These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3% KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

2000-04-01

2

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures,'' covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3%KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

1998-10-01

3

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary eutectic salt mixture consisting of Li- Na- and K- carbonates has the potential as gasification catalyst. To verify the literature reported, melting points for various compositions consisting of these three salts and the temperature range over which the mixture remained molten were determined in the lab. For mixtures with different concentrations of the three salts, the temperatures at which the mixtures were found to be in complete molten state were recorded. By increasing the amount of Li2CO3, the melting temperature range was reduced significantly. In the literature, the eutectic mixtures of Li- Na- and K-carbonates are claimed to have a lower activation energy than that of K2CO3 alone and they remain molten at a lower temperature than pure K2CO3. The slow increase in the gasification rates with eutectics reported in the literature is believed to be due to a gradual penetration of the coals and coal char particles by the molten and viscous catalyst phase. The even spreading of the salt phase seems to increase the overall carbon conversion rate. In the next reporting period, a number of eutectic salts and methods of their application on the coal will be identified and tested.

Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-12-04

4

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (e.g., temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. The eutectic catalysts increased gasification rate significantly. The methods of catalyst preparation and addition had significant effect on the catalytic activity and coal gasification. The incipient wetness method gave more uniform catalyst distribution than that of physical mixing for the soluble catalysts resulting in higher gasification rates for the incipient wetness samples. The catalytic activity increased by varying degrees with catalyst loading. The above results are especially important since the eutectic catalysts (with low melting points) yield significant gasification rates even at low temperatures. Among the ternary eutectic catalysts studied, the system 39% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-22.5% Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the best activity and will be used for further bench scale fixed-bed gasification reactor in the next period. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies in the previous reporting period, the project team selected the 43.5% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed-bed studies at UTSI during this reporting period. Temperature was found to have a significant effect on the rate of gasification of coal. The rate of gasification increased up to 1400 F. Pressure did not have much effect on the gasification rates. The catalyst loading increased the gasification rate and approached complete conversion when 10 wt% of catalyst was added to the coal. Upon further increasing the catalyst amount to 20-wt% and above, there was no significant rise in gasification rate. The rate of gasification was lower for a 2:1 steam to char molar ratio (60%) compared to gasification rates at 3.4:1 molar ratio of steam-to-char where the conversion approached 100%. The characterization results of Georgia Tech are very preliminary and inconclusive and will be made available in the next report.

Unknown

1999-04-01

5

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

2001-12-01

6

Vacuum distillation of a mixture of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts and RE oxidative precipitates and a dechlorination and oxidation of RE oxychlorides.  

PubMed

In this study, a vacuum distillation of a mixture of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and rare-earth oxidative precipitates was performed to separate a pure LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from the mixture. Also, a dechlorination and oxidation of the rare-earth oxychlorides was carried out to stabilize a final waste form. The mixture was distilled under a range of 710-759.5Torr of a reduced pressure at a fixed heating rate of 4 degrees C/min and the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was completely separated from the mixture. The required time for the salt distillation and the starting temperature for the salt vaporization were lowered with a reduction in the pressure. Dechlorination and oxidation of the rare-earth oxychlorides was completed at a temperature below 1300 degrees C and this was dependent on the partial pressure of O2. The rare-earth oxychlorides (NdOCl/PrOCl) were transformed to oxides (Nd2O3/PrO2) during the dechlorination and oxidation process. These results will be utilized to design a concept for a process for recycling the waste salt from an electrorefining process. PMID:18440139

Eun, Hee Chul; Yang, Hee Chul; Cho, Yung Zun; Lee, Han Soo; Kim, In Tae

2008-12-30

7

Optical properties of a solar-absorbing molten salt heat transfer fluid. [Eutectic mixture of KNO3, NaNO2, and NaNO3 with particle suspensions of cobalt oxides or copper oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical absorption properties of a high temperature molten salt heat transfer fluid were measured from 0.35 ..mu..m to 2.5 ..mu..m using both hemispherical transmission and reflection techniques. This fluid has application as a direct-absorbing working fluid in a high temperature central receiver solar energy facility. The absorption spectrum of the pure molten fluid--a eutectic mixture of KNOâ, NaNOâ, and

Drotning

1977-01-01

8

Assessment of plant toxicity threshold of several heat transfer and storage fluids and eutectic salts  

SciTech Connect

Plant toxicity threshold levels of several heat transfer and storage fluids and eutectic salts were determined by using a modified Neubauer technique. Barley seed germination and seedling growth were used for the toxicity tests. The general order of toxicity of the fluids applied to three mineral soils was ethylene gloycol > Dow 200 much greater than Caloria HT43 > Therminol 66. The toxicity order of the fluids applied to an organic soil was ethylene glycol > Caloria HT43 > Dow 200 > Therminol 66. Thus, Therminol 66 was the least toxic among the fluids used. Among the eutectic salts tested Dupont HITEC was more toxic than 8.4 percent NaCl-86.3 percent NaNO/sub 3/-5.3 percent Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ mixture in three of the four soils used. In the fourth soil there was no apparent difference of toxicity between the two salt mixtures. Depending on the fluid and the salt mixture, the toxicity threshold levels for barley seedlings ranged from 4451 to 317,488 ppM in the soils used.

Nishita, H.

1980-10-01

9

Purification of used eutectic (LiCl-KCl) salt electrolyte from pyroprocessing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separation characteristics of surrogate rare-earth fission products in a eutectic (LiCl-KCl) molten salt were investigated. This system is based on the eutectic salt used for the pyroprocessing treatment of used nuclear fuel (UNF). The investigation was performed using an integrated rare-earth separation apparatus comprising a precipitation reactor, a solid detachment device, and a layer separation device. To separate rare-earth fission products, a phosphate precipitation method using both Li3PO4 and K3PO4 as a precipitant was performed. The use of an equivalent phosphate precipitant composed of 0.408 molar ratio-K3PO4 and 0.592 molar ratio-Li3PO4 can preserve the original eutectic ratio, LiCl-0.592 molar ratio (or 45.2 wt%), as well as provide a high separation efficiency of over 99.5% under conditions of 550 °C and Ar sparging when using La, Nd, Ce, and Pr chlorides. The mixture of La, Nd, Ce, and Pr phosphate had a typical monoclinic (or monazite) structure, which has been proposed as a reliable host matrix for the permanent disposal of a high-level waste form. To maximize the reusability of purified eutectic waste salt after rare-earth separation, the successive rare-earth separation process, which uses both phosphate precipitation and an oxygen sparging method, were introduced and tested with eight rare-earth (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) chlorides. In the successive rare-earth separation process, the phosphate reaction was terminated within 1 h at 550 °C, and a 4-8 h oxygen sparging time were required to obtain over a 99% separation efficiency at 700-750 °C. The mixture of rare-earth precipitates separated by the successive rare-earth separation process was found to be phosphate, oxychloride, and oxide. Through the successive rare-earth separation process, the eutectic ratio of purified salt maintained its original value, and impurity content including the residual precipitant of purified salt can be minimized.

Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

2013-06-01

10

Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids  

SciTech Connect

Concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are comprised of many miles of fluid-filled pipes arranged in large grids with reflective mirrors used to capture radiation from the sun. Solar radiation heats the fluid which is used to produce steam necessary to power large electricity generation turbines. Currently, organic, oil-based fluid in the pipes has a maximum temperature threshold of 400 °C, allowing for the production of electricity at approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour. The DOE hopes to foster the development of an advanced heat transfer fluid that can operate within higher temperature ranges. The new heat transfer fluid, when used with other advanced technologies, could significantly decrease solar electricity cost. Lower costs would make solar thermal electricity competitive with gas and coal and would offer a clean, renewable source of energy. Molten salts exhibit many desirable heat transfer qualities within the range of the project objectives. Halotechnics developed advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for application in solar thermal power generation. This project focused on complex mixtures of inorganic salts that exhibited a high thermal stability, a low melting point, and other favorable characteristics. A high-throughput combinatorial research and development program was conducted in order to achieve the project objective. Over 19,000 candidate formulations were screened. The workflow developed to screen various chemical systems to discover salt formulations led to mixtures suitable for use as HTFs in both parabolic trough and heliostat CSP plants. Furthermore, salt mixtures which will not interfere with fertilizer based nitrates were discovered. In addition for use in CSP, the discovered salt mixtures can be applied to electricity storage, heat treatment of alloys and other industrial processes.

Raade, Justin; Roark, Thomas; Vaughn, John; Bradshaw, Robert

2013-07-22

11

Distillation and condensation of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts for a separation of pure salts from salt wastes from an electrorefining process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt separation and recovery from the salt wastes generated from a pyrochemical process is necessary to minimize the high-level waste volumes and to stabilize a final waste form. In this study, the thermal behavior of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salts containing rare earth oxychlorides or oxides was investigated during a vacuum distillation and condensation process. LiCl was more easily vaporized than the other salts (KCl and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt). Vaporization characteristics of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts were similar to that of KCl. The temperature to obtain the vaporization flux (0.1 g min -1 cm -2) was decreased by much as 150 °C by a reduction of the ambient pressure from 5 Torr to 0.5 Torr. Condensation behavior of the salt vapors was different with the ambient pressure. Almost all of the salt vapors were condensed and were formed into salt lumps during a salt distillation at the ambient pressure of 0.5 Torr and they were collected in the condensed salt storage. However, fine salt particles were formed when the salt distillation was performed at 10 Torr and it is difficult for them to be recovered. Therefore, it is thought that a salt vacuum distillation and condensation should be performed to recover almost all of the vaporized salts at a pressure below 0.5 Torr.

Eun, Hee Chul; Yang, Hee Chul; Lee, Han Soo; Kim, In Tae

2009-12-01

12

Eutectic salt catalyzed environmentally benign and highly efficient Biginelli reaction.  

PubMed

A simple deep eutectic solvent based on tin (II) chloride was used as a dual catalyst and environmentally benign reaction medium for an efficient synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one derivatives, from aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and urea in good-to-excellent yields and short reaction time. This simple ammonium deep eutectic solvent, easily synthesized from choline chloride and tin chloride, is relatively inexpensive and recyclable, making it applicable for industrial applications. PMID:22649326

Azizi, Najmadin; Dezfuli, Sahar; Hahsemi, Mohmmad Mahmoodi

2012-01-01

13

Eutectic Salt Catalyzed Environmentally Benign and Highly Efficient Biginelli Reaction  

PubMed Central

A simple deep eutectic solvent based on tin (II) chloride was used as a dual catalyst and environmentally benign reaction medium for an efficient synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one derivatives, from aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and urea in good-to-excellent yields and short reaction time. This simple ammonium deep eutectic solvent, easily synthesized from choline chloride and tin chloride, is relatively inexpensive and recyclable, making it applicable for industrial applications. PMID:22649326

Azizi, Najmadin; Dezfuli, Sahar; Hahsemi, Mohmmad Mahmoodi

2012-01-01

14

Development of high temperature transport technology for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in pyroprocessing  

SciTech Connect

The development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a prerequisite and a key issue in the industrialization of pyro-reprocessing for advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The solution of a molten salt centrifugal pump was discarded because of the high corrosion power of a high temperature molten salt, so the suction pump solution was selected. An apparatus for salt transport experiments by suction was designed and tested using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The experimental results of lab-scale molten salt transport by suction showed a 99.5% transport rate (ratio of transported salt to total salt) under a vacuum range of 100 mtorr - 10 torr at 500 Celsius degrees. The suction system has been integrated to the PRIDE (pyroprocessing integrated inactive demonstration) facility that is a demonstrator using non-irradiated materials (natural uranium and surrogate materials). The performance of the suction pump for the transport of molten salts has been confirmed.

Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Hansoo; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Jeong-Guk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daaro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

15

Densities of some molten fluoride salt mixtures suitable for heat storage in space power applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid densities were determined for a number of fluoride salt mixtures suitable for heat storage in space power applications, using a procedure that consisted of measuring the loss of weight of an inert bob in the melt. The density apparatus was calibrated with pure LiF and NaF at different temperatures. Density data for safe binary and ternary fluoride salt eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds are presented. In addition, a comparison was made between the volumetric heat storage capacity of different salt mixtures.

Misra, Ajay K.

1988-01-01

16

The electrochemical behaviour of ferrocene in deep eutectic solvents based on quaternary ammonium and phosphonium salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical behaviour of ferrocene (Fc) is investigated in six different deep eutectic solvents (DESs) formed by means of hydrogen bonding between selected ammonium and phosphonium salts with glycerol and ethylene glycol. Combinations of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry are employed to characterise the DESs. The reductive and oxidative potential limits are reported versus the Fc\\/Fc+ couple. The diffusion coefficient, D,

L. Bahadori; N. S. Abdul Manan; M. H. Chakrabarti; M. A. Hashim; F. S. Mjalli; I. M. Alnashef; M. A. Hussain; C. T. J. Low

2013-01-01

17

Assessment of plant toxicity threshold of several heat transfer and storage fluids and eutectic salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant toxicity threshold levels of several heat transfer and storage fluids and eutectic salts were determined by using a modified Neubauer technique. Barley seed germination and seedling growth were used for the toxicity tests. The general order of toxicity of the fluids applied to three mineral soils was ethylene gloycol > Dow 200 much greater than Caloria HT43 > Therminol

Nishita

1980-01-01

18

Ionic liquids and deep eutectic mixtures: sustainable solvents for extraction processes.  

PubMed

In recent years, ionic liquids and deep eutectic mixtures have demonstrated great potential in extraction processes relevant to several scientific and technological activities. This review focuses on the applicability of these sustainable solvents in a variety of extraction techniques, including but not limited to liquid- and solid-phase (micro) extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction. Selected applications of ionic liquids and deep eutectic mixtures on analytical method development, removal of environmental pollutants, selective isolation, and recovery of target compounds, purification of fuels, and azeotrope breaking are described and discussed. PMID:24811900

Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Namie?nik, Jacek

2014-07-01

19

Solubility of sodium salts in ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium bromide (NaBr), and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) was measured in nine ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs). The aim of the study is to assess the potential use of these DESs as solvents and electrolytes for the separation of sodium metal from its salts. The studied DESs were prepared by combining ammonium salts with various

F. S. Ghareh Bagh; F. S. Mjalli; M. A. Hashim; M. K. O. Hadj-Kali; I. M. Alnashef

2013-01-01

20

Cyclic voltammetry of metallic acetylacetonate salts in quaternary ammonium and phosphonium based deep eutectic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven commercially sourced acetylacetonate salts were investigated in deep eutectic solvents (DESs that were prepared from ethylene glycol and trifluoroacetamide hydrogen bond donors) by cyclic voltammetry, to identify electrolytes suitable for future applications in electrochemical energy storage devices. Although the solubilities are low and on the order of 0.02 mol·L-1 for the most soluble salts, some were found to display

M. H. Chakrabarti; N. P. Brandon; F. S. Mjalli; L. Bahadori; I. M. Al Nashef; M. A. Hashim; M. A. Hussain; C. T. J. Low; V. Yufit

2013-01-01

21

Lidocaine Iontophoresis Versus Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics (EMLA??) for IV Placement in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain during venipuncture is a major source of concern to children and their caretakers. Iontophoresis is a novel technique that uses an electrical current to facili- tate movement of solute ions (lidocaine) across the stra- tum corneum barrier to provide dermal analgesia. In this study, we compared dermal analgesia provided by lidocaine iontophoresis and eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA®).

Jeffrey L. Galinkin; John B. Rose; Kathleen Harris; Mehernoor F. Watcha

2002-01-01

22

Eutectic mixture of local anesthetics in adult urology patients: An observational trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives. The effectiveness of EMLA eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, (ASTRA Co, France) cream in minor surgery on the penis and its acceptability in unpremedicated outpatients were assessed. Methods. EMLA cream was applied 1 hour before surgery (fremulum plasty, circumcision or dorsal section for phimosis, and condyloma accuminatum) in addition to a subcutaneous infiltration of lidocaine 1%, just

M. Laffon; A. Gouchet; M. Quenum; O. Haillot; C. Mercier; M. Huguet

1998-01-01

23

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salts: recovery, regeneration, and recycle of spent eutectic catalysts.  

PubMed

Catalyst recovery studies were conducted for gasified chars produced from steam gasification of Illinois #6 coal catalyzed with two different catalyst systems. A ternary (43.5 mol% Li2CO3-31.5 mol% Na2COr-25 mol% K2CO3) and a binary (29 mol% Na2CO3-71 mol% K2CO3) eutectic catalyst system were used for gasifying coal. Various extraction schemes, such as water extraction, H2SO4 extraction, and acetic acid extraction, were evaluated with respect to their extraction efficiencies. Effects of major process variables, such as solvent-to-char ratio, mixing time, temperature, and concentration, on the extraction efficiency were evaluated. A process schematic for the entire catalyst recovery, regeneration, and recycle scheme was developed and the preliminary process economics were determined based on these extraction schemes. H2SO4 extraction was found to be the most desirable. It also turned out to be more attractive than a once-through throwaway system. PMID:12708509

Sheth, Atul C; Sastry, Chandramouli; Yeboah, Yaw D; Xu, Yong; Agarwal, Pradeep

2003-04-01

24

Ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents in natural products research: mixtures of solids as extraction solvents.  

PubMed

Mixtures of solid chemicals may become liquid under certain conditions. These liquids are characterized by the formation of strong ionic (ionic liquids) or hydrogen bonds (deep eutectic solvents). Due to their extremely low vapor pressure, they are now widely used in polymer chemistry and synthetic organic chemistry, yet little attention has been paid to their use as extraction solvents of natural products. This review summarizes the preparation of ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents with natural product components and recent progress in their applications to the extraction and analysis of natural products as well as the recovery of extracted compounds from their extracts. Additionally, various factors affecting extraction features of ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents, as well as potential useful technologies including microwave and ultrasound to increase the extraction efficiency, are discussed. PMID:24188074

Dai, Yuntao; van Spronsen, Jaap; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

2013-11-22

25

A novel group of quaternary ammonium salts as ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing number of non-toxic and biodegradable deep eutectic solvents (DES) have been discovered in recent years. This group encompasses the solidified crystalline material 3-(2-aminopyrimidin-1-yl)propanoate (3-2AP), a primary ammonium cation that is a construct of a typical DES. Synthesis of 3-(2-aminopyrimidin-1-yl)propanoate by quarternerization of the amine in the aromatic ring creates a novel deep eutectic solvent. An additional alteration to the DES construct is observed with the formation of a zwitterion between the positively charged quartenary amine group and the negatively charged carboxylate counter ion. The molecular arrangement, or construct, of a deep eutectic solvent will determine both its structure and application in industry. This report describes the synthesis and characterization of an 80:20 urea/3-2AP eutectic mixture with a melting point of 50°C, nearly 120°C lower than the melting temperature of 3-2AP (172.5°C). A cytotoxicity profile for 3-2AP exposed to A549 bronchoaveolar carcinoma cells revealed an LD50 of 337.65 mug/ml.

Sparrow, Christopher R.

2011-12-01

26

Compatibility of Inconel 617 alloy with eutectic fluoride salts at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Thermal Energy Storage (TES) capsules made of Inconel 617 alloy were filled with high purity eutectic fluoride salts and thermally cycled at eutectic temperature [plus minus]100 K for a period of up to 50,000 hours. The containment life performance characteristics with fluoride salts were examined. The depletion of Al and Cr near the inner edges was found. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy revealed that both Al and Cr were dissolved in the fluoride salts at high temperatures. The changes in melting temperature and heat of fusion of fluoride salts during thermal cycling were measured with Thermal Differential Analysis. A modified diffusion equation for a one-dimensional semi-infinite bar was applied to the depletion of Al on the interior surfaces of the containers. Good agreement was obtained between the analysis and the measured concentration profiles. The present study suggests that the corrosion was a diffusion controlled process and an expected lifetime of 5--7 years is reasonable and predictable based upon the limited diffusion processes.

Luo, A.; Jacobson, D.L. (Department of Chemical, Bio Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6006 (United States)); Ponnappan, R. (Universal Energy Systems, Inc., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Road, Dayton, Ohio 45432 (United States))

1993-01-10

27

Compatibility of Inconel 617 alloy with eutectic fluoride salts at high temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal Energy Storage (TES) capsules made of Inconel 617 alloy were filled with high purity eutectic fluoride salts and thermally cycled at eutectic temperature ±100 K for a period of up to 50,000 hours. The containment life performance characteristics with fluoride salts were examined. The depletion of Al and Cr near the inner edges was found. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy revealed that both Al and Cr were dissolved in the fluoride salts at high temperatures. The changes in melting temperature and heat of fusion of fluoride salts during thermal cycling were measured with Thermal Differential Analysis. A modified diffusion equation for a one-dimensional semi-infinite bar was applied to the depletion of Al on the interior surfaces of the containers. Good agreement was obtained between the analysis and the measured concentration profiles. The present study suggests that the corrosion was a diffusion controlled process and an expected lifetime of 5-7 years is reasonable and predictable based upon the limited diffusion processes.

Luo, Anhua; Jacobson, Dean L.; Ponnappan, Rengasamy

1993-01-01

28

Materials corrosion in molten lithium fluoride-sodium fluoride-potassium fluoride eutectic salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Static corrosion studies were undertaken to determine the compatibility of several candidate high temperature materials for a heat transfer loop in a molten alkali fluoride eutectic salt, LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol % (commonly referred to as FLiNaK), as well as a molten chloride near eutectic salt, KCl-MgCl2: 68-32 mol %. Several high temperature alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, Nb-1Zr, a nearly pure Ni alloy Ni-201, and a C/SiSiC ceramic were exposed to molten FLiNaK at 850°C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion occurred predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the Cr bearing alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries. Corrosion was noted to occur from selective attack of the Si phase in the C/SiSiC ceramic. Alloy weight-loss/area due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys' weight-loss/area was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present in the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. The corrosion mechanisms for the chloride based salt were found to be similar to those observed in FLiNaK, but the chemical attack was found to be less aggressive. Sulfamate Ni electroplating and Mo plasma spraying of Fe-Ni-Cr alloy coupons was investigated to mitigate Cr dissolution. A chemical vapor deposited pyrolytic carbon and SiC coating was also investigated to protect the C/SiSiC composites. Results indicate that Ni-plating has the potential to provide protection against alloy corrosion in molten fluoride salts. Furthermore, the presence of a chromium-oxide interlayer at the interface of the Ni-plating and alloy substrate can further improve the efficacy of the Ni-plating. The pyrolytic carbon and SiC coating on the C/SiSiC composites was effective in eliminating the attack of the Si phase in the composites. Delamination of the Mo coating in FLiNaK prevented further investigation of this promising approach.

Olson, Luke Christopher

29

Charge transport and structural dynamics in carboxylic-acid-based deep eutectic mixtures.  

PubMed

Charge transport and structural dynamics in the 1:2 mol ratio mixture of lidocaine and decanoic acid (LID-DA), a model deep eutectic mixture (DEM), have been characterized over a wide temperature range using broad-band dielectric spectroscopy and depolarized dynamic light scattering. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements were performed to assess the degree of proton transfer between the neutral parent molecules. From our detailed analysis of the dielectric spectra, we have determined that this carboxylic-acid-based DEM is approximately 25% ionic at room temperature. Furthermore, we have found that the characteristic diffusion rate of mobile charge carriers is practically identical to the rate of structural relaxation at all measured temperatures, indicating that fast proton transport does not occur in LID-DA. Our results demonstrate that while LID-DA exhibits the thermal characteristics of a DEM, its charge transport properties resemble those of a protic ionic liquid. PMID:25025600

Griffin, Philip J; Cosby, Tyler; Holt, Adam P; Benson, Roberto S; Sangoro, Joshua R

2014-08-01

30

Study on a regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic based waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process  

SciTech Connect

A regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuel has been studied. This regeneration process is composed of a chemical conversion process and a vacuum distillation process. Through the regeneration process, a high efficiency of renewable salt recovery can be obtained from the waste salt and rare earth nuclides in the waste salt can be separated as oxide or phosphate forms. Thus, the regeneration process can contribute greatly to a reduction of the waste volume and a creation of durable final waste forms. (authors)

Eun, H.C.; Cho, Y.Z.; Choi, J.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, T.K.; Park, H.S.; Kim, I.T.; Park, G.I. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 3054-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

31

The electrochemical behaviour of ferrocene in deep eutectic solvents based on quaternary ammonium and phosphonium salts.  

PubMed

The electrochemical behaviour of ferrocene (Fc) is investigated in six different deep eutectic solvents (DESs) formed by means of hydrogen bonding between selected ammonium and phosphonium salts with glycerol and ethylene glycol. Combinations of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry are employed to characterise the DESs. The reductive and oxidative potential limits are reported versus the Fc/Fc(+) couple. The diffusion coefficient, D, of ferrocene in all studied DESs is found to lie between 8.49 × 10(-10) and 4.22 × 10(-8) cm(2) s(-1) (these do not change significantly with concentration). The standard rate constant for heterogeneous electron transfer across the electrode/DES interface is determined to be between 1.68 × 10(-4) and 5.44 × 10(-4) cm s(-1) using cyclic voltammetry. These results are of the same order of magnitude as those reported for other ionic liquids in the literature. PMID:23247115

Bahadori, Laleh; Manan, Ninie Suhana Abdul; Chakrabarti, Mohammed Harun; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Mjalli, Farouq Sabri; AlNashef, Inas Muen; Hussain, Mohd Azlan; Low, Chee Tong John

2013-02-01

32

EXAFS study into the speciation of metal salts dissolved in ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents.  

PubMed

The speciation of metals in solution controls their reactivity, and this is extremely pertinent in the area of metal salts dissolved in ionic liquids. In the current study, the speciation of 25 metal salts is investigated in four deep eutectic solvents (DESs) and five imidazolium-based ionic liquids using extended X-ray absorption fine structure. It is shown that in diol-based DESs M(I) ions form [MCl2](-) and [MCl3](2-) complexes, while all M(II) ions form [MCl4](2-) complexes, with the exception of Ni(II), which exhibits a very unusual coordination by glycol molecules. This was also found in the X-ray crystal structure of the compound [Ni(phen)2(eg)]Cl2·2eg (eg = ethylene glycol). In a urea-based DES, either pure chloro or chloro-oxo coordination is observed. In [C6mim][Cl] pure chloro complexation is also observed, but coordination numbers are smaller (typically 3), which can be explained by the long alkyl chain of the cation. In [C2mim][SCN] metal ions are entirely coordinated by thiocyanate, either through the N or the S atom, depending on the hardness of the metal ion according to the hard-soft acid-base principle. With weaker coordinating anions, mixed coordination between solvent and solute anions is observed. The effect of hydrate or added water on speciation is insignificant for the diol-based DESs and small in other liquids with intermediate or strong ligands. One of the main findings of this study is that, with respect to metal speciation, there is no fundamental difference between deep eutectic solvents and classic ionic liquids. PMID:24897923

Hartley, Jennifer M; Ip, Chung-Man; Forrest, Gregory C H; Singh, Kuldip; Gurman, Stephen J; Ryder, Karl S; Abbott, Andrew P; Frisch, Gero

2014-06-16

33

Frontal polymerizations carried out in Deep-Eutectic mixtures providing both the monomers and the polymerization medium.  

PubMed

Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) based upon mixtures of Acrylic Acid (AA) or Methacrylic Acid (MAA) and Choline Chloride (CCl) demonstrated superior performance than regular organic solvents and even ionic liquids for frontal polymerizations (FPs). Full recovering of CCl after FP provided an interesting green character to the process. PMID:21455538

Mota-Morales, Josué D; Gutiérrez, María C; Sanchez, Isaac C; Luna-Bárcenas, Gabriel; del Monte, Francisco

2011-05-14

34

Characterization and Comparison of Lidocaine-Tetracaine and Lidocaine-Camphor Eutectic Mixtures Based on Their Crystallization and Hydrogen-Bonding Abilities.  

PubMed

Eutectic mixtures formed between active pharmaceutical ingredients and/or excipients provide vast scope for pharmaceutical applications. This study aimed at the exploration of the crystallization abilities of two eutectic mixtures (EM) i.e., lidocaine-tetracaine and lidocaine-camphor (1:1 w/w). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for degradation behavior whereas modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC) set in first heating, cooling, and second heating cycles, was used to qualitatively analyze the complex exothermic and endothermic thermal transitions. Raman microspectroscopy characterized vibrational information specific to chemical bonds. Prepared EMs were left at room temperature for 24 h to visually examine their crystallization potentials. The degradation of lidocaine, tetracaine, camphor, lidocaine-tetracaine EM, and lidocaine-camphor EM began at 196.56, 163.82, 76.86, 146.01, and 42.72°C, respectively, which indicated that eutectic mixtures are less thermostable compared to their individual components. The MTDSC showed crystallization peaks for lidocaine, tetracaine, and camphor at 31.86, 29.36, and 174.02°C, respectively (n?=?3). When studying the eutectic mixture, no crystallization peak was observed in the lidocaine-tetracaine EM, but a lidocaine-camphor EM crystallization peak was present at 18.81°C. Crystallization occurred in lidocaine-camphor EM after being kept at room temperature for 24 h, but not in lidocaine-tetracaine EM. Certain peak shifts were observed in Raman spectra which indicated possible interactions of eutectic mixture components, when a eutectic mixture was formed. We found that if the components forming a eutectic mixture have crystallization peaks close to each other and have sufficient hydrogen-bonding capability, then their eutectic mixture is least likely to crystallize out (as seen in lidocaine-tetracaine EM) or vice versa (lidocaine-camphor EM). PMID:25370024

Gala, Urvi; Chuong, Monica C; Varanasi, Ravi; Chauhan, Harsh

2014-11-01

35

Interactions between carbamazepine and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000: characterisations of the physical, solid dispersed and eutectic mixtures.  

PubMed

The influence of a hydrophilic carrier (PEG 6000) on the polymorphism of carbamazepine, an antiepileptic drug, was investigated in binary physical mixtures and solid dispersions by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetry, hot-stage microscopy (HSM), and X-ray diffractometry, respectively. This study provides also an attempt to develop a method to calculate more precisely the eutectic composition. In rather ideal physical mixtures, carbamazepine was found as monoclinic Form III. In solid dispersions, the drug was found to crystallize as trigonal Form II; a eutectic invariant in the PEG 6000-rich composition domain (6% of carbamazepine mass) was evidenced by DSC experiments and confirmed by HSM observations. In the binary phase diagram the ideal carbamazepine liquidus curve was located at temperatures higher than the respective experimental ones. This suggests that drug can be maintained in the liquid state in the temperature-mass fraction (T--x) region between the two carbamazepine liquidus curves. This indicates in turn that attractive interactions occur between carbamazepine and PEG 6000-chains. These interactions have been also claimed to prevent carbamazepine from degradation into iminostilbene (a compound resulting from the chemical degradation of carbamazepine which is postulated to be responsible for the idiosyncratic toxicity of the drug) and thought to lead to the crystallization of metastable Carbamazepine II from melt. The negative excess entropy for eutectic mixtures indicated that the drug crystals are finely dispersed in the bulk of polymer chains. PMID:11231106

Naima, Z; Siro, T; Juan-Manuel, G D; Chantal, C; René, C; Jerome, D

2001-02-01

36

Inorganic salt mixtures as electrolyte media in fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel cell designs and techniques for converting chemical energy into electrical energy uses a fuel cell are disclosed. The designs and techniques include an anode to receive fuel, a cathode to receive oxygen, and an electrolyte chamber in the fuel cell, including an electrolyte medium, where the electrolyte medium includes an inorganic salt mixture in the fuel cell. The salt mixture includes pre-determined quantities of at least two salts chosen from a group consisting of ammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate, ammonium trifluoroacetate, and ammonium nitrate, to conduct charge from the anode to the cathode. The fuel cell includes an electrical circuit operatively coupled to the fuel cell to transport electrons from the cathode.

Angell, Charles Austen (Inventor); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Inventor); Francis-Gervasio, Dominic (Inventor)

2012-01-01

37

Salt-induced changes of colloidal interactions in critical mixtures  

E-print Network

We report on salt-dependent interaction potentials of a single charged particle suspended in a binary liquid mixture above a charged wall. For symmetric boundary conditions (BC) we observe attractive particle-wall interaction forces which are similar to critical Casimir forces previously observed in salt-free mixtures. However, in case of antisymmetric BC we find a temperature-dependent crossover from attractive to repulsive forces which is in strong contrast to salt-free conditions. Additionally performed small-angle x-ray scattering experiments demonstrate that the bulk critical fluctuations are not affected by the addition of salt. This suggests that the observed crossover can not be attributed alone to critical Casimir forces. Instead our experiments point towards a possible coupling between the ionic distributions and the concentration profiles in the binary mixture which then affects the interaction potentials in such systems.

Ursula Nellen; Julian Dietrich; Laurent Helden; Shirish Chodankar; Kim Nygard; J. Friso van der Veen; Clemens Bechinger

2011-04-28

38

Ionic liquids and deep eutectic mixtures as new solvents for the synthesis of vanadium fluorides and oxyfluorides.  

PubMed

An exploratory study of the synthesis of vanadium (oxy)fluorides (VOFs) using ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic mixtures (DESs) as a solvent yielded 10 different materials. The previously reported chain type: (NH(4))(2)VF(5) (1), (NH(4))(2)VOF(4) (2), NH(4)VO(3) (3) and (H(2)NH(2)(CH(2))(2)NH(2))VF(5) (9) have been successfully produced for the first time using ILs as the reaction media. The monomeric (HNH(2)CH(3))(2)VOF(4)(H(2)O) (4), the dimer (HNH(2)CH(3))(4)V(2)O(2)F(8) (5) and the 1D chains (HNH(2)CH(3))(2)VF(5) (6), (H(2)O)(2)VF(3) (7), ?-(H(2)NH(2)(CH(2))(2)NH(2))VOF(4) (8) and ?-(H(2)NH(2)(CH(2))(2)NH(2))VOF(4) (10) are novel materials. Template control has also been achieved by the selective choice of ILs or the appropriate deep eutectic mixture, where the expected template is delivered to the reaction by the partial breakdown of the urea derivative portion of the DES. PMID:21409203

Aidoudi, Farida H; Byrne, Peter J; Allan, Pheobe K; Teat, Simon J; Lightfoot, Philip; Morris, Russell E

2011-04-28

39

Three new polyoxometalate-based hybrids prepared from choline chloride\\/urea deep eutectic mixture at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new polyoxometalate-based hybrids {[(CH3)3N(CH2)2OH]2(H3O)}[Na2(H2O)6][IMo6O24]·H2O 1 , {Na2[(CH3)3N(CH2)2OH]4}[Al(OH)6Mo6O18]2·8NH2CONH2·4H2O 2 and {Na6(H2O)18[(CH3)3N(CH2)2OH]2(CON2H5)2}[NaMo7O24]2·4NH2CONH2·H2O 3 were successfully synthesized in the choline chloride\\/urea deep eutectic mixture at room temperature. Reactant quantities of water presents in the nonaqueous eutectic mixture solvent may influence the structure of the products. The three compounds are fully characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UV–vis, TG analyses, power X-ray diffraction and

Shi-Ming Wang; Wei-Lin Chen; En-Bo Wang; Yang-Guang Li; Xiao-Jia Feng; Lin Liu

2010-01-01

40

A novel deep eutectic solvent-based ionic liquid used as electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We utilize a quaternary ammonium salt-derivative ionic liquid called G.CI which is a eutectic mixture of glycerol and choline iodide as electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells. Such eutectic compound belongs to a new series of ionic liquid called deep eutectic solvents (DES), which possess many outstanding features compared to the traditional imidazolium-based ionic liquids including cheap raw materials, simple preparation

Huei-Ru Jhong; David Shan-Hill Wong; Chi-Chao Wan; Yung-Yun Wang; Tzu-Chien Wei

2009-01-01

41

Effects of metal salt mixtures on Daphnia magna reproduction  

SciTech Connect

Three binary metal experiments were conducted using a complete block design; testing the chlorides of Cd, Hg, and Zn individually and in combinations of Cd-Hg, Cd-Zn, and Zn-Hg on Daphnia magna reproduction. These mixtures were tested at one-half, once, and twice the 16% reproductive impairment concentration previously determined for individual metals. The Cd-Hg, Cd-Zn, and Zn-Hg mixtures all showed significant reductions in reproduction at concentrations where the metal salts alone caused no significant effect.

Biesinger, K.E.; Christensen, G.M.; Fiandt, J.T.

1986-02-01

42

Speciation, physical and electrolytic properties of eutectic mixtures based on CrCl?·6H?O and urea.  

PubMed

The electrodeposition of chromium is a technologically vital process, which is principally carried out using aqueous chromic acid. In the current study, it is shown that eutectic mixtures of urea and hydrated chromium(III) chloride provide a liquid which reduces the toxicological issues associated with the current aqueous Cr(VI) electroplating solution. Using EXAFS, mass spectrometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy, it is shown that chromium is present predominantly as a cationic species. Conductivities are higher than for most comparable ionic liquids. It is shown that the electrodeposition of chromium is electrochemically reversible, with a current efficiency much higher than in aqueous electrolytes. Surface tension and density measurements indicate that hole theory is a valid model to describe transport properties in these liquids. Bulk Cr deposits are not macrocrystalline but they are generally crack-free. The deposits have a hardness of 600 ± 10 Vickers and, as such, are comparable to deposits from aqueous systems. PMID:24695874

Abbott, Andrew P; Al-Barzinjy, Azeez A; Abbott, Paul D; Frisch, Gero; Harris, Robert C; Hartley, Jennifer; Ryder, Karl S

2014-05-21

43

Effect of antagonistic salt on confined near-critical mixture  

E-print Network

We consider a near-critical binary mixture with addition of antagonistic salt confined between weakly charged and selective surfaces. A mesoscopic functional for this system is developed from a microscopic description by a systematic coarse-graining procedure. The functional reduces to the Landau-Brazovskii functional for amphiphilic systems for sufficiently large ratio between the correlation length in the critical binary mixture and the screening length. Our theoretical result agrees with the experimental observation [Sadakane et.al. J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 139}, 234905 (2013)] that the antagonistic salt and surfactant both lead to a similar mesoscopic structure. For very small salt concentration $\\rho_{ion}$ the Casimir potential is the same as in a presence of inorganic salt. For larger $\\rho_{ion}$ the Casimir potential takes a minimum followed by a maximum for separations of order of tens of nanometers, and exhibits an oscillatory decay very close to the critical point. For separations of tens of nanometers the potential between surfaces with a linear size of hundreds of nanometers can be of order of $k_BT$. We have verified that in the experimentally studied samples [Sadakane et.al. J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 139}, 234905 (2013), Leys et.al. Soft Matter {\\bf 9}, 9326 (2013)] the decay length is too small compared to the period of oscillations of the Casimir potential, but the oscillatory force could be observed closer to the critical point.

Faezeh Pousaneh; Alina Ciach

2014-06-12

44

Experimental determination of the thermal conductivity of molten pure salts and salt mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal conductivity of some molten salts was measured at atmospheric pressure, using the coaxial cylinder method. The pure compounds NaCO3, KNO3, and NaNO2, the equimolar mixture NaNO3-KNO3, and HITEC, which is a three-component mixture, NaNO3-NaNO2-KNO3 (0.07-0.40-0.53 in weight), were investigated. For mixtures, it was found that the experimental thermal conductivity coefficients are in agreement with calculated values using a

R. Tufeu; J. P. Petitet; L. Denielou; B. Le Neindre

1985-01-01

45

Experimental determination of the thermal conductivity of molten pure salts and salt mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal conductivity of some molten salts was measured at atmospheric pressure, using the coaxial cylinder method. The pure compounds NaCO3, KNO3, and NaNO2, the equimolar mixture NaNO3-KNO3, and HITEC, which is a three-component mixture, NaNO3-NaNO2-KNO3 (0.07-0.40-0.53 in weight), were investigated. For mixtures, it was found that the experimental thermal conductivity coefficients are in agreement with calculated values using a simple linear mixing law. The thermal diffusivity was calculated and compared with experimental data.

Tufeu, R.; Petitet, J. P.; Denielou, L.; Le Neindre, B.

1985-07-01

46

Deep eutectic solvents based on N-methylacetamide and a lithium salt as suitable electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.  

PubMed

In this work, we present a study on the physical and electrochemical properties of three new Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) based on N-methylacetamide (MAc) and a lithium salt (LiX, with X = bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide, TFSI; hexafluorophosphate, PF6; or nitrate, NO3). Based on DSC measurements, it appears that these systems are liquid at room temperature for a lithium salt mole fraction ranging from 0.10 to 0.35. The temperature dependences of the ionic conductivity and the viscosity of these DESs are correctly described by using the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) type fitting equation, due to the strong interactions between Li(+), X(-) and MAc in solution. Furthermore, these electrolytes possess quite large electrochemical stability windows up to 4.7-5 V on Pt, and demonstrate also a passivating behavior toward the aluminum collector at room temperature. Based on these interesting electrochemical properties, these selected DESs can be classified as potential and promising electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For this purpose, a test cell was then constructed and tested at 25 °C, 60 °C and 80 °C by using each selected DES as an electrolyte and LiFePO4 (LFP) material as a cathode. The results show a good compatibility between each DES and LFP electrode material. A capacity of up to 160 mA h g(-1) with a good efficiency (99%) is observed in the DES based on the LiNO3 salt at 60 °C despite the presence of residual water in the electrolyte. Finally preliminary tests using a LFP/DES/LTO (lithium titanate) full cell at room temperature clearly show that LiTFSI-based DES can be successfully introduced into LIBs. Considering the beneficial properties, especially, the cost of these electrolytes, such introduction could represent an important contribution for the realization of safer and environmentally friendly LIBs. PMID:24153449

Boisset, Aurélien; Menne, Sebastian; Jacquemin, Johan; Balducci, Andrea; Anouti, Mérièm

2013-12-14

47

Experimental determination of the volume change of pure salts and salt mixtures at their melting point  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the melting temperature as a function of pressure for some pure salts (NaNO3, LiOH) and salt mixtures (Na2SO4-NaCl, NaNO2-NaNO3- KNO3, Li2SO4-NaCl, NaCl-MgCl2) are reported. The experiments were performed up to 250 MPa. From the melting curves, the slopes ( dP\\/dT){m\\/0}at atmospheric pressure were determined. Finally, using the Clapeyron equation, with the enthalpy of melting taken from the literature,

J. P. Petitet; M. Fraiha; R. Tufeu; B. Le Neindre

1982-01-01

48

Experimental determination of the volume change of pure salts and salt mixtures at their melting point  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the melting temperature as a function of pressure for some pure salts (NaNO3, LiOH) and salt mixtures (Na2SO4-NaCl, NaNO2-NaNO3- KNO3, Li2SO4-NaCl, NaCl-MgCl2) are reported. The experiments were performed up to 250 MPa. From the melting curves, the slopes ( dP/dT){m/0}at atmospheric pressure were determined. Finally, using the Clapeyron equation, with the enthalpy of melting taken from the literature, the volume change on melting at atmospheric pressure was determined for each compound.

Petitet, J. P.; Fraiha, M.; Tufeu, R.; Le Neindre, B.

1982-06-01

49

Experimental determination of the volume change of pure salts and salt mixtures at their melting point  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the melting temperature as a function of pressure for some pure salts (NaNO3, LiOH) and salt mixtures (Na2SO4-NaCl, NaNO2-NaNO3- KNO3, Li2SO4-NaCl, NaCl-MgCl2) are reported. The experiments were performed up to 250 MPa. From the melting curves, the slopes (dP\\/dT)m0at atmospheric pressure were determined. Finally, using the Clapeyron equation, with the enthalpy of melting taken from the literature, the

J. P. Petitet; M. Fraiha; R. Tufeu; B. Le Neindre

1982-01-01

50

Heat Capacity Uncertainty Calculation for the Eutectic Mixture of Biphenyl/Diphenyl Ether Used as Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this study was to calculate the uncertainty at 95% confidence for the experimental values of heat capacity of the eutectic mixture of biphenyl/diphenyl ether (Therminol VP-1) determined from 300 to 370 degrees C. Twenty-five samples were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to obtain the sample heat flow as a function of temperature. The ASTM E-1269-05 standard was used to determine the heat capacity using DSC evaluations. High-pressure crucibles were employed to contain the sample in the liquid state without vaporizing. Sample handling has a significant impact on the random uncertainty. It was determined that the fluid is difficult to handle, and a high variability of the data was produced. The heat capacity of Therminol VP-1 between 300 and 370 degrees C was measured to be equal to 0.0025T+0.8672 with an uncertainty of +/- 0.074 J/g.K (3.09%) at 95% confidence with T (temperature) in Kelvin.

Gomez, J. C.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Mehos, M.

2012-09-01

51

Sulfur-doped carbons prepared from eutectic mixtures containing hydroxymethylthiophene as metal-free oxygen reduction catalysts.  

PubMed

A template-free approach based on the use of eutectic mixtures composed of 2-hydroxymethylthiophene and furfuryl alcohol has been designed for the preparation of hierarchical sulfur-doped carbons (SPCs) in monolithic form. The temperature used for carbonization, for example, 600, 800, or 900?°C, determined most of the physicochemical properties of the resulting SPCs. Thus, the surface area increased from below 400 to up 775?m(2) ?g(-1) , along with the carbonization temperature, whereas the sulfur content decreased from approximately 15 to 5?wt?%. The oxygen reduction reaction performance in samples carbonized at 900?°C was good, with the four-electron-transfer reaction prevailing over the two-electron-transfer one. Interestingly, the methanol tolerance and stability of these SPCs were also remarkable, with less than 5?% current decrease immediately after methanol addition, whereas, in terms of stability, the current decrease was below 8?% after 20000?s. This performance was in the range of that found not only for other SPCs, but also for many nitrogen-doped and even some dual-doped (S and N) ones. PMID:25318464

López-Salas, Nieves; Del Monte, Francisco; Tamayo, Aitana; Fierro, José Luís G; De Lacey, Antonio L; Ferrer, M Luisa; Gutiérrez, María C

2014-12-01

52

Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation  

DOEpatents

Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation. This salt has been found to be useful as an explosive alone and in eutectic mixtures with ammonium nitrate and/or other explosive compounds. Its eutectic with ammonium nitrate has been demonstrated to behave in a similar manner to a monomolecular explosive such as TNT, and is less sensitive than the pure salt. Moreover, this eutectic mixture, which contains 87.8 mol % of ammonium nitrate, is close to the CO.sub.2 -balanced composition of 90 mol %, and has a relatively low melting point of 110.5 C. making it readily castable. The ternary eutectic system containing the ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole, ammonium nitrate and ethylenediamine dinitrate has a eutectic temperature of 89.5 C. and gives a measured detonation pressure of 24.8 GPa, which is 97.6% of the calculated value. Both the pure ethylenediamine salt and its known eutectic compounds behave in substantially ideal manner. Methods for the preparation of the salt are described.

Lee, Kien-yin (Los Alamos, NM); Coburn, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

53

Measurement of thermophysical properties of molten salts: Mixtures of alkaline carbonate salts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to develop measuring methods for the thermal diffusivity, the specific heat capacity, and the density of molten salts, as well as to measure these properties of mixtures of alkaline carbonate salts. The thermal diffusivity is measured by the stepwise heating method. The sample salt is poured into a thin container, and as a result, a three-layered cell is formed. The thermal diffusivity is obtained from the ratio of temperature rises at different times measured at the rear surface of the cell when the front surface is heated by the stepwise energy from an iodine lamp. The specific heat capacity is measured using an adiabatic scanning calorimeter. The density is measured by Archimedes' principle. Thermal conductivity is determined from the above properties. Measured samples are Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (42.7-57.3, 50.0-50.0, and 62.0-38.0 mol%).

