexei; Smirnov, Andrey

2014-05-01

219

1/6/14 JackLondon's majestic oaksaved from the ax| The Press Democrat www.pressdemocrat.com/article/20131223/articles/131229832 1/3  

E-print Network

derby site in jeopardy Petaluma man stabbed in Denny's parking lot Driver arrested after Santa Rosa.pressdemocrat.com/article/20131223/articles/131229832 1/3 Jack's Oak, A heritage oak tree on the grounds of Jack London State Park this season of joy, what a gift!" Tjiska Van Wyk, executive director of Jack London Park Partners, wrote

California at Berkeley, University of

220

Separation of jack bean ( Canavalia ensiformis) urease isoforms by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and characterization of insecticidal properties unrelated to ureolytic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we described the separation of two isoforms of urease from jack bean seeds, the classical jack bean urease (JBU) and canatoxin (CNTX), using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). Jack bean urease isoforms presented differential behavior on a cobalt-loaded iminodiacetic acid (IDA)Sepharose column and IMAC is proposed as an efficient method to isolate the isoenzymes. The metal content

Cristian Follmer; German E Wassermann; Clia R Carlini

2004-01-01

221

Age and Nature of the Protocrust of the Jack Hills Zircon Host Rock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental question about Earth evolution is to understand when growth of continental crust began. Constraining this event will help date the timing of onset of plate tectonics and thus ultimately the origin of life. We have addressed this problem by Pb-Pb dating of single Hadean zircons from Jack Hills in Western Australia combined with analysis of their Hf isotopic compositions. We found an average age for the Hadean population of the Jack Hills zircons analyzed here of 4.10.1 Ga suggesting that the host rock of the Jack Hills zircons formed as a single event rather than a succession of pulses. Most of the grains have Hf isotopic compositions less radiogenic than both chondrites and the depleted mantle at that time indicating that the host rock of the Jack Hills zircons derived from an enriched reservoir, or source rock, with sub- chondritic Lu/Hf. Monte Carlo modeling gives an age for this source rock of 4.35 Ga and a 176Lu/177Hf ratio of 0.05. Such a low Lu/Hf ratio does not match either modern oceanic crust, island arc rocks, or subduction-zone type granites, but better fits Archean TTG suites, which themselves in turn may have been produced by melting of the last remains of the terrestrial magma ocean (hydrous KREEPy basalt). If this proposition is correct, then whether plate tectonics had started by the time the Jack Hills zircons formed at ~4.1 Ga hinges critically around the understanding of the processes that produced TTGs in the first place. If, as suggested by recent literature, TTGs are not subduction zone magmas, the Jack Hills zircons may not have been witnesses to early plate tectonics. If, however, TTGs do represent magmas formed at plate margins, the Jack Hills zircons become the oldest manifestation of plate tectonics operating under some form at ~4.35 Ga. Alternatively, the source of the host rock of the Jack Hills zircons could have been a partial melt of KREEPy material that formed an enriched oceanic crust that subducted and remelted a few 100's of My later.

Blichert-Toft, J.; Albarede, F.

2008-12-01

222

Malignant mesenchymal tumors in two white-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus townsendii).  

PubMed

Two white-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus townsendii) with proliferative lesions in their internal organs were submitted to the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre (Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada) for necropsy because of concern that dogs that had contact with the hares might have been exposed to an infectious disease. In both hares, the primary diagnosis was neoplasia. One hare had metastatic leiomyosarcoma and uterine fibroma, the other had metastatic mesenchymal tumors involving the liver and mesentery. These cases represent the only reports of malignant mesenchymal tumors in white-tailed jack rabbits that we have found in the literature. PMID:15650095

Jardine, Claire; Wobeser, Gary A; Simko, Elemir

2004-10-01

223

Early Archean crustal evolution of the Jack Hills Zircon source terrane inferred from Lu-Hf, 207Pb/ 206Pb, and ? 18O systematics of Jack Hills zircons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several lines of isotopic evidence - the most direct of which is from Hadean Jack Hills zircons - suggest a very early history of crust formation on Earth that began by about 4.5 Ga. To constrain both the fate of the reservoir for this crust and the nature of crustal evolution in the sediment source region of the Jack Hills, Western Australia, during the early Archean, we report here initial 176Hf/ 177Hf ratios and ? 18O systematics for <4 Ga Jack Hills zircons. In contrast to the significant number of Hadean zircons which contain highly unradiogenic 176Hf/ 177Hf requiring a near-zero Lu/Hf reservoir to have separated from the Earth's mantle by 4.5 Ga, Jack Hills zircons younger than ca. 3.6 Ga are more radiogenic than -13? (CHUR) at 3.4 Ga in contrast to projected values at 3.4 Ga of -20? for the unradiogenic Hadean reservoir indicating that some later juvenile addition to the crust is required to explain the more radiogenic younger zircons. The shift in the Lu-Hf systematics together with a narrow range of mostly mantle-like ? 18O values among the <3.6 Ga zircons (in contrast to the spread towards sedimentary ? 18O among Hadean samples) suggests a period of transition between 3.6 and 4 Ga in which the magmatic setting of zircon formation changed and the highly unradiogenic low Lu/Hf Hadean crust ceased to be available for intracrustal reworking. Constraining the nature of this transition provides important insights into the processes of crustal reworking and recycling of the Earth's Hadean crust as well as early Archean crustal evolution.

Bell, Elizabeth A.; Harrison, T. Mark; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Young, Edward D.

2011-09-01

224

Numerical Evidence that the Motion of Pluto is Chaotic Gerald Jay Sussman; Jack Wisdom  

E-print Network

Numerical Evidence that the Motion of Pluto is Chaotic Gerald Jay Sussman; Jack Wisdom Science, New@jstor.org. http://www.jstor.org Wed Oct 17 16:36:12 2007 #12;Numerical Evidence That the Motion of Pluto for 845 million years. This integration indicates that the long-term mo- tion of the planet Pluto

Wisdom, Jack

225

Cost analysis for sewer systems constructed by open cut and jacking techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study developed cost functions, which were expressed as functions of pipe sizes and excavation depths, applicable to open cut and jacking techniques for construction of sewer systems. Data for several real sewer system construction projects in Taiwan were investigated to verify the accuracy of the cost functions. The cost functions developed in this study are more realistic, practical, accurate

Shuang-Fu Yeh; Min-Der Lin; Kang-Ting Tsai

2009-01-01

226

Jack Mezirow's Conceptualisation of Adult Transformative Learning: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper traces the evolution of Jack Mezirow's transformative learning theory and its conceptualisation. It discusses the three major influences, namely Thomas Khun's philosophical conception of paradigm, Freire's conception of conscientisation and consciousness growth, and Habermas' domains of learning and the discussion of

Calleja, Colin

2014-01-01

227

Take a Walk on the Wild Side, with Folk Artist Jack Barker.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the life and artwork of Jack Barker who became a folk artist after running a local gas station in Essex, Illinois. Explains that art educators view student interactions with folk artists like Barker as valuable because these artists embody a creative spirit and a thirst for knowledge about materials and processes. (CMK)

Delacruz, Elizabeth Manley

1999-01-01

228

Dissociation Between Location and Shape in Visual Space Jack M. Loomis  

E-print Network

Dissociation Between Location and Shape in Visual Space Jack M. Loomis University of California these objective instructions, depth extents positioned from 3 to 12 m away had to be made 1.5 to 1.9 times evidence of even greater distortion, again using objective instructions. In his experiment, observers

Loomis, Jack M.

229

Malaysia: Big Win Against Illegal Timber Ops JACK WONG, The Star  

E-print Network

Malaysia: Big Win Against Illegal Timber Ops JACK WONG, The Star KUCHING: Sarawak Forestry," he said. He said the corporation would press for jail sentences for the offenders. © 1995-2005 Star Publications (Malaysia) Bhd Content Provider: The Star (Malaysia) #12;

230

Low-Power Acoustic Modem for Dense Underwater Sensor Jack Wills, Wei Ye, and John Heidemann  

E-print Network

Low-Power Acoustic Modem for Dense Underwater Sensor Networks Jack Wills, Wei Ye, and John- derwater environment, there is a compelling need to develop low-cost and low-power acoustic modems for short-range communications. This paper presents our work in design- ing and developing such a modem. We

Heidemann, John

231

Dendroecology in young stands: case studies from jack pine in northern lower Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight jack pine (Pinus banksiana) stands in northern lower Michigan were sampled to evaluate the potential of dendroecological methods for studying stand dynamics with young trees. At each stand, a minimum of 20 dominant and codominant trees were cored, and at two stands additional recruitment data were collected. The cores were all cross-dated and measured. The raw ring widths were

Carolyn A. Copenheaver; Marc D. Abrams

2003-01-01

232

Combining doubly charged cations and anions to form new species Nick Gonzales and Jack Simons  

E-print Network

Combining doubly charged cations and anions to form new species Nick Gonzales and Jack Simons, the existence and relative stabilities of several new species such as H,SMgF,, H2SMgF2, and HSMgF derived from lifetimes to be especially long. In several of the species examined in this study, the ex- tended valence

Simons, Jack

233

Introduction to the HPCChallenge Benchmark Suite Jack J. Dongarra Piotr Luszczek  

E-print Network

.g. programming lan- guage, parallel model, memory model, communi- cation model), · Scalable benchmarks designedIntroduction to the HPCChallenge Benchmark Suite Jack J. Dongarra Piotr Luszczek December 13, 2004 Abstract The HPCChallenge suite of benchmarks will examine the performance of HPC architectures using

Dongarra, Jack

234

Introduction to the HPC Challenge Benchmark Suite Jack J. Dongarra Piotr Luszczek  

E-print Network

.g. programming lan- guage, parallel model, memory model, communi- cation model), · Scalable benchmarks designedIntroduction to the HPC Challenge Benchmark Suite Jack J. Dongarra Piotr Luszczek December 13, 2004 Abstract The HPC Challenge suite of benchmarks will exam- ine the performance of HPC architectures using

Luszczek, Piotr

235

The LINPACK Benchmark: Past, Present, and Future Jack J. Dongarra, Piotr Luszczek, and Antoine Petitet  

E-print Network

program), and a scalable parallel problem. The names and rules for running the LINPACK suite of benchmarks: (+865) 974-8295, Fax: (+865) 974- #12;Benchmark Matrix Optimizations Parallel name dimension allowedThe LINPACK Benchmark: Past, Present, and Future Jack J. Dongarra, Piotr Luszczek, and Antoine

Luszczek, Piotr

236

Paths, Trees, and Flowers "Jack Edmonds has been one of the creators of the  

E-print Network

Paths, Trees, and Flowers "Jack Edmonds has been one of the creators of the field of combinatorial optimization and polyhedral combinatorics. His 1965 paper `Paths, Trees, and Flowers' [1] was one of the first arcs. Such a graph is called a "tree." Every isomer defines a tree of carbon atoms whose nodes

237

Quantitative classification of near-fault ground motions Jack W.Baker Stanford University  

E-print Network

Quantitative classification of near-fault ground motions Jack W.Baker Stanford University Dept below. Ground motions are classified as pulses if they meet the follow- ing three criteria: · The residual ground motion is significantly less intense than the original ground motion (as measured

Baker, Jack W.

238

Stochastic Model for Earthquake Ground Motion Using Wavelet Packets by Yoshifumi Yamamoto and Jack W. Baker  

E-print Network

Stochastic Model for Earthquake Ground Motion Using Wavelet Packets by Yoshifumi Yamamoto and Jack various types of input ground motions is required. Stochastic (simulated) ground motions are sometimes of ground-motion properties on structural response, and producing large numbers of ground motions is simple

Baker, Jack W.

239

TRF1 Promotes Parallel Pairing of Telomeric Tracts Jack Griffith1  

E-print Network

TRF1 Promotes Parallel Pairing of Telomeric Tracts in Vitro Jack Griffith1 *, Alessandro Bianchi2 Human telomeres consist of long arrays of TTAGGG repeats bound to the telomere-speci®c proteins, TRF1 and TRF2. Here we describe the structure of in vitro complexes formed between telomeric DNA and TRF1

de Lange, Titia

240

Reducing Execution Time of High Performance LINPACK (HPL) Benchmark Jack Dongarra1 Piotr Luszczek3  

E-print Network

Reducing Execution Time of High Performance LINPACK (HPL) Benchmark Jack Dongarra1 ,2 ,3 Piotr Motivation 1.1 Increasing Execution Time Time to run HPL (tTotal) increases because (assuming constant memory of cores on TOP500 may be correlated with the time it takes to run HPL: 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 TOP500 List 0

Luszczek, Piotr

241

Mineral inclusion thermobarometry in >4 Ga Jack Hills zircons provide further constraints on Hadean geodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detrital zircons from the Jack Hills of Western Australia provide an important record of terrestrial conditions during the Hadean Eon (ca. >4 Ga). Mineral inclusions captured in these ancient zircons add an extra dimension to our knowledge of Hadean Earth. The inclusion population is dominated by the presence of quartz and muscovite, most apparently primary to these igneous zircons. Several

M. Hopkins; T. M. Harrison; C. E. Manning

2010-01-01

242

Age and Nature of the Protocrust of the Jack Hills Zircon Host Rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental question about Earth evolution is to understand when growth of continental crust began. Constraining this event will help date the timing of onset of plate tectonics and thus ultimately the origin of life. We have addressed this problem by Pb-Pb dating of single Hadean zircons from Jack Hills in Western Australia combined with analysis of their Hf isotopic

J. Blichert-Toft; F. Albarede

2008-01-01

243

Trace Elements Reveal a Possible Link Between Jack Hills Detrital Zircons and the Late Heavy Bombardment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jack Hills detrital zircons range in age 4.3-3.0 Ga. At ca. 3.9 Ga the record contains a population that appears to have recrystallized during a major thermal event. This may be circumstantial terrestrial evidence for the Late Heavy Bombardment.

Bell, E. A.; Harrison, T. M.

2012-03-01

244

14 CFR 25.519 - Jacking and tie-down provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limit load conditions resulting from the static ground load conditions of paragraph...vertical load of 1.33 times the vertical static reaction at each jacking point acting...horizontal load of 0.33 times the vertical static reaction applied in any direction....

2010-01-01

245

LAPACK FOR FORTRAN90 Jack J. Dongarra Jeremy Du Croz y Sven Hammarling y  

E-print Network

LAPACK FOR FORTRAN90 Jack J. Dongarra #3; Jeremy Du Croz y Sven Hammarling y Jerzy Wa#19;sniewski z Adam Zem la x November 25, 1998 Abstract The purpose of this talk is to discuss the design of a Fortran-interface to the pack- age, taking advantage of the considerable simpli#12;cations which Fortran 90 allows. The proposed

Dongarra, Jack

246

Self-adapting Numerical Software and Automatic Tuning of Jack Dongarra, Victor Eijkhout  

E-print Network

Self-adapting Numerical Software and Automatic Tuning of Heuristics Jack Dongarra, Victor Eijkhout Abstract Self-Adapting Numerical Software (SANS) systems aim to bridge the knowledge gap that exists between the expertise of domain scientists, and the know-how that is needed to fulfill efficiently

Dongarra, Jack

247

Improving Quality & Competitiveness of Jersey Tomatoes Jack Rabin, Associate Director -Farm Programs  

E-print Network

Improving Quality & Competitiveness of Jersey Tomatoes Jack Rabin, Associate Director - Farm Programs While not our largest selling crop, the Jersey Tomato is a signature crop that helps sell other items when wholesale orders come in. Seventy- ve years ago, 25-50% of shipped market tomatoes were lost

Goodman, Robert M.

248

A Discussion of Jack Drescher's Handle with Care: The Psychoanalysis of a Touchy Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses Jack Drescher's paper The Psychoanalysis of a Touchy Case. The discussion takes up issues related to Drescher's patient's symptoms, his long-term relationship, and his developmental history as a gay man. This discussion focuses not only on the nature of the patient's problems, but also draws attention to the helpful clinical ways in which Drescher approached his patient,

Ethel S. Person

2009-01-01

249

Cadmium accumulation by jack-bean and sorghum in hydroponic culture.  

PubMed

Among the technologies used to recuperate cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils, phytoextraction are particularly important, where the selection of suitable plants is critical to the success of the soil remediation. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the responses of jack-bean and sorghum to Cd supply and to quantify Cd accumulation by these species grown in hydroponic culture. The plants were subjected to 0, 15, 30, or 60?mol Cd L(-1) in the nutrient solution, and gas exchange, plant growth and Cd accumulation were measured at 25days after starting Cd treatments. The Cd supply severely reduced growth of shoots and roots in both species. In jack-bean, Cd decreased photosynthesis by 56-86%, stomatal conductance by 59-85% and transpiration by 48-80%. The concentrations and amounts of Cd accumulated in the plant tissues were proportional to the metal supply in the nutrient solution. Sorghum was more tolerant than jack-bean to Cd toxicity, but the latter showed a greater metal concentration and accumulation in the shoot. Therefore, jack-bean would be more suitable than sorghum for use in Cd phytoremediation programs based on phytoextraction. PMID:25397989

Zancheta, Ariana Carramaschi Francato; De Abreu, Cleide Aparecida; Zambrosi, Fernando Csar Bachiega; Erismann, Norma de Magalhes; Laga, Ana Maria Magalhes Andrade

2015-01-01

250

Java Access to Numerical Libraries Henri Casanova \\Lambda Jack Dongarra \\Lambda y David M. Doolin \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Java Access to Numerical Libraries Henri Casanova \\Lambda Jack Dongarra \\Lambda y David M. Doolin \\Lambda May 31, 1997 Abstract It is a common and somewhat erroneous belief that Java will always be ``too the question of scientific computing via Java: NetSolve and f2j. The approaches taken by these two projects

Dongarra, Jack

251

A comment on the 'jack-knife' technique for analysing enzyme-kinetic data.  

PubMed Central

The use of the 'jack-knife' technique in the analysis of enzyme-kinetic data [Cornish-Bowden & Wong (1978] Biochem. J. 175, 969--976) is examined. The method can give parameter estimates that appear to be incorrect. PMID:486158

Duggleby, R G

1979-01-01

252

Equations of Motion (EOM) Methods for Computing Electron Affinities Jack Simons  

E-print Network

Equations of Motion (EOM) Methods for Computing Electron Affinities Jack Simons Chemistry for which the EA is an infinitesimal fraction of the total energy. The equations of motion (EOM) methods. EOM methods based upon Møller-Plesset, Multiconfiguration self-consistent field, and coupled

Simons, Jack

253

A PARALLEL BUTTERFLY ALGORITHM JACK POULSON, LAURENT DEMANET, NICHOLAS MAXWELL, AND LEXING YING  

E-print Network

A PARALLEL BUTTERFLY ALGORITHM JACK POULSON, LAURENT DEMANET, NICHOLAS MAXWELL, AND LEXING YING§ Abstract. The butterfly algorithm is a fast algorithm which approximately evaluates a discrete analogue-r, the running time of the algorithm is at most O(r2Nd log N). A parallelization of the butterfly algorithm

Peraire, Jaime

254

Effects of Mentha longifolia L. essential oil and nisin alone and in combination on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis in a food model and bacterial ultrastructural changes.  

PubMed

In the face of emerging new pathogens and ever-growing health-conscious customers, food preservation technology remains on the top agenda of food industry. This study was aimed at determining the effects of the essential oil of Mentha longifolia L., alone and in combination with nisin, on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis at 8C and 25C in a food model (commercial barley soup) during 15 days. The essential oil alone at 8C inhibited bacterial growth significantly compared with the control (p?

Pajohi, Mohamad Reza; Tajik, Hossein; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Basti, Afshin Akhondzadeh; Hadian, Mojtaba

2011-02-01

255

Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus  

PubMed Central

Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), ?-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54l/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 l/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 l/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 l/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

2012-01-01

256

Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), ?-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54l/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 l/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 l/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 l/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

2012-01-01

257

75 FR 32357 - Gallatin National Forest; Montana; Jack Rabbit to Big Sky Meadow Village 161 kV Transmission Line...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Gallatin National Forest; Montana; Jack Rabbit to Big Sky Meadow Village 161 kV Transmission Line Upgrade Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent...

2010-06-08

258

"Bo," said Jack, "I'm not sure we should be eating the Professor's allergy medicine. There  

E-print Network

"Bo," said Jack, "I'm not sure we should be eating the Professor's allergy medicine. There might allergies, I must get you out of here and put you to work." He called in a short hairy man (moi) carrying

ten Cate, Balder

259

Historical wildlife dynamics on Dugway Proving Ground: population and disease trends in jack rabbits over two decades. [Lepus californicus  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to determine whether US Army activities on the Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) have had an impact on resident wildlife, intensive studies have been conducted on the biology and ecology of the black-tailed jack rabbit (Lepus californicus) since 1965. in addition, the incidence of endemic diseases in several species of resident wildlife on the DPG have been studied from the late 1950s through the mid-1970s. The objectives of this report are to: (1) compile and summarize the jack rabbit data and some of the disease information that is presently contained only in annual reports; (2) compare the DPG jack rabbit data to data available on other jack rabbit populations; and (3) analyze the data for unusual or unexplained fluctuations in population densities or in incidence of disease.

Eberhardt, L.E.; Van Voris, P.

1986-08-01

260

A review of jacking forces by both theoretical and empirical methods as compared with 20 years of practical experience  

SciTech Connect

For the first time, reliable correlation`s have been developed and are presented, that allow the effects of the major factors influencing microtunneling jacking forces to be quantified. These factors can now be used for in predicting, and understanding the reasons for large or sudden changes in jacking forces. These correlation`s are based on an in-depth analysis of microtunneling projects throughout North America. Jacking records, geotechnical investigation reports, the author`s personal knowledge, and operator logs and interviews were all used in the evaluation. This information was used to identify trends in the jacking forces, distinguish the possible factors that produced the trends, and quantify the effects of the various factors. The analyses were taken a step further to quantify the economic impacts on microtunneling projects. This phase of the investigation clearly indicates that significant economic benefits can be realized by proper job set-up and management.

Coller, P.; Post, R. [Iseki, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Staheli, K.; Bennett, D. [Geotechnical Lab., Vicksburg, MS (United States)

1996-08-01

261

Is there really carbon in the detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously reported the discovery of graphite and diamond inclusions in detrital zircon grains from the Jack Hills in Western Australia, with the oldest inclusion-bearing zircon being 4,252 Myrs (Menneken et al. 2007). When the diamond inclusions were first identified by Raman spectroscopy, several characteristics were taken as evidence against possible contamination from diamond polishing powder used to prepare the samples. Some diamond inclusions appeared larger than the grain-size of the diamond polishing powder, while most of them were associated with graphite. Raman spectra of the diamond inclusions were clearly different to those from diamond particles in the polishing powder. Also, the extremely large spread of carbon isotope compositions of the diamond-graphite composite inclusions with ?13C values extending from -58 to -5 per mil argued against contamination, as both synthetic and natural diamonds have a narrow range of carbon isotope composition (Nemchin et al. 2008). In this study, we have applied transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy on focussed ion beam sections cut from a fully embedded diamond inclusion and a fully embedded carbon inclusion in two zircon grains from Jack Hills. Results show that the graphitic material is not a solid inclusion, but covers the walls of a void as a 10-20 nm thick layer. Since we identified numerous CO2 inclusions in the same host zircon by Raman spectroscopy, it is likely that this inclusion was once filled with CO2 On the other hand, similar to a study by Dobrzhinetskaya et al. (2014), performed on surface diamond-graphite inclusions from one of our samples, we found that the embedded diamond inclusion consists of several hundred nano-meter large angular diamond fragments mixed with some gold particles. This is strong evidence that the embedded diamond particles originated from the diamond polishing powder. The diamond particles could enter the cavity through an opening 2 - 3 ?m wide. Previously, we considered it impossible to remove and insert apparently larger solid minerals through such narrow openings during the polishing process. However, newly discovered CO2 inclusions along with graphite in Jack Hill zircons indicate that diamond grains from the polishing paste likely entered into cavities that were originally filled with CO2 and coated with graphite-like carbon, generating artificial graphite-diamond composite inclusions Dobrzhinetskaya et al. (2014) Diamonds in Earth's oldest zircons from Jack Hills conglomerate, Australia, are contamination. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 387, 212. Menneken et al. (2007) Hadean diamonds in zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia. Nature, 448, 917. Nemchin et al. (2008) A light carbon reservoir recorded in zircon-hosted diamond from the Jack Hills. Nature, 454, 92.

Menneken, Martina; Geisler, Thorsten; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Pollok, Kilian; Whitehouse, Martin; Pidgeon, Robert; Wilde, Simon

2014-05-01

262

Modified Jack-knife estimation of parameter uncertainty in bilinear modelling by partial least squares regression (PLSR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for assessing the uncertainty of the individual bilinear model parameters from two-block regression modelling by multivariate partial least squares regression (PLSR) is presented. The method is based on the so-called Jack-knife resampling, comparing the perturbed model parameter estimates from cross-validation with the estimates from the full model. The conventional jack-knifing from ordinary least squares regression is modified in

Harald Martens; Magni Martens

2000-01-01

263

Ontogenetic changes in the ecological function of the association behavior between jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus and jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commensal behavior of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel) with jellyfishes has been widely observed but its ecological function is still unclear. The goal of\\u000a the present research is to examine the function of association behavior with jellyfish in the laboratory and in field observations\\u000a with an emphasis on ontogenetic changes. In the laboratory, jack mackerel juveniles (mean standard

Reiji Masuda

264

Ontogenetic changes in the ecological function of the association behavior between jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus and jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commensal behavior of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel) with jellyfishes has been widely observed but its ecological function is still unclear. The goal of\\u000a the present research is to examine the function of association behavior with jellyfish in the laboratory and in field observations\\u000a with an emphasis on ontogenetic changes. In the laboratory, jack mackerel juveniles (mean standard

Reiji Masuda

2009-01-01

265

Jack Polynomials as Fractional Quantum Hall States and the Betti Numbers of the ( k + 1)-Equals Ideal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that for Jack parameter ? = -( k + 1)/( r - 1), certain Jack polynomials studied by Feigin-Jimbo-Miwa-Mukhin vanish to order r when k + 1 of the coordinates coincide. This result was conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane, who proposed that these Jack polynomials are model wavefunctions for fractional quantum Hall states. Special cases of these Jack polynomials include the wavefunctions of Laughlin and Read-Rezayi. In fact, along these lines we prove several vanishing theorems known as clustering properties for Jack polynomials in the mathematical physics literature, special cases of which had previously been conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane. Motivated by the method of proof, which in the case r = 2 identifies the span of the relevant Jack polynomials with the S n -invariant part of a unitary representation of the rational Cherednik algebra, we conjecture that unitary representations of the type A Cherednik algebra have graded minimal free resolutions of Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand type; we prove this for the ideal of the ( k + 1)-equals arrangement in the case when the number of coordinates n is at most 2 k + 1. In general, our conjecture predicts the graded S n -equivariant Betti numbers of the ideal of the ( k + 1)-equals arrangement with no restriction on the number of ambient dimensions.

Zamaere, Christine Berkesch; Griffeth, Stephen; Sam, Steven V.

