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1

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods

1999-01-01

2

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3% KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

2000-04-01

3

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures,'' covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3%KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

1998-10-01

4

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary eutectic salt mixture consisting of Li- Na- and K- carbonates has the potential as gasification catalyst. To verify the literature reported, melting points for various compositions consisting of these three salts and the temperature range over which the mixture remained molten were determined in the lab. For mixtures with different concentrations of the three salts, the temperatures at which the mixtures were found to be in complete molten state were recorded. By increasing the amount of Li2CO3, the melting temperature range was reduced significantly. In the literature, the eutectic mixtures of Li- Na- and K-carbonates are claimed to have a lower activation energy than that of K2CO3 alone and they remain molten at a lower temperature than pure K2CO3. The slow increase in the gasification rates with eutectics reported in the literature is believed to be due to a gradual penetration of the coals and coal char particles by the molten and viscous catalyst phase. The even spreading of the salt phase seems to increase the overall carbon conversion rate. In the next reporting period, a number of eutectic salts and methods of their application on the coal will be identified and tested.

Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-12-04

5

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (e.g., temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. The eutectic catalysts increased gasification rate significantly. The methods of catalyst preparation and addition had significant effect on the catalytic activity and coal gasification. The incipient wetness method gave more uniform catalyst distribution than that of physical mixing for the soluble catalysts resulting in higher gasification rates for the incipient wetness samples. The catalytic activity increased by varying degrees with catalyst loading. The above results are especially important since the eutectic catalysts (with low melting points) yield significant gasification rates even at low temperatures. Among the ternary eutectic catalysts studied, the system 39% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-22.5% Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the best activity and will be used for further bench scale fixed-bed gasification reactor in the next period. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies in the previous reporting period, the project team selected the 43.5% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed-bed studies at UTSI during this reporting period. Temperature was found to have a significant effect on the rate of gasification of coal. The rate of gasification increased up to 1400 F. Pressure did not have much effect on the gasification rates. The catalyst loading increased the gasification rate and approached complete conversion when 10 wt% of catalyst was added to the coal. Upon further increasing the catalyst amount to 20-wt% and above, there was no significant rise in gasification rate. The rate of gasification was lower for a 2:1 steam to char molar ratio (60%) compared to gasification rates at 3.4:1 molar ratio of steam-to-char where the conversion approached 100%. The characterization results of Georgia Tech are very preliminary and inconclusive and will be made available in the next report.

Unknown

1999-04-01

6

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

2001-12-01

7

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salt mixtures. Report for the Period September 1, 1998-March 31, 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project, 'Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the proj...

1999-01-01

8

A Binary Eutectic Mixture of TNAZ and R-Salt Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TNAZ is a high performing explosive that is melt castable. However, the casting process can be problematic since TNAZ has a high vapor pressure exacerbated by a fairly high melting temperature. In order to mitigate the ill effects of its high vapor pressure, including a lower melting explosive was explored by making a series of mixtures of TNAZ and R-Salt. Initially, a eutectic temperature and composition was theoretically determined. Then a phase diagram was constructed from a series and mixtures by differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). The vapor pressure of the eutectic composition was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Cylinder testing of the eutectic composition was carried out in copper tubes, 5'' long with 1/2 ``inner diameter and 1/16'' thick walls. The detonation velocity was measured using wire switches along the cylinder length and the expanding wall velocity was measured using PDV gauges. A rough evaluation of JWL equation-of-state parameters has been carried out. A more detailed evaluation is in progress.

Sandstrom, Mary; Manner, Virginia; Pemberton, Steven; Lloyd, Joseph; Tappan, Bryce

2011-06-01

9

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salt mixtures. Report for the Period April 1-September 30, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, 'Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures' covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appr...

1998-01-01

10

Synthesis and electrochemical properties of lithium cobalt oxides prepared by molten-salt synthesis using the eutectic mixture of LiCl–Li 2CO 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium cobalt oxide powders have been successfully prepared by a molten-salt synthesis (MSS) method using a eutectic mixture of LiCl and Li2CO3 salts. The physico-chemical properties of the lithium cobalt oxide powders are investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle-size analysis and charge–discharge cycling. A lower temperature and a shorter time (?700°C and 1h) in the

Chi-Hwan Han; Young-Sik Hong; Chang Moon Park; Keon Kim

2001-01-01

11

Molten salt eutectics from atomistic simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite their importance for solar thermal power applications, phase-diagrams of molten salt mixture heat transfer fluids (HTFs) are not readily accessible from first principles. We present a molecular dynamics scheme general enough to identify eutectics of any HTF candidate mixture. The eutectic mixture and temperature are located using the liquid mixture free energy and the pure component solid-liquid free energy differences. The liquid mixture free energy is obtained using thermodynamic integration over particle identity transmutations sampled with molecular dynamics at a single temperature. Drawbacks of conventional phase diagram mapping methodologies are avoided by not considering solid mixtures, thereby evading expensive computations of solid phase free energies. Numerical results for binary and ternary mixtures of alkali nitrates agree well with experimental measurements.

Jayaraman, Saivenkataraman; Thompson, Aidan P.; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole

2011-09-01

12

Eutectic mixtures for solar heat storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several inorganic eutectic mixtures which have melting points in a range most suitable for solar heat storage and which have high heats of fusion were investigated. Thermodynamic properties of LiNO3-NH4NO3-NH4Cl, LiNO3-NH4NO3-NaNO3, LiNO3-NH4NO3-KNO3, Mg(NO3)2.6H2O-MgCl2.6H2O, and Mg(NO3)2.6H2O-MgBr2.6H2O are reported. Supercooling, corrosion, and other problems associated with practical application of the eutectic mixtures are examined, the heat content of one system is calculated,

N. Yoneda; S. Takanashi

1978-01-01

13

Eutectics and Phase Diagrams of Molten Salts from Molecular Dynamics simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of alkali nitrate salt mixtures as heat transfer fluids in solar thermal power plants is limited by their relatively high melting point. Certain compositions of quaternary and higher dimensional mixtures of alkali and alkaline earth nitrates and nitrites have low melting points. However, the high dimensionality of the search space makes it difficult to find lowest melting compositions. Molecular simulations offer an efficient way to screen for promising mixtures. A molecular dynamics scheme general enough to identify eutectics of any HTF candidate mixture will be presented. The eutectic mixture and temperature are located as the tangent point between free energies of mixing for the liquid and a linear plane connecting the pure solid-liquid free energy differences. The free energy of mixing of the liquid phase is obtained using thermodynamic integration over "alchemical" transmutations sampled with molecular dynamics, in which particle identities are swapped gradually. Numerical results for binary and ternary mixtures of alkali nitrates agree well with experimental measurements.

Jayaraman, Saivenkataraman; von Lilienfeld, Anatole; Thompson, Aidan

2011-03-01

14

Thermodynamic Assessment of Hot Corrosion Mechanisms of Superalloys Hastelloy N and Haynes 242 in Eutectic Mixture of Molten Salts KF and ZrF4  

SciTech Connect

The KF - ZrF4 system was considered for the application as a heat exchange agent in molten salt nuclear reactors (MSRs) beginning with the work carried out at ORNL in early fifties. Based on a combination of excellent properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity in the molten state, and other thermo-physical and rheological properties, it was selected as one of possible candidates for the nuclear reactor secondary heat exchanger loop.

Michael V. Glazoff

2012-02-01

15

Anthracene + Pyrene Solid Mixtures: Eutectic and Azeotropic Character  

PubMed Central

To better characterize the thermodynamic behavior of a binary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture, thermochemical and vapor pressure experiments were used to examine the phase behavior of the anthracene (1) + pyrene (2) system. A solid-liquid phase diagram was mapped for the mixture. A eutectic point occurs at 404 K at x1 = 0.22. A model based on eutectic formation can be used to predict the enthalpy of fusion associated with the mixture. For mixtures that contain x1 < 0.90, the enthalpy of fusion is near that of pure pyrene. This and X-ray diffraction results indicate that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene have pyrene-like crystal structures and energetics until the composition nears that of pure anthracene. Solid-vapor equilibrium studies show that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene form solid azeotropes at x1 of 0.03 and 0.14. Additionally, mixtures at x1 = 0.99 sublime at the vapor pressure of pure anthracene, suggesting that anthracene behavior is not significantly influenced by x2 = 0.01 in the crystal structure.

Rice, James W.; Fu, Jinxia; Suuberg, Eric M.

2010-01-01

16

Basic molten salt process—A new route for synthesis of nanocrystalline Li 4Ti 5O 12–TiO 2 anode material for Li-ion batteries using eutectic mixture of LiNO 3–LiOH–Li 2O 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nanocrystalline Li4Ti5O12–TiO2 duplex phase has been synthesized by a simple basic molten salt process (BMSP) using an eutectic mixture of LiNO3–LiOH–Li2O2 at 400–500°C. The microstructure and morphology of the Li4Ti5O12–TiO2 product are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The sample prepared by heat-treating at 300°C for 3h

M. M. Rahman; Jia-Zhao Wang; Mohd Faiz Hassan; Shulei Chou; David Wexler; Hua-Kun Liu

2010-01-01

17

A method of applying eutectic coatings by centrifugal bimetallization from powder mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

reaction mixture [coating) [2] at the temperature* of occurrence of a eutectic reaction between the components of the mixture and the base metal with subsequent cooling [3]. The liquid phase formed significantly strengthens occurrence of the diffusion processes and the eutectic structure of the hardened layer is the optimum in the sense of hardness and plasticity. These characteristicsa re the

V. M. Golubets; M. V. Kindrachuk; M. I. Pashechko

1984-01-01

18

Bonding of sapphire to sapphire by eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bonding of an element comprising sapphire, ruby or blue sapphire to another element of such material with a eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide is discussed. The bonding mixture may be applied in the form of a distilled water slurry or by electron beam vapor deposition. In one embodiment the eutectic is formed in situ by applying a layer of zirconium oxide and then heating the assembly to a temperature above the eutectic temperature and below the melting point of the material from which the elements are formed. The formation of a sapphire rubidium maser cell utilizing eutectic bonding is shown.

Deluca, J. J. (inventor)

1975-01-01

19

Bonding of sapphire to sapphire by eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An element comprising sapphire, ruby or blue sapphire can be bonded to another element of such material with a eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide. The bonding mixture may be applied in the form of a distilled water slurry or by electron beam vapor deposition. In one embodiment the eutectic is formed in situ by applying a layer of zirconium oxide and then heating the assembly to a temperature above the eutectic temperature and below the melting point of the material from which the elements are formed. The formation of a sapphire rubidium maser cell utilizing eutectic bonding is shown.

Deluca, J. J. (inventor)

1979-01-01

20

THE POLAROGRAPHY OF FUSED SALTS IN A MIXTURE OF LITHIUM AND POTASSIUM CHLORIDES WITH THE USE OF A STATIONARY ELECTRODE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrolytic cell consisted of two crucibles filled with a eutectic ; mixture of LiCl and KCl and connected by a salt bridge filled with the same salt. ; Electrical contact was made through a very thin glass diaphragm in the wall of ; the salt bridge. The anode was a pool of molten lead in contact with a carbon

I. I. Naryshkin; A. E. Bazhenov

1961-01-01

21

Preparation of eutectic substrate mixtures for enzymatic conversion of ATC to L-cysteine at high concentration levels.  

PubMed

High concentration eutectic substrate solutions for the enzymatic production of L-cysteine were prepared. Eutectic melting of binary mixtures consisting of D,L-2-amino-?(2)-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATC) as a substrate and malonic acid occurred at 39 °C with an ATC mole fraction of 0.5. Formation of eutectic mixtures was confirmed using SEM, SEM-EDS, and XPS surface analyses. Sorbitol, MnSO4, and NaOH were used as supplements for the enzymatic reactions. Strategies for sequential addition of five compounds, including a binary ATC mixture and supplements, during preparation of eutectic substrate solutions were established. Eutectic substrate solutions were stable for 24 h. After 6 h of enzymatic reactions, a 550 mM L-cysteine yield was obtained from a 670 mM eutectic ATC solution. PMID:24249216

Youn, Sung Hun; Park, Hae Woong; Choe, Deokyeong; Shin, Chul Soo

2014-06-01

22

Recycling of LiCl-KCl eutectic based salt wastes containing radioactive rare earth oxychlorides or oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recycling of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt wastes containing radioactive rare earth oxychlorides or oxides was studied to recover renewable salts from the salt wastes and to minimize the radioactive wastes by using a vacuum distillation method. Vaporization of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was effective above 900 °C and at 5 Torr. The condensations of the vaporized salt were largely dependent on temperature gradient. Based on these results, a recycling system of the salt wastes as a closed loop type was developed to obtain a high efficiency of the salt recovery condition. In this system, it was confirmed that renewable salt was recovered at more than 99 wt.% from the salt wastes, and the changes in temperature and pressure in the system could be utilized to understand the present condition of the system operation.

Eun, H. C.; Cho, Y. Z.; Son, S. M.; Lee, T. K.; Yang, H. C.; Kim, I. T.; Lee, H. S.

2012-01-01

23

Zero-gravity growth of a sodium chloride-lithium fluoride eutectic mixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on Earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convective current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and Earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

1982-01-01

24

Materials corrosion in molten lithium fluoride-sodium fluoride-potassium fluoride eutectic salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Static corrosion studies were undertaken to determine the compatibility of several candidate high temperature materials for a heat transfer loop in a molten alkali fluoride eutectic salt, LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol % (commonly referred to as FLiNaK), as well as a molten chloride near eutectic salt, KCl-MgCl2: 68-32 mol %. Several high temperature alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, Nb-1Zr, a nearly pure Ni alloy Ni-201, and a C/SiSiC ceramic were exposed to molten FLiNaK at 850°C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion occurred predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the Cr bearing alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries. Corrosion was noted to occur from selective attack of the Si phase in the C/SiSiC ceramic. Alloy weight-loss/area due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys' weight-loss/area was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present in the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. The corrosion mechanisms for the chloride based salt were found to be similar to those observed in FLiNaK, but the chemical attack was found to be less aggressive. Sulfamate Ni electroplating and Mo plasma spraying of Fe-Ni-Cr alloy coupons was investigated to mitigate Cr dissolution. A chemical vapor deposited pyrolytic carbon and SiC coating was also investigated to protect the C/SiSiC composites. Results indicate that Ni-plating has the potential to provide protection against alloy corrosion in molten fluoride salts. Furthermore, the presence of a chromium-oxide interlayer at the interface of the Ni-plating and alloy substrate can further improve the efficacy of the Ni-plating. The pyrolytic carbon and SiC coating on the C/SiSiC composites was effective in eliminating the attack of the Si phase in the composites. Delamination of the Mo coating in FLiNaK prevented further investigation of this promising approach.

Olson, Luke Christopher

25

Mass-transfer characteristics of nitrate-based salt mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molten eutectic NaNO3-KNO3 was being circulated in three thermal convection loops constructed of alloy 800 and types 304L and 316 stainless steel. The loops were operated at a maximum salt temperature of 595 C and a salt temperature differential of 235 C. Corrosion specimens contained within each loop were withdrawn for periodic determinations of weight and microstructural changes. Salt samples were analyzed at selected intervals to monitor changes in the composition of the salt. Controlled potential voltammetry was also used. Results indicate low corrosion rates for the austenitic stainless steels in flowing NaNO3-KNO3.

Devan, J. H.; Tortorelli, P. F.

1981-03-01

26

EXAFS Study into the Speciation of Metal Salts Dissolved in Ionic Liquids and Deep Eutectic Solvents.  

PubMed

The speciation of metals in solution controls their reactivity, and this is extremely pertinent in the area of metal salts dissolved in ionic liquids. In the current study, the speciation of 25 metal salts is investigated in four deep eutectic solvents (DESs) and five imidazolium-based ionic liquids using extended X-ray absorption fine structure. It is shown that in diol-based DESs M(I) ions form [MCl2](-) and [MCl3](2-) complexes, while all M(II) ions form [MCl4](2-) complexes, with the exception of Ni(II), which exhibits a very unusual coordination by glycol molecules. This was also found in the X-ray crystal structure of the compound [Ni(phen)2(eg)]Cl2·2eg (eg = ethylene glycol). In a urea-based DES, either pure chloro or chloro-oxo coordination is observed. In [C6mim][Cl] pure chloro complexation is also observed, but coordination numbers are smaller (typically 3), which can be explained by the long alkyl chain of the cation. In [C2mim][SCN] metal ions are entirely coordinated by thiocyanate, either through the N or the S atom, depending on the hardness of the metal ion according to the hard-soft acid-base principle. With weaker coordinating anions, mixed coordination between solvent and solute anions is observed. The effect of hydrate or added water on speciation is insignificant for the diol-based DESs and small in other liquids with intermediate or strong ligands. One of the main findings of this study is that, with respect to metal speciation, there is no fundamental difference between deep eutectic solvents and classic ionic liquids. PMID:24897923

Hartley, Jennifer M; Ip, Chung-Man; Forrest, Gregory C H; Singh, Kuldip; Gurman, Stephen J; Ryder, Karl S; Abbott, Andrew P; Frisch, Gero

2014-06-16

27

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salts: reaction kinetics for hydrogasification using binary and ternary eutectic catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic study of the hydrogasification of Illinois #6 coal was carried out using a ternary (43.5mol% Li2CO3-31.5mol% Na2CO3-25mol% K2CO3) and a binary (29mol% Na2CO3-71mol% K2CO3) eutectic system. Hydrogasification experiments were carried out in a high-pressure, high-temperature differential fixed-bed gasifier unit to evaluate the product inhibition effect of H2 on the overall steam gasification kinetics. The overall gasification rate was

Atul C Sheth; Chandramouli Sastry; Yaw D Yeboah; Yong Xu; Pradeep Agarwal

2004-01-01

28

Thermal performance of a eutectic mixture of lauric and stearic acids as PCM encapsulated in the annulus of two concentric pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal performance characteristics of a eutectic mixture of lauric and stearic acids as phase change material (PCM) during the melting and solidification processes were determined experimentally in a vertical two concentric pipe-energy storage system. This study deals with three important subjects: The first one is to determine the eutectic composition ratio of the lauric acid (LA) and stearic acid (SA)

Ahmet Sari; Kamil Kaygusuz

2002-01-01

29

Inorganic salt mixtures as electrolyte media in fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel cell designs and techniques for converting chemical energy into electrical energy uses a fuel cell are disclosed. The designs and techniques include an anode to receive fuel, a cathode to receive oxygen, and an electrolyte chamber in the fuel cell, including an electrolyte medium, where the electrolyte medium includes an inorganic salt mixture in the fuel cell. The salt mixture includes pre-determined quantities of at least two salts chosen from a group consisting of ammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate, ammonium trifluoroacetate, and ammonium nitrate, to conduct charge from the anode to the cathode. The fuel cell includes an electrical circuit operatively coupled to the fuel cell to transport electrons from the cathode.