Araki, N.; Matsuura, M.; Makino, A.; Hirata, T.; Kato, Y.

1988-11-01

54

Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation  

DOEpatents

The ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole has been found to be useful as an explosive alone and in eutectic mixtures with ammonium nitrate and/or other explosive compounds. Its eutectic with ammonium nitrate has been demonstrated to behave in a similar manner to a monomolecular explosive such as TNT, and is less sensitive than the pure salt. Moreover, this eutectic mixture, which contains 87.8 mol% of ammonium nitrate, is close to the CO/sub 2/-balanced composition of 90 mol%, and has a relatively low melting point of 110.5 C making it readily castable. The ternary eutectic system containing the ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole, ammonium nitrate and ethylenediamine dinitrate has a eutectic temperature of 89.5 C and gives a measured detonation pressure of 24.8 GPa, which is 97.6% of the calculated value. Both the pure ethylenediamine salt and its known eutectic compounds behave in substantially ideal manner. Methods for the preparation of the salt are described.

Lee, K.; Coburn, M.D.

1984-05-17

55

Protease activation in glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of a choline salt (chloride or acetate form) and glycerol are prepared as easily accessible, biodegradable, and inexpensive alternatives to conventional aprotic cation–anion paired ionic liquids. These DES systems display excellent fluidity coupled with thermal stability to nearly 200°C. In this work, the transesterification activities of cross-linked proteases (subtilisin and ?-chymotrypsin), immobilized on

Hua Zhao; Gary A. Baker; Shaletha Holmes

2011-01-01

56

Separation of the isomers of benzene poly(carboxylic acid)s by quaternary ammonium salt via formation of deep eutectic solvents.  

PubMed

Because of similar properties and very low volatility, isomers of benzene poly(carboxylic acid)s (BPCAs) are very difficult to separate. In this work, we found that isomers of BPCAs could be separated efficiently by quaternary ammonium salts (QASs) via formation of deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Three kinds of QASs were used to separate the isomers of BPCAs, including the isomers of benzene tricarboxylic acids (trimellitic acid, trimesic acid, and hemimellitic acid) and the isomers of benzene dicarboxylic acids (phthalic acid and isophthalic acid). Among the QASs, tetraethylammonium chloride was found to have the best performance, which could completely separate BPCA isomers in methyl ethyl ketone solutions. It was found that the hydrogen bond forming between QAS and BPCA results in the selective separation of BPCA isomers. QAS in DES was regenerated effectively by the antisolvent method, and the regenerated QAS was reused four times with the same high efficiency. PMID:25351281

Hou, Yucui; Li, Jian; Ren, Shuhang; Niu, Muge; Wu, Weize

2014-11-26

57

LOCALIZED CORROSION OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELEXPOSED TO MIXTURES OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE AND CHLORIDE SALTS  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted to investigate the corrosivity of moist plutonium oxide/chloride (PuO{sub 2}/Cl-) salt mixtures on 304L and 316L stainless steel coupons. The tests exposed flat coupons for pitting evaluation and 'teardrop' stressed coupons for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation at room temperature to various mixtures of PuO{sub 2} and chloride-bearing salts for periods up to 500 days. The two flat coupons were placed so that the solid oxide/salt mixture contacted about one half of the coupon surface. One teardrop coupon was placed in contact with solid mixture; the second teardrop was in contact with the headspace gas only. The mixtures were loaded with nominally 0.5 wt % water under a helium atmosphere. Observations of corrosion ranged from superficial staining to pitting and SCC. The extent of corrosion depended on the total salt concentration and on the composition of the salt. The most significant corrosion was found in coupons that were exposed to 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 2 wt % chloride salt mixtures that contained calcium chloride. SCC was observed in two 304L stainless steel teardrop coupons exposed in solid contact to a mixture of 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 0.9 wt % NaCl, 0.9 wt % KCl, and 0.2 wt % CaCl{sub 2}. The cracking was associated with the heat-affected zone of an autogenous weld that ran across the center of the coupon. Cracking was not observed in coupons exposed to the headspace gas, nor in coupons exposed to other mixtures with either 0.92 wt% CaCl{sub 2} or no CaCl{sub 2}. The corrosion results point to the significance of the interaction between water loading and the concentration of the hydrating salt CaCl{sub 2} in the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to corrosion.

Zapp, P; Kerry Dunn, K; Jonathan Duffey, J; Ron Livingston, R; Zane Nelson, Z

2008-11-21

58

The effect of ferrocyanide ions on sodium chloride crystallization in salt mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of crystallization inhibitors has been proposed as a potential preventive treatment method against damage and is extensively tested for crystallization of single salts. However, in practice salt mixtures are present. Therefore, before using inhibitors in practice there is a strong need to explore their effect on salt mixtures. In this research, we studied the effect of ferrocyanide ions ([Fe(CN)6]4-) on NaCl crystallization in single salt and in salt mixtures of NaCl-KCl and NaCl-LiCl. A series of micro droplet drying experiments were undertaken. Time lapse microscopy of the crystallization was performed along with NMR measurements of hydrogen, sodium and lithium ions. This gives the possibility to visualize the drying of the droplet while simultaneously obtaining information of both NaCl and LiCl concentration in the droplet. For a NaCl solution droplet, in the presence of inhibitor, a significantly higher supersaturation prior to the onset of crystallization and a change in crystal morphology were observed. On the other hand, for salt mixtures, lower supersaturation compared to single salt and dendritic crystal morphology was seen in the presence of inhibitor. In a porous material, such a type of morphology can promote the formation of efflorescence that causes only little structural damage.

Gupta, Sonia; Pel, Leo; Steiger, Michael; Kopinga, Klaas

2015-01-01

59

Temperature dependence of the elastic moduli and damping for polycrystalline LiF-22 pct CaF2 eutectic salt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Young's and shear moduli and damping were measured for as-cast polycrystalline LiF-(22 mol pct)CaF2 eutectic specimens as a function of temperature using the piezoelectric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique. The shear modulus decreased with increasing temperature from about 40 GPa at 295 K to about 30 GPa at 1000 K, while the Young modulus decreased from about 115 GPa at 295 K to about 35 GPa at 900 K. These values are compared with those derived from the rule of mixtures using elastic moduli data for LiF and CaF2 single crystals. It is shown that, while the shear modulus data agree reasonably well with the predicted trend, there is a large discrepancy between the theoretical calculations and the Young modulus values, where this disagreement increases with increasing temperature.

Wolfenden, A.; Lastrapes, G.; Duggan, M. B.; Raj, S. V.

1991-01-01

60

Some magnesium salts and a mixture of magnesium and calcium salts accelerate skin barrier recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract The effects of four different magnesium salts on the cutaneous barrier recovery rate after barrier disruption were evaluated.\\u000a We spread an aqueous solution of each salt on the flank skin of hairless mice, occluded the area with a plastic membrane for\\u000a 20?min, and then left the skin surface to dry. All of the magnesium salts, except magnesium bis(dihydrogen phosphate),

Mitsuhiro Denda; Chika Katagiri; Tetsuji Hirao; Nao Maruyama; Motoji Takahashi

1999-01-01

61

Measurement of the melting point temperature of several lithium-sodium-beryllium fluoride salt (FLINABE) mixtures.  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium flourides, was studied for molten salt fission reactors and has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for the fusion applications. 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at 460 C. LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at a lower temperature, 363 C, but is rather viscous and has less lithium breeder. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing ternary molten salt for the first wall surface and blanket were investigated. The molten salt (FLiNaBe, a ternary mixture of LiF, BeF2 and NaF) salt was selected because a melting temperature below 350 C that would provide an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor application appeared possible. This information came from a Russian binary phase diagram and a US ternary phase diagram in the 1960's that were not wholly consistent. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and, BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a small stainless steel crucible under vacuum. The proportions of the three salts were selected to yield conglomerate salts with as low a melting temperature as possible. The temperature of the salts and the crucible were recorded during the melting and subsequent re-solidification using a thermocouple directly in the salt pool and two thermocouples embedded in the crucible. One mixture had an apparent melting temperature of 305 C. Particular attention was paid to the cooling curve of the salt temperature to observe evidence of any mixed intermediate phases between the fully liquid and fully solid states. The clarity, texture, and thickness were observed and noted as well. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, and the melting procedure are described. The temperature curves for the melting and cooling of each of the mixtures are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible was also done and is reported in a separate paper.

Boyle, Timothy J.; Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Nygren, Richard Einar; Lutz, Thomas Joseph; McDonald, Jimmie M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

2004-09-01

62

Composition gradient during electrolysis in mixtures analogous to molten salt battery electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten salt mixtures are attractive electrolytes for more efficient batteries. Li\\/S batteries with LiCl--KCl mixture as electrolyte have recently been developed. Calculations based on mass transport at electrode--electrolyte interface and in the electrolyte lead to a prediction of a concentration gradient between the electrodes. Experiments in the analogous potassium nitrate--silver nitrate system that confirm the results of the calculations are

D. E. Heatherly; C. E. Vallet

1977-01-01

63

Distribution behavior of uranium, neptunium, rare-earth elements ( Y, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) and alkaline-earth metals (Sr,Ba) between molten LiCl?KCI eutectic salt and liquid cadmium or bismuth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution coefficients of uranium neptunium, eight rare-earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) and two alkaline-earth metals (Sr and Ba) between molten LiCl-KCI eutectic salt and either liquid cadmium or bismuth were measured at 773 K. Separation factors of trivalent rare-earth elements to uranium or neptunium in the LiCl-KCl\\/Bi system were by one or two orders

M. Kurata; Y. Sakamura; T. Hijikata; K. Kinoshita

1995-01-01

64

Room Temperature Ionic Liquid-Lithium Salt Mixtures: Optical Kerr Effect Dynamical Measurements  

E-print Network

Room Temperature Ionic Liquid-Lithium Salt Mixtures: Optical Kerr Effect Dynamical Measurements optical Kerr effect spectroscopy was used to study the change in dynamics, principally orientational. In this work, optically heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) spectroscopy, which measures the time

Fayer, Michael D.

65

Measurement of the Melting Point Temperature of Several Lithium-Sodium-Beryllium Fluoride Salt (Flinabe) Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium fluorides studied for molten salt fission reactors, has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for fusion applications. The melting points of 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} and LiF-BeF{sub 2} are 460 deg. C and 363 deg. C, but LiF-BeF{sub 2} is rather viscous and has less lithium for breeding. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing liquid for the first wall and blanket were investigated. Flinabe (a mixture of LiF, BeF{sub 2} and NaF) was selected for a molten salt design because a melting temperature below 350 deg. C appeared possible and this provided an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a stainless steel crucible under vacuum. One had an apparent melting temperature of 305 deg. C. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, melting procedures and temperature curves for the melting and cooling are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible is reported in an accompanying paper.

McDonald, J.M; Nygren, R.E.; Lutz, T.J.; Tanaka, T.J; Ulrickson, M.A.; Boyle, T.J.; Troncosa, K.P. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)

2005-04-15

66

Phase equilibria of toluene\\/heptane with deep eutectic solvents based on ethyltriphenylphosphonium iodide for the potential use in the separation of aromatics from naphtha  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the liquid-liquid extraction of toluene from hydrocarbons mixtures (toluene\\/heptane) was investigated using deep eutectic solvents as solvents. Ethyltriphenylphosphonium iodide as a salt with either ethylene glycol or sulfolane as hydrogen-bond donors (HBDs) were utilized for synthesizing six DESs. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria data were determined experimentally for the ternary system (toluene + heptane + DES) at (30,

M. A. Kareem; F. S. Mjalli; M. A. Hashim; M. K. O. Hadj-Kali; F. S. Ghareh Bagh; I. M. Alnashef

2013-01-01

67

Phase behavior and properties of reverse vesicles in salt-free catanionic surfactant mixtures.  

PubMed

Salt-free 1:1 cationic/anionic (catanionic) surfactant mixture tetradecyltrimethylammonium laurate (TTAL) could be prepared by mixing equimolar tetradecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (TTAOH) and lauric acid (LA) in water. Given the condition of suitable range of weight fraction of TTAL in total surfactant, rho=WTTAL/(WTTAL+WLA), and at existence of a small amount of water, it was found that the mixtures of so-obtained TTAL and LA could spontaneously form stable reverse vesicles in various organic solvents including toluene, tert-butylbenzene, and cyclohexane. The reverse vesicle phase shows a blue color against room light and exhibits strong birefringence under polarized microscope. The reverse vesicles are very sensitive to temperature change. Increasing temperature could make the rho values within which reverse vesicles were constructed move to higher values. In organic solvents of alkanes such as n-heptane, reverse vesicles could still form but become unstable upon time and centrifugation. Increasing temperature could accelerate phase separation, and finally a gel-like bottom phase was usually observed. Interestingly, the stable reverse vesicles formed by so-called salt-free catanionic surfactant mixtures still show some resistance against adding inorganic salts. They can trap inorganic ions such as Zn2+ and S2- into their hydrophilic layers. This opens the door for template applications of reverse vesicles to prepare inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:18321090

Li, Hongguang; Hao, Jingcheng; Wu, Zhonghua

2008-03-27

68

The solubility of oxygen in the major sea salts and their mixtures at 25°C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of gases and other non-electrolytes in electrolyte solutions are normally examined using the Setschenow (1899) equation, which for oxygen is given by: ln{[O2] 0/[ O2]}= ln?(O2)= kSm The ratio of the solubility of oxygen (?mol kg -1) in water [O 2] 0 and solution [O 2] is equal to the activity coefficient (?) at a given molality (m), and k S is the salting coefficient. In this paper, measurements of the solubility of oxygen in the major sea salts (NaCl, MgCl 2, Na 2SO 4, and MgSO 4) from dilute solutions to saturation at 25°C are examined. Measurements were also made on mixtures of the major sea salts (NaCl + Na 2SO 4, NaCl + MgCl 2, Na 2SO 4 + MgSO 4, MgCl 2 + MgSO 4, NaCl + MgSO 4 and Na 2SO 4 + MgCl 2). The solubilities [O 2] have been fitted to equations of the form: ln[O2]= A+ Bm+ Cm2 where A, B, and C are empirical constants. The salting coefficient k S is equal to -(B + C m), and the value of (?ln?/?m) m = 0 = -B. The mixtures were also fitted to similar equations, where m is replaced by the total molality (m T). The values of k S for the mixtures can be estimated from the endmembers by: kS( NaCl+ MgSO4)= NNaClkS( NaCl)+ NMgSO4 kS( MgSO4) where N i is the mole fraction of the salt (i). This equation predicts solubilities for the mixtures that are in reasonable agreement with the measured values (±20 ?mol kg -1). The division of the values of k S of the salts into ionic components [k S(NaCl) = k S(Na +) + k S(Cl -)] yields different values for k S(SO4 2-) from Na 2SO 4 and MgSO 4 solutions. This is related to different interactions of SO4 2- with Na + and Mg 2+ ions. These interactions are accounted for using the Pitzer equations: ln? O2 =2? c? O2cmc+2? a? O2ama+2? N? O2NmN+? c? amcma? O2ca where ? O2i is a parameter that accounts for the interaction of O 2 with cations (c) and anions (a) and ? O2ca accounts for interactions for O 2 with the cation and anion (c-a). The component N is used to denote the interactions between O 2 with neutral species (e.g., the MgSO 4 ion pair). The ? O2i and ? O2ca coefficients determined for the major sea salt ions are in reasonable agreement with the tabulations of Clegg and Brimblecombe (1990). The calculated activity coefficients and solubilities in the mixtures were found to be in good agreement with the measured values. The solubilities of oxygen in the mixtures agree to within ±5 ?mol kg -1 except for the Na 2SO 4 + MgCl 2 solutions (10 ?mol kg -1). This can be related to the formation of the MgSO 4 ion pair in the mixture. Calculations of the solubility of O 2 in seawater and artificial Dead Sea water with the model were found to be in good agreement with the measured values (±4 mol kg -1).

Millero, Frank J.; Huang, Fen; Laferiere, Arthur L.

2002-07-01

69

Phenothiazine-Salt Mixture, Free Choice, for the Control of the Large Stomach Worm in Range Sheep.  

E-print Network

Phenothiazine-Salt Mixture Free Choice, for the Control of the Large Stomach Worm in Range Sheep An 8-year Study Conducted Under the Naturak Range Conditions of the Edwards Plateau DIGEST An 8-year study conducted under practical range... conditions typical of the Edwards Plateau of Texas indicates that the large stomach worm of sheep can be controlled satisfactorily through the continued use of a 1-to-9 phenothiazine-salt mixture supplied free choice as a method of treatment. Two groups...

Boughton, I. B.; Hardy, W. T.; Price, D. A.

1953-01-01

70

Influence of mixtures of calcium-chelating salts on the physicochemical properties of casein micelles.  

PubMed

Calcium-chelating salts (CCS), such as phosphates and citrates, are often added to milk systems to modify physical properties like heat stability. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of binary CCS mixtures on the properties of casein (CN) micelles including the distribution of Ca between the soluble and CN-bound states. Six binary CCS mixtures were prepared from 4 different types of CCS [i.e., trisodium citrate (TSC), disodium phosphate (DSP), tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP), and sodium hexameta phosphate (SHMP)] by combining 2 CCS at a time in 5 different proportions (8.3:91.7, 29.2:70.8, 50:50, 70.8:29.2, and 91.7:8.3). Different concentrations of these mixtures (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7% wt/wt) were added to milk protein concentrate solutions (5% wt/wt) at pH 5.8. The ability of CCS to disperse CN particles and its interaction with Ca were assessed from turbidity measurements, acid-base titration behavior, and the quantity of CN-bound Ca and inorganic phosphate (Pi). Turbidity and the buffering peak at pH ?5.0 during acid titration decreased with an increasing concentration of CCS. This was due to the chelation of Ca and the dispersion of CN micelles. The presence of TSC in mixtures decreased the amount of CN-bound Ca and Pi; however, the presence of TSPP in mixtures increased CN-bound Ca and Pi. When DSP was present at high proportions in mixtures of CCS, the CN-bound Ca and Pi slightly increased. When SHMP was used in mixtures of CCS, CN-bound Ca and Pi increased with the use of a low proportion of SHMP but decreased when SHMP was used at high proportions in the mixture. Combinations of DSP-TSPP used in the proportions 29.2:70.8, 50:50, and 70.8:29.2 resulted in the gelation of milk protein concentrates when the total CCS concentration was ?0.3%. These results indicated that the type of CCS present in a mixture modified CN properties by various mechanisms, including chelation of Ca, dispersion of CN micelles, and formation of new types of Ca-CCS complexes. The type of interaction between the newly formed Ca-CCS complexes and the dispersed CN depended on the proportion, concentration, and type of CCS present in the mixtures. This information is useful in understanding how mixtures of CCS affect CN properties. PMID:21854899

Kaliappan, S; Lucey, J A

2011-09-01

71

Nanostructure of mixtures of protic ionic liquids and lithium salts: effect of alkyl chain length.  

PubMed

The bulk structure of mixtures of two protic ionic liquids, propylammonium nitrate and butylammonium nitrate, with a salt with a common anion, is analyzed at room temperature by means of small angle X-ray scattering and classical molecular dynamics simulations. The study of several structural properties, such as density, radial distribution functions, spatial distribution functions, hydrogen bonds, coordination numbers and velocity autocorrelation functions, demonstrates that increasing the alkyl chain length of the alkylammonium cation results in more segregated, better defined polar and apolar domains, the latter having a larger size. This increase, ascribed to the erosion of the H-bond network in the ionic liquid polar regions as salt is added, is confirmed by means of small angle X-ray scattering measurements, which show a clear linear increase of the characteristic spatial sizes of the studied protic ionic liquids with salt concentration, similar to that previously reported for ethylammonium nitrate (J. Phys. Chem. B, 2014, 118, 761-770). In addition, larger ionic liquid cations lead to a lower degree of hydrogen bonding and to more sparsely packed three-dimensional structures, which are more easily perturbed by the addition of lithium salts. PMID:25609558

Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Carrete, Jesús; Rodríguez, Julio R; Cabeza, Óscar; Gallego, Luis J; Russina, Olga; Varela, Luis M

2015-02-01

72

Room temperature ionic liquid-lithium salt mixtures: optical Kerr effect dynamical measurements.  

PubMed

The addition of lithium salts to ionic liquids causes an increase in viscosity and a decrease in ionic mobility that hinders their possible application as an alternative solvent in lithium ion batteries. Optically heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect spectroscopy was used to study the change in dynamics, principally orientational relaxation, caused by the addition of lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide to the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. Over the time scales studied (1 ps-16 ns) for the pure ionic liquid, two temperature-independent power laws were observed: the intermediate power law (1 ps to approximately 1 ns), followed by the von Schweidler power law. The von Schweidler power law is followed by the final complete exponential relaxation, which is highly sensitive to temperature. The lithium salt concentration, however, was found to affect both power laws, and a discontinuity could be found in the trend observed for the intermediate power law when the concentration (mole fraction) of lithium salt is close to chi(LiTf(2)N) = 0.2. A mode coupling theory (MCT) schematic model was also used to fit the data for both the pure ionic liquid and the different salt concentration mixtures. It was found that dynamics in both types of liquids are described very well by MCT. PMID:20527943

Nicolau, Bruno G; Sturlaugson, Adam; Fruchey, Kendall; Ribeiro, Mauro C C; Fayer, M D

2010-07-01

73

Mineral and sensory profile of seasoned cracked olives packed in diverse salt mixtures.  

PubMed

This work studies the effect of packing cracked seasoned olives with NaCl, KCl, and CaCl(2) mixture brines on their mineral nutrients and sensory attributes, using RSM methodology. The Na, K, Ca, and residual natural Mn contents in flesh as well as saltiness, bitterness and fibrousness were significantly related to the initial concentrations of salts in the packing solution. This new process led to table olives with a significantly lower sodium content (about 31%) than the traditional product but fortified in K and Ca. High levels of Na and Ca in the flesh led to high scores of acidity and saltiness (the first descriptor) and bitterness (the second) while the K content was unrelated to any sensory descriptor. The new presentations using moderate proportions of alternative salts will therefore have improved nutritional value and healthier characteristics but only a slightly modified sensory profile. PMID:23265447

Moreno-Baquero, J M; Bautista-Gallego, J; Garrido-Fernández, A; López-López, A

2013-05-01

74

A new processing route for cleaner production of biodiesel fuel using a choline chloride based deep eutectic solvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the free fatty acids (FFA) content in acidic crude palm oil (ACPO) was converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) using a choline chloride based deep eutectic solvent (ChCl-DES) for the first time. This DES is composed of a mixture of a hydrogen bond donor (i.e. p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate) and a salt (i.e. choline chloride). The pre-treatment

A. Hayyan; M. A. Hashim; M. Hayyan; F. S. Mjalli; I. M. Alnashef

2014-01-01

75

Molten salt synthesis of potassium hexatitanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potassium hexatitanate fibrous crystals have been synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction and via molten salt process. The molten salt process has been shown to be effective in preparing fine and non-agglomerated K2Ti6O13 whiskers. The type of molten salt (KCl, NaCl-KCl) has a significant effect on the chemical composition of the whiskers. By using a eutectic mixture of NaCl and KCl, the replacement of potassium ions in solid potassium hexatitanate by smaller sodium ions from the chloride flux can be achieved. The characterization of the samples was carried out by means of XRD, SEM, EDX and WDX.

Zaremba, T.

2012-09-01

76

Protease activation in glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of a choline salt (chloride or acetate form) and glycerol are prepared as easily accessible, biodegradable, and inexpensive alternatives to conventional aprotic cation-anion paired ionic liquids. These DES systems display excellent fluidity coupled with thermal stability to nearly 200 °C. In this work, the transesterification activities of cross-linked proteases (subtilisin and ?-chymotrypsin), immobilized on chitosan, were individually examined in these novel DESs. In the 1:2 molar ratio mixture of choline chloride/glycerol containing 3% (v/v) water, cross-linked subtilisin exhibited an excellent activity (2.9 ?mo l min(-1) g(-1)) in conjunction with a selectivity of 98% in the transesterification reaction of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester with 1-propanol. These highly encouraging results advocate more extensive exploration of DESs in protease-mediated biotransformations of additional polar substrates and use of DESs in biocatalysis more generally. PMID:21909232

Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A; Holmes, Shaletha

2011-11-01

77

Protease activation in glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents  

PubMed Central

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of a choline salt (chloride or acetate form) and glycerol are prepared as easily accessible, biodegradable, and inexpensive alternatives to conventional aprotic cation-anion paired ionic liquids. These DES systems display excellent fluidity coupled with thermal stability to nearly 200 °C. In this work, the transesterification activities of cross-linked proteases (subtilisin and ?-chymotrypsin), immobilized on chitosan, were individually examined in these novel DESs. In the 1:2 molar ratio mixture of choline chloride/glycerol containing 3% (v/v) water, cross-linked subtilisin exhibited an excellent activity (2.9 ?mo l min?1 g?1) in conjunction with a selectivity of 98% in the transesterification reaction of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester with 1-propanol. These highly encouraging results advocate more extensive exploration of DESs in protease-mediated biotransformations of additional polar substrates and use of DESs in biocatalysis more generally. PMID:21909232

Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A.; Holmes, Shaletha

2011-01-01

78

Pentaglyme-K salt binary mixtures: phase behavior, solvate structures, and physicochemical properties.  

PubMed

We prepared a series of binary mixtures composed of certain K salts (KX) and pentaglyme (G5) with different salt concentrations and anionic species ([X](-): [(CF3SO2)2N](-) = [TFSA](-), [CF3SO3](-) = [TfO](-), [C4F9SO3](-) = [NfO](-), PF6(-), SCN(-)), and characterized them with respect to their phase diagrams, solvate structures, and physicochemical properties. Their phase diagrams and thermal stability strongly implied the formation of equimolar complexes. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography was performed on certain equimolar complexes, which revealed that G5 molecules coordinate to K(+) cations in a characteristic manner, like 18-crown-6 ether in the crystalline state, irrespective of the paired anions. The solvate structures in the molten state were elucidated by a combination of temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. A drastic spectral variation was observed in the [K(G5)1][TfO] Raman spectra, indicating that solvate structures in the crystalline state break apart upon melting. The solvate stability of [K(G5)1]X is closely related to the ion-ion interaction of the parent salts. A stable solvate forms when the ion-dipole interaction between K(+) and G5 overwhelms the ion-ion interaction between K(+) and X(-). Furthermore, the physicochemical properties of certain equimolar mixtures were evaluated. A Walden plot clearly reflects the ionic nature of the molten equimolar complexes. Judging from the structural characteristics and dissociativity, we classified [K(G5)1]X into two groups, good and poor solvate ionic liquids. PMID:25501925

Mandai, Toshihiko; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Ueno, Kazuhide; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

2015-01-28

79

Structure and phase equilibria of mixtures of the complex salt hexadecyltrimethylammonium polymethacrylate, water and different oils.  

PubMed

This work reports on phase diagrams for mixtures of a complex salt formed by a cationic surfactant and an oppositely charged polyelectrolyte, hexadecyltrimethylammonium polymethacrylate, in binary mixtures with water and in ternary mixtures containing water and organic solvents of different polarity ('oils'): decanol, octanol, p-xylene and cyclohexane. The liquid crystalline structures formed were identified by small angle X-ray scattering measurements, which also provided information about changes in the size of the aggregates as a function of the system composition. These results are analysed in comparison with others previously reported [Bernardes et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006) 10332-10340] for the analog complex formed with polyacrylate and, in general, reveal that the presence of an extra methylene group in the polymer chain does not produce significant changes in the complex phase diagrams nor in the structure of the liquid crystalline phases formed. Additionally, the obtained results confirm once more the approach used to analyze these kinds of systems formed by polymer and oppositely charged surfactant. PMID:18022181

Bernardes, Juliana Silva; Loh, Watson

2008-02-15

80

Thermal energy storage by means of the latent heat of fusion of a mineral salt - Study of a direct contact dynamic exchanger with salt crystallization during flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a heat exchanger in which the storage medium (a mineral salt) comes into direct contact with the heat transfer agent for the recovery of thermal energy stored in molten salt is investigated. Preliminary experiments on heat transfer and phase separation in a mixture of a molten NaNO2, NaNO3, KNO3 eutectic (melting point 142 C) with a synthetic

J. Pantaloni; O. Favre; R. Bailleux; G. Finiels; J. Marchisio

1979-01-01

81

A high temperature corrosion kinetic study of HK-40 superalloy surface treated, in contact with eutectic mixture 82% K 2S 2O 7-18% V 2O 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion kinetics of the HK-40 superalloy have been studied by electrochemical methods in inert and oxidizing atmospheres in contact with 82% K2S2O7-18% V2O5 (molar ratio) molten mixture, in order to establish the influence of oxygen in the corrosion process. The effect of the operation temperature and the presence of carbon residues mixed with the molten salt mixture is also

E. Otero; A. Pardo; F. J. Pérez; J. F. álvarez; M. V. Utrilla

1997-01-01

82

CO2 capture from simulated fuel gas mixtures using semiclathrate hydrates formed by quaternary ammonium salts.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the feasibility of semiclathrate hydrate-based precombustion CO2 capture, thermodynamic, kinetic, and spectroscopic studies were undertaken on the semiclathrate hydrates formed from a fuel gas mixture of H2 (60%) + CO2 (40%) in the presence of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs) such as tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) and fluoride (TBAF). The inclusion of QASs demonstrated significantly stabilized hydrate dissociation conditions. This effect was greater for TBAF than TBAB. However, due to the presence of dodecahedral cages that are partially filled with water molecules, TBAF showed a relatively lower gas uptake than TBAB. From the stability condition measurements and compositional analyses, it was found that with only one step of semiclathrate hydrate formation with the fuel gas mixture from the IGCC plants, 95% CO2 can be enriched in the semiclathrate hydrate phase at room temperature. The enclathration of both CO2 and H2 in the cages of the QAS semiclathrate hydrates and the structural transition that results from the inclusion of QASs were confirmed through Raman and (1)H NMR measurements. The experimental results obtained in this study provide the physicochemical background required for understanding selective partitioning and distributions of guest gases in the QAS semiclathrate hydrates and for investigating the feasibility of a semiclathrate hydrate-based precombustion CO2 capture process. PMID:23718261

Park, Sungwon; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Youngjun; Seo, Yongwon

2013-07-01

83

Molecular Simulation of Aqueous Electrolyte Solubility. 3. Alkali-Halide Salts and Their Mixtures in Water and in Hydrochloric Acid  

E-print Network

Molecular Simulation of Aqueous Electrolyte Solubility. 3. Alkali- Halide Salts and Their Mixtures. Phys Chem. B 2011, 115, 7849-7861) for directly calculating the aqueous solubility of electrolytes and are of reasonable accuracy. The accuracy of the calculated solubility is highly dependent on the solid chemical

Lisal, Martin

84

STUDIES OF MICRONUCLEI AND OTHER NUCLEAR ABNORMALITIES IN BLOOD OF RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS) TREATED WITH HEAVY METAL MIXTURE AND ROAD MAINTENANCE SALTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of micronuclei (MN), nuclear buds and bi-nucleated erythrocytes was analysed in peripheral blood of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), treated with a heavy metal model mixture (HMMM) and with a mixture of road maintenance salts in doses of real metal and salt concentrations in soil near the main Lithuanian highway. The absolute concentration (100%) of the HMMM solution was

Laura Andreik?nait?; Janina Baršien?; Milda Zita Vosylien?

2007-01-01

85

New synthetic route of polyoxometalate-based hybrids in choline chloride\\/urea eutectic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep eutectic solvents synthetic method was initially explored as a facile synthesis route to prepare new polyoxometalate (POM)-based hybrids. Such a method can not only avoid poor solubility, lower yields and the potential explosion, but also act as a new type of noxious, convenient and environmental friendly organic reagents. Using the choline chloride\\/urea eutectic mixture as the deep eutectic

Shi-Ming Wang; Yun-Wu Li; Xiao-Jia Feng; Yang-Guang Li; En-Bo Wang

2010-01-01

86

Study of water activities of aerosols of mixtures of sodium and magnesium salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium and magnesium are major components of sea salt aerosols. Their salts of chlorides, sulfates and nitrates are hygroscopic. In this research, water activities of aqueous solutions of NaCl-MgCl 2 (molar ratio 1 : 1), NaNO 3-Mg(NO 3) 2 (1 : 1), Na 2SO 4-MgSO 4 (1 : 1), NaCl-Mg(NO 3) 2 (1 : 1 and 3 : 1), NaCl-MgSO 4 (1 : 1), and NaNO 3-MgSO 4 (1 : 1) were measured from dilute concentrations to high supersaturations using an electrodynamic balance. We employed a dynamic method, which is based on continuous measurements of the balancing voltage of the particle as a result of a step decrease of the relative humidity (RH) of the feed to the electrodynamic balance. Good agreements are found between the predictions of the ZSR (Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson) and the KM (Kusik and Meissner) models and the experimental data, with the exception of Na 2SO 4-MgSO 4 solutions. Analysis of the time-series data reveals that Na 2SO 4-MgSO 4 solution has a lower evaporation rate than other solutions. We postulate that this is due to internal mass transfer limitation when the particle forms a gel at high concentration. Partial crystallization of NaCl-MgCl 2, NaCl-Mg(NO 3) 2 (3 : 1), and NaCl-MgSO 4 mixtures occurs in the measurements taken at low RHs. The particles continue to lose water as RH decreases further. Other systems, including NaCl-Mg(NO 3) 2 (1 : 1), do not crystallize even at RH=30%. Crystallization of NaCl is suppressed when sufficient amount of nitrate is present.

Chan, Chak K.; Ha, Zhanyao; Choi, Man Yee

87

Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.  

PubMed

Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping. PMID:23485244

Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

2013-01-01

88

Eutectic composite explosives containing ammonium nitrate  

SciTech Connect

The eutectic of ammonium nitrate (AN), the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole was prepared and its sensitivity and performance were studied. It was found that this AN formulation was unusual in that it performed ideally at small diameter, which indicated that it was a monomolecular explosive. Sensitivity tests included type 12 impact, Henkin thermal and wedge tests, and performance tests included rate stick/plate dent, cylinder, and aquarium tests. Results were compared with calculations, standard explosives, and another eutectic, ethylendiamine dinitrate (EDD)/AN.

Stinecipher, M.M.

1981-01-01

89

Shifting the equilibrium mixture of gramicidin double helices toward a single conformation with multivalent cationic salts.  

PubMed

The conformation of the polypeptide antibiotic gramicidin is greatly influenced by its environment. In methanol, it exists as an equilibrium mixture of four interwound double-helical conformers that differ in their handedness, chain orientation, and alignment. Upon the addition of multivalent cationic salts, there is a shift in the equilibrium to a single conformer, which was monitored in this study by circular dichroism spectroscopy. With increasing concentrations of multivalent cations, both the magnitude of the entire spectrum and the ratio of the 229-nm to the 210-nm peak were increased. The spectral change is not related to the charge on the cation, but appears to be related to the cationic radius, with the maximum change in ellipticity occurring for cations with a radius of approximately 1 A. The effect requires the presence of an anion whose radius is greater than that of a fluoride ion, but is otherwise not a function of anion type. It is postulated that multivalent cations interact with a binding site in one of the conformers, known as species 1 (a left-handed, parallel, no stagger double helix), stabilizing a modified form of this type of structure. PMID:9675165

Doyle, D A; Wallace, B A

1998-08-01

90

Investigations of neutron characteristics for salt blanket models; integral fission cross section measurements of neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Neutron characteristics of salt blanket micromodels containing eutectic mixtures of sodium, zirconium and uranium sulphides were measured on FKBN-2M, BIGR and MAKET installations. The effective fission cross sections of neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes were measured on the neutron spectra formed by micromodels. KEYWORDS: transmutation, minor actinides, fluoride salts, micromodel, critical assembly, neutron spectrum, multiplication coefficient, fission, effective cross section, nuclear track detector, nuclear data library

Novoselov, G. F.; Gavrilov, V. V.; Kuvshinov, M. (Mikhail); Bogdanov, V. M. (Vladimir Mikha?lovich); Maslov, Georgi? Vladimirovich,; Vyachin, V. (Vladimir); Mashnik, S. G. (Stepan G.); Gorelov, V. I. (Vladimir Ivanovich); Fomushkin, E. F.

2001-01-01

91

Fundamental Properties of Salts  

SciTech Connect

Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

2012-11-01

92

Ternary eutectic growth of Ag-Cu-Sb alloy within ultrasonic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid to solid transformation of ternary Ag42.4Cu21.6Sb36 eutectic alloy was accomplished in an ultrasonic field with a frequency of 35 kHz, and the growth mechanism of this ternary eutectic was examined. Theoretical calculations predict that the sound intensity in the liquid phase at the solidification interface increases gradually as the interface moves up from the sample bottom to its top. The growth mode of ( ? + ? + Sb) ternary eutectic exhibits a transition of “divorced eutectic—mixture of anomalous and regular structures—regular eutectic” along the sample axis due to the inhomogeneity of sound field distribution. In the top zone with the highest sound intensity, the cavitation effect promotes the three eutectic phases to nucleate independently, while the acoustic streaming efficiently suppresses the coupled growth of eutectic phases. In the meantime, the ultrasonic field accelerates the solute transportation at the solid-liquid interface, which reduces the solute solubility of eutectic phases.

Zhai, Wei; Hong, Zhenyu; Wei, Bingbo

2007-08-01

93

Molecular dynamics simulations of the structure of the graphene-ionic liquid/alkali salt mixtures interface.  

PubMed

We performed molecular dynamics simulations of mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with lithium tetrafluoroborate and potassium tetrafluoroborate between two charged and uncharged graphene walls, in order to analyze the structure of the well-known formation of layers that takes place on liquids under confinement. For this purpose, we studied the molecular density profiles, free energy profiles for bringing lithium and potassium cations from the bulk mixture to the graphene wall and the orientational distributions of imidazolium rings within the first adsorbed layer as a function of salt concentration and electrode potential. The charge densities in the electrodes were chosen to be zero and ±1 e nm(-2), and the salt molar percentages were %salt = 0, 10 and 25. We found that the layered structure extends up to 1-2 nm, where the bulk behaviour is recovered. In addition, whereas for the neutral surface the layers are composed of both ionic species, increasing the electrode potential, the structure changes to alternating cationic and anionic layers leading to an overcompensation of the charge of the previous layer. We also calculated the distribution of angles of imidazolium rings near neutral and charged graphene walls, finding a limited influence of the added salt. In addition, the average tilt of the imidazolium ring within the first layer goes from 36° with respect to a normal vector to the uncharged graphene wall to 62° in the presence of charged walls. The free energy profiles revealed that lithium and potassium ions are adsorbed on the negative surface only for the highest amount of salt, since the free energy barriers for approaching this electrode are considerably higher than kBT. PMID:24871696

Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Carrete, Jesús; Pérez-Rodríguez, Martín; Cabeza, Óscar; Gallego, Luis J; Lynden-Bell, Ruth M; Varela, Luis M

2014-07-14

94

The effectiveness of diclofenac gel and eutectic mixture of local anesthetic cream on vein puncture pain severity with vein catheter in patient undergoing cesarean section: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Aim: This study was aimed to explore the effect of applying diclofenac gel and a eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA) cream on vein puncture pain severity with vein catheter in the patients undergoing cesarean section. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 90 women undergoing elective cesarean section that referred to Imam Ali Hospital's maternity section in Amol city (Northern Iran). Data collection tools included visual analog scale for pain severity and a checklist for short term possible side-effects of diclofenac gel, EMLA cream and Vaseline ointment as placebo. Results: The pain of vein puncture with diclofenac gel and EMLA cream was significantly lower than that with the Vaseline ointment (P = 0.001). Similarly, there was a significant difference between using diclofenac gel and EMLA cream in catheter insertion pain severity (P = 0.006). In addition, there was no short term possible side-effect with using diclofenac gel and Vaseline ointment, but a short term side-effect (blanching) was detected in 20% of subjects with EMLA cream. Conclusion: Compared to Vaseline cream, EMLA cream and diclofenac gel application significantly reduces the pain severity associated with vein catheter insertion. Use of diclofenac gel is preferred compared with EMLA cream, because of economics, more efficiency purpose, and no side-effects. PMID:25298943

Khalili, Sediqeh; Safavi, Mahboubeh; Rezaei, Rozita; Bidmeshki, Maria; Shirzad, Fatemeh; Nasiri, Mostafa

2014-01-01

95

Eutectics as improved pharmaceutical materials: design, properties and characterization.  

PubMed

Eutectics are a long known class of multi-component solids with important and useful applications in daily life. In comparison to other multi-component crystalline solids, such as salts, solid solutions, molecular complexes and cocrystals, eutectics are less studied in terms of molecular structure organization and bonding interactions. Classically, a eutectic is defined based on its low melting point compared to the individual components. In this article, we attempt to define eutectics not just based on thermal methods but from a structural organization view point, and discuss their microstructures and properties as organic materials vis-a-vis solid solutions and cocrystals. The X-ray crystal structure of a cocrystal is different from that of the individual components whereas the unit cell of a solid solution is similar to that of one of the components. Eutectics are closer to the latter species in that their crystalline arrangement is similar to the parent components but they are different with respect to the structural integrity. A solid solution possesses structural homogeneity throughout the structure (single phase) but a eutectic is a heterogeneous ensemble of individual components whose crystal structures are like discontinuous solid solutions (phase separated). Thus, a eutectic may be better defined as a conglomerate of solid solutions. A structural analysis of cocrystals, solid solutions and eutectics has led to an understanding that materials with strong adhesive (hetero) interactions between the unlike components will lead to cocrystals whereas those having stronger cohesive (homo/self) interactions will more often give rise to solid solutions (for similar structures of components) and eutectics (for different structures of components). We demonstrate that the same crystal engineering principles which have been profitably utilized for cocrystal design in the past decade can now be applied to make eutectics as novel composite materials, illustrated by stable eutectics of the hygroscopic salt of the anti-tuberculosis drug ethambutol as a case study. A current gap in the characterization of eutectic microstructure may be fulfilled through pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of X-ray diffraction data, which could be a rapid signature technique to differentiate eutectics from their components. PMID:24322207

Cherukuvada, Suryanarayan; Nangia, Ashwini

2014-01-28

96

Measurement of the melting point temperature of several lithium-sodium-beryllium fluoride salt (FLINABE) mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium flourides, was studied for molten salt fission reactors and has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for the fusion applications. 2LiF-BeF melts at 460 C. LiF-BeF melts at a lower temperature, 363 C, but is rather viscous and has less lithium breeder. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program,

Timothy J. Boyle; Kenneth P. Troncosa; Richard Einar Nygren; Thomas Joseph Lutz; Jimmie M. McDonald; Tina Joan Tanaka; Michael Andrew Ulrickson

2004-01-01

97

Scientific Correspondence Are Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents the Missing Link in  

E-print Network

Scientific Correspondence Are Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents the Missing Link in Understanding and deep eutectic solvents (DES) have been revisited by chemical engineering, because such solvents can replace conventional organic solvents. Mixing salts and/or organic compounds may cause a considerable

Galis, Frietson

98

Novel room temperature molten salt electrolyte based on LiTFSI and acetamide for lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel room temperature molten salt (RTMS) electrolyte composed of lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfone)imide (LiN(SO2CF3)2, LiTFSI) and acetamide was found. Both LiTFSI and acetamide are solid at room temperature, but their mixture is a liquid at room temperature with a eutectic temperature of ?67 °C at a molar ratio of 1:4 (LiTFSI:Acetamide). The room temperature ionic conductivities of some compositions of

Yongsheng Hu; Hong Li; Xuejie Huang; Liquan Chen

2004-01-01

99

New eutectic alloys and their heats of transformation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eutectic compositions and congruently melting intermetallic compounds in binary and multicomponent systems among common elements such as Al, Ca, Cu, Mg, P, Si, and Zn may be useful for high temperature heat storage. In this work, heats of fusion of new multicomponent eutectics and intermetallic phases are reported, some of which are competitive with molten salts in heat storage density at high temperatures. The method used to determine unknown eutectic compositions combined results of differential thermal analysis, metallography, and microprobe analysis. The method allows determination of eutectic compositions in no more than three steps. The heats of fusion of the alloys were measured using commercial calorimeters, a differential thermal analyzer, and a differential scanning calorimeter.

Farkas, D.; Birchenall, C. E.

1985-01-01

100

Simple Cloud Chambers Using a Freezing Mixture of Ice and Cooking Salt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have developed much simpler cloud chambers that use only ice and cooking salt instead of the dry ice or ice gel pack needed for the cloud chambers produced in our previous work. The observed alpha-ray particle tracks are as clear as those observed using our previous cloud chambers. The tracks can be observed continuously for about 20?min, and…

Yoshinaga, Kyohei; Kubota, Miki; Kamata, Masahiro

2015-01-01

101

Form and structure of self-assembling particles in monoolein-bile salt mixtures  

SciTech Connect

We studied particle morphology in the isotropic part of the bile salt-monoolein-water phase map using small-angle neutron scattering. The bile salts used in this work are cholylglycine and chenodeoxycholylglycine. These systems are models for particle form and molecular arrangement in intestinal content when bile components are replaced by hydrolysis products of dietary triglycerides. We found that the molecular arrangement of the particles present is qualitatively the same as that in the bile salt-phosphatidylcholine systems. This result indicated that the particle morphology is conserved when the products of dietary triglyceride hydrolysis are incorporated, suggesting that the form of bile particle morphology is retained. These observations suggested further that the bile salt and the presence of a hydrocarbon chain are the most important determinants of the functional form of the bile particles, as the monoglyceride is a single-tailed, nonionic surfactant, as opposed to the phosphatidylcholines, which are two-tailed, zwitterionic surfactants. 55 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

Hjelm, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Schteingart, C.; Hoffmann, A.F. [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States); Sivia, D.S. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)

1995-11-02

102

Study of eutectic formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory was developed for the influence of convection on the microstructure of lamellar eutectics. Convection is predicted to produce a coarser microstructure, especially at low freezing rates and large volume fractions of the minority phase. Similary convection is predicted to lower the interfacial undercooling, especially at low freezing rates. Experiments using spin-up/spin-down were performed on the Mn-Bi eutectic. This stirring had a dramatic effect on the microstructure, not only making it coarser but at low freezing rates also changing the morphology of the MnBi. The coarsering persisted to moderately high freezing rates. At the lowest freezing rate, vigorous stirring caused the MnBi to be concentrated at the periphery of the ingot and absent along the center. Progress was made on developing a technique for revealing the three-dimensional microstructure of the MnBi eutectic by time-lapse videotaping while etching.

Wilcox, W. R.; Eisa, G. F.; Baskaran, V.; Richardson, D. C.

1984-01-01

103

Simple cloud chambers using a freezing mixture of ice and cooking salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed much simpler cloud chambers that use only ice and cooking salt instead of the dry ice or ice gel pack needed for the cloud chambers produced in our previous work. The observed alpha-ray particle tracks are as clear as those observed using our previous cloud chambers. The tracks can be observed continuously for about 20?min, and the preparation and operation are simple.

Yoshinaga, Kyohei; Kubota, Miki; Kamata, Masahiro

2015-01-01

104

Reactions of coal and model coal compounds in room temperature molten salt mixtures  

SciTech Connect

A 2:1 AlCl/sub 3/-pyridinium chloride molten salt solution was used as the reaction medium for the alkylation of diphenylethane and a bituminous coal by 2-propanol. Probably accompanying the room temperature Friedel-Crafts alkylation is a reduction of C=O to -C-OH. Completely deuterated 2-propanol did not react at all with the pyridinium ring. The pyridinium chloride serves to lower the temperature at which the AlCl/sub 3/ is able to catalyze the reactions. The pyridinium chloride also catalyzes the Friedel-Crafts alkylation.