2014-08-01

266

Jack polynomials as fractional quantum Hall states and the Betti numbers of the (k+1)-equals ideal  

E-print Network

We show that for Jack parameter \\alpha = -(k+1)/(r-1), certain Jack polynomials studied by Feigin-Jimbo-Miwa-Mukhin vanish to order r when k+1 of the coordinates coincide. This result was conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane, who proposed that these Jack polynomials are model wavefunctions for fractional quantum Hall states. Special cases of these Jack polynomials include the wavefunctions of Laughlin and Read-Rezayi. In fact, along these lines we prove several vanishing theorems known as clustering properties for Jack polynomials in the mathematical physics literature, special cases of which had previously been conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane. Motivated by the method of proof, which in case r = 2 identifies the span of the relevant Jack polynomials with the S_n-invariant part of a unitary representation of the rational Cherednik algebra, we conjecture that unitary representations of the type A Cherednik algebra have graded minimal free resolutions of Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand type; we prove this for the ideal of the (k+1)-equals arrangement in the case when the number of coordinates n is at most 2k+1. In general, our conjecture predicts the graded S_n-equivariant Betti numbers of the ideal of the (k+1)-equals arrangement with no restriction on the number of ambient dimensions.

Christine Berkesch Zamaere; Stephen Griffeth; Steven V Sam

2014-04-23

267

16?-Hydroxycleroda-3,13 (14)Z-dien-15,16-olide from Polyalthia longifolia: a safe and orally active antileishmanial agent  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: New antileishmanials from natural products are urgently needed due to the emergence of drug resistance complicated by severe cytotoxic effects. 16?-Hydroxycleroda-3,13 (14)Z-dien-15,16-olide (Compound 1) from Polyalthia longifolia was found to be a potential antileishmanial and non-cytotoxic, as evidenced by long-term survival (>6 months) of treated animals. This prompted us to determine its target and, using molecular modelling, identify the interactions responsible for its specific antileishmanial activity. Experimental approach: In vitro activity of compound was assessed using intracellular transgenic green fluorescent protein-stably expressed Leishmania donovani parasites. In vivo activity and survival of animals post-treatment were evaluated in L. donovani-infected hamsters. Known property of clerodane diterpenes as potent human DNA topoisomerase inhibitors led us to evaluate the inhibition of recombinant L. donovani topoisomerase I using relaxation assay. Mode of cell death induced by Compound 1 was assessed by phosphotidylserine exposure post-treatment. Molecular modelling studies were conducted with DNA topoisomerase I to identify the binding interactions responsible for its activity. Key results: Bioassay-guided fractionation led to isolation of Compound 1 as a non-cytotoxic, orally active antileishmanial. Compound 1 inhibited recombinant DNA topoisomerase I which, ultimately, induced apoptosis. Molecular docking studies indicated that five strong hydrogen-bonding interactions and hydrophobic interactions of Compound 1 with L. donovani DNA-topoisomerase are responsible for its antileishmanial activity. Conclusions and implications: The data reveal Compound 1 is a potent and safe antileishmanial. The study further exploited the structural determinants responsible for its non-cytotoxic and potent activity, to raise the feasibility of specifically targeting the target enzyme responsible for its activity through rational drug design. PMID:20136832

Misra, Pragya; Sashidhara, Koneni V; Singh, Suriya Pratap; Kumar, Awanish; Gupta, Reema; Chaudhaery, Shailendra S; Gupta, Souvik Sen; Majumder, HK; Saxena, Anil K; Dube, Anuradha

2010-01-01

268

Technical considerations in converting jack-up drilling rigs to mobile offshore production units  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing need for converting jack-up drilling rigs to Mobile Offshore Production Units for early production, long-term testing and as a low cost reusable alternative to platforms for short life marginal fields. Installing process equipment on drilling rigs offers a unique set of challenges. These include new loads imposed upon the rig, storage of hydrocarbon liquids, gas venting and flaring, location of and installation of equipment, safety considerations and installation of pipeline risers. The specific technical challenge of converting jack-up rigs for Mobile Offshore Production Units (MOPU) is discussed with example solutions from two projects, one installed in Venezuela and one off the West Coast of Africa.

Duhon, R.D.; Kreider, G.J.; Barnes, J.E.

1995-12-31

269

Design and performance of modular jack type mini-MT connectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design and performance of modular jack type mini-MT connectors that employ a compact 2-fiber ferrule in a newly designed housing and adaptor. The basic mechanism for coupling the housings is similar to that of a conventional electric modular jack type connector. Our connectors have a locking mechanism to prevent accidental disconnection and a high packaging density of 2 fibers/cm2. Fabricated connectors for single-mode 2- fiber ribbons exhibit a low insertion loss of 0.18 dB and a high return loss of more than 40 dB using a flat endface ferrule with protruding fiber finish. In addition, they have an insertion loss of 0.20 dB and a return loss of 60 dB when an angled endface ferrule is used. We have confirmed that these connectors are highly effective for use in the duplex connection of advanced optical networks.

Takaya, Masaaki; Nagasawa, Shinji

2001-06-01

270

Compendium of basins for the potential applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented tool  

SciTech Connect

Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geological and hydrological feasibility studies of the potential applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented tool for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed formations in the San Juan, Powder River, Greater Green River, Piceance, Black Warrior, Appalachian and Michigan basins. Results from the surveys indicated that geology dominated research efforts for many of the basins. Limited information exists on the hydrology and water quality of the basins. All of the basins contain some potential for the use of Jack McIntyre`s patented production process. This process is designed specifically to separate produced water and produced gas in a downhole environment and may allow for more efficient and economical development of coalbed methane resources in this area.

Reed, P.D.

1994-03-01

271

Construction of edge states in fractional quantum Hall systems by Jack polynomials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the edge-mode excitations of a fractional quantum Hall droplet by expressing the edge-state wave functions as linear combinations of Jack polynomials with a negative parameter. We show that the exact diagonalization within a subspace of Jack polynomials can be used to generate the chiral edge-mode excitation spectrum in the Laughlin phase and the Moore-Read phase with realistic Coulomb interaction. The truncation technique for the edge excitations simplifies the procedure to reliably extract the edge-mode velocities, which avoids the otherwise complicated analysis of the full spectrum that contains both edge and bulk excitations. Generalization to the Read-Rezayi state is also discussed.

Lee, Ki Hoon; Hu, Zi-Xiang; Wan, Xin

2014-04-01

272

The stimulation of methylmercury production by decomposition of flooded birch leaves and jack pine needles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The link between methylmercury (MeHg) production and decomposition of flooded organic matter was examined using an enclosure experiment. Six plastic enclosures were filled with lake water containing low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (146mmol L? 1) and MeHg (0.02 ng L? 1) and anchored in a lake at the Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario. Either fresh birch leaves, fresh jack

BRITT D. HALL

273

The stimulation of methylmercury production by decomposition of flooded birch leaves and jack pine needles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The link between methylmercury (MeHg) production and decomposition of flooded organic matter was examined using an enclosure experiment. Six plastic enclosures were filled with lake water containing low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (146?mol?L-1) and MeHg (0.02?ng?L-1) and anchored in a lake at the Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario. Either fresh birch leaves, fresh jack pine needles, or no plant

Britt D. Hall; Vincent L. St. Louis

2004-01-01

274

New Plant Growth Regulators Protect Photosynthesis and Enhance Growth Under Drought of Jack Pine Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

. To determine whether natural plant growth regulators (PGRs) can enhance drought tolerance and the competitive ability of\\u000a transplanted seedlings, 1.5-year-old jack pine (Pinus banksana Lamb.) seedlings were treated with homobrassinolide, salicylic acid, and two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, triacontanol,\\u000a abscisic acid (ABA), and the synthetic antioxidant, Ambiol. PGRs were fed into the xylem for 7 days and plants were

L. R. Rajasekaran; T. J. Blake

1999-01-01

275

Hafnium isotopes in Jack Hills zircons and the formation of the Hadean crust  

Microsoft Academic Search

New bulk Hf and Pb isotope data were obtained for 63 leached single zircons from Jack Hills (JH), Western Australia, using solution chemistry and, respectively, MC-ICP MS and ICP-MS. With the exception of one young zircon at 3.32Ga, the remainder of the selected grains were previously dated at >3.9Ga by ion-microprobe. This work extends and complements the solution chemistry data

Janne Blichert-Toft; Francis Albarde

2008-01-01

276

Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ Li analyses of 4348 to 3362Ma detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia by SIMS reveal that the Li abundances (typically 10 to 60ppm) are commonly over 10,000 times higher than in zircons crystallized from mantle-derived magmas and in mantle-derived zircon megacrysts (typically <2ppb). High Li concentrations in zircons (10 to 250ppm) have also been found in

Takayuki Ushikubo; Noriko T. Kita; Aaron J. Cavosie; Simon A. Wilde; Roberta L. Rudnick; John W. Valley

2008-01-01

277

Provenance record of the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt: Source of the Earth's oldest zircons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detrital SHRIMP UPb results from four samples of metasediment show that the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt, Narryer terrane, Yilgarn craton, Western Australia contains two lithologically similar siliciclastic associations with discrete age and source characteristics. An older association only contains zircons with ages greater than 3000Ma and probably accumulated prior to 2700Ma. Grains in the range 36003000Ma are likely derived from

Stuart J. Dunn; Alexander A. Nemchin; Peter A. Cawood; Robert T. Pidgeon

2005-01-01

278

Lithium inJackHills zircons: Evidence forextensiveweatheringof Earth's earliest crust  

Microsoft Academic Search

ARTICLE I NFO In situ Li analyses of 4348 to 3362 Ma detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia by SIMS reveal that the Li abundances (typically 10 to 60 ppm) are commonly over 10,000 times higher than in zircons crystallized from mantle-derived magmas and in mantle-derived zircon megacrysts (typically b2 ppb). High Li concentrations in zircons (10 to

Takayuki Ushikubo; Noriko T. Kita; Aaron J. Cavosie; Simon A. Wilde; Roberta L. Rudnick; John W. Valley

2008-01-01

279

A light carbon reservoir recorded in zircon-hosted diamond from the Jack Hills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent discovery of diamond-graphite inclusions in the Earth's oldest zircon grains (formed up to 4,252 Myr ago) from the Jack Hills metasediments in Western Australia provides a unique opportunity to investigate Earth's earliest known carbon reservoir. Here we report ion microprobe analyses of the carbon isotope composition of these diamond-graphite inclusions. The observed delta13CPDB values (expressed using the PeeDee

Alexander A. Nemchin; Martin J. Whitehouse; Martina Menneken; Thorsten Geisler; Robert T. Pidgeon; Simon A. Wilde

2008-01-01

280

Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ Li analyses of 4348 to 3362 Ma detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia by SIMS reveal that the Li abundances (typically 10 to 60 ppm) are commonly over 10,000 times higher than in zircons crystallized from mantle-derived magmas and in mantle-derived zircon megacrysts (typically < 2 ppb). High Li concentrations in zircons (10 to 250 ppm)

Takayuki Ushikubo; Noriko T. Kita; Aaron J. Cavosie; Simon A. Wilde; Roberta L. Rudnick; John W. Valley

2008-01-01

281

Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ Li analyses of 4348 to 3362 Ma detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia by SIMS reveal that the Li abundances (typically 10 to 60 ppm) are commonly over 10,000 times higher than in zircons crystallized from mantle-derived magmas and in mantle-derived zircon megacrysts (typically < 2 ppb). High Li concentrations in zircons (10 to 250 ppm) have also been found in igneous zircons from three continental parent rocks: granites, Li-rich pegmatites, and migmatites in pelitic metasediment. The substitution of trivalent cations (REEs and Y) in zircon correlates with Li + 1 and P + 5 , suggesting that an interstitial site for Li, as well as the xenotime substitution for P, provides charge balance for REEs. Li is thus fixed in the zircon structure by coupled substitutions, and diffusive changes in [Li] composition are rate-limited by slow diffusion of REEs. The Jack Hills zircons also have fractionated lithium isotope ratios ( ?7Li = - 19 to + 13) about five times more variable than those recorded in primitive ocean floor basalts (2 to 8), but similar to continental crust and its weathering products. Values of ?7Li below - 10 are found in zircons that formed as early as 4300 Ma. The high Li compositions indicate that primitive magmas were not the source of Jack Hills zircons and the fractionated values of ?7Li suggest that highly weathered regolith was sampled by these early Archean magmas. These new Li data provide evidence that the parent magmas of ancient zircons from Jack Hills incorporated materials from the surface of the Earth that interacted at low temperature with liquid water. These data support the hypothesis that continental-type crust and oceans existed by 4300 Ma, within 250 million years of the formation of Earth and the low values of ?7Li suggest that weathering was extensive in the early Archean.

Ushikubo, Takayuki; Kita, Noriko T.; Cavosie, Aaron J.; Wilde, Simon A.; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Valley, John W.

2008-08-01

282

Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT4 Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Data Volume 4 Section 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) 2021E PT4 was fired on March 19, 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This experiment is part of an effort to determine the properties of LX-17 in a regime where corner-turning behavior and dead-zone formation are not well understood. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measured diagnostic plate velocities confirming the

M M Hart; O T Strand; S T Bosson; R A Bonner; D M Hester

2008-01-01

283

The Jack Ells APT at Trottiscliffe: Results summary 1993-1995  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the last report (Pickard R. D., J. Brit. Astron. Assoc., 104(3), 123 (1994)) on the Jack Ells Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (operated by Crayford Manor House Astronomical Society) the 21.5cm aperture F4 instrument equipped with a 'JEAP' photometer has continued to produce some excellent results. Yearly reports have appeared in the Variable Star Section's Circulars and a summary of those reports is presented here.

Pickard, R.

1997-12-01

284

Estuaries as nurseries for the jacks Caranx ignobilis and Caranx melampygus (Carangidae) in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estuaries provide juvenile nursery habitat for many species of fish that inhabit marine environments as adults. In Hawaii, some juvenile Caranx ignobilis and Caranx melampygus occupy estuaries opportunistically before moving to nearshore ocean habitats. This study examined the extent and nature of estuarine habitat available in the lower Hanalei River of Kauai, the relative abundance and distribution of jacks in the estuary, and their diets. Salinity measurements indicated that the upstream extent of saltwater ranged from the mouth to nearly 5 km upriver and was strongly influenced by the variable river discharge. Juvenile jacks between 80 and 310 mm FL were observed on underwater transects over the full range of mixohaline conditions. Hand-operated seine collections produced overall catch rates of ???0.64 fish/haul for each of these species. The two jacks ate much the same spectrum of food items. C. ignobilis was somewhat more piscivorous than C. melampygus, as determined by measures of frequency of predation and number and bulk of prey. Data for length at age, incorporating daily otolith increment counts from these estuarine juveniles and previous counts from non-estuarine specimens, were fitted to a lifetime von Bertalanffy growth model. The results greatly extended the age range of the model and suggested that growth rates were not much different between estuarine and non-estuarine fish. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Smith, G.C.; Parrish, J.D.

2002-01-01

285

Signals from the ancient geodynamo: A paleomagnetic field test on the Jack Hills metaconglomerate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oldest history of Earth's magnetic field cannot be directly read from extant bulk rocks because of subsequent metamorphism at temperatures close to or exceeding the Curie temperature of common magnetic minerals. The Jack Hills metasediments of Western Australia, which have seen lower peak metamorphic temperatures, contain zircons as old as 4.4 billion-yr-old. To assess whether these sediments can retain an ancient signal of the geodynamo, we present a paleomagnetic conglomerate test on a cobble-bearing Jack Hills unit. Thermal demagnetization reveals a distinct magnetic component with high unblocking temperatures between 550 and 580 C that passes the conglomerate test, indicating magnetization prior to deposition of the conglomerate. This result, together with rock magnetic data, indicates that the high unblocking temperature component is carried by magnetite which records magnetization in an ambient field, and the simplest explanation is that a dynamo was present. Existing geochronological data imply that the clasts could contain mixtures of minerals extending to ages only slightly older than the maximum depositional age at 3.05 billion-yr-ago. However, the positive conglomerate test reported here indicates that the Jack Hills metasediments have the potential to record Paleorchean to Hadean magnetic fields, on a clast or sub-clast mineral scale.

Tarduno, John A.; Cottrell, Rory D.

2013-04-01

286

Do the Jack Hills zircons record evidence of the Late Heavy Bombardment?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) is a hypothesized spike in the flux of bolides impacting the Earth-Moon system at ca. 3.9 Ga. Evidence for the LHB event largely comes from lunar samples as the scant terrestrial rock record prior to ~3.8 Ga has limited the search for evidence of the LHB on Earth. Given that Earths greater mass should have attracted a higher impact flux relative to the Moon, the occurrence of such an event without preservation of some evidence in the pre-3.8 Ga terrestrial rock record would be surprising. One expected effect would be the formation of melt sheets, such as those seen in large, preserved terrestrial impact sites. Zircons grown in such melt sheets are expected to record when and under what conditions they grew. As few localities on Earth preserve even a fragmentary rock record that overlaps the LHB, perhaps the best accessible record of crustal conditions from 3.8-4.0 Ga are ancient detrital zircons, such as those found in the Jack Hills of Western Australia. Earlier investigations reveal that the Jack Hills metasediments contain a quasi-continuous zircon age record from ~3.0-4.4 Ga. Narrow (<6 ?m) zircon rims with ages that range from 3.8-3.9 Ga have been documented on some Hadean grains via U-Pb SIMS depth-profiling. Six rims (2-4 ?m thick) on Hadean zircons thus far analyzed record discrete 3.95 Ga rims showing high degrees of Pb-loss. A growing database of Ti-in-zircon crystallization temperatures from preserved terrestrial impact melt sheets provides a basis for comparison with LHB-era zircons and overgrowth rims to assess their possible impact origin. While individual crystallization temperatures cannot be unambiguously linked to a particular petrogenesis, reasonable inferences can be made regarding broad trends in the data. The average Ti-in-zircon crystallization temperature for LHB-era terrestrial zircons of ca. 690C suggests a dominant origin in near water-saturated granitoids, whereas impact melt zircons (Sudbury, Vredefort and Morokweng) yield temperatures of ca. 760C and preliminary analyses for 3.8-3.9 Ga zircon rims yield temperatures upwards of ca. 1200C. The impact-formed zircons are noticeably higher in temperature than those of the LHB-era Jack Hills zircons; the probability of the LHB-era Jack Hills crystallization temperature spectrum being extracted from an impact melt temperature spectrum appears statistically unlikely (p=0.002). Despite the existence of some apparently high-temperature grains among the LHB-era Jack Hills zircons, their contrast with the impact-formed zircon distribution indicates that an impact origin cannot be the dominant source of the LHB-era Jack Hills zircon cores. The high rim temperatures of the Hadean zircons indicate a different process of formation than those of the LHB-era zircons, consistent with short-duration, high-temperature thermal pulses associated with impacts and could reflect terrestrial evidence for the LHB event.

Bell, E. A.; Wielicki, M. M.; Abbott, S. S.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Harrison, T. M.

2009-12-01

287

BOREAS RSS-4 1994 Southern Study Area Jack Pine LAI and FPAR Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The RSS-4 team collected several data sets related to leaf, plant, and stand physical, optical, and chemical properties. This data set contains leaf area indices and FPAR measurements that were taken at the three conifer sites in the BOREAS SSA during August 1993 and at the jack pine tower flux and a subset of auxiliary sites during July and August 1994. The measurements were made with LAI-2000 and Ceptometer instruments. The measurements were taken for the purpose of model parameterization and to test empirical relationships that were hypothesized between biophysical parameters and remotely sensed data. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Plummer, Stephen

2000-01-01

288

Cot de l'algorithme d'Euclide et CAPES interne 2000 Dany-Jack Mercier  

E-print Network

Coût de l'algorithme d'Euclide et CAPES interne 2000 Dany-Jack Mercier IUFM de Guadeloupe, Morne euclidiennes nécessaires à l'algorithme d'Euclide. On dé...nit le coût d'un algorithme dans deux modèles di'on exprime une majoration du coût de l'algorithme d'Euclide et de son cousin l'algorithme d'Euclide étendu

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

289

A borehole jack for deformability, strength, and stress measurements in a 2-inch borehole  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A borehole jack devised for lunar exploration is described and results of its use in simulated lunar solids are presented. A hydraulic cylinder mounted between two stiff plates acts to spread the plates apart against the borehole walls when pressured. The spreading is measured by a displacement transducer and the load is measured hydraulically. The main improvement over previous instruments is the increased stroke, which allows large deformations of the borehole. Twenty-eight pistons are used to obtain a high hydraulic efficiency, and three return pistons are also provided. Pressure-deformation curves were obtained for each test on Lunar Soil Simulant No. 2, a light gray silty basalt powder.

Goodman, R. E.; Hovland, H. J.; Chirapuntu, S.

1971-01-01

290

Kinetics and Mechanism Study of Competitive Inhibition of Jack-Bean Urease by Baicalin  

PubMed Central

Baicalin (BA) is the principal component of Radix Scutellariae responsible for its pharmacological activity. In this study, kinetics and mechanism of inhibition by BA against jack-bean urease were investigated for its therapeutic potential. It was revealed that the IC50 of BA against jack-bean urease was 2.74 0.51?mM, which was proved to be a competitive and concentration-dependent inhibition with slow-binding progress curves. The rapid formation of initial BA-urease complex with an inhibition constant of Ki = 3.89 10?3?mM was followed by a slow isomerization into the final complex with an overall inhibition constant of Ki* = 1.47 10?4?mM. High effectiveness of thiol protectors against BA inhibition indicated that the strategic role of the active-site sulfhydryl group of the urease was involved in the blocking process. Moreover, the inhibition of BA was proved to be reversible due to the fact that urease could be reactivated by dithiothreitol but not reactant dilution. Molecular docking assay suggested that BA made contacts with the important activating sulfhydryl group Cys-592 residues and restricted the mobility of the active-site flap. Taken together, it could be deduced that BA was a competitive inhibitor targeting thiol groups of urease in a slow-binding manner both reversibly and concentration-dependently, serving as a promising urease inhibitor for treatments on urease-related diseases. PMID:24198731

Tan, Lirong; Su, Jiyan; Wu, Dianwei; Yu, Xiaodan; Su, Zuqing; Wu, Xiaoli; Kong, Songzhi; Lai, Xiaoping; Lin, Ji; Su, Ziren

2013-01-01

291

Jack pine growth and elemental composition are affected by saline tailings water.  

PubMed

In the processing of oil sands from Alberta's Athabasca formation, large quantities of alkaline, saline tailings and associated process-affected waters are produced. These waters may have a negative effect on plants used in reclamation of mined areas in this region of the northern boreal forest. In the present study, we examined the effects of process-affected water on the growth and elemental composition of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) seedlings. Seedlings were grown in sand culture, and treated with tailings water to which mineral nutrients had been added. One-month-old seedlings were treated for 14 d, and all measured growth parameters were reduced. Growth and shoot elemental composition were also measured in seven-month-old seedlings that were treated for 10 wk with process-affected water. Shoots had significantly elevated levels of Na, Cl, S, P, B, and Sr, and significantly reduced levels of Fe, Mo, Ba, and K. The relationships between elemental composition and seedling growth and injury were examined using multiple regression. Growth rates, dry weights, and carotenoid content were reduced, but were not related to shoot elemental composition. Needle necrosis was positively related to tissue Na and Cl. Results indicate that reclamation planning must consider substrate Na and Cl levels when planting jack pine on tailings-affected sites. PMID:11931458

Franklin, Jennifer A; Renault, Sylvie; Croser, Clare; Zwiazek, Janusz J; MacKinnon, Michael

2002-01-01

292

Vacuum contact drying kinetics of Jack pine wood and its influence on mechanical properties: industrial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood can be dried rapidly using combined contact heating and low vacuum. However, the impact on Jack pine wood drying and its mechanical strength remains unclear. The aim of this paper was to determine the kinetics of vacuum contact drying of Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) wood boards (dimensions 50 100 2480 mm3) under various drying temperatures and vacuum pressures at a pilot scale. Drying temperatures and vacuum pressures ranged from 65 to 95 C and from 169.32 to 507.96 mbar, respectively. Dried samples were subjected to flexural loading to determine mechanical strength. Results indicated that drying time decreased with higher drying temperature and vacuum pressure, where as decreased vacuum pressure increased the temperature of wood samples at a constant drying temperature. Results also indicated that the mechanical properties of dried samples were affected by drying temperature, vacuum pressure, and lumber grade. Mechanical test results were then compared to those for a conventional drying process, revealing that vacuum contact drying do not have a negative impact on the wood mechanical properties.

Ouertani, Sahbi; Koubaa, Ahmed; Azzouz, Soufien; Hassini, Lamine; Dhib, Kamel Ben; Belghith, Ali

2014-12-01

293

Sneaker jack males outcompete dominant hooknose males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)  

PubMed Central

In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small sneaker males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy under a wide range of conditions. Game theory suggests that sneaker males compensate for these disadvantages by investing disproportionately in spermatogenesis, by producing more sperm per unit body mass (the fair raffle) and/or by producing higher quality sperm (the loaded raffle). Here, we test these models by competing sperm from sneaker jack males against sperm from dominant hooknose males in Chinook salmon. Using two complementary approaches, we reject the fair raffle in favor of the loaded raffle and estimate that jack males were ?1.35 times as likely as hooknose males to fertilize eggs under controlled competitive conditions. Interestingly, the direction and magnitude of this skew in paternity shifted according to individual female egg donors, suggesting cryptic female choice could moderate the outcomes of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species. PMID:24455130

Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

2013-01-01

294

Effects of a clear-cut harvest on soil respiration in a jack pine - Lichen woodland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantification of the components of ecosystem respiration is essential to understanding carbon (C) cycling of natural and disturbed landscapes. Soil respiration, which includes autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration from throughout the soil profile, is the second largest flux in the global carbon cycle. We measured soil respiration (soil CO2 emission) at an undisturbed mature jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) stand in Saskatchewan (old jack pine, OJP), and at a formerly continuous portion of the stand that was clear-cut during the previous winter (clear-cut, CC). Tree harvesting reduced soil CO2 emission from ???22.5 to ???9.1 mol CO2??m2 for the 1994 growing season. OJP was a small net sink of atmospheric CO2, while CC was a net source of CO2. Winter emissions were similar at both sites. Reduction of soil respiration was attributed to disruption of the soil surface and to the death of tree roots. Flux simulations for CC and OJP identify 40% of CO2 emission at the undisturbed OJP site as near-surface respiration, 25% as deep-soil respiration, and 35% as tree-root respiration. The near-surface component was larger than the estimated annual C input to soil, suggesting fast C turnover and no net C accumulation in these boreal uplands in 1994.

Striegl, R.G.; Wickland, K.P.

1998-01-01

295

The Jellyfish hunter--Jack Barnes: a pioneer medical toxinologist in Australia.  

PubMed

Dr Jack Handyside Barnes (1922-1985) was one of the small and elite group of Pacific marine toxinologists whose work was characterised by an uncompromising rugged persona, a focussed resolve to solve challenging problems of human clinical envenomation, and who conducted curiosity-driven research under conditions of scientific isolation. He was a pioneering advocate for the preservation of marine heritage, particularly that of the Great Barrier Reef. A former military commando who later became a general medical practitioner with extensive surgical and obstetric skills, in 1947 he was appointed the Medical Superintendent of Thursday Island in the Torres Strait. Later (from January 1953), he worked indefatigably as a general medical practitioner in Cairns, in tropical North Australia. For four decades (1945-1985), Jack Barnes undertook detailed laboratory, clinical and field research into invertebrate envenomation, particularly medusan toxinology. In 1960 he discovered the species responsible for the Irukandji syndrome, a small carybdeid named Carukia barnesi in his honour. He invented the research technique for the extraction of venom from the world's most venomous creature, the Pacific box Jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. By 1960, he had published taxonomic details of nematocyst structure and clinical envenomation details consequent upon stings by Physalia, Cyanea, Chironex, Chiropsalmus and Carukia. This paper is a prcis of the chronology of his life, contributions and influence. PMID:17070882

Pearn, John; Fenner, Peter

2006-12-01

296

Non-carbohydrate Inhibitors of the Lectin DC-SIGN M. Jack Borrok and Laura L. Kiessling*,,  

E-print Network

Non-carbohydrate Inhibitors of the Lectin DC-SIGN M. Jack Borrok and Laura L. Kiessling properties, we devised a high-throughput fluorescence-based competition assay. This assay afforded potent non-carbohydrate, small molecule inhibitors (IC50 values of 1.6-10 µM). These compounds block not only DC-SIGN-carbohydrate

Kiessling, Laura

297

Jack of all nectars, master of most: DNA methylation and the epigenetic basis of niche width in a flower-  

E-print Network

Jack of all nectars, master of most: DNA methylation and the epigenetic basis of niche width sequence variation, epigenetic changes that occur as a result of DNA methylation may also contribute and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analyses designed to detect epigenetic responses of single

Herrera, Carlos M.