Angell, Charles Austen (Inventor); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Inventor); Francis-Gervasio, Dominic (Inventor)

2012-01-01

30

Liquid-glass transition of water/salt mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is known to exhibit a number of anomalous behaviors and to be an exceptionally poor glass-former. However, both features are strongly affected by applying pressure or adding salt. This means that these two parameters have strong influence on physical factors controlling the unusual features of water. By using a water/salt mixture as a model system, we experimentally demonstrate that the glass-forming ability and the fragility of a water/salt mixture are closely related to its equilibrium phase diagram. The key to this link may be frustration between local ordering and global ordering toward the crystal. Relying on the same role of salt as pressure in water anomalies as a breaker of local tetrahedral order, we infer the behavior of water under pressure from that of a water/salt mixture. This scenario not only explains unusual behavior of water-type liquids such as water, Si and Ge under pressure, but also may provide a general explanation on the link between the equilibrium phase diagram, the glass-forming ability, and the fragility of various materials for a wide class of materials.

Kobayashi, Mika; Tanaka, Hajime

2013-02-01

31

Speciation, physical and electrolytic properties of eutectic mixtures based on CrCl?·6H?O and urea.  

PubMed

The electrodeposition of chromium is a technologically vital process, which is principally carried out using aqueous chromic acid. In the current study, it is shown that eutectic mixtures of urea and hydrated chromium(III) chloride provide a liquid which reduces the toxicological issues associated with the current aqueous Cr(VI) electroplating solution. Using EXAFS, mass spectrometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy, it is shown that chromium is present predominantly as a cationic species. Conductivities are higher than for most comparable ionic liquids. It is shown that the electrodeposition of chromium is electrochemically reversible, with a current efficiency much higher than in aqueous electrolytes. Surface tension and density measurements indicate that hole theory is a valid model to describe transport properties in these liquids. Bulk Cr deposits are not macrocrystalline but they are generally crack-free. The deposits have a hardness of 600 ± 10 Vickers and, as such, are comparable to deposits from aqueous systems. PMID:24695874

Abbott, Andrew P; Al-Barzinjy, Azeez A; Abbott, Paul D; Frisch, Gero; Harris, Robert C; Hartley, Jennifer; Ryder, Karl S

2014-05-21

32

Separation of alcohol-water mixtures using salts  

SciTech Connect

Use of a salt (KF or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) to induce phase separation of alcohol-water mixtures was investigated in three process flowsheets to compare operating and capital costs with a conventional distillation process. The process feed was the Clostridia fermentation product, composed of 98 wt % water and 2 wt % solvents (70% 1-butanol, 27% 2-propanol, and 3% ethanol). The design basis was 150 x 10/sup 6/ kg/y of solvents. Phase equilibria and tieline data were obtained from literature and experiments. Three separation-process designs were developed and compared by an incremental economic analysis (+-30%) with the conventional separation technique using distillation alone. The cost of salt recovery for recycle was found to be the critical feature. High capital and operating costs make recovery of salt by precipitation uneconomical; however, a separation scheme using multiple-effect evaporation for salt recovery has comparable incremental capital costs ($1.72 x 10/sup 6/ vs $1.76 x 10/sup 6/) and lower incremental operating costs ($2.14 x 10/sup 6//y vs $4.83 x 10/sup 6//y) than the conventional separation process.

Card, J. C.; Farrell, L. M.

1982-04-01

33

Eutectic modification in a low-chromium white cast iron by a mixture of titanium, rare earths, and bismuth: I. Effect on microstructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work studies the effect of small additions of a mixture of Ti, rare earths (RE), and Bi on the eutectic solidification of a low-Cr white cast iron (WCI) commercially designed as Ni-Hard Class I Type B according to the ASTM A532. For this purpose, systematic additions of a mixture of ferrotitanium-rare earths-bismuth (Fe-Ti-RE-Bi) up to 2% were made to a low-Cr WCI. By means of these additions, a modified carbide structure was obtained. Eutectic carbides changed from a highly interconnected ledeburite structure to more isolated, finer blocky structure. This microstructural change caused variations in the mechanical behavior of the WCI. The decrease in size and reduced connectivity of the eutectic carbides increased fracture toughness as well as wear resistance under dry sliding conditions. The effect of the admixture on the microstructure and mechanical properties is discussed in terms of the segregation and refining effects of the elements that comprise the mixture.

Bedolla-Jacuinde, A.; Aguilar, S. L.; Hernández, B.

2005-04-01

34

Synthesis and Characterization of New Materials in Molten Salt Fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of this research was to explore molten salts as growth media for the synthesis of new materials. The molten salt systems investigated in this work were ionic liquids and eutectic mixtures of metal halide salts. The primary characterization methods included: SED-EDS, X-ray diffraction, SQUID magnetometry, Raman and solid state NMR. The main focus was on the magnetic

Parisa Mahjoor

2009-01-01

35

Solubility products of metal sulfides in molten salts: II. Measurements and calculations for lead sulfide in the LiCl-KCl and the LiCl-LiF eutectic compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubilities of lithium sulfide and the solubility products of lead sulfide in the LiCl-KCI and LiCI-LiF eutectic mixtures\\u000a have been measured by an electrochemical titration method in the temperature range from 673 to 823 K. At 823 K, the solubility\\u000a of Li2S in the LiCI-LiF eutectic was much larger than in the LiCI-KCI eutectic (1.95 ? 10?1 compared with

M. L. Saboungi; J. J. Marr; M. Blander

1979-01-01

36

Measurement of thermophysical properties of molten salts: Mixtures of alkaline carbonate salts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to develop measuring methods for the thermal diffusivity, the specific heat capacity, and the density of molten salts, as well as to measure these properties of mixtures of alkaline carbonate salts. The thermal diffusivity is measured by the stepwise heating method. The sample salt is poured into a thin container, and as a result, a three-layered cell is formed. The thermal diffusivity is obtained from the ratio of temperature rises at different times measured at the rear surface of the cell when the front surface is heated by the stepwise energy from an iodine lamp. The specific heat capacity is measured using an adiabatic scanning calorimeter. The density is measured by Archimedes' principle. Thermal conductivity is determined from the above properties. Measured samples are Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (42.7-57.3, 50.0-50.0, and 62.0-38.0 mol%).

Araki, N.; Matsuura, M.; Makino, A.; Hirata, T.; Kato, Y.

1988-11-01

37

Corrosion of iron base alloys and high alloy steels in the Li 2CO 3-K 2CO 3 eutectic mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion of binary iron alloys and of three high alloy steels was investigated in the eutectic 62 mol% Li2CO3-38 mol% K2CO3 mixture at 650 °C in N2-15 vol.% O2 with 15 and 25 vol.% CO2. Iron corrodes very fast in contact with the melt, forming layers of Fe3O4 and Fe2O3, which is converted to LiFeO2 and LiFe5O8. The high

M. Spiegel; P. Biedenkopf; H. J. Grabke

1997-01-01

38

Microfluid as a mean for piezoresistive strain measurement — a mixture of glycerin with salt water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture of glycerin with salt water is proposed as a mean for piezoresistive strain measurement. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is conducted for the investigation of the electrical conductive behavior of the mixture confined within a definite volume. The role of glycerin is to increase the viscosity of the mixture, to reduce water loss due to evaporation and to lower

Yin-Nee Cheung; Ching-Hsiang Cheng; Chen Chao; King-Lun Kwok; Mo Yang; Samuel Chun-Lap Lo; Wallace Leung

2008-01-01

39

Hazard characterization of mixtures of ammonium nitrate with the sodium salt of dichloroisocyanuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There has been recent interest in the hazard properties of mixtures of ammonium nitrate (AN) and the sodium salt of dichloroisocyanuric acid (SDIC) due to the possible involvement of such mixtures in the tragic accident in Toulouse, France, in September 2001.  The thermal hazards of the mixtures were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC), thermogravimetry

C. M. Badeen; Q. S. M. Kwok; Marie C. R. Vachon; R. Turcotte; D. E. G. Jones

2005-01-01

40

Electrochemical Study on the Electrodeposition of U, Nd, Ce, La and Y on a Liquid Cadmium Cathode in a LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt  

SciTech Connect

Electro-depositions of U, Nd, Ce, La and Y on a liquid cadmium cathode in a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were studied by using an electrolytic cell. For the LiCl-KCl-UCl{sub 3}- NdCl{sub 3}-CeCl{sub 3}-LaCl{sub 3}-YCl{sub 3}/Cd system, cyclic voltammograms and polarization curves were measured and the electrochemical properties of the system were discussed. From the results of the electro-depositions of U and rare earth metals on the LCC, separation factors and recovery ratios of U and REs were obtained and co-electro-depositions of U and REs were investigated. (authors)

Sung Bin Park; Jong Hyeon Lee; Sung Chan Hwang; Young Ho Kang; Joon Bo Shim; Han Soo Lee; Eung Ho Kim; Seong Won Park [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

41

Effects of selective adaptation on coding sugar and salt tastes in mixtures.  

PubMed

Little is known about coding of taste mixtures in complex dynamic stimulus environments. A protocol developed for odor stimuli was used to test whether rapid selective adaptation extracted sugar and salt component tastes from mixtures as it did component odors. Seventeen human subjects identified taste components of "salt + sugar" mixtures. In 4 sessions, 16 adapt-test stimulus pairs were presented as atomized, 150-?L "taste puffs" to the tongue tip to simulate odor sniffs. Stimuli were NaCl, sucrose, "NaCl + sucrose," and water. The sugar was 98% identified but the suppressed salt 65% identified in unadapted mixtures of 2 concentrations of NaCl, 0.1 or 0.05 M, and sucrose at 3 times those concentrations, 0.3 or 0.15 M. Rapid selective adaptation decreased identification of sugar and salt preadapted ambient components to 35%, well below the 74% self-adapted level, despite variation in stimulus concentration and adapting time (<5 or >10 s). The 96% identification of sugar and salt extra mixture components was as certain as identification of single compounds. The results revealed that salt-sugar mixture suppression, dependent on relative mixture-component concentration, was mutual. Furthermore, like odors, stronger and recent tastes are emphasized in dynamic experimental conditions replicating natural situations. PMID:22562765

Frank, Marion E; Goyert, Holly F; Formaker, Bradley K; Hettinger, Thomas P

2012-10-01

42

Temperature dependence of the elastic moduli and damping for polycrystalline LiF-22 pct CaF2 eutectic salt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Young's and shear moduli and damping were measured for as-cast polycrystalline LiF-(22 mol pct)CaF2 eutectic specimens as a function of temperature using the piezoelectric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique. The shear modulus decreased with increasing temperature from about 40 GPa at 295 K to about 30 GPa at 1000 K, while the Young modulus decreased from about 115 GPa at 295 K to about 35 GPa at 900 K. These values are compared with those derived from the rule of mixtures using elastic moduli data for LiF and CaF2 single crystals. It is shown that, while the shear modulus data agree reasonably well with the predicted trend, there is a large discrepancy between the theoretical calculations and the Young modulus values, where this disagreement increases with increasing temperature.

Wolfenden, A.; Lastrapes, G.; Duggan, M. B.; Raj, S. V.

1991-01-01

43

Selective Deposition of UCl 4and (KCl) x(UCl 4) yinside Carbon Nanotubes Using Eutectic and Noneutectic Mixtures of UCl 4with KCl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UCl 4and compositions of the form (KCl) x(UCl 4) yhave been selectively deposited inside multiple-walled carbon nanotubes (MWTs) via capillary action using both eutectic and noneutectic mixtures of UCl 4with KCl. The deposition conditions were determined from the pseudobinary KCl-UCl 4phase diagram, which contains two eutectic melting compositions at 50 mol% KCl:50 mol% UCl 4and 73.2 mol% KCl:26.8 mol% UCl 4, and also from surface tension/composition data reported in the literature. The encapsulated products were investigated by HRTEM and EDX incorporating both nanometer and sub-nanometer scale electron probes. Following preliminary characterization, the selectively encapsulated UCl 4was allowed to oxidize in air for 14 days, but only a relatively small amount (ca. 2%) of a crystalline oxidized product of the form U(Cl, O) xwas observed inside the MWTs. Some MWTs selectively filled with UCl 4showed evidence of spiraling (helical) crystal growth.

Sloan, J.; Cook, J.; Chu, A.; Zwiefka-Sibley, M.; Green, M. L. H.; Hutchison, J. L.

1998-10-01

44

Activity coefficients of actinide and rare-earth chlorides in molten LiCl/KCl eutectic salt  

SciTech Connect

Using a numerical Gibbs free-energy minimization technique, the activity coefficients of actinide and rare-earth chlorides in molten LiCl/KCl eutectic at 450 C have been calculated. Laboratory tests of an electrochemical process for separating actinide metals from rare-earth metals in LiCl/KCl solvent at 450 C provided experimental concentration and cathode potential data. The generalized expansion by Wohl was used to express the concentration dependence of the excess Gibbs free energy. The activity coefficients were expressed in terms of the Wohl volume and interaction energy parameters. The Wohl parameters for the activity coefficient expansions were obtained by minimizing the total Gibbs free energy expressed in terms of the experimental mole fractions. This thermodynamic model will be valuable for process design and scale-up calculations.

Bechtel, T.B.; Storvick, T.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-04-01

45

LOCALIZED CORROSION OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELEXPOSED TO MIXTURES OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE AND CHLORIDE SALTS  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted to investigate the corrosivity of moist plutonium oxide/chloride (PuO{sub 2}/Cl-) salt mixtures on 304L and 316L stainless steel coupons. The tests exposed flat coupons for pitting evaluation and 'teardrop' stressed coupons for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation at room temperature to various mixtures of PuO{sub 2} and chloride-bearing salts for periods up to 500 days. The two flat coupons were placed so that the solid oxide/salt mixture contacted about one half of the coupon surface. One teardrop coupon was placed in contact with solid mixture; the second teardrop was in contact with the headspace gas only. The mixtures were loaded with nominally 0.5 wt % water under a helium atmosphere. Observations of corrosion ranged from superficial staining to pitting and SCC. The extent of corrosion depended on the total salt concentration and on the composition of the salt. The most significant corrosion was found in coupons that were exposed to 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 2 wt % chloride salt mixtures that contained calcium chloride. SCC was observed in two 304L stainless steel teardrop coupons exposed in solid contact to a mixture of 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 0.9 wt % NaCl, 0.9 wt % KCl, and 0.2 wt % CaCl{sub 2}. The cracking was associated with the heat-affected zone of an autogenous weld that ran across the center of the coupon. Cracking was not observed in coupons exposed to the headspace gas, nor in coupons exposed to other mixtures with either 0.92 wt% CaCl{sub 2} or no CaCl{sub 2}. The corrosion results point to the significance of the interaction between water loading and the concentration of the hydrating salt CaCl{sub 2} in the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to corrosion.

Zapp, P; Kerry Dunn, K; Jonathan Duffey, J; Ron Livingston, R; Zane Nelson, Z

2008-11-21

46

Effect of mixture casting phosphonium salts with Nafion ® on the proton exchange capacity and mass transport through the membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined how the physical properties of Nafion® are affected by mixture casting Nafion® with quaternary phosphonium salts. Quaternary phosphonium salts can be mixture cast with commercially available Nafion® suspension to form membranes with decreased proton exchange capacity and altered mass transport of cations, anions and neutral species through the membrane. Since quaternary phosphonium salts are similar in size

Christine M. Moore; Sarah Hackman; Terrance Brennan; Shelley D. Minteer

2005-01-01

47

Eutectic bonding of sapphire to sapphire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide provides new bonding technique for sapphires and rubies. Technique effectively reduces possibility of contamination. Bonding material is aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide mixture that matches coefficient of thermal expansion of sapphire.

Deluca, J. J.