Newman, D.S.; Winans, R.E.; McBeth, R.L.

1984-05-01

105

Prediction of deep eutectic solvents densities at different temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting densities of nonconventional solvents like deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as a function of temperature is of considerable importance in the development and design of new processes utilizing these solvents. Because of the nature of bonding existing between the salt and the hydrogen bond donor, conventional methods result in very large deviations. In this study, the density of DESs based

K. Shahbaz; F. S. Mjalli; M. A. Hashim; I. M. Alnashef

2011-01-01

106

Utilization of temporal dominance of sensations and time intensity methodology for development of low-sodium Mozzarella cheese using a mixture of salts.  

PubMed

Evidence has linked excessive salt consumption to the development of chronic degenerative diseases. Therefore, special attention has been given to the consumption of healthier products with reduced sodium contents. This study aimed to develop a Mozzarella cheese with a reduced sodium content using a mixture of salts through acceptance testing and temporal sensory evaluation. The following 3 formulations of Mozzarella cheese were prepared: formulation A (control), which was produced only with NaCl (0% sodium reduction), formulation B (30% sodium reduction), and formulation C (54% sodium reduction). Every formulation was produced using a mixture of salts consisting of NaCl, KCl, and monosodium glutamate at different concentrations. The products underwent sensory acceptance tests, and the time intensity and temporal dominance of sensations were evaluated. The proportions of salts used did not cause strange or bad tastes but did result in lower intensities of saltiness. Mozzarella with low sodium content (B and C) had a sensory acceptance similar to that of traditional Mozzarella (A). Therefore, the use of a mixture of salts consisting of NaCl, KCl, and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative for the production of Mozzarella, with up to a 54% reduction in the sodium content while still maintaining acceptable sensory quality. PMID:24881790

Rodrigues, J F; Gonçalves, C S; Pereira, R C; Carneiro, J D S; Pinheiro, A C M

2014-08-01

107

Prediction of the surface tension of deep eutectic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface tension is one of the important deep eutectic solvents (DESs) physical properties which provides considerable information related to the molecular influence on the intensity of interactions in the mixture. Due to the absence of DESs surface tension experimental data, prediction methods of this property become of high importance. In this work, two simple methods for the prediction of DESs

K. Shahbaz; F. S. Mjalli; M. A. Hashim; I. M. AlNashef

2012-01-01

108

Physicochemical properties of three ionic liquids containing a tetracyanoborate anion and their lithium salt mixtures.  

PubMed

Given their relevant physicochemical properties, ionic liquids (ILs) are attracting great attention as electrolytes for use in different electrochemical devices, such as capacitors, sensors, and lithium ion batteries. In addition to the advantages of using ILs containing lithium cations as electrolytes in lithium ion batteries, the Li(+) transport in ILs containing the most common anion, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide anion ([Tf2N]), is reportedly small; therefore, its contribution to the overall conductivity is also low. In this work, we describe the preparation and characterization of two new and one known IL containing the tetracyanoborate anion ([B(CN)4]) as the anionic species. These ILs have high thermal and chemical stabilities, with almost twice the ionic conductivity of the [Tf2N] ILs and, most importantly, provide a greater role for the Li(+) ion throughout the conductivity process. The experimental ionic conductivity and self-diffusion coefficient data show that the [B(CN)4]-based ILs and their Li(+) mixtures have a higher number of charge carriers. Molecular dynamics simulations showed a weaker interaction between Li(+) and [B(CN)4] than that with [Tf2N]. These results may stimulate new applications for ILs that have good Li(+) transport properties. PMID:24992482

Sanchez-Ramirez, Nédher; Martins, Vitor L; Ando, Rômulo A; Camilo, Fernanda F; Urahata, Sérgio M; Ribeiro, Mauro C C; Torresi, Roberto M

2014-07-24

109

Densities of ammonium and phosphonium based deep eutectic solvents: Prediction using artificial intelligence and group contribution techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

As applications of deep eutectic solvents are growing fast as green alternatives, prediction of physical properties data for such systems becomes a necessity for engineering application designs and new process developments. In this study, densities of three classes of deep eutectic solvents, based on a phosphonium and two ammonium salts, were measured. Two predictive models based on artificial intelligence and

K. Shahbaz; S. Baroutian; F. S. Mjalli; M. A. Hashim; I. M. Alnashef

2012-01-01

110

Physical chemistry of molten salt batteries. Final report for period October 1, 1979September 30, 1980. Current-induced composition gradients in molten LiCl-KCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current induced composition gradients were demonstrated in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic mixture, the electrolyte of an LiAl\\/LiCl-KCl\\/FeS\\/sub x\\/ battery. The gradients were produced by electrolysis of the salt between LiAl electrodes at currents of 50 to 100 mA cm⁻², and quenching. Analysis of composition profiles in quenched samples was by atomic absorption spectroscopy, which gave good precision, and by x-ray

J. Braunstein; S. Cantor; C. E. Vallet

1981-01-01

111

Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

2013-07-31

112

Processing eutectics in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigations of directional solidification have indicated the necessity of establishing a secure foundation in earth-based laboratory processing in order to properly assess low-gravity processing. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the regularity of microstructure of the rod-like eutectic Al-Al3Ni obtained under different conditions of growth involving the parameters of thermal gradient, solidification rate, and interfacial curvature. In the case of Al-Al3Ni, where the Al3Ni phase appears as facets rods, solidification rate was determined to be a controlling parameter. Zone melting of thin eutectic films showed that for films of the order of 10 to 20 micrometers thick, the extra surface energy appears to act to stabilize a regular microstructure. The results suggest that the role of low-gravity as provided in space-laboratory processing of materials is to be sought in the possibility of generating a higher thermal gradient in the solidifying ingot for a given power input-output arrangement than can be obtained under normal one-g processes.

Douglas, F. C.; Galasso, S. F.

1975-01-01

113

Coatings for directional eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coatings developed to provide oxidation protection for the directionally-solidified eutectic alloy NiTaC-B (4.4 weight percent Cr) were evaluated. Of seven Co-, Fe- and Ni-base coatings that were initially investigated, best resistance to cyclic oxidation was demonstrated by duplex coatings fabricated by depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam source followed by deposition of an Al overlayer using the pack cementation process. It was found that addition of carbon to the coating alloy substantially eliminated the problem of fiber denudation in TaC-type eutectic alloys. Burner rig cycled NiTaC-B samples coated with Ni-20Cr-5Al-0.1C-0.1Y+Al and rupture-tested at 1100 deg C performed as well as or better than uncoated, vacuum cycled and air-tested NiTaC-13; however, a slight degradation with respect to uncoated material was noted in air-stress rupture tests at 870 deg C for both cycled and uncycled samples.

Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

1976-01-01

114

Intergranular tellurium cracking of nickel-based alloys in molten Li, Be, Th, U/F salt mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Russia, R&D on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) are concentrated now on fast/intermediate spectrum concepts which were recognized as long term alternative to solid fueled fast reactors due to their attractive features: strong negative feedback coefficients, easy in-service inspection, and simplified fuel cycle. For high-temperature MSR corrosion of the metallic container alloy in primary circuit is the primary concern. Key problem receiving current attention include surface fissures in Ni-based alloys probably arising from fission product tellurium attack. This paper summarizes results of corrosion tests conducted recently to study effect of oxidation state in selected fuel salt on tellurium attack and to develop means of controlling tellurium cracking in the special Ni-based alloys recently developed for molten salt actinide recycler and tranforming (MOSART) system. Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys was tested at temperatures up to 750 °C in stressed and unloaded conditions in molten LiF-BeF2 salt mixture fueled by about 20 mol% of ThF4 and 2 mol% of UF4 at different [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratios: 0.7, 4, 20, 100 and 500. Following Ni-based alloys (in mass%): HN80?-VI (Mo—12, Cr—7.6, Nb—1.5), HN80??Y (Mo—13, Cr—6.8, Al—1.1, Ti—0.9), HN80??W (Mo—9.4, Cr—7.0, Ti—1.7, W—5.5) and ??-721 (W—25.2, Cr—5.7, Ti—0.17) were used for the study in the corrosion facility. If the redox state the fuel salt is characterized by uranium ratio [U(IV)]/[U(III)] < 1 the alloys' specimens get a more negative stationary electrode potential than equilibrium electrode potentials of some uranium intermetallic compounds and alloys with nickel and molybdenum. This leads to spontaneous behavior of alloy formation processes on the specimens' surface and further diffusion of uranium deep into the metallic phase. As consequence of this films of intermetallic compounds and alloys of nickel, molybdenum, tungsten with uranium are formed on the alloys specimens' surface, and intergranular corrosion does not take place. In the fuel salt with [U(IV)]/[U(III)] = 4-20 the potentials of uranium alloy formation with the main components of the tested alloys are not reached, that's why alloys and intermetallic compounds are not formed on the surface of the investigated chromium-nickel alloys. Under such conditions any intergranular tellurium corrosion of the selected alloys does not occur. In the fuel salt with [U(IV)/]/[U(III)] = 100 the potentials of uranium alloy formation with the main components of the tested alloys are not also reached. Under such redox conditions any traces intergranular tellurium IGC on the HN80MTY and H80M-VI alloys specimens are not found. Certain signs of incipient IGC in the form of tellurium presence on the grain boundaries in the HN80MTB and EM-721 alloys surface layer and formation of not too deep cracks on HN80MTB alloy surface were revealed at [U(IV)/]/[U(III)] = 100. With this uranium ratio in the presence of corrosion products on the surface of all of the alloys films, containing tellurium, metals of the construction alloys and carbon, are formed. In the melt with [U(IV)]/[U(III)] = 500 in all of the alloys tested the tellurium IGC took place. The HN80MTY alloy shows the maximum resistance to tellurium IGC. The intensity of tellurium IGC of the alloy (the K parameter) is by 3-5 times lower as compared to other alloys. The EM-721 alloy has the minimal resistance to tellurium IGC (K = 9200 pc m/cm, the depth of cracks is up to 434 ?m). The studies have shown, that the intensity of the nickel alloys IGC is controlled by the [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratio, and its dependence on this parameter is of threshold character. Providing the uranium ratio value's monitoring and regulation, it is possible to control the tellurium corrosion and in such a way to eliminate IGC completely or to minimize its value. The alloys strength characteristics and their structure were changed insignificantly after testing within the [U(IV)]/[U(III)] range from 0.7 t? 100. The changes a

Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexander; Gnidoy, Ivan; Kulakov, Alexander; Uglov, Vadim; Vasiliev, Alexander; Presniakov, Mikhail

2013-09-01

115

Colloid?Enhanced Ultrafiltration of Chlorophenols in Wastewater: Part III. Effect of Added Salt on Solubilization in Surfactant Solutions and Surfactant–Polymer Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubilization of three phenolic solutes in micellar solutions and surfactant–polymer mixtures is studied: 2?monochlorophenol (MCP), 2,4?dichlorophenol (DCP), and 2,4,6?trichlorophenol (TCP). The equilibrium dialysis (ED) technique is used to determine the solubilization equilibrium constant as a function of added NaCl concentration. The added salt enhances the solubilization ability of surfactant micelles, but it only slightly affects the solubilization constant of

Napaporn Komesvarakul; John F. Scamehorn; Richard W. Taylor

2004-01-01

116

Accelerator-driven subcritical fission in molten salt core: Closing the nuclear fuel cycle for green nuclear energy  

SciTech Connect

A technology for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) is being developed as a basis for the destruction of the transuranics in used nuclear fuel. The molten salt fuel is a eutectic mixture of NaCl and the chlorides of the transuranics and fission products. The core is driven by proton beams from a strong-focusing cyclotron stack. This approach uniquely provides an intrinsically safe means to drive a core fueled only with transuranics, thereby eliminating competing breeding terms.

McIntyre, Peter; Assadi, Saeed; Badgley, Karie; Baker, William; Comeaux, Justin; Gerity, James; Kellams, Joshua; McInturff, Al; Pogue, Nathaniel; Sattarov, Akhdiyor; Sooby, Elizabeth; Tsvetkov, Pavel [Dept. of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 and Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Simpson, Michael [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls ID 83402 (United States)

2013-04-19

117

Accelerator-driven subcritical fission in molten salt core: Closing the nuclear fuel cycle for green nuclear energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technology for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) is being developed as a basis for the destruction of the transuranics in used nuclear fuel. The molten salt fuel is a eutectic mixture of NaCl and the chlorides of the transuranics and fission products. The core is driven by proton beams from a strong-focusing cyclotron stack. This approach uniquely provides an intrinsically safe means to drive a core fueled only with transuranics, thereby eliminating competing breeding terms.

McIntyre, Peter; Assadi, Saeed; Badgley, Karie; Baker, William; Comeaux, Justin; Gerity, James; Kellams, Joshua; McInturff, Al; Pogue, Nathaniel; Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Sattarov, Akhdiyor; Simpson, Michael; Sooby, Elizabeth; Tsvetkov, Pavel

2013-04-01

118

Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode.

Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Hayden, H. Wayne (Oakridge, TN)

1995-01-01

119

Determination of Preferential Interaction Parameters by Multicomponent Diffusion. Applications to Poly(ethylene glycol)-Salt-Water Ternary Mixtures  

E-print Network

interaction coef- ficients have been determined for several protein-osmolyte aqueous solutions.3 These studies compact proteins. Moreover, we observe that the PEG preferential hydration significantly decreases as salt of macromolecules in aqueous solution is perturbed by the presence of osmolytes such as salts and small organic

Annunziata, Onofrio

120

Using deep eutectic solvents to electrodeposit CoSm films and nanowires  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Deep Eutectic Solvent of 1 chlorine chloride: 2 urea eutectic mixture at 70°C has been tested as useful to electrodeposit both magnetic SmCo films and nanowires. Galvanostatic deposition allows obtaining homogeneous deposits over metallic substrate with variable composition as a function of the current density applied. The deposits obtained at 0.5–1.5mAcm?2 were uniform and they correspond to a cobalt

P. Cojocaru; L. Magagnin; E. Gomez; E. Vallés

2011-01-01

121

Coatings for directional eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant advances have been made in the development of an environmentally stable coating for a very high strength, directionally solidified eutectic alloy designated NiTaC-13. Three duplex (two-layer) coatings survived 3,000 hours on a cyclic oxidation test (1,100 C to 90 C). These coatings were fabricated by first depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam heated source, followed by depositing an aluminizing overlayer. The alloy after exposure with these coatings was denuded of carbide fibers at the substrate/coating interface. It was demonstrated that TaC fiber denudation can be greatly retarded by applying a carbon-bearing coating. The coating was applied by thermal spraying followed by aluminization. Specimens coated with NiCrAlCY+Al survived over 2,000 hours in the cyclic oxidation test with essentially no TaC denudation. Coating ductility was studied for coated and heat-treated bars, and stress rupture life at 871 C and 1,100 C was determined for coated and cycled bars.

Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

1976-01-01

122

Deep eutectic solvents: syntheses, properties and applications.  

PubMed

Within the framework of green chemistry, solvents occupy a strategic place. To be qualified as a green medium, these solvents have to meet different criteria such as availability, non-toxicity, biodegradability, recyclability, flammability, and low price among others. Up to now, the number of available green solvents are rather limited. Here we wish to discuss a new family of ionic fluids, so-called Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES), that are now rapidly emerging in the current literature. A DES is a fluid generally composed of two or three cheap and safe components that are capable of self-association, often through hydrogen bond interactions, to form a eutectic mixture with a melting point lower than that of each individual component. DESs are generally liquid at temperatures lower than 100 °C. These DESs exhibit similar physico-chemical properties to the traditionally used ionic liquids, while being much cheaper and environmentally friendlier. Owing to these remarkable advantages, DESs are now of growing interest in many fields of research. In this review, we report the major contributions of DESs in catalysis, organic synthesis, dissolution and extraction processes, electrochemistry and material chemistry. All works discussed in this review aim at demonstrating that DESs not only allow the design of eco-efficient processes but also open a straightforward access to new chemicals and materials. PMID:22806597

Zhang, Qinghua; De Oliveira Vigier, Karine; Royer, Sébastien; Jérôme, François

2012-11-01

123

Solvatochromic Probe Behavior within Choline Chloride-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents: Effect of Temperature and Water.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown potential as promising environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional solvents. Many common and popular DESs are obtained by simply mixing a salt and a H-bond donor. Properties of such a DES depend on its constituents. Change in temperature and addition of water, a benign cosolvent, can change the physicochemical properties of DESs. The effect of changing temperature and addition of water on solvatochromic probe behavior within three DESs formed from choline chloride combined with 1,2-ethanediol, glycerol, and urea, respectively, in 1:2 mol ratios termed ethaline, glyceline, and reline is presented. Increase in temperature results in reduced H-bond donating acidity of the DESs. Dipolarity/polarizability and H-bond accepting basicity do not change with changing temperature of the DESs. The response of the fluorescence probe pyrene also indicates a decrease in the polarity of the DESs as temperature is increased. Addition of water to DES results in increased dipolarity/polarizability and a decrease in H-bond accepting basicity. Except for pyrene, solvatochromic probes exhibit responses close to those predicted from ideal-additive behavior with slight preferential solvation by DES within the aqueous mixtures. Pyrene response reveals significant preferential solvation by DES and/or the presence of solvent-solvent interactions, especially within aqueous mixtures of ethaline and glyceline, the DESs constituted of H-bond donors with hydroxyl functionalities. FTIR absorbance and Raman spectroscopic measurements of aqueous DES mixtures support the outcomes from solvatochromic probe responses. Aqueous mixtures of ethaline and glyceline possess relatively more interspecies H-bonds as compared to aqueous mixtures of reline, where interstitial accommodation of water within the reline molecular network appears to dominate. PMID:25418894

Pandey, Ashish; Pandey, Siddharth

2014-12-18

124

Applications of molten salts in plutonium processing  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium is efficiently recovered from scrap at Los Alamos by a series of chemical reactions and separations conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. These processes usually employ a molten salt or salt eutectic as a heat sink and/or reaction medium. Salts for these operations were selected early in the development cycle. The selection criteria are being reevaluated. In this article we describe the processes now in use at Los Alamos and our studies of alternate salts and eutectics.

Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

1987-01-01

125

Eutectic melting of LiBH4-KBH4.  

PubMed

Eutectic melting in mixtures of alkali and alkali earth metal borohydrides can pave the way for new applications as fast ionic conductors, and facilitate hydrogen release by low temperature chemical reactions and convenient nanoconfinement. Here, we determine the eutectic composition for the lithium potassium borohydride system, 0.725LiBH4-0.275KBH4, with the lowest melting point, Tmelt ?105 °C, of all known alkali and alkali earth metal borohydride mixtures. Mechanochemistry and manual mixing of LiBH4-KBH4 mixtures facilitate the formation of LiK(BH4)2. However, the melting or heat treatments used in this work do not produce LiK(BH4)2. The bimetallic borohydride dissociates into the monometallic borohydrides at ?95 °C and partial melting occurs at ?105 °C. Analysis of the unit cell volumes of LiBH4, KBH4 and LiK(BH4)2 in the temperature range 25 to 90 °C indicates that the formation of the bimetallic borohydride is facilitated by a more dense packing as compared to the reactants. Thus, LiK(BH4)2 is considered metastable and the formation is pressure induced. A phase diagram for the LiBH4-KBH4 system is established, which illustrates the low eutectic melting point and the stability range for the bimetallic borohydride, LiK(BH4)2. PMID:25293724

Ley, Morten B; Roedern, Elsa; Jensen, Torben R

2014-11-28

126

Halide eutectic growth experiment MA-131  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fiberlike sodium chloride/lithium fluoride eutectic mixtures have been produced on earth and in space by the directional solidification technique. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations were made on longitudinal and transverse sections of Apollo Soyuz Test Project space grown and earth grown ingots. It was found that samples grown in space have a higher percentage of fibers alined with the growth axis. The enhanced alinement of fibers is attributed to the absence of convection currents in the liquid during solidification. Optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space grown and earth grown ingots were performed with an infrared spectrometer. For a given sample thickness, the highest transmittance was obtained from ingots grown in space. For samples of different thicknesses, grown either in space or on earth, it was found that the thinner the sample, the higher the transmittance. This is in agreement with the general optical property of transparent materials.

Yue, A. S.; Yue, B. K.; Lee, J. Y. M.

1976-01-01

127

Fluoride salts and container materials for thermal energy storage applications in the temperature range 973 to 1400 K  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multicomponent fluoride salt mixtures were characterized for use as latent heat of fusion heat storage materials in advanced solar dynamic space power systems with operating temperatures in the range of 973 to 1400 K. The melting points and eutectic composition for many systems with published phase diagrams were verified, and several new eutectic compositions were identified. Additionally, the heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The extent of corrosion of various metals by fluoride melts was estimated from thermodynamic considerations, and equilibrium conditions inside a containment vessel were calculated as functions of the initial moisture content of the salt and free volume above the molten salt. Preliminary experimental data on the corrosion of commercial, high-temperature alloys in LiF-19.5CaF2 and NaF-27CaF2-36MgF2 melts are presented and compared to the thermodynamic predictions.

Misra, Ajay K.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

1987-01-01

128

Fluoride salts and container materials for thermal energy storage applications in the temperature range 973 - 1400 K  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multicomponent fluoride salt mixtures were characterized for use as latent heat of fusion heat storage materials in advanced solar dynamic space power systems with operating temperatures in the range of 973 to 1400 K. The melting points and eutectic composition for many systems with published phase diagrams were verified, and several new eutectic compositions were identified. Additionally, the heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The extent of corrosion of various metals by fluoride melts was estimated from thermodynamic considerations, and equilibrium conditions inside a containment vessel were calculated as functions of the initial moisture content of the salt and free volume above the molten salt. Preliminary experimental data on the corrosion of commercial, high-temperature alloys in LiF-19.5CaF2 and NaF-27CaF2-36MgF2 melts are presented and compared to the thermodynamic predictions.

Misra, Ajay K.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

1987-01-01

129

Directional solidification of eutectic composites in space environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ni-Ni3Ta eutectic and a nickel-base alloy containing 30 wt pct Ta were solidified unidirectionally in an electron beam floating zone melting apparatus. It was found that the volume fraction of the Ni3Ta phase in the Ni-Ni3Ta eutectic mixture was increased from 7.6 to 36 volume pct in agreement with the theory as predicted. Tensile properties of the randomly solidified and unidirectionally solidified Ni-Ni3Ta eutectic were determined as function of solidification rate and temperature. It was found that the ultimate tensile strength decreased as both the test temperature and solidification rate increased. An elongation of 40 pct was obtained for a nickelbase alloy containing 30 wt at room temperature. This unusually large elongation was attributed to the superplastic behavior of the alloy. The critical currents versus the external fields at 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.2 deg for the unidirectionally solidified Pb-Sn eutectic were measured. The values of critical fields at zero critical currents were obtained by extrapolation.

Yue, A. S.

1972-01-01

130

Eutectic superalloy compositions and articles  

SciTech Connect

An improved eutectic superalloy composition is described. The eutectic composition upon solidification forms a gamma matrix, containing a substantial quantity of particles of the gamma prime phase, and containing about 12% by volume of aligned continuous chromium carbide fibers (Cr/sub 3/C/sub 2/). Material of this composition is provided with significantly improved mechanical properties and surface stability through the addition of approximately one atomic percent of the material selected from the group consisting of manganese, technetium and rhenium. Directionally solidified articles of this composition have utility as gas turbine engine components.

Lemkey, F. D.; Machlin, I.

1985-09-24

131

Directional Solidification of Eutectic Ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two major problems associated with structural ceramics are lack of damage tolerance and insufficient strength and creep resistance at very high temperatures of interest for aerospace application. This work demonstrated that the directionally solidified eutectics can have unique poly-phase microstructures and mechanical properties superior to either constituent alone. The constraining effect of unique eutectic microstructures result in higher resistance to slow crack growth and creep. Prospect of achieving superior properties through controlled solidification are presented and this technology can also be beneficial to produce new class of materials.

Sayir, Ali

2001-01-01

132

Mixture or Solution?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Textbook definition: "Mixtures are formed simply by blending two or more substances together in some random proportion without chemically changing the individual substances in the mixture." Mixtures can then be broken down into homogeneous and heterogeneous. A homogeneous mixture is called a solution: salt or sugar and water, air (solution of gases). These have a constant composition throughout the solution. A heterogeneous mixture would be: salt with sugar (no water), water with gasoline or oil, salt with sand. These have areas with differing compositions (you could usually see the separation of the two things).

Burns, Steve

2011-10-09

133

Phase behavior of quinary mixtures of the type H/sub 2/O-oil-nonionic amphiphile-ionic amphiphile-salt  

SciTech Connect

Five-component mixtures H/sub 2/O-oil-nonionic amphiphile-ionic amphiphile-salt may separate into three liquid phases. In this three-phase body one finds the highest mutual solubility between H/sub 2/O and oil, combined with the lowest interfacial tension between the aqueous and the oil-rich phase. The position of the three-phase body on the temperature scale as well as its extensions depends systematically on the nature of the components, on the ratio between the nonionic and ionic amphiphile, as well as on the brine concentration. An empirical description of the phase behavior is presented that permits qualitative predictions as to the temperature at which to find the three-phase body and what efficiency of the amphiphiles to expect.

Kahlweit, M.; Strey, R.

1988-03-24

134

Io's surface composition based on reflectance spectra of sulfur/salt mixtures and proton-irradiation experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Available full-disk reflectance spectra of Io in the range 0.3 to 2.5 microns have been used to determine a surface compositional model for Io that is consistent with Io's other known chemical and physical properties. Results indicate that the surface of Io contains abundant dehydrated salts of high Na, Mg, and Fe(3+) content such as bloedite and ferrous iron sulfate. Experiments were performed studying the irradiation damage effects from low-energy proton bombardment, since Io is immersed in Jupiter's magnetosphere.

Nash, D. B.; Fanale, F. P.

1977-01-01

135

Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Multivalent Ion Concentrations in Molten Salt  

SciTech Connect

Electrorefining of spent metallic nuclear fuel in high temperature molten salt systems is a core technology in pyroprocessing, which in turn plays a critical role in the development of advanced fuel cycle technologies. In electrorefining, spent nuclear fuel is treated electrochemically in order to effect separations between uranium, noble metals, and active metals, which include the transuranics. The accumulation of active metals in a lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt electrolyte occurs at the expense of the UCl3-oxidant concentration in the electrolyte, which must be periodically replenished. Our interests lie with the accumulation of active metals in the molten salt electrolyte. The real-time monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte is highly desirable for controlling electrochemical operations and assuring materials control and accountancy. However, real-time monitoring is not possible with current methods for sampling and chemical analysis. A new solid-state electrochemical sensor is being developed for real-time monitoring of actinide ion concentrations in a molten salt electrorefiner. The ultimate function of the sensor is to monitor plutonium concentrations during electrorefining operations, but in this work gadolinium was employed as a surrogate material for plutonium. In a parametric study, polycrystalline sodium beta double-prime alumina (Na-ß?-alumina) discs and tubes were subject to vapor-phase exchange with gadolinium ions (Gd3+) using a gadolinium chloride salt (GdCl3) as a precursor to produce gadolinium beta double-prime alumina (Gd-ß?-alumina) samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and microstructural analysis were performed on the ion-exchanged discs to determine the relationship between ion exchange and Gd3+ ion conductivity. The ion-exchanged tubes were configured as potentiometric sensors in order to monitor real-time Gd3+ ion concentrations in mixtures of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) in LiCl-KCl eutectic molten salts through measurement of the potential difference between a reference and working electrode.

Peter A. Zink; Jan-Fong Jue; Brenda E. Serrano; Guy L. Fredrickson; Ben F. Cowan; Steven D. Herrmann; Shelly X. Li

2010-07-01

136

Electronic absorption spectra of U3+ and U4+ in molten LiCl-RbCl eutectic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the non-aqueous reprocessing process of spent nuclear fuels by the pyro-electrochemical method, a spent fuel is dissolved into molten LiCl-KCl and NaCl-CsCl eutectics and dissolved uranium and plutonium are collected as either metal or oxide. However, the binary alkali chloride mixture with the lowest melting point is the LiCl-RbCl eutectic. In this study, electronic absorption spectra of U3+ and

T Nagai; A Uehara; T Fujii; N Sato; H Yamana

2010-01-01

137

Asymmetric Binary Mixtures Under Cylindrical Confinement: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study  

E-print Network

liquids, binary mixtures of ionic liquids with polar solvents, deep eutectics and model asymmetric and complex systems, such as, ionic liquids, deep eutectics, binary and ternary mixtures, poly simulation study on solute and solvent dynamics in neutral and charged reverse micelles have been carried out

Biswas, Ranjit

138

Effect of PEG-salt mixture on the gelation temperature and morphology of MC gel for sustained delivery of drug.  

PubMed

Gelation temperature of MC was reduced from 59°C to 54°C with the addition of 10% PEG. Sodium tartrate (NaT) and sodium citrate (NaC) were added to the MC-PEG solution to further reduce the gelation temperature close to physiological temperature. Different techniques were used to measure the gelation temperature of all formulations. It was observed that NaC was more effective in reducing the gelation temperature of MC-PEG combination than NaT. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) images of hydrogels containing NaC and NaT showed that NaC containing hydrogel having an interconnected microporous structure instead of the hollow rod like structure as in the case of NaT containing hydrogel. In vitro drug release studies showed that drug release time increased from 6 to 9h by only changing the type of salt from NaT to NaC in MC-PEG combination. PMID:23121941

Bain, Mrinal Kanti; Maity, Dipanwita; Bhowmick, Biplab; Mondal, Dibyendu; Mollick, Md Masud Rahaman; Sarkar, Gunjan; Bhowmik, Manas; Rana, Dipak; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

2013-01-16

139

Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are disclosed for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode. 2 figures.

Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W.

1995-01-10

140

Enhanced electroanalysis in lithium potassium eutectic (LKE) using microfabricated square microelectrodes.  

PubMed

Molten salts (MSs) are an attractive medium for chemical and electrochemical processing and as a result there is demand for MS-compatible analysis technologies. However, MSs containing redox species present a challenging environment in which to perform analytical measurements because of their corrosive nature, significant thermal convection and the high temperatures involved. This paper outlines the fabrication and characterization of microfabricated square microelectrodes (MSMs) designed for electrochemical analysis in MS systems. Their design enables precise control over electrode dimension, the minimization of stress because of differential thermal expansion through design for high temperature operation, and the minimization of corrosive attack through effective insulation. The exemplar MS system used for characterization was lithium chloride/potassium chloride eutectic (LKE), which has potential applications in pyrochemical nuclear fuel reprocessing, metal refining, molten salt batteries and electric power cells. The observed responses for a range of redox ions between 400 and 500 °C (673 and 773 K) were quantitative and typical of microelectrodes. MSMs also showed the reduced iR drop, steady-state diffusion-limited response, and reduced sensitivity to convection seen for microelectrodes under ambient conditions and expected for these electrodes in comparison to macroelectrodes. Diffusion coefficients were obtained in close agreement with literature values, more readily and at greater precision and accuracy than both macroelectrode and previous microelectrode measurements. The feasibility of extracting individual physical parameters from mixtures of redox species (as required in reprocessing) and of the prolonged measurement required for online monitoring was also demonstrated. Together, this demonstrates that MSMs provide enhanced electrode devices widely applicable to the characterization of redox species in a range of MS systems. PMID:25284431

Corrigan, Damion K; Blair, Ewen O; Terry, Jonathan G; Walton, Anthony J; Mount, Andrew R

2014-11-18

141

Consolidation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant crushed salt/bentonite mixtures as a function of confining pressure and moisture content as compared with constitutive model predictions  

SciTech Connect

Four hydrostatic consolidation tests were performed on crushed salt/bentonite mixtures to evaluate the influence of moisture on consolidation rate, permeability, and compressive strength. Specimens comprised 30 percent bentonite and 70 percent salt based on total dry weight. Brine was added to each specimen to adjust its total moisture content to between 3.5 and 10 percent (nominal) of the total dry weight. In the consolidation tests, each specimen was subjected to two stages of hydrostatic stress: 0.5 MPa and 3.45 MPa. During each stage, the pressure was maintained at a constant level and volumetric strain data were continuously logged. By using multiple stages, consolidation data were obtained at two pressures and the time required to consolidate the specimens to full saturation was reduced. Once full saturation was achieved, specimens were subjected to a final test stage in which the hydrostatic stress was reduced and a permeability test was performed. A steady flow permeability test was performed successfully on only one specimen and its permeability was determined to be 1.12 {times} 10{sup {minus}19} m{sup 2}. An unconfined compressive strength test was conducted on one of the consolidated specimens and was found to be 1.66 MPa. A density model proposed by Sjaardema and Krieg was compared to the dry density data using parameter values established by Callahan and DeVries. The model fit the data best at intermediate moisture contents and low pressures. The model was also fitted to the data obtained in this study to determine additional parameter values.

Brodsky, N.S.; Pfeifle, T.W. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States))

1992-07-01

142

Liquid-liquid equilibria for the ternary system (phosphonium based deep eutectic solvent-benzene-hexane) at different temperatures: A new solvent introduced  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we studied the applicability of one ionic liquid analogues namely phosphonium based deep eutectic solvent (DES) in the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from aromatic\\/aliphatic mixtures. Experimental data for liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) were obtained for various mixtures of (benzene. +. hexane. +. DES) at 27, 35 and 45 °C. Some of the mixtures showed excellent results in terms

Mukhtar A. Kareem; Farouq S. Mjalli; M. A. Hashim; Inas M. AlNashef

2012-01-01

143

Re-evaluation of the eutectic region of the LiBr-KBr-LiF system  

SciTech Connect

The separator pellet in a thermal battery consists of electrolyte immobilized by a binder (typically, MgO powder). The melting point of the electrolyte determines the effective operating window for its use in a thermal battery. The development of a two-hour thermal battery required the use of a molten salt that had a lower melting point and larger liquidus range than the LiCl-KCl eutectic which melts at 352 C. Several candidate eutectic electrolyte systems were evaluated for their suitability for this application. One was the LiCl-LiBr-KBr eutectic used at Argonne National Laboratories for high-temperature rechargeable batteries for electric-vehicle applications. Using a custom-designed high-temperature conductivity cell, the authors were able to readily determine the liquidus region for the various compositions studied around the original eutectic for the LiBr-KBr-LiF system. The actual eutectic composition was found to be 60.0 m/o LiBr-37.5 m/o KBr-2.5 m/o LiF with a melting point of 324 {+-} 0.5 C.

Redey, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Guidotti, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-05-01

144

Mixtures of L-amino acids as reaction medium for formation of iron nanoparticles: the order of addition into a ferrous salt solution matters.  

PubMed

Owing to Mössbauer spectroscopy, an advanced characterization technique for iron-containing materials, the present study reveals previously unknown possibilities using l-amino acids for the generation of magnetic particles. Based on our results, a simple choice of the order of l-amino acids addition into a reaction mixture containing ferrous ions leads to either superparamagnetic ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide particles, or magnetically strong Fe0-Fe2O3/FeOOH core-shell particles after chemical reduction. Conversely, when ferric salts are employed with the addition of selected l-amino acids, only Fe0-Fe2O3/FeOOH core-shell particles are observed, regardless of the addition order. We explain this phenomenon by a specific transient/intermediate complex formation between Fe2+ and l-glutamic acid. This type of complexation prevents ferrous ions from spontaneous oxidation in solutions with full air access. Moreover, due to surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy we show that the functional groups of l-amino acids are not destroyed during the borohydride-induced reduction. These functionalities can be further exploited for (i) attachment of l-amino acids to the as-prepared magnetic particles, and (ii) for targeted bio- and/or environmental applications where the surface chemistry needs to be tailored and directed toward biocompatible species. PMID:24071943

Šišková, Karolína M; Machala, Libor; Tu?ek, Ji?i; Kašlík, Josef; Mojzeš, Peter; Zbo?il, Radek

2013-01-01

145

THE PENETRATION OF BASIC DYE INTO NITELLA AND VALONIA IN THE PRESENCE OF CERTAIN ACIDS, BUFFER MIXTURES, AND SALTS  

PubMed Central

When living cells of Nitella are exposed to an acetate buffer solution until the pH value of the sap is decreased and subsequently placed in a solution of brilliant cresyl blue, the rate of penetration of dye into the vacuole is found to decrease in the majority of cases, and increase in other cases, as compared with the control cells which are transferred to the dye solution directly from tap water. This decrease in the rate is not due to the lowering of the pH value of the solution just outside the cell wall, as a result of diffusion of acetic acid from the cell when cells are removed from the buffer solution and placed in the dye solution, because the relative amount of decrease (as compared with the control) is the same whether the external solution is stirred or not. Such a decrease in the rate may be brought about without a change in the pH value of the sap if the cells are placed in the dye solution after exposure to a phosphate buffer solution in which the pH value of the sap remains normal. The rate of penetration of dye is then found to decrease. The extent of this decrease is the greater the lower the pH value of the solution. It is found that hydrochloric acid and boric acid have no effect while phosphoric acid has an inhibiting effect at pH 4.8 on stirring. Experiments with neutral salt solutions indicate that a direct effect on the cell (decreasing penetration) is due to monovalent base cations, while there is no such effect directly on the dye. It is assumed that the effect of the phosphate and acetate buffer solutions on the cell, decreasing the rate of penetration, is due (1) to the penetration of these acids into the protoplasm as undissociated molecules, which dissociate upon entrance and lower the pH value of the protoplasm or to their action on the surface of the protoplasm, (2) to the effect of base cations on the protoplasm (either at the surface or in the interior), and (3) possibly to the effect of certain anions. In this case the action of the buffer solution is not due to its hydrogen ions. In the case of living cells of Valonia under the same experimental conditions as Nitella it is found that the rate of penetration of dye decreases when the pH value of the sap increases in presence of NH3, and also when the pH value of the sap is decreased in the presence of acetic acid. Such a decrease may be brought about even when the cells are previously exposed to sea water containing HCl, in which the pH value of the sap remains normal. PMID:19872321

Irwin, Marian

1926-01-01

146

Electrical conductivity of ammonium and phosphonium based deep eutectic solvents: Measurements and artificial intelligence-based prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as a new generation of solvents for various practical application requires an insight of the main physical, chemical, and thermodynamic properties. In this study, the experimental measurements of the electrical conductivity of two classes of DESs based on ammonium and phosphonium salts at different compositions and temperatures were reported. The results revealed that

F. S. G. Bagh; K. Shahbaz; F. S. Mjalli; I. M. AlNashef; M. A. Hashim

2013-01-01

147

Prospects of applying ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents for renewable energy storage by means of redox flow batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been applied in various fields such as electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, electrodeposition, electropolishing and even in fuel cells. ILs and molten salts have found some applications in redox flow batteries (RFBs) in the past and recently some metal ion based ILs have been proposed and used by Sandia National Laboratories.

M. H. Chakrabarti; F. S. Mjalli; I. M. Alnashef; M. A. Hashim; M. A. Hussain; L. Bahadori; C. T. J. Low

2014-01-01

148

Physicochemical properties of ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents and their electrochemical evaluation using organometallic reference redox systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven deep eutectic solvents (DESs) containing ammonium based salts are prepared by means of hydrogen bonding with acid, amine, amide and nitrate based compounds. The major physicochemical properties of the DESs in terms of density, viscosity, electrical conductivity, molar conductivity and pH are investigated prior to ascertaining their electrochemical characteristics by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Nitrate based DESs

L. Bahadori; M. H. Chakrabarti; F. S. Mjalli; I. M. Alnashef; N. S. A. Manan; M. A. Hashim

2013-01-01

149

Electrochemical behavior of actinide ions in LiCl–KCl eutectic melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrodeposition and dissolution of uranium and plutonium in LiCl–KCl eutectic salt on tungsten and molybdenum working electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry at 723, 773 and 823K. It is suggested from the voltammograms that the electrodeposition and dissolution of U and Pu, U3+\\/U and Pu3+\\/Pu, may be quasi-reversible, while the redox reaction of U4+\\/U3+ is reversible. The adsorption and

O. Shirai; T. Iwai; Y. Suzuki; Y. Sakamura; H. Tanaka

1998-01-01

150

Electrolysis of Burnup-Simulated Uranium Nitride Fuels in LiCl-KCl Eutectic Melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical behavior of burnup-simulated uranium nitride fuels containing representative solid fission product elements, UN+Mo (Mo = 2.84 wt%), UN+Pd (Pd = 4.6 wt%) and (U, Nd)N (NdN = 8.0 wt%), was investigated in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt with 0.54 wt% UCl3 in order to clarify the effects of fission products on the dissolution of actinide nitrides and the

Takumi SATOH; Takashi IWAI; Yasuo ARAI

2009-01-01

151

The binary eutectic of NSAIDS and two-phase liquid system for enhanced membrane permeation.  

PubMed

The eutectic properties of binary mixtures of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with ibuprofen were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and phase equilibrium diagrams. The melting points of selected NSAIDs were significantly depressed due to binary eutectic formation with ibuprofen. Ketoprofen and ibuprofen were selected to study the effect of eutectic formation on membrane permeation using Franz diffusion cells and snake skin as the model membrane. The presence of aqueous isopropyl alcohol (IPA) was necessary to completely transform the solid drugs into an oily state at ambient temperature. As much as the 99.6% of ibuprofen and the 88.8% of ketoprofen added were found in the oily phase of the two-phase liquid system formed when aqueous IPA was added to the eutectic mixture. Due to the high drug concentration in the oily phase, and maximum thermodynamic activity, the two-phase liquid system showed enhanced membrane permeation rates of ibuprofen (37.5 microg/cm2/hr) and ketoprofen (33.4 microg/cm2/hr) compared to other reference preparations used. PMID:15776808

Yuan, Xudong; Capomacchia, A C

2005-01-01

152

Improved calcium sulfate recovery from a reverse osmosis retentate using eutectic freeze crystallization.  

PubMed

A novel low temperature crystallization process called eutectic freeze crystallization (EFC) can produce both salt(s) and ice from a reverse osmosis (RO) stream by operating at the eutectic temperature of a solution. The EFC reject stream, which is de-supersaturated with respect to the scaling component, can subsequently be recycled back to the RO process for increased water recovery. This paper looks at the feasibility of using EFC to remove calcium sulfate from an RO retentate stream and compares the results to recovery rates at 0 and 20 °C. The results showed that there was a greater yield of calcium sulfate obtained at 0 °C as compared with 20 °C. Operation under eutectic conditions, with only a 20% ice recovery, resulted in an even greater yield of calcium sulfate (48%) when compared with yields obtained at operating temperatures of 0 and 20 °C (15% at 0 °C and 13% at 20 °C). The theoretical calcium recoveries were found to be 75 and 70% at 0 and 20 °C respectively which was higher than the experimentally determined values. The EFC process has the added advantage of producing water along with a salt. PMID:23128631

Randall, D G; Mohamed, R; Nathoo, J; Rossenrode, H; Lewis, A E

2013-01-01

153

Internal zone growth method for producing metal oxide metal eutectic composites  

DOEpatents

An improved method for preparing a cermet comprises preparing a compact having about 85 to 95 percent theoretical density from a mixture of metal and metal oxide powders from a system containing a eutectic composition, and inductively heating the compact in a radiofrequency field to cause the formation of an internal molten zone. The metal oxide particles in the powder mixture are effectively sized relative to the metal particles to permit direct inductive heating of the compact by radiofrequency from room temperature. Surface melting is prevented by external cooling or by effectively sizing the particles in the powder mixture.

Clark, Grady W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Holder, John D. (Knoxville, TN); Pasto, Arvid E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1980-01-01

154

Eutectic experiment development for space processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ground base test plan and a specimen evaluation scheme have been developed for the aluminum-copper eutectic solidification experiment to be run in the M518 multipurpose electric furnace during the Skylab mission. Besides thermal and solidification studies a detailed description is given of the quantitative metallographic technique which is appropriate for characterizing eutectic structures. This method should prove a key tool for evaluating specimen microstructure which is the most sensitive indicator of changes produced during solidification. It has been recommended that single grain pre-frozen eutectic specimens be used to simplify microstructural evaluation and to eliminate any porosity in the as-cast eutectic specimens. High purity (99.999%) materials from one supplier should be employed for all experiments. Laboratory studies indicate that porosity occurs in the MRC as-cast eutectic ingots but that this porosity can be eliminated by directional freezing. Chemical analysis shows that the MRC ingots are slightly Al rich and contain about .03% impurity. Because of the impurity content the lower cooldown rate (1.2 C/min) should be used for eutectic freezing if MRC material is used in the M518 furnace.

Hopkins, R. H.

1972-01-01

155

Electronic absorption spectra of U3+ and U4+ in molten LiCl-RbCl eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the non-aqueous reprocessing process of spent nuclear fuels by the pyro-electrochemical method, a spent fuel is dissolved into molten LiCl-KCl and NaCl-CsCl eutectics and dissolved uranium and plutonium are collected as either metal or oxide. However, the binary alkali chloride mixture with the lowest melting point is the LiCl-RbCl eutectic. In this study, electronic absorption spectra of U3+ and U4+ in molten LiCl-RbCl eutectic at various temperatures between 673 and 973 K were measured by the UV/Vis/NIR spectrophotometry. We confirmed that these spectra were similar to those in molten LiCl-KCl and NaCl-CsCl eutectics. The sensitive absorption bands of U4+ in LiCl-RbCl eutectic were found at 22000, 16500, 14900, 8600, and 4950 cm-1. The large absorption bands of U4+ over 25000 cm-1 increased with increasing melt temperature, while absorption peaks at 15500-4000 cm-1 decreased. The large absorption bands of U3+ in LiCl-RbCl eutectic were observed over 14000 cm-1. The sensitive absorption bands of U3+ at Vis/NIR region were found at 13300, 11500-11200, 9800-9400, and 8250 cm-1, and these peaks decreased with increasing temperature.

Nagai, T.; Uehara, A.; Fujii, T.; Sato, N.; Yamana, H.

2010-03-01

156

The ionothermal synthesis of metal organic frameworks, Ln(C 9O 6H 3)((CH 3NH) 2CO) 2, using deep eutectic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new isostructural materials Ln(TMA)(DMU)2 (Ln(C9O6H3)((CH3NH)2CO)2; Ln: La 1, Nd 2, Eu 3; TMA: trimesate, DMU: dimethylurea) have been synthesised ionothermally using a choline chloride\\/dimethylurea deep eutectic mixture as the solvent. Normally in ionothermal synthesis the urea portion of the deep eutectic solvent is unstable, breaking down to release ammonium cations that act as templates. In the case of 1–3,

Farida Himeur; Irene Stein; David S. Wragg; Alexandra M. Z. Slawin; Philip Lightfoot; Russell E. Morris

2010-01-01

157

Synthesis of novel lidocaine-releasing poly(diol-co-citrate) elastomers by using deep eutectic solvents.  