298

Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression.  

PubMed

Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined. PMID:23346232

Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

2012-12-01

299

Matrix Calculations for Digital Photography Paul M. Hubel and Jack Holm Graham D. Finlayson Mark S. Drew  

E-print Network

Matrix Calculations for Digital Photography Paul M. Hubel and Jack Holm Graham D. Finlayson Mark S of the data in digital photography is to produce a reproduction for viewing, the obvious choice for a standard the camera. Images of test charts and pictorial scenes were processed, and CIE L*a*b* E 6 and CMC E 7 values

Drew, Mark S.

300

Ecological species groups of landform-level ecosystems dominated by jack pine in northern Lower Michigan, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of field and tabular methods and multivariate analyses were used to develop groups of ground flora species (i.e., ecological species groups) that characterize and distinguish highly disturbed, landform-level ecosystems dominated by jack pine in northern Lower Michigan. The endangered Kirtland's warbler formerly or currently occupied the large glacial landforms for which species groups were developed. Eight such ecological

D. M. Kashian; B. V. Barnes; W. S. Walker

2003-01-01

301

Carbon distribution and aboveground net primary production in aspen, jack pine, and black spruce stands in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study are to (1) characterize the carbon (C) content, leaf area index, and aboveground net primary production (ANPP) for mature aspen, black spruce, and young and mature jack pine stands at the southern and northern Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) areas and (2) compare net primary production and carbon allocation coefficients for the major boreal forest types

S. T. Gower; J. G. Vogel; J. M. Norman; C. J. Kucharik; S. J. Steele; T. K. Stow

1997-01-01

302

DNA Polymerase-Mediated DNA Synthesis on a TNA Template John C. Chaput, Justin K. Ichida, and Jack W. Szostak*  

E-print Network

DNA Polymerase-Mediated DNA Synthesis on a TNA Template John C. Chaput, Justin K. Ichida, and Jack TNA is capable of antiparallel, Watson-Crick base-pairing with complementary DNA, RNA, and TNA oligo- nucleotides.2 This property is remarkable, given that the TNA repeat unit is one atom shorter than that of DNA

Heller, Eric

303

Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression  

PubMed Central

Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined. PMID:23346232

Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

2012-01-01

304

Proterozoic volcanism in the Jack Hills Belt, Western Australia: Some implications and consequences for the World's oldest zircon population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare felsic volcanic rocks of dacitic to rhyolitic composition occur in the central part of the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt in the Narryer Terrane of Western Australia, interleaved with clastic sedimentary rocks and amphibolite. Representative samples of the four identified felsic volcanic units reveal a similar complex pattern of zircon age distribution, with all samples containing zircon populations at ?3.33.4,

Simon A. Wilde

2010-01-01

305

DARPA's HPCS Program: History, Models, Tools, Languages Jack Dongarra, University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Lab  

E-print Network

1 of 94 DARPA's HPCS Program: History, Models, Tools, Languages Jack Dongarra, University, DARPA Robert Lucas, USC Information Sciences Institute Ewing Lusk, Argonne National Laboratory Piotr of California ­ San Diego Abstract The historical context surrounding the birth of the DARPA High Productivity

Dongarra, Jack

306

Study on the design method of the jack-up's x-type cantilever allowable load nephogram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extending of a cantilever and transverse moving of a drilling floor enable the jack-up to operate in several well positions after the Jack-up has pitched. The cantilever allowable load nephogram is the critical reference which can evaluate the jack-up's drilling ability, design the cantilever structure and instruct a jack-up manager to make the operations safe. The intent of this paper is to explore the interrelationships between the cantilever position, drilling floor and the loads including wind force, the stand set-back weight etc., through analyzing the structure and load characteristics of the x-type cantilever and the simplified mechanics model with the restriction of the maximum moment capacity of the cantilever single side beam. Referring to several typical position designs load values, the cantilever allowable load nephogram is obtained by using the suitable interpolation method. The paper gives a method for cantilever allowable load design, which is proved reliable and effective by the calculation example.

Zhu, Yazhou; Sun, Chengmeng; Qin, Hongde; Jiang, Bin; Fan, Yansong

2014-09-01

307

From BlackJack to GOX: the transfer, test, and validation of the ROCSat-3 GPS occultation receiver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ROCSat-3's primary instrument is the GPS Occultation Receiver (GOX) and is based on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) proven BlackJack GPS Receiver. The COSMIC GOX receivers will demonstrate an important new operational data type for near-real-time assimilation into weather models by providing over 2500 atmospheric profiles per day with a global distribution.

Farrington, Allen H.; Armatys, Michael; Bell, Bryan; Charles, Jeff; Lahmeyer, Chuck; Lee, Cynthia; Meehan, Tom; Munson, Tim; Robison, David; Srinivasan, Jeff; Stecheson, Ted; Young, Larry

2004-01-01

308

Usability Evaluation for Enterprise SOA APIs Jack Beaton, Brad A. Myers, Jeffrey Stylos, Sae Young (Sophie) Jeong, Yingyu (Clare) Xie  

E-print Network

Usability Evaluation for Enterprise SOA APIs Jack Beaton, Brad A. Myers, Jeffrey Stylos, Sae Young techniques and de- termine means by which developers assigned to create SOA APIs in general, and Enterprise SOA APIs in particular, can design superior interfaces. The identification of usable design patterns

Myers, Brad A.

309

Calculation of two-sided load application in the stress analysis of the gearing of pumping jack reduction gears  

SciTech Connect

The authors determine the most accurate expression for the two-sided load application that has to be used in the stress analysis of gear transmissions of pumping jack reduction gears. To solve the problem, the authors make use of the theory of limit cycles in asymmetric loading of metal specimens and components.

Karaev, I.K.; Rabinovich, A.M.; Verdiev, T.M.

1987-07-01

310

Calculation of two-sided load application in the stress analysis of the gearing of pumping jack reduction gears  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors determine the most accurate expression for the two-sided load application that has to be used in the stress analysis of gear transmissions of pumping jack reduction gears. To solve the problem, the authors make use of the theory of limit cycles in asymmetric loading of metal specimens and components.

I. K. Karaev; A. M. Rabinovich; T. M. Verdiev

1987-01-01

311

Historical wildlife dynamics on Dugway Proving Ground: population and disease trends in jack rabbits over two decades. [Lepus californicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to determine whether US Army activities on the Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) have had an impact on resident wildlife, intensive studies have been conducted on the biology and ecology of the black-tailed jack rabbit (Lepus californicus) since 1965. in addition, the incidence of endemic diseases in several species of resident wildlife on the DPG have been studied

L. E. Eberhardt; P. Van Voris

1986-01-01

312

Using Transom Jack in the Human Engineering Analysis of the Materials Science Research Rack-1 and Quench Module Insert  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the human engineering analysis performed on the Materials Science Research Rack-1 and Quench Module Insert (MSRR-1/QMI) using Transom Jack (Jack) software. The Jack software was used to model a virtual environment consisting of the MSRR-1/QMI hardware configuration and human figures representing the 95th percentile male and 5th percentile female. The purpose of the simulation was to assess the human interfaces in the design for their ability to meet the requirements of the Pressurized Payloads Interface Requirements Document - International Space Program, Revision C (SSP 57000). Jack was used in the evaluation because of its ability to correctly model anthropometric body measurements and the physical behavior of astronauts working in microgravity, which is referred to as the neutral body posture. The Jack model allows evaluation of crewmember interaction with hardware through task simulation including but not limited to collision avoidance behaviors, hand/eye coordination, reach path planning, and automatic grasping to part contours. Specifically, this virtual simulation depicts the human figures performing the QMI installation and check-out, sample cartridge insertion and removal, and gas bottle drawer removal. These tasks were evaluated in terms of adequate clearance in reach envelopes, adequate accessibility in work envelopes, appropriate line of sight in visual envelopes, and accommodation of full size range for male and female stature maneuverability. The results of the human engineering analysis virtual simulation indicate that most of the associated requirements of SSP 57000 were met. However, some hardware design considerations and crew procedures modifications are recommended to improve accessibility, provide an adequate work envelope, reduce awkward body posture, and eliminate permanent protrusions.

Dunn, Mariea C.; Alves, Jeffrey R.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.

1999-01-01

313

Jack Hills, evidence of more very old detrital zircons in Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The age of the Earth's oldest crustal minerals sets a time-limit on the earliest preservation of buoyant solid crust. The oldest mineral ages reported so far are ~4,180 Myr for detrital zircons from quartzites at Mount Narryer1, in the Yilgarn Block, Western Australia. The oldest-known intact rocks, as distinct from individual minerals, are substantially younger; they formed ~3,813-Myr ago2 in the Isua supracrustal belt, West Greenland. We report here a further occurrence of old detrital zircons, again identified using the ion-microprobe SHRIMP3, in conglomerate from the Jack Hills Metasedimentary Belt4,5 (2611' S, 11658' E), ~60km north-east of Narryer. This discovery is important for several reasons. First, one zircon registers the exceptionally old age of 4,276+/-6 Myr, which is, moreover, a minimum estimate for its original age; 16 other grains may have the same age or may be slightly younger. Second, the new occurrence considerably extends the area over which the old Narryer suite is known, thus amplifying its geological significance. Third, the frequency of old zircons in the Jack Hills occurrence is 12%, about five times higher than at Narryer, which suggests that the intact ~4,180 Myr-old rocks, if they still exist, might be closer, and facilitates future comparison of the SHRIMP data with conventional analyses of these grains. (Recent conventional U-Pb work6 on other zircons from the same Narryer concentrate confirmed the younger ages but failed to observe any at ~4,180 Myr, probably because of their low abundance7). The likelihood that zircon would dissolve in magmas undersaturated in zirconium8 argues against its survival in long-term contact with such magmas during the disaggregation and subduction of crust. Consequently, the existence of zircon in the Jack Hills area from ~4,300 Myr ago implies that this part of the crust has been preserved, since then, from recirculation in the mantle through plate-tectonics or any other mechanism.

Compston, W.; Pidgeon, R. T.

1986-06-01

314

BOREAS RSS-4 1994 Jack Pine Leaf Biochemistry and Modeled Spectra in the SSA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS RSS-4 team focused its efforts on deriving estimates of LAI and leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations from remotely sensed data for input into the Forest BGC model. This data set contains measurements of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) needle biochemistry from the BOREAS SSA in July and August 1994. The data contain measurements of current and year-1 needle chlorophyll, nitrogen, lignin, cellulose, and water content for the OJP flux tower and nearby auxiliary sites. The data have been used to test a needle reflectance and transmittance model, LIBERTY (Dawson et al., in press). The source code for the model and modeled needle spectra for each of the sampled tower and auxiliary sites are provided as part of this data set. The LIBERTY model was developed and the predicted spectral data generated to parameterize a canopy reflectance model (North, 1996) for comparison with AVIRIS, POLDER, and PARABOLA data. The data and model source code are stored in ASCII files.

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Plummer, Stephen; Lucas, Neil; Dawson, Terry

2000-01-01

315

Rheological and proteolytic properties of Monterey Jack goat's milk cheese during aging.  

PubMed

To enhance the understanding of the quality traits of goat's milk cheeses, rheological and proteolytic properties of Monterey Jack goat's milk cheese were evaluated during 26 weeks of 4 degrees C storage. As expected with aging, beta-casein levels decreased with concomitant increases in peptide levels and were correlated with changes in rheological properties of the cheese. Hydrolysis of the protein matrix resulted in more flexible (increased viscoelastic properties) and softer (decreased hardness, shear stress, and shear rigidity) cheeses. During the first 4-8 weeks of storage, cheese texture changed significantly (P < 0.05) and then stabilized. Characterization of rheological and proteolytic properties of the goat's milk semihard cheese during aging provided insight into the changes occurring in the protein matrix, the relationship to structure, and a shift in cheese quality. PMID:15315372

Van Hekken, Diane L; Tunick, Michael H; Park, Young W

2004-08-25

316

The Jack Rabin Collection of Alabama Civil Rights and Southern Activists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jack Rabin was a faculty member at a number of institutions during his long academic career, and he was intimately involved with certain aspects of the civil rights movement in the 1960s. During time spent in Alabama he worked with the organizers of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. He also accumulated a tremendous collection of photos and interviews related to this event and others. This online collection from the Pennsylvania State University Libraries brings together many of these documents. Visitors can get started here by watching a historic interview with Stokely Carmichael or watching an excerpt from the Selma March in 1965. Also, visitors are encouraged to search the collection, read a biography of Rabin, and peruse the finding aid.

2012-05-18

317

[Production of lectin from jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) seeds and its interaction with carbohydrates and glycoproteins].  

PubMed

A method is developed to obtain lectin from jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) seeds using an affinity chromatography on a sorbent prepared from the egg white. The minimum agglutination concentration of human erythrocytes is 80 ng/ml, the molecular weight of the preparation is about 39 kDa, it contains 1.8% of neutral hexoses and 3.1% of hexosamines. PAAG electrophoresis in the alkali system has revealed several molecular forms of lectin isolated by preparative electrophoresis, their properties are investigated. SDS-PAAG electrophoresis has revealed several types of polypeptide chains among which two chains (12 and 14 kDa) are predominant. Lectin possesses affinity to galactosides (not to free galactose) and N-acetylgalactosamine and interacts with O-glycans with high affinity. The preparation has mitogenic activity in optimal concentration 50 micrograms/ml. PMID:1926589

Aberman, L E; Petlychna, L I; Lutsyk, M D

1991-01-01

318

Ficus deltoidea Jack: A Review on Its Phytochemical and Pharmacological Importance  

PubMed Central

Ficus deltoidea Jack (Moraceae) has had a long history of use in traditional medicine among the Malays to alleviate and heal ailments such as sores, wounds, and rheumatism and as an after-birth tonic and an antidiabetic drug. Modern pharmacological studies demonstrated that this plant has a wide variety of beneficial attributes for human health. Despite its importance, a review of this species has not been published in the scientific literature to date. Here, we review and summarize the historic and current literature concerning the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, and toxicity of this wonder plant. This summary could be beneficial for future research aiming to exploit the therapeutic potential of this useful, medicinal species. PMID:24772185

Bunawan, Hamidun; Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Siti Noraini; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain; Mohd Noor, Normah

2014-01-01

319

Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT4 Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Data Volume 4 Section 1  

SciTech Connect

The Jack Rabbit Pretest (PT) 2021E PT4 was fired on March 19, 2008 at the Contained Firing Facility, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This experiment is part of an effort to determine the properties of LX-17 in a regime where corner-turning behavior and dead-zone formation are not well understood. Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measured diagnostic plate velocities confirming the presence of a persistent LX-17 dead-zone formation and the resultant impulse gradient applied under the diagnostic plate. The Jack Rabbit Pretest 2021E PT4, 120 millimeter diameter experiment returned data on all eight PDV probes. The probes measured on the central axis and at 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50 millimeters from the central axis. The experiment was shot at an ambient room temperature of 64 degrees Fahrenheit. The earliest PDV signal extinction was 44.9 microseconds at 30 millimeters. The latest PDV signal extinction time was 69.5 microseconds at 10 millimeters. The measured velocity ranged from meters per second to thousands of meters per second. First detonation wave induced jump-off was measured at 50 millimeters at 13.3 microseconds. The PDV data provided an unambiguous indication of dead-zone formation and an impulse gradient applied to the diagnostic plate. The central axis had a last measured velocity of 1558 meters per second. At 40 millimeters the last measured velocity was 2019 meters per second. The low-to-high velocity ratio was 0.77. Velocity data was integrated to compute diagnostic plate cross section profiles. Velocity data was differentiated to compute a peak pressure under the diagnostic plate at the central axis of 98.6 kilobars at 15.0 microseconds. Substantial motion (>1 m/s) of the diagnostic plate over the dead-zone is followed by detonation region motion within approximately 0.7 microseconds.

Hart, M M; Strand, O T; Bosson, S T; Bonner, R A; Hester, D M

2008-06-25

320

Diamonds in Earth?s oldest zircons from Jack Hills conglomerate, Australia, are contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest period of Earth history is the Hadean era (4600-4000 Myr) but to date no rocks are known to be preserved from this time. However, abundant detrital zircons from the Archean Jack Hills conglomerate complex of Western Australia have been found with dates in excess of 4000 Myr and there is a significant literature concerning these zircons from which abundant geochemical and mineralogical information has been obtained. The essence of what has been derived from these zircons and their inclusions concerning conditions of formation is that the zircons crystallized from granitic melts at shallow depths. However, in the last decade two papers were published reporting microdiamond inclusions in a suite of zircons ranging in age from ?4200 Myr to ?3000 Myr, implying much greater depths and repeated recycling and re-incorporation of diamonds into zircons over at least 1200 Myr. To complicate the issue, subsequent to this discovery, another study surveyed the inclusion suite in a very large sample (>400) of Jack Hills zircons (JHZs) and found no diamonds but abundant inclusions that are consistent with the previous consensus. It is important, therefore, to verify whether or not the reported JHZ diamonds could be laboratory contamination because diamond abrasive paste was used for sample preparation. Here, we report very-high-resolution re-examination of the original diamond-bearing specimens that were kindly provided to us by the authors (see Acknowledgements). We confirm the presence of diamonds in their zircons but the diamonds we find are fragments of polishing compound. These results combined with the lack of diamonds in any other samples of JHZs strongly suggest that there are no indigenous diamonds in the JHZs.

Dobrzhinetskaya, Larissa; Wirth, Richard; Green, Harry

2014-02-01

321

Possible link between detrital Jack Hills zircons and the Late Heavy Bombardment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) is a hypothesized spike in the rate of impact events in the inner solar system ca. 3.9 Ga. The sparse terrestrial lithic record from this period provides little evidence for or against the LHB affecting Earth, although such a bombardment event would likely have caused widespread terrestrial melting and metamorphism. U-Pb and trace element data were determined on a suite of Jack Hills detrital zircons with ages bracketing the suspected time period for the LHB (i.e., 3.84-3.91 Ga). This survey reveals two populations of zircons: Group I is characterized by trace element contents similar to Hadean Jack Hills zircons while Group II contains low concentrations of Ti and other highly incompatible elements, high U and Hf, and a surprisingly high degree of U-Pb concordance. Both populations display internal textures indicative of magmatic zoning (some with later alteration); Group II also contains many homogeneous grains whose textures are more ambiguous in relation to their origins. Group II zircons are consistent with zircon recrystallization at ca. 3.9 Ga under metamorphic conditions, leading to a lowering of the more incompatible trace elements (e.g., Ti, Th, P) while reinitializing the U-Pb system. Discriminant analysis using the above variables identifies this group as distinct from most previously analyzed Hadean zircons. The existence of this metamorphic event is also suggested by previously reported ca. 3.9 Ga overgrowths on most >4 Ga zircon cores. The coincidence of Zr mobility with the suspected time period for the LHB suggests that the formation of Group II zircons may be causally linked to the hypothesized bombardment, though an endogenic event(s) cannot be ruled out.

Bell, E. A.; Harrison, T. M.

2011-12-01

322

Proteus mirabilis urease: nucleotide sequence determination and comparison with jack bean urease.  

PubMed Central

Proteus mirabilis, a common cause of urinary tract infection, produces a potent urease that hydrolyzes urea to NH3 and CO2, initiating kidney stone formation. Urease genes, which were localized to a 7.6-kilobase-pair region of DNA, were sequenced by using the dideoxy method. Six open reading frames were found within a region of 4,952 base pairs which were predicted to encode polypeptides of 31.0 (ureD), 11.0 (ureA), 12.2 (ureB), 61.0 (ureC), 17.9 (ureE), and 23.0 (ureF) kilodaltons (kDa). Each open reading frame was preceded by a ribosome-binding site, with the exception of ureE. Putative promoterlike sequences were identified upstream of ureD, ureA, and ureF. Possible termination sites were found downstream of ureD, ureC, and ureF. Structural subunits of the enzyme were encoded by ureA, ureB, and ureC and were translated from a single transcript in the order of 11.0, 12.2, and 61.0 kDa. When the deduced amino acid sequences of the P. mirabilis urease subunits were compared with the amino acid sequence of the jack bean urease, significant amino acid similarity was observed (58% exact matches; 73% exact plus conservative replacements). The 11.0-kDa polypeptide aligned with the N-terminal residues of the plant enzyme, the 12.2-kDa polypeptide lined up with internal residues, and the 61.0-kDa polypeptide matched with the C-terminal residues, suggesting an evolutionary relationship of the urease genes of jack bean and P. mirabilis. PMID:2687233

Jones, B D; Mobley, H L

1989-01-01

323

Memory Bandwidth Optimizationsfor Wide-BusMachines Michael A. Alexander, Mark W. Bailey, Bruce R. Childers, Jack W. Davidson, and Sanjay Jinturkar  

E-print Network

Memory Bandwidth Optimizationsfor Wide-BusMachines Michael A. Alexander, Mark W. Bailey, Bruce R. Childers, Jack W. Davidson, and Sanjay Jinturkar Department of Computer Science,University of Virginia

Childers, Bruce

324

Mid-Proterozoic detrital zircons and the depositional history of the Jack Hills (Narryer Gneiss Complex, Western Australia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz-biotite schists ("metaconglomerates" s.l.) in the Jack Hills outcrops of the Narryer Terrane of Western Australia host detrital >4 Ga zircons. These rocks are presumed to have been deposited at about 3 Ga and subsequently experienced metamorphism and granite intrusion at 2.45-2.6 Ga. Protoliths of the oldest detrital zircon population (>3.8 Ga) have not yet been identified, and the post-2.6 Ga history of the Jack Hills remains murky. Rare metavolcanic units are documented at ca. 1.8-1.9 Ga. Some metasediments near the Hadean zircon "discovery" site that are apparently young enough to have incorporated mid-Proterozoic detrital zircons are evidence of further geologic activity, although it is possible that these rocks were tectonically juxtaposed later. To further resolve the Proterozoic history of the Jack Hills, we report U-Pb age data for 60 detrital zircons extracted from two quartzites from the eastern Jack Hills (~50 km distant from the "discovery" site of Hadean zircons); in this sample suite 26 concordant zircons range in age from 0.168-3.49 Ga, with an age peak at ca. 2.6 Ga and a scattering of ages from 1.06-2.0 Ga. Zircon sources <1.8 Ga have not so far been identified in the Narryer Terrane and may point to far-field sediment transport. Several ca. 1.07 Ga zircons may derive from the Warakurna Large Igneous Province of the same age, which extends through much of central and Western Australia. One concordant zircon with a 206Pb/238U age of 0.1666 Ga displays a patchy internal texture indicative of alteration; all other concordant grains are >1.06 Ga. Only 2 concordant zircons display ages >3 Ga, unlike the dominant mid-Archean signature from other reported Proterozoic sediments in the Jack Hills. All told, these quartzites display a significantly different provenance than other previously studied units from the terrane, with decreased importance of mid-Archean zircon sources and significantly younger (<1.06 Ga) ages of sedimentation than previously recognized. If the various quartzites are autochthonous, the absence of mid-Archean zircons despite the units' current proximity to the mid-Archean Narryer Gneiss Complex, as well as the likely sourcing of Warakurna LIP detritus, would appear to have implications for paleogeographic reconstructions of the Jack Hills region.

Bell, E. A.; Harrison, T. M.; Mojzsis, S. J.

2012-12-01

325

Ontogeny of anti-predator behavior in hatchery-reared jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus larvae and juveniles: patchiness formation, swimming capability, and interaction with jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory rearing and behavioral observations of larval and juvenile jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus were conducted to elucidate their life-history traits with emphasis on the interaction with the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Jack mackerel were raised from naturally spawned fertilized eggs and they attained 10.30.7 (meanstandard deviation) mm\\u000a in body length (BL) by 30 days post hatching (dph) and 26.61.8 mm

Reiji Masuda

2006-01-01

326

Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  

PubMed

The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive ?-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in this new host. PMID:24688833

Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

2014-01-01

327

Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)  

PubMed Central

The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetles historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive ?-pinene levels a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in this new host. PMID:24688833

Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L.; Lindgren, B. Staffan; Huber, Dezene P.W.

2014-01-01

328

Debris flow from 2012 failure of moraine-dammed lake, Three Fingered Jack volcano, Mount Jefferson Wilderness, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Three Fingered Jack debris flow is one of several that have issued from moraine-dammed lakes in the Oregon Cascade Range. A thorough summary of those lakes and the hazards associated with them was published in 2001, based largely on fieldwork by Jim OConnor and Jasper Hardison in the early 1990s. Described here are details of the 2012 event, an update to the OConnor story begun earlier.

Sherrod, David R.; Wills, Barton B.

2014-01-01

329

Morphological characteristics associated with tolerance to competition from herbaceous vegetation for seedlings of jack pine, black spruce, and white pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolerance of bareroot and container-grown seedlings of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), and eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) to competition from herbaceous vegetation was examined in the first five years after planting on a site in the Great Lakes\\/St. Lawrence forest of Ontario, Canada. Shoot and root morphological characteristics of various stocktypes were

Thomas L. Noland; Gina H. Mohammed; Robert G. Wagner

2001-01-01

330

Hadean crustal evolution revisited: New constraints from Pb-Hf isotope systematics of the Jack Hills zircons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detrital zircon crystals from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt, Western Australia, are the only surviving vestiges of Hadean crust and represent an extraordinary archive into the nature of the early Earth. We report the results of an in situ isotopic study of 68 Jack Hills zircons in which the Hf and Pb isotope ratios were measured concurrently, allowing a better integration of isotope tracer information ( 176Hf/ 177Hf) with crystallization age ( 207Pb/ 206Pb). These data are augmented by Hf isotope data from zircons of the surrounding Narryer gneisses (3.65-3.30 Ga) and from Neoarchaean granites that intrude the Jack Hills belt. The detrital zircons define a subchondritic ?Hf-time array that attests to a far simpler evolution for the Hadean Earth than claimed by recent studies. This evolution is consistent with the protracted intra-crustal reworking of an enriched, dominantly mafic protolith that was extracted from primordial mantle at 4.4-4.5 Ga, perhaps during the solidification of a terrestrial magma ocean. There is no evidence for the existence of strongly depleted Hadean mantle, or for juvenile input into the parental magmas to the Jack Hills zircons. This simple Hf isotope evolution is difficult to reconcile with modern plate tectonic processes. Strongly unradiogenic Hf isotope compositions of zircons from several Archaean gneiss terranes, including the Narryer and Acasta gneisses, suggest that Hadean source reservoirs were tapped by granitic magmas throughout the Archaean. This supports the notion of a long-lived and globally extensive Hadean protocrust that may have comprised the nuclei of some Archaean cratons.

Kemp, A. I. S.; Wilde, S. A.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Coath, C. D.; Nemchin, A.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Vervoort, J. D.; DuFrane, S. A.