1973-01-01

48

Solubilization of rare earth oxides in the eutectic LiCl–KCl mixture at 450 °C and in the equimolar CaCl 2–NaCl melt at 550 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solubilization studies of rare earth oxides and oxohalides have been carried out in the eutectic LiCl–KCl melt at 450°C and the equimolar CaCl2–NaCl mixture at 550°C. First, chlorinating conditions were predicted by comparing the E–pO2? diagram of the different rare earth-O compounds to that of several chlorinating gaseous mixtures. Then, experimental solubilization tests were performed by using pure HCl and

Y. Castrillejo; M. R. Bermejo; E. Barrado; A. M. Mart??nez; P. D??az Arocas

2003-01-01

49

Mass-transfer characteristics of nitrate-based salt mixtures. [Heat transfer fluid for solar thermal power systems  

SciTech Connect

Molten eutectic NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ is being circulated in three thermal-convection loops constructed of alloy 800 and types 304L and 316 stainless steel. The loops are operated at a maximum salt temperature of 595/sup 0/C and a salt temperature differential of 235/sup 0/C. Corrosion specimens contained within each loop are withdrawn for periodic determinations of weight and microstructural changes. Salt samples are analyzed at selected intervals to monitor changes in the composition of the salt. Controlled potential voltammetry is also used to follow changes in the oxidation potential of the salt. Preliminary results indicate low corrosion rates for the austenitic stainless steels in flowing NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/. Corrosion rate data from these tests will be used to develop a kinetic model for the mass transfer of Cr, Ni, and Fe as a function of temperature gradient along the salt flow path.

DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.

1980-01-01

50

Distribution behavior of uranium, neptunium, rare-earth elements ( Y, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) and alkaline-earth metals (Sr,Ba) between molten LiCl?KCI eutectic salt and liquid cadmium or bismuth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution coefficients of uranium neptunium, eight rare-earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) and two alkaline-earth metals (Sr and Ba) between molten LiCl-KCI eutectic salt and either liquid cadmium or bismuth were measured at 773 K. Separation factors of trivalent rare-earth elements to uranium or neptunium in the LiCl-KCl\\/Bi system were by one or two orders

M. Kurata; Y. Sakamura; T. Hijikata; K. Kinoshita

1995-01-01

51

Measurement of the melting point temperature of several lithium-sodium-beryllium fluoride salt (FLINABE) mixtures.  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium flourides, was studied for molten salt fission reactors and has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for the fusion applications. 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at 460 C. LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at a lower temperature, 363 C, but is rather viscous and has less lithium breeder. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing ternary molten salt for the first wall surface and blanket were investigated. The molten salt (FLiNaBe, a ternary mixture of LiF, BeF2 and NaF) salt was selected because a melting temperature below 350 C that would provide an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor application appeared possible. This information came from a Russian binary phase diagram and a US ternary phase diagram in the 1960's that were not wholly consistent. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and, BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a small stainless steel crucible under vacuum. The proportions of the three salts were selected to yield conglomerate salts with as low a melting temperature as possible. The temperature of the salts and the crucible were recorded during the melting and subsequent re-solidification using a thermocouple directly in the salt pool and two thermocouples embedded in the crucible. One mixture had an apparent melting temperature of 305 C. Particular attention was paid to the cooling curve of the salt temperature to observe evidence of any mixed intermediate phases between the fully liquid and fully solid states. The clarity, texture, and thickness were observed and noted as well. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, and the melting procedure are described. The temperature curves for the melting and cooling of each of the mixtures are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible was also done and is reported in a separate paper.

Boyle, Timothy J.; Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Nygren, Richard Einar; Lutz, Thomas Joseph; McDonald, Jimmie M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

2004-09-01

52

Use of Electrodialysis to Remove Acid, Salt, and Heavy Metal Mixtures from Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of solution composition on the electrodialysis design parameters of overall current efficiency and apparent stack resistance for mixtures of acids, monovalent salts, and divalent metals is discussed. Current efficiency was observed to be dependent upon ion valence and independent of the nature of the ionic specie for the membrane system under investigation. Under many conditions, simple linear mixing

D. A. Rockstraw; J. F. Scamehorn

1997-01-01

53

Measurement of the Melting Point Temperature of Several Lithium-Sodium-Beryllium Fluoride Salt (Flinabe) Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium fluorides studied for molten salt fission reactors, has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for fusion applications. The melting points of 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} and LiF-BeF{sub 2} are 460 deg. C and 363 deg. C, but LiF-BeF{sub 2} is rather viscous and has less lithium for breeding. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing liquid for the first wall and blanket were investigated. Flinabe (a mixture of LiF, BeF{sub 2} and NaF) was selected for a molten salt design because a melting temperature below 350 deg. C appeared possible and this provided an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a stainless steel crucible under vacuum. One had an apparent melting temperature of 305 deg. C. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, melting procedures and temperature curves for the melting and cooling are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible is reported in an accompanying paper.

McDonald, J.M; Nygren, R.E.; Lutz, T.J.; Tanaka, T.J; Ulrickson, M.A.; Boyle, T.J.; Troncosa, K.P. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)

2005-04-15

54

Effect of isothermal aging and salt spray tests on reliability and mechanical strength of eutectic Sn-Bi lead-free solder joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutectic Sn-Bi solder has attracted a great deal of interest since it offers good reliability comparable to that of Sn-Pb solders. Additionally, the increasing need for low cost manufacturing processes, particularly in consumer electronics, has made it an interesting alternative. This paper presents reliability and microstructural studies of eutectic 42%Sn–58%Bi (wt.%) lead-free solder alloy. The reliability was investigated using two

M. Mostofizadeh; J. Pippola; T. Marttila; L. Frisk

2012-01-01

55

Effect of salt on boiling heat transfer of ammonia-water mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficients were determined experimentally for NH3-H2O, NH3-H2O-LiNO3 and NH3-H2O-LiBr mixtures. Both the salts were effective in increasing the heat transfer coefficient of NH3-H2O mixture. A concentration of 10 mass% of the salts in water, produced the greatest enhancement in heat transfer coefficient at all the range of pressure, heat flux and ammonia concentration studied in this investigation. The experiments indicated that ammonia concentration also has the impact on the augmentation of heat transfer coefficient in NH3-H2O binary mixture by the addition of salts. For the solution of ammonia mass fraction 0.30, high concentration of LiBr gives the highest heat transfer coefficient, for ammonia mass fraction of 0.25, high concentration of LiNO3 gives the maximum heat transfer coefficient, for ammonia mass fraction of 0.15, both the salts are equally effective in increasing the heat transfer coefficient.

Sathyabhama, A.

2012-03-01

56

Effect of dissolved inorganic salts on the isothermal vapor–liquid equilibrium of the propionic acid–water mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propionic acid–water is one of the minimum boiling point azeotropic binary mixtures. Alteration of the vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) by addition of inorganic salts is of interest, since it allows bypassing the azeotropic point due to salt-in and salt-out effects. The effect of NaCl, NH4Cl, CaCl2, and AlCl3 at salt concentrations of 1 m and the effect of NaCl molality (0.5–3

Fawzi Banat; Sameer Al-Asheh; Jana Simandl

2002-01-01

57

Investigation of phase coexistence in block copolymer/salt mixtures near order-disorder phase transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixtures of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) copolymer and lithium bis(trifluromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt can microphase separate into ion-conducting (PEO/LiTFSI) and mechanically reinforcing (PS) domains, facilitating their application as solid electrolytes in lithium batteries. PS-b-PEO/LiTFSI mixtures that exhibit thermally accessible order-disorder phase transitions (ODTs) are used to gain thermodynamic insight to the polymer/salt system. The Gibbs phase rule requires a coexistence of phases during a phase transition in binary systems. We use birefringence and SAXS measurements to confirm the presence of coexisting ordered and disordered phases near the ODT and quantify their relative volume fractions throughout the coexistence temperature window.

Thelen, Jacob; Balsara, Nitash

2013-03-01

58

Explosion investigation of asphalt–salt mixtures in a reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cause investigation of a fire and explosion at the nuclear fuel waste reprocessing plant indicated that self-heating ignition of an asphalt–salt-waste, bituminized, mixture (AS) caused the disaster. A 220l drum was filled with the AS at a temperature of about 180°C. About 20h later the drum ignited and burned as it was being cooled. It is estimated that the AS

Kazutoshi Hasegawa; Yongfu Li

2000-01-01

59

Diffusion barriers at Mars surface conditions: Salt crusts, particle size mixtures, and dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion coefficient of water vapor through porous media at Mars-like surface conditions is measured for a variety of complex particle size distributions and soil compositions. Micron-sized dust simulants, mixtures of sand- and dust-sized particles, and salt-encrusted sand are examined. We find that while the value of the diffusion coefficient, D, can be reduced by up to a factor of

Troy L. Hudson; Oded Aharonson

2008-01-01

60

Chloride salt mixtures affect Gordal cv. green Spanish-style table olive fermentation.  

PubMed

This work studies the effects of different sodium (in the range of 4-10%), potassium (0-4%) and calcium (0-6%) chloride salt mixtures on the fermentation profile of Gordal olives processed according to the Spanish style. For this purpose, response surface methodology based on a simplex centroid mixture design with constrain (sum of salt percentages = 10%) was used. All treatments reached appropriate titratable acidity levels, but this parameter could not be related to the initial chloride salt concentration. The presence of CaCl(2) led to lower initial and after-fermentation pHs, delayed sugar diffusion into the brine, its maximum concentration and titratable acidity formation. CaCl(2) also delayed Enterobacteriaceae and yeast sprang, decreasing their overall growth. This chloride salt also showed a tendency to reduce overall lactic acid bacteria growth. KCl had a similar behaviour to NaCl but, in general, increased overall microbial growth. Thus, a partial substitution of NaCl in Spanish-style green olives with KCl and CaCl(2) does not substantially modify the fermentation profile but does produce some changes, which, when properly managed, could help to improve product processing. PMID:21839381

Bautista Gallego, J; Arroyo López, F N; Romero Gil, V; Rodríguez Gómez, F; García García, P; Garrido Fernández, A

2011-10-01

61

Fermentation profiles of Manzanilla-Aloreña cracked green table olives in different chloride salt mixtures.  

PubMed

NaCl plays an important role in table olive processing affecting the flavour and microbiological stability of the final product. However, consumers demand foods low in sodium, which makes necessary to decrease levels of this mineral in fruits. In this work, the effects of diverse mixtures of NaCl, CaCl(2) and KCl on the fermentation profiles of cracked directly brined Manzanilla-Aloreña olives, were studied by means of response surface methodology based in a simplex lattice mixture design with constrains. All salt combinations led to lactic acid processes. The growth of Enterobacteriaceae populations was always limited and partially inhibited by the presence of CaCl(2). Only time to reach half maximum populations and decline rates of yeasts, which were higher as concentrations of NaCl or KCl increased, were affected, and correspondingly modelled, as a function of salt mixtures. However, lactic acid bacteria growth parameters could not be related to initial environmental conditions. They had a longer lag phase, slower growth and higher population levels than yeasts. Overall, the presence of CaCl(2) led to a slower Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria growth than the traditional NaCl brine but to higher yeast activity. The presence of CaCl(2) in the fermentation brines also led to higher water activity, lower pH and combined acidity as well as a faster acidification while NaCl and KCl had fairly similar behaviours. Apparently, NaCl may be substituted in diverse proportions with KCl or CaCl(2) without substantially disturbing water activity or the usual fermentation profiles while producing olives with lower salt content. PMID:20227606

Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernández, A

2010-05-01

62

Molten salt synthesis of potassium hexatitanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potassium hexatitanate fibrous crystals have been synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction and via molten salt process. The molten salt process has been shown to be effective in preparing fine and non-agglomerated K2Ti6O13 whiskers. The type of molten salt (KCl, NaCl-KCl) has a significant effect on the chemical composition of the whiskers. By using a eutectic mixture of NaCl and KCl, the replacement of potassium ions in solid potassium hexatitanate by smaller sodium ions from the chloride flux can be achieved. The characterization of the samples was carried out by means of XRD, SEM, EDX and WDX.

Zaremba, T.

2012-09-01

63

Protease activation in glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents  

PubMed Central

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of a choline salt (chloride or acetate form) and glycerol are prepared as easily accessible, biodegradable, and inexpensive alternatives to conventional aprotic cation-anion paired ionic liquids. These DES systems display excellent fluidity coupled with thermal stability to nearly 200 °C. In this work, the transesterification activities of cross-linked proteases (subtilisin and ?-chymotrypsin), immobilized on chitosan, were individually examined in these novel DESs. In the 1:2 molar ratio mixture of choline chloride/glycerol containing 3% (v/v) water, cross-linked subtilisin exhibited an excellent activity (2.9 ?mo l min?1 g?1) in conjunction with a selectivity of 98% in the transesterification reaction of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester with 1-propanol. These highly encouraging results advocate more extensive exploration of DESs in protease-mediated biotransformations of additional polar substrates and use of DESs in biocatalysis more generally.

Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A.; Holmes, Shaletha

2011-01-01

64

A new method for producing artificial snow crystals using a mixture of salt and ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been found that artificial snow crystals can be produced by a simple method using a mixture of salt and ice crushed into sherbet as the cooling material. The freezing mixture of about 100 g was contained in a small styrene cup (85 mm varnothing, 50 mm height). A black acrylic plate (25 mm varnothing, 2 mm thickness) was placed on the freezing mixture in the cup. The cup was placed in a closed plastic box (130×130×65 mm). The water vapour in the air trapped in the plastic box crystallized onto the surface of the acrylic plate and made a crystal 1-2 mm in size in 20 minutes. The artificial crystal is quite similar to natural snow crystals with excellent hexagonal symmetry. A model to explain the process of producing the artificial snow crystal has been proposed, insisting that the electric field due to the static electricity from the acrylic plate plays an important role in making the seeds for the crystal growth.

Suwa, Y.; Myint, H. H.; Kurniawan, H.; Ito, F.; Kagawa, K.

2001-07-01

65

Eutectic modification in a low-chromium white cast iron by a mixture of titanium, rare earths, and bismuth: Part II. effect on the wear behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we studied the wear behavior of a low-Cr white cast iron (WCI) modified with ferrotitanium-rare earths-bismuth (Fe-Ti-RE-Bi) up to 2%. These additions modified the eutectic carbide structure of the alloy from continuous ledeburite into a blocky, less interconnected carbide network. The modified structure was wear tested under pure sliding conditions against a hardened M2 steel counter-face using a load of 250 N. It was observed that wear resistance increased as the modifier admixture increased. The modified structure had smaller more isolated carbides than the WCI with no Fe-Ti-RE-Bi additions. It was observed that large carbides fracture during sliding, which destabilizes the structure and causes degradation in the wear behavior. A transition from abrasive to oxidative wear after 20 km sliding occurred for all alloys. In addition, the modified alloys exhibited higher values of hardness and fracture toughness. These results are discussed in terms of the modified eutectic carbide microstructure.

Bedolla-Jacuinde, A.; Aguilar, S. L.; Maldonado, C.

2005-06-01

66

Matrix effects in thermal lens spectrometry: Influence of salts, surfactants, polymers and solvent mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present an overall view of the matrix effects that can change or alter the signal in thermal lens spectrometry and we report the main works published in this field. The addition of salts, surfactants and polymers in aqueous solutions or the use of solvent mixtures is often needed in a variety of applications either to enhance the sensitivity of the thermal lens method or more generally because such media are required in the separation process prior to thermal lens detection. In most cases, matrix effects result in small changes in the thermo-optical properties of the solution and small signal variations. However, most important signal alterations can arise from the Soret effect. In binary mixtures as well as in solutions with macromolecular species which are initially homogeneous, the temperature gradient will induce the migration of molecules and the formation of a concentration gradient. This results in the formation of a concentration-dependent refractive index gradient which adds to the temperature-dependent refractive index gradient and contributes to the formation of a new signal. This effect can seriously alter the analytical signal and lead to erroneous interpretation of the experimental data. In contrast, time-resolved measurements can help in separating both signal components and have allowed to derive mass-diffusion times and mass-diffusion coefficients for a variety of micelles and polymers.

Georges, Joseph

2008-04-01

67

Dual salt mixtures in mixed mode chromatography with an immobilized tryptophan ligand influence the removal of aggregated monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

In downstream processing of monoclonal antibodies, proper aggregate removal is crucial. Mixed mode ligands such as immobilized tryptophan have been developed to satisfy the need for efficient removal of antibody aggregates. However, method development for mixed mode applications is complicated, since protein binding and elution can be modulated by an increased set of parameters. In the current study, we investigate the effect of different dual salt mixtures on mixed mode chromatography using TOYOPEARL MX-Trp-650M resin, with respect to the dynamic binding capacity, resolution and monomer purity of two different humanized immunoglobulins. Binding capacities varying by more than 50% were observed for different salt mixtures. Furthermore, antibody monomer and aggregate resolution deviated by 30% for different salt mixtures and linear gradient elution. Similar trends were obtained using an immobilized carboxymethyl ligand for the same set of experiments, but the overall resolution was lower. Less kosmotropic salt systems emphasize the electrostatic binding of the relatively hydrophobic mAbs and reduce hydrophobic attraction to a selectivity-determining constraint. Kosmotropic salts such as citrate appear to cause dominating hydrophobic interactions in protein adsorption that hinder electrostatic protein-ligand interactions. This effect may depend on the ionic and hydrophobic site distribution of a protein. The data presented here are important for the further improvement of downstream processing of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. PMID:24421277

Vajda, Judith; Mueller, Egbert; Bahret, Eva

2014-04-01

68

Solid–liquid equilibria in mixtures of molten salt hydrates for the design of heat storage materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enthalpy of melting can be used to store heat in a simple way for time periods of hours and days. Knowledge of the solid-liquid equilibria represents the most important pre- sumption for systematic evaluations of the suitability of hydrated salt mixtures. In this paper, two approaches for predicting solid-liquid equilibria in ternary or higher component systems are discussed using the

W. Voigt; D. Zeng

2002-01-01

69

Eutectic freeze crystallization simultaneous formation and separation of two solid phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eutectic freeze crystallization (EFC) separates aqueous inorganic solutions into pure water and pure salt. By operating at the eutectic point, ice and salt can be formed simultaneously as two separate phases. Two aqueous systems were investigated in batch and continuous crystallization experiments: copper sulfate (eutectic temperature 271 K) and mono-ammonium phosphate (269 K). Below the eutectic temperature, ice can be formed without any salt formation by seeding with ice seeds and solely salt is formed by seeding with salt crystals. When however, the solution is seeded with both salt and ice crystals, two distinct solid phases are formed: when the stirrer is turned off, ice rises and salt settles. This shows that EFC separates aqueous solutions into ice and salt as two distinct phases. Based on these results, a 15 l cooled disk column crystallizer (CDCC) has been built, designed to crystallize and separate both the solids simultaneously in a single apparatus.

van der Ham, F.; Witkamp, G. J.; de Graauw, J.; van Rosmalen, G. M.