PubMed

Poly(octanediol-co-citrate) elastomers containing high loading of lidocaine were synthesized at temperatures below 100 °C by means of using deep eutectic mixtures of 1,8-octanediol and lidocaine. The preservation of lidocaine integrity resulted in high-capacity drug-eluting elastomers. PMID:22109350

Serrano, M Concepción; Gutiérrez, María C; Jiménez, Ricardo; Ferrer, M Luisa; del Monte, Francisco

2012-01-14

158

Solidification and microstructures of binary ice-I/hydrate eutectic aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The microstructures of two-phase binary aggregates of ice-I + salt-hydrate, prepared by eutectic solidification, have been characterized by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (CSEM). The specific binary systems studied were H2O-Na2SO4, H2O-MgSO4, H2O-NaCl, and H2O-H2SO4; these were selected based on their potential application to the study of tectonics on the Jovian moon Europa. Homogeneous liquid solutions of eutectic compositions were undercooled modestly (??T - 1-5 ??C); similarly cooled crystalline seeds of the same composition were added to circumvent the thermodynamic barrier to nucleation and to control eutectic growth under (approximately) isothermal conditions. CSEM revealed classic eutectic solidification microstructures with the hydrate phase forming continuous lamellae, discontinuous lamellae, or forming the matrix around rods of ice-I, depending on the volume fractions of the phases and their entropy of dissolving and forming a homogeneous aqueous solution. We quantify aspects of the solidification behavior and microstructures for each system and, with these data articulate anticipated effects of the microstructure on the mechanical responses of the materials.

McCarthy, C.; Cooper, R.F.; Kirby, S.H.; Rieck, K.D.; Stern, L.A.

2007-01-01

159

Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation  

SciTech Connect

Recovery of actinides is an integral part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycling processes have been developed in the past for recovering actinides from spent metallic and nitride fuels. The process is essentially to dissolve the spent fuel in a molten salt and then extract just the actinides for reuse in a reactor. Extraction is typically done through electrorefining, which involves electrochemical reduction of the dissolved actinides and plating onto a cathode. Knowledge of a number of basic thermokinetic properties of salts and salt-fuel mixtures is necessary for optimizing present and developing new approaches for pyrometallurgical waste processing. The properties of salt-fuel mixtures are presently being studied, but there are so many solutes and varying concentrations that direct experimental investigation is prohibitively time consuming and expensive (particularly for radioactive elements like Pu). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the number of required experiments through modeling of salt and salt-fuel mixture properties. This project will develop first-principles-based molecular modeling and simulation approaches to predict fundamental thermokinetic properties of dissolved actinides and fission products in molten salts. The focus of the proposed work is on property changes with higher concentrations (up to 5 mol%) of dissolved fuel components, where there is still very limited experimental data. The properties predicted with the modeling will be density, which is used to assess the amount of dissolved material in the salt; diffusion coefficients, which can control rates of material transport during separation; and solute activity, which determines total solubility and reduction potentials used during electrorefining. The work will focus on La, Sr, and U, which are chosen to include the important distinct categories of lanthanides, alkali earths, and actinides, respectively. Studies will be performed using LiCl-KCl salt at the eutectic composition (58 mol% LiCl, 42 mol% KCl), which is used for treating spent EBR-II fuel. The same process being used for EBRII fuel is currently being studied for widespread international implementation. The methods will focus on first-principles and first- principles derived interatomic potential based simulations, primarily using molecular dynamics. Results will be validated against existing literature and parallel ongoing experimental efforts. The simulation results will be of value for interpreting experimental results, validating analytical models, and for optimizing waste separation by potentially developing new salt configurations and operating conditions.

Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

2013-10-01

160

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are viable cosolvents for enzyme-catalyzed epoxide hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special group of ionic liquids, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been tested as cosolvents in enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of a chiral (1,2)-trans-2-methylstyrene oxide. The choline chloride:ethane diol (ET), choline chloride:glycerol (GLY) and choline:chloride:urea (REL) DESs were included in the reaction mixtures with epoxide and the potato epoxide hydrolase StEH1. The effect of the DESs on enzyme function was primarily elevations

Diana Lindberg; Mario de la Fuente Revenga; Mikael Widersten

2010-01-01

161

Electrodeposition of Co, Sm and SmCo from a Deep Eutectic Solvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of 1 choline chloride:2 urea mixture, Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) for the electrodeposition of cobalt, samarium and cobalt–samarium system has been studied. Its electrochemical window permits deposition analysis to be carried out without interference from parallel reactions. Deposition was studied at 70°C in order to stimulate mass transfer and to lower solution viscosity.Cobalt deposits according to a nucleation

E. Gómez; P. Cojocaru; L. Magagnin; E. Valles

2011-01-01

162

Growth and Morphology of Rod Eutectics  

SciTech Connect

The formation of rod eutectic microstructure is investigated systematically in a succinonitrile-camphor alloy of eutectic composition by using the directional solidification technique. A new rod eutectic configuration is observed in which the rods form with elliptical cylindrical shape. Two different orientations of the ellipse are observed that differ by a 90{sup o} rotation such that the major and the minor axes are interchanged. Critical experiments in thin samples, where a single layer of rods forms, show that the spacing and orientation of the elliptic rods are governed by the growth rate and the sample thickness. In thicker samples, multi layers of rods form with circular cross-section and the scaling law between the spacing and velocity predicted by the Jackson and Hunt model is validated. A theoretical model is developed for a two-dimensional array of elliptical rods that are arranged in a hexagonal or a square array, and the results are shown to be consistent with the experimental observations. The model of elliptic rods is also shown to reduce to that for the circular rod eutectic when the lengths of the two axes are equal, and to the lamellar eutectic model when one of the axes is much larger than the other one.

Jing Teng; Shan Liu; R. Trivedi

2008-03-17

163

Anion effect on the binary and ternary phase diagrams of chiral medetomidine salts and conglomerate crystal formation.  

PubMed

The binary phase diagrams of hydrogen halides salts of medetomidine (Med.HX, X:Br,I) and hydrogen oxalate salt of medetomidine (Med.Ox) were determined based on thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) and their crystal structure behavior was confirmed by comparison of the X-ray diffractometry and FT-IR spectroscopy of the racemate and pure enantiomer. All hydrogen halide salts presented racemic compound behavior. Heat of fusion of halides salt of (rac)-medetomidine decreased with ionic radius increase. Eutectic points for Med.HCl (previously reported), Med.HBr, and Med.HI rest were unchanged approximately. The solubility of different enantiomeric mixtures of Med.HBr and Med.HI were measured at 10, 20, and 30°C in 2-propanol showing a solubility increase with ionic radius. A binary phase diagram of Med.Ox shows a racemic conglomerate behavior. The solubility of enantiomeric mixtures of Med.Ox were measured at 10, 20, 30, and 40°C. The ternary phase diagram of Med.Ox in ethanol conforms to a conglomerate crystal forming system, favoring its enantiomeric purification by preferential crystallization. PMID:24574075

Choobdari, Ebrahim; Fakhraian, Hossein; Peyrovi, Mohammad Hassan

2014-03-01

164

Reactive eutectic brazing of nitinol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although NiTiNb alloys are well known as wide-hysteresis shape-memory alloys with important applications as coupling materials, the significance of one aspect of the Ni-Ti-Nb ternary system has not been fully appreciated. Based on the existence of a quasibinary NiTi-Nb eutectic isopleth in this ternary system, a novel braze method has been devised to fabricate metallurgical bonds between functional nitinol (NiTi) sections. When NiTi and pure Nb are brought into contact at temperatures above 1170°C, spontaneous melting occurs, forming a liquid that is extremely reactive and not only wets NiTi surfaces, but also apparently dissolves oxide scales, obviating the need for fluxes and providing for efficient capillary flow into joint crevices. The melting process is diffusion-controlled and rate-limited by the diffusivity of Nb in the liquid. The braze liquid will subsequently solidify into microstructures containing predominantly ordered NiTi and disordered bcc-Nb. Mechanical tests revealed that the braze joints are strong, ductile, and biocompatible. With appropriate post-braze aging, the functional performance of the parent NiTi alloy can be restored. Micro-alloying the Nb fluer metal with Zr or tungsten showed great potential for solution-strengthening of the braze joints. For applications where biocompatibility is not an issue, Nb metal can be substituted by pure vanadium as the braze filler, which is demonstrated to possess tensile strengths that can be potentially superior to the Nb counterparts.

Low, Ke-Bin

165

Alkaline extraction of polonium from liquid lead bismuth eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of highly radiotoxic polonium isotopes poses serious safety concerns for the development of future nuclear systems cooled by lead bismuth eutectic (LBE). In this paper it is shown that polonium can be extracted efficiently from LBE using a mixture of alkaline metal hydroxides (NaOH + KOH) in a temperature range between 180 and 350 °C. The extraction ratio was analyzed for different temperatures, gas blankets and phase ratios. A strong dependence of the extraction performance on the redox properties of the cover gas was found. While hydrogen facilitates the removal of polonium, oxygen has a negative influence on the extraction. These findings open new possibilities to back up the safety of future LBE based nuclear facilities.

Heinitz, S.; Neuhausen, J.; Schumann, D.

2011-07-01

166

Directionally solidified eutectic alloy gamma-beta  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pseudobinary eutectic alloy composition was determined by a previously developed bleed-out technique. The directionally solidified eutectic alloy with a composition of Ni-37.4Fe-10.0Cr-9.6Al (in wt%) had tensile strengths decreasing from 1,090 MPa at room temperature to 54 MPa at 1,100 C. The low density, excellent microstructural stability, and oxidation resistance of the alloy during thermal cycling suggest that it might have applicability as a gas turbine vane alloy while its relatively low high temperature strength precludes its use as a blade alloy. A zirconium addition increased the 750 C strength, and a tungsten addition was ineffective. The gamma=beta eutectic alloys appeared to obey a normal freezing relation.

Tewari, S. N.

1977-01-01

167

Molten Salt Mixture Properties (KF-ZrF4 and KCl-MgCl2) for Use in RELAP5-3D for High Temperature Reactor Application  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt coolants are being investigated as primary coolants for a fluoride high-temperature reactor and as secondary coolants for high temperature reactors such as the next generation nuclear plant. This work provides a review of the thermophysical properties of candidate molten salt coolants for use as a secondary heat transfer medium from a high temperature reactor to a processing plant. The molten salts LiF-NaF-KF, KF-ZrF4 and KCl-MgCl2 were considered for use in the secondary coolant loop. The thermophysical properties necessary to add the molten salts KF-ZrF4 and KCl-MgCl2 to RELAP5-3D were gathered for potential modeling purposes. The properties of the molten salt LiF-NaF-KF were already available in RELAP5-3D. The effect that the uncertainty in individual properties had on the Nusselt number was evaluated. This uncertainty in the Nusselt number was shown to be nearly independent of the molten salt temperature.

N. A. Anderson; P. Sabharwall

2012-06-01

168

Mixtures and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The world around us is made not of pure substances but of mixtures. The air is a mixture of dinitrogen and dioxygen and small amounts of other gases and vapors. The blood flowing through our\\u000a veins and arteries is a mixture of water and many thousands of other molecules. When we add salt, NaCl, to water and let it\\u000a dissolve

Predrag-Peter Ilich

169

Are deep eutectic solvents benign or toxic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In continuation of investigation for environmentally benign protocol for new solvents termed deep eutectic solvents (DESs), it is herein reported results concerning the toxicity and cytotoxicity of choline chloride (ChCl) based DESs with four hydrogen bond donors including glycerine, ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and urea. The toxicity was investigated using two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and

M. Hayyan; M. A. Hashim; A. Hayyan; M. A. Al-Saadi; I. M. AlNashef; M. E. S. Mirghani; O. K. Saheed

2013-01-01

170

H, not O or pressure, causes eutectic T depression in the Fe-FeS System to 8 GPa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fe-FeS system maintains a eutectic temperature of 990 ± 10 °C to at least 8 GPa if starting materials and pressure media are rigorously dehydrated. Literature reports of pressure-induced freezing point depression of the eutectic for the Fe-FeS system are not confirmed. Modest addition of oxygen alone is confirmed to cause negligible freezing point depression at 6 GPa. Addition of H alone causes a progressive decrease in the eutectic temperature with P in the Fe-FeS-H system to below 965 °C at 6 GPa to below 950 °C at 8 GPa. It is our hypothesis that moisture contamination in unrigorously dried experiments may be an H source for freezing point depression. O released from H2O disproportionation reacts with Fe and is sequestered as ferropericlase along the sample capsules walls, leaving the H to escape the system and/or enter the Fe-FeS mixture. The observed occurrence of ferropericlase on undried MgO capsule margins is otherwise difficult to explain, because an alternate source for the oxygen in the ferropericlase layer is difficult to identify. This study questions the use of pressure-depressed Fe-S eutectic temperatures and suggests that the lower eutectic temperatures sometimes reported are achieved by moving into the ternary Fe-S-H system. These results adjust slightly the constraints on eutectic temperatures allowed for partly solidified cores on small planets. H substantially diminishes the temperature extent of the melting interval in Fe-S by reducing the melting points of the crystalline phases more than it depresses the eutectic.

Buono, Antonio S.; Walker, David

2014-12-01

171

Evaluating the Performance of Deep Eutectic Solvents for Use in Extractive Denitrification of Liquid Fuels by the Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 94 deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on different combinations of salt cation, anion, hydrogen-bond donor (HBD) and salt:HBD molar ratio are screened via the conductor-like screening model for real solvents for potential use in the extractive denitrification of diesel. Five nonbasic and six basic nitrogen compounds were included in this study. The activity coefficient at infinite dilution,

Hanee F. Hizaddin; Anantharaj Ramalingam; Mohd Ali Hashim; Mohamed K. O. Hadj-Kali

2014-01-01

172

Electrolysis of uranium nitride containing fission product elements (Mo, Pd, Nd) in a molten LiCl-KCl eutectic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrolysis of burnup-simulated uranium nitride, UN, containing representative solid fission product elements (Mo, Pd, Nd) was investigated in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt with 0.54 wt% UCl from the view point of application of pyrochemical reprocessing to nitride fuel cycle. It was found from cyclic voltammetry and anodic polarization curve measurement that anodic dissolution of UN began at about

Takumi Satoh; Takashi Iwai; Yasuo Arai

2007-01-01

173

A novel ammonium based eutectic solvent for the treatment of free fatty acid and synthesis of biodiesel fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, low grade crude palm oil (LGCPO) with high free fatty acids (FFA) content is introduced as a possible biodiesel production feedstock alternative. The pre-treatment of LGCPO was conducted using ammonium-based deep eutectic solvent which consisted of hydrogen bond donor (i.e. p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate) (PTSA) and salt (i.e. N,N-diethylenethanol ammonium chloride) as a novel recyclable catalyst (DEAC-DES). The

A. Hayyan; M. A. Hashim; M. Hayyan; F. S. Mjalli; I. M. AlNashef

2013-01-01

174

A novel phosphonium-based deep eutectic catalyst for biodiesel production from industrial low grade crude palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the possibility of producing low grade crude palm oil (LGCPO)-based biodiesel using a two-stage process in which a phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvent (P-DES) and an alkali are used as catalysts. The pre-treatment of LGCPO was conducted using a P-DES composed of a hydrogen bond donor (i.e. p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate) and a salt (i.e. allyltriphenylphosphonium bromide) as a

Adeeb Hayyan; Mohd Ali Hashim; Farouq S. Mjalli; Maan Hayyan; Inas M. AlNashef

2013-01-01

175

Production of chlorine from chloride salts  

DOEpatents

A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

1981-01-01

176

Two-stage eutectic metal brushes  

DOEpatents

A two-stage eutectic metal brush assembly having a slip ring rigidly coupled to a shaft, the slip ring being electrically coupled to first voltage polarity. At least one brush is rigidly coupled to a second ring and slidingly engaged to the slip ring. Eutectic metal at least partially fills an annulus between the second ring and a stationary ring. At least one conductor is rigidly coupled to the stationary ring and electrically coupled to a second voltage polarity. Electrical continuity is maintained between the first voltage polarity and the second voltage polarity. Periodic rotational motion is present between the stationary ring and the second ring. Periodic rotational motion is also present between the brush and the slip ring.

Hsu, John S (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

2009-07-14

177

Crystallography of Alumina-YAG-Eutectic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple descriptions of the alumina-YAG eutectic crystallography appear in the ceramic literature. The orientation between two phases in a eutectic system has direct impact on residual stress, morphology, microstructural stability, and high temperature mechanical properties. A study to demonstrate that the different crystallographic relationships can be correlated with different growth constraints was undertaken. Fibers produced by Laser-Heated Float Zone (LHFZ) and Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG) were examined. A map of the orientation relationship between Al2O3 and Y3Al5O12 and their relationship to the fiber growth axis as a function of pull rate are presented. Regions in which a single orientation predominates are identified.

Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali; Dickerson, Robert M.; Matson, Lawrence E.

2000-01-01

178

New eutectic ionic liquids for lipase activation and enzymatic preparation of biodiesel†  

PubMed Central

The enzymatic preparation of biodiesel has been hampered by the lack of suitable solvents with desirable properties such as high lipase compatibility, low cost, low viscosity, high biodegradability, and ease of product separation. Recent interest in using ionic liquids (ILs) as advanced reaction media has led to fast reaction rates and high yields in the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel. However, conventional (i.e., cation–anion paired) ILs based on imidazolium and other quaternary ammonium salts remain too expensive for wide application at industrial scales. In this study, we report on newly-synthesized eutectic ILs derived from choline acetate or choline chloride coupled with biocompatible hydrogen-bond donors, such as glycerol. These eutectic solvents have favorable properties including low viscosity, high biodegradability, and excellent compatibility with Novozym® 435, a commercial immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B. Furthermore, in a model biodiesel synthesis system, we demonstrate high reaction rates for the enzymatic transesterification of Miglyol® oil 812 with methanol, catalyzed by Novozym® 435 in choline acetate/glycerol (1 : 1.5 molar ratio). The high conversion (97%) of the triglyceride obtained within 3 h, under optimal conditions, suggests that these novel eutectic solvents warrant further exploration as potential media in the enzymatic production of biodiesel. PMID:21283901

Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A.; Holmes, Shaletha

2012-01-01

179

Molten salt chemistry: An introduction and selected applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major fundamental topics covered are the structure of melts, thermodynamics of molten salt mixtures, theoretical and experimental studies of transport processes, metal-metal salt solutions, solvent properties of melt systems, acid-base effects in molten salt chemistry, electronic absorption, vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of melt systems, electrochemistry and electroanalytical chemistry in molten salts, and organic chemistry in molten salts.

G. Mamantov; R. Marassi

1987-01-01

180

ac impedance measurements of molten salt thermal batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-destructive testing of thermal batteries without activating them is a challenging proposition. Molten salt thermal batteries are activated by raising their temperature to above the melting point of the salt constituting the electrolyte. One approach that we have considered is to raise the temperature of the molten salt electrolyte to a temperature below the melting point so that the battery does not get activated yet may provide sufficient mobility of the ionic species to be able to obtain some useful ac impedance measurements. This hypothesis was put to the test for two Li(Si)/FeS 2 molten salt batteries with two electrolytes of different melting points—a standard LiCl-KCl eutectic that melts at 352 °C and a LiBr-KBr-LiCl eutectic with a melting point of 319 °C. ac impedance measurements as a function of frequency and temperature below the melting point are presented for single cells and batteries.

Singh, Pritpal; Guidotti, Ronald A.; Reisner c, David

181

The Effect of Salt Stoichiometry on Protein-Salt Interactions Determined by Ternary Diffusion in Aqueous Solutions  

E-print Network

The Effect of Salt Stoichiometry on Protein-Salt Interactions Determined by Ternary Diffusion of salt stoichiometry on the transport properties of lysozyme-salt aqueous mixtures. We find that the two cross-diffusion coefficients are very sensitive to salt stoichiometry. One of the cross

Annunziata, Onofrio

182

Fluorescence Spectroscopic Studies of (Amide + Electrolyte) Deep Eutectic Systems Biswajit Guchhait and Ranjit Biswas*  

E-print Network

glass transition. Keywords: deep eutectic solvents, fluorescence measurements, viscosity decoupling Refs liquid at or near room temperature. These systems are known as deep eutectic solvents (DES) and exhibit1 Fluorescence Spectroscopic Studies of (Amide + Electrolyte) Deep Eutectic Systems Biswajit

Biswas, Ranjit

183

Method for the production of uranium chloride salt  

DOEpatents

A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

2013-07-02

184

Thermal unfolding and refolding of lysozyme in deep eutectic solvents and their aqueous dilutions.  

PubMed

The stability of hen's egg white lysozyme in different choline chloride-based pseudo-concentrated and neat deep eutectic solvents (DESs) has been studied by means of intrinsic fluorescence and CD spectroscopy. Thermal unfolding experiments carried out in non-diluted urea:choline chloride and glycerol:choline chloride eutectic solvents (UCCl-DES and GCCl-DES, respectively) showed the accumulation at certain temperatures of discrete, partially folded intermediates that displayed a high content of secondary structure and a disrupted tertiary structure. Reversibility of the unfolding process was incomplete in these circumstances, with the urea-based DES showing higher protein structure destabilization upon thermal treatment. On the other hand, aqueous dilution of the eutectic mixtures allowed the recovery of a reversible, two-state denaturation process. Lysozyme activity was also affected in neat and pseudo-concentrated GCCl-DES, with an increasing recovery of activity upon aqueous dilution, and full restoration after DES removal through extensive dialysis. These results suggest that protein interactions at room temperature are reversible and depend on the DES components and on the aqueous content of the original DES dilution. PMID:23722327

Esquembre, Rocio; Sanz, Jesus M; Wall, J Gerard; del Monte, Francisco; Mateo, C Reyes; Ferrer, M Luisa

2013-07-21

185

Exploratory corrosion tests on alloys in molten salts at 900 C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of exploratory corrosion tests on sixteen different alloys at 900 C in molten eutectic sodium-potassium carbonate, in molten eutectic sodium-potassium-magnesium chloride and in molten sodium hydroxide are presented. The salts and many of the alloys were chosen for this study based on results reported in the literature; other alloys that were tested had no previously reported testing in

R. T. Coyle; R. W. Burrows; T. M. Thomas; G. Y. Lai

2008-01-01

186

Cloud point extraction of Cu(II) using a mixture of Triton X-100 and dithizone with a salting-out effect and its application to visual determination.  

PubMed

A method for the separation and concentration of trace copper(II) ion (Cu(II)) via cloud point extraction (CPE) using a nonionic surfactant with a salting-out effect was developed and applied as a technique for the visual determination of Cu(II). Triton X-100 (TX-100), which has a cloud point at 64-67 °C in aqueous solutions, was used as the nonionic surfactant for the CPE of Cu(II). Although CPE with TX-100 requires heating of the solution to separate the surfactant-rich phase from the aqueous phase, the new method achieves phase separation at 15-30 °C owing to the addition of a large amount of salt to the solution, which lowers the cloud point. The compound 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) was selected as the chelating agent for complexation and transfer of Cu(II) to the surfactant-rich phase. The extractability of Cu(II) (initial concentration: 10 ?M) was 96.6±2.1% when Na2SO4 was added to a 20% TX-100/4 ?M dithizone solution (pH 2). Using this method, the visual determination of Cu(II) was possible for concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10 ?M. In addition, the extraction system was successfully applied to the visual determination of Cu(II) in a river water sample. PMID:24209356

Sato, Nobuko; Mori, Masanobu; Itabashi, Hideyuki

2013-12-15

187

Introducing deep eutectic solvents as biorenewable media for Au(I)-catalysed cycloisomerisation of ?-alkynoic acids: an unprecedented catalytic system.  

PubMed

Cycloisomerisation of ?-alkynoic acids into cyclic enol-lactones was conveniently performed, for the first time, in the eutectic mixture 1ChCl/2Urea under standard bench experimental conditions (at room temperature, under air and in the absence of co-catalysts) by using a new iminophosphorane-Au(I) complex as the catalyst. Furthermore, the catalytic system could be recycled up to four runs. PMID:25215857

Rodríguez-Álvarez, María J; Vidal, Cristian; Díez, Josefina; García-Álvarez, Joaquín

2014-11-01

188

A facile approach to prepare a dual functionalized DNA based material in a bio-deep eutectic solvent.  

PubMed

DNA (Salmon testes) was functionalized by Fe3O4 nanoparticles and protonated layered dititanate sheets (H2·Ti2O5·H2O) in a mixture of choline chloride and ethylene glycol (a deep eutectic solvent) to yield a hybrid material having magnetic and antibacterial properties. Ti sheets were found to interact with the phosphate moieties, while Fe interacted with the base pair of DNA in the hybrid material. PMID:24609301

Mondal, Dibyendu; Bhatt, Jitkumar; Sharma, Mukesh; Chatterjee, Shruti; Prasad, Kamalesh

2014-04-18

189

Phosphate salts  

MedlinePLUS

Phosphate salts refers to many different combinations of the chemical phosphate with salts and minerals. Foods high in phosphate include dairy ... much phosphate in the blood. People use phosphate salts for medicine. Be careful not to confuse phosphate ...

190

Improved solubility of DNA in recyclable and reusable bio-based deep eutectic solvents with long-term structural and chemical stability.  

PubMed

The solubility of DNA in bio-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of choline chloride with levulinic acid, glycerol, ethylene glycol, sorbitol and resorcinol was investigated. The macromolecule was found to be soluble and chemically and structurally stable in DESs consisting of mixtures containing glycerol and ethylene glycol. Furthermore recyclability of the DESs was demonstrated over three consecutive reuses in DNA dissolution. PMID:24022824

Mondal, Dibyendu; Sharma, Mukesh; Mukesh, Chandrakant; Gupta, Vishal; Prasad, Kamalesh

2013-10-25

191

Effect of calcium salts of a mixture of conjugated linoleic acids containing trans-10, cis-12 in the diet on milk fat synthesis in goats.  

PubMed

Dietary supplements of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing trans-10, cis-12 CLA decrease milk fat secretion in the lactating cow and sheep, but their effects on mammary lipogenesis in the goat are less well defined. Eight lactating goats were used in two 4 x 4 Latin-square experiments with 14 d experimental periods to examine the effects of calcium salts of CLA methyl esters (CaCLA) containing trans-10, cis-12 on milk fat synthesis. Experimental treatments consisted of incremental inclusion of 0, 30, 60 or 90 g of CaCLA/d (corresponding to 7.47, 14.9 and 22.4 g/d of trans-10, cis-12 CLA) offered during the first 10 d of each experimental period that replaced maize grain in concentrates (Experiment 1) or calcium salts of palm oil fatty acids (Experiment 2). Relative to the control, inclusion of 30, 60 or 90 g CaCLA/d in the diet reduced milk fat yield by 19.8, 27.9 and 32.3 % and 17.5, 39.0 and 49.3 % in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Decreases in milk fat were due to reductions in the secretion of fatty acids synthesised de novo rather than the uptake of fatty acids from the peripheral circulation. Indirect comparisons with the studies in the lactating cow indicated a lower efficacy of CaCLA supplements on mammary lipogenesis in the goat. In conclusion, CaCLA in the diet inhibits milk fat synthesis in the goat, responses that are dependent on the supply of dietary fatty acids, with evidence that the caprine is less sensitive to the anti-lipogenic effects of trans-10, cis-12 CLA compared with the bovine or ovine. PMID:18814802

Shingfield, Kevin J; Rouel, Jacques; Chilliard, Yves

2009-04-01

192

Pattern selection dynamics in rod eutectics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cooperative or diffusively coupled growth of multiple phases during solidification is one of the most widely observed and generally important classes of phase transformations in materials. Technologically, low melting temperature and small freezing range contribute to excellent casting fluidity and fine composite structures give rise to favorable properties. Both of these features contribute to the wide application of eutectic alloys in the casting, welding, and soldering of engineered components. Despite the broad-based technological importance, many fundamental questions regarding eutectic solidification remain unanswered, severely limiting our ability to employ computational methods in the prediction of microstructure for the effective design of new materials and processes. At the core of the most persistent questions, lie problems involving multicomponent thermodynamics, solid-liquid and solid-solid interfacial phenomena, morphological stability, chemical and thermal diffusion, and nucleation phenomena. In the current study, pattern selection dynamics in rod eutectics are investigated using systematic directional solidification experiments and phase field simulations. Directional solidification of a succinonitrile-camphor (SCN-DC) transparent alloy in thin slab geometries of various thicknesses reveals two main points. First, a velocity is indentified at which a transition in array basis vectors is observed in specimens with many rows of rods (i.e. bulk). This transition amounts to a 90 degree rotation of the rod array, shifting from alignment of 1st nearest neighbors to alignment of 2nd nearest neighbors along the slide wall. Second, significant array distortion is observed with decreasing slide thickness, delta, which ultimately leads to a single-row (quasi-3D) morphology where delta/lambda is on the order of unity. In our analysis of these observations, we use a geometrical model to describe the rod arrangement as a function of slide thickness, providing excellent agreement with observation, down to this quasi-3D regime. Further experimental investigation of the early stages of growth shows that the mechanisms involved in the initial dynamics are critical to the array development, especially under geometrical constraint. Phase field simulations show that several rod-type eutectic morphologies are stable over different growth/boundary conditions. Normal circular-rod staggered-array morphologies become unstable and give way to distorted rods and lamellar structures with decreasing material thickness. Distended or peanut-shaped rods are also observed under certain conditions. The boundaries of stability for these growth morphologies and the associated dynamics are investigated here.

Serefoglu, Melis

193

Use of Microgravity to Control the Microstructure of Eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long term goal of this project is to be able to control the microstructure of directionally solidified eutectic alloys, through an improved understanding of the influence of convection. Prior experimental results on the influence of microgravity on the microstructure of fibrous eutectics have been contradictory. Theoretical work at Clarkson University showed that buoyancy-driven convection in the vertical Bridgman configuration is not vigorous enough to alter the concentration field in the melt sufficiently to cause a measurable change in microstructure when the eutectic grows at minimum supercooling. Currently, there are four other hypotheses that might explain the observed changes in microstructure of fibrous eutectics caused by convection: (1) Disturbance of the concentration boundary layer arising from an off-eutectic melt composition and growth at the extremum; (2) Disturbance of the concentration boundary layer of a habit-modifying impurity; (3) Disturbance of the concentration boundary layer arising from an off-eutectic interfacial composition due to non-extremum growth; and (4) A fluctuating freezing rate combined with differences in the kinetics of fiber termination and fiber formation. We favor the last of these hypotheses. Thus, the primary objective of the present grant is to determine experimentally and theoretically the influence of a periodically varying freezing rate on eutectic solidification. A secondary objective is to determine the influence of convection on the microstructure of at least one other eutectic alloy that might be suitable for flight experiments.

Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.; Smith, Reginald W.

1999-01-01

194

Solidification of eutectic system alloys in space (M-19)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is well known that in the liquid state eutectic alloys are theoretically homogeneous under 1 g conditions. However, the homogeneous solidified structure of this alloy is not obtained because thermal convection and non-equilibrium solidification occur. The present investigators have clarified the solidification mechanisms of the eutectic system alloys under 1 g conditions by using the in situ observation method; in particular, the primary crystals of the eutectic system alloys never nucleated in the liquid, but instead did so on the mold wall, and the crystals separated from the mold wall by fluid motion caused by thermal convection. They also found that the equiaxed eutectic grains (eutectic cells) are formed on the primary crystals. In this case, the leading phase of the eutectic must agree with the phase of the primary crystals. In space, no thermal convection occurs so that primary crystals should not move from the mold wall and should not appear inside the solidified structure. Therefore no equiaxed eutectic grains will be formed under microgravity conditions. Past space experiments concerning eutectic alloys were classified into two types of experiments: one with respect to the solidification mechanisms of the eutectic alloys and the other to the unidirectional solidification of this alloy. The former type of experiment has the problem that the solidified structures between microgravity and 1 g conditions show little difference. This is why the flight samples were prepared by the ordinary cast techniques on Earth. Therefore it is impossible to ascertain whether or not the nucleation and growth of primary crystals in the melt occur and if primary crystals influence the formation of the equiaxed eutectic grains. In this experiment, hypo- and hyper-eutectic aluminum copper alloys which are near eutectic point are used. The chemical compositions of the samples are Al-32.4mass%Cu (Hypo-eutectic) and Al-33.5mass%Cu (hyper-eutectic). Long rods for the samples are cast by the Ohno Continuous Casting Process and they show the unidirectionally solidified structure. Each flight and ground sample was made of these same rods. The dimensions of all samples are 4.5 mm in diameter and 23.5 mm in length. Each sample is put in a graphite capsule and then vacuum sealed in a double silica ampoule. Then the ampoule is put in the tantalum cartridge and sealed by electron beam welding. For onbard experiments, a Continuous Heating Furnance (CHF) will be used for melting and solidifying samples under microgravity conditions. Six flight samples will be used. Four samples are hypo-eutectic and two are hyper-eutectic alloys. The surface of the two hypo-eutectic alloy samples are covered with aluminum oxide film to prevent Marangoni convection expected under microgravity conditions. Each sample will be heated to 700 C and held at that temperature for 5 min. After that the samples will be allowed to cool to 500 C in the furnace and they will be taken out of the furnace for He gas cooling. The heating and cooling diagrams for the flight experiments are shown. After collecting the flight samples, the solidified structures of the samples will be examined and the mechanisms of eutectic solidification under microgravity conditions will be determined. It is likely that successful flight experiment results will lead to production of high quality eutectic alloys and eutectic composite materials in space.

Ohno, Atsumi

1993-01-01

195

The ionothermal synthesis of metal organic frameworks, Ln(C 9O 6H 3)((CH 3NH) 2CO) 2, using deep eutectic solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three new isostructural materials Ln(TMA)(DMU) 2 (Ln(C 9O 6H 3)((CH 3NH) 2CO) 2; Ln: La 1, Nd 2, Eu 3; TMA: trimesate, DMU: dimethylurea) have been synthesised ionothermally using a choline chloride/dimethylurea deep eutectic mixture as the solvent. Normally in ionothermal synthesis the urea portion of the deep eutectic solvent is unstable, breaking down to release ammonium cations that act as templates. In the case of 1- 3, however, the dimethylurea remains intact and is incorporated into the final structure.

Himeur, Farida; Stein, Irene; Wragg, David S.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Lightfoot, Philip; Morris, Russell E.

2010-04-01

196

Molten Salt Fuel Version of Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE)  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt with dissolved uranium is being considered for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) fission blanket as a backup in case a solid-fuel version cannot meet the performance objectives, for example because of radiation damage of the solid materials. Molten salt is not damaged by radiation and therefore could likely achieve the desired high burnup (>99%) of heavy atoms of {sup 238}U. A perceived disadvantage is the possibility that the circulating molten salt could lend itself to misuse (proliferation) by making separation of fissile material easier than for the solid-fuel case. The molten salt composition being considered is the eutectic mixture of 73 mol% LiF and 27 mol% UF{sub 4}, whose melting point is 490 C. The use of {sup 232}Th as a fuel is also being studied. ({sup 232}Th does not produce Pu under neutron irradiation.) The temperature of the molten salt would be {approx}550 C at the inlet (60 C above the solidus temperature) and {approx}650 C at the outlet. Mixtures of U and Th are being considered. To minimize corrosion of structural materials, the molten salt would also contain a small amount ({approx}1 mol%) of UF{sub 3}. The same beryllium neutron multiplier could be used as in the solid fuel case; alternatively, a liquid lithium or liquid lead multiplier could be used. Insuring that the solubility of Pu{sup 3+} in the melt is not exceeded is a design criterion. To mitigate corrosion of the steel, a refractory coating such as tungsten similar to the first wall facing the fusion source is suggested in the high-neutron-flux regions; and in low-neutron-flux regions, including the piping and heat exchangers, a nickel alloy, Hastelloy, would be used. These material choices parallel those made for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL. The nuclear performance is better than the solid fuel case. At the beginning of life, the tritium breeding ratio is unity and the plutonium plus {sup 233}U production rate is {approx}0.6 atoms per 14.1 MeV neutron.

Moir, R W; Shaw, H F; Caro, A; Kaufman, L; Latkowski, J F; Powers, J; Turchi, P A

2008-10-24

197

The interference effect of more than one salt in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry Part 1: Effect of magnesium chloride-sodium chloride mixture on manganese  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous interference effects of sodium chloride and magnesium chloride on the atomization of manganese in a graphite furnace were investigated. For this purpose, the individual interference mechanisms of each salt were also studied. It was found that the interference of sodium chloride originates from expulsion of the analyte with matrix and gas phase reaction between manganese and chlorine during the atomization step. In the presence of magnesium chloride, interferences depend on the pyrolysis temperature. If low pyrolysis temperatures are applied, expulsion and gas phase reaction in the atomization step are very likely. At elevated temperatures, MgCl 2 is converted to MgO, which does not cause expulsion or gas phase reaction in the atomization step, although some loss of manganese occurs owing to the volatilization of manganese chloride formed in the pyrolysis step. If sodium chloride and magnesium chloride are present simultaneously, interferences are reduced at elevated pyrolysis temperatures. Obviously, the magnesium oxide generated by the hydrolysis of magnesium chloride acts as a modifier and partially protects the analyte, but some losses cannot be completely eliminated because of the interference due to sodium chloride and the volatilization of manganese chloride.

Ince Tekgül, H.; Akman, S.

1997-05-01

198

Salt tectonics  

SciTech Connect

Salt deposits have economic significance because of their importance as oil and gas traps and their potential as radioactive waste disposal sites. This article reviews the formation of salt domes, beginning with a description of the formation of salt deposits as evaporites and a discussion of early attempts to model the development of salt domes. Current work on tectonics of salt dome formation and related tectonics is then discussed in detail.

Talbot, C.J.; Jackson, M.P.A.

1988-01-01

199

Origin of the low-viscosity of [emim][(FSO2)2N] ionic liquid and its lithium salt mixture: experimental and theoretical study of self-diffusion coefficients, conductivities, and intermolecular interactions.  

PubMed

The temperature-dependent viscosity, ionic conductivity, and self-diffusion coefficients of an ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide ([emim][FSA]), and its Li salt mixture were studied with reference to emim bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl)amide ([emim][TFSA]) systems. The stabilization energies for the formation of the FSA(-) complexes with emim(+) and Li(+) were calculated by the MP2/6-311G** level ab initio method. The stabilization energies calculated for the FSA(-) complexes with emim(+) and Li(+) (-77.0 and -134.3 kcal/mol) were smaller than those for the corresponding TFSA(-) complexes (-78.8 and -137.2 kcal/mol). The weaker electrostatic and induction interactions are the causes of the smaller interaction energies for the FSA(-) complexes. The weaker interaction between the FSA(-) and emim(+) can be one of the causes of the lower viscosity of the [emim][FSA] ionic liquid compared with that of the [emim][TFSA] ionic liquid. The weaker interaction between the FSA(-) and Li(+) compared with that between the TFSA(-) and Li(+) explains the fact that the addition of Li salt to the [emim][FSA] ionic liquid induces a little increase of the viscosity and a little decrease of the ionic conductivity and self-diffusion coefficients of ions. The FSA(-) in the Li[FSA] complex prefers the cis form due to the stronger attraction and smaller deformation energy of the cis-FSA(-) compared with the trans-FSA(-). PMID:21080680

Tsuzuki, Seiji; Hayamizu, Kikuko; Seki, Shiro

2010-12-16

200

The twinned growth of silicon in chill-modified Al-Si eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron diffraction studies of the silicon phase in chill-modified Al-Si eutectic have revealed a twin density higher than in unmodified flake eutectic silicon. The growth crystallography of the chill-modified silicon is closely similar to that of unmodified eutectic silicon but different from that in strontium-modified eutectic. It is concluded that the chill-modified eutectic is a refinement of the flake-silicon eutectic due to large undercooling whereas impurity-modified eutectic has been shown to have a different growth mechanism.

Shamsuzzoha, M.; Hogan, L. M.

1987-04-01

201

Deep eutectic solvents as novel extraction media for protein partitioning.  

PubMed

Four kinds of green deep eutectic solvent (DES) were synthesized, including choline chloride (ChCl)-urea, tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl)-urea, tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPMBr)-urea and ChCl-methylurea. An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) based ChCl-urea DES was studied for the first time for the extraction of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Single factor experiments proved that the extraction efficiency of BSA was influenced by the mass of the DES, concentration of K2HPO4 solution, separation time and extraction temperature. The optimum conditions were determined through an orthogonal experiment with the four factors described above. The results showed that under the optimum conditions, the average extraction efficiency could reach up to 99.94%, 99.72%, 100.05% and 100.05% (each measured three times). The relative standard deviations (RSD) of extraction efficiencies in precision, repeatability and stability experiments were 0.5533% (n = 5), 0.8306% (n = 5) and 0.9829% (n = 5), respectively. UV-vis and FT-IR spectra confirmed that there were no chemical interactions between BSA and the DES in the extraction process, and the CD spectra proved that the conformation of BSA did not change after extraction. The conductivity, DLS and TEM were combined to investigate the microstructure of the top phase and the possible mechanism for the extraction. The results showed that hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding interactions and the salting-out effect played important roles in the transfer process, and the aggregation and surrounding phenomenon were the main driving forces for the separation. All of these results proved that ionic liquid (IL)-based ATPSs could potentially be substituted with DES-based ATPSs to offer new possibilities in the extraction of proteins. PMID:24699681

Zeng, Qun; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Ding, Xueqin; Chen, Jing; Xu, Kaijia

2014-05-21

202

Directionally solidified iron-base eutectic alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pseudobinary eutectic alloys with nominal compositions of Fe-25Ta-22Ni-10Cr and Fe-15.5Nb-14.5Ni-6.0Cr were directionally solidified at 0.5 centimeter per hour. Their microstructure consisted of the fcc, iron solid-solution, matrix phase reinforced by about 41-volume-percent, hcp, faceted Fe2Ta fibers and 41-volume-percent, hcp, Fe2Nb lamellae for the tantalum- and niobium-containing alloys, respectively. The microstructural stability under thermal cycling and the temperature dependence of tensile properties were investigated. These alloys showed low elevated-temperature strength and were not considered suitable for application in aircraft-gas-turbine blades although they may have applicability as vane materials.

Tewari, S. N.

1976-01-01

203

Relating composition, structural order, entropy and transport in multi-component molten salts.  

PubMed

Molecular dynamics simulations of the LiF-BeF(2) molten salt mixture are used to establish relationships between composition, structural order, entropy, and transport properties of multi-component ionic liquids. A sharp rise in tetrahedral order associated with formation of the fluoroberyllate network occurs for compositions with BeF(2) concentrations greater than that of the Li(2)BeF(4)-BeF(2) eutectic. The excess entropy of the liquid in this regime, within the pair correlation approximation, is strongly correlated with the local tetrahedral order. The different degree of participation of beryllium, fluorine, and lithium ions in the cooperative dynamics of the fluoroberyllate network can be related to the degree of deviation from Rosenfeld-type excess entropy scaling, with the lithium ions remaining essentially unaffected by the liquid state network. We demonstrate that the deviations from Nernst-Einstein and Stokes-Einstein behaviour emerge only in temperature-composition regimes where tetrahedral order strongly correlates with the pair entropy. Implications for understanding structure-property relationships in other ionic liquids, such as molten salts, oxide melts, and RTILs are considered. PMID:22502533

Jabes, B Shadrack; Chakravarty, Charusita

2012-04-14

204

CORROSION STUDIES FOR A FUSED SALT-LIQUID METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE LIQUID METAL FUEL REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion screening tests were carried out on potential materials of ;\\u000a construction for use in a fused salt-liquid metal extraction process plant. The ;\\u000a corrodents of interest were NaCl--KCl-- MgCl eutectic, LiCl--KCl eutectic, ;\\u000a Bi-- U fuel, and BiCl, either separately or in various combinations. ;\\u000a Screening tests to determine the resistance of a wide range of commercial alloys ;

H. Susskind; F. B. Hill; L. Green; S. Kalish; L. E. Kukacka; W. E. McNulty; E. Jr. Wirsing

1960-01-01

205

Making Bath Salts for Mother's Day, a Primary Chemistry Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a guided discovery where students make chemical mixtures using sodium, learn about the Periodic Table, view salt under a microscope, and have a final result of bath salts for the bathtub

206

Explosive double salts and preparation  

DOEpatents

Applicants have discovered a new composition of matter which is an explosive addition compound of ammonium nitrate (AN) and diethylenetriamine trinitrate (DETN) in a 50:50 molar ratio. The compound is stable over extended periods of time only at temperatures higher than 46.degree. C., decomposing to a fine-grained eutectic mixture (which is also believed to be new) of AN and DETN at temperatures lower than 46.degree. C. The compound of the invention has an x-ray density of 1.61 g/cm.sup.3, explodes to form essentially only gaseous products, has higher detonation properties (i.e., detonation velocity and pressure) than those of any mechanical mixture having the same density and composition as the compound of the invention, is a quite insensitive explosive material, can be cast at temperatures attainable by high pressure steam, and is prepared from inexpensive ingredients. Methods of preparing the compound of the invention and the fine-grained eutectic composition of the invention are given.

Cady, Howard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Lee, Kien-yin (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

207

Physical properties of oils and mixtures of oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical properties of palm, palm kernel and coconut oils are reviewed and compared and contrasted with the properties\\u000a of other oils and fats. More information is available for palm oil than for the other two. The properties of mixtures of the\\u000a oils also are considered, especially mixtures of palm and palm kernel oils in which a eutectic interaction occurs.

R. E. Timms

1985-01-01

208

Use of Microgravity to Control the Microstructure of Eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant began in June of 1996. Its long term goal is to be able to control the microstructure of directionally solidified eutectic alloys, through an improved understanding of the influence of convection. The primary objective of the projects in the present grant is to test hypotheses for the reported influence of microgravity on the microstructure of eutectics. The prior experimental results on the influence of microgravity on the microstructure of eutectics have been contradictory. With lamellar eutectics, microgravity had a negligible effect on the microstructure. Microgravity experiments with fibrous eutectics sometimes showed a finer microstructure and sometimes a coarser microstructure. Most research has been done on the MnBi/Bi rod-like eutectic. Larson and Pirich obtained a two-fold finer microstructure both from microgravity and by use of a magnetic field to quench buoyancy-driven convection. Smith, on the other hand, observed no change in microgravity. Prior theoretical work at Clarkson University showed that buoyancy-driven convection in the vertical Bridgman configuration is not vigorous enough to alter the concentration field in front of a growing eutectic sufficiently to cause a measurable change in microstructure. We assumed that the bulk melt was at the eutectic composition and that freezing occurred at the extremum, i.e. with minimum total undercooling at the freezing interface. There have been four hypotheses attempting to explain the observed changes in microstructure of fibrous eutectics caused by convection: I .A fluctuating freezing rate, combined with unequal kinetics for fiber termination and branching. 2. Off-eutectic composition, either in the bulk melt due to an off-eutectic feed or at the freezing interface because of departure from the extremum condition. 3. Presence of a strong habit modifying impurity whose concentration at the freezing interface would be altered by convection. At the beginning of the present grant, we favored the first of these hypotheses and set out to test it both experimentally and theoretically. We planned the following approaches: I .Pass electric current pulses through the MnBi/Bi eutectic during directional solidification in order to produce an oscillatory freezing rate. 2. Directionally solidify the MnBi/Bi eutectic on Mir using the QUELD II gradient freeze furnace developed by Professor Smith at Queen's University. 3. Select another fibrous eutectic system for investigation using the Accelerated Crucible Rotation Technique to introduce convection. 4. Develop theoretical models for eutectic solidification with an oscillatory freezing rate. Because of the problems with Mir, we substituted ground-based experiments at Queen's University with QUELD II vertical and horizontal, with and without vibration of the furnace. The Al-Si system was chosen for the ACRT experiments. Three related approaches were used to model eutectic solidification with an oscillatory freezing rate. A sharp interface model was used to calculate composition oscillations at the freezing interface in response to imposed freezing rate oscillations.

Wilcox. William R.; Regel, Liya L.

1999-01-01

209

Hydrolase-catalyzed biotransformations in deep eutectic solvents.  