2010-07-01

331

Reevaluation of the origin and evolution of > 4.2 Ga zircons from the Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

New data are presented on internal structures, U Pb systematics and oxygen isotope compositions of eight detrital zircons with ages greater than 4.2 Ga, from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt, Australia. Cathodoluminescence imaging, ion-microprobe U Pb and oxygen isotope results show evidence for an extensive period of complex zircon growth, secondary reaction and U Pb isotopic disturbance from 4.36 to

A. A. Nemchin; R. T. Pidgeon; M. J. Whitehouse

2006-01-01

332

Geochronology of the Jack Hills detrital zircons by precise UPb isotope dilution analysis of crystal fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

UPb ages were determined for 12 whole grains and 45 fragments from further 14 grains of detrital zircon from the Jack Hills metaconglomerate, Western Australia, using isotope dilution thermal ionization mass-spectrometry in combination with air abrasion and HF leaching. These data indicate the presence of two groups of detrital zircons with ages of 3.313.52 Ga (`young group') and 3.824.11 Ga

Yuri V Amelin

1998-01-01

333

Radiation damage and alteration of zircon from a 3.3Ga porphyritic granite from the Jack Hills, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexly zoned zircons (19 grains, ?3.3Ga) from a porphyritic granite in the Jack Hills, Western Australia, have been investigated using electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to examine the effects of radiation as a function of dose, as well as the nano-scale microstructure and composition of impurities and secondary alteration phases. In back-scattered electron (BSE)

Satoshi Utsunomiya; John W. Valley; Aaron J. Cavosie; Simon A. Wilde; Rodney C. Ewing

2007-01-01

334

Reevaluation of the origin and evolution of > 4.2 Ga zircons from the Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

New data are presented on internal structures, UPb systematics and oxygen isotope compositions of eight detrital zircons with ages greater than 4.2 Ga, from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt, Australia. Cathodoluminescence imaging, ion-microprobe UPb and oxygen isotope results show evidence for an extensive period of complex zircon growth, secondary reaction and UPb isotopic disturbance from 4.36 to 3.90 Ga. In

A. A. Nemchin; R. T. Pidgeon; M. J. Whitehouse

2006-01-01

335

Post-Hadean transitions in Jack Hills zircon provenance: A signal of the Late Heavy Bombardment?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hadean Jack Hills (Western Australia) detrital zircons represent the best documented terrestrial resource with which to observe the pre-4 Ga Earth. The >4 Ga component of this semi-continuous 4.38 to 3.0 Ga zircon record has been investigated in detail for age, ?18O, Lu-Hf systematics, and Ti thermometry. The more abundant post-Hadean population is less well-characterized, but a previous study (Bell et al., 2011) suggests a more restricted range of ?18O source materials together with a ca. 4.0-3.6 Ga discontinuity in Lu-Hf evolution. These differences could reflect a transformation in the character of the older zircon source region or their sourcing from different terranes entirely. The relative scarcity of 4.0-3.6 Ga zircons corresponds to a discontinuity in Lu-Hf evolution after which 176Hf/177Hf in zircon reverts to more radiogenic values relative to the >4 Ga population. We present new oxygen isotope, titanium, and trace element results for 4.0-3.6 Ga Jack Hills zircons in a search for apparent transitions in petrological conditions. Post-3.8 Ga zircons show a marked decrease in the occurrence of heavy oxygen (>6.5), but remain close to the average of the Hadean distribution despite their restricted range. This may point to the decreased importance of sedimentary materials in post-3.8 Ga magmas. Ca. 3.9 Ga zircons fall into two categories: Group I displays temperatures and compositions similar to the Hadean zircons whereas Group II zircons have higher U and Hf, and lower (Th/U), Ce and P. Group II zircons also have anomalously low Ti, and are remarkably concordant in the U-Pb system. Group II's geochemical characteristics are consistent with formation by transgressive recrystallization (Hoskin and Black, 2000), in which non-essential structural constituents are purged during high-grade thermal metamorphism. The restricted age range of Group II occurrence (3.91-3.84) and its coincidence with the postulated intense bolide flux in the inner solar system (i.e., Late Heavy Bombardment; 3.95-3.85) may have causal significance.

Bell, Elizabeth A.; Harrison, T. Mark

2013-02-01

336

Mineral inclusion thermobarometry in >4 Ga Jack Hills zircons provide further constraints on Hadean geodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detrital zircons from the Jack Hills of Western Australia provide an important record of terrestrial conditions during the Hadean Eon (ca. >4 Ga). Mineral inclusions captured in these ancient zircons add an extra dimension to our knowledge of Hadean Earth. The inclusion population is dominated by the presence of quartz and muscovite, most apparently primary to these igneous zircons. Several lines of evidence support this view and argue against widespread exchange between most of these inclusions and their environment: (i) lack of association with cracks; (ii) magmatic crystal forms; (iii) absence of exchange with fuchsitic (Cr-rich) micas in the host conglomerate; and (iv) the heterogeneity in Sipfu values. We report new data on Ti concentration in quartz inclusions within Hadean zircons. The factor-of-10 difference in Ti content among included quartz grains is evidence against chemical communication between the host quartzite and inclusions, since the Jack Hills quartzite contains rutile which was mobile during metamorphism at ca. 2.5 Ga. Using the recently calibrated Ti-in-quartz thermobarometer yields a narrow range of pressure (202 kbar) for the three samples. This is in broad accord with the pressure range estimated for included muscovites with ~3.4 Sipfu (189 kbar). Taken together, the Hadean zircon inclusion assemblages yield estimates of magmatic P-T conditions from 5 to ca. 20 kbar at 70040C further supporting their formation under geotherms of ?60C/km thus implying conductive near-surface heat flow of ca. 20 to 80 mW/m2. Of all formational environments that satisfy the spectrum of geochemical constraints available and the inference of melt generation under suppressed heat flow, the most plausible appears to be partial melting of both juvenile and mature continental sediment via continuous underthrusting beneath a stable upper plate. We postulate that this melting could occur two different ways: fluxed melting of underthust sedimentary material, or fluxed melting of the upper plate due to plate dehydration or degassing of hydrous magma in the underthrust environment.

Hopkins, M.; Harrison, T. M.; Manning, C. E.

2010-12-01

337

A Change in Igneous Activity of the Jack Hills Zircon Sources ca. 3.9 Ga  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Ti-in-zircon crystallization temperature (Txlln) data for <4 Ga Jack Hills zircons reveal that the tight clustering of Hadean grains around a Txlln of 680C, possibly indicative of felsic-to-intermediate minimum melting conditions, continues to ~3.92 Ga. Between 3.92-3.82 Ga the 680C clustering ceases and most concordant grains cluster around an apparent Txlln of 610C. A small group of zircons with higher Txlln (~750C), present during the Hadean, is also observed during this period. After 3.82 Ga a Hadean-like distribution resumes for ~100 Ma. This large, concordant, low-Ti group at ~3.9 Ga is statistically distinct from the Hadean distribution and appears to be unique in the Jack Hills zircon record. The existence of coeval high- and low-Ti groups suggests that two distinct zircon-forming processes are distinguishable ~3.9 Ga, unlike during the Hadean. The significant numbers of zircons with apparent Txlln below 600C may be suggestive of subsolidus formation, since igneous units with solidii below 600C are relatively rare. The higher-Ti group is more consistent with an intermediate to mafic igneous origin but metamorphic overprinting or subsolidus formation at granulite grade cannot be ruled out by Txlln alone. A substantial proportion of the high-Ti group display oscillatory and disrupted oscillatory zoning in cathodoluminescence images, usually indicative of igneous origins and later metamorphism, respectively; most low-Ti grains are homogeneous. Several of each group display patchy zonation indicative of metamorphic overprinting. Although several grains with apparent Txlln >600C display oscillatory zonation, the majority of the low-Ti group do not show textural evidence for igneous origins. We interpret these results to indicate the transition from a mechanism(s) that produced dominantly 680C apparent zircon temperatures at ca. 3.9 Ga to include a new zircon-forming process in the sediment source(s), likely a protracted period of metamorphism (possibly with minor crustal anatexis). ~750C magmatism (probably intermediate to mafic) also occurs during this time period. This change in geologic conditions coincides in time with the Late Heavy Bombardment, and an exogenic origin for the event is not necessary but cannot be ruled out at the present time.

Bell, E. A.; Harrison, T. M.

2010-12-01

338

Late Hadean-Eoarchean transitions in crustal evolution from Hf isotopic evidence in the Jack Hills zircons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of the Earth's earliest crust remains largely unknown due to the dearth of Hadean (>4 Ga) rocks, with most observational evidence of the planet's first few hundred million years deriving from geochemical studies of 4.4-4.0 Ga detrital zircons from Jack Hills (Narryer Gneiss Complex, Yilgarn craton). Previous Lu-Hf investigations of the zircons have suggested that continental-like (low Lu/Hf) crust formation began by ~4.4-4.5 Ga and may have continued for several hundred million years. The most ancient crust represented in the Jack Hills population was preserved until at least ~4 Ga. However, evidence for the involvement of Hadean materials in later crustal evolution is sparse, and even at Jack Hills the most unradiogenic, ancient materials represented by some Hadean zircons have not been identified in the younger rock and zircon record. We present new Lu-Hf results from <4 Ga Jack Hills zircons that indicate an important transition in Yilgarn crustal evolution between 4.0 and 3.6 Ga. Although Hadean samples are permissive of crustal extraction from the mantle up to ~4 Ga, crust in the Jack Hills source evolves dominantly by internal reworking 4.0-3.8 Ga, and both the most ancient and most juvenile components of the crust are lost from the zircon record after ~4 Ga. New juvenile additions to the crust at ~3.8-3.7 Ga are accompanied by the disappearance of crust with model ages >4.3 Ga. These new data indicate a tectonic regime in the Eoarchean (4.0-3.6 Ga) Yilgarn characterized by internal crustal reworking punctuated by one relatively short juvenile crust extraction event. The coupling in time of juvenile crust formation with the loss of ancient crust is best explained by a mechanism similar to subduction, which accomplishes both processes on the modern Earth. We interpret these data as consistent with the action of destructive plate boundary interactions by Eoarchean times.

Bell, E. A.; Harrison, M.; Kohl, I. E.; Young, E. D.

2013-12-01

339

Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)  

PubMed Central

Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-?-pinene synthases, (-)-?-pinene synthases, (-)-?-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-?-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

2013-01-01

340

Eurycomanone induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells via up-regulation of p53  

PubMed Central

Background Eurycomanone is a cytotoxic compound found in Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Previous studies had noted the cytotoxic effect against various cancer cell lines. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxicity against human hepato carcinoma cell in vitro and the mode of action. The cytotoxicity of eurycomanone was evaluated using MTT assay and the mode of cell death was detected by Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining and flow cytometry with Annexin-V/propidium iodide double staining. The protein expression Bax, Bcl-2, p53 and cytochrome C were studied by flow cytometry using a spesific antibody conjugated fluorescent dye to confirm the up-regulation of p53 and Bax in cancer cells. Results The findings suggested that eurycomanone was cytotoxic on cancerous liver cell, HepG2 and less toxic on normal cells Chang's liver and WLR-68. Furthermore, various methods proved that apoptosis was the mode of death in eurycomanone-treated HepG2 cells. The characteristics of apoptosis including chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic bodies were found following eurycomanone treatment. This study also found that apoptotic process triggered by eurycomanone involved the up-regulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein. The up-regulation of p53 was followed by the increasing of pro-apoptotic Bax and decreasing of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. The increased of cytochrome C levels in cytosol also results in induction of apoptosis. Conclusion The data suggest that eurycomanone was cytotoxic on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis through the up-regulation of p53 and Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. PMID:19508737

Zakaria, Yusmazura; Rahmat, Asmah; Pihie, Azimahtol Hawariah Lope; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Houghton, Peter J

2009-01-01

341

Carbon and water vapour exchange in a recently burned east boreal jack pine stand, Quebec, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circumpolar boreal forest is an extensive carbon (C) reservoir, storing an estimated 88 petagrams (Pg) of C in vegetation biomass with an additional 471 PgC residing within the soil itself. In the North American boreal, fire disturbance acts as the main stand-renewing agent along an approximate 100-year return interval. However, recent studies suggest that fire intensity and severity are increasing, driven by disproportionate climate warming of the northern latitudes. While estimates of direct C emissions from combustion are becoming more accurate, indirect loss due to post-fire effects on decomposition and regeneration has only recently become a focus of research. Paradoxically, it has been estimated that post-fire C releases are in the order of three times the amount directly released during initial combustion. In this study, we examine carbon and water exchange in a 6-year old, post-burn, jack pine stand located in the eastern James Bay region of the Canadian boreal; an area currently under-represented in fire studies. Over 1.5 years, covering two growing seasons and the spring and fall transitions, we measured net CO2 and energy exchange at the ecosystem level using an eddy covariance tower, and supplemented this with chamber measurements of soil respiration. At this stage of recovery, while demonstrating diurnal and seasonal patterns of exchange, overall the site was a net source of C and water to the atmosphere with brief periods of C sink.

Nugent, K.; Strachan, I. B.

2013-12-01

342

A light carbon reservoir recorded in zircon-hosted diamond from the Jack Hills.  

PubMed

The recent discovery of diamond-graphite inclusions in the Earth's oldest zircon grains (formed up to 4,252 Myr ago) from the Jack Hills metasediments in Western Australia provides a unique opportunity to investigate Earth's earliest known carbon reservoir. Here we report ion microprobe analyses of the carbon isotope composition of these diamond-graphite inclusions. The observed delta(13)C(PDB) values (expressed using the PeeDee Belemnite standard) range between -5 per mil and -58 per mil with a median of -31 per mil. This extends beyond typical mantle values of around -6 per mil to values observed in metamorphic and some eclogitic diamonds that are interpreted to reflect deep subduction of low-delta(13)C(PDB) biogenic surface carbon. Low delta(13)C(PDB) values may also be produced by inorganic chemical reactions, and therefore are not unambiguous evidence for life on Earth as early as 4,250 Myr ago. Regardless, our results suggest that a low-delta(13)C(PDB) reservoir may have existed on the early Earth. PMID:18596808

Nemchin, Alexander A; Whitehouse, Martin J; Menneken, Martina; Geisler, Thorsten; Pidgeon, Robert T; Wilde, Simon A

2008-07-01

343

Paleomagnetic investigation of sedimentary units from Jack Hills, Western Australia, containing Archean-Hadean minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some models for the thermal evolution of the core predict an active geodynamo in Hadean times, whereas others suggest onset of the dynamo after ~3.6 Ga. Ubiquitous metamorphism has erased any potential primary magnetic signature in most rocks older than 3.6 billion years old. However, some sedimentary units contain Hadean minerals that may preserve a record of the geomagnetic field. We apply techniques of single silicate crystal analysis (Tarduno et al., Rev. Geophys., 2006) to conglomerate samples from Jack Hills, Australia, focusing on presence/absence criteria for a Hadean geomagnetic field. We focus on the study of small, ~0.25 mm diameter, quartz grains from the interior of larger clasts. These grains often lack evidence of penetrative deformations (i.e. recrystallization or transgranular fracturing); therefore they are suitable hosts for magnetic inclusions carrying primary magnetizations. However, it must still be demonstrated that part of the magnetization held by these quartz grains is Hadean in age, as metamorphism after the formation of magnetic inclusions is expected to have imparted secondary magnetizations. We present a method for such an evaluation, using micro-conglomerate tests, and age dating of zircon inclusions. The quartz grains have natural remanent magnetizations that can be measured using highly sensitive DC SQUID magnetometers, and demagnetized using CO2 laser heating methods (Tarduno et al., 2007). We will present data defining the nature of magnetic inclusions as well as preliminary paleomagnetic and paleointensity analyses.

Nelson, J. M.; Tarduno, J. A.; Cottrell, R. D.; Valley, J. W.

2010-12-01

344

Biochemical and x-ray diffraction analysis of concanavalin B crystals from jack bean.  

PubMed

Parallel biochemical and crystallographic studies have been carried out on the protein concanavalin B from Jack Bean (Canavalis ensiformis). The studies show the protein to be a monomer of 33,000 daltons with unexceptional amino acid composition and no covalently bound carbohydrate. The molecule contains a single, firmly bound zinc ion and we present evidence that the protein specifically binds nucleotide coenzymes including at least NADPH and flavin mononucleotide. An electron density map of the concanavalin B crystals (space group P6(1), a = b = 80.9 A, c = 102.2 A) has been calculated from phases based on six isomorphous heavy atom derivatives. A description of the structure of the protein based on the 5.0 A resolution x-ray diffraction study is provided. The structure appears to contain a substantial amount of alpha-helix as well as an extensive beta-sheet and these are organized into two domains of unequal size. The position of the bound zinc is indicated by anomalous difference Fouriers and the nucleotide binding site by conventional difference Fourier maps. PMID:16663793

Morrison, R; Delozier, G; Robinson, L; McPherson, A

1984-09-01

345

Biochemical and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of Concanavalin B Crystals from Jack Bean 1  

PubMed Central

Parallel biochemical and crystallographic studies have been carried out on the protein concanavalin B from Jack Bean (Canavalis ensiformis). The studies show the protein to be a monomer of 33,000 daltons with unexceptional amino acid composition and no covalently bound carbohydrate. The molecule contains a single, firmly bound zinc ion and we present evidence that the protein specifically binds nucleotide coenzymes including at least NADPH and flavin mononucleotide. An electron density map of the concanavalin B crystals (space group P61, a = b = 80.9 , c = 102.2 ) has been calculated from phases based on six isomorphous heavy atom derivatives. A description of the structure of the protein based on the 5.0 resolution x-ray diffraction study is provided. The structure appears to contain a substantial amount of ?-helix as well as an extensive ?-sheet and these are organized into two domains of unequal size. The position of the bound zinc is indicated by anomalous difference Fouriers and the nucleotide binding site by conventional difference Fourier maps. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:16663793

Morrison, Robert; Delozier, Gregory; Robinson, Lindsay; McPherson, Alexander

1984-01-01

346

Facile synthesis of highly branched jacks-like ZnO nanorods and their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Highly branched, jacks-like ZnO nanorods architecture were explored as a photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells, and their photovoltaic performance was compared with that of branch-free ZnO nanorods photoanodes. The highly branched network and large pores of the jacks-like ZnO nanorods electrodes enhances the charge transport, and electrolyte penetration. Thus, the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSCs render a higher conversion efficiency of {eta} = 1.82% (V{sub oc} = 0.59 V, J{sub sc} = 5.52 mA cm{sup -2}) than that of the branch-free ZnO nanorods electrodes ({eta} = 1.08%, V{sub oc} = 0.49 V, J{sub sc} = 4.02 mA cm{sup -2}). The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency measurements reveal that the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSCs exhibit higher internal quantum efficiency ({approx}59.1%) than do the branch-free ZnO nanorods DSSC ({approx}52.5%). The charge transfer resistances at the ZnO/dye/electrolyte interfaces investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSC had high charge transfer resistance and a slightly longer electron lifetime, thus improving the solar-cell performance.

Sudhagar, P. [Center for Next Generation Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul- 133 791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Next Generation Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul- 133 791 (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, R. Saravana [R and D Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641 029, Tamilnadu (India)] [R and D Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641 029, Tamilnadu (India); Jung, June Hyuk; Cho, Woohyung [Center for Next Generation Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul- 133 791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Next Generation Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul- 133 791 (Korea, Republic of); Sathyamoorthy, R. [R and D Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641 029, Tamilnadu (India)] [R and D Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641 029, Tamilnadu (India); Won, Jongok [Department of Chemistry, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemistry, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yong Soo, E-mail: kangys@hanyang.ac.kr [Center for Next Generation Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul- 133 791 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-09-15

347

Fishery of the Green Jack Caranx caballus (Osteichytes: Carangidae) in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama.  

PubMed

Green Jacks, Caranx caballus, are distributed along the Eastern Pacific coast. In Panama, C. caballus was heavily fished around Las Perlas Archipelago to sustain local markets until 2007, when the archipelago was declared a marine protected area. This first study in Panama, analyzed a sample of 4 990 individuals from Las Perlas, obtained monthly from June 2005 to June 2006, from landings at the central fish market. Average total length was 36.1 +/- 6.4cm and optimum length 38.9cm. Approximately 68% of fish lengths were within +/-10% of the optimal length but only six (15%) were considered mega-spawners. The von Bertalanffy parameters describe a long-lived and fast growing species, while mortality rates revealed that C. caballus is under high fishing pressure. Standard length at which half of the population is mature was 38.8cm, and the size at which individuals matured massively, 33cm. Only 10-13% of the fish were immature. C. caballus reproduces two to three times per year, with peaks in December, April, and probably September, and recruits to the population at least twice per year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) was best predicted by minimum annual values of the Multivariate ENSO/LNSO Index (MEI) (R2=0.54). Results show that C. caballus in Pacific Panama is overfished. We recommend the raising of the minimum capture/landing size of this species in order to increase the proportion of mega-spawners in the population and guarantee the sustainability of this resource. PMID:23025097

Mair, James M; Cipriani, Roberto; Guzman, Hector M; Usan, David

2012-09-01

348

[Sexual violence against women--the analysis of the phenomenon as exemplified by the Jack the Ripper case].  

PubMed

From the beginning of human civilization, sexuality has been controlled by morals and laws. Using the example of Jack the Ripper, the authors present the significant and very serious problem of violence against women in the aspect of crime detection and forensic sexuology. According to Lernell [1], sex crimes are defined as "such types of sexuality-related human behaviors (including their consequences) that are forbidden by law" [2]. Such crimes encompass sex murders. Criminal behaviors of a sexual nature are perpetrated by representatives of all social strata. PMID:17249375

Jarzabek, Grazyna; Fabi?, Adam

2006-01-01

349

Assessment of possible sources of microbiological contamination in the water column and streambed sediment of the Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri - Phase III  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1998, a 5 river-mile reach of the Jacks Fork was included on Missouri's list of impaired waters as required by Section 303(d) of the Federal Clean Water Act. The identified pollutant on the Jacks Fork was fecal coliform bacteria. The length of the impaired reach was changed to 7 miles on the Missouri 2002 303(d) list because of data indicating the fecal coliform bacteria problem existed over a broader area. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, conducted a study to better understand the extent and sources of microbiological contamination within the Jacks Fork from Alley Spring to the mouth, which includes the 7-mile 303(d) reach. Ten sites were sampled from June 2003 through October 2003 and from June 2004 through October 2004. Water-column and streambed sediment samples were collected from main-stem and tributary sites mostly during base-flow conditions during a variety of recreational season river uses and analyzed for fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria. Isolates of Escherichia coli obtained from water samples collected at five sites were submitted for rep-PCR analysis to identify presumptive sources of fecal indicator bacteria in the Jacks Fork. Results indicate that recreational users (including boaters and swimmers) are not the primary source of fecal coliform bacteria in the Jacks Fork; rather, the presence of fecal coliform bacteria is associated with other animals, of which horses are the primary source. Increases in fecal coliform bacteria densities in the Jacks Fork are associated with cross-country horseback trail-riding events.

Davis, Jerri V.; Barr, Miya N.

2006-01-01

350

Water-soluble jack-knife prawn extract inhibits 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation in humans.  

PubMed

Coronary artery spasm plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various ischemic heart diseases or serious arrhythmia. The aim of this study is to look for functional foods which have physiologically active substances preventing 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-related vasospastic diseases including peri- and postoperative ischemic complications of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) from ocean resources in Japanese coastal waters. First, we evaluated the effect of water-soluble ocean resource extracts on the response to 5-HT in HEK293 cells which have forcibly expressed cyan fluorescent protein-fused 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2A-CFP). Among 5 different water-soluble extracts of ocean resources, the crude water-soluble jack-knife prawn extract (WJPE) significantly reduced maximal Ca(2+) influx induced by 0.1 ?M 5-HT in a concentration-dependent manner. The Crude WJPE significantly inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, 5-HT-induced constriction of human saphenous vein. 5-HT released from activated platelets plays a crucial roles in the constriction of coronary artery. Next the WJPE was purified for applying the experiment of 5-HT-induced human platelet aggregation. The purified WJPE significantly inhibited 5-HT-induced human platelet aggregation also in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on our findings, jack-knife prawn could be one of a functional food with health-promoting benefits for most people with vasospastic diseases including patients who have gone CABG. PMID:25464143

Gamoh, Shuji; Kanai, Tasuku; Tanaka-Totoribe, Naoko; Ohkura, Masamichi; Kuwabara, Masachika; Nakamura, Eisaku; Yokota, Atsuko; Yamasaki, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Akiko; Hayashi, Masahiro; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Yamamoto, Ryuichi

2014-12-01

351

Progress report on the Happy Jack mine, Which Canyon area, San Juan county, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Happy Jack mine is in the White Canyon area, San Juan county, Utah. Production is from high-grade uranium deposits in the Shinarump conglomerate of the Triassic age. In this area the Shinarump beds range from about 16 to 40 feet in thickness and the lower part of these beds fills an east-trending channel this is note than 750 feet wide and 10 feet deep. The Shinarump conglomerate consists of beds of coarse- to fine-grained quartzose sandstone, conglomerate, siltstone, and claystone. Carbonized wood is abundant in these beds, and in the field it was classified as mineral charcoal and coal. Intra-Shinarump channels, cross-stratification, current lineation, and slumping and compaction structures have been recognized in the mine. Steeply dipping fractures have dominant trends in four directions -- N 65W, N 60E, N 85E, and due north. Uranium occurs as bedded deposits, as replacement bodies in accumulations of "trash", and as replacements of larger fragments of wood. An "ore shoot" is formed where the three types of uranium deposits occur together; these ore shoots appear to be elongate masses with sharp boundaries. Uranium minerals include uraninite, sooty pitchblende(?), and the sulfate--betazippeite, johannite, and uranopilite. Associated with the uraninite are the sulfide minerals covellite, bornite, chalcopyritw, and pyrite. Galena and sphalerite have been found in close association with uranium minerals. The gaunge minerals include: limonite and hematite present in most of the sandstone beds throughout the deposit, jarosite that impregnates much of the sandstone in the outer parts of the mine workings, gypsum that fills many of the fractures, and barite that impregnates the sandstone in at least one part of the mine. Secondary copper minerals, mainly copper sulfates, occur throughout the mine, but most abundant near the adits in the outermost 30 feet of the workings. The minerals comprising the bulk of the country rock include quartz, feldspar, and clay minerals. The amount of uranium minerals deposited in a sandstone bed is believed to have been determined by the position of the bed in the channel, the permeability of the sandstone in the bed, and the amount of carbonized wood and plant remains within the bed. The beds considered most favorable for uranium deposition contain an abundance of claystone and siltstone both as matrix filling and as fragments and pebbles. Suggested exploration guides from uranium ore bodies include the following: (1) interbedded siltstone lenses, (2) claystone and siltstone cement and pabbles, (3) concentrations of "trash", (4) covelllite and bornite, (5) chalcopyrite, and (6) carbonized wood.