1999-03-01

70

Growth mechanisms of modified eutectic silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission electron microscopy has been used to study the growth mechanism of silicon in modified aluminium-silicon eutectic alloys. In agreement with earlier studies a high density of thin {1 1 1 } faults was observed in silicon modified by relatively large amounts of sodium or strontium. High-resolution microscopy showed that these faults were a mixture of thin twins and stacking

J. M. Dowling; J. M. Corbett; H. W. Kerr

1987-01-01

71

Structural investigation of thorium in molten lithium–calcium fluoride mixtures for salt treatment process in molten salt reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements on thorium fluoride in molten lithium–calcium fluoride mixtures and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of zirconium and yttrium fluoride in molten lithium–calcium fluoride mixtures have been carried out. In the molten state, coordination number of thorium (Ni) and inter ionic distances between thorium and fluorine in the first neighbor (ri) are nearly constant in all

Masahiko Numakura; Nobuaki Sato; Catherine Bessada; Yoshihiro Okamoto; Hiroshi Akatsuka; Atsushi Nezu; Yasuaki Shimohara; Keisuke Tajima; Hirokazu Kawano; Takeshi Nakahagi; Haruaki Matsuura

2011-01-01

72

Spiraling eutectic dendrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eutectic dendrites forming in a model ternary system have been studied using the phase-field theory. The eutectic and one-phase dendrites have similar forms, and the tip radius scales with the interface free energy as for one-phase dendrites. The steady-state eutectic patterns, appearing on these two-phase dendrites, include concentric rings and single- to multiarm spirals from which the fluctuations choose; a stochastic phenomenon characterized by a peaked probability distribution. The number of spiral arms correlates with the tip radius and the kinetic anisotropy.

Pusztai, Tamás; Rátkai, László; Szállás, Attila; Gránásy, László

2013-03-01

73

Self-Assembly of Polyion-Surfactant Ion Complex Salts in Mixtures with Water and n-Alcohols  

PubMed Central

Phase behavior and structural features were investigated for “complex salts”, consisting of the cationic hexadecyltrimethylammonium (CTA) surfactant with polyacrylate (PAn, n = 30 or 6000) counterions, mixed with water and different n-alcohols (ethanol, butanol, hexanol, octanol, and decanol). The liquid crystalline structures formed were identified by small-angle X-ray scattering measurements, which provided information about the changes in the geometry of the aggregates as functions of the concentration and chain length of the added n-alcohol. The obtained results were compared with a previous work on similar ternary mixtures of the same cationic surfactant but with the monomeric bromide counterion, CTABr (Fontell, K.; Khan, A.; Lindström, B.; Maciejewska, D.; Puang-Ngern, S. Colloid Polym. Sci., 1991, 269, 727). In general, the same phases were detected in systems with the complex salts CTAPAn as in systems with CTABr, but the swelling of the various liquid crystalline phases by water was much more limited in the complex salt systems. An isotropic alcoholic phase was observed with all alcohols and the size of this region of the phase diagram increased for the shorter alcohols, except for ethanol. For mixtures with octanol and ethanol, in particular, the extensions of the disordered isotropic phases were larger for the complex salt with the shorter polyacrylate ions.

2011-01-01

74

Ternary eutectic growth of Ag-Cu-Sb alloy within ultrasonic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid to solid transformation of ternary Ag42.4Cu21.6Sb36 eutectic alloy was accomplished in an ultrasonic field with a frequency of 35 kHz, and the growth mechanism of this ternary eutectic was examined. Theoretical calculations predict that the sound intensity in the liquid phase at the solidification interface increases gradually as the interface moves up from the sample bottom to its top. The growth mode of ( ? + ? + Sb) ternary eutectic exhibits a transition of “divorced eutectic—mixture of anomalous and regular structures—regular eutectic” along the sample axis due to the inhomogeneity of sound field distribution. In the top zone with the highest sound intensity, the cavitation effect promotes the three eutectic phases to nucleate independently, while the acoustic streaming efficiently suppresses the coupled growth of eutectic phases. In the meantime, the ultrasonic field accelerates the solute transportation at the solid-liquid interface, which reduces the solute solubility of eutectic phases.

Zhai, Wei; Hong, Zhenyu; Wei, Bingbo

2007-08-01

75

Investigations of neutron characteristics for salt blanket models; integral fission cross section measurements of neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Neutron characteristics of salt blanket micromodels containing eutectic mixtures of sodium, zirconium and uranium sulphides were measured on FKBN-2M, BIGR and MAKET installations. The effective fission cross sections of neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes were measured on the neutron spectra formed by micromodels. KEYWORDS: transmutation, minor actinides, fluoride salts, micromodel, critical assembly, neutron spectrum, multiplication coefficient, fission, effective cross section, nuclear track detector, nuclear data library

Novoselov, G. F.; Gavrilov, V. V.; Kuvshinov, M. (Mikhail); Bogdanov, V. M. (Vladimir Mikha?lovich); Maslov, Georgi? Vladimirovich,; Vyachin, V. (Vladimir); Mashnik, S. G. (Stepan G.); Gorelov, V. I. (Vladimir Ivanovich); Fomushkin, E. F.

2001-01-01

76

Molecular dynamics simulations of the structure of the graphene-ionic liquid/alkali salt mixtures interface.  

PubMed

We performed molecular dynamics simulations of mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with lithium tetrafluoroborate and potassium tetrafluoroborate between two charged and uncharged graphene walls, in order to analyze the structure of the well-known formation of layers that takes place on liquids under confinement. For this purpose, we studied the molecular density profiles, free energy profiles for bringing lithium and potassium cations from the bulk mixture to the graphene wall and the orientational distributions of imidazolium rings within the first adsorbed layer as a function of salt concentration and electrode potential. The charge densities in the electrodes were chosen to be zero and ±1 e nm(-2), and the salt molar percentages were %salt = 0, 10 and 25. We found that the layered structure extends up to 1-2 nm, where the bulk behaviour is recovered. In addition, whereas for the neutral surface the layers are composed of both ionic species, increasing the electrode potential, the structure changes to alternating cationic and anionic layers leading to an overcompensation of the charge of the previous layer. We also calculated the distribution of angles of imidazolium rings near neutral and charged graphene walls, finding a limited influence of the added salt. In addition, the average tilt of the imidazolium ring within the first layer goes from 36° with respect to a normal vector to the uncharged graphene wall to 62° in the presence of charged walls. The free energy profiles revealed that lithium and potassium ions are adsorbed on the negative surface only for the highest amount of salt, since the free energy barriers for approaching this electrode are considerably higher than kBT. PMID:24871696

Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Carrete, Jesús; Pérez-Rodríguez, Martín; Cabeza, Oscar; Gallego, Luis J; Lynden-Bell, Ruth M; Varela, Luis M

2014-06-11

77

Internal Mixture of Sea Salt, Silicates, and Excess Sulfate in Marine Aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual aerosol particles from the remote marine atmosphere were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. A large fraction of the silicate mineral component of the aerosol was found to be internally mixed with sea-salt aerosol particles. This observation explains the unexpected similarity in the size distributions of silicates and sea salt that has been observed in remote

Meinrat O. Andreae; Robert J. Charlson; Frank Bruynseels; Hedwig Storms; Rene van Grieken; Willy Maenhaut

1986-01-01

78

Eutectics as improved pharmaceutical materials: design, properties and characterization.  

PubMed

Eutectics are a long known class of multi-component solids with important and useful applications in daily life. In comparison to other multi-component crystalline solids, such as salts, solid solutions, molecular complexes and cocrystals, eutectics are less studied in terms of molecular structure organization and bonding interactions. Classically, a eutectic is defined based on its low melting point compared to the individual components. In this article, we attempt to define eutectics not just based on thermal methods but from a structural organization view point, and discuss their microstructures and properties as organic materials vis-a-vis solid solutions and cocrystals. The X-ray crystal structure of a cocrystal is different from that of the individual components whereas the unit cell of a solid solution is similar to that of one of the components. Eutectics are closer to the latter species in that their crystalline arrangement is similar to the parent components but they are different with respect to the structural integrity. A solid solution possesses structural homogeneity throughout the structure (single phase) but a eutectic is a heterogeneous ensemble of individual components whose crystal structures are like discontinuous solid solutions (phase separated). Thus, a eutectic may be better defined as a conglomerate of solid solutions. A structural analysis of cocrystals, solid solutions and eutectics has led to an understanding that materials with strong adhesive (hetero) interactions between the unlike components will lead to cocrystals whereas those having stronger cohesive (homo/self) interactions will more often give rise to solid solutions (for similar structures of components) and eutectics (for different structures of components). We demonstrate that the same crystal engineering principles which have been profitably utilized for cocrystal design in the past decade can now be applied to make eutectics as novel composite materials, illustrated by stable eutectics of the hygroscopic salt of the anti-tuberculosis drug ethambutol as a case study. A current gap in the characterization of eutectic microstructure may be fulfilled through pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of X-ray diffraction data, which could be a rapid signature technique to differentiate eutectics from their components. PMID:24322207

Cherukuvada, Suryanarayan; Nangia, Ashwini

2014-01-28

79

Internal mixture of sea salt, silicates, and excess sulfate in marine aerosols.  

PubMed

Individual aerosol particles from the remote marine atmosphere were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. A large fraction of the silicate mineral component of the aerosol was found to be internally mixed with sea-salt aerosol particles. This observation explains the unexpected similarity in the size distributions of silicates and sea salt that has been observed in remote marine aerosols. Reentrainment of dust particles previously deposited onto the sea surface and collision between aerosol particles can be excluded as possible source mechanisms for these internally mixed aerosols. The internal mixing could be produced by processes within clouds, including droplet coalescence. Cloud processes may also be responsible for the observed enrichment of excess (nonsea-salt) sulfate on sea-salt particles. PMID:17812139

Andreae, M O; Charlson, R J; Bruynseels, F; Storms, H; VAN Grieken, R; Maenhaut, W

1986-06-27

80

Density measurements of the lithium fluoride\\/lithium sulfide eutectic at high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A straightforward and reliable method to determine densities of molten salts at high temperatures was de-veloped by Janz and Lorenz several years ago.[1] This method was followed in order to determine the density of the LiF\\/Li2S eutectic[2] over the temperature range of 1176 to 1355 K in which the eutectic is liquid. The rel-ative lack of data for this eutectic

Charles L. Lloyd; James B. Gilbert

1994-01-01

81

Density measurements of the lithium fluoride\\/lithium sulfide eutectic at high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A straightforward and reliable method to determine densities of molten salts at high temperatures was de-veloped by Janz and\\u000a Lorenz several years ago.[1] This method was followed in order to determine the density of the LiF\\/Li2S eutectic[2] over the temperature range of 1176 to 1355 K in which the eutectic is liquid. The rel-ative lack of data for this eutectic

Charles L. Lloyd; James B. Gilbert

1994-01-01

82

Mixtures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mixtures allows exploration of percents through two piles of colored and uncolored chips. The user must decide how many chips to color to create the desired percentage of colored chips compared to the total pile. Mixtures is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

83

Form and structure of self-assembling particles in monoolein-bile salt mixtures  

SciTech Connect

We studied particle morphology in the isotropic part of the bile salt-monoolein-water phase map using small-angle neutron scattering. The bile salts used in this work are cholylglycine and chenodeoxycholylglycine. These systems are models for particle form and molecular arrangement in intestinal content when bile components are replaced by hydrolysis products of dietary triglycerides. We found that the molecular arrangement of the particles present is qualitatively the same as that in the bile salt-phosphatidylcholine systems. This result indicated that the particle morphology is conserved when the products of dietary triglyceride hydrolysis are incorporated, suggesting that the form of bile particle morphology is retained. These observations suggested further that the bile salt and the presence of a hydrocarbon chain are the most important determinants of the functional form of the bile particles, as the monoglyceride is a single-tailed, nonionic surfactant, as opposed to the phosphatidylcholines, which are two-tailed, zwitterionic surfactants. 55 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

Hjelm, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Schteingart, C.; Hoffmann, A.F. [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States); Sivia, D.S. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)

1995-11-02

84

Study of water activities of aerosols of mixtures of sodium and magnesium salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium and magnesium are major components of sea salt aerosols. Their salts of chlorides, sulfates and nitrates are hygroscopic. In this research, water activities of aqueous solutions of NaCl–MgCl2 (molar ratio 1:1), NaNO3–Mg(NO3)2 (1:1), Na2SO4–MgSO4 (1:1), NaCl–Mg(NO3)2 (1:1 and 3:1), NaCl–MgSO4 (1:1), and NaNO3–MgSO4 (1:1) were measured from dilute concentrations to high supersaturations using an electrodynamic balance. We employed a

Chak K Chan; Zhanyao Ha; Man Yee Choi

2000-01-01

85

Processing eutectics in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental work is reported which was directed toward obtaining interface shape control while a numerical thermal analysis program was being made operational. An experimental system was developed in which the solid-liquid interface in a directionally solidified aluminum-nickel eutectic could be made either concave to the melt or convex to the melt. This experimental system provides control over the solid-liquid interface shape and can be used to study the effect of such control on the microstructure. The SINDA thermal analysis program, obtained from Marshall Space Flight Center, was used to evaluate experimental directional solidification systems for the aluminum-nickel and the aluminum-copper eutectics. This program was applied to a three-dimensional ingot, and was used to calculate the thermal profiles in axisymmetric heat flow. The results show that solid-liquid interface shape control can be attained with physically realizable thermal configurations and the magnitudes of the required thermal inputs were indicated.

Douglas, F. C.; Galasso, F. S.

1974-01-01

86

The adiabatic compressibility of two-phase systems of salt mixture melts based on lithium fluoride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adiabatic compressibility coefficients of stratifying liquid lithium fluoride mixtures with potassium, rubidium, and cesium bromides and iodides were determined by the acoustic method with invoking density data. The difference of the compressibilities of phases along the saturation line was found to depend on the ratio between component bond energies. A compressibility jump was observed experimentally in the passage through the critical point.

Stepanov, V. P.; Minchenko, V. I.

2009-12-01

87

Spectroscopic and thermal investigations of the fluoroaluminate complex formation in NaF-KF and LiF-NaF-KF eutectics.  

PubMed

The dissolution and complex formation of fluoroaluminates in two eutectic alkalifluoride mixtures, NaF-KF (FNAK) and LiF-NaF-KF (FLINAK), have been investigated by Raman, NMR, and thermal analysis. Melting and dissolution took place stepwise. The eutectic alkalifluoride mixtures with minor amounts of dissolved fluoroaluminate salts started melting at around 460 and 740 degrees C for FLINAK and FNAK mixtures, respectively. Total melting/dissolution of mixtures with 9-11 mol % aluminum fluoro salts added took place near 780 degrees C in the FLINAK solvent and at approximately 900 degrees C for FNAK solutions. The solidified melts were characterized by Raman bands at 561 (nu(1)), 391 (nu(2)), and 328 cm(-1) (nu(5)) and a (27)Al NMR chemical shift near 0 ppm originating from isolated AlF(6)(3-) octahedral ions. The Raman and NMR signals due to AlF(6)(3-) were also observed at temperatures where the samples were only partly melted. Upon total melting, a pronounced dissociation of AlF(6)(3-) into AlF(5)(2-) and fluoride ions took place. At even higher temperatures, the equilibrium was displaced in favor of AlF(5)(2-) in the FNAK solvent. The AlF(5)(2-) ion was characterized by an intensive Raman band at 558 cm(-1) and an increasingly positive (27)Al chemical shift with raising temperature, e.g., of 16 ppm at 935 degrees C. PMID:12639123

von Barner, J H; Bessada, C; Berg, R W

2003-03-24

88

Stability diagrams for fourfold coordination of polyvalent metal ions in molten mixtures of halide salts  

SciTech Connect

The stability of local fourfold coordination for divalent and trivalent metal ions in liquid mixtures of polyvalent metal halides and alkali halides is classified by means of structural coordinates obtained from properties of the elements. In parallel with earlier classifications of compound crystal structures and molecular shapes, the elemental properties are taken from first-principles calculations of valence electron orbitals in atoms, in the form of (i) the nodal radii of Andreoni, Baldereschi and Guizzetti or (ii) the pseudopotential radii or Zunger and Cohen. As a third alternative a classification based on Pettifor's phenomenological chemical scale of the elements is also considered. The alternative structural classification schemes that are developed from these elemental properties are generally successfully in distinguishing molten mixtures in which the available experimental evidence indicates long-lived fourfold coordination of polyvalent metal ions. In addition, Pettifor's chemical scale scheme is useful in sorting out finer details of local coordination in the liquid state. 3 figs., 71 refs.

Akdeniz, Z. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy) Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics); Tosi, M.P. (Trieste Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1988-11-01

89

Utilization of temporal dominance of sensations and time intensity methodology for development of low-sodium Mozzarella cheese using a mixture of salts.  