PubMed

Hydrolases show good catalytic activity in deep eutectic solvents, despite the presence of urea, which can denature enzymes, or alcohols, which can interfere with hydrolase-catalyzed reactions. PMID:18309428

Gorke, Johnathan T; Srienc, Friedrich; Kazlauskas, Romas J

2008-03-14

210

Dynamics of rod eutectic growth patterns in confined geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of rod-like eutectics are examined using a directional solidification setup, which allows real-time observation of the whole solidification front in specimens of transparent eutectic alloys -here, succinonitrile-(D)camphor. In steady-state, rod eutectic growth patterns consist of triangular arrays, more or less disturbed by topological defects. In the absence of strong convection and of crystallographic anisotropy, the long-time evolution of the pattern is dominated by "imperfections" of the system, such as misalignment of the temperature gradient, and finite-size. In this study, we present experimental results on the finite-size effects on rod eutectics and show that a rod to lamella transition takes place as a result of finite-size effect only, at a given alloy concentration.

?erefo?lu, Melis; Bottin-Rousseau, S.; Akamatsu, S.; Faivre, G.

2012-01-01

211

Shear Strength of Eutectic Sn-Bi Lead-Free Solders After Corrosion Testing and Thermal Aging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-cost manufacturing in the electronics industry is becoming more demanding, particularly in the production of consumer electronics. Such manufacturing processes require reliable and low-cost lead-free solders. Among the low temperature lead-free solders, eutectic Sn-Bi solder has attracted a great deal of interest since it offers good reliability comparable to that of Sn-Pb solders. In this paper, the shear strength of eutectic 42Sn-58Bi (wt.%) lead-free solder was studied using combinations of environmental tests including thermal aging at 100 °C, salt spray test, and a sequential combination of these tests. Microstructural studies on samples were performed at different time intervals of testing. To study the effect of salt spray and thermal aging on the mechanical reliability, shear testing was performed on the samples. Failure analysis including fractography on samples was conducted at different time intervals using a scanning electron microscope. Considerable corrosion was observed after the salt spray test. This was found to have a significant effect on the shear strength of the solder joints. Additionally, thermal aging was found to cause coarsening and to increase the thickness of intermetallic layers. This was also found to adversely affect the shear strength. The combination test was found to have the most significant effect, as the lowest shear strengths were seen after this testing.

Mostofizadeh, Milad; Pippola, Juha; Frisk, Laura

2014-05-01

212

Lamellar coupled growth in the neopentylglycol-(D)camphor eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lamellar eutectic growth was investigated in the transparent organic alloy neopentylglycol-(D)camphor of eutectic composition (NPG-45.3 wt% DC) using bulk (3D) and thin (2D) samples. Two types of eutectic grains were observed in the polycrystalline samples, either with lamellae well aligned to the direction of solidification or inclined at an angle of 21.5±1.5°. The well aligned grains were used for determining lamellar spacing as function of growth velocity V and temperature gradient G. Based on these data the Jackson-Hunt constant was evaluated to be KJH=1.60±0.15 ?m3 s-1. For low growth velocity experiments the contact angles for (DC) and (NPG) lamellae at eutectic triple junctions were also evaluated, being ?(DC)=50.9±4.1° and ?(NPG)=41.8±4.7°, respectively. Using these values, as well as phase diagram data and the Gibbs-Thomson coefficients, the chemical coefficient of diffusion of (D)camphor in the eutectic liquid at eutectic temperature 53 °C was estimated to be DL=97±15 ?m2 s-1.

Witusiewicz, V. T.; Sturz, L.; Hecht, U.; Rex, S.

2014-01-01

213

Characterization of low-melting electrolytes for potential geothermal borehole power supplies: The LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic  

SciTech Connect

The suitability of modified thermal-battery technology for use as a potential power source for geothermal borehole applications is under investigation. As a first step, the discharge processes that take place in LiSi/LiBr-KBr-LiF/FeS{sub 2} thermal cells were studied at temperatures of 350 C and 400 C using pelletized cells with immobilized electrolyte. Incorporation of a reference electrode allowed the relative contribution of each electrode to the overall cell polarization to be determined. The results of single-cell tests are presented, along with preliminary data for cells based on a lower-melting CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic salt.

Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

1998-05-01

214

Kinetic fragility of binary and ternary glass forming liquid mixtures.  

PubMed

The experimental studies of liquid fragility in miscible binary and ternary glass forming mixtures reveal a general observation of the negative deviation in fragility upon mixing from the linear average of those of the components. Further analyses from ideal, near ideal to non-ideal mixing modes show that the deviation magnitude does not increase monotonically with mixing enthalpy, and a moderate intermolecular interaction would generate a largest reduction in fragility. Four eutectic systems, methyl-o-toluate-methyl-p-toluate, ZnCl(2)-AlCl(3), glycerol-water, and fructose-water, are studied to locate the composition where the largest fragility deviation occurs in phase diagrams. It is found that the compositions with the fragility minima do not coincide with the eutectic points. The results partly explain the experimental observation that the best glass forming region is not located at the eutectic composition. PMID:21938612

Gong, Hongxiang; Sun, Mingdao; Li, Zijing; Liu, Riping; Tian, Yongjun; Wang, Li-Min

2011-09-01

215

Are deep eutectic solvents benign or toxic?  

PubMed

In continuation of investigation for environmentally benign protocol for new solvents termed deep eutectic solvents (DESs), it is herein reported results concerning the toxicity and cytotoxicity of choline chloride (ChCl) based DESs with four hydrogen bond donors including glycerine, ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and urea. The toxicity was investigated using two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and two Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cytotoxicity effect was tested using the Artemia salina leach. It was found that there was no toxic effect for the tested DESs on all of the studied bacteria confirming their benign effects on these bacteria. Nevertheless, it was found that the cytotoxicity of DESs was much higher than their individual components (e.g. glycerine, ChCl) indicating that their toxicological behavior is different. For our best knowledge this is the first time that toxicity and cytotoxicity of DESs were studied. The toxicity and cytotoxicity of DESs varied depending on the structure of components. Careful usage of the terms non-toxicity and biodegradability must be considered. More investigation on this matter is required. PMID:23200570

Hayyan, Maan; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Hayyan, Adeeb; Al-Saadi, Mohammed A; AlNashef, Inas M; Mirghani, Mohamed E S; Saheed, Olorunnisola Kola

2013-02-01

216

Characterization of small-sized eutectic Sn-Bi solder bumps fabricated using electroplating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the effects of the cooling rate during the reflow process on the microstructure of eutectic Sn-Bi solder bumps of various sizes fabricated by electroplating. To fabricate eutectic Sn-Bi solder bumps of less than 50 µm in diameter, Sn-Bi alloys were electroplated on Cu pads and reflowed at various cooling rates using the rapid thermal annealing system. The interior microstructure of electroplated bumps showed a fine mixture of Sn-rich phases and Bi-rich phases regardless of the cooling rate. Such an interior microstructure of electroplated bumps was quite different from the reported microstructure of vacuum-evaporated bumps. Ball shear tests were performed to study the effects of the cooling rate on the shear strength of the solder bumps and showed that the shear strength of the bumps increased with increasing cooling rate probably due to the reduced grain size. Soft fractures inside the solder bump were observed during the ball shear test regardless of the cooling rate.

Jung, Hoe-Rok; Kim, Hyuk-Hwan; Lee, Won-Jong

2006-05-01

217

In-situ laser synthesis of Nd-Al-O coatings: the role of sublattice cations in eutectic formation.  

PubMed

Neodymium aluminate coatings have been prepared in-situ by the laser zone melting (LZM) method, using a CO2 SLAB-type laser emitting at 10.6?µm. Polycrystalline Al2O3 commercial plates have been used as substrates, and coatings were prepared from the corresponding mixtures of powdered neodymium and aluminium oxides as starting materials. Microstructure, studied by SEM and phase composition, studied by XRD, proved the in-situ formation of a NdAlO3/NdAl11O18 eutectic. As a result, a well integrated composite coating was formed. Nanoindentation tests are consistent with excellent integration between coating and substrate. Structural similarities between the eutectic components within the coating, as well as between these and the substrate, are consistent with the crystallographic concepts proposed by Vegas (Ramos-Gallardo & Vegas, 1997), where cation sub-arrays play an important role governing metal oxide structures. These structure sublattices are suggested as the driving force behind eutectic oxide formation. PMID:25643721

de Francisco, Isabel; Bea, Jose Antonio; Vegas, Angel; Carda, Juan Bautista; de la Fuente, German Francisco

2015-02-01

218

Bath Salts  

MedlinePLUS

Synthetic cathinones, often called “bath salts,” are powerful, illegal, and can cause hallucinations and violent behavior, among other dangerous effects. Twitter Facebook RSS 544 Exposures Jan. 1, ...

219

Salt Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are shading light on the molecular nature of salt tolerance effectors and regulatory pathways. PMID:22303210

Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

2002-01-01

220

Salts & Solubility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive simulation, learners will add different salts to water and then watch the salts dissolve and achieve a dynamic equilibrium with solid precipitate. Learners will also compare the number of ions in NaCl to other slightly soluble salts, and they will relate the charges on ions to the number of ions in the formula of a salt. Learners will also learn how to calculate Ksp values. This activity includes an online simulation, sample learning goals, a teacher's guide, and translations in over 20 languages.

2012-12-27

221

Molten salt pyrolysis of latex. [synthetic hydrocarbon fuel production using the Guayule shrub  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Latex-rich plants such as Guayule or extracts thereof are pyrolyzed in an inert nitrogen atmosphere inorganic salt melts such as a LiCl/KCl eutectic at a temperature of about 500 C. The yield is over 60% of a highly aromatic, combustible hydrocarbon oil suitable for use as a synthetic liquid fuel.

Bauman, A. J. (inventor)

1981-01-01

222

Recent advances in the molten salt technology for the destruction of energetic materials  

SciTech Connect

The DOE has thousands of pounds of energetic materials which result from dismantlement operations at the Pantex Plant. The authors have demonstrated the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for the treatment of explosives and explosive-containing wastes on a 1.5 kilogram of explosive per hour scale and are currently building a 5 kilogram per hour unit. MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as binders and metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic material waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a crucible containing a molten salt, in this case a eutectic mixture of Na, K, and Li carbonates. The following pure component DOE and DoD explosives have been destroyed in LLNL`s experimental unit at their High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K-6, NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following formulations were also destroyed: Comp B, LX-10, LX-16, LX-17, PBX-9404, and XM46, a US Army liquid gun propellant. In this 1.5 kg/hr unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NOx were found to be well below 1T. In addition to destroying explosive powders and molding powders the authors have also destroyed materials that are typical of real world wastes. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the information obtained on the smaller unit, the authors have constructed a 5 kg/hr MSD unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. This unit is currently under shakedown tests and evaluation.

Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.

1995-11-01

223

HIMERT: A Pan-European Project for the Development of Metal-Carbon Eutectics as Temperature Standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal-carbon eutectic mixtures show much promise for high-temperature standards applications. A research project, Novel, High temperature, Metal-carbon Eutectic fixed points for Radiation Thermometry, Radiometry and Thermocouples (HIMERT) was accepted by the European Union (submitted under the Framework 5 Growth Programme) with a view to developing a unified European approach to these standards. The objectives of the project are to develop fixed-point cells both for radiation thermometry/radiometry and contact thermometry calibration applications. In total three sets of cells will be developed, two for radiation thermometry (by BNM-INM and NPL) and one for contact sensors (by BNM-LNE) and comparisons performed of the differing crucible designs. The cells developed for radiation thermometry will be calibrated according to the ITS-90 and measured radiometrically by a third participant (PTB). A set of cells will be transported to a laboratory external to the EU (the National Metrology Institute of Japan, NMIJ) for comparison with the cells developed there. In parallel with the experimental work a theoretical investigation of the eutectic process will be elaborated by the Universidad de Valladolid. Involvement of manufacturers of both contact sensors (Thermocoax) and IR thermometers (LAND Instruments) will ensure that the project works towards the provision of better high temperature standards for the wider measurement community. In addition, at the end of the project a discussion workshop will be held where the research team will present their findings to the high temperature user community in European industry with the aim of improving metrological standards through stimulating the uptake of metal-carbon eutectic technology on a broad front. A description of the project is given and first results are presented.

Machin, G.; Beynon, G.; Edler, F.; Fourrez, S.; Hartmann, J.; Lowe, D.; Morice, R.; Sadli, M.; Villamanan, M.

2003-09-01

224

Synthesis of oxide perovskite solid solutions using the molten salt method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molten salt method has in the past been employed to synthesize a large number of compounds at low temperatures. In this work we report the formation of solid solutions of BaTiO3 - SrTiO3 and BaZrO3 - SrZrO3 using a molten salt eutectic of NaOH- KOH as a solvent. Alkaline earth carbonates and titanium oxide were used as precursors for

Srikanth Gopalan; Karun Mehta; Anil V. Virkar

1996-01-01

225

Salt Painting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this art meets chemistry activity, early learners discover the almost magical absorbent properties of salt while creating ethereal watercolor paintings. Learners first use watercolor to paint an image. Then, they sprinkle salt on the wet paint and observe. Use the provided discussion questions to encourage reflection.

Omsi

2004-01-01

226

Directionally solidified eutectic gamma-gamma nickel-base superalloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A directionally solidified multivariant eutectic gamma-gamma prime nickel-base superalloy casting having improved high temperature properties was developed. The alloy is comprised of a two phase eutectic structure consisting essentially of on a weight percent base, 6.0 to 9.0 aluminum, 5.0 to 17.0 tantalum, 0-10 cobalt, 0-6 vanadium, 0-6 rhenium, 2.0-6.0 tungsten, and the balance being nickel, subject to the proviso that the sum of the atomic percentages of aluminum plus tantalum is within the range of from 19-22, and the ratio of atomic percentages of tantalum to aluminum plus tantalum is within the range of from 0.12 to 0.23. Embedded within the gamma nickel-base matrix are aligned eutectic gamma prime phase (primarily nickel-aluminum-tantalum) reinforcing fibers.

Jackson, M. R. (inventor)

1977-01-01

227

Molten salt chemistry: An introduction and selected applications  

SciTech Connect

The major fundamental topics covered are the structure of melts, thermodynamics of molten salt mixtures, theoretical and experimental studies of transport processes, metal-metal salt solutions, solvent properties of melt systems, acid-base effects in molten salt chemistry, electronic absorption, vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of melt systems, electrochemistry and electroanalytical chemistry in molten salts, and organic chemistry in molten salts. The applied aspects include the chemistry of aluminium production, electrodeposition using molten salts, and molten salt batteries and fuel cells.

Mamantov, G.; Marassi, R.

1987-01-01

228

Cathode for molten salt batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molten salt electrochemical system for battery applications comprises tetravalent sulfur as the active cathode material with a molten chloroaluminate solvent comprising a mixture of AlCl.sub.3 and MCl having a molar ratio of AlCl.sub.3 \\/MCl from greater than 50.0\\/50.0 to 80\\/20.

Gleb Mamantov; Roberto Marassi

1977-01-01

229

Prebiotic phosphate ester syntheses in a deep eutectic solvent.  

PubMed

We report a route to synthesize a wide range of organophosphates of biological significance in a deep eutectic solvent (2:1 urea and choline chloride), utilizing various orthophosphate sources. Heating an organic alcohol in the solvent along with a soluble phosphorus source yields phosphorus esters of choline as well as that of the added organic in yields between 15 to 99 %. In addition, phosphite analogs of biological phosphates and peptides were also formed by the simple mixing of reagents and heating at 60-70 °C in the deep eutectic solvent. The presented dehydration reactions are relevant to prebiotic and green chemistry in alternative solvents. PMID:24368625

Gull, Maheen; Zhou, Manshui; Fernández, Facundo M; Pasek, Matthew A

2014-02-01

230

Lead-bismuth eutectic technology for Hyperion reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small lead-bismuth eutectic-cooled reactor concept (referred to as the Hyperion reactor concept) is being studied at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Hyperion Power Generation. In this report, a critical assessment of the lead-bismuth eutectic technology for Hyperion reactor is presented based on currently available knowledge. Included are: material compatibility, oxygen control, thermal hydraulics, polonium control. The key advances in the technology and their applications to Hyperion reactor design are analyzed. Also, the near future studies in main areas of the technology are recommended for meeting the design requirements.

Zhang, J.; Kapernick, R. J.; McClure, P. R.; Trapp, T. J.

2013-10-01

231

Cobalt-Carbon Eutectic Fixed Point for Contact Thermometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Co-C eutectic fixed points were constructed for thermocouple calibration. The eutectic fixed points were measured with a Pt/Pd thermocouple calibrated at the freezing temperatures of Sn, Zn, Al, Ag, and Au. A temperature of (1323.99 ± 0.52) °C ( k = 2) was determined via this method. The cell design allowed filling to be accomplished in a single step. Each cell was held above 1300 °C for at least 42 h and was subjected to at least 20 melt/freeze cycles with no mechanical failure occurring.

Todd, A. D. W.; Gotoh, M.; Woods, D. J.; Hill, K. D.

2011-01-01

232

How polar are choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents?  

PubMed

Developing and characterizing green solvents with low toxicity and cost is one of the most important issues in chemistry. Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs), in this regard, have shown tremendous promise. Compared to popular organic solvents, DESs possess negligible VOCs and are non-flammable. Compared to ionic liquids, which share many characteristics but are ionic compounds and not ionic mixtures, DESs are cheaper to make, much less toxic and mostly biodegradable. An estimate of the polarity associated with DESs is essential if they are to be used as green alternatives to common organic solvents in industries and academia. As no one physical parameter can satisfactorily represent solute-solvent interactions within a medium, polarity of DESs is assessed through solvatochromic optical spectroscopic responses of several UV-vis absorbance and molecular fluorescence probes. Information on the local microenvironment (i.e., the cybotactic region) that surrounds several solvatochromic probes [betaine dye, pyrene, pyrene-1-carboxaldehyde, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS), p-toluidinyl-6-naphthalene sulfonate (TNS), 6-propionyl-2-(dimethylaminonaphthalene) (PRODAN), coumarin-153, and Nile Red] for four common and popular DESs formed from choline chloride combined with 1,2-ethanediol, glycerol, urea, and malonic acid, respectively, in 1?:?2 molar ratios termed ethaline, glyceline, reline, and maline is obtained and used to assess the effective polarity afforded by each of these DESs. The four DESs as indicated by these probe responses are found to be fairly dipolar in nature. Absorbance probe betaine dye and fluorescence probes ANS, TNS, PRODAN, coumarin-153, and Nile Red, whose solvatochromic responses are based on photoinduced charge-transfer, imply ethaline and glyceline, DESs formed using alcohol-based H-bond donors, to be relatively more dipolar in nature as compared to reline and maline. The pyrene polarity scale, which is based on polarity-induced changes in vibronic bands, indicates reline, the DES composed of urea as the hydrogen bond donor, to be significantly more dipolar than the other three DESs. Response of pyrene-1-carboxaldehyde, a polarity probe based on inversion of n-?* and ?-?* states, hints at maline to be the most dipolar of the four DESs. The molecular structure of the H-bond donor in a DES clearly controls the dipolarity afforded by the DES. H-bonding and other specific solute-solvent interactions are found to play an important role in solvatochromic probe behavior for the four DESs. The cybotactic region of a probe dissolved in a DES affords information on the polarity of the DES towards solutes of similar nature and functionality. PMID:24305780

Pandey, Ashish; Rai, Rewa; Pal, Mahi; Pandey, Siddharth

2014-01-28

233

Recent advances in the molten salt destruction of energetic materials  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated the use of the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for destroying explosives, liquid gun propellant, and explosives-contaminated materials on a 1.5 kg of explosive/hr bench- scale unit (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In our recently constructed 5 kg/hr pilot- scale unit we have also demonstrated the destruction of a liquid gun propellant and simulated wastes containing HMX (octogen). MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic materials waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a vessel containing molten salt (a eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium carbonates). The following pure explosives have been destroyed in our bench-scale experimental unit located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K- 6 (keto-RDX), NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following compositions were also destroyed: Comp B, LX- IO, LX- 1 6, LX- 17, PBX-9404, and XM46 (liquid gun propellant). In this 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NO{sub x} were found to be well below 1%. In addition to destroying explosive powders and compositions we have also destroyed materials that are typical of residues which result from explosives operations. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic-bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the process data obtained on the bench-scale unit we designed and constructed a next-generation 5 kg/hr pilot-scale unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. The pilot unit has completed process implementation operations and explosives safety reviews. To date, in this pilot unit we have successfully destroyed liquid gun propellant and dimethylsulfoxide containing HMX in continuous, long-duration runs.

Pruneda, C. O., LLNL

1996-09-01

234

Theoretical study on the structures and properties of mixtures of urea and choline chloride.  

PubMed

In this work, we investigated in detail the structural characteristics of mixtures of choline chloride and urea with different urea contents by performing molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, and offer possible explanations for the low melting point of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea with a ratio of 1:2. The insertion of urea molecules was found to change the density distribution of cations and anions around the given cations significantly, disrupting the long-range ordered structure of choline chloride. Moreover, with increasing urea concentration, the hydrogen bond interactions between choline cations and Cl(-) anions decreased, while those among urea molecules obviously increased. From the hydrogen bond lifetimes, it was found that a ratio of 1:2 between choline chloride and urea is necessary for a reasonable strength of hydrogen bond interaction to maintain the low melting point of the mixture of choline chloride with urea. In addition, it was also deduced from the interaction energies that a urea content of 67.7 % may make the interactions of cation-anion, cation-urea and anion-urea modest, and thus results in the lower melting point of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea. The present results may offer assistance to some extent for understanding the physicochemical properties of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea, and give valuable information for the further development and application of deep eutectic solvents. PMID:23435478

Sun, Hui; Li, Yan; Wu, Xue; Li, Guohui

2013-06-01

235

21 CFR 1310.12 - Exempt chemical mixtures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cyanide 8570 20% by Weight or Volume Ephedrine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts...Chemical mixtures containing any amount of ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine, and their...Chemical mixtures containing any amount of ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine, and...

2011-04-01

236

21 CFR 1310.12 - Exempt chemical mixtures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...cyanide 8570 20% by Weight or Volume Ephedrine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts...Chemical mixtures containing any amount of ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine, and their...Chemical mixtures containing any amount of ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine, and...

2012-04-01

237

21 CFR 1310.12 - Exempt chemical mixtures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cyanide 8570 20% by Weight or Volume Ephedrine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts...Chemical mixtures containing any amount of ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine, and their...Chemical mixtures containing any amount of ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine, and...

2010-04-01

238

21 CFR 1310.12 - Exempt chemical mixtures.  

...cyanide 8570 20% by Weight or Volume Ephedrine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts...Chemical mixtures containing any amount of ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine, and their...Chemical mixtures containing any amount of ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine, and...

2014-04-01

239

21 CFR 1310.12 - Exempt chemical mixtures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cyanide 8570 20% by Weight or Volume Ephedrine, its salts, optical isomers, and salts...Chemical mixtures containing any amount of ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine, and their...Chemical mixtures containing any amount of ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine, and...

2013-04-01

240

Mechanical analyses of WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) disposal rooms backfilled with either crushed salt or crushed salt-bentonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical calculations of disposal room configurations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM are presented. Specifically, the behavior of either crushed salt or a crushed salt-bentonite mixture, when used as a backfill material in disposal rooms, is modeled in conjunction with the creep behavior of the surrounding intact salt. The backfill consolidation model developed at Sandia National

R. A. Wagner; G. D. Callahan; B. M. Butcher

1990-01-01

241

Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOEpatents

A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor. 4 figs.

Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.

1995-07-18

242

Behavior of Some Eutectic Drug Compositions under Accelerated Aging Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

compositions and melting points of samples are presented in Table 1. The powders of eutectic compositions, pure substances, and triturated panadol tablets were placed into open glass containers and stored in a thermostat at a constant temperature of 90 1°C and a relative humidity of 10%. Every ten days, samples of each type were taken and analyzed for the content

M. L. Tkachenko

2002-01-01

243

Divorced eutectic in a HPDC magnesium–aluminum alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of the eutectic in a thin-wall high pressure die cast (HPDC) U-shape AM60 magnesium box was investigated by light microscope, SEM, TEM and EPMA. The extremely fast cooling rate taking place in the solidification process produces a highly segregated zone near the boundaries of small grains and a fine distribution of ? particles, which is typical of a

S. Barbagallo; H. I. Laukli; O. Lohne; E. Cerri

2004-01-01

244

Structure of directionally solidified InSb-Sb eutectic alloy  

SciTech Connect

The eutectic alloy of InSb-Sb has been directionally solidified at various rates in order to investigate the structure changes due to solidification conditions. The boundary energy between the InSb and Sb phases was determined from a dislocation model of the interface.

Umehara, Y.; Koda, S.

1987-11-01

245

Use of Microgravity to Control the Microstructure of Eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant began in June of 1996. Its long term goal is to be able to control the microstructure of directionally solidified eutectic alloys, through an improved understanding of the influence of convection. The primary objective of the present projects is to test hypotheses for the reported influence of microgravity on the microstructure of three fibrous eutectics (MnBi-Bi, InSb-NiSb, Al3Ni-Al). A secondary objective is to determine the influence of convection on the microstructure of other eutectic alloys. Two doctoral students and a masters student supported as a teaching assistant were recruited for this research. Techniques were developed for directional solidification of MnBi-Bi eutectics with periodic application of current pulses to produce an oscillatory freezing rate. Image analysis techniques were developed to obtain the variation in MnBi fiber spacing, which was found to be normally distributed. The mean and standard deviation of fiber spacing were obtained for several freezing conditions. Eighteen ampoules were prepared for use in the gradient freeze furnace QUELD developed at Queen's University for use in microgravity. Nine of these ampoules will be solidified soon at Queen's in a ground-based model. We hope to solidify the other nine in the QUELD that is mounted on the Canadian Microgravity Isolation Mount on MIR. Techniques are being developed for directional solidification of the Al-Si eutectic at different freezing rates, with and without application of accelerated crucible rotation to induce convection. For the first time, theoretical methods are being developed to analyze eutectic solidification with an oscillatory freezing rate. In a classical sharp-interface model, we found that an oscillatory freezing rate increases the deviation of the average interfacial composition from the eutectic, and increases the undercooling of the two phases by different amounts. This would be expected to change the volume fraction solidifying and the fiber spacing. Because of difficulties in tracking the freezing interfaces of the two solid phases, a phase-field model is also being developed. A paper demonstrating application of phase field methods to periodic structures has been submitted for publication.

Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.; Smith, Reginald W.

1998-01-01

246

Separating Mixtures: How We Concentrate Natural Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity involves separating mixtures of minerals on the basis of their physical properties. Students are shown a piece of granite and see that it is clearly a mixture. Students will try to devise ways of separating some simple mixtures and then see how some of the same methods are used to separate real minerals from mixtures. Students will discover that many useful materials are found as part of mixtures. For example, salt is found in underground deposits mixed with sand and clay. The mixture is called rock salt. Minerals are chemicals found naturally in the Earth and many of them are very useful. To get at the useful minerals, we usually have to separate them from less-useful material which are often called gangue (pronounced gang) by miners.

247

Separating Mixtures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how to classify materials as mixtures, elements or compounds and identify the properties of each type. The concept of separation of mixtures is also introduced since nearly every element or compound is found naturally in an impure state such as a mixture of two or more substances, and it is common that chemical engineers use separation techniques to separate mixtures into their individual components. For example, the separation of crude oil into purified hydrocarbons such as natural gas, gasoline, diesel, jet fuel and/or lubricants.

2014-09-18

248

Effect of Freeze Concentration of Various Salt Solutions on the Denaturation of Carp Myofibrils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The apparent rate constants of freeze inactivation (KF) at different storage temperatures for various salts were calculated. Comparisons were then made among salts with relation to storage temperature and ionic strength of unfrozen salt solutions. For three kinds of sulfates with high eutectic points,hardly any change occured in relation to the storage temperature and ionic strength. The reason was thought to be the weaker action of sulfates to protein denaturation. The KF values of six kinds of salts (namely NH4Cl, NaNO3, Mg(NO3)3, BaCl2, CaCl2 and MgCl2 ) were highest in the temperature range of - 6~-14 °C. The extent of denaturation in the KF value differed for each salt,although,no relationship was found between maximum KF value and eutectic point. A possible explanation for the above results relates to the amount and ionic strength of unfrozen salt solution. The log KF increased with an increase in ionic strength,and reached a maximum at about 0.9 due to the effect of salt concentration. However,above an ionic strength of 0.9, the log KF decreased with an increase in ionic strength due to the decrease of unfrozen salt solution.

Takahashi, Katsuaki; Inoue, Norio; Shinano, Haruo

249

Choline chloride-thiourea, a deep eutectic solvent for the production of chitin nanofibers.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of the mixtures of choline halide (chloride/bromide)-urea and choline chloride-thiourea were used as solvents to prepare ?-chitin nanofibers (CNFs). CNFs of diameter 20-30 nm could be obtained using the DESs comprising of the mixture of choline chloride and thiourea (CCT 1:2); however, NFs could not be obtained using the DESs having urea (CCU 1:2) as hydrogen bond donor. The physicochemical properties of thus obtained NFs were compared with those obtained using a couple of imidazolium based ionic liquids namely, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulphate [(Bmim)HSO4] and 1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulphate [(Hmim)HSO4] as well as choline based bio-ILs namely, choline hydrogen sulphate [(Chol)HSO4] and choline acrylate. The CNFs obtained using the DES as a solvent were used to prepare calcium alginate bio-nanocomposite gel beads having enhanced elasticity in comparison to Ca-alginate beads. The bio-nanocomposite gel beads thus obtained were used to study slow release of 5-fluorouracil, an anticancer drug. PMID:24528755

Mukesh, Chandrakant; Mondal, Dibyendu; Sharma, Mukesh; Prasad, Kamalesh

2014-03-15

250

Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect

The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets, and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat transfer equipment designs. All of the data discussed above were taken under forced convective conditions (both laminar and turbulent). Some recent data taken at ORNL under free convection conditions are also presented and results discussed. This data was taken using a simple crucible experiment with an instrumented nickel heater inserted in the salt to induce natural circulation within the crucible. The data was taken over a temperature range of 550oC to 650oC in FLiNaK salt. This data covers both laminar and turbulent natural convection conditions, and is compared to existing forms of natural circulation correlations.

Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

251

Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Lamellar Eutectic Growth of Mg-Al Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directionally solidified samples of Mg-32.3 wt pct Al eutectic alloy were produced under an argon atmosphere in a vacuum Bridgman-type furnace to study the eutectic growth with different growth velocities. Typical features such as steady-state lamellar eutectic growth, lamellar branching at the quenching interface, and the formation of colony structures due to the impurity of the Mg-Al binary alloy were observed using a JEOL 6301F scanning electron microscope (JEOL Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). The lamellar spacing of the two eutectic phases was measured on the transverse sections of the samples. It was found that the relationship between the measured lamellar spacing and growth velocity agreed well with the prediction of the Jackson-Hunt model. Subsequent studies of Mg-Al eutectic growth were conducted using a numerical model based on the cellular automaton (CA) method. Taking account of the solute diffusion, constitutional undercooling, and curvature undercooling, modeling of steady-state lamellar eutectic growth was achieved. A systematic investigation of the eutectic growth morphology and lamellar spacing of the Mg-Al eutectic was carried out under directional solidification with different undercoolings, initial lamellar spacings, temperature gradients, and growth velocities. The results showed that under the interaction between solute diffusion and surface energy, the adjustment of eutectic lamellar spacing was accomplished by nucleation, lamellar branching, lamellar termination, and overgrowth. The simulated results were consistent with both the experimental results and the Jackson-Hunt eutectic theory.

Xiong, Shou-Mei; Wu, Meng-Wu

2012-01-01

252

Salt Tolerance of Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI)  

SciTech Connect

Suppression of ion intensity in the presence of high salt matrices is common in most mass spectrometry ionization techniques. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ionization method that exhibits salt tolerance, and this is investigated. DESI analysis was performed on three different drug mixtures in the presence of 0, 0.2, 2, 5, 10, and 20% NaCl:KCl weight by volume from seven different surfaces. At physiological concentrations individual drugs in each mixture were observed with each surface. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was used to provide additional confirmation for select compounds. Multiple stage experiments, to MS5, were performed for select compounds. Even in the absence of added salt, the benzodiazepine containing mixture yielded sodium and potassium adducts of carbamazepine which masked the ions of interest. These adducts were eliminated by adding 0.1% 7M ammonium acetate to the standard methanol:water (1:1) spray solvent. Comparison of the salt tolerance of DESI with that of electrospray ionization (ESI) demonstrated much better signal/noise characteristics for DESI in this study. The salt tolerance of DESI was also studied by performing limit of detection and dynamic range experiments. Even at a salt concentration significantly above physiological concentrations, select surfaces were effective in providing spectra that allowed the ready identification of the compounds of interest. The already high salt tolerance of DESI can be optimized further by appropriate choices of surface and spray solution.

Jackson, Ayanna U. [Purdue University; Talaty, Nari [Purdue University; Cooks, R G [Purdue University; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2007-01-01

253

Salt Marsh  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

High school level and higher description of Spartina salt marshes with pictures. Page is full of fantastic photographs most featuring a descriptive caption. Topics discussed include zonation, succession, and the intertidal zone. The habitat's associated flora and fauna are discussed. Organisms of particular interest include: Spartina alterniflora, Spartina patens, Geukenzia demissa, Mytilus edulis, Distichlis spicata, Salicornia, Melampus bidentatus, Ilyanassa obsoleta, and Hydrobia totteni.

254

Coatings for directional eutectics. [for corrosion and oxidation resistance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eleven coating systems based on MCrAlY overlay and diffusion aluminide prototypes were evaluated to determine their capability for protecting the gamma/gamma prime-delta directionally solidified eutectic alloy (Ni-20Cb-6Cr-2.5Al) in gas turbine engine applications. Furnace oxidation and hot corrosion, Mach 0.37 burner-rig, tensile ductility, stress-rupture and thermomechanical fatigue tests were used to evaluate the coated gamma/gamma prime-delta alloy. The diffusion aluminide coatings provided adequate oxidation resistance at 1144 K (1600 F) but offered very limited protection in 114 K (1600 F) hot corrosion and 1366 K (2000 F) oxidation tests. A platinum modified NiCrAlY overlay coating exhibited excellent performance in oxidation testing and had no adverse effects upon the eutectic alloy.

Felten, E. J.; Strangman, T. E.; Ulion, N. E.

1974-01-01

255

Fluoride salts as phase change materials for thermal energy storage in the temperature range 1000-1400 K  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eutectic compositions and congruently melting intermediate compounds in binary and ternary fluoride salt systems were characterized for potential use as latent heat of fusion phase change materials to store thermal energy in the temperature range 1000-1400 K. The melting points and eutectic compositions for many systems with published phase diagrams were experimentally verified and new eutectic compositions having melting points between 1000 and 1400 K were identified. Heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting compounds were experimentally measured by differential scanning calorimetry. For a few systems in which heats of mixing in the melts have been measured, heats of fusion of the eutectics were calculated from thermodynamic considerations and good agreement was obtained between the measured and calculated values. Several combinations of salts with high heats of fusion per unit mass (greater than 0.7 kJ/g) have been identified for possible use as phase change materials in advanced solar dynamic space power applications.

Misra, Ajay K.

1988-01-01

256

75 FR 36306 - Chemical Mixtures Containing Listed Forms of Phosphorus and Change in Application Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...plastics, flame retardants, pyrotechnics, striker plates (e.g., for safety matches and flares), incendiary shells, smoke bombs, and tracer bullets. Chemical mixtures containing hypophosphorous acid salts (e.g., hypophosphite salts) function...

2010-06-25

257

Glucose-based deep eutectic solvents: Physical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are considered nowadays as green ionic liquid (IL) analogues. Despite their relatively short period of introduction as a special class of ILs, they have been under an increasing emphasis by the scientific community due to their favorable properties. In the present study, a glucose based DES of choline chloride (2-hydroxyethyl-trimethylammonium chloride) with the monosaccharide sugar d-glucose

A. Hayyan; F. S. Mjalli; I. M. Alnashef; Y. M. Al-Wahaibi; T. Al-Wahaibi; M. A. Hashim

2013-01-01

258

Process for making filamentary superconductors using tin-magnesium eutectics  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a filamentous structure exhibiting improved current carrying capability in a superconductive state. It comprises: after a heat treatment diffusion reaction, at least one filament of Nb{sub 3}Sn in a bronze matrix wherein the Nb{sub 3}Sn is produced in situ by diffusion of Sn from a SnMg eutectic into the locus of niobium-containing filaments in a copper matrix.

Smathers, D.B.

1992-03-24

259

Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")  

MedlinePLUS

... Synthetic Cathinones (“Bath Salts”) DrugFacts: Synthetic Cathinones (“Bath Salts”) Email Facebook Twitter Revised November 2012 The term “ ... Sky," "White Lightning," and “Scarface.” How Are Bath Salts Abused? Bath salts are typically taken orally, inhaled, ...

260

Ce-doped Al2O3-YAG eutectic and its application for white LEDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ce-doped Al2O3-YAG (Y3Al5O12, yttrium aluminum garnet) eutectic, a resin-free phosphor for white light emitting diodes (WLEDs), was successfully grown by the Czochralski method. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy show that this material has a typical eutectic structure of interpenetrating sapphire and garnet phases, as well as lamellar spacing in the order of tens of microns. The eutectic has a higher Ce3+ segregation coefficient than YAG single crystal. The photoluminescence properties of this eutectic were also investigated. Results show that it is characterized by a wide excitation band, and that the luminous efficiency of a eutectic-packaged LED is higher than that of a phosphor powder-packaged LED. The findings indicate that the Al2O3-YAG eutectic is a promising phosphor for WLED applications.

Sai, Qinglin; Zhao, Zhiwei; Xia, Changtai; Xu, Xiaodong; Wu, Feng; Di, Juqing; Wang, Lulu

2013-10-01

261

Removal of alkaline-earth elements by a carbonate precipitation in a chloride molten salt  

SciTech Connect

Separation of some alkaline-earth chlorides (Sr, Ba) was investigated by using carbonate injection method in LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salts. The effects of the injected molar ratio of carbonate([K{sub 2}(or Li{sub 2})CO{sub 3}/Sr(or Ba)Cl{sub 2}]) and the temperature(450-750 deg.) on the conversion ratio of the Sr or Ba carbonate were determined. In addition, the form of the Sr and Ba carbonate resulting from the carbonation reaction with carbonates was identified via XRD and SEM-EDS analysis. In these experiments, the carbonate injection method can remove Sr and Ba chlorides effectively over 99% in both LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salt conditions. When Sr and Ba were co-presented in the eutectic molten salt, they were carbonated in a form of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.3}CO{sub 3}. And when Sr was present in LiCl molten salt, it was carbonated in the form of SrCO{sub 3}. Carbonation ratio increased with a decreasing temperature and it was more favorable in the case of a K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} injection than that of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Based on this experiment, it is postulated that carbonate precipitation method has the potential for removing alkali-earth chlorides from LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salts. (authors)

Yung-Zun Cho; In-Tae Kim; Hee-Chui Yang; Hee-Chui Eun; Hwan-Seo Park; Eung-Ho Kim [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

262

Effect of length scale on mechanical properties of Al-Cu eutectic alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper attempts a quantitative understanding of the effect of length scale on two phase eutectic structure. We first develop a model that considers both the elastic and plastic properties of the interface. Using Al-Al2Cu lamellar eutectic as model system, the parameters of the model were experimentally determined using indentation technique. The model is further validated using the results of bulk compression testing of the eutectics having different length scales.

Tiwary, C. S.; Roy Mahapatra, D.; Chattopadhyay, K.

2012-10-01

263

Solidification interface morphology pattern in the undercooled Co–24.0 at.% Sn eutectic melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co–24.0at.% Sn eutectic alloy melt was undercooled to different degrees below the equilibrium eutectic temperature. The dependence of solidification behavior on undercooling was established based on the experimental results of the solidification microstructure, crystal orientation and crystal growth velocity. In the entire undercooling range studied (0–203K), coupled eutectic growth of the ?-Co and ?-Co3Sn2 phases invariably takes place during the

L. Liu; J. F. Li; Y. H. Zhou

2011-01-01

264

Experimental Demonstration of the Stabilization of Colloids by Addition of Salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a general non-Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek method to stabilize colloids in liquids. By this method, colloidal particles that initially form unstable suspension and sediment from the liquid are stabilized by the addition of salt to the suspending liquid. Yet, the salt is not expected to adsorb or directly interact with the surface of the colloids. For the method to work, the liquid should be a mixture, and the salt needs to be antagonistic such that each ion is preferentially solvated by a different component of the mixture. The stabilization may depend on the salt content, mixture composition, or distance from the mixture's coexistence line.

Samin, Sela; Hod, Manuela; Melamed, Eitan; Gottlieb, Moshe; Tsori, Yoav

2014-08-01

265

Micro-to-nano-scale deformation mechanisms of a bimodal ultrafine eutectic composite  

PubMed Central

The outstading mechanical properties of bimodal ultrafine eutectic composites (BUECs) containing length scale hierarchy in eutectic structure were demonstrated by using AFM observation of surface topography with quantitative height measurements and were interpreted in light of the details of the deformation mechanisms by three different interface modes. It is possible to develop a novel strain accommodated eutectic structure for triggering three different interface-controlled deformation modes; (I) rotational boundary mode, (II) accumulated interface mode and (III) individual interface mode. A strain accommodated microstructure characterized by the surface topology gives a hint to design a novel ultrafine eutectic alloys with excellent mechanical properties. PMID:25265897

Lee, Seoung Wan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Hong, Sung Hwan; Park, Hae Jin; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Nae Sung; Seo, Yongho; Suh, Jin Yoo; Eckert, Jürgen; Kim, Do Hyang; Park, Jin Man; Kim, Ki Buem

2014-01-01

266

Micro-to-nano-scale deformation mechanisms of a bimodal ultrafine eutectic composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outstading mechanical properties of bimodal ultrafine eutectic composites (BUECs) containing length scale hierarchy in eutectic structure were demonstrated by using AFM observation of surface topography with quantitative height measurements and were interpreted in light of the details of the deformation mechanisms by three different interface modes. It is possible to develop a novel strain accommodated eutectic structure for triggering three different interface-controlled deformation modes; (I) rotational boundary mode, (II) accumulated interface mode and (III) individual interface mode. A strain accommodated microstructure characterized by the surface topology gives a hint to design a novel ultrafine eutectic alloys with excellent mechanical properties.

Lee, Seoung Wan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Hong, Sung Hwan; Park, Hae Jin; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Nae Sung; Seo, Yongho; Suh, Jin Yoo; Eckert, Jürgen; Kim, Do Hyang; Park, Jin Man; Kim, Ki Buem

2014-09-01

267

Micro-to-nano-scale deformation mechanisms of a bimodal ultrafine eutectic composite.  

PubMed

The outstading mechanical properties of bimodal ultrafine eutectic composites (BUECs) containing length scale hierarchy in eutectic structure were demonstrated by using AFM observation of surface topography with quantitative height measurements and were interpreted in light of the details of the deformation mechanisms by three different interface modes. It is possible to develop a novel strain accommodated eutectic structure for triggering three different interface-controlled deformation modes; (I) rotational boundary mode, (II) accumulated interface mode and (III) individual interface mode. A strain accommodated microstructure characterized by the surface topology gives a hint to design a novel ultrafine eutectic alloys with excellent mechanical properties. PMID:25265897

Lee, Seoung Wan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Hong, Sung Hwan; Park, Hae Jin; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Nae Sung; Seo, Yongho; Suh, Jin Yoo; Eckert, Jürgen; Kim, Do Hyang; Park, Jin Man; Kim, Ki Buem

2014-01-01

268

A new technique for direct traceability of contact thermometry Co-C eutectic cells to the ITS-90  

SciTech Connect

The eutectic Co-C melting point is a promising system to serve as a thermometric fixed-point in the temperature range above 1084.62 °C (copper freezing point). During the last decade, LNE-Cnam has developed and characterized some fixed-point devices, based on eutectic Co-C alloy, for applications to contact and radiation thermometry. Above 962 °C, the ITS-90 is realized by radiation thermometry by the extrapolation from a Ag, Au or Cu fixed point using the Planck law for radiation. So the only way for assigning a temperature in the scale to a Co-C cell (?1324 °C) is by radiation thermometry. An indirect method is commonly used to assign a temperature to a high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) cell designed for contact thermometry is to fill a pyrometric cell with the same mixture as the contact thermometry cell. In this case, the temperature assigned to the pyrometric cell is attributed to the contact cell. This paper describes a direct method allowing the determination of the melting temperature realized by a 'contact thermometry' Co-C cell by comparison to a 'radiation thermometry' Co-C cell whose melting temperature was assigned in accordance to the scale by extrapolation from the Cu point. In addition, the same Co-C cell is studied with a standard Pt/Pd thermocouple.

Failleau, G.; Deuzé, T.; Bourson, F.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M. [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam, 61 rue du Landy 93210 La Plaine Saint Denis (France)] [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam, 61 rue du Landy 93210 La Plaine Saint Denis (France)

2013-09-11

269

A new technique for direct traceability of contact thermometry Co-C eutectic cells to the ITS-90  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eutectic Co-C melting point is a promising system to serve as a thermometric fixed-point in the temperature range above 1084.62 °C (copper freezing point). During the last decade, LNE-Cnam has developed and characterized some fixed-point devices, based on eutectic Co-C alloy, for applications to contact and radiation thermometry. Above 962 °C, the ITS-90 is realized by radiation thermometry by the extrapolation from a Ag, Au or Cu fixed point using the Planck law for radiation. So the only way for assigning a temperature in the scale to a Co-C cell (˜1324 °C) is by radiation thermometry. An indirect method is commonly used to assign a temperature to a high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) cell designed for contact thermometry is to fill a pyrometric cell with the same mixture as the contact thermometry cell. In this case, the temperature assigned to the pyrometric cell is attributed to the contact cell. This paper describes a direct method allowing the determination of the melting temperature realized by a "contact thermometry" Co-C cell by comparison to a "radiation thermometry" Co-C cell whose melting temperature was assigned in accordance to the scale by extrapolation from the Cu point. In addition, the same Co-C cell is studied with a standard Pt/Pd thermocouple.

Failleau, G.; Deuzé, T.; Bourson, F.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.

2013-09-01

270

Ionic liquids in biotransformations: from proof-of-concept to emerging deep-eutectic-solvents.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids (ILs) have been extensively assessed in biotransformations with different purposes, for example, non-conventional (co-)solvents, performance additives, coating agents for immobilizing/stabilizing enzymes, and IL-membrane-based processes. Fuelled by their premature labelling as 'green solvents', academic research has flourished. However, in recent years environmental aspects related to ILs have been strongly addressed, stating that many ILs commonly used cannot be regarded as 'green derivatives'. Likewise, ILs costs are still a barrier for practical uses. Attempting to combine sustainability with the promising added-values of ILs, the third generation of ILs is currently under development. Likewise, deep-eutectic-solvents (DESs) appear in the horizon as an attractive and cost-effective option for using ionic solvents in biotransformations. DESs are often produced by gently warming and stirring two (bio-based and cheap) salts (e.g. choline chloride and urea). First successful uses of DES in biotransformations were reported recently. It may be expected that knowledge accumulated in (second generation) ILs and biotransformations could be turned into real applications by using these DESs, and third generation ILs, in the coming years. PMID:21112808

Domínguez de María, Pablo; Maugeri, Zaira

2011-04-01

271

Deep eutectic solvent-assisted synthesis of biodegradable polyesters with antibacterial properties.  