Trites, Albert F., Jr.; Chew, Randall T., III

1954-01-01

352

Hafnium isotopes in Jack Hills zircons and the formation of the Hadean crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New bulk Hf and Pb isotope data were obtained for 63 leached single zircons from Jack Hills (JH), Western Australia, using solution chemistry and, respectively, MC-ICP MS and ICP-MS. With the exception of one "young" zircon at 3.32 Ga, the remainder of the selected grains were previously dated at > 3.9 Ga by ion-microprobe. This work extends and complements the solution chemistry data of Harrison et al. [Harrison, T.M., Blichert-Toft, J., Mller, W., Albarde, F., Holden, P., Mojzsis, S.J., 2005. Heterogeneous Hadean hafnium: evidence of continental crust at 4.4 to 4.5 Ga. Science 310, 1947-1950.] but uses bulk rather than in situ Pb-Pb ages to interpret the Hf isotope data. This larger data set is used to explore whether the host rocks of the JH zircons formed as a succession of pulses or rather as a single event, and to calculate the age and assess the nature of their crustal protolith. We find that the parent granites of the JH zircons analyzed here formed during a single pulse 4.1 0.1 Ga ago by the remelting of a 4.30-4.36 Ga old protolith. Monte Carlo modeling indicates that the 176Lu/ 177Hf ratios of this material (< 0.01) are unlike the ratios of modern-type oceanic crust and island arc rocks but rather fit a tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) source. TTGs themselves derived their inordinately enriched character from a basaltic progenitor which corresponds to the missing enriched reservoir identified by the 143Nd- 144Nd, 142Nd- 144Nd, and 176Hf/ 177Hf systematics of Archean rocks. We speculate that crystallization of the magma ocean in the presence of garnet left the upper mantle and an early basaltic crust enriched in incompatible elements. Reaction of this early crust with the overlying hydrosphere and subsequent foundering into the mantle gave rise at 4.3 Ga to the TTG protolith of the JH granites. Dating the onset of plate tectonics therefore depends on whether TTGs can be considered as subduction zone magmas or not.

Blichert-Toft, Janne; Albarde, Francis

2008-01-01

353

Geohydrologic feasibility study of the greater Green River Basin for the potential applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented tool  

SciTech Connect

Geraghty & Miller, Inc, of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of Jack McIntyre`s patented tool for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Greater Green River Basin through literature surveys.

Reed, P.D.

1994-02-01

354

Near-infrared peptide-coated quantum dots for small animal imaging Gopal Iyer, Jack J. Li, Fabien Pinaud, James M. Tsay, Laurent A. Bentolila, Xavier  

E-print Network

Near-infrared peptide-coated quantum dots for small animal imaging Gopal Iyer, Jack J. Li, Fabien ABSTRACT We have synthesized high quality type-II CdTe/CdSe near infrared quantum dots using successive ion used a peptide coating technique on type-II and commercial near infrared quantum dots for delivery

Michalet, Xavier

355

Effects of introgression on the genetic population structure of two ecologically and economically important conifer species: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).  

PubMed

Forest trees exhibit a remarkable range of adaptations to their environment, but as a result of frequent and long-distance gene flow, populations are often only weakly differentiated. Lodgepole and jack pine hybridize in western Canada, which adds the opportunity for introgression through hybridization to contribute to population structure and (or) adaptive variation. Access to large sample size, high density SNP datasets for these species would improve our ability to resolve population structure, parameterize introgression, and separate the influence of demography from adaptation. To accomplish this, 454 transcriptome reads for lodgepole and jack pine were assembled using Newbler and MIRA, the assemblies mined for SNPs, and 1536 SNPs were selected for typing on lodgepole pine, jack pine, and their hybrids (N = 536). We identified population structure using both Bayesian clustering and discriminate analysis of principle components. Introgressed SNP loci were identified and their influence on observed population structure was assessed. We found that introgressed loci resulted in increased differentiation both within lodgepole and jack pine populations. These findings are timely given the recent mountain pine beetle population expansion in the hybrid zone, and will facilitate future studies of adaptive traits in these ecologically important species. PMID:24237338

Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

2013-10-01

356

Proterozoic events recorded in quartzite cobbles at Jack Hills, Western Australia: New constraints on sedimentation and source of > 4 Ga zircons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare heavy mineral bands within quartzite cobbles were identified in two conglomerate units within the Jack Hills belt, Western Australia. Seven zircon-bearing cobbles were analysed from one location (site 152) and three from another (site 154), both approximately 1 km west of the site where zircons in excess of 4 Ga are abundant (W74 `discovery' site). Individual pebbles from the

Marion L. Grange; Simon A. Wilde; Alexander A. Nemchin; Robert T. Pidgeon

2010-01-01

357

The interpretation of complex zircon UPb systems in Archaean granitoids and gneisses from the Jack Hills, Narryer Gneiss Terrane, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHRIMP UPb ages of zircons from Archaean TTG granitoids and gneisses from the Jack Hills region of Western Australia show a range of complexity which reflects the origin and geological history of the rocks and the stability of the zircon UPb systems under metamorphic and magmatic conditions. Strong light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and similarities in the major and

R. T Pidgeon; S. A Wilde

1998-01-01

358

Detrital Zircons From the Jack Hills and Mount Narryer, Western Australia: Geochronological, Morphological, and Geochemical Evidence for Diverse >4000 Ma Source Rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detrital zircons from all major clastic units in the Jack Hills and Mount Narryer metasedimentary belts, Western Australia, were analyzed for morphology, internal zoning, inclusion mineralogy, age, and trace element concentrations (latter two obtained by laser-ablation microprobe ICPMS). The results show that zircons were derived from a wide diversity of rocks, including previously described, >4000 Ma grains that are older

J. L. Crowley; J. S. Myers; P. J. Sylvester; R. A. Cox

2004-01-01

359

Query Processing with An FPGA Coprocessor Board Jack S.N. Jean, Guozhu Dong, Hwa Zhang, Xinzhong Guo, and Baifeng Zhang  

E-print Network

Query Processing with An FPGA Coprocessor Board Jack S.N. Jean, Guozhu Dong, Hwa Zhang, Xinzhong a commercial FPGA coprocessor board is used to accelerate the processing of queries on a relational database and Image Database, Query Optimization 1. Introduction Computers with FPGA coprocessor boards have been used

Dong, Guozhu

360

Subsurface study of Atoka (lower Pennsylvanian) clastic rocks in parts of Jack, Palo Pinto, Parker, and Wise Counties, north-central Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lithofacies analysis of the subsurface Atoka clastic rocks in parts of Jack, Palo Pinto, Parker, and Wise Counties, north-central Texas, was designed to provide a meaningful interpretation of depositional environments that existed during Atokan time, as well as the most favorable areas for production of hydrocarbons. The Atoka clastic rocks are the product of the Ouachita orogene interacting with

Tai Wai Ng

1979-01-01

361

Misconceptions hamper protection of bears BruCe d. leopold, Co-Director, Jack H. Berryman Institute (East), Department of Wildlife and Fisher-  

E-print Network

145Columns Misconceptions hamper protection of bears BruCe d. leopold, Co-Director, Jack H knowledge that bears are established in states neighboring Mississippi. Remarkably, however, bears also are on the increase in Mississippi. We have conducted considerable research on our few Mississippi bears, and 2 years

362

SEED SOURCE VARIATION IN TRACHEID LENGTH AND SPE8ClFlC GRAVITY OF FIVE-YEAR-OLD JACK. PINE SEEDLINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is widely used in Lake States reforestation because of its ability to make rapid early growth on relatively infertile sites. It is a major pulpwood producing species. Since the quality and yield 'of pulp are so strongly influenced by tracheid length and specific gravity, information on genetic variation in these characteristics would be useful in

James P. King

363

The following is taken, with permission, from the book The Mathematics Survival Kit, by Professor Jack Weiner, published by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited,  

E-print Network

Jack Weiner, published by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited, Copyright 2004. Professor you see your teacher for extra help, don't say anything like, "I don't have a clue what's going on representative of your group can see your teacher to [get] help with problems and report back to the others. Also

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

364

The following is taken, with permission, from the book The Mathematics Survival Kit, by Professor Jack Weiner, published by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited,  

E-print Network

Jack Weiner, published by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited, Copyright 2004. Professor will get stuck. Even if you thought you understood the example completely when the teacher went over notes, look in the text, see your teacher/professor. Do whatever is necessary to figure out the steps

Rond, Guillaume

365

Search for the origins of the geodynamo: Paleomagnetic studies of rocks and zircon crystals from the Jack Hills, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is currently unknown when Earth's dynamo magnetic field originated. This timing has major implications for the thermal evolution of the interior, the physics of dynamo action, the surface cosmic ray flux, the evolution of the terrestrial atmosphere, and planetary habitability. Paleomagnetic studies of the oldest known unmetamorphosed rocks indicate that a field with intensity similar to that of the present existed at least 3.5 billion years ago (Ga). One of the very few sample suites predating this time are detrital zircon crystals found in quartz-rich siliciclastic rocks from the Jack Hills of Western Australia. With crystallization ages ranging from 3.0-4.38 Ga, they have the potential to preserve a record of the missing first billion years of Earth's magnetic field history. Over the last fourteen years, we have been studying individual Jack Hills zircon crystals and their host rocks to characterize the nature, age, and intensity of their paleomagnetism. Petrographic and rock magnetic studies suggest the zircons contain inclusions of ferromagnetic iron oxides and sulfides. Using a newly developed ultra-high sensitivity moment magnetometry technique implemented on our superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope, we have found that many zircons carry an extremely weak natural remanent magnetization (ranging from 5-10x10-14 Am2), essentially making them the most weakly magnetic samples studied in the history of paleomagnetism. They present tremendous analytical challenges associated with magnetic contamination and limitations on magnetic recording properties. We present the first magnetic field paleointensity studies of these zircons. The key unknown is the age and origin of their magnetization. In particular, the identification of >3.9 Ga (Hadean) field records requires at least establishing that the zircons have avoided post-depositional remagnetization. However, there are presently no paleomagnetic data that have confidently established the magnetization history for the Hadean zircon locality (Erawandoo Hill), thought to have been deposited at 2.65-3.05 Ga. To address this gap, we have conducted paleomagnetic conglomerate, baked contact, and fold tests in combination with geochronometry to establish the timing of the metamorphic and alteration events and the peak temperatures experienced by the zircons' host rocks. Although we have found little evidence for remagnetization by recent lightning strikes, most rocks in this area have been pervasively remagnetized to at least 330-530C, likely from the effects of nearby Mesoproterozoic mafic intrusions. However, localized regions of the Jack Hills may have escaped complete remagnetization. We will discuss the implications of these data for the possibility that magnetization in the detrital zircons predates their deposition.

Weiss, B. P.; Andrade Lima, E.; Maloof, A. C.; Tailby, N.; Trail, D.; Ramezani, J.; Hanus, V.; Watson, E. B.; Fu, R. R.; Harrison, M.; Bowring, S. A.; Kirschvink, J. L.

2013-12-01

366

Micron-Scale Correlations Among Ti, P, Ce, and Y in Hadean Jack Hills Zircons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detrital zircons and the inclusions found therein are our only mineralogical constraints on geologic events that occurred on the Hadean Earth. These zircons are commonly small (ca. <100 ?m in the longest dimension) and preserve micron to sub-micron chemical zonations indicative of a dynamic petrological history. Trace elements within zircon are of particular interest because concentrations and ratios of these elements can provide information regarding chemical and physical conditions during zircon growth. In this study, we analyzed Hadean-age detrital zircons from Archean metasediment in the Jack Hills (Australia) using the Caltech Microanalysis Center Cameca NanoSIMS 50L. Trace elements analyzed included Ti, P, Ce, and Y. Ti- thermometry [1,2,3] can potentially constrain growth and/or re-equilibration temperatures of zircons; P, Ce, and Y are known to enter the zircon lattice by the coupled xenotime-type substitution mechanism: (Y, REE)3+ + P5+ = Zr4+ + Si4+ [5]. The 89Y/28Si ratio was observed to correlate with, and was used as a proxy for, cathodoluminescence (CL) banding. Growth features manifested in CL (e.g., sector, oscillatory zoning) were observed in all zircons analyzed. CL zones vary from <1 ?m to several microns in width; therefore, the NanoSIMS---with a beam diameter resolved to ca. 250 nm on the sample surface when operating with an O- primary beam---is uniquely suited for this scale of analysis. Regions displaying CL banding were imaged as 20 x 20 ?m areas. All elements were normalized to 28Si; 49Ti/28Si ratios were converted to [Ti] via calibration based on analyses of synthetic, high-Ti zircons (provided by B. Watson) that were independently analyzed on Caltech's JEOL JXA-8200 electron microprobe. We observe three types of relationships between trace element distribution and CL banding in the zircons imaged: 1) strong positive correlations between CL banding, P, Ce, and Ti; 2) subtle positive correlations between CL banding, P, Ce, and Ti; 3) no correlation between minor/trace elements and CL banding. Positive correlations between CL banding, 3+ cations, and [Ti] have previously been reported by Holden et al. [4]. In this study, gradients at least as sharp as a factor of ~3 in [Ti] are observed between adjacent CL bands in the strongly correlated images. These images also have the highest absolute concentrations of trace elements and display both sector and oscillatory zoning in CL. The correlations observed may be due to: temperature-dependent equilibrium partitioning of all trace elements during rapid cycles in growth temperature; episodic diffusion-limited enrichment of incompatible trace elements in the boundary layer melt adjacent to growing crystals; and/or kinetically controlled, non- equilibrium crystal-melt partitioning caused by trace element enrichments in the boundary layer melt surrounding fast-growing grains (e.g., [6]). We will discriminate between these alternatives based on quantitative relationships between relative enrichments of [Ti] and other trace elements. [1]Watson, E.B. & Harrison, T.M. (2005) Science 308, 841-844. [2]Watson, E.B., Wark, D.A., & Thomas, J.B. (2006) CMP 151, 413-433. [3]Ferry, J.M. & Watson, E.B. (2007) CMP 154, 429-437. [4] Holden, P. et al. (2005) Eos Trans. AGU 86 (52) Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V41F-1539. [5] Speer, J.A. (1982) Zircon. In Rev. Min. 5 (ed. P.H. Ribbe), 67-112. [6] Watson, E.B. (2004) GCA 68, 1473-1488.

Hofmann, A. E.; Cavosie, A. J.; Valley, J. W.; Eiler, J. M.

2007-12-01

367

Neoarchean metamorphism recorded in high-precision Sm-Nd isotope systematics of garnets from the Jack Hills (Western Australia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of metasedimentary rocks from the Jack Hills, which host Earth's oldest known detrital minerals, have focused on zircon and occasionally monazite or xenotime, but no attention has been directed toward one of the most common mineral markers of metamorphism: garnet. Garnet can provide a record of the post-depositional, prograde metamorphic history of Archean metasedimentary rocks. Additionally, the use of a newly developed detrital garnet dating technique [1,2] may reveal information about pre-depositional metamorphism that could address lingering questions about the nature and timing of Earth's earliest tectonometamorphic events. Here we investigate garnet from the Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks to test whether they record in situ metamorphism or are a detrital relict of even older metamorphic events. We identified garnet in two bulk quartz-pebble conglomerate samples collected from the 'discovery' outcrop at Eranondoo Hill in the Jack Hills of Western Australia. Electron microprobe analyses of polished grains and SEM measurements of unpolished grain surfaces are consistent, revealing garnet composition indicative of a single generation/population of predominantly almandine-spessartine solid solution (~10-35% mole fraction spessartine). Compositional maps of garnet grains reveal little zoning and no discontinuities, most consistent with a single growth event. Dating Jack Hills' garnet via the Sm-Nd system is possible due to continued development of small sample analysis techniques, including running NdO+ TIMS analyses with Ta2O5 activator [3] permitting <50 ppm 2 sigma analytical precision on a 400pg in-house standard and continued improvement in blanks (<15pg full procedural blanks). Additionally, employing a nondestructive chemical prescreening technique (tabletop SEM) allows for grouping of multiple grains based on chemical similarity. Final Nd loads in the 450-750pg range routinely yield dates with precisions <10Ma for two point isochrons between clean garnet (Sm/Nd ? 1.0) and their leached inclusion populations [2]. Four grouped garnet grain separates from one sample yield preliminary dates of 2703.66.0Ma, 2612.46.0Ma, 2605.05.5Ma, and 2567.38.3Ma, while the second sample yielded a date of 2579.64.6 Ma (2?). Compositional and geochronologic data indicate likely in situ garnet growth during a late Archean greenschist facies metamorphic event. These dates are generally consistent with published monazite ages placing a metamorphic event at ~ca.2.65Ga [4,5]. It remains possible that an as yet unidentified detrital garnet component is present and may explain some of the scatter in absolute age. [1] Baxter EF, Jordan MK & Inglis JD, 2010, Goldschmidt [2] Baxter EF, Eccles KA & Sullivan N, 2012, Goldschmidt [3] Harvey J & Baxter EF, 2009, Chem Geol, 258, 251-257 [4] Rasmussen B, et al, 2010, Precambrian Res, 180, 26-46 [5] Iizuka T, et al, 2010, Contrib Mineral Petr, 160, 803-823

Eccles, K. A.; Baxter, E. F.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Marschall, H.; Williams, M. L.; Jercinovic, M. J.

2013-12-01

368

Growth of mycorrhizal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings planted in oil sands reclaimed areas.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of ectomycorrhizal inoculation at the tree nursery seedling production stage on growth and survival was examined in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) planted in oil sands reclamation sites. The seedlings were inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme strain # UAMH 5247, Suillus tomentosus strain # UAMH 6252, and Laccaria bicolor strain # UAMH 8232, as individual pure cultures and in combinations. These treatments were demonstrated to improve salinity resistance and water uptake in conifer seedlings. The field responses of seedlings to ectomycorrhizal inoculation varied between plant species, inoculation treatments, and measured parameters. Seedling inoculation resulted in higher ectomycorrhizal colonization rates compared with non-inoculated control, which had also a relatively small proportion of roots colonized by the nursery contaminant fungi identified as Amphinema byssoides and Thelephora americana. Seedling inoculation had overall a greater effect on relative height growth rates, dry biomass, and stem volumes in jack pine compared with white spruce. However, when examined after two growing seasons, inoculated white spruce seedlings showed up to 75% higher survival rates than non-inoculated controls. The persistence of inoculated fungi in roots of planted seedlings was examined at the end of the second growing season. Although the inoculation with H. crustuliniforme triggered growth responses, the fungus was not found in the roots of seedlings at the end of the second growing season suggesting a possibility that the observed growth-promoting effect of H. crustuliniforme may be transient. The results suggest that the inoculation of conifer seedlings with ectomycorrhizal fungi could potentially be carried out on a large scale in tree nurseries to benefit postplanting performance in oil sands reclamation sites. However, these practices should take into consideration the differences in responses between the different plant species and fungal strains. PMID:24424508

Onwuchekwa, Nnenna E; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Quoreshi, Ali; Khasa, Damase P

2014-08-01

369

Metal-sensitive and thermostable trypsin from the crevalle jack (Caranx hippos) pyloric caeca: purification and characterization  

PubMed Central

Background Over the past decades, the economic development and world population growth has led to increased for food demand. Increasing the fish production is considered one of the alternatives to meet the increased food demand, but the processing of fish leads to by-products such as skin, bones and viscera, a source of environmental contamination. Fish viscera have been reported as an important source of digestive proteases with interesting characteristics for biotechnological processes. Thus, the aim of this study was to purify and to characterize a trypsin from the processing by-products of crevalle jack (Caranx hippos) fish. Results A 27.5 kDa trypsin with N-terminal amino acid sequence IVGGFECTPHVFAYQ was easily purified from the pyloric caeca of the crevalle jack. Its physicochemical and kinetic properties were evaluated using N-?-benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BApNA) as substrate. In addition, the effects of various metal ions and specific protease inhibitors on trypsin activity were determined. Optimum pH and temperature were 8.0 and 50C, respectively. After incubation at 50C for 30 min the enzyme lost only 20% of its activity. K m , k cat, and k cat /K m values using BApNA as substrate were 0.689 mM, 6.9 s-1, and 10 s-1 mM-1, respectively. High inhibition of trypsin activity was observed after incubation with Cd2+, Al3+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, and Hg2+ at 1 mM, revealing high sensitivity of the enzyme to metal ions. Conclusions Extraction of a thermostable trypsin from by-products of the fishery industry confirms the potential of these materials as an alternative source of these biomolecules. Furthermore, the results suggest that this trypsin-like enzyme presents interesting biotechnological properties for industrial applications. PMID:24112762

2013-01-01

370

Effects of abandoned gold mine tailings on the arsenic concentrations in water and sediments of jack of clubs lake, B.C  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1933 to 1964 gold was extracted by underground mining at the northeast shore of Jack of Clubs Lake. At present, tailings and waste rock 4.5 m thick covers approximately 25 hectares of land adjacent to the lake. Arsenic concentrations (>2,000 ?g.g) were found in the tailing materials. Two simultaneous processes are controlling the elevated As concentrations in the lake

J. M. Azcue; A. Mudroch; F. Rosa; G. E. M. Hall

1994-01-01

371

Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of motor unit for the jacks for the LHC low-beta quadrupoles  

E-print Network

This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of 134 motor units for the jacks for the LHC low-beta quadrupoles. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with ZTS VVU KOSICE (SK), the lowest bidder, for the supply of 134 motor units for a total amount of 1 266 674 Swiss francs, not subject to revision.

2005-01-01

372

Effects of turbidity on survival of larval ayu and red sea bream exposed to predation by jack mackerel and moon jellyfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted laboratory experiments to examine the effects of turbidity on the survival of red sea bream Pagrus major and ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis larvae when exposed to either visual (jack mackerel juveniles) or tactile (moon jellyfish) predators. The experiments were\\u000a conducted in 30-l tanks with three different levels of turbidity obtained by dissolving 0, 50, or 300ppm kaolin. Predators

Ryosuke Ohata; Reiji Masuda; Masahiro Ueno; Yuichi Fukunishi; Yoh Yamashita

2011-01-01

373

Proterozoic events recorded in quartzite cobbles at Jack Hills, Western Australia: New constraints on sedimentation and source of > 4 Ga zircons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare heavy mineral bands within quartzite cobbles were identified in two conglomerate units within the Jack Hills belt, Western Australia. Seven zircon-bearing cobbles were analysed from one location (site 152) and three from another (site 154), both approximately 1km west of the site where zircons in excess of 4Ga are abundant (W74 discovery site). Individual pebbles from the 152 site

Marion L. Grange; Simon A. Wilde; Alexander A. Nemchin; Robert T. Pidgeon

2010-01-01

374

Application of precise 142Nd\\/ 144Nd analysis of small samples to inclusions in diamonds (Finsch, South Africa) and Hadean Zircons (Jack Hills, Western Australia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

146Sm142Nd and 147Sm143Nd systematics were investigated in garnet inclusions in diamonds from Finsch (S. Africa) and Hadean zircons from Jack Hills (W. Australia) to assess the potential of these systems as recorders of early Earth evolution. The study of Finsch inclusions was conducted on a composite sample of 50 peridotitic pyropes with a Nd model age of 3.3Ga. Analysis of

G. Caro; V. C. Bennett; B. Bourdon; T. M. Harrison; A. von Quadt; S. J. Mojzsis; J. W. Harris

2008-01-01

375

In situ UThPb geochronology of monazite and xenotime from the Jack Hills belt: Implications for the age of deposition and metamorphism of Hadean zircons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quartz-pebble conglomerate and quartzite at Eranondoo Hill in the Jack Hills belt in the northwestern Yilgarn Craton, Australia, contain monazite and xenotime grains in heavy mineral layers. In situ SHRIMP UThPb geochronology of detrital monazite and xenotime, as well as monazite and xenotime inclusions in detrital quartz, gives ages between 3.3 and 3.1Ga. The conglomerates, which host abundant Hadean zircon

Birger Rasmussen; Ian R. Fletcher; Janet R. Muhling; Simon A. Wilde

2010-01-01

376

3.2 to 3.5 Ga Re-Os Model Ages for Detrital Chromite from Jack Hills, Western Australia: Implications for Pilbara and Yilgarn Craton Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detritus from the ca. 3.0 Ga Jack Hills metasedimentary belt in Western Australia has been studied in detail due to the presence of detrital zircons with ages as old as 4.4 Ga. These Archean coarse-grained clastic sediments are exceptionally mature; along with zircon, chromite is typically the only other `heavy' mineral present. Prior studies have demonstrated that a spectrum of

J. W. Valley; A. J. Cavosie; S. Shirey; S. A. Wilde

2005-01-01

377

Geohydrologic feasibility study of the Piceance Basin of Colorado for the potential applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented gas/produced water separation process  

SciTech Connect

Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of Jack McIntyre`s patented process for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Piceance Basin through literature surveys. Jack McIntyre`s tool separates produced water from gas and disposes of the water downhole into aquifers unused because of poor water quality, uneconomic lifting costs or poor aquifer deliverability. The beneficial aspects of this technology are two fold. The process increases the potential for recovering previously uneconomic gas resources by reducing produced water lifting, treatment and disposal costs. Of greater importance is the advantage of lessening the environmental impact of produced water by downhole disposal. Results from the survey indicate that research in the Piceance Basin includes studies of the geologic, hydrogeologic, conventional and unconventional recovery oil and gas technologies. Available information is mostly found centered upon the geology and hydrology for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Lesser information is available on production technology because of the limited number of wells currently producing in the basin. Limited information is available on the baseline geochemistry of the coal/sand formation waters and that of the potential disposal zones. No determination was made of the compatibility of these waters. The study also indicates that water is often produced in variable quantities with gas from several gas productive formations which would indicate that there are potential applications for Jack McIntyre`s patented tool in the Piceance Basin.

Kieffer, F.

1994-02-01

378

Re-evaluation of the origin and evolution of > 4.2 Ga zircons from the Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New data are presented on internal structures, U-Pb systematics and oxygen isotope compositions of eight detrital zircons with ages greater than 4.2 Ga, from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt, Australia. Cathodoluminescence imaging, ion-microprobe U-Pb and oxygen isotope results show evidence for an extensive period of complex zircon growth, secondary reaction and U-Pb isotopic disturbance from 4.36 to 3.90 Ga. In addition many of the zircons have discordant U-Pb systems and excess common Pb indicating a superimposed, relatively recent, reaction between radiation damaged zircon and low temperature fluids. The significance of oxygen isotope compositions for zircons with complex internal structures and U-Pb systems is complicated by uncertainty in the origin of the grains and the unknown effect of later reactions. However, a minority of grains with sharp oscillatory zoning, uniform and concordant U-Pb systems, igneous Th-U ratios and low common Pb contents, are interpreted as undisturbed primary magmatic zircons. The oldest identified, oscillatory zoned, magmatic grain, with an age 4363 20 Ma, is one of a few reported magmatic grains with this age, which is interpreted as the oldest reliable age for Hadean magmatic zircons. Mantle ?18O values are reported for these zircons. Younger oscillatory zoned zircon, including oscillatory zoned cores in complex grains, have ?18O values lower than 6.5, which are within the range of ion microprobe analysed ?18O values for zircons in high temperature equilibrium with the normal mantle rocks of 5.3 0.6 (2 standard deviations). These values are also within the range of ?18O values found in lunar zircons. The absence of heavy oxygen in the grains that can be interpreted as primary magmatic zircons and the complex history over the period from 4.36 to 3.9 Ga, seen in all other Jack Hills zircons and reflected in the internal structures and U-Pb isotopic systems, questions the model for the early Earth involving long intervals of relatively temperate conditions from 4.4 to 4.0 Ga that were conducive to oceans and possibly life.

Nemchin, A. A.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Whitehouse, M. J.