PubMed

Evidence has linked excessive salt consumption to the development of chronic degenerative diseases. Therefore, special attention has been given to the consumption of healthier products with reduced sodium contents. This study aimed to develop a Mozzarella cheese with a reduced sodium content using a mixture of salts through acceptance testing and temporal sensory evaluation. The following 3 formulations of Mozzarella cheese were prepared: formulation A (control), which was produced only with NaCl (0% sodium reduction), formulation B (30% sodium reduction), and formulation C (54% sodium reduction). Every formulation was produced using a mixture of salts consisting of NaCl, KCl, and monosodium glutamate at different concentrations. The products underwent sensory acceptance tests, and the time intensity and temporal dominance of sensations were evaluated. The proportions of salts used did not cause strange or bad tastes but did result in lower intensities of saltiness. Mozzarella with low sodium content (B and C) had a sensory acceptance similar to that of traditional Mozzarella (A). Therefore, the use of a mixture of salts consisting of NaCl, KCl, and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative for the production of Mozzarella, with up to a 54% reduction in the sodium content while still maintaining acceptable sensory quality. PMID:24881790

Rodrigues, J F; Gonçalves, C S; Pereira, R C; Carneiro, J D S; Pinheiro, A C M

2014-08-01

90

Processing eutectics in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigations of directional solidification have indicated the necessity of establishing a secure foundation in earth-based laboratory processing in order to properly assess low-gravity processing. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the regularity of microstructure of the rod-like eutectic Al-Al3Ni obtained under different conditions of growth involving the parameters of thermal gradient, solidification rate, and interfacial curvature. In the case of Al-Al3Ni, where the Al3Ni phase appears as facets rods, solidification rate was determined to be a controlling parameter. Zone melting of thin eutectic films showed that for films of the order of 10 to 20 micrometers thick, the extra surface energy appears to act to stabilize a regular microstructure. The results suggest that the role of low-gravity as provided in space-laboratory processing of materials is to be sought in the possibility of generating a higher thermal gradient in the solidifying ingot for a given power input-output arrangement than can be obtained under normal one-g processes.

Douglas, F. C.; Galasso, S. F.

1975-01-01

91

Coatings for directional eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coatings developed to provide oxidation protection for the directionally-solidified eutectic alloy NiTaC-B (4.4 weight percent Cr) were evaluated. Of seven Co-, Fe- and Ni-base coatings that were initially investigated, best resistance to cyclic oxidation was demonstrated by duplex coatings fabricated by depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam source followed by deposition of an Al overlayer using the pack cementation process. It was found that addition of carbon to the coating alloy substantially eliminated the problem of fiber denudation in TaC-type eutectic alloys. Burner rig cycled NiTaC-B samples coated with Ni-20Cr-5Al-0.1C-0.1Y+Al and rupture-tested at 1100 deg C performed as well as or better than uncoated, vacuum cycled and air-tested NiTaC-13; however, a slight degradation with respect to uncoated material was noted in air-stress rupture tests at 870 deg C for both cycled and uncycled samples.

Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

1976-01-01

92

Kinetics of eutectic solidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A consistent thermodynamic description of the process of stationary eutectic solidification at low supercoolings is presented. To find the relation between the parameters that characterize this process, a new approach has been used that is based on obtaining an expression for the rate of the free-energy change by two different methods. This has made it possible to obtain a new relationship between the parameters of the arising structure. The first method is based on the consideration of the free-energy change that is due to the dissipative process of separative diffusion, which occurs in the bulk of the liquid phase. The second method involves the consideration of the balance of changes in the free energy far from the solidification front. Based on various extremum principles, analytical expressions for the rate of solidification and for the parameters of the arising eutectic structure have been derived. Rodlike and lamellar structures, which are observed most often in experiments, have been considered. It has been shown that conditions for the appearance of a particular structure are governed by the minimum values of the surface energy of the interfaces between the solid phases and by the "decomposition structure factor," which is introduced in this work.

Ivanov, M. A.; Naumuk, A. Yu.

2014-05-01

93

Electrolytic recovery of chlorine from hydrogen chloride gas with fused molten salt electrolyte LiCl\\/KCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of electrolytic recovery of chlorine from hydrogen chloride gas based on the fused molten salt LiCl\\/KCl is under development. For the feasibility study, described here, a reticulated vitreous carbon (or porous carbon) cathode was immersed in a low-melting eutectic of LiCl\\/KCl. A graphite rod was used as the anode. Gaseous dilute hydrogen chloride, in a mixture with nitrogen,

Y. Ding; J. Winnick

1996-01-01

94

Characterization and quantitation of a tertiary mixture of salts by Raman spectroscopy in simulated hydrothermal vent fluid.  

PubMed

This article will demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy can be a useful tool for monitoring the chemical composition of hydrothermal vent fluids in the deep ocean. Hydrothermal vent systems are difficult to study because they are commonly found at depths greater than 1000 m under high pressure (200-300 bar) and venting fluid temperatures are up to 400 degrees C. Our goal in this study was to investigate the use of Raman spectroscopy to characterize and quantitate three Raman-active salts that are among the many chemical building blocks of deep ocean vent chemistry. This paper presents initial sampling and calibration studies as part of a multiphase project to design, develop, and deploy a submersible deep sea Raman instrument for in situ analysis of hydrothermal vent systems. Raman spectra were collected from designed sets of seawater solutions of carbonate, sulfate, and nitrate under different physical conditions of temperature and pressure. The role of multivariate analysis techniques to preprocess the spectral signals and to develop optimal calibration models to accurately estimate the concentrations of a set of mixtures of simulated seawater are discussed. The effects that the high-pressure and high-temperature environment have upon the Raman spectra of the analytes were also systematically studied. Information gained from these lab experiments is being used to determine design criteria and performance attributes for a deployable deep sea Raman instrument to study hydrothermal vent systems in situ. PMID:16854265

Dable, Brian K; Love, Brooke A; Battaglia, Tina M; Booksh, Karl S; Lilley, Marvin D; Marquardt, Brian J

2006-07-01

95

Shock-induced melting of a KCl:LiCl eutectic powder as determined from electrochemical response measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shock-induced melting of powder compacts of a eutectic of KCl and LiCl has been investigated in an electrochemical cell in which the eutectic serves as the electrolyte with an anode of a lithium-silicon alloy and a cathode with a mixture of FeS2, the eutectic and silicon dioxide. The cell remains inactive into low impedance electrical loads until the powder is

R. A. Graham; B. Morosin; D. M. Bush

1987-01-01

96

Intergranular tellurium cracking of nickel-based alloys in molten Li, Be, Th, U/F salt mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Russia, R&D on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) are concentrated now on fast/intermediate spectrum concepts which were recognized as long term alternative to solid fueled fast reactors due to their attractive features: strong negative feedback coefficients, easy in-service inspection, and simplified fuel cycle. For high-temperature MSR corrosion of the metallic container alloy in primary circuit is the primary concern. Key problem receiving current attention include surface fissures in Ni-based alloys probably arising from fission product tellurium attack. This paper summarizes results of corrosion tests conducted recently to study effect of oxidation state in selected fuel salt on tellurium attack and to develop means of controlling tellurium cracking in the special Ni-based alloys recently developed for molten salt actinide recycler and tranforming (MOSART) system. Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys was tested at temperatures up to 750 °C in stressed and unloaded conditions in molten LiF-BeF2 salt mixture fueled by about 20 mol% of ThF4 and 2 mol% of UF4 at different [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratios: 0.7, 4, 20, 100 and 500. Following Ni-based alloys (in mass%): HN80?-VI (Mo—12, Cr—7.6, Nb—1.5), HN80??Y (Mo—13, Cr—6.8, Al—1.1, Ti—0.9), HN80??W (Mo—9.4, Cr—7.0, Ti—1.7, W—5.5) and ??-721 (W—25.2, Cr—5.7, Ti—0.17) were used for the study in the corrosion facility. If the redox state the fuel salt is characterized by uranium ratio [U(IV)]/[U(III)] < 1 the alloys' specimens get a more negative stationary electrode potential than equilibrium electrode potentials of some uranium intermetallic compounds and alloys with nickel and molybdenum. This leads to spontaneous behavior of alloy formation processes on the specimens' surface and further diffusion of uranium deep into the metallic phase. As consequence of this films of intermetallic compounds and alloys of nickel, molybdenum, tungsten with uranium are formed on the alloys specimens' surface, and intergranular corrosion does not take place. In the fuel salt with [U(IV)]/[U(III)] = 4-20 the potentials of uranium alloy formation with the main components of the tested alloys are not reached, that's why alloys and intermetallic compounds are not formed on the surface of the investigated chromium-nickel alloys. Under such conditions any intergranular tellurium corrosion of the selected alloys does not occur. In the fuel salt with [U(IV)/]/[U(III)] = 100 the potentials of uranium alloy formation with the main components of the tested alloys are not also reached. Under such redox conditions any traces intergranular tellurium IGC on the HN80MTY and H80M-VI alloys specimens are not found. Certain signs of incipient IGC in the form of tellurium presence on the grain boundaries in the HN80MTB and EM-721 alloys surface layer and formation of not too deep cracks on HN80MTB alloy surface were revealed at [U(IV)/]/[U(III)] = 100. With this uranium ratio in the presence of corrosion products on the surface of all of the alloys films, containing tellurium, metals of the construction alloys and carbon, are formed. In the melt with [U(IV)]/[U(III)] = 500 in all of the alloys tested the tellurium IGC took place. The HN80MTY alloy shows the maximum resistance to tellurium IGC. The intensity of tellurium IGC of the alloy (the K parameter) is by 3-5 times lower as compared to other alloys. The EM-721 alloy has the minimal resistance to tellurium IGC (K = 9200 pc m/cm, the depth of cracks is up to 434 ?m). The studies have shown, that the intensity of the nickel alloys IGC is controlled by the [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratio, and its dependence on this parameter is of threshold character. Providing the uranium ratio value's monitoring and regulation, it is possible to control the tellurium corrosion and in such a way to eliminate IGC completely or to minimize its value. The alloys strength characteristics and their structure were changed insignificantly after testing within the [U(IV)]/[U(III)] range from 0.7 t? 100. The changes a

Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexander; Gnidoy, Ivan; Kulakov, Alexander; Uglov, Vadim; Vasiliev, Alexander; Presniakov, Mikhail

2013-09-01

97

Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

2013-07-31

98

Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode.

Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Hayden, H. Wayne (Oakridge, TN)

1995-01-01

99

Intrinsic viscosity and viscoelastic properties of xanthan\\/guar mixtures in dilute solutions: Effect of salt concentration on the polymer interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oscillating capillary rheometer was used to investigate the dynamic viscoelastic and intrinsic viscosity properties of deacetylated xanthan (0.025%), native xanthan (0.025%), guar gum (0.075%), and xanthan–guar mixtures in dilute solutions. Influence of ionic strength on xanthan conformation and interaction with guar gum was elaborated. As the salt concentration increased, a significant (P<0.05) decrease in viscosity (??) and elasticity (??)

H. A. Khouryieh; T. J. Herald; F. Aramouni; S. Alavi

2007-01-01

100

Removal of nanoaerosol during the bubbling of the salt melt of beryllium and lithium fluorides for the preparation of reactor radioisotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parameters of aerosol particles formed in the course of the spontaneous thermal condensation of vapors and bubbling a 66LiF-34BeF2 (mol %) eutectic salt mixture with helium have been studied. For this purpose, a vertical bubbling mode at T ≈ 900 K and an ampule device for obtaining reactor radioisotopes for medical applications were used. The rate of the bulk

A. V. Zagnit'ko; D. Yu. Chuvilin

2010-01-01

101

Removal of nanoaerosol during the bubbling of the salt melt of beryllium and lithium fluorides for the preparation of reactor radioisotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parameters of aerosol particles formed in the course of the spontaneous thermal condensation of vapors and bubbling a\\u000a 66LiF-34BeF2 (mol %) eutectic salt mixture with helium have been studied. For this purpose, a vertical bubbling mode at T ? 900 K and an ampule device for obtaining reactor radioisotopes for medical applications were used. The rate of the bulk

A. V. Zagnit’ko; D. Yu. Chuvilin

2010-01-01

102

Coatings for directional eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant advances have been made in the development of an environmentally stable coating for a very high strength, directionally solidified eutectic alloy designated NiTaC-13. Three duplex (two-layer) coatings survived 3,000 hours on a cyclic oxidation test (1,100 C to 90 C). These coatings were fabricated by first depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam heated source, followed by depositing an aluminizing overlayer. The alloy after exposure with these coatings was denuded of carbide fibers at the substrate/coating interface. It was demonstrated that TaC fiber denudation can be greatly retarded by applying a carbon-bearing coating. The coating was applied by thermal spraying followed by aluminization. Specimens coated with NiCrAlCY+Al survived over 2,000 hours in the cyclic oxidation test with essentially no TaC denudation. Coating ductility was studied for coated and heat-treated bars, and stress rupture life at 871 C and 1,100 C was determined for coated and cycled bars.

Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

1976-01-01

103

Use of a D-optimal mixture design to estimate the effects of diverse chloride salts on the growth parameters of Lactobacillus pentosus.  

PubMed

The effects of NaCl, KCl, CaCl(2), and MgCl(2) and their mixtures on the ionic strength (IS) of the medium and the growth parameters of Lactobacillus pentosus were studied by means of a D-optimal mixture experimental design with constrains (total salt concentrationsalts and its increase, for similar concentrations of salts, followed the order MgCl(2)>CaCl(2)>NaCl>KCl. Within the experimental region, the lag phase duration (lambda) was mainly affected by NaCl and CaCl(2) and the interaction KCl with MgCl(2). The maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)) decreased as NaCl (the highest effect), CaCl(2), and MgCl(2) increased (regardless of the presence or not of previous NaCl); low KCl concentrations had a stimulating effect on mu(max), but its overall effect showed a similar trend to the other salts. The maximum population reached (N(max)) was the least affected parameter and decreased as NaCl and CaCl(2) concentrations increased regardless of the presence of the other salts. The equations that expressed the growth parameters as a function of the diverse chloride salts, within the limits assayed, were developed and the corresponding z- and harmonic Z-values were estimated. PMID:19376461

Arroyo-López, F N; Bautista-Gallego, J; Chiesa, A; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernández, A

2009-06-01

104

Heat storage in eutectic alloys  

SciTech Connect

Classical thermodynamic equations based on the regular solution approximation yield enthalpic changes for eutectic transformation that agree roughly with values measured for several binary and ternary alloy systems by differential scanning calorimetry or differential thermal analysis. Restricting measurements to binary and ternary alloys of the relatively plentiful elements Al, Cu, Mg, Si and Zn, it has been verified that the best heat storage densities on a mass or volume basis are obtained with alloys rich in Si or Al, elements that have large heats of fusion. Several of these alloys have the highest heat-storage density reported for phase change materials that transform between 780 and 850/sup 0/K. The Mg/sub 2/Si-Si eutectic, which has outstanding storage density at 1219/sup 0/K, illustrates the utility of ordered intermetallic phases with large heat of formation that dissolve in the eutectic liquid to contribute to the entropy change.

Birchenall, C.E. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE); Riechman, A.F.

1980-08-01

105

Eutectic structure in zirconium electrocorundum  

SciTech Connect

The authors explain the eutectic structure of zirconium electrocorundum, with the goal of controlling crystallization of actual alloys by changing the melt cooling conditions to produce materials of assigned properties. Sample chemical composition and conditions of preparation are shown. A qualitative change in structure of hypoeutectic alloys of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with zRO/sub 2/ (zirconium electrocorundum) is possible only under conditions where the formation mechanism of corundum crystals changes, and the fresh branched growth of crystals composing the eutectic is disrupted. Nucleation of a regular eutetic struscure in zirconium electrocorundum is observed for the case of melt crystallization far from eutectic composition on abrupt melt cooling at the mold boundary and for the case of low-frequency melt vibration.

Zhekhanova, N.B.; Fotiev, A.A.; Gladkov, V.E.

1986-09-01

106

Directional Solidification of Eutectic Ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two major problems associated with structural ceramics are lack of damage tolerance and insufficient strength and creep resistance at very high temperatures of interest for aerospace application. This work demonstrated that the directionally solidified eutectics can have unique poly-phase microstructures and mechanical properties superior to either constituent alone. The constraining effect of unique eutectic microstructures result in higher resistance to slow crack growth and creep. Prospect of achieving superior properties through controlled solidification are presented and this technology can also be beneficial to produce new class of materials.

Sayir, Ali

2001-01-01

107

Halide eutectic growth experiment MA-131  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fiberlike sodium chloride/lithium fluoride eutectic mixtures have been produced on earth and in space by the directional solidification technique. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations were made on longitudinal and transverse sections of Apollo Soyuz Test Project space grown and earth grown ingots. It was found that samples grown in space have a higher percentage of fibers alined with the growth axis. The enhanced alinement of fibers is attributed to the absence of convection currents in the liquid during solidification. Optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space grown and earth grown ingots were performed with an infrared spectrometer. For a given sample thickness, the highest transmittance was obtained from ingots grown in space. For samples of different thicknesses, grown either in space or on earth, it was found that the thinner the sample, the higher the transmittance. This is in agreement with the general optical property of transparent materials.

Yue, A. S.; Yue, B. K.; Lee, J. Y. M.

1976-01-01

108

A fundamental investigation into the effects of eutectic formation on transmembrane transport.  