PubMed

Bacterial infection related to the implantation of medical devices represents a serious clinical complication, with dramatic consequences for many patients. In past decades, numerous attempts have been made to develop materials with antibacterial and/or antifouling properties by the incorporation of antibiotic and/or antiseptic compounds. In this context, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are acquiring increasing interest not only as efficient carriers of active principle ingredients (APIs) but also as assistant platforms for the synthesis of a wide repertoire of polymer-related materials. Herein, we have successfully prepared biodegradable poly(octanediol-co-citrate) polyesters with acquired antibacterial properties by the DES-assisted incorporation of quaternary ammonium or phosphonium salts into the polymer network. In the resulting polymers, the presence of these salts (i.e., choline chloride, tetraethylammonium bromide, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide) inhibits bacterial growth in the early postimplantation steps, as tested in cultures of Escherichia coli on solid agar plates. Later, positive polymer cytocompatibility is expected to support cell colonization, as anticipated from in vitro preliminary studies with L929 fibroblasts. Finally, the attractive elastic properties of these polyesters permit matching those of soft tissues such as skin. For all of these reasons, we envisage the utility of some of these antibacterial, biocompatible, and biodegradable polyesters as potential candidates for the preparation of antimicrobial wound dressings. These results further emphasize the enormous versatility of DES-assisted synthesis for the incorporation, in the synthesis step, of a wide palette of APIs into polymeric networks suitable for biomedical applications. PMID:23808373

García-Argüelles, Sara; Serrano, M Concepción; Gutiérrez, María C; Ferrer, M Luisa; Yuste, Luis; Rojo, Fernando; del Monte, Francisco

2013-07-30

272

Use of formulations based on choline chloride-malonic acid deep eutectic solvent for back end of line cleaning in integrated circuit fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interconnection layers fabricated during back end of line processing in semiconductor manufacturing involve dry etching of a low-k material and deposition of copper and metal barriers to create copper/dielectric stacks. After plasma etching steps used to form the trenches and vias in the dielectric, post etch residues (PER) that consist of organic polymer, metal oxides and fluorides, form on top of copper and low-k dielectric sidewalls. Currently, most semiconductor companies use semi aqueous fluoride (SAF) based formulations containing organic solvent(s) for PER removal. Unfortunately, these formulations adversely impact the environmental health and safety (EHS) requirements of the semiconductor industry. Environmentally friendly "green" formulations, free of organic solvents, are preferred as alternatives to remove PER. In this work, a novel low temperature molten salt system, referred as deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been explored as a back end of line cleaning (BEOL) formulation. Specifically, the DES system comprised of two benign chemicals, malonic acid (MA) and choline chloride (CC), is a liquid at room temperature. In certain cases, the formulation was modified by the addition of glacial acetic acid (HAc). Using these formulations, selective removal of three types of PER generated by timed CF4/O2 etching of DUV PR films on Cu was achieved. Type I PER was mostly organic in character (fluorocarbon polymer type) and had a measured thickness of 160 nm. Type II PER was much thinner (25 nm) and consisted of a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds (copper fluorides). Further etching generated 17 nm thick Type III PER composed of copper fluorides and oxides. Experiments were also conducted on patterned structures. Cleaning was performed by immersing samples in a temperature controlled (30 or 40° C) double jacketed vessel for a time between 1 and 5 minutes. Effectiveness of cleaning was characterized using SEM, XPS and single frequency impedance measurements. Type II and III residues, which contained copper compounds were removed in CC/MA DES within five minutes through dissolution and subsequent complexation of copper by malonic acid. Removal of Type I PER required the addition of glacial acetic acid to the DES formulation. Single frequency impedance measurement appears to be a good in situ method to follow the removal of the residues. High water solubility of the components of the system in conjunction with their environmental friendly nature, make the DES an attractive alternative to SAF.

Taubert, Jenny

273

How a protein can remain stable in a solvent with high content of urea: insights from molecular dynamics simulation of Candida antarctica lipase B in urea?:?choline chloride deep eutectic solvent.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are utilized as green and inexpensive alternatives to classical ionic liquids. It has been known that some of DESs can be used as solvent in the enzymatic reactions to obtain very green chemical processes. DESs are quite poorly understood at the molecular level. Moreover, we do not know much about the enzyme microstructure in such systems. For example, how some hydrolase can remain active and stable in a deep eutectic solvent including 9 M of urea? In this study, the molecular dynamics of DESs as a liquid was simulated at the molecular level. Urea?:?choline chloride as a well-known eutectic mixture was chosen as a model DES. The behavior of the lipase as a biocatalyst was studied in this system. For comparison, the enzyme structure was also simulated in 8M urea. The thermal stability of the enzyme was also evaluated in DESs, water, and 8M urea. The enzyme showed very good conformational stability in the urea?:?choline chloride mixture with about 66% urea (9 M) even at high temperatures. The results are in good agreement with recent experimental observations. In contrast, complete enzyme denaturation occurred in 8M urea with only 12% urea in water. It was found that urea molecules denature the enzyme by interrupting the intra-chain hydrogen bonds in a "direct denaturation mechanism". However, in a urea?:?choline chloride deep eutectic solvent, as a result of hydrogen bonding with choline and chloride ions, urea molecules have a low diffusion coefficient and cannot reach the protein domains. Interestingly, urea, choline, and chloride ions form hydrogen bonds with the surface residues of the enzyme which, instead of lipase denaturation, leads to greater enzyme stability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the microstructural properties of a macromolecule are examined in a deep eutectic solvent. PMID:24930496

Monhemi, Hassan; Housaindokht, Mohammad Reza; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Bozorgmehr, Mohammad Reza

2014-07-28

274

Influence of Phosphorus on the Nucleation of Eutectic Silicon in Al-Si Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of phosphorus (P) in the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic silicon (Si) and the evolution of eutectic grains in hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys were investigated. Systematic additions of P in the range of 0.5 to 20 ppm to Al-7 wt pct Si alloys of different purities have shown that the morphology of the eutectic Si changes from a fine plate- to a coarse flake-like structure. The growth of eutectic grains was investigated by interrupting the eutectic reaction by quenching experiments. Moreover, the macroscopic growth mode of the eutectic grains was characterized by electron backscatter diffraction. An increase in P concentration from 2 to 3 ppm resulted in a transition of the macroscopic growth mode of the Al-Si eutectic in high purity alloys from growth with a planar front with a strong dependence of the thermal gradient, to nucleation in the vicinity of the primary Al dendrites and subsequent growth of distinct eutectic grains. It is suggested that AlP particles are the key impurities acting as potential nucleation sites for eutectic Si. This is further substantiated as with increasing P concentration nucleation and growth of the Al-Si occurred at higher temperatures close the equilibrium Al-Si eutectic solidification temperature at 850 K (577 °C). In addition, the recalescence undercooling ? T R,eu was reduced from 4.5 K (0.5 ppm P) to 1.5 K (20 ppm P) in high purity alloys. This was accompanied by a drastic increase of the nucleation rate of the eutectic grains.

Ludwig, Thomas Hartmut; Schaffer, Paul Louis; Arnberg, Lars

2013-12-01

275

Alkali Metal/Salt Thermal-Energy-Storage Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed thermal-energy-storage system based on mixture of alkali metal and one of its halide salts; metal and salt form slurry of two immiscible melts. Use of slurry expected to prevent incrustations of solidified salts on heat-transfer surfaces that occur where salts alone used. Since incrustations impede heat transfer, system performance improved. In system, charging heat-exchanger surface immersed in lower liquid, rich in halide-salt, phase-charge material. Discharging heat exchanger surface immersed in upper liquid, rich in alkali metal.

Phillips, Wayne W.; Stearns, John W.

1987-01-01

276

Direct esterification of ammonium salts of carboxylic acids  

DOEpatents

A non-catalytic process for producing esters, the process comprising reacting an ammonium salt of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol and removing ammonia from the reaction mixture. Selectivities for the desired ester product can exceed 95 percent.

Halpern, Yuval (Skokie, IL)

2003-06-24

277

The thermal conductivity of the molten NaNO[sub 3]-KNO[sub 3] eutectic between 525 and 590 K  

SciTech Connect

Molten salts are one of the few remaining of fluids for which standard-quality ([+-]1% accuracy) data on thermal conductivity have not hitherto been available. The authors have therefore developed a new apparatus based on the transient hot-wire technique to obtain reference-quality measurements of the thermal conductivity of molten salts at high temperatures. Liquid metal-filled quartz capillaries served as insulated hot wired in the method, and in addition, a two-wire technique was used in order to obtain absolute values of the thermal conductivity. New data for the NaNO[sub 3][minus]KNO[sub 3] eutectic between 525 and 590 K are reported in this paper and comparisons with other recent measurements are shown. 30 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

DiGuilio, R.M.; Teja, A.S. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States))

1992-07-01

278

Synthesis of cerium rich intermetallics using molten metal eutectics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal eutectic fluxes are useful for exploratory synthesis of new intermetallic phases. In this work the use of cerium/transition metal eutectics such as: Ce/Co, Ce/Ni, and Ce/Fe have yielded many new synthetically and magnetically complex phases. Structural units that were previously observed in phases grown in La/Ni eutectic reactions have also been observed in new structures and analogs grown from cerium/transition metal eutectics. These structural units include a main group element coordinated by 9 rare-earth atoms (such as the Al Ce9 clusters seen in Ce31.0(2)Fe11.8(5)Al6.5(6) B13C4), trigonal planar FeC3 units (also seen in Ce31.0(2)Fe11.8(5)Al6.5(6)B 13C4), iron clusters capped by light elements (Fe4C 6 frustrated tetrahedral in Ce21Fe8M7C 14, and larger Fe clusters in Ce33Fe14B25 C34). Variants of these building blocks were observed in Ce10Co2B7C16 with square Co units and chains of B and C connected to them, Fe2C8 units observed in Ce7Fe2C9, and FeC4 observed in Ce4FeGa0.85Al0.15C4 and Ce4FeAlC4. Two new phases were grown from Ce/Fe eutectic, Ce33Fe 14B25C34 and Ce33Fe13B 18C34 which exhibits very similar structures, but significantly different magnetic behavior. Structurally these two phases are similar. Both crystallize in the Im-3m space group, but differ by the centering of the Fe clusters. Ce33Fe14B25C34 contains Fe clusters centered by B atoms and Al doped on the Fe2 site. In Ce33Fe13B18C34, the Fe cluster is a perfect cuboctahedron. Ce33Fe14B25 C34 exhibits mixed valent behavior of cerium at 75K and no magnetic moment on iron, where-as Ce33Fe13B18C 34 exhibits tetravalent cerium and its iron clusters undergo a ferromagnetic transition at 180K. Another borocarbide, Ce10Co2B7C 16 was synthesized from Ce/Co eutectic flux. This structure features squares of Co surrounded by chains of C and B and a sea of cerium atoms. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements at 1 Tesla were fit to a modified Curie-Weiss law and a moment per Ce was calculated to be 2.70microB. Field dependent data were collected at 200K and 2K. Paramagnetic behavior dominated at 200K and at 2K, ferromagnetic behavior was observed. XPS measurements were used to confirm that Ce is in the 3+ oxidation state. Intermetallics containing different Fe clusters (Y5Mg 5Fe4AlSi, La6Fe10Al3Si, Ce21Fe8Al7-xSixC12, and Ce33Fe13.1Al1.1B24.8C 34) were explored as potential catalysts for conversion of methane to Carbon Nanotubes (CNT). Different growth temperatures were explored. At 690ºC, Ce33Fe14B25C34 catalyzed the growth of single walled carbon nanotubes, Ce21Fe8Al7-x SixC12 multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and all other structures did not catalyze the growth of CNT.

Tucker, Patricia Christine

279

Evaluation of 2.25Cr-1Mo Alloy for Containment of LiCl/KCl Eutectic during the Pyrometallurgical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Recovery of uranium from the Mk-IV and Mk-V electrorefiner vessels containing a LiCl/KCl eutectic salt has been on-going for 14 and 12 years, respectively, during the pyrometallurgical processing of used nuclear fuel. Although austenitic stainless steels are typically utilized for LiCl/KCl salt systems, the presence of cadmium in the Mk-IV electrorefiner dictates an alternate material. A 2.25Cr-1Mo alloy (ASME SA-387) was chosen due to the absence of nickel in the alloy which has a considerable solubility in cadmium. Using the transition metal impurities (iron, chromium, nickel, molybdenum, and manganese) in the electrorefined uranium products, an algorithm was developed to derive values for the contribution of the transition metals from the various input sources. Weight loss and corrosion rate data for the Mk-V electrorefiner vessel were then generated based on the transition metal impurities in the uranium products. To date, the corrosion rate of the 2.25Cr-1Mo alloy in LiCl/KCl eutectic is outstanding assuming uniform (i.e. non-localized) conditions.

B.R. Westphal; S.X. Li; G.L. Fredrickson; D. Vaden; T.A. Johnson; J.C. Wass

2011-03-01

280

Refinement of Promising Coating Compositions for Directionally Cast Eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful application of high creep strength, directionally solidified gamma/gamma prime-delta (Ni-19.7Cb-6Cr-2.5Al) eutectic superalloy turbine blades requires the development of suitable coatings for airfoil, root and internal blade surfaces. In order to improve coatings for the gamma/gamma prime-delta alloy, the current investigation had the goals of (1) refining promising coating compositions for directionally solidified eutectics, (2) evaluating the effects of coating/ substrate interactions on the mechanical properties of the alloy, and (3) evaluating diffusion aluminide coatings for internal surfaces. Burner rig cyclic oxidation, furnace cyclic hot corrosion, ductility, and thermal fatigue tests indicated that NiCrAlY+Pt(63 to 127 micron Ni-18Cr-12Al-0.3Y + 6 micron Pt) and NiCrAlY(63 to 127 micron Ni-18Cr-12Al-0.3Y) coatings are capable of protecting high temperature gas path surfaces of eutectic alloy airfoils. Burner rig (Mach 0.37) testing indicated that the useful coating life of the 127 micron thick coatings exceeded 1000 hours at 1366 K (2000 deg F). Isothermal fatigue and furnance hot corrosion tests indicated that 63 micron NiCrAlY, NiCrAlY + Pt and platinum modified diffusion aluminide (Pt + Al) coating systems are capable of protecting the relatively cooler surfaces of the blade root. Finally, a gas phase coating process was evaluated for diffusion aluminizing internal surfaces and cooling holes of air-cooled gamma/gamma prime-delta turbine blades.

Strangman, T. E.; Felten, E. J.; Benden, R. S.

1976-01-01

281

Development of high temperature fasteners using directionally solidified eutectic alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suitability of the eutectics for high temperature fasteners was investigated. Material properties were determined as a function of temperature, and included shear parallel and perpendicular to the growth direction and torsion parallel to it. Techniques for fabricating typical fastener shapes included grinding, creep forming, and direct casting. Both lamellar Ni3Al-Ni3Nb and fibrous (Co,Cr,Al)-(Cr,Co)7C3 alloys showed promise as candidate materials for high temperature fastener applications. A brief evaluation of the performance of the best fabricated fastener design was made.

George, F. D.

1972-01-01

282

Creep in Directionally Solidified NiAl-Mo Eutectics  

SciTech Connect

A directionally solidified NiAl-Mo eutectic and an NiAl intermetallic, having respective nominal compositions Ni-45.5Al-9Mo and Ni-45.2Al (at.%), were loaded in compression at 1073 and 1173 K. Formidable strengthening by regularly distributed Mo fibres (average diameter 600 nm, volume fraction 14%) was observed. The fibres can support compression stresses transferred from the plastically deforming matrix up to a critical stress of the order of 2.5 GPa, at which point they yield. Microstructural evidence is provided for the dislocation-mediated stress transfer from the NiAl to the Mo phase.

Dudova, Marie [Institute of Physics, Czech Republic; Kucharova, Kveta [Institute of Physics, Czech Republic; Bartak, Tomas [Institute of Physics, Czech Republic; Bei, Hongbin [ORNL; George, Easo P [ORNL; Somsen, Ch. [Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany; Dlouhy, A. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Brno, Czech Republic

2011-01-01

283

Eutectic grains in unmodified and strontium-modified hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Additions of strontium to hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys modify the morphology of the eutectic silicon phase from a coarse platelike structure to a fine fibrous structure. Thermal analysis, interrupted solidification, and microstructural examination of sand castings in this work revealed that, in addition to a change in silicon morphology, modification with strontium also causes an increase in the size of eutectic grains. The eutectic grain size increases because fewer grains nucleate, possibly due to poisoning of the phosphorus-based nucleants, that are active in the unmodified alloy. A simple growth model is developed to estimate the interface velocity during solidification of a eutectic grain. The model confirms, independent of microstructural observations, that the addition of 100 ppm strontium increases the eutectic grain size by at least an order of magnitude compared with the equivalent unmodified alloy. The model predicts that the growth velocity varies significantly during eutectic growth. At low strontium levels, these variations may be sufficient to cause transitions between flake and fibrous silicon morphologies depending on the casting conditions. The model can be used to rationally interpret the eutectic grain structure and silicon morphology of fully solidified aluminum-silicon castings and, when coupled with reliable thermal data, can be used to estimate the eutectic grain size.

McDonald, Stuart D.; Dahle, Arne K.; Taylor, John A.; Stjohn, David H.

2004-06-01

284

Eutectic grains in unmodified and strontium-modified hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additions of strontium to hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys modify the morphology of the eutectic silicon phase from a coarse platelike structure to a fine fibrous structure. Thermal analysis, interrupted solidification, and microstructural examination of sand castings in this work revealed that, in addition to a change in silicon morphology, modification with strontium also causes an increase in the size of eutectic

Stuart D. McDonald; Arne K. Dahle; John A. Taylor; David H. Stjohn

2004-01-01

285

Eutectic Morphology of Al-7Si-0.3Mg Alloys with Scandium Additions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms of Al-Si eutectic refinement due to scandium (Sc) additions have been studied in an Al-7Si-0.3Mg foundry alloy. The evolution of eutectic microstructure is studied by thermal analysis and interrupted solidification, and the distribution of Sc is studied by synchrotron micro-XRF mapping. Sc is shown to cause significant refinement of the eutectic silicon. The results show that Sc additions strongly suppress the nucleation of eutectic silicon due to the formation of ScP instead of AlP. Sc additions change the macroscopic eutectic growth mode to the propagation of a defined eutectic front from the mold walls opposite to the heat flux direction similar to past work with Na, Ca, and Y additions. It is found that Sc segregates to the eutectic aluminum and AlSi2Sc2 phases and not to eutectic silicon, suggesting that impurity-induced twinning does not operate. The results suggest that Sc refinement is mostly caused by the significantly reduced silicon nucleation frequency and the resulting increase in mean interface growth rate.

Pandee, Phromphong; Gourlay, C. M.; Belyakov, S. A.; Ozaki, Ryota; Yasuda, Hideyuki; Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit

2014-09-01

286

Effect of oxidation on the mechanical properties of liquid gallium and eutectic gallium-indium  

E-print Network

Effect of oxidation on the mechanical properties of liquid gallium and eutectic gallium-indium Qin of oxidation on the mechanical properties of liquid gallium and eutectic gallium-indium Qin Xu,1 Nikolai by oxidation when exposed to air. We measure the viscosity, surface tension, and contact angle of gallium

Brown, Eric

287

Self-aggregation of sodium dodecyl sulfate within (choline chloride + urea) deep eutectic solvent.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown tremendous promise as green solvents with low toxicity and cost. Understanding molecular aggregation processes within DESs will not only enhance the application potential of these solvents but also help alleviate some of the limitations associated with them. Among DESs, those comprising choline chloride and appropriate hydrogen-bond donors are inexpensive and easy to prepare. On the basis of fluorescence probe, electrical conductivity, and surface tension experiments, we present the first clear lines of evidence for self-aggregation of an anionic surfactant within a DES containing a small fraction of water. Namely, well-defined assemblies of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) apparently form in the archetype DES Reline comprising a 1:2 molar mixture of choline chloride and urea. Significant enhancement in the solubility of organic solvents that are otherwise not miscible in choline chloride-based DESs is achieved within Reline in the presence of SDS. The remarkably improved solubility of cyclohexane within SDS-added Reline is attributed to the presence of spontaneously formed cyclohexane-in-Reline microemulsions by SDS under ambient conditions. Surface tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), density, and dynamic viscosity measurements along with responses from the fluorescence dipolarity and microfluidity probes of pyrene and 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane are employed to characterize these aggregates. Such water-free oil-in-DES microemulsions are appropriately sized to be considered as a new type of nanoreactor. PMID:25314953

Pal, Mahi; Rai, Rewa; Yadav, Anita; Khanna, Rajesh; Baker, Gary A; Pandey, Siddharth

2014-11-11

288

In situ electrochemical digital holographic microscopy; a study of metal electrodeposition in deep eutectic solvents.  

PubMed

This study has shown for the first time that digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can be used as a new analytical tool in analysis of kinetic mechanism and growth during electrolytic deposition processes. Unlike many alternative established electrochemical microscopy methods such as probe microscopy, DHM is both the noninvasive and noncontact, the unique holographic imaging allows the observations and measurement to be made remotely. DHM also provides interferometric resolution (nanometer vertical scale) with a very short acquisition time. It is a surface metrology technique that enables the retrieval of information about a 3D structure from the phase contrast of a single hologram acquired using a conventional digital camera. Here DHM has been applied to investigate directly the electro-crystallization of a metal on a substrate in real time (in situ) from two deep eutectic solvent (DES) systems based on mixture of choline chloride and either urea or ethylene glycol. We show, using electrochemical DHM that the nucleation and growth of silver deposits in these systems are quite distinct and influenced strongly by the hydrogen bond donor of the DES. PMID:23751128

Abbott, Andrew P; Azam, Muhammad; Ryder, Karl S; Saleem, Saima

2013-07-16

289

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are viable cosolvents for enzyme-catalyzed epoxide hydrolysis.  

PubMed

A special group of ionic liquids, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been tested as cosolvents in enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of a chiral (1,2)-trans-2-methylstyrene oxide. The choline chloride:ethane diol (ET), choline chloride:glycerol (GLY) and choline:chloride:urea (REL) DESs were included in the reaction mixtures with epoxide and the potato epoxide hydrolase StEH1. The effect of the DESs on enzyme function was primarily elevations of K(M) (up to 20-fold) and with lesser effects on turnover numbers (twofold variation). The regioselectivity in hydrolysis of the (1R,2R)-2-trans-methylstyrene oxide was altered in the presence of GLY or ET to favor epoxide ring opening at the benzylic carbon (R=2.33), enhancing the regioselectivity observed in buffer-only systems (R=1.35). The DES solutions dissolved 1.5-fold higher epoxide concentrations as compared to phosphate buffer. The total conversion of high concentration (40 g/l) of (1S,2S)-MeSO was not negatively affected by addition of 40% GLY. PMID:20438773

Lindberg, Diana; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Widersten, Mikael

2010-06-01

290

ASSESSING THE RISK OF SALT WEATHERING IN SANDSTONE BY INSTRU-MENTED MONITORING OF THE ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE  

E-print Network

ASSESSING THE RISK OF SALT WEATHERING IN SANDSTONE BY INSTRU- MENTED MONITORING OF THE ELECTRICAL, Pfaffenwaldring 2b, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany frank.lehmann@mpa.uni-stuttgart.de ABSTRACT Salt weathering of salts and salt mixtures within the material re- quires adequate measures to avoid further deterioration

Boyer, Edmond

291

Salt-thermal zeolitization of fly ash.  

PubMed

The molten-salt method has been recently proposed as a new approach to zeolitization of fly ash. Unlike the hydrothermal method, this method employs salt mixtures as the reaction medium without any addition of water. In this study, systematic investigation has been conducted on zeolitization of fly ash in a NaOH-NaNO3 system in order to elucidate the mechanism of zeolite formation and to achieve its optimization. Zeolitization of fly ash was conducted by thermally treating a powder mixture of fly ash, NaOH, and NaNO3. Zeolitization of fly ash took place above 200 degrees C, a temperature lower than the melting points of salt and base in the NaOH-NaNO3 system. However, it was uncertain whether the reactions took place in a local molten state or in a solid state. Therefore, the proposed method is renamed the "salt-thermal" method rather than the "molten-salt" method. Mainly because of difficulty in mobility of components in salt mixtures, zeolitization seems to occur within a local reaction system. In situ rearrangement of activated components seems to lead to zeolite formation. Particle growth, rather than crystal growth through agglomeration, resulted in no distinct morphologies of zeolite phases. Following are the optimal zeolitization conditions of the salt-thermal method: temperature, 250-350 degrees C; time, 3-12 h; weight ratio of NaOH/NaNO3, 0.3-0.5; weight ratio of NaNO3/fly ash, 0.7-1.4. Therefore, it is clear from this work that the salt-thermal method could be applied to massive zeolitization of fly ash as a new alternative method for recycling this waste. PMID:11452614

Choi, C L; Park, M; Lee, D H; Kim, I E; Park, B Y; Choi, J

2001-07-01

292

Low-salt diet  

MedlinePLUS

... you cook, replace salt with other seasonings. Pepper, garlic, herbs, and lemon are good choices. Avoid packaged spice blends. They often contain salt. Use garlic and onion powder, not garlic and onion salt. ...

293

Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2 to 20 wt percent chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material nonreactive with the battery components. The nonreactive material is present as fibers,

R. D. Jr

1977-01-01

294

Al/Cl2 molten salt battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

Giner, J.

1972-01-01

295

Fission product ion exchange between zeolite and a molten salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and has been demonstrated through processing the sodium-bonded SNF from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho. In this process, components of the SNF, including U and species more chemically active than U, are oxidized into a bath of lithium-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt. Uranium is removed from the salt solution by electrochemical reduction. The noble metals and inactive fission products from the SNF remain as solids and are melted into a metal waste form after removal from the molten salt bath. The remaining salt solution contains most of the fission products and transuranic elements from the SNF. One technique that has been identified for removing these fission products and extending the usable life of the molten salt is ion exchange with zeolite A. A model has been developed and tested for its ability to describe the ion exchange of fission product species between zeolite A and a molten salt bath used for pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The model assumes (1) a system at equilibrium, (2) immobilization of species from the process salt solution via both ion exchange and occlusion in the zeolite cage structure, and (3) chemical independence of the process salt species. The first assumption simplifies the description of this physical system by eliminating the complications of including time-dependent variables. An equilibrium state between species concentrations in the two exchange phases is a common basis for ion exchange models found in the literature. Assumption two is non-simplifying with respect to the mathematical expression of the model. Two Langmuir-like fractional terms (one for each mode of immobilization) compose each equation describing each salt species. The third assumption offers great simplification over more traditional ion exchange modeling, in which interaction of solvent species with each other is considered. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Gougar, Mary Lou D.

296

Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.

HEDENGREN, D.C.

2000-02-01

297

Superconductor precursor mixtures made by precipitation method  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for preparing highly pure homogeneous precursor powder mixtures for metal oxide superconductive ceramics. The mixes are prepared by instantaneous precipitation from stoichiometric solutions of metal salts such as nitrates at controlled pH's within the 9 to 12 range, by addition of solutions of non-complexing pyrolyzable cations, such as alkyammonium and carbonate ions.

Bunker, Bruce C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lamppa, Diana L. (Albuquerque, NM); Voigt, James A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01

298

DETERMINATION OF OXIDES IN FLUORIDE SALTS BY HIGH-TEMPERATURE FLUORINATION WITH POTASSIUM BROMOTETRAFLUORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the determination of oxygen in fluoride salts ; of yttrium, beryllium, zirconium, and magnesium and in mixtures of these salts ; with the fluoride salts of sodium and lithium. The fluorinating agent, potassium ; bromotetrafluoride, which is prepared in a nickel reactor by the addition of ; bromine trifluoride to potassium fluoride, is reacted with

Gerald Goldberg; A. S. Jr. Meyer; J. C. White

1960-01-01

299

Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of the Solidification of Eutectic Al-Si Alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The eutectic alloys have a wide spectrum of applications due to their good castability and physical and mechanical properties. The interphase spacing resulting during solidification is an important microstructural feature that significantly influences the mechanical behavior of the material. Thus, knowledge of the evolution of the interphase spacing during solidification is necessary in order to properly design the solidification process and optimize the material properties. While the growth of regular eutectics is rather well understood, the irregular eutectics such as Al-Si or Fe-graphite exhibit undercoolings and lamellar spacings much larger than those theoretically predicted. Despite of a considerable amount of experimental and theoretical work a clear understanding of the true mechanism underlying the spacing selection in irregular eutectics is yet to be achieved. A new experimental study of the solidification of the eutectic Al-Si alloy will be reported in this paper. The measured interface undercoolings and lamellar spacing will be compared to those found in the literature in order to get more general information regarding the growth mechanism of irregular eutectics. A modification of the present theory of the eutectic growth is also proposed. The results of the modified mathematical model, accounting for a non-isothermal solid/liquid interface, will be compared to the experimental measurements.

Sen, S.; Catalina, A. V.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

300

Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt  

DOEpatents

A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

Mullins, Lawrence J. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, Dana C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

301

Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt  

DOEpatents

A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

1982-09-20

302

Preliminary study of the electrolysis of aluminum sulfide in molten salts  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary laboratory-scale study of the electrolysis of aluminum sulfide in molten salts investigated the (1) solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ in molten salts, (2) electrochemical behavior of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/, and (3) electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ with the determination of current efficiency as a function of current density. The solubility measurements show that MgCl/sub 2/-NaCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte at 1023 K can dissolve up to 3.3 mol % sulfide. The molar ratio of sulfur to aluminum in the eutectic is about one, which suggests that some sulfur remains undissolved, probably in the form of MgS. The experimental data and thermodynamic calculations suggest that Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ dissolves in the eutectic to form AlS/sup +/ species in solution. Addition of AlCl/sub 3/ to the eutectic enhances the solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/; the solubility increases with increasing AlCl/sub 3/ concentration. The electrode reaction mechanism for the electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ was elucidated by using linear sweep voltammetry. The cathodic reduction of aluminum-ion-containing species to aluminum proceeds by a reversible, diffusion-controlled, three-electron reaction. The anodic reaction involves the two-electron discharge of sulfide-ion-containing species, followed by the fast dimerization of sulfur atoms to S/sub 2/. Electrolysis experiments show that Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ dissolved in molten MgCl/sub 2/-NaCl-KCl eutectic or in eutectic containing AlCl/sub 3/ can be electrolyzed to produce aluminum and sulfur. In the eutectic at 1023 K, the electrolysis can be conducted up to about 300 mA/cm/sup 2/ for the saturation solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/. Although these preliminary results are promising, additional studies are needed to elucidate many critical operating parameters before the technical potential of the electrolysis can be accurately assessed. 20 figures, 18 tables.

Minh, N.Q.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

1983-02-01

303

The Effect of Carbon on the Transition from Graphite to Cementite Eutectic in Cast Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, an analytical solution is proposed to explain the influence of carbon on the transition from graphite to cementite eutectic in cast iron. The outcome from this work indicates that this transition can be related to (a) the graphite nucleation potential (directly characterized by the cell count, N and indirectly by the nucleation coefficients N s and b), (b) the eutectic graphite growth rate coefficient, ?, (c) the temperature range, ?T sc = T s - T c (where T s and T c are the equilibrium temperature for graphite eutectic and the formation temperature for cementite eutectic, respectively), and (d) the liquid volume fraction, f, after pre-eutectic austenite solidification. In addition, the absolute and the relative chilling tendencies, CT and CTr, respectively, as well as the critical cooling rate, Q cr, and the chill width, w, can be predicted from this work. The analytical model was experimentally verified for castings with various carbon contents. It was found that the carbon content increases the eutectic cell count, N while reducing the maximum degree of undercooling at the onset of graphite eutectic solidification, ?T m. From this work it is evident that the main role of carbon on the transition from graphite to cementite eutectic is through its effect on increasing the growth coefficient and hence, the graphite eutectic growth rate, u. Moreover, at increasing carbon contents the absolute and the relative chilling tendencies including the chill width, all are significantly reduced. Finally, the equations derived using theoretical arguments for the chill width are rather similar to expressions based on a statistical analysis of the experimental outcome.

Fra?, Edward; Górny, M.; Lopez, Hugo F.

2014-09-01

304

Electrodeposition of copper composites from deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride.  

PubMed

Here we describe for the first time the electrolytic deposition of copper and copper composites from a solution of the metal chloride salt in either urea-choline chloride, or ethylene glycol-choline chloride based eutectics. We show that the deposition kinetics and thermodynamics are quite unlike those in aqueous solution under comparable conditions and that the copper ion complexation is also different. The mechanism of copper nucleation is studied using chronoamperometry and it is shown that progressive nucleation leads to a bright nano-structured deposit. In contrast, instantaneous nucleation, at lower concentrations of copper ions, leads to a dull deposit. This work also pioneers the use of the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) to monitor both current efficiency and the inclusion of inert particulates into the copper coatings. This technique allows the first in situ quantification or particulate inclusion. It was found that the composition of composite material was strongly dependent on the amount of species suspended in solution. It was also shown that the majority of material was dragged onto the surface rather than settling on to it. The distribution of the composite material was found to be even throughout the coating. This technology is important because it facilitates deposition of bright copper coatings without co-ligands such as cyanide. The incorporation of micron-sized particulates into ionic liquids has resulted, in one case, in a decrease in viscosity. This observation is both unusual and surprising; we explain this here in terms of an increase in the free volume of the liquid and local solvent perturbation. PMID:19458829

Abbott, Andrew P; El Ttaib, Khalid; Frisch, Gero; McKenzie, Katy J; Ryder, Karl S

2009-06-01

305

Effects of ultrasound and temperature on copper electro reduction in Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES).  

PubMed

This paper concerns a preliminary study for a new copper recovery process from ionic solvent. The aim of this work is to study the reduction of copper in Deep Eutectic Solvent (choline chloride-ethylene glycol) and to compare the influence of temperature and the ultrasound effects on kinetic parameters. Solutions were prepared by dissolution of chloride copper salt CuCl2 (to obtain Copper in oxidation degree II) or CuCl (to obtain Copper in oxidation degree I) and by leaching metallic copper directly in DES. The spectrophotometry UV-visible analysis of the leached solution showed that the copper soluble form obtained is at oxidation degree I (Copper I). Both cyclic voltammetry and linear voltammetry were performed in the three solutions at three temperatures (25, 50 and 80°C) and under ultrasonic conditions (F=20kHz, PT=5.8W) to calculate the mass transfer diffusion coefficient kD and the standard rate coefficient k°. These parameters are used to determine that copper reduction is carried out via a mixed kinetic-diffusion control process. Temperature and ultrasound have the same effect on mass transfer for reduction of Cu(II)/Cu(I). On the other hand, temperature is more beneficial than ultrasound for mass transfer of Cu(I)/Cu. Standard rate constant improvement due to temperature increase is of the same order as that obtained with ultrasound. But, by combining higher temperature and ultrasound (F=20kHz, PT=5.6W at 50°C), reduction limiting current is increased by a factor of 10 compared to initial conditions (T=25°C, silent), because ultrasonic stirring is more efficient in lower viscosity fluid. These values can be considered as key-parameters in the design of copper recovery in global processes using ultrasound. PMID:24629581

Mandroyan, Audrey; Mourad-Mahmoud, Mahmoud; Doche, Marie-Laure; Hihn, Jean-Yves

2014-11-01

306

A steady solution of the gasar eutectic growth in directional solidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the general mathematical model on gasar eutectic growth in directional solidification. Using multiple scale expansion and matching method, we obtain the global steady solution of gasar eutectic growth as the Peclet number in ? 1, where in is defined as the ratio of half an inter-pore spacing and solutal diffusion length. We also give the interfacial shape and predict the porosity of gasar eutectic growth. Results show that porosity is mainly dependent on gas pressure above the metal melt, but independent of pulling velocity. Our predicted results are in agreement with experimental data.

Li, Xiang-Ming; Li, Wen-Qiong; Jin, Qing-Lin; Zhou, Rong

2013-07-01

307

Evaporation of mercury impurity from liquid lead-bismuth eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equilibrium evaporation of mercury from dilute solutions in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) was studied in argon atmosphere. Mercury present as impurity in LBE was evaporated and detected by atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. A method which could accurately simulate the experimental data was developed. Coefficients of the Henry constant temperature correlation for mercury dissolved in LBE were determined. Experiments with samples from several different batches of LBE revealed that mercury at mole fractions between 10-6 and 10-12 and temperatures between 150 and 350 °C evaporated from liquid LBE close to ideal behavior. Evaporation of mercury from solid LBE on the other hand was unexpectedly high. These results are important for safety evaluations of LBE based spallation targets and accelerator driven systems.

Aerts, A.; Danaci, S.; Gonzalez Prieto, B.; Van den Bosch, J.; Neuhausen, J.

2014-05-01

308

Double layer effects on metal nucleation in deep eutectic solvents.  

PubMed

The electrodeposition of zinc has been studied in two deep eutectic solvents. Unlike the metals studied to date in these liquids, zinc electrodeposition is not mass transport limited and the morphology of the deposit differs in the two liquids. This study shows that changing the concentration of solute affects the physical properties of the liquid to different extents although this is found to not effect the morphology of the metal deposited. EXAFS was used to show that the speciation of zinc was the same in both liquids. Double layer capacitance studies showed differences between the two liquids and these are proposed to be due to the adsorption of a species on the electrode which is thought to be chloride. The differences in zinc morphology is attributed to blocking of certain crystal faces leading to deposition of small platelet shaped crystals in the glycol based liquid. PMID:21519629

Abbott, Andrew P; Barron, John C; Frisch, Gero; Gurman, Stephen; Ryder, Karl S; Fernando Silva, A

2011-06-01

309

The electrodeposition of silver composites using deep eutectic solvents.  

PubMed

Silver is an important metal for electronic connectors, however, it is extremely soft and wear can be a significant issue. This paper describes how improved wear resistant silver coatings can be obtained from the electrolytic deposition of silver from a solution of AgCl in an ethylene glycol/choline chloride based Deep Eutectic Solvent. An up to 10-fold decrease in the wear volume is observed by the incorporation of SiC or Al(2)O(3) particles. The work also addresses the fundamental aspect of speciation of silver chloride in solution using EXAFS to probe solution structure. The size but not the nature of the composite particles is seen to change the morphology and grain size of the silver deposit. Grain sizes are shown to be consistent with previous nucleation studies. The addition of LiF is found to significantly affect the deposit morphology and improve wear resistance. PMID:22249451

Abbott, Andrew P; El Ttaib, Khalid; Frisch, Gero; Ryder, Karl S; Weston, David

2012-02-21

310

Self Assembled Structures by Directional Solidification of Eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interest in ordered porous structures has grown because of there unique properties such as photonic bandgaps, high backing packing density and high surface to volume ratio. Inspired by nature, biometric strategies using self assembled organic molecules dominate the development of hierarchical inorganic structures. Directional solidification of eutectics (DSE) also exhibit self assembly characteristics to form hierarchical metallic and inorganic structures. Crystallization of diphasic materials by DSE can produce two dimensional ordered structures consisting of rods or lamella. By selective removal of phases, DSE is capable to fabricate ordered pore arrays or ordered pin arrays. Criteria and limitations to fabricate hierarchical structures will be presented. Porous structures in silicon base alloys and ceramic systems will be reported.

Dynys, Frederick W.; Sayir, Ali

2004-01-01

311

Eutectic superalloys by edge-defined, film-fed growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of producing directionally solidified eutectic alloy composites by edge-defined, film-fed growth (EFG) was carried out. The three eutectic alloys which were investigated were gamma + delta, gamma/gamma prime + delta, and a Co-base TaC alloy containing Cr and Ni. Investigations into the compatibility and wettability of these metals with various carbides, borides, nitrides, and oxides disclosed that compounds with the largest (negative) heats of formation were most stable but poorest wetting. Nitrides and carbides had suitable stability and low contact angles but capillary rise was observed only with carbides. Oxides would not give capillary rise but would probably fulfill the other wetting requirements of EFG. Tantalum carbide was selected for most of the experimental portion of the program based on its exhibiting spontaneous capillary rise and satisfactory slow rate of degradation in the liquid metals. Samples of all three alloys were grown by EFG with the major experimental effort restricted to gamma + delta and gamma/gamma prime + delta alloys. In the standard, uncooled EFG apparatus, the thermal gradient was inferred from the growth speed and was 150 to 200 C/cm. This value may be compared to typical gradients of less than 100 C/cm normally achieved in a standard Bridgman-type apparatus. When a stream of helium was directed against the side of the bar during growth, the gradient was found to improve to about 250 C/cm. In comparison, a theoretical gradient of 700 C/cm should be possible under ideal conditions, without the use of chills. Methods for optimizing the gradient in EFG are discussed, and should allow attainment of close to the theoretical for a particular configuration.

Hurley, G. F.

1975-01-01

312

Modeled salt density for nuclear material estimation in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spent metallic nuclear fuel is being treated in a pyrometallurgical process that includes electrorefining the uranium metal in molten eutectic LiCl-KCl as the supporting electrolyte. We report a model for determining the density of the molten salt. Material balances account for the net mass of salt and for the mass of actinides present. It was necessary to know the molten salt density, but difficult to measure. It was also decided to model the salt density for the initial treatment operations. The model assumes that volumes are additive for the ideal molten salt solution as a starting point; subsequently, a correction factor for the lanthanides and actinides was developed. After applying the correction factor, the percent difference between the net salt mass in the electrorefiner and the resulting modeled salt mass decreased from more than 4.0% to approximately 0.1%. As a result, there is no need to measure the salt density at 500 °C for inventory operations; the model for the salt density is found to be accurate.

Mariani, Robert D.; Vaden, DeeEarl

2010-09-01

313

Mechanochemical synthesis of layered hydroxy salts  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Ultrafast synthesis method was developed for the synthesis of layered hydroxy salts. ? Preparation of hydroxy single salt by this method requires only one minute. ? Hydroxy salts with variable Ni/Zn ratio could be synthesized by varying the metal contents of the starting mixture. ? This synthesis method is solvent free and environment friendly. -- Abstract: A simple one minute synthesis method was adapted for the preparation of layered hydroxy salts of copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium by grinding the metal salts with sodium hydroxide in a mortar. This solvent free method is environment friendly and fast. This method could be extended to the preparation of Ni/Zn hydroxy double salts. The Ni/Zn ratio could be varied from 1.2 to 1.9 by varying the metal contents of the precursor salts without the formation of any impurities in the sample. The prepared compounds had similar characteristics as that of the samples prepared by precipitation route. No sign of carbonate contamination was observed in any of the prepared samples.

Thomas, Nygil, E-mail: nygill@gmail.com [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph's College, 36 Langford Road, Bangalore 560027 (India)] [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph's College, 36 Langford Road, Bangalore 560027 (India)

2012-11-15

314

Dissolution of Eutectic ?-Mg17Al12 Phase in Magnesium AZ91 Cast Alloy at Temperatures Close to Eutectic Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge on the dissolution kinetics of ?-eut phase in cast Mg AZ91 alloy at temperatures close to the eutectic temperature is very useful for various processes of the alloy. In the present study, dissolution of ?-eut phase has been investigated experimentally and considered theoretically. Results have confirmed that the kinetics of ?-eut dissolution is basically diffusion controlled. Optimum times for dissolution heat treatment practice of different sizes of cast microstructure which are cooling rate dependant during casting could be suggested based on the present calculation. For fusion welding of the alloy, the present results indicate the difficulty of having a heating rate lower than the critical value (“critical heating rate”) for a significant reduction of the phase to avoid constitutional liquation.

Zhu, Tianping; Chen, Zhan W.; Gao, Wei

2010-08-01

315

Ionothermal Synthesis of High Silica Zeolites in Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES).  

E-print Network

??Phase-pure high silica zeolites have been synthesized using different deep eutectic solvents for the first time. ZSM-5 was made in tetrapropylammonium bromide/pentaerythritol. The reaction is… (more)

Lin, Zheng Sonia

2012-01-01

316

Effect of boron on the microstructure of near-eutectic Al-Si alloys  

SciTech Connect

The effect of boron on the microstructure of a near-eutectic Al-Si alloy (ZL109) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron beam microprobe analysis (EPMA). It was found that {alpha}-Al dendrites and eutectic clusters were significantly refined by the addition of boron. Another interesting discovery is that the near-eutectic alloy exhibited hypereutectic structure characteristics when the level of boron added exceeds 0.3%, i.e., primary Si is precipitated in the eutectic microstructure. A new type of nucleation substrate for the primary Si is found, Al {sub x}Ca {sub m}B {sub n}Si. This appears to be the main reason for the precipitation of primary Si.

Wu Yuying [Key Laboratory of Materials Liquid Structure and Heredity, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong (China)]. E-mail: wyy532001@163.com; Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Materials Liquid Structure and Heredity, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong (China); Bian Xiufang [Key Laboratory of Materials Liquid Structure and Heredity, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong (China)

2007-02-15

317

Microstructure of directionally solidified Ti-Fe eutectic alloy with low interstitial and high mechanical strength  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of Ti alloys can be considerably enhanced by combining Ti and other elements, causing an eutectic transformation and thereby producing composites in situ from the liquid phase. This paper reports on the processing and characterization of a directionally solidified Ti-Fe eutectic alloy. Directional solidification at different growth rates was carried out in a setup that employs a water-cooled copper crucible combined with a voltaic electric arc moving through the sample. The results obtained show that a regular fiber-like eutectic structure was produced and the interphase spacing was found to be a function of the growth rate. Mechanical properties were measured using compression, microindentation and nanoindentation tests to determine the Vickers hardness, compressive strength and elastic modulus. Directionally solidified eutectic samples presented high values of compressive strength in the range of 1844-3000 MPa and ductility between 21.6 and 25.2%.

Contieri, R. J.; Lopes, E. S. N.; Taquire de La Cruz, M.; Costa, A. M.; Afonso, C. R. M.; Caram, R.

2011-10-01

318

Eutectic grains in unmodified and strontium-modified hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additions of strontium to hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys modify the morphology of the eutectic silicon phase from a\\u000a coarse platelike structure to a fine fibrous structure. Thermal analysis, interrupted solidification, and microstructural\\u000a examination of sand castings in this work revealed that, in addition to a change in silicon morphology, modification with\\u000a strontium also causes an increase in the size of eutectic

Stuart D. McDonald; Arne K. Dahle; John A. Taylor; David H. StJohn

2004-01-01

319

The eutectic generation effect and chemical modification of thermal lance cutting of concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal lance is one of the methods for concrete cutting\\/piercing. The burning lance not only provides high temperature to melt the concrete target in the form of lava, but also has a eutectic effect changing the lava melting temperature. The eutectic effects by adding lance material such as FeO, Al2O3 and TiO2 to concrete (SiO2-CaO) system are discussed. The discussion

H. Wang; P. Pranda; V. Hlavacek

2004-01-01

320

Eutectic structures in friction spot welding joint of aluminum alloy to copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dissimilar joint of AA5083 Al alloy and copper was produced by friction spot welding. The Al-MgCuAl2 eutectic in both coupled and divorced manners were found in the weld. At a relatively high temperature, mass transport of Cu due to plastic deformation, material flow, and atomic diffusion, combined with the alloy system of AA5083 are responsible for the ternary eutectic melting.

Shen, Junjun; Suhuddin, Uceu F. H.; Cardillo, Maria E. B.; dos Santos, Jorge F.