2006-04-01

379

Human Keratinocytes Radioprotection with Mentha Longifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidants are suggested to act as radioprotectors, and dietary supplements based on antiox-idants have been proposed for astronauts involved in long-term space missions. Plant extracts with antioxidant properties may be used in dietetic supplements for astronauts; in fact recent nutritional guidelines suggest that \\

Angela Maria Rizzo; P. Berselli; S. Zava; M. Negroni; P. Corsetto; G. Montorfano; A. Bertolotti; E. Ranza; A. Ottolenghi; B. Berra

2010-01-01

380

Assessment of possible sources of microbiological contamination and water-quality characteristics of the Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri; phase II  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1998, an 8-mile reach of the Jacks Fork was included on Missouri?s list of impaired waters as required by Section 303(d) of the Federal Clean Water Act. The identified pollutant on the Jacks Fork was fecal coliform bacteria. Potential sources of fecal contamination to the Jacks Fork include a wastewater treatment plant; campground pit-toilet or septic-system effluent; a large commercial, cross-country horseback trail riding facility; canoeists, boaters, and tubers; and cows.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, conducted a study to better understand the extent and sources of microbiological contamination within the Jacks Fork from Alley Spring to the mouth, which includes the 8-mile 303(d) reach. Identification of the sources would provide the National Park Service and the State of Missouri with the information needed to craft a solution of abatement, regulation, prevention, and mitigation with the end result being the removal of the Jacks Fork from the 303(d) list. Fifteen sites were sampled from November 1999 through December 2000. An additional site was sampled one time. Samples were collected mostly during base-flow conditions during a variety of nonrecreational and recreational season river uses. Samples were analyzed for selected fecal indicator bacteria, physical properties, nutrients, and wastewater organic compounds. During the sampling period, the whole-body-contact recreation standard for fecal coliform (200 colonies per 100 milliliters of sample) was exceeded at three sites on August 10, 2000, and also at one site on May 11, June 7, and October 3, 2000. Fecal coliform densities and instantaneous loads generally increased from background concentrations at the Eminence site, peaked about 2 river miles downstream, and then decreased until the most downstream site sampled. Generally, the largest densities and loads at sites downstream from Eminence not related to wet-weather flow were observed during a trail ride held August 6 to12, 2000. A 24-hour sample collection effort was conducted the weekend of July 15 and 16, 2000, to investigate the effect that large numbers of swimmers, canoeists, and tubers had on fecal coliform densities in the Jacks Fork. Five or six samples were collected at six sites between Saturday morning and the following Sunday afternoon. No fecal coliform density at any of the sites sampled exceeded the whole-body-contact recreation standard. Because bacteria survive longer in stream-bed sediments than in water, a source of bacteria in the water column could be from resuspension of accumulated bacteria from streambed sediments. Water and streambed-sediment samples were collected at three sites on August 3, 2000, 1 week before a trail ride and again at three sites on 2 Assessment of Possible Sources of Microbiological Contamination of the Jacks Fork, Missouri?Phase II August 8, 2000, during a trail ride. Results indicate that fecal coliform bacteria densities increased substantially in the streambed sediment and the water column during the trail ride.Sixty-five Escherichia coli isolates obtained from water samples collected at 9 sites and 23 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from stream-bed-sediment samples collected at 5 sites were submitted for ribotyping analysis. Samples were collected in 2000 during a variety of nonrecreational and recreational season river uses, including trail rides, canoeing, tubing, and swimming. Of the 65 isolates from water samples, 40 percent were identified as originating from sewage, 29 percent from horse, 11 percent from cow, and 20 percent from an unknown source. Of the 23 isolates from streambed-sediment samples, 39 percent were identified as originating from sewage, 35 percent from horse, 13 percent from cow, and 13 percent from unknown sources.Analysis of physical property (dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and temperature) and nutrient (dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorus) data

Davis, Jerri V.; Richards, Joseph M.

2002-01-01

381

Estimates of in situ deformability with an NX borehole jack, Spent Fuel Test - Climax, Nevada test site  

SciTech Connect

A series of borehole modulus measurements was obtained at the Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) facility following removal of heat sources and a subsequent 1-year cooling period. A total of 212 measurements were obtained using a standard hardrock NX borehole (Goodman) jack. The results of 64 measurements made at the site before heating were reanalyzed for comparison with the post-heat data. Modulus values were calculated from the straight-line portion of the pressure vs displacement curves. Although the deformation modulus was observed to be highly variable, models were developed to explain much of this variability. Typically, spacial effects, anisotropy, and heating effects were present. The test results indicate that the deformation modulus tended to increase in the pillars between the underground openings where temperatures increased about 10{sup 0}C above the ambient 24{sup 0}C during the SFT-C. Conversely, a decrease in modulus was observed where temperatures were near 60{sup 0}C for a three-year period. In most cases, we found the modulus values to be slightly higher for vertical than for horizontal loading. There was a tendency for the modulus to be lower near excavated openings. While this effect was not ubiquitous, it was statistically significant.

Patrick, W.C.; Yow, J.L. Jr.; Axelrod, M.C.

1985-12-01

382

Purification and Properties of Urease Derived from Hydrated Seeds of Jack Bean, Canavalia ensiformis (L) DC. 1  

PubMed Central

Urease from jack bean meal and hydrated seeds has been obtained in 25 to 33% yield with specific activity in the range of 1000 to 1070 units/mg protein. A purification of 100 to 130-fold was achieved from meal and fully soaked seeds. Use of ?-mercaptoethanol and EDTA was found essential to obtain this high yield and purity. Amino acid analysis showed all 18 amino acids commonly found in proteins. Electrophoresis of urease from soaked seeds (specific activity: 1025 units/mg protein) on a starch-gel block showed 2 peaks. Upon ultracentrifugation of urease samples having a low specific activity (less than 25% pure), the major portion of the urease was probably present in a peak having a sedimentation value of 11 to 12. With relatively pure samples (55-100% pure). S values in the range of 18 to 20 and 24 to 26 were obtained. Usually the purest samples of urease tested without any prior storage lacked the 24 to 26 S peak or the higher polymeric forms. The percentage areas under none of the ultracentrifuge peaks corresponded to the percentage purity of the sample analyzed. It is argued that the physical state of urease in the cell when associated with other seed proteins is as yet uncertain. In crude extracts, a portion of urease exists in a 12 S form but so far data on its origin and specific activity in relation to other species of urease are not available. PMID:16656289

Sehgal, Prem P.; Naylor, Aubrey W.

1966-01-01

383

Soil respiration and photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide by ground-cover plants in four ages of jack pine forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission (soil respiration), net CO2 exchange after photosynthetic uptake by ground-cover plants, and soil CO2 concentration versus depth below land surface were measured at four ages of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) forest in central Saskatchewan. Soil respiration was smallest at a clear-cut site, largest in an 8-year-old stand, and decreased with stand age in 20-year-old and mature (60-75 years old) stands during May-September 1994 (12.1, 34.6, 31.5, and 24.9 mol C??m-2, respectively). Simulations of soil respiration at each stand based on continuously recorded soil temperature were within one standard deviation of measured flux for 48 of 52 measurement periods, but were 10%-30% less than linear interpolations of measured flux for the season. This was probably due to decreased soil respiration at night modeled by the temperature-flux relationships, but not documented by daytime chamber measurements. CO2 uptake by ground-cover plants ranged from 0 at the clear-cut site to 29, 25, and 9% of total growing season soil respiration at the 8-year, 20-year, and mature stands. CO2 concentrations were as great as 7150 ppmv in the upper 1 m of unsaturated zone and were proportional to measured soil respiration.

Striegl, R.G.; Wickland, K.P.

2001-01-01

384

Effects of soil temperature and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation and chlorophyll fluorescence in jack pine and white birch seedlings.  

PubMed

One-year-old jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and current-year white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) seedlings were grown in ambient (360 ppm) or twice ambient (720 ppm) atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and at three soil temperatures (Tsoil = 7, 17 and 27 degrees C initially, increased to 10, 20 and 30 degrees C two months later, respectively) in a greenhouse for 4 months. In situ foliar gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured after 2.5 and 4 months of treatment. Low Tsoil suppressed net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration rate (E) in jack pine in both CO2 treatments and g(s) and E in white birch in ambient [CO2], but enhanced instantaneous water-use efficiency (IWUE) in both species after 2.5 months of treatment. Treatment effects on g(s) and E remained significant throughout the 4-month study. Low Tsoil reduced maximal carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and PAR-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax) in jack pine in elevated [CO2] after 2.5 months of treatment, but not after 4 months of treatment. Low Tsoil increased actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in the light (DeltaF/Fm') in jack pine, but decreased DeltaF/Fm' in white birch after 4 months of treatment. In response to low Tsoil, photosynthetic linear electron transport to carboxylation (Jc) decreased in jack pine after 2.5 months and in white birch after 4 months of treatment. Low Tsoil increased the ratio of the photosynthetic linear electron transport to oxygenation (Jo) to the total photosynthetic linear electron transport rate through PSII (Jo/J(T)) in both species after 2.5 months of treatment, but the effects became statistically insignificant in white birch after 4 months of treatment. High Tsoil decreased foliar N concentration in white birch. Elevated [CO2] increased Pn, IWUE and Jc but decreased Jo/J(T) in both species at both measurement times except Jc in white birch after 2.5 months of treatment. Elevated [CO2] also decreased g(s) and E in white birch at high Tsoil, Vcmax in both species and triose phosphate utilization in white birch at low Tsoil after 4 months of treatment, and DeltaF/Fm' in white birch after 2.5 months of treatment. Elevated [CO2] also increased foliar N concentration in both species. Low Tsoil caused no permanent damage to PSII in either species, but jack pine responded and acclimated to low Tsoil more quickly than white birch. Photosynthetic down-regulation and a decrease in photosynthetic electron transport to photorespiration occurred in both species in response to elevated [CO2]. PMID:15741153

Zhang, Shouren; Dang, Qing-Lai

2005-05-01

385

Ectomycorrhizal fungal succession coincides with shifts in organic nitrogen availability and canopy closure in post-wildfire jack pine forests.  

PubMed

Successional changes in belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities have been observed with increasing forest stand age; however, mechanisms behind this change remain unclear. It has been hypothesized that declines of inorganic nitrogen (N) and increases of organic N influence changes in EMF taxa over forest development. In a post-wildfire chronosequence of six jack pine (Pinus banksiana) stands ranging in age from 5 to 56 years, we investigated EMF community composition and compared shifts in taxa with detailed soluble inorganic and organic N data. Taxa were identified by internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequencing, and changes in community composition evaluated with non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS). Dissimilarities in the community data were tested for correlations with N variables. We observed a successional shift along NMDS axis 1 from such taxa as Suillus brevipes and Thelephora terrestris in sites age 5 and 11 to species of Cortinarius and Russula, among others, in the four older sites. This change was positively correlated with soluble organic N (SON) (r(2) = 0.902, P = 0.033) and free amino-acid N (r(2) = 0.945, P = 0.021), but not inorganic N. Overall, our results show a successional shift of EMF communities occurring between stand initiation and canopy closure without a change in species of the dominant plant-host, and associated with SON and free amino-acid N in soil. It is uncertain whether EMF taxa are responding to these organic N forms directly, affecting their availability, or are ultimately responding to changes in other site variables, such as belowground productivity. PMID:23053232

LeDuc, Stephen D; Lilleskov, Erik A; Horton, Thomas R; Rothstein, David E

2013-05-01

386

Engineering task plan for upgrades to the leveling jacks on core sample trucks number 3 and 4  

SciTech Connect

Characterizing the waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site is accomplished by obtaining a representative core sample for analysis. Core sampling is one of the numerous techniques that have been developed for use given the environmental and field conditions at the Hanford Site. Core sampling is currently accomplished using either Push Mode Core Sample Truck No.1 or; Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks No.2, 3 or 4. Past analysis (WHC 1994) has indicated that the Core Sample Truck (CST) leveling jacks are structurally inadequate when lateral loads are applied. WHC 1994 identifies many areas where failure could occur. All these failures are based on exceeding the allowable stresses listed in the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) code. The mode of failure is for the outrigger attachments to the truck frame to fail resulting in dropping of the CST and possible overturning (Ref. Ziada and Hundal, 1996). Out of level deployment of the truck can exceed the code allowable stresses in the structure. Calculations have been performed to establish limits for maintaining the truck level when lifting. The calculations and the associated limits are included in appendix A. The need for future operations of the CSTS is limited. Sampling is expected to be complete in FY-2001. Since there is limited time at risk for continued use of the CSTS with the leveling controls without correcting the structural problems, there are several design changes that could give incremental improvements to the operational safety of the CSTS with limited impact on available operating time. The improvements focus on making the truck easier to control during lifting and leveling. Not all of the tasks identified in this ETP need to be performed. Each task alone can improve the safety. This engineering task plan is the management plan document for implementing the necessary additional structural analysis. Any additional changes to meet requirements of standing orders shall require a Letter of Instruction from Numatec Hanford Company (NHC).

KOSTELNIK, A.J.

1999-02-24

387

A Homozygous KCNJ10 Mutation in Jack Russell Terriers and Related Breeds with Spinocerebellar Ataxia with Myokymia, Seizures, or Both  

PubMed Central

Background Juvenile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia has been recognized in Jack Russell Terriers and related Russell group terriers (RGTs) for over 40years. Ataxia occurs with varying combinations of myokymia, seizures, and other signs of neurologic disease. More than 1 form of the disease has been suspected. Hypothesis/Objectives The objective was to identify the mutation causing the spinocerebellar ataxia associated with myokymia, seizures, or both and distinguish the phenotype from other ataxias in the RGTs. Animals DNA samples from 16 RGTs with spinocerebellar ataxia beginning from 2 to 12months of age, 640 control RGTs, and 383 dogs from 144 other breeds along with the medical records of affected dogs were studied. Methods This case-control study compared the frequencies of a KCNJ10 allele in RGTs with spinocerebellar ataxia versus control RGTs. This allele was identified in a whole-genome sequence of a single RGT with spinocerebellar ataxia and myokymia by comparison to whole-genome sequences from 81 other canids that were normal or had other diseases. Results A missense mutation in the gene coding for the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1 (KCNJ10:c.627C>G) was significantly (P<.001) associated with the disease. Dogs homozygous for the mutant allele all had spinocerebellar ataxia with varying combinations of myokymia and seizures. Conclusions and Clinical Importance Identification of the KCNJ10 mutation in dogs with spinocerebellar ataxia with myokymia, seizures, or both clarifies the multiple forms of ataxia seen in these breeds and provides a DNA test to identify carriers. PMID:24708069

Gilliam, D; O'Brien, DP; Coates, JR; Johnson, GS; Johnson, GC; Mhlanga-Mutangadura, T; Hansen, L; Taylor, JF; Schnabel, RD

2014-01-01

388

Proterozoic events recorded in quartzite cobbles at Jack Hills, Western Australia: New constraints on sedimentation and source of > 4 Ga zircons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare heavy mineral bands within quartzite cobbles were identified in two conglomerate units within the Jack Hills belt, Western Australia. Seven zircon-bearing cobbles were analysed from one location (site 152) and three from another (site 154), both approximately 1 km west of the site where zircons in excess of 4 Ga are abundant (W74 'discovery' site). Individual pebbles from the 152 site reveal three distinctive features, containing either zircons > 3.0 Ga in age, < 1.9 Ga in age or a range of ages from 1.2 to 3.6 Ga. Those from site 154 are more uniform, containing only zircons with ages between 3.1 and 3.9 Ga. Only one grain > 4 Ga was discovered from the entire suite of pebbles, in contrast to the well-studied W74 site. A single detrital zircon with an age of 1220 42 Ma from location 152 is the youngest grain so far reported from sedimentary rocks at Jack Hills. It shows magmatic oscillatory zoning and thus implies at least two sedimentary cycles within the Proterozoic; requiring erosion of an igneous precursor, incorporation into a clastic sediment, induration and subsequent erosion and transport to be hosted in the conglomerate. The nearest source for rocks of this age is the Bangemall Supergroup in the Collier Basin, 100 km northeast in the Capricorn Orogen. This would imply tectonic interleaving of originally more extensive Bangemall rocks, possibly related to activity along the Cargarah Shear Zone that traverses the Jack Hills belt. The lack of > 4.1 Ga zircons in the pebbles is highly significant, suggesting the immediate source of ancient zircons was no longer present at the Earth's surface. This equates with a general lack of ancient crystals noted in rocks that contain Proterozoic zircons from previous studies and implies that such grains diminish in number as earlier sedimentary rocks were successively recycled.

Grange, Marion L.; Wilde, Simon A.; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Pidgeon, Robert T.

2010-03-01

389

Effects of NaCl on responses of ectomycorrhizal black spruce (Picea mariana), white spruce (Picea glauca) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) to fluoride.  

PubMed

Black spruce (Picea mariana), white spruce (Picea glauca) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) were inoculated with Suillus tomentosus and subjected to potassium fluoride (1 mM KF and 5 mM KF) in the presence and absence of 60 mM NaCl. The NaCl and KF treatments reduced total dry weights in jack pine and black spruce seedlings, but they did not affect total dry weights in white spruce seedlings. The addition of 60 mM NaCl to KF treatment solutions alleviated fluoride-induced needle injury in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) black spruce and white spruce, but had little effect in jack pine seedlings. Both KF and 60 mM NaCl treatments reduced E values compared with non-treated control seedlings. However, with the exception of small reductions of K(r) by NaCl treatments in black spruce, the applied KF and NaCl treatments had little effect on K(r) in ECM plants. Chloride tissue concentrations in NaCl-treated plants were not affected by the presence of KF in treatment solutions. However, shoot F concentrations in ECM black spruce and white spruce treated with 5 mM KF + 60 mM NaCl were significantly reduced compared with the 5 mM KF treatment. The results point to a possible competitive inhibition of F transport by Cl. We also suggest that the possibility that aquaporins may be involved in the transmembrane transport of F should be further investigated. PMID:19121099

Calvo-Polanco, Mnica; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Jones, Melanie D; MacKinnon, Michael D

2009-01-01

390

Jack Dongarra Pete Beckman  

E-print Network

Franck Cappello Barbara Chapman Xuebin Chi Alok Choudhary Sudip Dosanjh Al Geist Bill Gropp Robert Richard Kenway Bill Kramer Jesus Labarta Bob Lucas Barney Maccabe Satoshi Matsuoka Paul Messina Bernd Mohr Marc Snir Aad van der Steen Fred Streitz Bob Sugar Shinji Sumimoto Jeffrey Vetter Robert Wisniewski

Dongarra, Jack

391

Jack Chessa ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR  

E-print Network

Professor Chessa's research interests are in the area of computational solid mechanics (CSM of Materials I - Graduate level introduction to solid mechanics. · Advanced Mechanics of Materials II - Advanced topics in solid mechanics. s · Engineering Analysis - Undergraduate numerical methods class

Chessa, Jack

392

Geohydrological feasibility study of the Black Warrior Basin for the potential applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented process  

SciTech Connect

Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geological and hydrological feasibility studies of the potential applicability of Jack W. Mclntyre`s patented process for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Black Warrior Basin of Mississippi and Alabama through literature surveys. Methane gas from coalbeds in the Black Warrior Basin is confined to the coal fields of northern Alabama. Produced water from degasification of coalbeds is currently disposed by surface discharge. Treatment prior to discharge consists of short-term storage and in-stream dilution. Mr. Mclntyre`s process appears to be applicable to the Black Warrior Basin and could provide an environmentally sound alternative for produced water production.

Reed, P.D.

1994-03-01

393

Is It Useful and Safe to Maintain the Sitting Position During Only One Minute before Position Change to the Jack-knife Position?  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional spinal saddle block is performed with the patient in a sitting position, keeping the patient sitting for between 3 to 10 min after injection of a drug. This amount of time, however, is long enough to cause prolonged postoperative urinary retention. The trend in this block is to lower the dose of local anesthetics, providing a selective segmental block; however, an optimal dose and method are needed for adequate anesthesia in variable situations. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the question of whether only 1 min of sitting after drug injection would be sufficient and safe for minor anorectal surgery. Methods Two hundred and sixteen patients undergoing minor anorectal surgery under spinal anesthesia remained sitting for 1 min after completion of subarachnoid administration of 1 ml of a 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine solution (5 mg). They were then placed in the jack-knife position. After surgery, analgesia levels were assessed using loss of cold sensation in the supine position. The next day, urination and 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) for postoperative pain were assessed. Results None of the patients required additional analgesics during surgical manipulation. Postoperative sensory levels were T10 [T8-T12] in patients, and no significant differences were observed between sex (P = 0.857), height (P = 0.065), obesity (P = 0.873), or age (P = 0.138). Urinary retention developed in only 7 patients (3.2%). In this group, NRS was 5.0 2.4 (P = 0.014). Conclusions The one-minute sitting position for spinal saddle block before the jack-knife position is a safe method for use with minor anorectal surgery and can reduce development of postoperative urinary retention. PMID:20830265

Park, Soo Young; Park, Jong Cook

2010-01-01

394

Evolution of conifer diterpene synthases: diterpene resin acid biosynthesis in lodgepole pine and jack pine involves monofunctional and bifunctional diterpene synthases.  

PubMed

Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are major components of pine (Pinus spp.) oleoresin. They play critical roles in conifer defense against insects and pathogens and as a renewable resource for industrial bioproducts. The core structures of DRAs are formed in secondary (i.e. specialized) metabolism via cycloisomerization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) by diterpene synthases (diTPSs). Previously described gymnosperm diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the initial bicyclization of GGPP followed by rearrangement of a (+)-copalyl diphosphate intermediate at two discrete class II and class I active sites. In contrast, similar diterpenes of gibberellin primary (i.e. general) metabolism are produced by the consecutive activity of two monofunctional class II and class I diTPSs. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we discovered 11 diTPS from jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Three of these were orthologous to known conifer bifunctional levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthases. Surprisingly, two sets of orthologous PbdiTPSs and PcdiTPSs were monofunctional class I enzymes that lacked functional class II active sites and converted (+)-copalyl diphosphate, but not GGPP, into isopimaradiene and pimaradiene as major products. Diterpene profiles and transcriptome sequences of lodgepole pine and jack pine are consistent with roles for these diTPSs in DRA biosynthesis. The monofunctional class I diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis form a new clade within the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d3 subfamily that evolved from bifunctional diTPS rather than monofunctional enzymes (TPS-c and TPS-e) of gibberellin metabolism. Homology modeling suggested alterations in the class I active site that may have contributed to their functional specialization relative to other conifer diTPSs. PMID:23370714

Hall, Dawn E; Zerbe, Philipp; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet; Madilao, Lina L; Yuen, Macaire; Bohlmann, Jrg

2013-02-01

395

Tracing the provenance and recrystallization processes of the Earth's oldest detritus at Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills, Western Australia: An in situ SmNd isotopic study of monazite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mount Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks in the Narryer Gneiss Complex of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, contain zircons with ages up to 4.4Ga, the oldest known crustal materials on Earth, and monazites up to 3.6Ga. In this study, we have investigated 147Sm143Nd systematics of detrital and metamorphic monazites from these metasedimentary rocks using laser ablation-multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass

Tsuyoshi Iizuka; Oliver Nebel; Malcolm T. McCulloch

2011-01-01

396

Impact of the cosmetic mouthwash Jack Pro Splung plus (rheodol-Splung plus) on the oral cavity flora, tested in a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study  

PubMed Central

Aim: Jack Pro Splung Plus (also available as rheodol-Splung plus) is recommended to mechanically maintain oral hygiene as part of an overall oral hygiene concept. Because Jack Pro Splung Plus contains the active agents polihexanide and tosylchloramide sodium in concentrations below microbicidal efficacy, this study tested the hypothesis that the combination of mechanical rinsing and bacteriostatic effect surpasses the effect of mechanical rinsing alone. Method: The study was performed with 30 volunteers as a monocentric, controlled, randomized, blind, cross-over comparative study. The efficacy of the test product (active agents polihexanide 0.020.03% and tosylchloramide sodium 0.0040.006%) was compared to an aqueous solution of polihexanide (0.020.03%) and to Ringer solution as negative control. The efficacy was measured as the reduction of colony forming units (cfu) on buccal mucosa after aerobic and anaerobic cultivation. After determination of pre-values, the volunteers performed mouthrinsing for 30 sec with each of the 3 tested solutions. After 1, 10 and 60 minutes, cfu numbers were determined again. The reduction factor was calculated as the difference between log10 of the measured cfu before and after mouthrinsing with the test solution. The sampling was performed using a template with a smear area of 1 x 1 cm. Results: Using Ringer solution led to a slight mechanically-induced reduction of cfu in the oral cavity 1 min after rinsing the mouth cavity with the solution. After 10 min and 60 min, no influence on the cfu number could be detected. Using Jack pro Splung Plus led to a bacteriostatic effect up to 60 min after mouthrinsing; 10 min and 60 min after rinsing the efficacy of Ringer solution was also significantly surpassed. The aqueous solution of polihexanide was less effective than Jack pro Splung Plus after 10 and 60 min. Conclusion: Based on these observations, we conclude that Jack pro Splung Plus is suitable for improvement of oral hygiene if patients have sensitive oral mucosa, e.g., in cases of aggressive cancer therapy or for patients with tracheostoma. PMID:24653972

Ghring, Jana; Mller, Gerald; Biffar, Reiner; Kramer, Axel

2014-01-01

397

Development of Multichannel Artificial Lipid-Polymer Membrane Sensor for Phytomedicine Application  

PubMed Central

Quality control of herbal medicines remain a challenging issue towards integrating phytomedicine into the primary health care system. As medicinal plants is a complicated system of mixtures, a rapid and cost-effective evaluation method to characterize the chemical fingerprint of the plant without performing laborious sample preparation procedure is reported. A novel research methodology based on an in-house fabricated multichannel sensor incorporating an array of artificial lipid-polymer membrane as a fingerprinting device for quality evaluation of a highly sought after herbal medicine in the Asean Region namely Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali). The sensor array is based on the principle of the bioelectronic tongue that mimics the human gustatory system through the incorporation of artificial lipid material as sensing element. The eight non-specific sensors have partially overlapping selectivity and cross-sensitivity towards the targeted analyte. Hence, electrical potential response represented by radar plot is used to characterize extracts from different parts of plant, age, batch-to-batch variation and mode of extraction of E. longifolia through the obtained potentiometric fingerprint profile. Classification model was also developed classifying various E. longifolia extracts with the aid of chemometric pattern recognition tools namely hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The sensor seems to be a promising analytical device for quality control based on potentiometric fingerprint analysis of phytomedicine.

Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Ismail, Zhari; Chew, OonSim; Islam, AKM Shafiqul; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

2006-01-01

398

Geohydrologic feasibility study of the Powder River Basin for the potential application of a production process patented by Jack W. McIntyre  

SciTech Connect

Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of a patented (US Patent Office No. 4,766,957) process developed by Jack W. McIntyre for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Powder River Basin. General research, based on a review of published literature from both private and public sources, indicates that the shallow, thick subbituminous coal seams found in the Powder River Basin exhibit significant potential for the application of this patented process. These coal deposits can be characterized, on the basis of established coalbed methane production, as being highly water productive. The desorption and economic recovery of coalbed methane, widely believed to be biogenic in origin, from these low-grade deposits will require the subsequent dewatering of these geologic formations. The patented process, developed by Mr. McIntyre and described in the compendium of this study, may offer a cost-effective means of methane recovery and downhole disposal of produced groundwaters.

Kvasnicka, D.E.

1993-08-01

399

Jack bean urease (EC 3.5.1.5). V. On the mechanism of action of urease on urea, formamide, acetamide, N-methylurea, and related compounds.  