PubMed

Eutectic systems enhance the permeation of therapeutic agents across biological barriers, but the mechanism by which this occurs has not previously been elucidated. Using human skin it has proven difficult to isolate the fundamental effects of eutectic formation on molecule diffusion and partition from those that arise as a consequence of the simultaneous application of two agents. The aim of this work was to employ a model hydrophobic membrane to understand the fundamental permeation characteristics of two agents when applied as a eutectic mixture. Lidocaine and prilocaine were selected as model agents and infinite-dose permeation studies were carried out using pre-calibrated Franz diffusion cells with two thicknesses of silicone membrane. Membrane solubility was determined by HCl solution extraction and the membrane diffusion coefficients were calculated from the permeation lag-times. The maximum permeation enhancement was achieved using a eutectic mixture at a 0.7:0.3 prilocaine/lidocaine ratio. A higher solubility of both agents in silicone membrane, enhanced diffusivity of prilocaine and superior release of both drugs, all contributed to produce enhanced permeation from the eutectic mixtures. Deconvolution of the transmembrane transport process suggests that the eutectic enhancement phenomena is a consequence of more favorable permeation characteristics of the two molecules in the absence of a formulation vehicle which competes in the transport process. PMID:20382211

Fiala, Sarah; Jones, Stuart A; Brown, Marc B

2010-06-30

109

Acidity constants in methanol/water mixtures of polycarboxylic acids used in drug salt preparations. Potentiometric determination of aqueous pKa values of quetiapine formulated as hemifumarate.  

PubMed

The acidic dissociation constants in a number of methanol/water mixtures of mono and polycarboxylic acids commonly used in the preparation of drug salts were determined. These solvent mixtures are usually used to determine the pKa of drugs of low aqueous solubility. However, when these drugs are prepared in salt form, the acid-base equilibria of both the basic drug and the counter-anion are involved in the potentiometric titration curves. In these instances, the inclusion of the pKa of acids as constant values in the curve fitting provides easy computation of the drug pKa without the need of any previous step to get the free base. As an application example, the aqueous pKa values of the quetiapine formulated as hemifumarate (Seroquel) were estimated by extrapolation from the experimental pKa in several methanol/water mixtures, which were then calculated according to the suitable constants of fumaric acid. The estimated aqueous pKa values of quetiapine are compared with those directly obtained in aqueous solution by potentiometry and by capillary electrophoresis. PMID:16488581

Garrido, Gemma; Ràfols, Clara; Bosch, Elisabeth

2006-05-01

110

Modelling the salt rejection of nanofiltration membranes for ternary ion mixtures and for single salts at different pH values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zeta potential measurements were performed to gain more insight in the rejection mechanisms of nanofiltration membranes. The zeta potential as well as the calculated surface charge increased at pH 7 with increasing salt concentration in the bulk. The isoelectric point of both membranes investigated (PVD1, Desal 5DK) is at a pH of about 4. The membranes are positively charged below

G. Hagmeyer; R. Gimbel

1998-01-01

111

Design of eutectic photoinitiator blends for UV\\/visible curable acrylated printing inks and coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimisation of photoinitiator systems used in UV printing inks and coatings has been carried out by means of Design of Experiments (Mixture designs). Mixture designs have been used to improve the reactivity of photoinitiator blends in order to design cost effective, synergistic, near eutectic photoinitiator blends for curing UV printing inks. Both the reactivity and bulk stability of photoinitiator

Juan Segurola; Norman S Allen; Michele Edge; Adam Mc Mahon

1999-01-01

112

Salt-induced transition from a micellar to a lamellar liquid crystalline phase in dilute mixtures of anionic and nonionic surfactants in aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

In dilute mixtures of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (NaDoBS), and nonionic poly(ethylene oxide) alkylmonoether (C[sub 13-15]E[sub <7>]) a transition from a micellar to a lamellar phase is found at high salting-out electrolyte (NaCit) concentrations. With an increase of the salt concentration, different types of lamellar aggregates are formed. The existence of different types of aggregates is reflected by changes of the turbidity of the solutions. Light and fluorescence microscopy, freeze-fractured electron microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), and fluorescence depolarization were employed to characterize the aggregates and to induce a mechanism for the transition from a micellar to a lamellar phase. Surfactant aggregation is important in view of possible applications in enhanced oil recovery. 39 refs., 10 figs.

Sein, A.; Engberts, J.B.F.N. (Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)); Linden, E. van der; Pas, J.C. van de (Unilever Research Lab., Vlaardingen (Netherlands))

1993-07-01

113

Possible Link of the V-Shaped Phase Diagram to the Glass-Forming Ability and Fragility in a Water-Salt Mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is a very poor glass former, but its link to the thermodynamic and kinetic anomalies remains elusive. We experimentally reveal that the glass-forming ability and fragility of a water-salt mixture are closely related to its equilibrium phase diagram. We propose that frustration between local and global orderings controls both the glass-forming ability and the fragility. Relying on the same role of salt and pressure, which commonly break tetrahedral order, we apply this idea to pure water under pressure. This scenario not only explains unusual behavior of water-type liquids such as water, Si, and Ge but also provides a mechanism for a link between the equilibrium phase diagram, glass-forming ability, and fragility for various materials including oxides, chalcogenides, and metallic glasses.

Kobayashi, Mika; Tanaka, Hajime

2011-03-01

114

Directional solidification of eutectic composites in space environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ni-Ni3Ta eutectic and a nickel-base alloy containing 30 wt pct Ta were solidified unidirectionally in an electron beam floating zone melting apparatus. It was found that the volume fraction of the Ni3Ta phase in the Ni-Ni3Ta eutectic mixture was increased from 7.6 to 36 volume pct in agreement with the theory as predicted. Tensile properties of the randomly solidified and unidirectionally solidified Ni-Ni3Ta eutectic were determined as function of solidification rate and temperature. It was found that the ultimate tensile strength decreased as both the test temperature and solidification rate increased. An elongation of 40 pct was obtained for a nickelbase alloy containing 30 wt at room temperature. This unusually large elongation was attributed to the superplastic behavior of the alloy. The critical currents versus the external fields at 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.2 deg for the unidirectionally solidified Pb-Sn eutectic were measured. The values of critical fields at zero critical currents were obtained by extrapolation.

Yue, A. S.

1972-01-01

115

Applications of molten salts in plutonium processing  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium is efficiently recovered from scrap at Los Alamos by a series of chemical reactions and separations conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. These processes usually employ a molten salt or salt eutectic as a heat sink and/or reaction medium. Salts for these operations were selected early in the development cycle. The selection criteria are being reevaluated. In this article we describe the processes now in use at Los Alamos and our studies of alternate salts and eutectics.

Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

1987-01-01

116

Dynamic modeling and simulation of eutectic freeze crystallization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer-based dynamic model of an eutectic freeze crystallizer comprised of coupled kinetics, population, mass, and energy balances has been developed to simulate its transient behaviour. The model assumed an MSMPR crystallizer and was used to simulate the transient responses of crystal size distribution of salt and ice during the start-up of the crystallizer. The temperature and the solute concentration inside the crystallizer achieved constant values after two residence times, whereas the steady state of the crystal size distributions were reached after ten residence times. A coupled effect of the simultaneous crystallization of salt and ice was clearly visible when the high mass production rate of ice induced the occurrence of a second peak of the supersaturation of salt.

Himawan, C.; Vaessen, R. J. C.; Kramer, H. J. M.; Seckler, M. M.; Witkamp, G. J.

2002-04-01

117

A eutectic gold vapour laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a eutectic gold vapour laser (EGVL) which uses the eutectic alloy of gold and silicon, Au/3.15Si, as the lasant. It was observed that, at low input power operation, the presence of the silicon vapour could increase the output of the 627.8 nm laser line by (50-60)% when compared with a gold vapour laser (GVL) which uses pure gold as the lasant. The improved laser output for the EGVL may be explained by an increased electron density, as a result of Penning ionization of silicon atoms. However, for higher input power operation, the EGVL showed a slower rate of increase in its laser output power and was overtaken by GVLs at a tube operating temperature of around 1650°C. This may be explained by a lowering of the electron temperature owing to increasing inelastic collisions between the electrons and silicon atoms which, although excited, may not produce additional electrons.

Tou, T. Y.; Cheak, K. E.; Low, K. S.

118

Concentration changes during eutectic solidification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermotransport (or thermal diffusion, Soret effect) is shown to cause significant amount of segregation during the directional solidification of aluminum-copper eutectic. The concentration changes are predicted quantitatively and they are a function of temperature gradient, rate of melting and solidification and the time of soaking. There is a fair agreement between the experiments and calculations. A process is suggested where these concentration changes may be minimized.

Bhat, B. N.

1974-01-01

119

ESR OF Ti(III) in LiCl-KCl Eutectic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of corrosion phenomena associated with the use of molten salts as coolants raised interest in the behaviour of various metal ions in such melts. Gruen & McBeth, in the early sixties, studied various transition metal ions in LiCl\\/KCl eutectic. The purpose of the present letter is an attempt to correlate ESR data with data derived from optical spectroscopy, in

N. Beukema; D. C. Koningsberger; J. L. Verbeek

1969-01-01

120

Solubility of solid phases in eutectic systems  

SciTech Connect

A problem which takes into account the temperature dependence of interfacial energy is solved in order to describe quasi-equilibrium lines of solid-phase solubility in eutectic systems. The chosen reference point is the point of the eutectic horizontal corresponding to the limiting solubility of the second component in the solid solution. An expression is obtained which makes it possible to equate empirical values of solubility and to almost exactly represent its temperature path for the eutectic systems examined.

Psarev, V.I.

1987-04-01

121

Io's surface composition based on reflectance spectra of sulfur/salt mixtures and proton-irradiation experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Available full-disk reflectance spectra of Io in the range 0.3 to 2.5 microns have been used to determine a surface compositional model for Io that is consistent with Io's other known chemical and physical properties. Results indicate that the surface of Io contains abundant dehydrated salts of high Na, Mg, and Fe(3+) content such as bloedite and ferrous iron sulfate. Experiments were performed studying the irradiation damage effects from low-energy proton bombardment, since Io is immersed in Jupiter's magnetosphere.

Nash, D. B.; Fanale, F. P.

1977-01-01

122

Phase behavior of quinary mixtures of the type H/sub 2/O-oil-nonionic amphiphile-ionic amphiphile-salt  

SciTech Connect

Five-component mixtures H/sub 2/O-oil-nonionic amphiphile-ionic amphiphile-salt may separate into three liquid phases. In this three-phase body one finds the highest mutual solubility between H/sub 2/O and oil, combined with the lowest interfacial tension between the aqueous and the oil-rich phase. The position of the three-phase body on the temperature scale as well as its extensions depends systematically on the nature of the components, on the ratio between the nonionic and ionic amphiphile, as well as on the brine concentration. An empirical description of the phase behavior is presented that permits qualitative predictions as to the temperature at which to find the three-phase body and what efficiency of the amphiphiles to expect.

Kahlweit, M.; Strey, R.

1988-03-24

123

Salt-induced vesicle formation from single anionic surfactant SDBS and its mixture with LSB in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Vesicles can be formed spontaneously in aqueous solution of a single anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) just under the inducement of salt, which makes the formation of vesicle much easier and simpler. The existence of vesicles was demonstrated by TEM image using the negative-staining method. The mechanism of the formation may be attributed to the compression of salt on the electric bilayer of the surfactant headgroups, which alters the packing parameter of the surfactant. The addition of the zwitterionic surfactant lauryl sulfonate betaine (LSB) makes the vesicles more stable, expands the range of formation and vesicle size, and reduces the polydispersity of the vesicles. The vesicle region was presented in a pseudoternary diagram of SDBS/LSB/brine. The variations of vesicle size with the salinity and mixing ratios, as well as the surfactant concentration, were determined using the dynamic light scattering method. It is found that the vesicle size is independent of the surfactant concentration but subject to the salinity and the mixing ratio of the two surfactants. PMID:16851606

Zhai, Limin; Zhao, Mei; Sun, Dejun; Hao, Jingcheng; Zhang, Lungjun

2005-03-31

124

Molten salt hydrolysis of latex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latex-rich plants containing Guayule or its extracts are pyrolyzed in nitrogen in inorganic salt melts such as LiCl-KCl eutectic at approximately 500 degrees yield greater than 60% of a highly aromatic, combustible hydrocarbon oil suitable for use as a synthetic liquid fuel. Thus, on redistillation under N, the main fraction from molten-salt pyrolyzed dried Guayule plants powder boiled at approximately

Bauman

1980-01-01

125

Eutectic solidification and its role in casting porosity formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding and controlling the eutectic solidification process in Al-Si alloys permits prediction of the formation of casting porosity, eventually leading to methods for its control and elimination. In addition, it enables control of eutectic structure, silicon morphology, and eutectic grain size to further improve the alloy properties. This paper presents the current understanding of eutectic solidification in hypoeutectic Al-Si foundry alloys and the relationship between eutectic solidification and porosity formation. New concepts in engineering eutectic solidification are also explored.

Lu, L.; Nogita, K.; McDonald, S. D.; Dahle, A. K.; Lu, L.; Dahle, A. K.

2004-11-01

126

Effects of heating on salt-occluded zeolite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel generates a waste stream of fission products in the electrolyte, LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. Argonne National Laboratory is developing a mineral waste form for this waste stream. The waste form consists...

M. A. Lewis M. C. Hash C. Pereira J. P. Ackerman

1996-01-01

127

Deliquescence of NaCl-NaNO3 and KNO3-NaNO3 Salt Mixtures at 90C  

SciTech Connect

We conducted reversed deliquescence experiments in saturated NaCl-NaNO3-H2O and KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O systems at 90 C to determine relative humidity and solution composition. NaCl, NaNO{sub 3}, and KNO{sub 3} represent members of dust salt assemblages that are likely to deliquesce and form concentrated brines on high-level radioactive waste package surfaces in a repository environment at Yucca Mountain, NV, USA. Model predictions agree with experimental results for the NaCl-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O system, but underestimate relative humidity by as much as 8% and solution composition by as much as 50% in the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O system.

Carroll, S; Craig, L; Wolery, T

2003-12-29

128

Mixture or Solution?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Textbook definition: "Mixtures are formed simply by blending two or more substances together in some random proportion without chemically changing the individual substances in the mixture." Mixtures can then be broken down into homogeneous and heterogeneous. A homogeneous mixture is called a solution: salt or sugar and water, air (solution of gases). These have a constant composition throughout the solution. A heterogeneous mixture would be: salt with sugar (no water), water with gasoline or oil, salt with sand. These have areas with differing compositions (you could usually see the separation of the two things).

Burns, Steve

2011-10-09

129

Solidification of NaCl-NaF eutectic in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous and discontinuous NaF fibers, embedded in a NaCl matrix, have been produced in space and on earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convection current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of NaF fibers along the ingot axis.

Yue, A. S.; Yu, J. G.

1974-01-01

130

Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are disclosed for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode. 2 figures.

Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W.

1995-01-10

131

Eutectic nucleation in Al-Si alloys  

SciTech Connect

In addition to a change in silicon morphology, modification of aluminium-silicon alloys with strontium or sodium increases the size of the eutectic grains. To determine the mechanism responsible, eutectic solidification in commercial purity and ultra-high purity aluminium-silicon alloys, with and without strontium additions, was examined by a quenching technique. In the commercial unmodified alloy, nucleation was prolific while in the high-purity unmodified alloy few eutectic grains nucleated. The addition of strontium to the commercial alloy reduced the number of eutectic grains that nucleated. Addition of strontium to the high-purity alloy did not significantly alter nucleation. It is concluded that commercial purity alloys contain a large number of potent nuclei that are susceptible to poisoning by impurity modification. The flake-to-fibre transition that occurs with impurity modification is shown to be independent of any change in eutectic nucleation mode and frequency.

McDonald, Stuart D.; Nogita, Kazuhiro; Dahle, Arne K

2004-08-16

132

Re-evaluation of the eutectic region of the LiBr-KBr-LiF system  

SciTech Connect

The separator pellet in a thermal battery consists of electrolyte immobilized by a binder (typically, MgO powder). The melting point of the electrolyte determines the effective operating window for its use in a thermal battery. The development of a two-hour thermal battery required the use of a molten salt that had a lower melting point and larger liquidus range than the LiCl-KCl eutectic which melts at 352 C. Several candidate eutectic electrolyte systems were evaluated for their suitability for this application. One was the LiCl-LiBr-KBr eutectic used at Argonne National Laboratories for high-temperature rechargeable batteries for electric-vehicle applications. Using a custom-designed high-temperature conductivity cell, the authors were able to readily determine the liquidus region for the various compositions studied around the original eutectic for the LiBr-KBr-LiF system. The actual eutectic composition was found to be 60.0 m/o LiBr-37.5 m/o KBr-2.5 m/o LiF with a melting point of 324 {+-} 0.5 C.

Redey, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Guidotti, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-05-01

133

Controlled Ceramic-Ceramic Eutectic Microstructures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preparation, microstructure, crystallography and mechanical properties of high melting oxide eutectics are described. It is shown that the microstructure can be predicted from the volume fraction of the minor phase. Two basic criteria control the interfac...

V. S. Stubican R. C. Bradt

1976-01-01

134

The Stability of a Eutectic Growth Front.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the steady state advance of a binary eutectic growth front metallic (non faceted) materials frequently adopt a lamellar habit, and a relationship between lamellar spacing, lambda, and growth rate has previously been found experimentally and theoret...