2014-05-01

321

Localized silicon fusion and eutectic bonding for MEMS fabrication and packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon fusion and eutectic bonding processes based on the technique of localized heating have been successfully demonstrated. Phosphorus-doped polysilicon and gold films are applied separately in the silicon-to-glass fusion bonding and silicon-to-gold eutectic bonding experiments. These films are patterned as line-shape resistive heaters with widths of 5 or 7 ?m for the purpose of heating and bonding. In the experiments,

Y. T. Cheng; Liwei Lin; Khalil Najafi

2000-01-01

322

Eutectic structures in friction spot welding joint of aluminum alloy to copper  

SciTech Connect

A dissimilar joint of AA5083 Al alloy and copper was produced by friction spot welding. The Al-MgCuAl{sub 2} eutectic in both coupled and divorced manners were found in the weld. At a relatively high temperature, mass transport of Cu due to plastic deformation, material flow, and atomic diffusion, combined with the alloy system of AA5083 are responsible for the ternary eutectic melting.

Shen, Junjun, E-mail: junjun.shen@hzg.de; Suhuddin, Uceu F. H.; Cardillo, Maria E. B.; Santos, Jorge F. dos [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics, Solid-State Joining Processes, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

2014-05-12

323

Thermodynamic description and unidirectional solidification of eutectic organic alloys: I. Succinonitrile-(D)camphor system  

SciTech Connect

The temperature and enthalpy of transformations of organic alloys from the binary system succinonitrile-(D)camphor were measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) within the entire composition range. The analytical description of the Gibbs energies of pure succinonitrile (SCN) and pure (D)camphor (DC) were derived utilizing the data on temperature and enthalpy of transformations, and temperature dependencies of heat capacity available in the literature. The phase diagram for the binary SCN-DC system was assessed via the CALPHAD approach using Thermo-Calc by simultaneously optimizing the thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data available in the literature and measured in the present work. A good agreement between the experimental and calculated data for the phase diagram as well as for the thermochemical properties was achieved. Experiments and calculations show that the binary system SCN-DC has an eutectic reaction with the eutectic point at 311.5 K and 13.9 mol% DC. The enthalpy of mixing derived in the optimisation proves weak attractive interaction between dissimilar molecules. Unidirectional solidification of the eutectic alloy was performed in order to verify the nature of the eutectic: we find that eutectic growth occurs with both solid phases being nonfacetted and with a rod-like eutectic structure consisting of 23 vol% (DC) and 77 vol% (SCN). Due to the optical activity of DC its distribution in the solid sample is well detectible in polarised light.

Witusiewicz, V.T.; Sturz, L.; Hecht, U.; Rex, S

2004-09-06

324

Microstructures from a directionally solidified NiAl-Cr eutectic deformed at room temperature  

SciTech Connect

Directionally solidified alloys based on the NiAl-Cr eutectic have shown promise as high temperature structural materials. This eutectic is characterized by a fibrous microstructure consisting of chromium rods embedded within a NiAl matrix. The reinforcing metal phase provides improvements in the elevated temperature strength and the room temperature fracture toughness of the NiAl matrix. The fracture toughness of the NiAl-Cr eutectic is much greater than that of NiAl. The directionally solidified NiAl-Cr eutectic has a fracture toughness of approximately 18--21 MPa[radical]m while polycrystalline NiAl has a fracture toughness of 6 MPa[radical]m. Single crystals of NiAl oriented with a [001] notch plane have a fracture toughness of 8 MPa[radical]m. Recently, the fracture resistance of fibrous NiAl-refractory metal eutectics has been described by crack trapping and crack bridging mechanisms. However, mechanical property data for NiAl-Cr eutectic are sparse, especially those generated at room temperature. Typically, the fracture behavior is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. To complement these existing data, observations of the deformation and fracture behavior by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are reported here.

Chen, X.F.; Johnson, D.R.; Oliver, B.F. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Material Science and Engineering Dept.)

1994-04-15

325

Formation mechanism of primary phases and eutectic structures within undercooled Pb-Sb-Sn ternary alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solidification characteristics of three types of Pb-Sb-Sn ternary alloys with different primary phases were studied under substantial undercooling conditions. The experimental results show that primary (Pb) and SbSn phases grow in the dendritic mode, whereas primary (Sb) phase exhibits faceted growth in the form of polygonal blocks and long strips. (Pb) solid solution phase displays strong affinity with SbSn intermetallic compound so that they produce various morphologies of pseudobinary eutectics, but it can only grow in the divorced eutectic mode together with (Sb) phase. Although (Sb) solid solution phase and SbSn intermetallic compound may grow cooperatively within ternary eutectic microstructures, they seldom form pseudobinary eutectics independently. The (Pb)+(Sb)+SbSn ternary eutectic structure usually shows lamellar morphology, but appears as anomalous eutectic when its volume fraction becomes small. EDS analyses reveal that all of the three primary (Pb), (Sb) and SbSn phases exhibit conspicuous solute trapping effect during rapid solidification, which results in the remarkable extension of solute solubility.

Wang, Weili; Dai, Fuping; Wei, Bingbo

2007-08-01

326

Density relaxation and particle motion characteristics in a non-ionic deep eutectic solvent (acetamide + urea): Time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

Temperature dependent relaxation dynamics, particle motion characteristics, and heterogeneity aspects of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) made of acetamide (CH3CONH2) and urea (NH2CONH2) have been investigated by employing time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Three different compositions (f) for the mixture [fCH3CONH2 + (1 - f)NH2CONH2] have been studied in a temperature range of 328-353 K which is ?120-145 K above the measured glass transition temperatures (?207 K) of these DESs but much lower than the individual melting temperature of either of the constituents. Steady state fluorescence emission measurements using probe solutes with sharply different lifetimes do not indicate any dependence on excitation wavelength in these metastable molten systems. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements reveal near-hydrodynamic coupling between medium viscosity and rotation of a dissolved dipolar solute. Stokes shift dynamics have been found to be too fast to be detected by the time-resolution (?70 ps) employed, suggesting extremely rapid medium polarization relaxation. All-atom simulations reveal Gaussian distribution for particle displacements and van Hove correlations, and significant overlap between non-Gaussian (?2) and new non-Gaussian (?) heterogeneity parameters. In addition, no stretched exponential relaxations have been detected in the simulated wavenumber dependent acetamide dynamic structure factors. All these results are in sharp contrast to earlier observations for ionic deep eutectics with acetamide [Guchhait et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 104514 (2014)] and suggest a fundamental difference in interaction and dynamics between ionic and non-ionic deep eutectic solvent systems. PMID:25612718

Das, Anuradha; Das, Suman; Biswas, Ranjit

2015-01-21

327

Prussian blue nanospheres synthesized in deep eutectic solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel route for controlled synthesis of Prussian blue nanospheres (PB NSs) with different sizes by using deep eutectic solvents (DES) as both solvent and template provider was demonstrated. The size-controlled PB NSs were obtained directly by the coordination of Fe(CN)64- ion with Fe3+ ion in the DES. The probable mechanism of formation of PB NSs was discussed based on the characterization results of UV-visible, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectronic spectrum and transfer electron microscopy. Furthermore, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of the synthesized PB NSs were investigated, and it has demonstrated that the PB NSs exhibited excellent catalytic activity for H2O2 reduction, and then extended this strategy to glucose sensing, by detecting H2O2 formed from the enzymatic reaction of glucose oxidase with its substrate glucose. The linear calibration range for glucose was from 0.9 ?M to 0.12 mM, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The limit of detection was 0.3 ?M and the sensitivity was 61.7 A cm-2 M-1. The present study provides a general platform for the controlled synthesis of novel nanomaterials in DES and can be extended to other optical, electronic and magnetic nanocompounds.A novel route for controlled synthesis of Prussian blue nanospheres (PB NSs) with different sizes by using deep eutectic solvents (DES) as both solvent and template provider was demonstrated. The size-controlled PB NSs were obtained directly by the coordination of Fe(CN)64- ion with Fe3+ ion in the DES. The probable mechanism of formation of PB NSs was discussed based on the characterization results of UV-visible, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectronic spectrum and transfer electron microscopy. Furthermore, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of the synthesized PB NSs were investigated, and it has demonstrated that the PB NSs exhibited excellent catalytic activity for H2O2 reduction, and then extended this strategy to glucose sensing, by detecting H2O2 formed from the enzymatic reaction of glucose oxidase with its substrate glucose. The linear calibration range for glucose was from 0.9 ?M to 0.12 mM, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The limit of detection was 0.3 ?M and the sensitivity was 61.7 A cm-2 M-1. The present study provides a general platform for the controlled synthesis of novel nanomaterials in DES and can be extended to other optical, electronic and magnetic nanocompounds. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31830j

Sheng, Qinglin; Liu, Ruixiao; Zheng, Jianbin

2012-10-01

328

Salt tectonics on Venus  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

1986-05-01

329

Directional solidification of Ni-Ni3Si eutectic in situ composites by electron beam floating zone melting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining the intermetallic compound with the ductile metal at the eutectic composition is one promising method to improve the ductility of the intermetallic compound. This paper reports the microstructure and the micro-hardness of the Ni-Ni3Si eutectic in situ composites prepared by electron beam floating zone melting technique. Ni-Ni3Si eutectic in situ composites display regular lamellar eutectic structure at the solidification rate R=0.3-4.0 mm/min. The lamellar spacing is decreased with the increase of the solidification rate. The phase composition of the Ni-Ni3Si eutectic in situ composites is also determined by X-ray diffraction. Ni-Ni3Si eutectic in situ composites present lower micro-hardness than pure Ni3Si, although a small quantity of metastable Ni31Si12 phase is formed during the directional solidification process.

Cui, Chunjuan; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Kun; Zou, Dening; Ma, Youping; Liu, Lin; Fu, Hengzhi

2013-03-01

330

Molten salt electrolyte separator  

DOEpatents

A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1996-01-01

331

Utah: Salt Lake Region  

article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

2014-05-15

332

Prussian blue nanospheres synthesized in deep eutectic solvents.  

PubMed

A novel route for controlled synthesis of Prussian blue nanospheres (PB NSs) with different sizes by using deep eutectic solvents (DES) as both solvent and template provider was demonstrated. The size-controlled PB NSs were obtained directly by the coordination of Fe(CN)(6)(4-) ion with Fe(3+) ion in the DES. The probable mechanism of formation of PB NSs was discussed based on the characterization results of UV-visible, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectronic spectrum and transfer electron microscopy. Furthermore, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of the synthesized PB NSs were investigated, and it has demonstrated that the PB NSs exhibited excellent catalytic activity for H(2)O(2) reduction, and then extended this strategy to glucose sensing, by detecting H(2)O(2) formed from the enzymatic reaction of glucose oxidase with its substrate glucose. The linear calibration range for glucose was from 0.9 ?M to 0.12 mM, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The limit of detection was 0.3 ?M and the sensitivity was 61.7 A cm(-2) M(-1). The present study provides a general platform for the controlled synthesis of novel nanomaterials in DES and can be extended to other optical, electronic and magnetic nanocompounds. PMID:23034657

Sheng, Qinglin; Liu, Ruixiao; Zheng, Jianbin

2012-11-01

333

Corrosion of stainless steel in flowing PbLi eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corrosion of the steel AISI 304 in a flowing lithium-lead environment is studied in a loop which is equipped with an electromagnetic pump and flow meter. The loop is integrated in a dry-argon glove box system. The tubes of the loop are of austenitic steel AISI 316 Ti, and the whole circuit contains about 3 l of the molten metal. The pre-fabricated alloy Pb-17 at% Li delivered in solid bars is analyzed by chemical methods and by measurement of the melting point. The internal heating rod of 3 kW power heats the liquid metal to the test temperature of 420°C, the flow velocity is within the range 10-20 cm/s. The eutectic does not dissolve measurable amounts of the steel elements, and oxygen is in the < 10 -3 wt% level. The corrosion effects after an exposure of up to 5750 h are evaluated. The weight loss of the steel specimens interferes with the formation of a lead containing surface cover.

Borgstedt, Hans U.; Frees, Günter; Drechsler, Günter

1986-11-01

334

Retrospective salt tectonics  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

Jackson, M.P.A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

335

The melting points of binary mixtures of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  1. The melting points of binary mixtures of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids have been reported.\\u000a \\u000a 2. The oleic-linoleic acid system has eutectics for the ? and ? forms of oleic acid of 75.2 and 76.3 mole per cent linoleic\\u000a acid, at ?10.0° and ?9.8°, respectively.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. Linoleic and linolenic acid mixtures show only melting points intermediate between the pure

H. W. Stewart; D. H. Wheeler

1941-01-01

336

The effect of porosity and gamma-gamma-prime eutectic content on the fatigue behavior of hydrogen charged PWA 1480  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study addresses the effect of systematically varying gamma-gamma-prime eutectic content and porosity level on the fatigue life of a hydrogen-charged single crystal PWA 1480 superalloy. Four microstructural variants are produced, and differences in gamma-gamma-prime eutectic morphology among the four processing variants are analyzed. Single valued tensile test data indicate that the tensile and yield strength of the PWA 1480 are degraded by hydrogen charging, with the exception of the material given a eutectic solution treatment. It is shown that the reduction of the fatigue life can be minimized by a duplex thermomechanical treatment consisting of a eutectic solution followed by hot isostatic pressing.

Gayda, J.; Dreshfield, R. L.; Gabb, T. P.

1991-01-01

337

Sugar and Salt Solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens when sugar and salt are added to water? Pour in sugar, shake in salt, and evaporate water to see the effects on concentration and conductivity. Zoom in to see how different sugar and salt compounds dissolve. Zoom in again to explore the role of water.

Simulations, Phet I.; Lancaster, Kelly; Reid, Sam; Moore, Emily; Chamberlain, Julia; Loeblein, Trish

2011-10-12

338

Plant salt tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress in plant agriculture worldwide. This has led to research into salt tolerance with the aim of improving crop plants. However, salt tolerance might have much wider implications because transgenic salt-tolerant plants often also tolerate other stresses including chilling, freezing, heat and drought. Unfortunately, suitable genetic model systems have been hard to find. A

Jian-Kang Zhu

2001-01-01

339

Electrolysis of uranium nitride containing fission product elements (Mo, Pd, Nd) in a molten LiCl-KCl eutectic  

SciTech Connect

The electrolysis of burnup-simulated uranium nitride, UN, containing representative solid fission product elements (Mo, Pd, Nd) was investigated in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt with 0.54 wt% UCl{sub 3} from the view point of application of pyrochemical reprocessing to nitride fuel cycle. It was found from cyclic voltammetry and anodic polarization curve measurement that anodic dissolution of UN began at about -0.75 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode in all samples. After the electrolysis at the constant anodic potential of -0.65 {approx} -0.60 V vs. Ag/AgCl, most of UN was dissolved into LiCl- KCl as UCl{sub 3} at the anode, and U was recovered in the liquid Cd cathode in all samples. Further, Nd was dissolved into LiCl-KCl as NdCl{sub 3}, while Mo and Pd were not dissolved but remained at the anode. (authors)

Satoh, Takumi; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 311-1393 (Japan)

2007-07-01

340

Simultaneous Extraction of Flavonoids from Chamaecyparis obtusa Using Deep Eutectic Solvents as Additives of Conventional Extractions Solvents.  

PubMed

Three flavones (quercetin, myricetin and amentoflavone) were extracted from Chamaecyparis obtusa leaves using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as additives to conventional extractions solvents. Sixteen DESs were synthesized from different salts and hydrogen bond donors. In addition, C. obtusa was extracted under optimal conditions of methanol as the solvent in the heating process (60°C) for 120 min at a solid/liquid ratio of 80%. Under these optimal conditions, a good linear relationship was observed at analyte concentrations ranging from 5.0 to 200.0 ?g/mL (R(2) > 0.999). The extraction recovery ranged from 96.7 to 103.3% with the inter- and intraday relative standard deviations of <4.97%. Under the optimal conditions, from C. obtusa, the quantities of quercetin, myricetin and amentoflavone extracted were 325.90, 8.66 and 50.34 µg/mL, respectively. Overall, DESs are expected to have a wide range of applications. PMID:25228687

Tang, Baokun; Park, Ha Eun; Row, Kyung Ho

2014-09-15

341

Ionic liquid and deep eutectic solvent-activated CelA2 variants generated by directed evolution.  

PubMed

Chemoenzymatic cellulose degradation is one of the key steps for the production of biomass-based fuels under mild conditions. An effective cellulose degradation process requires diverse physico-chemical dissolution of the biomass prior to enzymatic degradation. In recent years, "green" solvents, such as ionic liquids and, more recently, deep eutectic liquids, have been proposed as suitable alternatives for biomass dissolution by homogenous catalysis. In this manuscript, a directed evolution campaign of an ionic liquid tolerant ?-1,4-endoglucanase (CelA2) was performed in order to increase its performance in the presence of choline chloride/glycerol (ChCl:Gly) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), as a first step to identify residues which govern ionic strength resistance and obtaining insights for employing cellulases on the long run in homogenous catalysis of lignocellulose degradation. After mutant library screening, variant M4 (His288Phe, Ser300Arg) was identified, showing a dramatically reduced activity in potassium phosphate buffer and an increased activity in the presence of ChCl:Gly or [BMIM]Cl. Further characterization showed that the CelA2 variant M4 is activated in the presence of these solvents, representing a first report of an engineered enzyme with an ionic strength activity switch. Structural analysis revealed that Arg300 could be a key residue for the ionic strength activation through a salt bridge with the neighboring Asp287. Experimental and computational results suggest that the salt bridge Asp287-Arg300 generates a nearly inactive CelA2 variant and activity is regained when ChCl:Gly or [BMIM]Cl are supplemented (~5-fold increase from 0.64 to 3.37 ?M 4-MU/h with the addition ChCl:Gly and ~23-fold increase from 3.84 to 89.21 ?M 4-pNP/h with the addition of [BMIM]Cl). Molecular dynamic simulations further suggest that the salt bridge between Asp287 and Arg300 in variant M4 (His288Phe, Ser300Arg) modulates the observed salt activation. PMID:24802079

Lehmann, Christian; Bocola, Marco; Streit, Wolfgang R; Martinez, Ronny; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

2014-06-01

342

Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2-20 wt.% chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material non-reactive with the battery components. The non-reactive material is present as fibers, powder, or

Robert D

1977-01-01

343

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOEpatents

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01

344

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOEpatents

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath. 2 figs.

Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.

1996-02-13

345

Factors affecting the formation of eutectic solid dispersions and their dissolution behavior.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the factors, specifically the properties of poorly water-soluble drugs and water-soluble carriers, which influence predominantly, the formation of eutectic or monotectic crystalline solid dispersion and their dissolution behavior. A theoretical model was applied on five poorly water-soluble drugs (fenofibrate, flurbiprofen, griseofulvin, naproxen, and ibuprofen) having diverse physicochemical properties and water-soluble carrier (polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000) for the evaluation of these factors. Of these, two drugs, fenofibrate and flurbiprofen, and PEG of different molecular weights (3350, 8000, and 20000), were chosen as model drugs and carriers for further investigation. Experimental phase diagrams were constructed and dissolution testing was performed to assess the performance of the systems. The theoretical model predicted the formation of eutectic or monotectic solid dispersions of fenofibrate, griseofulvin, ibuprofen, and naproxen with PEG, holding the contribution of specific intermolecular interactions between compound and carrier to zero. In the case of the flurbiprofen-PEG eutectic system, intermolecular interactions between drug and polymer needed to be taken into consideration to predict the experimental phase diagram. The results of the current work suggest that the thermodynamic function of melting point and heat of fusion (as a measure of crystal energy of drug) plays a significant role in the formation of a eutectic system. Lipophilicity of the compound (as represented by cLog P) was also demonstrated to have an effect. Specific interactions between drug and carrier play a significant role in influencing the eutectic composition. Molar volume of the drug did not seem to have an impact on eutectic formation. The polymer molecular weight appeared to have an impact on the eutectic composition for flurbiprofen, which exhibits specific interactions with PEG, whereas no such impact of polymer molecular weight on eutectic composition was observed for fenofibrate, which does not exhibit specific interactions with PEG. The impact of polymer molecular weight on dissolution of systems where specific drug-polymer interactions are exhibited was also observed. The current work provides valuable insight into factors affecting formation and dissolution of eutectic systems, which can facilitate the rational selection of suitable water-soluble carriers. PMID:17051588

Vippagunta, Sudha R; Wang, Zeren; Hornung, Stefanie; Krill, Steven L

2007-02-01

346

The experimental study of the polonium-210 release from Li17-Pb83 eutectic  

SciTech Connect

The polonium contamination hazard arise as a result of accidental Po-210 release from breeding blanket material - melted Li17Pb83 eutectic - in the environment. The experimental study of Po-210 release rates from eutectic were carry out in atmosphere of noble gases and air with different humidity in 1992-1993. In these experiments used method of carrier-gas flowing above melted eutectic surface. The main findings presented by RDIPE and Karpov Institute are: (1) The polonium-210 release rate strongly increase with eutectic temperature from 150 to 450{degrees}C. (2) The Po-210 release rate in the noble carrier-gas is in proportion with polonium concentration in eutectic in studied range from 10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup {minus}4} Ci/g. (3) The Po-210 release rate in air remarkably effected by the surface oxide film also. (4) In these experiments for the first time were studied differently gaseous and aerosol polonium-210 fractions release rates. The experimental results and corresponding estimates showed needs the technological and accidental cleaning systems equipped by complex filters of gaseous and aerosols polonium-210 forms.

Schipakin, O. [Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Borisov, N.; Churkin, S. [Karpov Inst. of Physical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31

347

A quantitative study of factors influencing lamellar eutectic morphology during solidification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors that influence the shape of the solid-liquid interface of a lamellar binary eutectic alloy are evaluated. Alloys of carbon tetrabromide and hexachloroethane which serve as a transparent analogue of lamellar metallic eutectics are used. The observed interface shapes are analyzed by computer-aided methods. The solid-liquid interfacial free energies of each of the individual phases comprising the eutectic system are measured as a function of composition using a 'grain boundary groove' technique. The solid-liquid interfacial free energy of the two phases are evaluated directly from the eutectic interface. The phase diagram for the system, the heat of fusion as a function of composition, and the density as a function of composition are measured. The shape of the eutectic interface is controlled mainly by the solid-liquid and solid-solid interfacial free energy relationships at the interface and by the temperature gradient present, rather than by interlamellar diffusion in the liquid at the interface, over the range of growth rates studied.

Kaukler, W. F. S.

1981-01-01

348

Phase behavior of elastin-like synthetic recombinamers in deep eutectic solvents.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents promoted the stabilization of the collapsed state of elastin-like recombinamers - and the subsequent formation of aggregates - upon the loss of the structural water molecules involved in hydrophobic hydration. Cryo-etch scanning electron microscopy allowed the observation of these aggregates in neat deep eutectic solvents. The suppression of the lower critical solution temperature transition, observed by differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic light scattering, confirmed the presence of the elastin-like recombinamers in their collapsed state. Actually, the transition from the collapsed to the expanded state was suppressed even after moderate aqueous dilution - for water contents ranging from nil to ca. 45 wt % - and it was only recovered upon further addition of water - above 50 wt %. These features revealed the preferred stabilization of the collapsed state in not only neat deep eutectic solvents but also partially hydrated deep eutectic solvents. We consider that the capability to trigger the lower critical solution temperature transition by partial hydration of deep eutectic solvent may open interesting perspectives for nano(bio)technological applications of elastin-like recombinamers. PMID:22632070

Nardecchia, Stefania; Gutiérrez, María C; Ferrer, M Luisa; Alonso, Matilde; López, Isabel M; Rodríguez-Cabello, J Carlos; del Monte, Francisco

2012-07-01

349

Melting Temperatures of Eutectic Fixed-Point Cells Usable for the Calibration of Contact Thermometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the present investigation was the determination of the melting temperatures of the eutectic compounds Fe C, Co C, and Ni C. Six eutectic fixed-point cells of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) (Fe C1, Fe C2, Co C1, Co C2, Ni C1, and Ni C2) and two cells of the Brazilian National Metrological Institute (Inmetro) (Fe C1V and Ni C1V), useable for the calibration of contact thermometers, were investigated. Their melting temperatures were calculated by extrapolation of the emf-temperature characteristics of four stable Pt/Pd thermocouples, which were calibrated at the eutectic fixed points and at conventional fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). On the basis of the eight eutectic fixed-point cells and seven independent calibration runs, the melting temperatures of the Fe C, Co C, and Ni C eutectics resulted in 1153.67 ± 0.15°C, 1323.81 ± 0.27°C, and 1328.48 ± 0.20°C, respectively, with expanded uncertainties corresponding to a coverage factor of k = 2.

Edler, F.; Ederer, P.; Baratto, A. C.; Vieira, H. D.

2007-12-01

350

Deformation and fracture of a directionally solidified NiAl-28Cr-6Mo eutectic alloy  

SciTech Connect

A directionally solidified alloy based on the NiAl-(Cr, Mo) eutectic was examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the microstructure and room temperature deformation and fracture behavior. The microstructure consisted of a lamellar morphology with a group of zone axes (111) growth direction for both the NiAl and (Cr, Mo) phases. The interphase boundary between the eutectic phases was semicoherent and composed of a well-defined dislocation network. In addition, a fine array of coherent NiAl precipitates was dispersed throughout the (Cr, Mo) phase. The eutectic morphology was stable at 1300 K with only coarsening of the NiAl precipitates occurring after heat treatment for 1.8 ks (500 h). Fracture of the aligned eutectic is characterized primarily by a crack bridging/renucleation mechanism and is controlled by the strength of the semicoherent interface between the two phases. However, contributions to the toughness of the eutectic may arise from plastic deformation of the NiAl phase and the geometry associated with the fracture surface.

Chen, X.F.; Johnson, D.R.; Noebe, R.D.; Oliver, B.F.

1995-05-01

351

Deformation and fracture of a directionally solidified NiAl-28Cr-6Mo eutectic alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A directionally solidified alloy based on the NiAl-(Cr, Mo) eutectic was examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the microstructure and room temperature deformation and fracture behavior. The microstructure consisted of a lamellar morphology with a group of zone axes (111) growth direction for both the NiAl and (Cr, Mo) phases. The interphase boundary between the eutectic phases was semicoherent and composed of a well-defined dislocation network. In addition, a fine array of coherent NiAl precipitates was dispersed throughout the (Cr, Mo) phase. The eutectic morphology was stable at 1300 K with only coarsening of the NiAl precipitates occurring after heat treatment for 1.8 ks (500 h). Fracture of the aligned eutectic is characterized primarily by a crack bridging/renucleation mechanism and is controlled by the strength of the semicoherent interface between the two phases. However, contributions to the toughness of the eutectic may arise from plastic deformation of the NiAl phase and the geometry associated with the fracture surface.

Chen, X. F.; Johnson, D. R.; Noebe, R. D.; Oliver, B. F.

1995-01-01

352

Molten salt vapour corrosion of Ti–Al–Ag intermetallics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Ag addition on the hot corrosion behaviour of ?-TiAl has been studied. Hot corrosion tests were performed with a salt mixture consisting of 80 wt.% Na2SO4+20 wt.% NaCl (melting point ?700 °C). The specimens were suspended in the salt vapour at 800 °C for 200 h. Ti–48Al–2Ag showed the best corrosion resistance. It is believed that Ag can promote

Kai Zhang; Wei Gao; Jing Liang

2004-01-01

353

Image matching technology in high power LED's eutectic welding.  

PubMed

As the integration packaging density of high-power LED (Light Emitting Diode) chip modules become higher and higher, the accuracy and speed of visual inspection require higher demands correspondingly. The accurate position matching of substrates and flip-chip LEDs is one of the key technologies in the automatic eutectic welding process. In this paper we propose a method based on image features to complete the matching of the substrates and the flip-chip LEDs. Firstly, the substrate images and the flip-chip images are pre-processed respectively to obtain binary images. Then we apply Hough transformation to detect straight lines on the binary images, and find out the main linear directions to trigger the mechanical arms to adjust the positions of the substrate and the chip initially. Thirdly, we use eight neighbors interconnected domain algorithm for the first time to locate notable features of the substrate, and pass the located information to the control system to trigger the mechanical arm to adjust the substrate for the second time. At the same time, projection algorithm is applied to locate the anode of the flip-chip to drive the mechanical arm to adjust the position of the flip-chip again. Finally, the position information is used to trigger the mechanical arm to accomplish the matching of the substrate and the flip-chip. The proposed method improves the speed of matching on the basis of the accuracy of matching, which achieves these requirements of real-time and high accuracy applications. PMID:24921546

Ge, Peng; Yin, Peipei; Wang, Hong; Chang, Tianhai

2014-06-01

354

Hygroscopic salts and the potential for life on Mars.  

PubMed

Hygroscopic salts have been detected in soils in the northern latitudes of Mars, and widespread chloride-bearing evaporitic deposits have been detected in the southern highlands. The deliquescence of hygroscopic minerals such as chloride salts could provide a local and transient source of liquid water that would be available for microorganisms on the surface. This is known to occur in the Atacama Desert, where massive halite evaporites have become a habitat for photosynthetic and heterotrophic microorganisms that take advantage of the deliquescence of the salt at certain relative humidity (RH) levels. We modeled the climate conditions (RH and temperature) in a region on Mars with chloride-bearing evaporites, and modeled the evolution of the water activity (a(w)) of the deliquescence solutions of three possible chloride salts (sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride) as a function of temperature. We also studied the water absorption properties of the same salts as a function of RH. Our climate model results show that the RH in the region with chloride-bearing deposits on Mars often reaches the deliquescence points of all three salts, and the temperature reaches levels above their eutectic points seasonally, in the course of a martian year. The a(w) of the deliquescence solutions increases with decreasing temperature due mainly to the precipitation of unstable phases, which removes ions from the solution. The deliquescence of sodium chloride results in transient solutions with a(w) compatible with growth of terrestrial microorganisms down to 252 K, whereas for calcium chloride and magnesium chloride it results in solutions with a(w) below the known limits for growth at all temperatures. However, taking the limits of a(w) used to define special regions on Mars, the deliquescence of calcium chloride deposits would allow for the propagation of terrestrial microorganisms at temperatures between 265 and 253 K, and for metabolic activity (no growth) at temperatures between 253 and 233 K. PMID:20735252

Davila, Alfonso F; Duport, Luis Gago; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Jänchen, Jochen; Valea, Sergio; de Los Rios, Asunción; Fairén, Alberto G; Möhlmann, Diedrich; McKay, Christopher P; Ascaso, Carmen; Wierzchos, Jacek

2010-01-01

355

Hygroscopic Salts and the Potential for Life on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hygroscopic salts have been detected in soils in the northern latitudes of Mars, and widespread chloride-bearing evaporitic deposits have been detected in the southern highlands. The deliquescence of hygroscopic minerals such as chloride salts could provide a local and transient source of liquid water that would be available for microorganisms on the surface. This is known to occur in the Atacama Desert, where massive halite evaporites have become a habitat for photosynthetic and heterotrophic microorganisms that take advantage of the deliquescence of the salt at certain relative humidity (RH) levels. We modeled the climate conditions (RH and temperature) in a region on Mars with chloride-bearing evaporites, and modeled the evolution of the water activity (aw) of the deliquescence solutions of three possible chloride salts (sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride) as a function of temperature. We also studied the water absorption properties of the same salts as a function of RH. Our climate model results show that the RH in the region with chloride-bearing deposits on Mars often reaches the deliquescence points of all three salts, and the temperature reaches levels above their eutectic points seasonally, in the course of a martian year. The aw of the deliquescence solutions increases with decreasing temperature due mainly to the precipitation of unstable phases, which removes ions from the solution. The deliquescence of sodium chloride results in transient solutions with aw compatible with growth of terrestrial microorganisms down to 252 °K, whereas for calcium chloride and magnesium chloride it results in solutions with aw below the known limits for growth at all temperatures. However, taking the limits of aw used to define special regions on Mars, the deliquescence of calcium chloride deposits would allow for the propagation of terrestrial microorganisms at temperatures between 265 and 253 ° K, and for metabolic activity (no growth) at temperatures between 253 and 233 °K.

Davila, Alfonso F.; Duport, Luis Gago; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Jänchen, Jochen; Valea, Sergio; de los Rios, Asunción; Fairén, Alberto G.; Möhlmann, Diedrich; McKay, Christopher P.; Ascaso, Carmen; Wierzchos, Jacek

2010-08-01

356

Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.  

PubMed

Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. PMID:25590741

Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

2014-12-01

357

Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.  

PubMed

Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. PMID:25424037

Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

2014-11-28

358

One-step synthesis of hematite nanospindles from choline chloride/urea deep eutectic solvent with highly powerful storage versus lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fe2O3 nanospindles assembled with nanoparticles as primary building blocks are directly synthesized by a versatile ionothermal strategy in the choline chloride/urea mixture-based deep eutectic solvent system. The proposed ionothermal protocol is attractive and environmental friendly because choline chloride and urea are both naturally biocompatible compounds. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the resultant Fe2O3 nanospindles show high capacity and good cycle stability (921.7 mAh g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 up to 50 cycles), as well as the excellent rate capability. The good electrochemical performance can be attributed to the nanospindle structure with high sufficient interfacial contact area between the active material and electrolyte, the short diffusion distance of Li ions. The environmentally benign strategy proposed in this study is expected to offer an attractive technique for the ionothermal synthesis of electrochemical energy storage materials.

Xiong, Q. Q.; Tu, J. P.; Ge, X.; Wang, X. L.; Gu, C. D.

2015-01-01

359

Measurement of solid liquid interfacial energy in the In Bi eutectic alloy at low melting temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gibbs-Thomson coefficient and solid-liquid interfacial energy of the solid In solution in equilibrium with In Bi eutectic liquid have been determined to be (1.46 ± 0.07) × 10-7 K m and (40.4 ± 4.0) × 10-3 J m-2 by observing the equilibrated grain boundary groove shapes. The grain boundary energy of the solid In solution phase has been calculated to be (79.0 ± 8.7) × 10-3 J m-2 by considering force balance at the grain boundary grooves. The thermal conductivities of the In-12.4 at.% Bi eutectic liquid phase and the solid In solution phase and their ratio at the eutectic melting temperature (72 °C) have also been measured with radial heat flow apparatus and Bridgman-type growth apparatus.

Mara?li, N.; Akbulut, S.; Ocak, Y.; Ke?lio?lu, K.; Böyük, U.; Kaya, H.; Çadirli, E.

2007-12-01

360

One-Pot Multi-component Synthesis of 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives in Biocompatible Deep Eutectic Solvents  

E-print Network

An efficient protocol for the synthesis of differently substituted 1, 4-dihydropyridines in deep eutectic solvents under solvent-free conditions is reported herewith. Excellent yields of the resultant products have been obtained. Recyclability studies have also been performed for deep eutectic solvents with very little loss in activity up to five recycles.

Pednekar, Suhas; Ghadge, Nitin

2013-01-01

361

Interaction Between Eutectic Intermetallic Particles and Dispersoids in the 3003 Aluminum Alloy During Homogenization Treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transformation of primary eutectic Al6(Mn,Fe) intermetallics into ?-Al(Mn,Fe)Si and the precipitation of dispersoids were studied in the commercial in the form of 3003 series cast aluminum alloys, mainly under isothermal conditions between 673 K and 873 K (400 °C and 600 °C). After solidification, both the solid solution and the primary eutectic intermetallics were far from equilibrium. During further heat treatment, the precipitation of fine dispersoids and eutectoid transformation of the primary eutectic particles occurred simultaneously. Having characterized these evolutions under industrial homogenization conditions, the evolution of the microstructure (in terms of its nature, and the quantity, size, and chemical composition of the phases) was characterized during isothermal heat treatment, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, quantitative image analysis, and transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (TEM-EDS). The experimental results are analyzed, and changes in chemical composition are discussed and compared with the calculated equilibrium compositions. It is shown that (1) the chemical composition of eutectic intermetallics evolves and tends toward an equilibrium composition; (2) during precipitation, the chemical composition of dispersoids is constant, and close to the expected equilibrium composition when the initial mean composition of the solidification cell is taken into account; (3) after the formation of dispersoids, the quantity of ?-Al(Mn,Fe)Si formed from the initial eutectic intermetallics increased, with the kinetics being controlled by long-range manganese diffusion; and (4) the latter evolution is associated with the dissolution of dispersoids located close to eutectic intermetallics and contributes to the formation of a dispersoid-free zone (DFZ).

Dehmas, M.; Aeby-Gautier, E.; Archambault, P.; Serrière, M.

2013-02-01

362

Structural and phonon transmission study of Ge-Au-Ge eutectically bonded interfaces  

SciTech Connect

This thesis presents a structural analysis and phonon transparency investigation of the Ge-Au-Ge eutectic bond interface. Interface development was intended to maximize the interfacial ballistic phonon transparency to enhance the detection of the dark matter candidate WIMPs. The process which was developed provides an interface which produces minimal stress, low amounts of impurities, and insures Ge lattice continuity through the interface. For initial Au thicknesses of greater than 1,000 {angstrom} Au per substrate side, eutectic epitaxial growth resulted in a Au dendritic structure with 95% cross sectional and 90% planar Au interfacial area coverages. In sections in which Ge bridged the interface, lattice continuity across the interface was apparent. Epitaxial solidification of the eutectic interface with initial Au thicknesses < 500 A per substrate side produced Au agglomerations thereby reducing the Au planar interfacial area coverage to as little as 30%. The mechanism for Au coalescence was attributed to lateral diffusion of Ge and Au in the liquid phase during solidification. Phonon transmission studies were performed on eutectic interfaces with initial Au thicknesses of 1,000 {angstrom}, 500 {angstrom}, and 300 {angstrom} per substrate side. Phonon imaging of eutectically bonded samples with initial Au thicknesses of 300 {angstrom}/side revealed reproducible interfacial percent phonon transmissions from 60% to 70%. Line scan phonon imaging verified the results. Phonon propagation TOF spectra distinctly showed the predominant phonon propagation mode was ballistic. This was substantiated by phonon focusing effects apparent in the phonon imaging data. The degree of interface transparency to phonons and resulting phonon propagation modes correlate with the structure of the interface following eutectic solidification. Structural studies of samples with initial Au thickness of 1,000 {angstrom}/side appear to correspond with the phonon transmission study.

Knowlton, W.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

1995-07-01

363

Alloys compatibility in molten salt fluorides: Kurchatov Institute related experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last several years, there has been an increased interest in the use of high-temperature molten salt fluorides in nuclear power systems. For all molten salt reactor designs, materials selection is a very important issue. This paper summarizes results, which led to selection of materials for molten salt reactors in Russia. Operating experience with corrosion thermal convection loops has demonstrated good capability of the “nickel-molybdenum alloys + fluoride salt fueled by UF4 and PuF3 + cover gas” system up to 750 °C. A brief description is given of the container material work in progress. Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys in stressed and unloaded conditions studies was also tested in different molten salt mixtures at temperatures up to 700-750 °C, also with measurement of the redox potential. HN80MTY alloy with 1% added Al is the most resistant to tellurium intergranular cracking of Ni-base alloys under study.

Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexandr

2013-10-01

364

Numerical study of the effect of the shape of the phase diagram on the eutectic freezing temperature  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the reliability of metal-carbon eutectic systems as fixed points for the next generation of high-temperature standards the effect of thermodynamic properties related to the shape of eutectic phase diagram on the freezing temperature is investigated within the context of the numerical multi-phase-field model. The partition coefficient and liquidus slopes of the two solids involved in the eutectic reaction are varied deliberately and independently. The difference between the eutectic temperature and the freezing temperature is determined in dependence of the solid/liquid (s/l) interface shape and concentration. Where appropriate reference is made to the Jackson-Hunt analytical theory. It is shown that there are mainly two typical conditions to decrease the undercooling: 1) a small liquidus slope and 2) the associated difference between the eutectic composition and the liquid composition during solidification.

Ode, M.; Shimono, M. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba (Japan)] [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba (Japan); Sasajima, N.; Yamada, Y. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ, AIST), Tsukuba (Japan)] [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ, AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Bloembergen, P. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ, AIST), Tsukuba, Japan and National Institute of Metrology, Beijing 100013 (China)] [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ, AIST), Tsukuba, Japan and National Institute of Metrology, Beijing 100013 (China)

2013-09-11

365

The influences of convection on directional solidification of eutectic Bi/MnBi  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eutectic alloys of Bi-Mn were directionally solidified using the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique to determine the influences of gravitationally-driven thermo-solutal convection on the Bi-MnBi rod eutectic. Experiments were conducted that varied the level of convection by varying the growth parameters and growth orientation, by microgravity damping, by applied magnetic field damping, and by imposing forced convection. Peltier interface demarcation and in situ thermocouple measurements were used to monitor interface velocity and thermal gradient and to evaluate interface planarity.

Larson, David J., Jr.

1988-01-01

366

Eutectic Sn\\/Pb solder bump and under bump metallurgy: interfacial reactions and adhesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In flip-chip interconnection on organic substrates using eutectic tin\\/lead solder bumps, a highly reliable under bump metallurgy (UBM) is required to maintain adhesion and solder wettability. Various UBM systems such as 1?m Al\\/0.2?m Ti\\/5?m Cu, 1?m Al\\/02?m Ti\\/1?m Cu, 1?m Al\\/0.2?m Ni\\/1?m Cu and 1?m Al\\/0.2?m Pd\\/1?m Cu, applied under eutectic tin\\/lead solder bumps, have been investigated with regard to

Se-Young Jang; Kyung-Wook Paik

1998-01-01

367

Redetermination of the Eutectic Composition of the Co-Sn Binary Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of Co-Sn alloys was solidified. It was found that the as-cast microstructure of the Co-20.5at.%Sn alloy, which on\\u000a the basis of literature reports has long been thought to be the eutectic composition, contains much primary phase besides\\u000a lamellar eutectics. The cooling curve of this alloy contains two exothermic peaks. In contrast, when a Co-24.0at.%Sn alloy\\u000a was solidified, an

L. Liu; J. F. Li; S. Zhao; Y. H. Zhou

2009-01-01

368

Electrical contact at the interface between silicon and transfer-printed gold films by eutectic joining.  

PubMed

This paper presents the electrical and morphological properties at the interface between a metal (Au) and a semiconductor (Si) formed by a novel transfer-printing technology. This work shows that a transfer-printed thin (hundreds of nanometers) Au film forms excellent electrical contact on a Si substrate when appropriate thermal treatment is applied. The successful electrical contact is attributed to eutectic joining, which allows for the right amount of atomic level mass transport between Au and Si. The outcomes suggest that transfer-printing-based micromanufacturing can realize not only strong mechanical bonding but also high-quality electrical contact via eutectic joining. PMID:23751269

Keum, Hohyun; Chung, Hyun-Joong; Kim, Seok

2013-07-10

369

Numerical study: Iron corrosion-resistance in lead-bismuth eutectic coolant by molecular dynamics method  

SciTech Connect

In this present work, we report numerical results of iron (cladding) corrosion study in interaction with lead-bismuth eutectic coolant of advanced nuclear reactors. The goal of this work is to study how the oxygen can be used to reduce the corrosion rate of cladding. The molecular dynamics method was applied to simulate corrosion process. By evaluating the diffusion coefficients, RDF functions, MSD curves of the iron and also observed the crystal structure of iron before and after oxygen injection to the coolant then we concluded that a significant and effective reduction can be achieved by issuing about 2% number of oxygen atoms to lead-bismuth eutectic coolant.

Arkundato, Artoto; Su'ud, Zaki; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Widayani,; Celino, Massimo [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Physics Department Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences Universitas (Indonesia); Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Physics Department Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung (Indonesia); ENEA, CR Cassacia, Via Anguillarese 301, Roma (Italy)

2012-06-06

370

Investigation of Corrosion of Steel by Lead Bismuth Eutectic Dan Koury (1), Allen L. Johnson (2), Dale L. Perry (3), and John W. Farley (1)  

E-print Network

1 Investigation of Corrosion of Steel by Lead Bismuth Eutectic Dan Koury (1), Allen L. Johnson (2 A new research program has begun at UNLV in accelerator transmutation of waste. Lead Bismuth Eutectic for accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste, Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) has been proposed for use

McDonald, Kirk

371

Lead-Bismuth-Eutectic Spallation Neutron Source for Nuclear Transmuter Y. Gohar, J. Herceg, L Krajtl, D. Pointer, J. Saiveau, T. Sofu, and P. Finck  

E-print Network

Lead-Bismuth-Eutectic Spallation Neutron Source for Nuclear Transmuter Y. Gohar, J. Herceg, L South Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 Abstract A lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) spallation target design in the target window to enhance its operating life. I. Introduction A lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) spallation

McDonald, Kirk

372

Growth temperatures and the limits of coupled growth in unidirectional solidification of Fe-C eutectic alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth temperature has been measured as a function of applied growth velocity V for grey (austenite-flake graphite) eutectic, austenite dendrites and white (austenite-cementite) eutectic in Fe-4.28 wt pct C at a temperature gradient G of ˜7 K/mm. Grey eutectic (0.4 to 65 µm/s) required an undercooling ?Tfor growth equal to K 1 V 1/2 with K 1 as 3.4 ± 0.1 Ks1/2/µm1/2, giving values of ?T nearly an order of magnitude larger than predicted for growth at the extremum, as shown previously by Toloui and Hellawell for the related Al-Si eutectic. Austenite dendrites growing together with the grey eutectic at V between 11 and 65 µ m/s exhibited a range of tip temperatures giving rise to average undercoolings of magnitude [ GD/V + K 2 V n ] with D as diffusion coefficient of carbon in the melt and K 2 as 0.73 Ksn µm-n with n as 0.46 predicted by Ivantsov’s theory for growth of an austenite needle. White eutectic displaced both grey eutectic and austenite dendrites at V of 100 µm/s. Except for the persistence of grey eutectic rather than white eutectic in the presence of austenite dendrites (11 < V < 65 µm/s), these observed growth transitions are consistent with the derived relationships governing growth temperatures on the basis of competitive growth, i.e. that the growth form with the highest growth temperature at a particular V should prevail. The results are then applied to derive the limiting conditions for growth of grey and white eutectics as a function of composition in Fe-C ( i.e. their coupled zones). The significance of observed dependences on V of volume fraction and spacing of austenite dendrites is discussed.

Jones, H.; Kurz, W.

1980-08-01

373

High-performance LiCoO 2 by molten salt (LiNO 3:LiCl) synthesis for Li-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to increase and sustain the reversible capacity of LiCoO2 on cycling, LiCoO2 is prepared by using the molten-salt of the eutectic LiNO3–LiCl at temperatures 650–850°C with or without KOH as an oxidizing flux. The compounds are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical analysis, surface area and density techniques. Cathodic behaviour was examined by

K. S. Tan; M. V. Reddy; G. V. Subba Rao; B. V. R. Chowdari

2005-01-01

374

Pyrolytic conversion of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons with basic salt catalysts  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a process for improving the pyrolytic conversion of waste selected from rubber and plastic to low molecular weight olefinic materials by employing basis salt catalysts in the waste mixture. The salts comprise alkali or alkaline earth compounds, particularly sodium carbonate, in an amount of greater than about 1 weight percent based on the waste feed.

Wingfield, Jr., Robert C. (Southfield, MI); Braslaw, Jacob (Southfield, MI); Gealer, Roy L. (West Bloomfield, MI)

1985-01-01

375

A new class of room temperature molten salts for battery applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salts that are liquid at room temperature would provide a completely ionic electrolyte for rechargeable batteries without the penalty of high operating temperatures. We have discovered and characterized a new class of molten salts that are liquids considerably below room temperature. The new materials are mixtures of dialkyimidazolium chlorides and aluminum chloride. The solid-liquid phase diagram of one member of

J. S. Wilkes; J. A. Levisky; J. S. Landers; R. L. Vaughn; C. L. Hussey; D. A. Floreani; D. J. Stech

1981-01-01

376

Element, Mixture, Compound  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students gain a better understanding of the different types of materials as pure substances and mixtures and learn to distinguish between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures by discussing an assortment of example materials they use and encounter in their daily lives.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

377

The Mixtures Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation illustrates the separation of mixtures using physical properties. The interactive simulation allows "lab attendants" to separate mixtures using virtual tools. Separation mechanisms are chosen based upon substances' physical properties, and findings are recorded in a chart.