PubMed

Acetamide and N-methylurea have been shown for the first time to be substrates for jack bean urease. In the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea, formamide, acetamide, and N-methylurea at pH 7.0 and 38 degrees C, kcat has the values 5870, 85, 0.55, and 0.075 s-1, respectively. The urease-catalyzed hydrolysis of all these substrates involves the active-site nickel ion(s). Enzymatic hydrolysis of the following compounds could not be detected: phenyl formate, p-nitroformanilide, trifluoroacetamide, p-nitrophenyl carbamate, thiourea, and O-methylisouronium ion. In the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea, the pH dependence of kcat between pH 3.4 and 7.8 indicates that at least two prototropic forms are active. Enzymatic hydrolysis of urea in the presence of methanol gave no detectable methyl carbamate. A mechanism of action for urease is proposed which involves initially an O-bonded complex between urea and an active-site Ni2+ ion and subsequently an O-bonded carbamato-enzyme intermediate. PMID:6788353

Dixon, N E; Riddles, P W; Gazzola, C; Blakeley, R L; Zerner, B

1980-12-01

400

Primary structure of a Thomsen-Friedenreich-antigen-specific lectin, jacalin [Artocarpus integrifolia (jack fruit) agglutinin]. Evidence for the presence of an internal repeat.  

PubMed Central

Jacalin [Artocarpus integrifolia (jack fruit) agglutinin] is made up of two types of chains, heavy and light, with M(r) values of 16,200 +/- 1200 and 2090 +/- 300 respectively (on the basis of gel-permeation chromatography under denaturing conditions). Its complete amino acid sequence was determined by manual degradation using a 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene 4'-isothiocyanate double-coupling method. Peptide fragments for sequence analysis were obtained by chemical cleavages of the heavy chain with CNBr, hydroxylamine hydrochloride and iodosobenzoic acid and enzymic cleavage with Staphylococcus aureus proteinase. The peptides were purified by a combination gel-permeation and reverse-phase chromatography. The light chains, being only 20 residues long, could be sequenced without fragmentation. Amino acid analyses and carboxypeptidase-Y-digestion C-terminal analyses of the subunits provided supportive evidence for their sequence. Computer-assisted alignment of the jacalin heavy-chain sequence failed to show sequence similarity to that of any lectin for which the complete sequence is known. Analyses of the sequence showed the presence of an internal repeat spanning residues 7-64 and 76-130. The internal repeat was found to be statistically significant. Images Fig. 5. PMID:1599414

Mahanta, S K; Sanker, S; Rao, N V; Swamy, M J; Surolia, A

1992-01-01

401

Spawning ground and larval transport processes of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus in the shelf-break region of the southern East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Horizontal distribution patterns of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus larvae were investigated extensively in the East China Sea (ECS) along the shelf-break region between 26 and 30N during February-March based on fine-scale larval sampling in 2002 and 2003. A total of 2363 T. japonicus ranging from 1.2 to 12.4 mm body length (BL) were collected at 310 bongo net sampling stations, of which larvae <10 mm BL accounted for 99.1%. In both years, newly hatched larvae (<3 mm BL) were concentrated in the shelf-break region mainly in the southern part of ECS between 26 and 27N in warm water of 21-23 C, suggesting that their primary spawning ground existed in and around this area. With growth, larvae were transported in two different directions, i.e., northward and northeastward, corresponding closely with the direction of the Kuroshio Branch Current north of Taiwan (KBCNT) and the Kuroshio, respectively. Replicate sampling cruises at 2 week intervals were conducted in 2003, and the larval distribution pattern changed significantly between the sampling cruises, suggesting that the transport process fluctuates over relatively short periods in relation to oceanographic processes. The transport speed by the KBCNT was estimated to be 0.13-0.28 knots based on the larval distribution, which is one order of magnitude slower than that by the Kuroshio (1.5-3 knots). Habitat temperature gradually declined with growth in both the Kuroshio and KBCNT, but in the KBCNT it was 1-2 C lower than in the Kuroshio. Our results suggest that the two different larval transport processes lead to a significant difference in the transport route, habitat conditions (such as temperature and food), and site where young fish recruit to the demersal habitat, which will result in different survival and recruitment processes.

Sassa, Chiyuki; Tsukamoto, Youichi; Nishiuchi, Kou; Konishi, Yoshinobu

2008-10-01

402

5-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (juglone) and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (lawsone) influence on jack bean urease activity: Elucidation of the difference in inhibition activity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was elucidation of the difference in inhibition influence of 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (juglone) and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (lawsone) on jack bean urease activity. It was found that juglone acted as a strong, time and concentration dependent inactivator of urease. On the contrary, lawsone showed an inconsiderable inhibition influence. The reactivation of juglone modified urease showed the participation of reversible and irreversible contribution in the inactivation. In the presence of an excess of DTT, urease inactivated by juglone regained 70% of its activity. The reversible inactivation was attributed to oxidation of the essential urease thiols by reactive oxygen species (ROS) realizing during reduction of juglone to seminaphthoquinone. Presence of hydrogen peroxide in the incubation system was proved by direct determination and by application of catalase. The irreversible contribution in the inhibition was assumed as an arylation of urease thiol groups by juglone. The insignificant urease inhibition by lawsone was concluded as an effect of a low hydrogen peroxide generation and lawsone resistance for reaction with protein thiols. It was found that lawsone well reacted with l-cysteine, poorly with glutathione and hardly with urease thiols. The observed sequence was arranged according the rule the more complex thiol the less susceptible for reaction with lawsone. On the other hand, juglone displayed an excellent reactivity towards both thiols and urease. Thus, this indicated a significance of a steric hindrance which appeared when the hydroxyl group changing position from 5 in juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) to 2 in lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone). PMID:20202666

Kot, Miros?awa; Karcz, Waldemar; Zaborska, Wies?awa

2010-06-01

403

Geohydrologic feasibility study of the Northern and Central Appalachian basin areas for the potential application of a production process patented by Jack W. McIntyre  

SciTech Connect

Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of a patented (US Patent Office No. 4,766,957) process developed by Jack W. McIntyre for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Northern and Central Appalachian basin areas. General research, based on a review of published literature from both public and private sources, indicates that the generally thin, but numerous coalbeds found in the greater Appalachian Basin area do exhibit some potential for the application of this patented process. Estimates of total gas reserves in-place (Gas Research Institute, July 1991) for coalbeds in the Central and Northern Appalachian Basin areas are 5 trillion cubic feet (TCF) and 61 TCF respectively. Produced waters associated with coal deposits in the greater Appalachian Basin area can be characterized on the basis of established but limited production of coalbed methane. Central Appalachian coals generally produce small quantities of water (less than 50 barrels of water per day for the average producing well) which is high in total dissolved solids (TDS), greater than 30,000 parts per million (ppM). The chemical quality of water produced from these coal seams represents a significant disposal challenge to the operators of methane-producing wells in the Central Appalachian Basin. By contrast, water associated with the production of coalbed methane in the Northern Appalachian Basin is generally fair to good quality, and daily production volumes are low. However, the relatively slow desorption of methane gas from Northern Appalachian coals may result in a greater net volume of produced water over the economic life of the well. The well operator must respond to long-term disposal needs.

Kvasnicka, D.

1994-03-01

404

Application of GNSS-RTK derived topographical maps for rapid environmental monitoring: a case study of Jack Finnery Lake (Perth, Australia).  

PubMed

In environmental monitoring, environmental impact assessments and environmental audits, topographical maps play an essential role in providing a means by which the locations of sampling sites may be selected, in assisting with the interpretation of physical features, and in indicating the impact or potential impact on an area due to changes in the system being monitored (e.g., spatially changing features such as wetlands). Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are hereby presented as a rapid method for monitoring spatial changes to support environmental monitoring decisions and policies. To validate the GNSS-based method, a comparison is made of results from a small-scale topographic survey using radio-based real-time kinematic GNSS (GNSS-RTK) and total station survey methods at Jack Finnery Lake, Perth, Australia. The accuracies achieved by the total station in this study were 2 cm horizontally and 6 cm vertically, while the GNSS-RTK also achieved an accuracy of 2 cm horizontally, but only 28 cm vertically. While the GNSS-RTK measurements were less accurate in the height component compared to those from the total station method, it is still capable of achieving accuracies sufficient for a topographic map at a scale of 1:1,750 that could support environmental monitoring tasks such as identifying spatial changes in small water bodies or wetlands. The time taken to perform the survey using GNSS-RTK, however, was much shorter compared to the total station method, thereby making it quite suitable for monitoring spatial changes within an environmental context, e.g., dynamic mining activities that require rapid surveys and the updating of the monitored data at regular intervals. PMID:21136293

Schloderer, Glen; Bingham, Matthew; Awange, Joseph L; Fleming, Kevin M

2011-09-01

405

In vitro screening and evaluation of some Indian medicinal plants for their potential to inhibit Jack bean and bacterial ureases causing urinary infections.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Bacterial ureases play an important role in pathogenesis of urinary infections. Selection of plants was done on the basis of their uses by the local people for the treatment of various bacterial and urinary infections. Objective: Our investigation screens and evaluates 15 Indian medicinal plants for their possible urease inhibitory activity as well as their ability to inhibit bacteria causing urinary infections. Materials and methods: Plant extracts in three different solvents (methanol, aqueous, and cow urine) were screened for their effect on Jack-bean urease using the phenol-hypochlorite method. Subsequently, seven bacterial strains were screened for their ability to release urease and further antimicrobial-linked urease inhibition activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of the tested extracts were evaluated by the agar well diffusion and microdilution method, respectively. Results: Five plants out of 15 crude extracts revealed good urease inhibitory activity (?20% at 1?mg/ml conc.) and IC50 values for these extracts ranged from 2.77 to 0.70?mg/ml. Further testing of these extracts on urease-producing bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus NCDC 109, S. aureus MTCC 3160, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426, Klebsiella pneumoniae MTCC 4030, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 7453) showed good anti-urease potency with an MIC ranging from 500 to 7.3?g/ml. Discussion and conclusion: The results of screening as well as susceptibility assay clearly revealed a strong urease inhibitory effect of Acacia nilotica L. (Fabaceae), Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Phyllanthaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Rosa indica L. (Rosaceae), and Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae). Our findings may help to explain the beneficial effect of these plants against infections associated with the urease enzyme. PMID:25366133

Bai, Sheema; Bharti, Pooja; Seasotiya, Leena; Malik, Anupma; Dalal, Sunita

2014-11-01

406

Role of medicinal plants and natural products on osteoporotic fracture healing.  

PubMed

Popularly known as "the silent disease" since early symptoms are usually absent, osteoporosis causes progressive bone loss, which renders the bones susceptible to fractures. Bone fracture healing is a complex process consisting of four overlapping phases-hematoma formation, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. The traditional use of natural products in bone fractures means that phytochemicals can be developed as potential therapy for reducing fracture healing period. Located closely near the equator, Malaysia has one of the world's largest rainforests, which are homes to exotic herbs and medicinal plants. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah), and Piper sarmentosum (Kaduk) are some examples of the popular ethnic herbs, which have been used in the Malay traditional medicine. This paper focuses on the use of natural products for treating fracture as a result of osteoporosis and expediting its healing. PMID:22973405

Abd Jalil, Mohd Azri; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Muhammad, Norliza

2012-01-01

407

Role of Medicinal Plants and Natural Products on Osteoporotic Fracture Healing  

PubMed Central

Popularly known as the silent disease since early symptoms are usually absent, osteoporosis causes progressive bone loss, which renders the bones susceptible to fractures. Bone fracture healing is a complex process consisting of four overlapping phaseshematoma formation, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. The traditional use of natural products in bone fractures means that phytochemicals can be developed as potential therapy for reducing fracture healing period. Located closely near the equator, Malaysia has one of the world's largest rainforests, which are homes to exotic herbs and medicinal plants. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah), and Piper sarmentosum (Kaduk) are some examples of the popular ethnic herbs, which have been used in the Malay traditional medicine. This paper focuses on the use of natural products for treating fracture as a result of osteoporosis and expediting its healing. PMID:22973405

Abd Jalil, Mohd Azri; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Muhammad, Norliza

2012-01-01

408

Use of Habek Mint (Mentha longifolia) in Broiler Chicken Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt has been conducted to evaluate the effect of habek on performance and immunity of broiler chickens. Five levels of whole habek, 0, 25, 100, 150 and 200 g\\/kg were incorporated into basal diet of 125 broilers for 5 weeks. The results of the study showed that including 150 g\\/kg habek into broiler diet make a significant improvement in

2004-01-01

409

Overview of Templates Jack Dongarra  

E-print Network

\\Gamma1 6 6 BASIC ITERATION METHOD x i = x 0 + r 0 + r 1 + \\Delta \\Delta \\Delta + r i\\Gamma1 from x i = x)r i\\Gamma1 x i = x 0 + r 0 + (I \\Gamma A)r 0 + \\Delta \\Delta \\Delta + (I \\Gamma A) i\\Gamma1 r 0 = x 0 requirements. ffl Rate of convergence depends on certain properties of the system, and these properties

Dongarra, Jack

410

Overview of HPC Jack Dongarra  

E-print Network

approached. More cost e ective solution Example: Weather Prediction Navier-Stokes with 3D Grid around- creases. Machinesize Problem too small M em ory R un tim e Unstable 1 0 NUMBER OF NODES PROBLEMSIZE 0.8 0 is implicit Explicit synchronization need to avoid race condition and over writing Message Passing Implicit

Dongarra, Jack

411

Overview of HPC Jack Dongarra  

E-print Network

Fundamental limits are being approached. ffl More cost effective solution Example: Weather Prediction (Navier fixed efficiency, ffl, as N p in­ creases. Machine size Problem too small Memory Run time Unstable 1 0 condition and over writing ffl

Dongarra, Jack

412

Jack Oliver (1923-2011)  

E-print Network

seismology, plate tectonics and deep imaging of Earth's conti- nental crust. He and Bryan Isacks, a former with another of their studies. In 1968, with Lynn Sykes, another researcher who had been advised by Oliver

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

413

Pre-election JACK PEZZEY  

E-print Network

. But neither the Coalition nor Labor will set any near-term target before the election. So how about trying: giving free permits only to compensate for disproportionate economic losses from the big market shifts to promote inno- vation in low-emissions technology, and greater energy efficiency. Fairer still would

Pezzey, Jack

414

Tracing the provenance and recrystallization processes of the Earth's oldest detritus at Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills, Western Australia: An in situ Sm-Nd isotopic study of monazite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Narryer and Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks in the Narryer Gneiss Complex of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, contain zircons with ages up to 4.4 Ga, the oldest known crustal materials on Earth, and monazites up to 3.6 Ga. In this study, we have investigated 147Sm- 143Nd systematics of detrital and metamorphic monazites from these metasedimentary rocks using laser ablation-multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS). All detrital monazites have negative initial ?Nd(t) values, indicating that their parental magmas formed by remelting of older crustal materials. A comparison between the initial ?Nd(t) values of the detrital monazites and granitoids in the Narryer Gneiss Complex indicates that the Mt. Narryer and Jack Hills sediments were partly derived from the most isotopically enriched surrounding granitoids with ages of ca. 3.6 and 3.3 Ga. The metamorphic monazites generally have lower initial ?Nd(t) values when compared to the detrital monazites. However, the detrital and metamorphic monazites show similar distributions of ?Nd(t) at the ages of sediment deposition (3.28 Ga for Mt. Narryer and 3.05 Ga for Jack Hills). In addition, multiple analyses on single monazite grains having core-rim structures reveal that the cores and the recrystallized rims had identical Nd isotopic compositions at the time of recrystallization. These findings indicate that older monazites are source of light rare earth elements for younger metamorphic monazite formation and, therefore, that monazite can inherit its primary Sm-Nd isotopic signature during the recrystallization processes. We calculated the Nd model ages for all analyzed monazites to estimate crustal residence time of their source materials. We find that no igneous monazites older than 4.0 Ga were recrystallized to form the monazites. This implies that the lack of Hadean monazites is not due to recrystallization of ancient monazites during later metamorphism, but due to high-Ca compositions of the parental magmas of Hadean detritus, which prevent growth of magmatic monazite.

Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Nebel, Oliver; McCulloch, Malcolm T.

2011-08-01

415

Increased Air Temperature during Simulated Autumn Conditions Does Not Increase Photosynthetic Carbon Gain But Affects the Dissipation of Excess Energy in Seedlings of the Evergreen Conifer Jack Pine1[OA  

PubMed Central

Temperature and daylength act as environmental signals that determine the length of the growing season in boreal evergreen conifers. Climate change might affect the seasonal development of these trees, as they will experience naturally decreasing daylength during autumn, while at the same time warmer air temperature will maintain photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the down-regulation of photosynthetic gas exchange and the mechanisms involved in the dissipation of energy in Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in controlled environments during a simulated summer-autumn transition under natural conditions and conditions with altered air temperature and photoperiod. Using a factorial design, we dissected the effects of daylength and temperature. Control plants were grown at either warm summer conditions with 16-h photoperiod and 22C or conditions representing a cool autumn with 8 h/7C. To assess the impact of photoperiod and temperature on photosynthesis and energy dissipation, plants were also grown under either cold summer (16-h photoperiod/7C) or warm autumn conditions (8-h photoperiod/22C). Photosynthetic gas exchange was affected by both daylength and temperature. Assimilation and respiration rates under warm autumn conditions were only about one-half of the summer values but were similar to values obtained for cold summer and natural autumn treatments. In contrast, photosynthetic efficiency was largely determined by temperature but not by daylength. Plants of different treatments followed different strategies for dissipating excess energy. Whereas in the warm summer treatment safe dissipation of excess energy was facilitated via zeaxanthin, in all other treatments dissipation of excess energy was facilitated predominantly via increased aggregation of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II. These differences were accompanied by a lower deepoxidation state and larger amounts of ?-carotene in the warm autumn treatment as well as by changes in the abundance of thylakoid membrane proteins compared to the summer condition. We conclude that photoperiod control of dormancy in Jack pine appears to negate any potential for an increased carbon gain associated with higher temperatures during the autumn season. PMID:17259287

Busch, Florian; Hner, Norman P.A.; Ensminger, Ingo

2007-01-01

416

WESTERN GREAT PLAINS SANDHILL SHRUBLAND extent exaggerated for display  

E-print Network

/ Bouteloua (curtipendula, gracilis) Shrubland Artemisia filifolia / Calamovilfa longifolia Shrubland, Sporobolus cryptandrus, Calamovilfa longifolia, Calamovilfa gigantea, Hesperostipa comata, and Bouteloua spp

417

Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and C. bullardi n. sp. from the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi (Perciformes: Scombridae), from the northern Great Barrier Reef.  

PubMed

Cardicola Short, 1953 is a genus of the Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912 (Digenea), with 25 currently recognised species described from 32 species of Perciformes and Mugiliformes fishes around the world, including eight species from the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we describe two new species from this region, namely Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. from the ventricle and atrium of the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskl) (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and Cardicola bullardi n. sp. from the ventricle of the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi Collette & Russo (Perciformes: Scombridae), from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. These two new species are most easily distinguished from the 25 current members of Cardicola in having the combination of i) a spinous oral sucker, ii) an anteriorly intercaecal ovary, iii) a uterus that extends anteriorly from the otype, iv) the number of spines per ventrolateral transverse row, and in v) body size and the length/width ratio, vi) the oesophagus and caecal length(s) relative to body total length, vii) the length of the posterior caeca relative to the anterior pair, viii) the testis length/width ratio and its total size relative to that of the body, ix) the postovarian field as a percentage of body length, and x) egg size. In addition, C. beveridgei n. sp. is further differentiated by possessing a female genital pore that opens anterodextral to the male pore while C. bullardi n. sp. differs further in possessing a testis that is almost entirely intercaecal and does not extend anteriorly to the level of the intestinal bifurcation. Employing genetic analysis of ITS2 rDNA sequence data, representing these species and a further 13 recognised and three putative species of Cardicola, we were able to unequivocally confirm these specimens as distinct (9-22% different over 420 nucleotide positions). Distance analysis of ITS2 showed that i) species of Cardicola from the Siganidae formed a monophyletic clade, to the exclusion of other Cardicola species reported from the Scombridae, Sparidae, Lutjanidae and Chaetodontidae, ii) a general phylogenetic isolation exists between the species of Cardicola reported from scombrid fishes, and iii) C. beveridgei n. sp. and Cardicola milleri Nolan & Cribb, 2006 from lutjanids and Cardicola chaetodontis Yamaguti, 1970 from chaetodontids are phylogenetically close, despite the evolutionary remoteness between the host groups and their highly disparate biology. Given the likelihood of many additional species being attributed to Cardicola, we predict that continued molecular analyses will indicate that this genus will prove to incorporate a series of radiations in association with particular fish taxa as well as evidence of host-switching. (Nucleotide sequences reported in this paper are available in the GenBank database under accession no. KF752497). PMID:24980892

Nolan, Matthew J; Miller, Terrence L; Cutmore, Scott C; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Cribb, Thomas H

2014-10-01

418

Joshua M. Knapp Jack M. Loomis  

E-print Network

Institute of Technology Limited Field of View of Head-Mounted Displays Is Not the Cause of Distance using a simulated head-mounted display. Observers indicated the perceived distance of the target, which- ments is not caused by the limited field of view of the head-mounted display. 1 Introduction Several

Loomis, Jack M.

419

Jack L. Demmons/Bonner School Photographs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Montana's Mansfield Library website offers a collection of photos of life in Montana from the late 1800s to the 1950s. Interestingly, the "photographs were used extensively in historic research required by the Superfund law when the Milltown Reservoir was designated a Superfund site in early 1980." Visitors can browse the 1760 item collection via the "Montana Memory Project" link near the top of the page. Those who want to search the collection can use the drop down boxes below the browse link, and choose "Search All Words", "Search Any Word", or "Match Exact Phrase". Interested users can retrieve over 100 photos of saw mills and copper mills simply by putting mill in the "search any word" drop down box on the homepage. The importance of the mill in the community is evident where the mill is identified in photos even when only the tiniest sliver of it is visible.

420

(Jack) John Erwin Tumblin Associate Professor  

E-print Network

-frame-rate TV systems, and early design studies for IVEX Corp. 1980­1982: Television Engineer, KTLA-TV5 Los 1981 (left for job offer at KTLA-TV5). September1978 Georgia Institute of Technology, Bachelor NSF-IIS: Digital Libraries ($328,8

Tumblin, Jack

421

AHNAK: the giant jack of all trades.  

PubMed

The nucleoprotein AHNAK is an unusual and somewhat mysterious scaffolding protein characterised by its large size of approximately 700 kDa. Several aspects of this protein remain uncertain, including its exact molecular function and regulation on both the gene and protein levels. Various studies have attempted to annotate AHNAK and, notably, protein interaction and expression analyses have contributed greatly to our current understanding of the protein. The implicated biological processes are, however, very diverse, ranging from a role in the formation of the blood-brain barrier, cell architecture and migration, to the regulation of cardiac calcium channels and muscle membrane repair. In addition, recent evidence suggests that AHNAK might be yet another accomplice in the development of tumour metastasis. This review will discuss the different functional roles of AHNAK, highlighting recent advancements that have added foundation to the proposed roles while identifying ties between them. Implications for related fields of research are noted and suggestions for future research that will assist in unravelling the function of AHNAK are offered. PMID:25172424

Davis, T A; Loos, B; Engelbrecht, A-M

2014-12-01

422

Jack Dongarra A Historical Overview and  

E-print Network

closely. In 1965, Gordon Moore one of the founders of Intel, conjectured that the number of transistors, the long- term evolution of performance seems to be steady and continuous, following Moore's Law rather that the frequency of doubling is not 12 months, but roughly 18 months [8]. Moore predicted that this trend would

Dongarra, Jack

423

Franoise Winnik, Jack Siemiatycki et Andr Blais  

E-print Network

des ateliers de réduction du stress appelés en anglais Mindfulness- Based Stress Reduction [...] Ils sont basés sur quelques mouvements de yoga très simples et sur la "méditation de pleine conscience une attitude d'acceptation et sans jugement.» La technique devrait aider à diminuer le stress et l

Montréal, Université de

424

Interview of Jack Goody, 18 May 1991  

E-print Network

; not initially interested in Africa 0:21:10 On return to England after the war, finished degree in English and then did a years diploma in anthropology; if there had been sociology, would probably have taken that; Evans-Pritchard lecturing in Cambridge... in other disciplines but was formed as an anthropologist in Britain and in Cambridge, who influenced him? Evans-Pritchard, Meyer Fortes, and Max Gluckman; no American influence apart from Ruth Benedict, Margaret Mead, Geoffrey Gorer, and Gregory Bateson...

Goody, Jack

2004-06-07

425

JACK E. CERMAK University Distinguished Professor Emeritus  

E-print Network

& Diffusion Research Standing: Calvin Finn Charles Britton Hsieh Shen Gilbert Binder H. Chuang Sitting: Shozo of JEC Daryl Boggs Cermak Peterka Petersen, Inc. Michael Poreh Technion Bob Akins William & Mary

426

Jack M. Loomis Department of Psychology  

E-print Network

by integrating the velocity vector. Acceleration- based navigation (called inertial navigation or path.cmu.edu Navigation System for the Blind: Auditory Display Modes and Guidance Abstract The research we are reporting here is part of our effort to develop a navigation sys- tem for the blind. Our long-term goal

Klatzky, Roberta

427

Effect of Tongkat Ali on stress hormones and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Eurycoma longifolia is a medicinal plant commonly called tongkat ali (TA) and Malaysian ginseng. TA roots are a traditional anti-aging remedy and modern supplements are intended to improve libido, energy, sports performance and weight loss. Previous studies have shown properly-standardized TA to stimulate release of free testosterone, improve sex drive, reduce fatigue, and improve well-being. Methods We assessed stress hormones and mood state in 63 subjects (32 men and 31 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized hot-water extract of TA root (TA) or Placebo (PL) for 4?weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with significance set at p?

2013-01-01

428

Tongkat Ali as a potential herbal supplement for physically active male and female seniors--a pilot study.  

PubMed

Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia; TA) is known to increase testosterone levels and alleviate aging males' symptoms. This study aimed at investigating TA as an ergogenic supplement for elderly people. Thirteen physically active male and 12 physically active female seniors (57-72?years) were supplemented with 400-mg TA extract daily for 5?weeks. Standard hematological parameters were taken. In addition, the concentrations of total and free testosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1, and sex hormone-binding globulin were analyzed. As additional biochemical parameters, blood urea nitrogen and creatine kinase as parameters of kidney function and muscle damage, respectively, as well as the muscle strength by a simple handgrip test were determined. After treatment, hemoglobin, testosterone, and dihydroepiandrosterone concentrations, and the ratio of total testosterone/cortisol and muscle force remained significantly lower in female seniors than in male seniors. Hematocrit and erythrocyte count in male seniors increased slightly but were significantly higher than in female seniors. Treatment resulted in significant increases in total and free testosterone concentrations and muscular force in men and women. The increase in free testosterone in women is thought to be due to the significant decline in sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations. The study affirms the ergogenic benefit of TA through enhanced muscle strength. PMID:23754792

Henkel, Ralf R; Wang, Ruxiang; Bassett, Susan H; Chen, Tao; Liu, Na; Zhu, Ying; Tambi, Mohd Ismail

2014-04-01

429

Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.  

PubMed

Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned. PMID:12287843

Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

1994-01-01

430

Effect of wild mint (Mentha longifolia) infusion on the over all performance of broiler chicks.  