S. O'Hara A. Hellawell

1967-01-01

135

Mixtures of l-Amino Acids as Reaction Medium for Formation of Iron Nanoparticles: The Order of Addition into a Ferrous Salt Solution Matters  

PubMed Central

Owing to Mössbauer spectroscopy, an advanced characterization technique for iron-containing materials, the present study reveals previously unknown possibilities using l-amino acids for the generation of magnetic particles. Based on our results, a simple choice of the order of l-amino acids addition into a reaction mixture containing ferrous ions leads to either superparamagnetic ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide particles, or magnetically strong Fe0-Fe2O3/FeOOH core-shell particles after chemical reduction. Conversely, when ferric salts are employed with the addition of selected l-amino acids, only Fe0-Fe2O3/FeOOH core-shell particles are observed, regardless of the addition order. We explain this phenomenon by a specific transient/intermediate complex formation between Fe2+ and l-glutamic acid. This type of complexation prevents ferrous ions from spontaneous oxidation in solutions with full air access. Moreover, due to surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy we show that the functional groups of l-amino acids are not destroyed during the borohydride-induced reduction. These functionalities can be further exploited for (i) attachment of l-amino acids to the as-prepared magnetic particles, and (ii) for targeted bio- and/or environmental applications where the surface chemistry needs to be tailored and directed toward biocompatible species.

Siskova, Karolina M.; Machala, Libor; Tucek, Jiri; Kaslik, Josef; Mojzes, Peter; Zboril, Radek

2013-01-01

136

Mixtures of L-amino acids as reaction medium for formation of iron nanoparticles: the order of addition into a ferrous salt solution matters.  

PubMed

Owing to Mössbauer spectroscopy, an advanced characterization technique for iron-containing materials, the present study reveals previously unknown possibilities using l-amino acids for the generation of magnetic particles. Based on our results, a simple choice of the order of l-amino acids addition into a reaction mixture containing ferrous ions leads to either superparamagnetic ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide particles, or magnetically strong Fe0-Fe2O3/FeOOH core-shell particles after chemical reduction. Conversely, when ferric salts are employed with the addition of selected l-amino acids, only Fe0-Fe2O3/FeOOH core-shell particles are observed, regardless of the addition order. We explain this phenomenon by a specific transient/intermediate complex formation between Fe2+ and l-glutamic acid. This type of complexation prevents ferrous ions from spontaneous oxidation in solutions with full air access. Moreover, due to surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy we show that the functional groups of l-amino acids are not destroyed during the borohydride-induced reduction. These functionalities can be further exploited for (i) attachment of l-amino acids to the as-prepared magnetic particles, and (ii) for targeted bio- and/or environmental applications where the surface chemistry needs to be tailored and directed toward biocompatible species. PMID:24071943

Šišková, Karolína M; Machala, Libor; Tu?ek, Ji?i; Kašlík, Josef; Mojzeš, Peter; Zbo?il, Radek

2013-01-01

137

Determination of the structural morphology of eutectic coatings from technological factors  

SciTech Connect

The influence of such factors as the ratio of the components in the powder mixture, the form, temperature, and length of heating, and the cooling rate on diffusion-directed eutectic layers was determined. Specimens of 45 steel with a powder mixture consisting of gray iron, ferromanganese, a fluxing agent, and an activator were placed in a previously heated furnace. The structure of the coatings was investigated by microscopy and the phase composition was determined by x-ray analysis and found to be multialloyed pearlite, metastable iron carbide, and inclusions of iron boride. The formation of coatings with hypoeutectic and eutectic structures on carbon and alloy steels was found to be possible with a change in composition and thickness of the powder mixture, the temperature-time conditions of the process and the cooling rate.

Golubets, V.M.; Pashechko, M.I.

1988-01-01

138

Eutectic nucleation in Al–Si alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to a change in silicon morphology, modification of aluminium–silicon alloys with strontium or sodium increases the size of the eutectic grains. To determine the mechanism responsible, eutectic solidification in commercial purity and ultra-high purity aluminium–silicon alloys, with and without strontium additions, was examined by a quenching technique. In the commercial unmodified alloy, nucleation was prolific while in the

Stuart D. McDonald; Kazuhiro Nogita; Arne K Dahle

2004-01-01

139

Eutectic experiment development for space processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ground base test plan and a specimen evaluation scheme have been developed for the aluminum-copper eutectic solidification experiment to be run in the M518 multipurpose electric furnace during the Skylab mission. Besides thermal and solidification studies a detailed description is given of the quantitative metallographic technique which is appropriate for characterizing eutectic structures. This method should prove a key tool for evaluating specimen microstructure which is the most sensitive indicator of changes produced during solidification. It has been recommended that single grain pre-frozen eutectic specimens be used to simplify microstructural evaluation and to eliminate any porosity in the as-cast eutectic specimens. High purity (99.999%) materials from one supplier should be employed for all experiments. Laboratory studies indicate that porosity occurs in the MRC as-cast eutectic ingots but that this porosity can be eliminated by directional freezing. Chemical analysis shows that the MRC ingots are slightly Al rich and contain about .03% impurity. Because of the impurity content the lower cooldown rate (1.2 C/min) should be used for eutectic freezing if MRC material is used in the M518 furnace.

Hopkins, R. H.

1972-01-01

140

Dosimetry using silver salts  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method for detecting ionizing radiation. Exposure of silver salt AgX to ionizing radiation results in the partial reduction of the salt to a mixture of silver salt and silver metal. The mixture is further reduced by a reducing agent, which causes the production of acid (HX) and the oxidized form of the reducing agent (R). Detection of HX indicates that the silver salt has been exposed to ionizing radiation. The oxidized form of the reducing agent (R) may also be detected. The invention also includes dosimeters employing the above method for detecting ionizing radiation.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-06-24

141

Density measurements of the lithium fluoride/lithium sulfide eutectic at high temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A straightforward and reliable method to determine densities of molten salts at high temperatures was de-veloped by Janz and Lorenz several years ago.[1] This method was followed in order to determine the density of the LiF/Li2S eutectic[2] over the temperature range of 1176 to 1355 K in which the eutectic is liquid. The rel-ative lack of data for this eutectic is surprising given its potential usefulness in the study of advanced batteries'31 and electrowinning of metals from molten sulfides.[41] The method is based on the fact that a solid piece of metal of known volume suspended from a pan balance into a molten salt will weigh less than if it were sus-pended in air at the same temperature. This difference in weight measured in grams will be equal to the buoyant force of the liquid at that temperature. The density of the salt bath can then readily be determined by dividing this difference by the volume of the solid piece of metal that is immersed in the bath. The procedure can be re-peated to give density values over a range of temperatures.

Lloyd, Charles L.; Gilbert, James B.

1994-10-01

142

EXCHANGE PROPERTIES OF AMMONIUM SALT OF 12-HETEROPOLYACIDS. VI. SORPTION OF CERIUM, RUTHENIUM, ZIRCONIUM AND NIOBIUM ON AMMONIUM PHOSPHOTUNGSTATE AND ISOLATION OF *SUP 137\\/Cs FROM AN AGED MIXTURE OF FISSION PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of Ce, Ru, Nb, and Zr on NHâPW and the isolation of ; Cs¹³⁷ from fission products solution were examined. The sorption of an ; equilibrium mixture of Zr⁹⁵-Nb⁹⁵ was found to increase with ; increasing acidity. The effects of sodium and ammonium salts on the sorption of ; Ce¹⁴⁴, ruthenium nitrate, nitrosylruthenium nitrate, and Nb⁹⁵- Zr\\/sup ;

J. Krtil; J. Zemanova

1963-01-01

143

Internal zone growth method for producing metal oxide metal eutectic composites  

DOEpatents

An improved method for preparing a cermet comprises preparing a compact having about 85 to 95 percent theoretical density from a mixture of metal and metal oxide powders from a system containing a eutectic composition, and inductively heating the compact in a radiofrequency field to cause the formation of an internal molten zone. The metal oxide particles in the powder mixture are effectively sized relative to the metal particles to permit direct inductive heating of the compact by radiofrequency from room temperature. Surface melting is prevented by external cooling or by effectively sizing the particles in the powder mixture.

Clark, Grady W. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Holder, John D. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Pasto, Arvid E. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

1980-01-01

144

Resolving issues of content uniformity and low permeability using eutectic blend of camphor and menthol.  

PubMed

The aim of present study were to arrest the problem of content uniformity without the use of harmful organic solvent and to improve ex vivo permeability of captopril, a low dose class III drug as per biological classification system. Eutectic mixture of camphor and menthol was innovatively used in the work. Captopril solution in eutectic mixture was blended with Avicel PH 102 and then the mixture was blended with mannitol in different ratios. Formulated batches were characterized for angle of repose and Carr's index. A selected batch was filled in hard gelatin capsule. Tablet dosage form was also developed. Capsules and tablets were characterized for in vitro drug release in 0.1N HCl. Additionally, the captopril tablets were analyzed for content uniformity and ex vivo drug permeation study using rat ileum in modified apparatus. The measurement of angle of repose and Carr's index revealed that the powder blend exhibited good flow property and compressibility. The captopril capsules and tablets exhibited immediate drug release in 0.1 N HCl. The captopril tablets passed content uniformity test as per IP 1996. Ex vivo permeation of captopril, formulated with eutectic mixture, was faster than control. The permeation was increased by 15% at the end of 3 h. Tablets and capsule exhibited reasonable short term stability with no considerable change in performance characteristics. PMID:20376214

Gohel, M C; Nagori, S A

2009-11-01

145

Stability of eutectic interface during directional solidification  

SciTech Connect

Directional solidification of eutectic alloys shows different types of eutectic morphologies. These include lamellar, rod, oscillating and tilting modes. The growth of these morphologies occurs with a macroscopically planar interface. However, under certain conditions, the planar eutectic front becomes unstable and gives rise to a cellular or a dendritic structure. This instability leads to the cellular/dendritic structure of either a primary phase or a two-phase structure. The objective of this work is to develop a fundamental understanding of the instability of eutectic structure into cellular/dendritic structures of a single phase and of two-phases. Experimental studies have been carried out to examine the transition from a planar to two-phase cellular and dendritic structures in a ceramic system of Alumina-Zirconia (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2}) and in a transparent organic system of carbon tetrabromide and hexachloroethane (CBr{sub 4}-C{sub 2}Cl{sub 6}). Several aspects of eutectic interface stability have been examined.

Han, S.H.

1996-04-23

146

Electronic absorption spectra of U3+ and U4+ in molten LiCl-RbCl eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the non-aqueous reprocessing process of spent nuclear fuels by the pyro-electrochemical method, a spent fuel is dissolved into molten LiCl-KCl and NaCl-CsCl eutectics and dissolved uranium and plutonium are collected as either metal or oxide. However, the binary alkali chloride mixture with the lowest melting point is the LiCl-RbCl eutectic. In this study, electronic absorption spectra of U3+ and U4+ in molten LiCl-RbCl eutectic at various temperatures between 673 and 973 K were measured by the UV/Vis/NIR spectrophotometry. We confirmed that these spectra were similar to those in molten LiCl-KCl and NaCl-CsCl eutectics. The sensitive absorption bands of U4+ in LiCl-RbCl eutectic were found at 22000, 16500, 14900, 8600, and 4950 cm-1. The large absorption bands of U4+ over 25000 cm-1 increased with increasing melt temperature, while absorption peaks at 15500-4000 cm-1 decreased. The large absorption bands of U3+ in LiCl-RbCl eutectic were observed over 14000 cm-1. The sensitive absorption bands of U3+ at Vis/NIR region were found at 13300, 11500-11200, 9800-9400, and 8250 cm-1, and these peaks decreased with increasing temperature.

Nagai, T.; Uehara, A.; Fujii, T.; Sato, N.; Yamana, H.

2010-03-01

147

Directionally solidified eutectic alloy gamma-beta  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pseudobinary eutectic alloy composition was determined by a previously developed bleed-out technique. The directionally solidified eutectic alloy with a composition of Ni-37.4Fe-10.0Cr-9.6Al (in wt%) had tensile strengths decreasing from 1,090 MPa at room temperature to 54 MPa at 1,100 C. The low density, excellent microstructural stability, and oxidation resistance of the alloy during thermal cycling suggest that it might have applicability as a gas turbine vane alloy while its relatively low high temperature strength precludes its use as a blade alloy. A zirconium addition increased the 750 C strength, and a tungsten addition was ineffective. The gamma=beta eutectic alloys appeared to obey a normal freezing relation.

Tewari, S. N.

1977-01-01

148

Eutectic nucleation in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys  

SciTech Connect

The nucleation mechanism of eutectic grains in hypoeutectic Al-Si foundry alloys has been investigated by examining deep etched specimens in high-resolution field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM) and by using in-situ Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling and microscopy. Both unmodified and Sr-modified alloys were studied to characterize the nucleation mechanism of eutectic silicon flakes and fibers. It is proposed that following nucleation of eutectic Al on the primary {alpha}-Al dendrites, fine Si particles form at the solidification front upon which the eutectic Si flakes and fibers could develop. The formation of small Si particles is attributed to Si enrichment of the remaining melt due to the formation of eutectic Al (aluminum spikes) at the eutectic temperature. A hypothesis is then proposed to explain the mechanism of eutectic grains formation with main emphasis on the eutectic Si phase.

Nafisi, S. [Facility for Electron Microscopy Research, McGill University, 3640 University St., Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada)], E-mail: snafisi@ipsco.com; Ghomashchi, R. [Advanced Materials and Processing Research Institute, Suite 122, A7-1390 Major MacKenzie, ON, L4S 0A1 (Canada); Vali, H. [Facility for Electron Microscopy Research, McGill University, 3640 University St., Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada)

2008-10-15

149

Thermomigration in eutectic SnPb alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermomigration (TM) behavior in eutectic SnPb alloy was observed under a constant thermal gradient of 1000 °C/cm. Pb phase was depleting in the hot side, so Pb atom should be the dominant migration species in the current studied conditions. By estimating the depletion atomic volume in the hot side, TM atomic flux in SnPb was estimated to be 7.02×1013 atoms/cm2 s. The important TM parameter, the molar heat flux (Q*), of eutectic SnPb alloy was obtained and found to be 22.16 kJ/mole.

Chuang, Y. C.; Liu, C. Y.

2006-04-01

150

Tin-silver-copper eutectic temperature and composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A careful investigation of the Sn-Ag-Cu phase diagram near the ternary eutectic composition was undertaken using annealed\\u000a alloys and differential scanning calorimetry to settle some uncertainties in the eutectic composition. The eutectic composition\\u000a was found to be 3.5 wt pct Ag, 0.9 wt pct Cu, and the balance Sn. The published eutectic temperature, 217 C, was confirmed.\\u000a A value of

M. E. Loomans; M. E. Fine

2000-01-01

151

The structures of fully eutectic aluminium-silicon alloy castings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strontium-modified aluminium alloys containing 14 to 15 wt% silicon were cast with fully eutectic structures by using heated moulds and high-purity materials. In alloys containing the additional elements magnesium, copper or nickel, a distinct eutectic colony structure was evident outlined by intermetallic compounds. At the edges of the castings the eutectic colony structures and the aluminium grains (revealed by anodizing)

T. B. Abbott; B. A. Parker

1990-01-01

152

Eutectic channelling in a squeeze cast Al-4.5Wt%Cu alloy  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent macrosegregation occurs during the squeeze casting of a simple cylindrical shape in an Al-4.5wt%Cu alloy. The application of 100 MPa pressure during solidification caused a sharp increase in the cooling rate, to an average value of about 14 Ks{sup {minus}1}. At this cooling rate the liquidus temperature was resolvable, however it was difficult to observe the eutective thermal arrest. The macrostructure was characterized by a V-shaped pattern that extended over a large fraction of the ingot cross-section. The V-shaped segregates were regions which consisted of a mixture of the {alpha}-Al phase, the {alpha}-Al + {theta}-Al{sub 2}Cu eutectic and pro-eutectic {theta}-Al{sub 2}Cu particles. The exact cause of the formation of the eutectic channels in squeeze cast alloys is unclear. A previous explanation was that the V-shaped channels in squeeze castings are produced along the liquid metal feeding path. However, as the segregated channels are very large, these regions should be relatively easily fed during solidification. Also, as the solidification process occurs under near hydrostatic pressure, it is unclear where the driving force for the filling of these channels could come from. A simpler explanation may be that the macrosegregation is an effect of the different thermal conditions during solidification that exist between gravity and squeeze casting.

Gallerneault, M.; Durrant, G.; Cantor, B. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

1995-05-15

153

Structure of Pure Aluminium-Silicon Eutectics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The natural form of the silicon in the pure aluminiumsilicon eutectic at slow growth rates is continuous 'rods'. The silicon phase is ahead of the aluminium phase during the growth process. A remarkably simple explanation is given in terms of constitution...

J. A. E. Bell W. C. Winegard

1964-01-01

154

Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic solder  

DOEpatents

A Pb-free solder includes a ternary eutectic composition consisting essentially of about 93.6 weight % Sn-about 4.7 weight % Ag-about 1.7 weight % Cu having a eutectic melting temperature of about 217 C and variants of the ternary composition wherein the relative concentrations of Sn, Ag, and Cu deviate from the ternary eutectic composition to provide a controlled melting temperature range (liquid-solid ``mushy`` zone) relative to the eutectic melting temperature (e.g. up to 15 C above the eutectic melting temperature). 5 figs.

Anderson, I.E.; Yost, F.G.; Smith, J.F.; Miller, C.M.; Terpstra, R.L.

1996-06-18

155

Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic solder  

DOEpatents

A Pb-free solder includes a ternary eutectic composition consisting essentially of about 93.6 weight % Sn-about 4.7 weight % Ag-about 1.7 weight % Cu having a eutectic melting temperature of about 217.degree. C. and variants of the ternary composition wherein the relative concentrations of Sn, Ag, and Cu deviate from the ternary eutectic composition to provide a controlled melting temperature range (liquid-solid "mushy" zone) relative to the eutectic melting temperature (e.g. up to 15.degree. C. above the eutectic melting temperature).