378

Mountain of Salt  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This photo shows a road salt storage stockpile that is awaiting use for pavement deicing, Port of Milwaukee, WI. The use of salt to deice pavement can be harmful to aquatic life in urban streams. The USGS is involved in studies that focus on the influence of winter runoff on aquatic ecosystems....

379

Molten salt electrolyte separator  

SciTech Connect

The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1996-07-09

380

Improving crop salt tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries where irrigation is an essential aid to agriculture. Although the tolerance of saline conditions by plants is variable, crop species are generally intolerant of one-third of the concentration of salts found in seawater. Attempts to improve the salt tolerance of crops through conventional breeding programmes have met with very

T. J. Flowers

2004-01-01

381

Acids and Salts (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids and Salts: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore a few properties of common acids and their salts. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

382

Utah: Salt Lake City  

... for the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in Salt Lake City, Utah. The mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, ... view. The Uinta Mountains contain the highest peaks in Utah and are notable as the most prominent east-west trending range in the ...

2014-05-15

383

Deep eutectic solvents as novel extraction media for phenolic compounds from model oil.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents (DES) as a new kind of green solvent were used for the first time to excellently extract phenolic compounds from model oil. It was also proved that DES could be used to extract other polar compounds from non-polar or weakly-polar solvents by liquid-phase microextraction. PMID:25144155

Gu, Tongnian; Zhang, Mingliang; Tan, Ting; Chen, Jia; Li, Zhan; Zhang, Qinghua; Qiu, Hongdeng

2014-10-11

384

Eutectic solvents for the removal of residual palm oil-based biodiesel catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of biodiesel through transesterification requires numerous purification steps to remove the unreacted components and unwanted products for the biodiesel grade to satisfy the international standard specifications EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. The residual catalyst (KOH) is one of those impurities which must be removed at the end of alkali-catalyzed transesterification reaction. In this work, nine Deep eutectic solvents

K. Shahbaz; F. S. Mjalli; M. A. Hashim; I. M. Alnashef

2011-01-01

385

Using deep eutectic solvents for the removal of glycerol from palm oil-based biodiesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the essential steps in the manufacture of biodiesel is its purification from the glycerol by-product. The produced biodiesel should have a low glycerol content which is regarded as one of the important needed pointers for passing the international biodiesel standards. Low cost Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES) have been tested for their solvation properties. In this work, DESs were

K. Shahbaz; Farouq. S. Mjalli; M. A. Hashim; I. M. Al Nashef

2010-01-01

386

Characterization of thermal behavior of deep eutectic solvents and their potential as drug solubilization vehicles.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvent (DES) is a new class of solvents typically formed by mixing choline chloride with hydrogen bond donors such as amines, acids, and alcohols. Most DES's are non-reactive with water, biodegradable, and have acceptable toxicity profiles. Urea-choline chloride and malonic acid-choline chloride eutectic systems were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal microscopy. A potential new 2:1 urea-choline chloride cocrystal with a melting point of 25 degrees C was characterized at the eutectic composition. The formation of this cocrystal suggests that DES should not be universally explained by simple eutectic melting, and may be useful in guiding the search for new DES systems. The lack of nucleation of the malonic acid-choline chloride system prohibited the construction of a phase diagram for this system using DSC. We also investigated possible uses of DES in solubilizing poorly soluble compounds for enhanced bioavailability in early drug development such as toxicology studies. For five poorly soluble model compounds, solubility in DES is 5 to 22,000 folds more than that in water. Thus, DES can be a promising vehicle for increasing exposure of poorly soluble compounds in preclinical studies. PMID:19477257

Morrison, Henry G; Sun, Changquan C; Neervannan, Sesha

2009-08-13

387

Differential capacity of a deep eutectic solvent based on choline chloride and glycerol on solid electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of the interface between platinum, gold and glassy carbon electrodes and a deep eutectic ionic liquid based on choline chloride and glycerol were assessed using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The double layer differential capacitance, obtained from electrochemical impedance, reveals a slight dependence of the potential but it is sensitive to the electrode material. In contrast to

Marta Figueiredo; Cristiana Gomes; Renata Costa; Ana Martins; Carlos M. Pereira; Fernando Silva

2009-01-01

388

Prediction of refractive index and density of deep eutectic solvents using atomic contributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are considered as potential alternatives for ionic liquids (ILs). The evaluation of DESs as new generation of solvents for various practical application requires enough knowledge about some main physical, chemical, and thermodynamic properties. In this study, due to lack of data for DESs' refractive indices, the refractive indices of twenty four DESs based on ammonium and

K. Shahbaz; F. S. G. Bagh; F. S. Mjalli; I. M. AlNashef; M. A. Hashim

2013-01-01

389

Assessment of cytotoxicity and toxicity for phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the cytotoxicity and toxicity of phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with three hydrogen bond donors, namely glycerine, ethylene glycol, and triethylene glycol were investigated. The cytotoxicity effect was tested using brine shrimp (. Artemia salina). The toxicity was investigated using the two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and two Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli

M. Hayyan; M. A. Hashim; M. A. Al-Saadi; A. Hayyan; I. M. AlNashef; M. E. S. Mirghani

2013-01-01

390

The Effect of Silica Nanoparticles on Corrosion of Steel by Molten Carbonate Eutectics  

E-print Network

The effect of silica nanoparticles on corrosion of steel by molten carbonate eutectic (42.7 percent Li2CO3, K2CO3) was investigated. The experimental design was based on static coupon immersion methodology where a coupon (material under study...

Padmanaban Iyer, Ashwin

2011-08-08

391

Mechanical Properties and Fracture Behavior of Directionally Solidified NiAl-V Eutectic Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directional solidification of eutectic alloys has been recognized as promising technique for producing in situ composite materials exhibiting balance of properties. Therefore, an in situ NiAl-V eutectic composite has been successfully directionally solidified using Bridgman technique. The mechanical behavior of the composite including fracture resistance, microhardness, and compressive properties at room and elevated temperatures was investigated. Damage evolution and fracture characteristics were also discussed. The obtained results indicate that the NiAl-V eutectic retains high yield strength up to 1073 K (800 °C), above which there is a rapid decrease in strength. Its yield strength is higher than that of binary NiAl and most of the NiAl-based eutectics. The exhibited fracture toughness of 28.5 MPa?m is the highest of all other NiAl-based systems investigated so far. The material exhibited brittle fracture behavior of transgranular type and all observations pointed out that the main fracture micromechanism was cleavage.

Milenkovic, Srdjan; Caram, Rubens

2015-02-01

392

Theoretical and numerical study of lamellar eutectic three-phase growth in ternary alloys.  

PubMed

We investigate lamellar three-phase patterns that form during the directional solidification of ternary eutectic alloys in thin samples. A distinctive feature of this system is that many different geometric arrangements of the three phases are possible, contrary to the widely studied two-phase patterns in binary eutectics. Here, we first analyze the case of stable lamellar coupled growth of a symmetric model ternary eutectic alloy, using a Jackson-Hunt-type calculation in thin film geometry, for arbitrary configurations, and derive expressions for the front undercooling as a function of velocity and spacing. Next, we carry out phase-field simulations to test our analytic predictions and to study the instabilities of the simplest periodic lamellar arrays. For large spacings, we observe different oscillatory modes that are similar to those found previously for binary eutectics and that can be classified using the symmetry elements of the steady-state pattern. For small spacings, we observe a new instability that leads to a change in the sequence of the phases. Its onset can be well predicted by our analytic calculations. Finally, some preliminary phase-field simulations of three-dimensional growth structures are also presented. PMID:21728548

Choudhury, Abhik; Plapp, Mathis; Nestler, Britta

2011-05-01

393

Free energy change of off-eutectic binary alloys on solidification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A formula for the free energy difference between the undercooled liquid phase and the stable solid phase is derived for off-eutectic binary alloys in which the equilibrium solid/liquid transition takes place over a certain temperature range. The free energy change is then evaluated numerically for a Bi-25 at. pct Cd alloy modeled as a sub-subregular solution.

Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.; Lin, J.-C.; Perepezko, J. H.

1991-01-01

394

Experimental investigation of forced-convection heat-transfer characteristics of lead-bismuth eutectic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The forced-convection heat-transfer characteristics of lead-bismuth eutectic were experimentally investigated. Experimental values of Nusselt number for lead-bismuth fell considerably below predicted values. The addition of a wetting agent did not change the heat transfer characteristics.

Lubarsky, Bernard

1951-01-01

395

Influence of Microstructure Coarsening on Thermomechanical Fatigue Behavior of Pb\\/Sn Eutectic Solder Joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of microstructure coarsening on thermomechanical fatigue behavior of eutectic solder joint is investigated by numerical simulation. A phase growth model is selected based on the experimental observation and incorporated in a damage mechanics based viscoplastic constitutive model. Comparisons between the simulations with and without coarsening effect are made for isothermal, cyclic shear testing and thermal cycling of solder

Hong Tang; Cemal Basaran

2001-01-01

396

Clinical salt deficits.  

PubMed

Salt retention or salt deficit has a bearing on the body fluid volume. Both states are clinically difficult to recognize and quantitate. Salt deficit is particularly cumbersome in that regard since orthostatic blood pressure, heart rate changes, and simple physical inspection are inaccurate and unreliable. Salt deficit can be acute such as after hemorrhage or massive diarrhea, or more chronic as observed in Addison's disease, failure of renal sodium chloride transporters, drug-related effects, or distal nephron disease. Molecular genetics has given us important new insights into salt deficit syndromes. Recent recognition of a novel sodium storage compartment involving sodium binding to proteoglycans adds to the overall complexity of these syndromes. PMID:25471347

Luft, Friedrich C

2014-12-01

397

Low-melting mixtures based on choline ionic liquids.  

PubMed

In this article a strategy is proposed for the design of low toxic, room temperature liquid low-melting mixtures (LMMs) which are entirely composed of natural materials. From literature it is well known that, in general, deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride and dicarboxylic acids are LMMs, but not liquids at room temperature, with one exception: a 1?:?1 molar mixture of malonic acid and choline chloride. Therefore, the starting point of this study was the decrease of the melting point of one of the components, namely the dicarboxylic acid, which is succinic, glutaric or adipic acid. For this purpose, one of the two protons of the acidic group was exchanged by a bulky unsymmetrical choline cation. The resulting ionic liquids (ILs) were still solid at room temperature, but have a reduced melting temperature compared to the corresponding acids. In the second step, mixtures of these ILs with choline chloride were prepared. It turned out that choline glutarate-choline chloride mixtures are liquids at room temperature at compositions containing 95-98 wt% of choline glutarate. Finally, urea was added as another hydrogen bond donor. Density, conductivity and viscosity measurements were performed for all obtained mixtures. Moreover, a Walden plot was drawn which indicates that all mixtures are liquids with fully dissociated ions moving independently. Therefore, they are considered as "good" ionic liquids and, thus, for example they can be used to exchange more toxic or less biodegradable ILs in application processes. A brief outlook containing application possibilities is given. It is demonstrated that choline dodecylsulfate is readily soluble in these mixtures, forming aggregates in the LMM at temperatures exceeding 55 °C. PMID:25242504

Rengstl, Doris; Fischer, Veronika; Kunz, Werner

2014-11-01

398

Lowering Salt in Your Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Lowering Salt in Your Diet Search the Consumer Updates Section ... mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt ...

399

Cathode for molten salt batteries. [Al\\/SâClâ  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molten salt electrochemical system for battery applications comprises tetravalent sulfur as the active cathode material with a molten chloroaluminate solvent comprising a mixture of AlClâ and MCl having a molar ratio of AlClâ\\/MCl from greater than 50.0\\/50.0 to 80\\/20.

G. Mamantov; R. Marassi

1977-01-01

400

Deep eutectic solvents: sustainable media for nanoscale and functional materials.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) represent an alternative class of ionic fluids closely resembling room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), although, strictly speaking, they are distinguished by the fact that they also contain an organic molecular component (typically, a hydrogen bond donor like a urea, amide, acid, or polyol), frequently as the predominant constituent. Practically speaking, DESs are attractive alternatives to RTILs, sharing most of their remarkable qualities (e.g., tolerance to humidity, negligible vapor pressure, thermostability, wide electrochemical potential windows, tunability) while overcoming several limitations associated with their RTIL cousins. Particularly, DESs are typically, less expensive, more synthetically accessible (typically, from bulk commodity chemicals using solvent/waste-free processes), nontoxic, and biodegradable. In this Account, we provide an overview of DESs as designer solvents to create well-defined nanomaterials including shape-controlled nanoparticles, electrodeposited films, metal-organic frameworks, colloidal assemblies, hierarchically porous carbons, and DNA/RNA architectures. These breakthroughs illustrate how DESs can fulfill multiple roles in directing chemistry at the nanoscale: acting as supramolecular template, metal/carbon source, sacrificial agent (e.g., ammonia release from urea), and/or redox agent, all in the absence of formal stabilizing ligand (here, solvent and stabilizer are one and the same). The ability to tailor the physicochemical properties of DESs is central to controlling their interfacial behavior. The preorganized "supramolecular" nature of DESs provides a soft template to guide the formation of bimodal porous carbon networks or the evolution of electrodeposits. A number of essential parameters (viscosity, polarity, surface tension, hydrogen bonding), plus coordination with solutes/surfaces, all play significant roles in modulating species reactivity and mass transport properties governing the genesis of nanostructure. Furthermore, DES components may modulate nucleation and growth mechanisms by charge neutralization, modification of reduction potentials (or chemical activities), and passivation of particular crystal faces, dictating growth along preferred crystallographic directions. Broad operational windows for electrochemical reactions coupled with their inherent ionic nature facilitate the electrodeposition of alloys and semiconductors inaccessible to classical means and the use of cosolvents or applied potential control provide under-explored strategies for mediating interfacial interactions leading to control over film characteristics. The biocompatibility of DESs suggests intriguing potential for the construction of biomolecular architectures in these novel media. It has been demonstrated that nucleic acid structures can be manipulated in the ionic, crowded, dehydrating (low water activity) DES environment-including the adoption of duplex helical structures divergent from the canonical B form and parallel G-quadruplex DNA persisting near water's boiling point-challenging the misconception that water is a necessity for maintenance of nucleic acid structure/functionality and suggesting an enticing trajectory toward DNA/RNA-based nanocatalysis within a strictly anhydrous medium. DESs offer tremendous opportunities and open intriguing perspectives for generating sophisticated nanostructures within an anhydrous or low-water medium. We conclude this Account by offering our thoughts on the evolution of the field, pointing to areas of clear and compelling utility which will surely see fruition in the coming years. Finally, we highlight a few hurdles (e.g., need for a universal nomenclature, absence of water-immiscible, oriented-phase, and low-viscosity DESs) which, once navigated, will hasten progress in this area. PMID:24892971

Wagle, Durgesh V; Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A

2014-08-19

401

Electrodeposition of Mg-Li-Al-La Alloys on Inert Cathode in Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical preparation of Mg-Li-Al-La alloys on inert electrodes was investigated in LiCl-KCl melt at 853 K (580 °C). Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and square wave voltammograms (SWVs) show that the existence of AlCl3 or AlF3 could promote La deposition on an active Al substrate, which is predeposited on inert electrodes. All electrochemical tests show that the reduction of La3+ is a one-step reduction process with three electrons exchanged. The reduction of La(III)?La(0) occurred at -2.04 V, and the underpotential deposition (UPD) of La was detected at -1.55 V ( vs Ag/AgCl). The same phenomena concerning La UPD were observed on two inert cathodes, W and Mo. In addition, Mg-Li-Al-La alloys were obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis on the W cathode from La2O3 in LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-KF melts with aluminum as the anode. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that various phases like the Al2La, Al12Mg17, and ?Li phase (LiMg/Li3Mg7) existed in the Mg-Li-Al-La alloys. The distribution of Mg, Al, and La in Mg-Li-Al-La alloys from the analysis of a scan electron micrograph (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) indicated that the elements Mg, Al, and La distributed homogeneously in the alloys.

Han, Wei; Chen, Qiong; Sun, Yi; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Milin

2011-12-01

402

Natural deep eutectic solvents as new potential media for green technology.  

PubMed

Developing new green solvents is one of the key subjects in Green Chemistry. Ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents, thus, have been paid great attention to replace current harsh organic solvents and have been applied to many chemical processing such as extraction and synthesis. However, current ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents have still limitations to be applied to a real chemical industry due to toxicity against human and environment and high cost of ILs and solid state of most deep eutectic solvents at room temperature. Recently we discovered that many plant abundant primary metabolites changed their state from solid to liquid when they were mixed in proper ratio. This finding made us hypothesize that natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) play a role as alternative media to water in living organisms and tested a wide range of natural products, which resulted in discovery of over 100 NADES from nature. In order to prove deep eutectic feature the interaction between the molecules was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All the tested NADES show clear hydrogen bonding between components. As next step physical properties of NADES such as water activity, density, viscosity, polarity and thermal properties were measured as well as the effect of water on the physical properties. In the last stage the novel NADES were applied to the solubilization of wide range of biomolecules such as non-water soluble bioactive natural products, gluten, starch, and DNA. In most cases the solubility of the biomolecules evaluated in this study was greatly higher than water. Based on the results the novel NADES may be expected as potential green solvents at room temperature in diverse fields of chemistry. PMID:23427801

Dai, Yuntao; van Spronsen, Jaap; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

2013-03-01

403

Transient and steady state creep response of ice I and magnesium sulfate hydrate eutectic aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using uniaxial compression creep experiments, we characterized the transient and steady state deformation behaviors of eutectic aggregates of system ice I and MgSO4 11H2O (MS11; meridianiite), which has significance because of its likely presence on moons of the outer solar system. Synthetic samples of eutectic liquid bulk composition, which produce eutectic colonies containing 0.35-0.50 volume fraction MS11, were tested as functions of colony size and lamellar spacing, temperature (230-250 K), and confining pressure (0.1 and 50 MPa) to strains ???0.2. Up to a differential stress of 6 MPa, the ice I-MS11 aggregates display an order of magnitude higher effective viscosity and higher stress sensitivity than do aggregates of pure polycrystalline ice at the same conditions. The creep data and associated microstructural observations demonstrate, however, that the aggregates are additionally more brittle than pure ice, approaching rate-independent plasticity that includes rupture of the hydrate phase at 6-8 MPa, depending on the scale of the microstructure. Microstructures of deformed samples reveal forms of semibrittle flow in which the hydrate phase fractures while the ice phase deforms plastically. Semibrittle flow in the icy shell of a planetary body would truncate the lithospheric strength envelope and thereby decrease the depth to the brittle-ductile transition by 55% and reduce the failure limit for compressional surface features from 10 to ???6 MPa. A constitutive equation that includes eutectic colony boundary sliding and intracolony flow is used to describe the steady state rheology of the eutectic aggregates. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

McCarthy, C.; Cooper, R.F.; Goldsby, D.L.; Durham, W.B.; Kirby, S.H.

2011-01-01

404

Refinement of Eutectic Si in High Purity Al-5Si Alloys with Combined Ca and P Additions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of combined additions of Ca and P on the eutectic Si in a series of high purity Al-5 wt pct Si alloys have been investigated with the entrained droplet technique and complementary sets of conventional castings. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal analysis were used to investigate the eutectic droplet undercooling and the recalescence undercooling, respectively. Optical microscopy, SEM, EPMA, and TEM were employed to characterize the resultant microstructures. It was found that 250 ppm Ca addition to Al-5Si wt pct alloys with higher P contents leads to a significant increase of the eutectic droplet undercooling. For low or moderate cooling rates, the TEM results underline that Ca additions do not promote Si twinning. Thus, a higher twin density cannot be expected in Ca containing Al-Si alloys after, e.g., sand casting. Consequently, a refinement of the eutectic Si from coarse flake-like to fine plate-like structure, rather than a modification of the eutectic Si to a fibrous morphology, was achieved. This strongly indicates that the main purpose of Ca additions is to counteract the coarsening effect of the eutectic Si imposed by higher P concentrations. Significant multiple Si twinning was observed in melt-spun condition; however, this can be attributed to the higher cooling rate. After DSC heating (slow cooling), most of Si twins disappeared. Thus, the well-accepted impurity-induced twinning mechanism may be not valid in the case of Ca addition. The possible refinement mechanisms were discussed in terms of nucleation and growth of eutectic Si. We propose that the pre-eutectic Al2Si2Ca phase and preferential formation of Ca3P2 deactivate impurity particles, most likely AlP, poisoning the nucleation sites for eutectic Si.

Ludwig, Thomas Hartmut; Li, Jiehua; Schaffer, Paul Louis; Schumacher, Peter; Arnberg, Lars

2015-01-01

405

Reliability of Au-Ge and Au-Si Eutectic Solder Alloys for High-Temperature Electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature electronics will facilitate deeper drilling, accessing harder-to-reach fossil fuels in oil and gas industry. A key requirement is reliability under harsh conditions for a minimum continuous operating time of 500 h at 300°C. Eutectic solder alloys are generally favored due to their excellent fatigue resistance. Performance of Au-Ge and Au-Si eutectic solder alloys at 300°C up to 500 h has been evaluated. Nanoindentation results confirm the loss of strength of Au-Ge and Au-Si eutectic solder alloys during thermal aging at 300°C, as a result of grain coarsening. However, the pace at which the Au-Ge eutectic alloy loses its strength is much slower when compared with Au-Si eutectic alloy. The interfacial reactions between these eutectic solder alloys and the underbump metallization (UBM), i.e., electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) UBM and Cu/Au UBM, have been extensively studied. Spalling of Au3Cu intermetallic compound is observed at the interface between Au-Ge eutectic solder and the Cu/Au UBM, when aged at 300°C for 500 h, while the consumption of ENIG UBM is nominal. Unlike the Au-Si solder joint, hot ball shear testing at high temperature confirmed that the Au-Ge joint on ENIG UBM, when aged at 300°C for 500 h, could still comply with the minimum qualifying bump shear strength based on the UBM dimension used in this work. Thus, it has been determined that, among these two binary eutectic alloys, Au-Ge eutectic alloy could fulfill the minimum requirement specified by the oil and gas exploration industry.

Chidambaram, Vivek; Yeung, Ho Beng; Shan, Gao

2012-08-01

406

Soluble salts at the Phoenix Lander site, Mars: A reanalysis of the Wet Chemistry Laboratory data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) on the Phoenix Mars Scout Lander analyzed soils for soluble ions and found Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, and ClO4-. The salts that gave rise to these ions can be inferred using aqueous equilibrium models; however, model predictions are sensitive to the initial solution composition. This is problematic because the WCL data is noisy and many different ion compositions are possible within error bounds. To better characterize ion concentrations, we reanalyzed WCL data using improvements to original analyses, including Kalman optimal smoothing and ion-pair corrections. Our results for Rosy Red are generally consistent with previous analyses, except that Ca2+ and Cl- concentrations are lower. In contrast, ion concentrations in Sorceress 1 and Sorceress 2 are significantly different from previous analyses. Using the more robust Rosy Red WCL analysis, we applied equilibrium models to determine salt compositions within the error bounds of the reduced data. Modeling with FREZCHEM predicts that WCL solutions evolve Ca-Mg-ClO4-rich compositions at low temperatures. These unusual compositions are likely influenced by limitations in the experimental data used to parameterize FREZCHEM. As an alternative method to evaluate salt assemblages, we employed a chemical divide model based on the eutectic temperatures of salts. Our chemical divide model predicts that the most probable salts in order of mass abundance are MgSO4·11H2O (meridianiite), MgCO3·nH2O, Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O, NaClO4·2H2O, KClO4, NaCl·2H2O (hydrohalite), and CaCO3 (calcite). If ClO3- is included in the chemical divide model, then NaClO3 precipitates instead of NaClO4·2H2O and Mg(ClO3)2·6H2O precipitates in addition to Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O. These salt assemblages imply that at least 1.3 wt.% H2O is bound in the soil, noting that we cannot account for water in hydrated insoluble salts or deliquescent brines. All WCL solutions within error bounds precipitate Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O and/or Mg(ClO3)2·6H2O salts. These salts have low eutectic temperatures and are highly hygroscopic, which suggests that brines will be stable in soils for much of the Martian summer.

Toner, J. D.; Catling, D. C.; Light, B.

2014-07-01

407

Stabilization of meat lipids with nitrite-free curing mixtures.  

PubMed

Several nitrite-free meat-curing mixtures have been formulated. The mixtures included salt, sugar, ascorbates, an antioxidant and/or a chelator, an antimicrobial agent and dinitrosyl ferrochemochrome (DNFH). They imparted to meat a similar oxidative stability as that of sodium nitrite. Butylated hydroxyanisole and t-butylhydroquinone were the best anti-oxidants and polyphosphates, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid were the superior chelators. The antimicrobial agents used were potassium sorbate, propryl paraben, fumarate esters and sodium hypophosphite. In the above mixtures, the added effect of (DNFH) on oxidative stability of the cooked meats was similar to the added effect of 150 ppm sodium nitrite. PMID:22055153

Shahidi, F; Rubin, L J; Wood, D F

1988-01-01

408

Comparison of Topical Anesthetics for Radiofrequency Ablation of Achrocordons: Eutectic Mixture of Lignocaine/Prilocaine versus Lidocaine/Tetracaine  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Topical application of local anesthetics is currently considered to be the easiest, most effective, and convenient way for treatment of patients who may be undergoing superficial dermatosurgical procedures. Materials and Methods. This study compares the anesthetic potential of 2.5% lidocaine and 2.5% prilocaine topical cream with 7% lignocaine and 7% tetracaine combination cream for radio ablative dermatosurgery when applied, under occlusion, for 30 minutes. 40 subjects of achrocordons were enrolled in this split-side randomized trial. Result. The pain severity experienced by subjects in terms of visual analogue scale score was significantly lesser for lignocaine/tetracaine combination cream as compared to lidocaine/prilocaine combination. Conclusion. This small study proves the efficacy of lidocaine/tetracaine combination as a topical anesthetic cream when applied for a short time interval of 30 minutes. This will help a dermatosurgeon to perform various dermatological procedures in a better and efficient manner with a shorter waiting period for analgesia to set in. PMID:24600520

Mishra, Nitin; Chauhan, Sandhya; Rastogi, Madhur Kant

2014-01-01

409

Crushed Salt Constitutive Model  

SciTech Connect

The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

Callahan, G.D.

1999-02-01

410

Benefits from hazards: mixture hormesis induced by [emim]Cl despite its individual inhibitions.  

PubMed

The threshold model based on monotonic concentration-response curves (CRCs) is unsuitable to assess the risk of chemicals with non-monotonic CRCs. The non-monotonic CRCs of mixtures may relate to the characteristics of some individual component. To reveal the cause of the mixtures resulting in the non-monotonic CRCs, we used the microplate toxicity analysis to determine the toxicity effects of six 1-alkyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([amim]X) salts and their mixtures on Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 (Q67). It was shown that the CRCs of six [amim]X salts are monotonic S-shaped while those of the senary mixtures designed by the uniform design ray (UD-ray) are all non-monotonic. The mixtures were further split into two ternary mixtures, one containing 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([emim]X) salts (noted as UTE) and the other one containing 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([bmim]X) salts (noted as UTB). It was found that the CRCs of UTE mixtures are all non-monotonically J-shaped, while only one (UTB-R3) among UTB mixtures has a little stimulating effect and the CRCs of the other three mixtures (UTB-R1, UTB-R2 and UTB-R4) are monotonic. The CRCs of the binary mixtures designed by the direct equipartition ray design (EquRay) procedure were further examined. The CRCs of the mixtures containing [emim]Cl are non-monotonic J-shaped while those of the mixtures without [emim]Cl are still monotonic. Thus, it can conclude that it is [emim]Cl that causes the non-monotonic CRCs in [amim]X mixtures, even though the CRC of individual [emim]Cl is monotonic. PMID:25048935

Zhang, Jing; Liu, Shu-Shen; Zhu, Xiang-Wei

2014-10-01

411

Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

2000-02-02

412

Amine salts of nitroazoles  

DOEpatents

Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

1993-10-26

413

Apparatus and method for making metal chloride salt product  

DOEpatents

A method of producing metal chlorides is disclosed in which chlorine gas is introduced into liquid Cd. CdCl.sub.2 salt is floating on the liquid Cd and as more liquid CdCl.sub.2 is formed it separates from the liquid Cd metal and dissolves in the salt. The salt with the CdCl.sub.2 dissolved therein contacts a metal which reacts with CdCl.sub.2 to form a metal chloride, forming a mixture of metal chloride and CdCl.sub.2. After separation of bulk Cd from the salt, by gravitational means, the metal chloride is obtained by distillation which removes CdCl.sub.2 and any Cd dissolved in the metal chloride.

Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Homer Glen, IL); Richmann, Michael K. (Carlsbad, NM)

2007-05-15

414

Salt Plains Microbial Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is home of the Salt Plains Microbial Observatory, located in the Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge in northern Oklahoma. This area has permitted the first extensive study of a non-marine, terrestrial, hypersaline environment. The web site offers information about the extreme environment, images and video clips of its microbial inhabitants, an image-rich summary of research activities, information about summer courses and research opportunities, a list of publications, and links to other informative resources pertaining to hypersaline environments.

Buchheim, Mark; University Of Tulsa, Biological S.

415

A Dash of Salt  

E-print Network

tx H2O | pg. 18 A Texas A&M researcher is assessing the impact of using moderately saline water for irrigating urban landscapes in West Texas and southern New Mexico. A DASH OF SALT Researcher assesses salinity impacts on grasses, trees... and shrubs A Dash of Salt Story by Danielle Supercinski { } tx H2O | pg. 19 ?The primary purpose of using moderately saline water for irrigation, including reclaimed water, is to conserve potable [drinkable] water,? said Dr. Seiichi Miyamoto, a...

Supercinski, Danielle

2006-01-01

416

Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake.  

PubMed

Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [?] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; ? for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake. PMID:25317023

Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

2014-09-01

417

Low-transition-temperature mixtures (LTTMs): a new generation of designer solvents.  

PubMed

A new generation of designer solvents emerged in the last decade as promising green media for multiple applications, including separation processes: the low-transition-temperature mixtures (LTTMs). They can be prepared by mixing natural high-melting-point starting materials, which form a liquid by hydrogen-bond interactions. Among them, deep-eutectic solvents (DESs) were presented as promising alternatives to conventional ionic liquids (ILs). Some limitations of ILs are overcome by LTTMs, which are cheap and easy to prepare from natural and readily available starting materials, biodegradable, and renewable. PMID:23401138

Francisco, María; van den Bruinhorst, Adriaan; Kroon, Maaike C

2013-03-11

418

A general synthetic method for MPO4 (M = Co, Fe, Mn) frameworks using deep-eutectic solvents.  

PubMed

A general approach was developed to synthesize a series of cobalt, manganese, and iron phosphate frameworks in deep-eutectic solvents through tuning important reaction parameters including temperature, time, and addition of water. PMID:22822488

Yonemoto, Bryan T; Lin, Zhuojia; Jiao, Feng

2012-09-21

419

Thermal cycling effect on the nanoparticle distribution and specific heat of a carbonate eutectic with alumina nanoparticles  

E-print Network

The objective of this research was to measure the effect of thermal cycling on the nanoparticle distribution and specific heat of a nanocomposite material consisting of a eutectic of lithium carbonate and potassium carbonate and 1% by mass alumina...

Shankar, Sandhya

2011-08-08

420

Correlation between fragility and eutectic instability and glass-forming ability in binary metallic glasses under growth controlled conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We find that the fragility can be correlated to the eutectic instability and the glass forming ability in binary metallic glass formers under growth controlled conditions via a dimensionless parameter ? defined as DfT0/2(Te - T0), where Df is fragility parameter, T0 is Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann temperature, and Te is eutectic temperature. It is shown that the large ? value, which results from high Df and from that T0 is close to the eutectic temperature, can lead to small interface growth velocity and undercooling of eutectic structure, and good glass forming ability. This indicates that high ? leads to small characteristic diffusion length resulting from sluggish material transport that governs the glass forming ability. The results might provide an in-depth insight into the glass formation mechanism and be helpful for searching new glasses in growth controlled process.

Wang, N.; Ji, L.; Yao, W. J.; Zheng, Y. P.

2012-05-01

421

EUTECTIC ?(NI)/??(NI3AL)-?(NI3NB) POLYCRYSTALLINE NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOYS: CHEMISTRY, PROCESSING, MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES.  

E-print Network

??Directionally solidified ?(Ni)/??(Ni3Al)-?(Ni3Nb) eutectic alloys possess attrac- tive high temperature mechanical properties and were considered as candidate tur- bine blade materials. Currently, the properties of… (more)

XIE, MENGTAO

2013-01-01

422

Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

The explicit UA program objective is to develop low melting point (LMP) molten salt thermal energy storage media with high thermal energy storage density for sensible heat storage systems. The novel Low Melting Point (LMP) molten salts are targeted to have the following characteristics: 1. Lower melting point (MP) compared to current salts (<222ºC) 2. Higher energy density compared to current salts (>300 MJ/m3) 3. Lower power generation cost compared to current salt In terms of lower power costs, the program target the DOE's Solar Energy Technologies Program year 2020 goal to create systems that have the potential to reduce the cost of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) to less than $15/kWh-th and achieve round trip efficiencies greater than 93%. The project has completed the experimental investigations to determine the thermo-physical, long term thermal stability properties of the LMP molten salts and also corrosion studies of stainless steel in the candidate LMP molten salts. Heat transfer and fluid dynamics modeling have been conducted to identify heat transfer geometry and relative costs for TES systems that would utilize the primary LMP molten salt candidates. The project also proposes heat transfer geometry with relevant modifications to suit the usage of our molten salts as thermal energy storage and heat transfer fluids. The essential properties of the down-selected novel LMP molten salts to be considered for thermal storage in solar energy applications were experimentally determined, including melting point, heat capacity, thermal stability, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, vapor pressure, and corrosion resistance of SS 316. The thermodynamic modeling was conducted to determine potential high temperature stable molten salt mixtures that have thermal stability up to 1000 °C. The thermo-physical properties of select potential high temperature stable (HMP) molten salt mixtures were also experimentally determined. All the salt mixtures align with the go/no-go goals stipulated by the DOE for this project. Energy densities of all salt mixtures were higher than that of the current solar salt. The salt mixtures costs have been estimated and TES system costs for a 2 tank, direct approach have been estimated for each of these materials. All estimated costs are significantly below the baseline system that used solar salt. These lower melt point salts offer significantly higher energy density per volume than solar salt – and therefore attractively smaller inventory and equipment costs. Moreover, a new TES system geometry has been recommended A variety of approaches were evaluated to use the low melting point molten salt. Two novel changes are recommended that 1) use the salt as a HTF through the solar trough field, and 2) use the salt to not only create steam but also to preheat the condensed feedwater for Rankine cycle. The two changes enable the powerblock to operate at 500°C, rather than the current 400°C obtainable using oil as the HTF. Secondly, the use of salt to preheat the feedwater eliminates the need to extract steam from the low pressure turbine for that purpose. Together, these changes result in a dramatic 63% reduction required for 6 hour salt inventory, a 72% reduction in storage volume, and a 24% reduction in steam flow rate in the power block. Round trip efficiency for the Case 5 - 2 tank “direct” system is estimated at >97%, with only small losses from time under storage and heat exchange, and meeting RFP goals. This attractive efficiency is available because the major heat loss experienced in a 2 tank “indirect” system - losses by transferring the thermal energy from oil HTF to the salt storage material and back to oil to run the steam generator at night - is not present for the 2 tank direct system. The higher heat capacity values for both LMP and HMP systems enable larger storage capacities for concentrating solar power.

Reddy, Ramana G. [The University of Alabama] [The University of Alabama

2013-10-23

423

An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermochemical properties in heat transport systems  

SciTech Connect

Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogenous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The purpose of this report is to identify the technical issues related to the thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of the molten salts that would require experimental characterization in order to proceed with a credible design of heat transfer systems and their subsequent safety evaluation and licensing. In particular, the report outlines an experimental R&D test plan that would have to be incorporated as part of the design and operation of an engineering scaled facility aimed at validating molten salt heat transfer components, such as Intermediate Heat Exchangers. This report builds on a previous review of thermo-physical properties and thermo-chemical characteristics of candidate molten salt coolants that was generated as part of the same project [1]. However, this work focuses on two materials: the LiF-BeF2 eutectic (67 and 33 mol%, respectively, also known as flibe) as primary coolant and the LiF-NaF-KF eutectic (46.5, 11.5, and 52 mol%, respectively, also known as flinak) as secondary heat transport fluid. At first common issues are identified, involving the preparation and purification of the materials as well as the development of suitable diagnostics. Than issues specific to each material and its application are considered, with focus on the compatibility with structural materials and the extension of the existing properties database.

Pattrick Calderoni

2010-09-01

424

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

Koyama, Tadafumi (Tokyo, JP)

1994-01-01

425

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

This report describes a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

Koyama, T.

1992-01-01

426

High-temperature strength and thermal stability of a unidirectionally solidified Al2O3\\/YAG eutectic composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unidirectional solidification method was investigated to manufacture Al2O3\\/YAG eutectic composites with high-temperature resistance that would make them usable at very high temperatures. We were successful in manufacturing a single-crystal Al2O3\\/single-crystal YAG eutectic composite with a dimension of 40 mm in diameter and 70 mm in length containing no colonies or pores. This composite also displayed excellent high-temperature strength characteristics.

Y. Waku; N. Nakagawa; T. Wakamoto; H. Ohtsubo; K. Shimizu; Y Kohtoku

1998-01-01

427

Ion fractionation at the surface of aqueous inorganic salt solutions by means of a ‘film centrifuge’  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The predictions of Gibbs's law and the electrolyte theory about the (negative) adsorption of salts on the surface of aqueous salt solutions are compared with the results of an analysis of very thin surface films skimmed by means of a `film centrifuge' from a solution containing two different salts. The separation effects observed on the salt mixtures CsCl/NaCl, BaCl2/ NaCl, BaCl2/CsCl, and SrCl2/CsCl differ greatly from theoretical results, but they agree with results observed by the so-called bubble process. The centrifuge and the analytical methods are briefly described.

Koske, P. H.; Martin, H.

1972-09-01

428

A feasibility study of a diffusion barrier between Ni-Cr-Al coatings and nickel-based eutectic alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coating systems have been proposed for potential use on eutectic alloy components in high-temperature gas turbine engines. In a study to prevent the deterioration of such systems by diffusion, a tungsten sheet 25 microns thick was placed between eutectic alloys and an Ni-Cr-Al layer. Layered test specimens were aged at 1100 C for as long as 500 h. Without the tungsten barrier the delta phase of the eutectic deteriorated by diffusion of niobium into the Ni-Cr-Al. Insertion of the tungsten barrier stopped the diffusion of niobium from the delta phase. Chromium diffusion from the Ni-Cr-Al into the gamma/gamma-prime phase of the eutectic was greatly reduced by the barrier. However, the barrier thickness decreased with time, and tungsten diffused into both the Ni-Cr-Al and the eutectic. When the delta platelets were aligned parallel rather than perpendicular to the Ni-Cr-Al layer, diffusion into the eutectic was reduced.

Young, S. G.; Zellars, G. R.

1978-01-01

429

Study on the melting and freezing behaviour of high temperature binary eutectic fixed points using differential scanning calorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the heat flux accompanying the melting or freezing of metal (or metalloid)-carbon eutectics, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to identify appropriate binary systems for secondary thermometry fixed points. Well-known alloy systems such as Fe-C and Ni-C showed reproducible endothermic and exothermic peaks that represent melting and freezing reactions in the DSC measurement. Furthermore, a new Si-C system with a eutectic composition showed reproducible melting and freezing peaks in the DSC measurements. Based on the results by DSC, we identified the Si-SiC eutectic point as a possible eutectic fixed point. To confirm this possibility, we made a Si-SiC cell for thermocouple thermometry and measured its melting and freezing characteristics using a Pt/Pd thermocouple. The melting temperature of the Si-SiC eutectic was reproducible to within 0.02 °C (one standard deviation). From the results, we found that Si-SiC has possibility as a new eutectic fixed point at temperatures around 1400 °C. We also concluded that DSC analysis could be used to measure the reproducibility of freezing and melting reactions that are to be used as fixed points for thermometry, because it is a rapid and easy-to-use tool for characterizing the thermal behaviour of materials with only a small sample.

Kwon, Su Yong; Kim, Yong-Gyoo; Yang, Inseok

2010-06-01

430

Activation of gypsum anhydrite-slag mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Gypsum anhydrite-slag mixtures were produced by blending anhydrite with granulated blast furnace slag, Ca(OH)[sub 2] and small amounts of Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] [center dot] 10H[sub 2]O and FeSO[sub 4] [center dot] 7H[sub 2]O as activators. A mechanism of conversion of anhydrite into gypsum through transient double salts in presence of activators is suggested. Activation of granulated slag with the gypsum anhydrite and Ca(OH)[sub 2] to form ettringite and tobermorite has been discussed. The correlation between gain in strength and hydration products is reported.

Singh, M.; Garg, M. (Central Building Research Inst., Roorkee (India))

1995-02-01

431

Superalloy eutectic composites with the VI A refractory elements - Cr, Mo and W  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the phase equilibria for the ternary systems NiAlCr, NiAlMo, and NiAlW, with emphasis on reactions from the liquid state, although some of the solid state reactions are mentioned. It is shown that eutectics in the Ni-Al-refractory element (Cr, Mo, W) systems offer the potential for high-temperature turbine blade and vane applications. In particular, it is shown that the phase diagrams of these ternary systems can be manipulated to alter the eutectic phases and morphologies by simple quaternary alloying modifications. The resultant combination of chemistry and structure can be controlled to ensure a behavior that is well-matched to hot section component materials requirements.

Jackson, M. R.; Walter, J. L.

1976-01-01

432

Real-time study of thin and bulk eutectic growth in succinonitrile-( D)camphor alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the directional-growth patterns of the transparent nonfaceted alloy succinonitrile-( D)camphor (SCN-DC) at eutectic concentration in thin and bulk samples using real-time observation methods. We measure in situ the minimum-undercooling spacing ?m and the small-spacing stability limit ?c of the thin, quasi-lamellar patterns. We find ?m2V?10.2 ?m3 s-1 and ?c?0.65?m. This last result is contrary to the common conjecture that ?c=?m in lamellar patterns, but in agreement with previous experimental and numerical studies in the CBr 4-C 2Cl 6 eutectic. In bulk samples, we observe the growth of rod-like patterns in real time. We show that these patterns do not usually achieve long-range hexagonal order after long solidification times, although their average spacing reaches a constant value, which is close to ?m, after a relatively short transient.

Akamatsu, S.; Bottin-Rousseau, S.; Perrut, M.; Faivre, G.; Witusiewicz, V. T.; Sturz, L.

2007-02-01

433

Salt Made the World Go Round: MRBLOCH Salt Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Don't you just love it when everything can be summed up with one simple explanantion? Created by David Bloch, this Website proves that life as we know depends upon salt. Sections of the site look at salt in relation to a wide range of areas of study, such as Physiology, Geology, Archaeology, Paleoclimatology, Religion, and Economics. For example, the Economics section provides information on the use of salt as money, the history of the control of salt by monopolies, and the influence of the salt trade on transportation. The Religion section points out the importance of salt in religious practices, such as Jewish koshering and Egyptian embalming. Also included are links to over fifty additional salt sites, an email list, and an announcement for Salt 2000, the 8th World Salt Symposium, to be held in the Hague in May 2000.

Bloch, David.

434

A comparison of PRTs at the Cu Ag eutectic point (780 °C)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs) were repeatedly calibrated between the triple point of water and the silver point. During each calibration their resistance was also determined at the Cu-Ag eutectic point. The temperatures indicated by the PRTs were within ±1 mK, except for one that differed by 4 mK from the average, 779.6360 °C, of the other eleven. Four of

J. Ancsin

2004-01-01

435

Synthesis and Characterization of CuCl Nanoparticles in Deep Eutectic Solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, CuCl nanoparticles were fabricated in deep eutectic solvents (DES) which is a new kind of ionic liquid with special properties. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), the molar ratio of ascorbic acid to copper chloride and the mixing method

YING HUANG; FEI SHEN; JING LA; GENXIANG LUO; JUNLING LAI; CHUNSHENG LIU; GANG CHU

2012-01-01

436

The kinetics of the Cu 2+\\/Cu + redox couple in deep eutectic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of electron transfer of the Cu(I)\\/Cu(II) redox couple at a platinum electrode has been studied with chronoamperometry, cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy in a deep eutectic solvent consisting of choline chloride and ethylene glycol. At 25°C, the reaction was found to be quasi-reversible with a relatively high rate constant k0 of 9.5±2×10?4cms?1, and a charge transfer coefficient ? of

David Lloyd; Tuomas Vainikka; Lasse Murtomäki; Kyösti Kontturi; Elisabet Ahlberg

2011-01-01

437

Diffusion welding of a directionally solidified gamma/gamma prime - delta eutectic alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hot-press diffusion welding parameters were developed for a directionally solidified, gamma/gamma prime-delta eutectic alloy. Based on metallography, a good diffusion weld was achieved at 1100 C under 34.5 MPa (5 ksi) pressure for 1 hour. In addition, a dissimilar metal weld between gamma/gamma prime-delta and IN-100 was successfully made at 1100 C under 20.7 MPa (3 ksi) pressure for 1 hour.

Moore, T. J.

1977-01-01

438

Liquid-metal embrittlement of aluminium by several eutectic alloys containing zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liquid-metal embrittlement of aluminium plate wetted with Cd-17% Zn, Sn-10% Zn and In-3% Zn eutectic alloy was investigated by tensile tests in the temperature range 423 to 673 K by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersion. The fracture strain of specimens wetted with Cd-Zn, Sn-Zn, and In-Zn alloys decreased in the temperature ranges 553 to 623,

T. Mae; S. Hori

1991-01-01

439

Fluxless non-eutectic joints fabricated using gold-tin multilayer composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluxless bonding processes using two different noneutectic gold-tin (Au-Sn) multilayer composites to fabricate high quality solder joints have been successfully achieved. In contrast to the well-known eutectic solders of 80 wt. % Au and 20 wt. % Sn commonly selected by the packaging industry, we have adopted a substantially cost-effective strategy by purposely designing and constructing our solder joints to

Chin C. Lee; Ricky W. Chuang

2003-01-01

440

Elevated temperature compressive behavior of cast NiAl–9Mo(1Hf) eutectic alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microstructure and mechanical behavior of NiAl–9Mo eutectic alloys with and without 1 at.% Hf have been investigated by using SEM, TEM and high temperature compressive tests, respectively. It was suggested that NiAl–9Mo–1Hf shows a significant strength advantage over NiAl–9Mo due to the presence of Heusler phase in the former alloy. Their high temperature compressive deformation behavior is proposed to

R. S. Chen; J. T. Guo; J. Y. Zhou

2000-01-01

441

Pb phase coarsening in eutectic Pb\\/Sn flip chip solder joints under electric current stressing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental research on the Pb phase coarsening of eutectic Pb\\/Sn flip chip solder joint under current stressing is reported. Phase growth is observed under different current densities and temperatures. Higher current density leads to faster grain coarsening. Based on the test results, a grain coarsening equation including the influence of current density is proposed, dn?d0n=Kjmt. The current density exponent m

Hua Ye; Cemal Basaran; Douglas C. Hopkins

2004-01-01

442