PubMed

An attempt was made to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of wild mint (Mentha Ingifolia) on the overall performance of broiler chicks at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar in July 2005. Three levels of fresh wild mint infusion at the rate of 50, 40 and 30 mL L(-1) of fresh drinking water were provided to chicks in groups A, B and C, respectively and group D was kept as control, each group was replicated four times with 10 chicks per replicate, reared for 35 days, in an open sided house in cages of the same size. No vaccination was practiced. Data were recorded daily for feed intake, water intake and for weight gain on weekly basis. Feed conversion efficiency, dressing percentage, percent mortality, weight of different body organs (breast, thigh and leg), giblets (liver, heart and gizzard), intestine and economics for each group was calculated at the end of experimental period. It was found that group B receiving 40 mL L(-1) of wild mint infusion in drinking water had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on mean body weight gain, feed intake, water intake, feed conversion efficiency, dressing percentage and weight of different body organs (breast, thigh and leg). Significant (p < 0.05) differences were also found in mortality, highest mortality was observed in group D (10%) as compared with groups A, B and C, however there was no significant effect on giblets (liver, heart, gizzard), intestine and weight of abdominal fat. Mean feed cost and gross return was significantly (p < 0.05) effected for group B. Feed cost was lower and gross return was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for group B than other treated groups and control. PMID:19070065

Durrani, F R; Sultan, A; Marri, Muhammad Latif; Chand, N; Durrani, Z

2007-04-01

431

SEPHIROT: SCENARIO for CREATION AUTOMATICALLY from DIGITS AVERAGED-PROBABILITY Newcomb-Benford Log-Law: Inflation, BosonS, a Maxwell-Boltzmann Big-Bang Fireball, FermionS, HDE, HDM, CMB; UTTER-SIMPLICITY PURPOSELY SANS ANYthing!!!: It's a Jack-in-the-Box Univers: A Consciousness? EMET/TRUTH!!!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siegel[http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1553]: TEN-DIGITS[0,,9]; PROBABILITY AVERAGE LOG-Law SCALE-INVARIANCE; Utter-Simplicity: ``Complexity'' (Versus ``Complicatedness''); Zipf-law/ Hyperbolicity/ Inevitability (Archimedes), vs, Pareto-law, SCENARIO AUTOMATICALLY CREATES a UNIVERSE: inflation, a big-bang, bosons(E) ->Mellin-(c2)-tranform->fermions(m), hidden-dark-energy(HDE), hidden-dark-matter(HDM), cosmic-microwave-background(CMB), supersymmetry(SUSY) PURPOSELY SANS ANY: theories, models, mechanisms, processes, parameters, assumptions,WHATSOEVER: It's a'' Jack-in-the-Box'' Universe!!! ONLY VIA: Bose-Euler[(1732)] sum=product over-reals R-Riemann[Monats. Akad.,(1859)] sum=product over-complexs)-Bernoulli-Kummer-Newcomb[Am. J. Math. 4(1), 39(1881) THE discovery of the QUANTUM!!!]-Planck(1901)]-Einstein(1905)]-Sommerfeld-Poincare[Calcul des Probabilits, 313 (1912)]-Weyl[Goett. Nach.(1914); Math. Ann. 77, 313(1916)]-(Bose(1924)-Einstein(1925)]-VS.

Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2013-03-01

432

Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.  

PubMed

Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase or glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibition; a range of monoaminergic effects; and potential cannabinoid receptor modulation. Future research should focus on conducting human clinical trials on the plants reviewed with promising anxiolytic activity. PMID:23436255

Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

2013-03-01

433

The potential influence of plant-based feed supplements on sperm quantity and quality in livestock: a review.  

PubMed

The reproductive performance of male livestock is of economic importance, and improving semen quantity and quality, especially for artificial insemination, additionally helps to avoid the loss of valuable genotypes. The review focuses on the impact of oxidative stress on sperm production and quality in livestock, and the potential role of plant based anti-oxidants to control this impact. From scientific reports dealing with livestock, the paper compiles evidence on effective dietary measures affecting sperm production and quality. Where little or no data are available on livestock, it refers to sources regarding other mammals, including man. The review concentrates on the use of distinct plants as feed supplements rather than on ways to treat deficiencies and imbalances in energy or macro- and micronutrients. Feeding of maca (Lepidium meyenii) and khat (Catha edulis) has been shown to positively affect sperm production and quality in animals. Some evidence points to favourable effects of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena pallida), sesbania (Sesbania sesban), pomegranate (Punica granatum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) as well, but studies are either superficial or results are partially contradictory. Finally, the review considers the potential usefulness of medicinal herbs. The list of such plants includes Chinese herbs such as Lycium barbarum, Astralagus membranaceus, Acanthopanacis senticosi, Magnolia officinalis, Cornus officinalis and Psoralea corylifolia and the Indonesian plant Eurycoma longifolia. European candidate plants are Tribulus terrestris and Pendulum murex. Future research should include the screening of other plants, concentrating on the large number of plants rich in metabolites because of their presumed effectiveness. The modes of action often require clarification for the plants with demonstrated effects. PMID:22575847

Clment, C; Witschi, U; Kreuzer, M

2012-05-01

434

A new herbal combination, Etana, for enhancing erectile function: an efficacy and safety study in animals.  

PubMed

We present herein a new herbal combination called Etana that is composed of five herbal extracts including Panax quinquelotius (Ginseng), Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Epimedium grandiflorum (Horny goat weed), Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) and flower pollen extracts. Most of the above-mentioned extracts have a long historical and traditional use for erectile dysfunction (ED). On the basis of the mechanism of action of each of the above, a combination is introduced to overcome several physiological or induced factors of ED. This study was conducted to show an enhancement of erectile function in male rats. The animals were observed for 3 h after each administration for penile erection, genital grooming and copulation mounting, and the penile erection index (PEI) was calculated. The maximum response was observed at the concentration of 7.5 mg kg(-1) of Etana. At a 7.5 mg kg(-1) single dose, the percentage of responding rats was 53+/-7 with a PEI of 337+/-72 compared with 17+/-6 with a PEI of 30+/-10 for control animals. This PEI was significantly (P<0.001) higher than each single component and than the sum of any two herbal components of Etana. When compared with sildenafil citrate, Etana induced more pronounced PEI than 0.36 mg kg(-1), but similar to 0.71 mg kg(-1) of sildenafil. Furthermore, full acute and sub-acute toxicity studies showed no toxic effects of Etana. In conclusion, this study describes a new and safe combination of herbal components that enhance erectile function in male rats. Clinical studies are warranted for evaluating Etana's significance in ED. PMID:19494825

Qinna, N; Taha, H; Matalka, K Z; Badwan, A A

2009-01-01

435

Emerging viruses: why they are not jacks of all trades?  

PubMed

In order to limit the impact of the recent pandemics ignited by viral host jumps, it is necessary to better understand the ecological and evolutionary factors influencing the early steps of emergence and the interactions between them. Antagonistic pleiotropy, that is, the negative fitness effect in the primary host of mutations allowing the infection of and the multiplication in a new host, has long been thought to be the main limitation to the evolution of generalist viruses and thus to emergence. However, the accumulation of experimental examples contradicting the hypothesis of antagonistic pleiotropy has highlighted the importance of other factors such as the epistasis between mutations increasing the adaptation to a new host. Epistasis is pervasive in viruses, affects the shape of the adaptive landscape and consequently the accessibility of evolutionary pathways. Finally, recent studies have gone steps further in the complexity of viral fitness determinism and stressed the potential importance of the epistatic pleiotropy and of the impact of host living conditions. PMID:25467278

Bedhomme, Stphanie; Hillung, Julia; Elena, Santiago F

2014-11-19

436

Remembering Pearl Harbor: You don't know Jack  

Microsoft Academic Search

As dusk takes its last breath, the sun settles beneath a line of crooked pitch pine trees, guarding each side of a darkened two-lane road. With the impending darkness, whitetail deer emerge from the woods and clop across Route 530 in search of grazing areas while battalions of bloodsucking greenhead flies plunge between the scant number of vehicles on the

Craig Causer

2008-01-01

437

Welcome to the Jack Baskin School of Engineering  

E-print Network

? Data split between "hot" and "cold" · Hot data stored on local, high-performance storage · Cold data stored in shared archive "Long tail" distributions say that we're going to need some of that cold data, high throughput Cost cheaper is better commensurate to performance Reliability long-term short

Lee, Herbie

438

Decentralized Trust Management Matt Blaze Joan Feigenbaum Jack Lacy  

E-print Network

and important component of security in network services. Aspects of the trust management problem in­ clude appropriate notions of users' security policies, their security credentials, and their trust relationships is needed for the study of security policies, secu­ rity credentials, and trust relationships. We refer col

Blaze, Matthew

439

Graduate Council Meeting Agenda 310 Jack K. Williams Administration Building  

E-print Network

Nuclear Terrorism Threat Assessment and Analysis l. INTA 672 East Asian Security (tabled in March 2013) m in the Persian Gulf (tabled in March 2013) o. INTA 675 Religion and Politics in Iran (tabled in March 2013) p Policy in the Persian Gulf l. INTA 675 Religion and Politics in Iran m. INTA 676 International Politics

440

Graduate Council Meeting Agenda 310 Jack K. Williams Administration Building  

E-print Network

Nuclear Terrorism Threat Assessment and Analysis l. INTA 672 East Asian Security (tabled in March 2013) m in the Persian Gulf (tabled in March 2013) o. INTA 675 Religion and Politics in Iran (tabled in March 2013) p

441

Graduate Council Meeting Minutes 310 Jack K. Williams Administration Building  

E-print Network

Civil Wars (tabled in March 2013) k. INTA 669 Nuclear Terrorism Threat Assessment and Analysis l. INTA 675 Religion and Politics in Iran (tabled in March 2013) p. INTA 676 International Politics, and Procedures (tabled in March 2013) r. MARB 610 Professional Development s. NUEN 669 Nuclear Terrorism Threat

442

Research Topics in Traffic Control and Management Jack Haddad  

E-print Network

for freeways: ramp metering and variable speed limit. · Network traffic flow monitoring and estimation from multi-sensor data. · Control design of robust transportation systems. · Improving transportation energy

Rimon, Elon

443

All Work and No PLA Makes Jack a Dull Boy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents an assortment of approaches--building blocks--commonly used in Prior Learning Assessment (PLA) practices (this list is certainly not comprehensive): (1) course matching (comparing course requirements to a student's prior learning experiences); (2) student's ability to articulate learning gained from

Popova-Gonci, Viktoria

2009-01-01

444

Jack of all trades: versatile catechol crosslinking mechanisms.  

PubMed

Catechols play an important role in many natural systems. They are known to readily interact with both organic (e.g., amino acids) and inorganic (e.g., metal ions, metal oxides) compounds, thereby providing a powerful system for protein curing. Catechol crosslinked protein networks, such as sclerotized cuticle and byssal threads of the mussel, have been shown to exhibit excellent mechanical properties. A lot of effort has been devoted to mimicking the natural proteins using synthetic catechol-functionalized polymers. Despite the success in developing catechol-functionalized materials, the crosslinking chemistry of catechols is still a subject of debate. To develop materials with controlled and superior properties, a clear understanding of the crosslinking mechanism of catechols is of vital importance. This review describes the crosslinking pathways of catechol and derivatives in both natural and synthetic systems. We discuss existing pathways of catechol crosslinking and parameters that affect the catechol chemistry in detail. This overview will point towards a rational direction for further investigation of the complicated catechol chemistry. PMID:25231624

Yang, Juan; Cohen Stuart, Martien A; Kamperman, Marleen

2014-12-21

445

Refitting Thermodynamic Data Philipp Boettcher, Jack Ziegler, Vaughan Thomas,  

E-print Network

while keeping the enthalpy of formation and formation entropy the same. The new fit must conserve the enthalpy of formation, f h , and the formation entropy, s(T ). Both of these quantities can be computed Damazo, and Joseph Shepherd March 5, 2012 Thermodynamic data, including specific heat, enthalpy

Shepherd, Joe

446

The Columbus Chapter's 28th Annual Jack Mehan Memorial  

E-print Network

an overview on the cyber aspects of threats to security today. 10:15 am Coffee Break--Exhibit Review a Naval officer, Rob served as a Surface Warfare Officer with an Air War fare/Electronic warfare Engineer and Microsoft Certified Professional + Internet. In Ohio, Rob is the Coordinator for the Cyber

Davis, James W.

447

Ingraham v. Wright: The Return of Old Jack Seaver.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student rights advocates have learned again that sweeping victories do not always emerge from the Supreme Court, even with the most compelling evidence. They must redouble their efforts--lobbying, educating the public, counseling students--to ensure that no student has to endure a school like Drew High School. (Author/WI)

Flygare, Thomas J.

1978-01-01

448

RNA: Jack of All Trades and Master of All.  

PubMed

Noncoding RNAs have regulatory capabilities that evolution harnesses to fulfill diverse functions. Lee etal. show that a noncoding RNA from Epstein-Barr virus recruits a host transcription factor to silence virus gene expression and propose that it does this through base-pairing with nascent viral transcripts. PMID:25679756

Pompon, Julien; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A

2015-02-12

449

DARPP-32, Jack of All Trades Master of Which?  

PubMed Central

DARPP-32 (PPP1R1B) was discovered as a substrate of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) enriched in dopamine-innervated brain areas. It is one of three related, PKA-regulated inhibitors of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). These inhibitors seem to have appeared in early vertebrate ancestors, possibly Gnathostomes. DARPP-32 has additional important biochemical properties including inhibition of PKA when phosphorylated by Cdk5 and regulation by casein kinases 1 and 2. It is highly enriched in specific neuronal populations, especially striatal medium-size spiny neurons. As PP1 inhibitor DARPP-32 amplifies and/or mediates many actions of PKA at the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm, with a broad spectrum of potential targets and functions. DARPP-32 also undergoes a continuous and tightly regulated cytonuclear shuttling. This trafficking is controlled by phosphorylation of Ser-97, which is necessary for nuclear export. When phosphorylated on Thr-34 and dephosphorylated on Ser-97, DARPP-32 can inhibit PP1 in the nucleus and modulate signaling pathways involved in the regulation of chromatin response. Recent work with multiple transgenic and knockout mutant mice has allowed the dissection of DARPP-32 function in striato-nigral and striato-pallidal neurons. It is implicated in the action of therapeutic and abused psychoactive drugs, in prefrontal cortex function, and in sexual behavior. However, the contribution of DARPP-32 in human behavior remains poorly understood. Post-mortem studies in humans suggest possible alterations of DARPP-32 levels in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Genetic studies have revealed a polymorphism with possible association with psychological and psychopathological traits. In addition, a short isoform of DARPP-32, t-DARPP, plays a role in cancer, indicating additional signaling properties. Thus, DARPP-32 is a non-essential but tightly regulated signaling hub molecule which may improve the general performance of the neuronal circuits in which it is expressed. PMID:21927600

Yger, Marion; Girault, Jean-Antoine

2011-01-01

450

Professor Jugdutt (Jack) Singh Director Centre for Technology Infusion  

E-print Network

) Vehicle Characteristics Driver Characteristics HMI Messages DSRC Radio (PHY) DSRC MAC GPS etc. Default comm. (DSRC) for vehicle safety, mobility and commercial apps. TRADITIONAL SENSORS COOPERATIVE management Information transfer V2V V2I V2V Technology: DSRC Human Factors/Behavior Multi-hop #12;#12;12 #12

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

451

Graduate Council Meeting Agenda 310 Jack K. Williams Administration Building  

E-print Network

Contemporary Civil Wars k. INTA 672 East Asian Security l. INTA 673 Chinese Domestic Politics in Transition m "Approved by" have been removed. d. Academic Calendar. Dr Cunningham is the GC representative on the committee that is looking at the academic calendar. There is a proposal to allow students to have

452

EQUATIONS OF MOTION THEORY FOR ELECTRON AFFINITIES Jack SIMONS  

E-print Network

the equations of motion (EOM) point of view that McKoy and co-workers had applied to electronic excitations. His objective was to achieve computationally tractable working equations for an EOM-based method for directly is an infinitesimal fraction of the total energy. EOM methods such as the author developed in the 1970s offer a route

Simons, Jack

453

Tracking the Timeline ofTracking the Timeline of VerticilliumVerticillium Infection of MintInfection of Mint  

E-print Network

Post-doctoral research associate Co-advisors Plant vs. Fungus Mentha longifolia Verticillium dahliae focused on two Mentha longifolia accessions from South Africa, L585 and L584. When inoculated. It has been unclear whether the lack of disease symptoms exhibited by Mentha longifolia accession L585

New Hampshire, University of

454

Discovery of potential anti-infectives against Staphylococcus aureus using a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model  

PubMed Central

Background The limited antibiotic options for effective control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections has led to calls for new therapeutic approaches to combat this human pathogen. An alternative approach to control MRSA is through the use of anti-infective agents that selectively disrupt virulence-mediated pathways without affecting microbial cell viability or by modulating the host natural immune defenses to combat the pathogen. Methods We established a C. elegans S. aureus liquid-based assay to screen for potential anti-infectives against S. aureus. The assay was utilized to screen 37 natural extracts and 29 synthetic compounds for the ability to extend the lifespan of infected nematodes. Disc diffusion and MIC microdilution tests were used to evaluate the anti-microbial properties of these natural extracts and synthetic compounds whilst in vivo bacterial CFU within the C. elegans gut were also enumerated. Results We screened a total of 37 natural extracts and 29 synthetic compounds for anti-infective properties. The screen successfully revealed 14 natural extracts from six plants (Nypa fruticans, Swietenia macrophylla, Curcuma longa, Eurycoma longifolia, Orthosiphon stamineus and Silybum eburneum) and one marine sample (Faunus ater) that improved the survival of S. aureus-infected worms by at least 2.8-fold as well as 14 synthetic compounds that prolonged the survival of S. aureus-infected nematodes by 4-fold or greater. An anti-microbial screen of all positive hits demonstrated that 8/28 hits had no effect on S. aureus growth. Of these 8 candidates, 5 of them also protected the worms from MRSA infection. We also noted that worms exposed to N. fruticans root and O. stamineus leaf extracts showed reduced intestinal colonization by live S. aureus. This suggests that these extracts could possibly activate host immunity to eliminate the bacteria or interfere with factor/s that prevents pathogen accumulation. Conclusion We have successfully demonstrated the utility of this liquid-based screen to identify anti-infective substances that prolong S. aureus-infected host survival without affecting bacterial cell viability. PMID:24393217

2014-01-01

455

Light exposure during storage preserving soluble sugar and l-ascorbic acid content of minimally processed romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.var. longifolia).  

PubMed

Minimally processed romaine lettuce (MPRL) leaves were stored in light condition (2500lux) or darkness at 4C for 7d. Light exposure significantly delayed the degradation of chlorophyll and decrease of glucose, reducing sugar, and sucrose content, and thus preserved more total soluble solid (TSS) content at the end of storage in comparison with darkness. While, it did not influenced starch content that progressively decreased over time. The l-ascorbic acid (AA) accumulated in light-stored leaves, but deteriorated in dark-stored leaves during storage. The dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) increased in all leaves stored in both light and dark condition, of which light condition resulted in less DHA than darkness. In addition, the fresh weight loss and dry matter significantly increased and these increases were accelerated by light exposure. Conclusively, light exposure in applied intensity effectively alleviated MPRL quality deterioration by delaying the decreases of pigments, soluble sugar, TSS content and accumulating AA. PMID:23017423

Zhan, Lijuan; Hu, Jinqiang; Ai, Zhilu; Pang, Lingyun; Li, Yu; Zhu, Meiyun

2013-01-01

456

A Response to Jack R. Fraenkel. An Exchange of Views between Edwin Fenton and Jack R. Fraenkel, the Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Moral Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses to Fraenkel's 15 criticisms of the author's article about Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental approach to moral education in the April 1976 issue of "Social Education." Three circumstances are stated as reasons for the differences between the two men: (1) staying up-to-date with research and publications, (2) time consumed in refuting

Fenton, Edwin

1977-01-01

457

Allen Moore, Rob Page and Jack Werren, for making this workshop possible. The  

E-print Network

they `bleach' when the waters get too warm. The bleaching of corals through loss of pigmentation or symbiotic Reef Symposium, coral bleaching was the subject of a mini symposium, where, among other topics, the 1997­1998 coral-bleaching event and associated coral mortality, reported from over 50 countries

van Woesik, Robert

458

Isolation and characterisation of Caribbean ciguatoxins from the horse-eye jack ( Caranx latus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxins involved in ciguatera (fish poisoning) in the Caribbean Sea were isolated from Caranx latus, a pelagic fish often implicated in ciguatera in the Caribbean region, and purified by mouse bioassay directed fractionation. Five toxins were separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In order of increasing hydrophobicity, these toxins included a sleep-inducing fraction (< 1% of total toxicity),

Jean-Paul Vernoux; Richard J. Lewis

1997-01-01

459

Photoby WarrenSCh& Jack Pomfrst takes aimatanactive, sabisfying retirementaftermore than&years at UBC  

E-print Network

&years at UBC Pomfret hangsup boots, skates, trunks, cleats, etc. by Jo Moss Calculate the oddsfor Wayne Gretzky, hockey, lacrosse, rugby, swimming andsoccer. a number of Canadian swimming records. He turned down pro, pro sports didn't pay much at that time.' Pomfret downplays his own athletic record. He's proud of his

Farrell, Anthony P.

460

A Tribute to Professor `Jack' Christian H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia  

E-print Network

of Materials Science and Metallurgy Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, U.K. Journal de Physique IV, Vol. 112 of the greatest representatives of metallurgy and leaves an awesome legacy of scholarly writings, including­defined subject of metallurgy to become a Professor of Physical Metallurgy at Oxford in 1967. He was elected

Cambridge, University of

461

The Illiquidity of Corporate Bonds Jack Bao, Jun Pan, and Jiang Wang  

E-print Network

illiquidity and bond prices, both in aggregate and in the cross-section. In aggregate, changes in the market illiquidity of the US corporate bond market has captured the interest and attention of researchers corporate bond spreads and how their importance varies with market conditions. The financial crisis of 2008

Gabrieli, John

462

Liquidity of Corporate Bonds Jack Bao, Jun Pan and Jiang Wang  

E-print Network

of bond illiquidity, which rises sharply during market crises and reaches an all-time high during to changes in the CBOE VIX Index and lagged stock market returns. Examining its relation with bond pricing.P. Morgan is gratefully acknowledged. #12;1 Introduction The liquidity of the corporate bond market has been

463

Liquidity of Corporate Bonds Jack Bao, Jun Pan and Jiang Wang  

E-print Network

variation of bond illiquidity, which rises sharply during market crises and reaches an all-time high during.P. Morgan is gratefully acknowledged. #12;1 Introduction The liquidity of the corporate bond market has been in corporate bond prices from their "theoretical values" to the influence of illiquidity in the market.1 Yet

Gabrieli, John

464

Jack L. Strominger Human histocompatibility proteins Past and future: a memoir  

E-print Network

studied the mechanism by which penicillin kills bacteria. The answer to that problem required first reactions which lead to their biosynthesis. Penicillin inhibited the last step, catalyzed by a bifunctional

Strominger, Jack L.

465

Presentation 2.4: Forest biorefining and implications for future wood energy scenarios Jack N. Saddler  

E-print Network

Distillation Cleaning Milling Hydrolysis Fermentation Distillation Ethanol recovery Starch CORN Centrifuge Distillers Dried Grains (DDG) Syrup Distillers Wet Grains (DWG) Syrup, Sweetner CO2 Yeast CO2 Gluten Fibre Germ Corn oil 152 #12;Forest Products Biotechnology at UBC Bioethanol Production 0 5,000 10,000 15

466

Sponsored by the Jack Miller Forum, the Dean of Students, the Dean of  

E-print Network

-division college students to analyze issues relating to the Constitution of the United States, confronting them life of the United States. Contest Deadline: September 7, 2012 SuggestedTopics: ­ Articulate Student and Owl Family Programs and the Department of Political Science. Constitution Day Essay Contest

Fernandez, Eduardo

467

Estimating inversion: results from clay models GLORIA EISENSTADT & MARTHA OLIVER WITH JACK  

E-print Network

fault and a rollover fold cut by secondary normal faults developed above two diverging, basal plates. With 50% inversion (4cm extension, 2 cm shortening), the main normal fault underwent reverse displacement and syntheticnormal faults passivelyrotated. Faults on the synclinal limb near the main normal fault rotated away from

468

10 au Spring 2012 esri.com As Esri president Jack Dangermond has ob-  

E-print Network

be accessed through web clients as services that run on ArcGIS for Server. ModelBuilder, a graphic modeling, and data, can automate workflows that would be prohibitively time-consuming to execute manually. Models

Short, Daniel

469

Isocontour based Visualization of Time-varying Scalar Ajith Mascarenhas , and Jack Snoeyink  

E-print Network

in interpreting the data is graphical visualization, often through level sets, or isocontours of a continuous Carolina. Summary. Time-varying scalar fields are produced by measurements or simulation of phys- ical to extract chosen isocontours. 1.1 Introduction Physical processes that are measured over time

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

470

Ribosomal Synthesis of Dehydroalanine-Containing Peptides Florian P. Seebeck and Jack W. Szostak*  

E-print Network

February 9, 2006; E-mail: szostak@molbio.mgh.harvard.edu The nonribosomal peptides (NRP) feature backbone residues remains a challenging,8-10 yet indispensable step toward the production of NRP might undergo oxidative elimination to expose Ala in a post-translational manner (Scheme 1). To test

Heller, Eric

471

Why does Jack, and not Jill, break his crown? Sex disparity in brain tumors  

PubMed Central

It is often reported that brain tumors occur more frequently in males, and that males suffer a worse outcome from brain tumors than females. If correct, these observations suggest that sex plays a fundamental role in brain tumor biology. The following review of the literature regarding primary and metastatic brain tumors, reveals that brain tumors do occur more frequently in males compared to females regardless of age, tumor histology, or region of the world. Sexually dimorphic mechanisms that might control tumor cell biology, as well as immune and brain microenvironmental responses to cancer, are explored as the basis for this sex disparity. Elucidating the mechanisms by which sex chromosomes and sex hormones impact on brain tumorigenesis and progression will advance our understanding of basic cancer biology and is likely to be essential for optimizing the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:22277186

2012-01-01

472

Ocean Odysseys: Jack O'Neill, Dan Haifley, and the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary  

E-print Network

gasoline. So we need to look at alternative energy. When Ineed a national energy policy that would put us on a pathway towards more alternative energyneed for a national energy debate leading to a policy, as an alternative

O'Neill, Jack; Haifley, Dan; Reti, Irene; Regional History Project, UCSC Library

2012-01-01

473

The Jack Kerouac Literary Festival & Lowell Celebrates Kerouac's 25th Anniversary  

E-print Network

, and Nancy Donahue Endowed Professsorship in the Arts, and Lowell's Office of Cultural Affairs and Special "Mr.g: A Novel about the Creation." Alumni Hall, UML North Campus, One University Ave. 4:00 p!. NANCY AND RICHARD DONAHUE CHARITAB

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

474

Where Went Black Jack Davy? A Hierarchical Approach to Tune Analysis and Comparison.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An intermingling of folk and art music lends credence to the analysis of folk music through systems designed for art music. Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoff presented a system useful for folk music analysis. The system, which Lerdahl and Jackendoff developed from Schenkerian analysis and structural linguistics, works under the assumption that a

Killam, Rosemary N.

475

Curriculum Materials Can Make a Difference. The Development of Annehurst School. A Conversation with Jack Frymier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Annehurst Curriculum Classification System (ACCS) identifies curriculum materials compatible with student learning characteristics. The development of the ACCS and its use in Annehurst School in Westerville (Ohio) are described. The system originator explains how schools are using it and what researchers have discovered about the quality of

Cornbleth, Catherine; And Others

1981-01-01