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Yost, Frederick G. (Cedar Crest, NM); Smith, John F. (Ames, IA); Miller, Chad M. (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert L. (Ames, IA)

1996-06-18

156

Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation  

SciTech Connect

Recovery of actinides is an integral part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycling processes have been developed in the past for recovering actinides from spent metallic and nitride fuels. The process is essentially to dissolve the spent fuel in a molten salt and then extract just the actinides for reuse in a reactor. Extraction is typically done through electrorefining, which involves electrochemical reduction of the dissolved actinides and plating onto a cathode. Knowledge of a number of basic thermokinetic properties of salts and salt-fuel mixtures is necessary for optimizing present and developing new approaches for pyrometallurgical waste processing. The properties of salt-fuel mixtures are presently being studied, but there are so many solutes and varying concentrations that direct experimental investigation is prohibitively time consuming and expensive (particularly for radioactive elements like Pu). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the number of required experiments through modeling of salt and salt-fuel mixture properties. This project will develop first-principles-based molecular modeling and simulation approaches to predict fundamental thermokinetic properties of dissolved actinides and fission products in molten salts. The focus of the proposed work is on property changes with higher concentrations (up to 5 mol%) of dissolved fuel components, where there is still very limited experimental data. The properties predicted with the modeling will be density, which is used to assess the amount of dissolved material in the salt; diffusion coefficients, which can control rates of material transport during separation; and solute activity, which determines total solubility and reduction potentials used during electrorefining. The work will focus on La, Sr, and U, which are chosen to include the important distinct categories of lanthanides, alkali earths, and actinides, respectively. Studies will be performed using LiCl-KCl salt at the eutectic composition (58 mol% LiCl, 42 mol% KCl), which is used for treating spent EBR-II fuel. The same process being used for EBRII fuel is currently being studied for widespread international implementation. The methods will focus on first-principles and first- principles derived interatomic potential based simulations, primarily using molecular dynamics. Results will be validated against existing literature and parallel ongoing experimental efforts. The simulation results will be of value for interpreting experimental results, validating analytical models, and for optimizing waste separation by potentially developing new salt configurations and operating conditions.

Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

2013-10-01

157

Phase transitions of sea-salt/water mixtures at low temperatures: Implications for ozone chemistry in the polar marine boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present laboratory experiments employing differential scanning calorimetry as well as flow cell microscopy to study the microphysics of aqueous NaCl and sea-salt solutions and droplets at temperatures below 273 K. The freezing and melting points of ice and other precipitates were determined in NaCl and sea-salt bulk samples as well as in emulsion samples. Using flow cell microscopy, we have determined the deliquescence and efflorescence relative humidities of NaCl and sea-salt droplets at temperatures between 249 and 273 K, extending the existing room temperature data to polar conditions. Our measurements suggest that sea-salt aerosols will most likely be liquid most of the time under polar marine boundary conditions. In addition, we show that sea-salt aerosols or seawater spray deposited on the polar ice pack will remain partly liquid down to 230 K, with concentrations of Cl- and Br- increasing by more than an order of magnitude upon cooling when compared to normal seawater concentrations. This is likely to enhance the rate at which heterogeneous bromine activation reactions occur in the sea-salt deposits. Such reaction rate enhancements with decreasing temperatures are currently not implemented in chemical models, and might help explain the fast bromine activation and subsequent ozone destruction observed during ozone depletion events in the polar marine boundary layer in spring.

Koop, Thomas; Kapilashrami, Abha; Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.

2000-11-01

158

Shock-induced melting of a KCl:LiCl eutectic powder as determined from electrochemical response measurements  

SciTech Connect

Shock-induced melting of powder compacts of a eutectic of KCl and LiCl has been investigated in an electrochemical cell in which the eutectic serves as the electrolyte with an anode of a lithium-silicon alloy and a cathode with a mixture of FeS2, the eutectic and silicon dioxide. The cell remains inactive into low impedance electrical loads until the powder is melted either under shock pressure or upon release of pressure. Melt behavior is clearly indicated in time-resolved electrochemical voltage measurements and the degree of melt is sensitive to the starting powder density which controls the increase in temperature. The indicated electrolytic conductivity suggests that melting is not complete in either the shock or release state. Such electrochemical response measurements provide capability for direct studies of melting behavior, for determination of Gibbs potentials of reactions and their kinetics while under shock compression.

Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.; Bush, D.M.

1987-01-01

159

Corrosion of selected alloys in eutectic lithium-sodium-potassium carbonate at 900C  

SciTech Connect

There is an ongoing interest at the US Department of Energy in using molten salts as high temperature sensible heat storage media in advanced solar thermal systems. In this report, the compatibility of selected alloys in eutectic lithium-sodium-potassium carbonate, the salt that will be used in the near-term engineering experiments, has been evaluated at 900C. Several combinations of oxidation potential and acidity in the salt were used in the experiments. It was found that the extent of corrosion was dramatically lower for experiments conducted at high oxygen potential compared to experiments at low oxygen potential. For Inconel 600, Hastelloy N, and nickel the results indicated that corrosion rates substantially below 1 mm/year/side might reasonably be expected and that a reevaluation of alloys the showed poor corrosion resistance under low oxygen potential would be advisable.

Coyle, R.T.; Thomas, T.M.; Schissel, P.

1986-01-01

160

Electrical properties of saline ices and ice-silicate mixtures: geophysical and astrobiological consequences (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed broadband (1 mHz - 1 MHz) electrical-properties measurements of laboratory-produced saline ice, salt hydrates, and ice-silicate mixtures, as well as terrestrial polar ices and permafrosts (see also Grimm et al, NS04, this meeting), in order to understand investigation depths of EM induction and surface-penetrating radar, the recovery of interior properties, and habitability. The electrical properties of saline H2O are controlled by the binary phase relations between ice and salt hydrate. Above the eutectic temperature, formation of interconnected brine channels (manifested by high DC electrical conductivity) requires bulk salt concentrations exceeding ~3 mM. This is equivalent to a minimum brine-channel width of a few microns. Presumably high capillary pressures in submicron fluid spaces lead to segregation of brine into pockets and hence electrical cutoff. In ice-silicate mixtures, brine channels are evident above the eutectic temperature only when pore diameters exceed a few microns, regardless of salt concentration. This is also consistent with small-pore capillary segregation of fluid. Below the eutectic temperature, salt hydrate always forms electrically interconnected networks, even at trace volumes. Interfacial unfrozen water was measured by NMR to be present at 2-3 equivalent H2O monolayers but has negligible DC conductivity. Dielectric relaxations due to rotation of interfacial water and protonic defects in ice and salt hydrate were identified, as well as interfacial polarizations arresting charge translation in salt hydrates and interfacial water. Because the dielectric permittivities measured at 1 MHz approached known radiofrequency (RF) values, almost all of the dispersion is determined by “low frequency” mechanisms. At RF, the total intrinsic absorption in a surface-penetrating radar signal can be estimated, but understanding individual mechanisms must come from low-frequency measurements and geological context. In addition to the well-understood losses caused by trace impurities of acid or salt in relatively pure ice, we are now able to quantify additional absorption in subfreezing materials caused by salt hydrates, and, in the presence of silicates, unfrozen interfacial water. The latter has been suggested to be suitable to support subfreezing microbial life (Jakosky et al., Astrobiology, 3, 343, 2003; Mohlman, op cit, 5, 770, 2005). However, the DC electrical conductivity of interfacial water is many decades smaller than nominal fresh water, so the total rate of charge transport through interfacial water must be negligible compared to fresh water. Furthermore, a few monolayers of H2O (< 1 nm) are only a few times the size of major ions and much too small to accommodate large organic molecules. The possibility of subfreezing microbial activity on Mars would then be attributed to freezing-point depression of salt-rich ice, and not interfacial water.

Grimm, R. E.; Stillman, D.

2009-12-01

161

Crystallography of Alumina-YAG-Eutectic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple descriptions of the alumina-YAG eutectic crystallography appear in the ceramic literature. The orientation between two phases in a eutectic system has direct impact on residual stress, morphology, microstructural stability, and high temperature mechanical properties. A study to demonstrate that the different crystallographic relationships can be correlated with different growth constraints was undertaken. Fibers produced by Laser-Heated Float Zone (LHFZ) and Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG) were examined. A map of the orientation relationship between Al2O3 and Y3Al5O12 and their relationship to the fiber growth axis as a function of pull rate are presented. Regions in which a single orientation predominates are identified.

Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali; Dickerson, Robert M.; Matson, Lawrence E.

2000-01-01

162

Two-stage eutectic metal brushes  

DOEpatents

A two-stage eutectic metal brush assembly having a slip ring rigidly coupled to a shaft, the slip ring being electrically coupled to first voltage polarity. At least one brush is rigidly coupled to a second ring and slidingly engaged to the slip ring. Eutectic metal at least partially fills an annulus between the second ring and a stationary ring. At least one conductor is rigidly coupled to the stationary ring and electrically coupled to a second voltage polarity. Electrical continuity is maintained between the first voltage polarity and the second voltage polarity. Periodic rotational motion is present between the stationary ring and the second ring. Periodic rotational motion is also present between the brush and the slip ring.

Hsu, John S (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

2009-07-14

163

The effect of fluid flow on eutectic growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of fluid flow on eutectic microstructure is systematically examined in Al-Cu alloys of compositions varying from 19.5 to 45.0 wt pct Cu. It is shown that significantly different fluid-flow effects are present in hypo- and hypereutectic alloys, since the modes of convection are different in these two cases. In hypoeutectic alloys, the rejected solute is copper, which is heavier than aluminum, and fluid flow gives rise to radial solute segregation in cylindrical samples. In hypereutectic alloys, a lighter aluminum is rejected that causes a double diffusive convection and gives rise to macrosegregation. These composition variations are shown to produce nonuniform microstructures that vary either radially (in hypoeutectic alloys) or axially (in hypereutectic alloys) and can give rise to a single phase-to-eutectic, lamellar-to-rod eutectic, or rod-to-lamellar eutectic transition in a given sample. Composition measurements are carried out to characterize solute segregation due to fluid flow. The fluid-flow effect on eutectic spacing in eutectic or near-eutectic alloys is found to be very small, whereas it increases the eutectic spacing in hypoeutectic alloys for a given local composition and it can increase or decrease the spacing in hypereutectic alloys, depending on the microstructure and solidification fraction. Theoretical models, based on diffusive grwoth, are modified to predict the spatio-temporal variation in eutectic microstructure caused by fluid flow.

Lee, J. H.; Liu, Shan; Trivedi, R.

2005-11-01

164

Production of chlorine from chloride salts  

DOEpatents

A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

1981-01-01

165

Microstructural evolution during containerless rapid solidification of Ni–Mo eutectic alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ni–45%Mo hypoeutectic, Ni–47.7%Mo eutectic and Ni–50%Mo hypereutectic alloys are rapidly solidified during containerless processing in drop tube. The microstructures of Ni–47.7%Mo eutectic alloy are composed of lamellar eutectic plus anomalous eutectic of Ni and NiMo phases. When the droplet size decreases, the volume fraction of anomalous eutectic becomes larger. The structural morphology transforms into Ni dendrite plus lamellar eutectic in

W. J. Yao; X. J. Han; B. Wei

2003-01-01

166

Solubilization of Genistein in Poly(Ethylene Glycol) via Eutectic Crystal Melting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genistein (5,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone) is a phytoestrogen found in soybean. It possesses various biological/pharmacological functions, e.g., tyrosine kinase inhibitory, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial activities. However, genistein has poor water solubility and skin permeability, which have seemingly prohibited the progress to preclinical evaluation. Eutectic melting approach has been performed as a means of solubilizing genistein in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Eutectic phase diagrams of blends containing genistein and PEG having three different molecular weights, i.e., 44k, 7k, and 500 g/mol, were established by means of DSC and compared with the theoretical liquidus and solidus lines, calculated self-consistently by taking into consideration all interactions including amorphous-amorphous, crystal-amorphous, amorphous-crystal, and crystal-crystal interactions. The eutectic temperatures were found to decrease with decreasing molecular weight of PEG. Guided by the phase diagram, it was found that genistein can be dissolved in PEG500 up to ˜7 wt% at room temperature. More importantly, the solubility of genistein in PEG can be improved to meet the end-use criteria of the PEG/genistein mixtures.

Buddhiranon, Sasiwimon; Kyu, Thein

2012-02-01

167

Zero-gravity growth of NaF-NaCl eutectics in the NASA Skylab program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous and discontinuous NaF fibers, embedded in a NaCl matrix, were produced in space and on earth. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture is attributed to the absence of convection current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It is shown that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of NaF fibers along the ingot axis. A new concept is advanced to explain the phenomenon of transmittance versus far infrared wavelength of the directionally solidified NaCl-NaF eutectic in terms of the two-dimensional Bragg Scattering and the polarization effect of Rayleigh scattering. This concept can be applied to other eutectic systems as long as the index of refraction of the matrix over a range of wavelengths is known. Experimental data are in agreement with the theoretical prediction.

Yue, A. S.; Allen, F. G.; Yu, J. G.

1976-01-01

168

Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in full- and low-sodium frankfurters at 4, 7, or 10°C using spray-dried mixtures of organic acid salts.  

PubMed

In meat processing, powdered ingredients are preferred to liquids because of ease of handling, mixing, and storing. This study was conducted to assess Listeria monocytogenes inhibition and the physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of frankfurters that were prepared with organic acid salts as spray-dried powders (sodium lactate-sodium acetate, sodium lactate-sodium acetate-sodium diacetate, and potassium acetate-potassium diacetate) or liquids (sodium lactate, sodium lactate-sodium diacetate, potassium lactate, and potassium lactate-sodium diacetate). Full-sodium (1.8% salt) and low-sodium (1.0% salt) frankfurters were prepared according to 10 and 5 different formulations (n = 3), respectively, and were dip inoculated with a six-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (?4 log CFU/g). Populations of Listeria and mesophilic aerobic bacteria were quantified during storage at 4, 7, and 10°C for up to 90 days. Four powder and two liquid full-sodium formulations and one powder low-sodium formulation, all of which contained diacetate except for 1% sodium lactate-sodium acetate powder, completely inhibited Listeria growth at 4°C. However, Listeria grew in full-sodium formulations at 10°C and in low-sodium formulations at 7 and 10°C except for the formulation containing 0.8% potassium acetate-0.2% potassium diacetate powder. All formulations were similar in terms of water activity, cooking yield, moisture, and protein content. Sodium content and pH were affected by the concentrations of sodium and diacetate, respectively. Frankfurter appearance, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability were similar (P > 0.05) regardless of the formulation, except for flavor and overall acceptability of the low-sodium formulation containing potassium acetate-potassium diacetate. Based on these findings, cosprayed powders appear to be a viable alternative to current liquid inhibitors for control of Listeria in processed meats. PMID:23992500

Sansawat, Thanikarn; Zhang, Lei; Jeong, Jong Y; Xu, Yanyang; Hessell, Gerald W; Ryser, Elliot T; Harte, Janice B; Tempelman, Robert; Kang, Iksoon

2013-09-01

169

Extraction of metal salts by mixtures of water-immiscible amines and organic acids (acid-base couple extractants); 2: Theoretical treatment and analysis  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive discussion is provided for the complex system obtained on equilibrating an aqueous solution of a salt with an acid-base couple (ABC) extractant. These extractants were analyzed as a combination of a liquid cation exchanger and a liquid anion exchanger operating concurrently. The effect of the amine on the organic acid activity and the effect of the acid on the amine activity were compared to those of mineral bases and acids on single active component extractants. The available distribution and spectroscopic data, summarized in the previous article, are discussed.

Eyal, A.M.; Bressler, E. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)); Kogan, L. (Israel Mining Industry, Haifa (Israel))

1994-05-01

170

Residual stresses in high-temperature ceramic eutectics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores residual thermal stresses in directionally solidified ceramic eutectics, a class of materials that has much promise for high-temperature structural applications. Residual strain tensors of both phases in a eutectic composite are measured by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. In the analysis the material is treated as fully anisotropic and the strain tensors, subsequently converted to stress tensors,

Elizabeth C. Dickey; Colleen S. Frazer; Thomas R. Watkins; Camden R. Hubbard

1999-01-01

171

Severe wear of a near eutectic aluminium–silicon alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severe wear of a near eutectic aluminium–silicon alloy is explored using a range of electron microscopic, spectroscopic and diffraction techniques to identify the residually strained and unstrained regions, microcracks and oxidized regions in the subsurface. In severe wear the contact pressure exceeds the elastic shakedown limit. Under this condition the primary and eutectic silicon particles fragment drastically. The fragments

Anirban Mahato; Nisha Verma; Vikram Jayaram; S. K. Biswas

2011-01-01

172

Electrodeposition of microcrystalline chromium from fused salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromium can be conveniently electroplated from fused chloride electrolytes. The deposition from LiCl-KCl (eutectic)-CrClâ melts is known to produce large crystal grains. Large grain size and other problems encountered in the electrodeposition of microcrystalline chromium from fused salt are discussed. The results indicate that combined use of forced electrolyte convection and a nucleating pulse in conjunction with a periodic reverse

T. Vargas; R. Varma; A. Brown

1987-01-01

173

Zero-gravity growth of NaCl-LiF eutectic. Experiment MA-131  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in an eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convection current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

1977-01-01

174

ac impedance measurements of molten salt thermal batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-destructive testing of thermal batteries without activating them is a challenging proposition. Molten salt thermal batteries are activated by raising their temperature to above the melting point of the salt constituting the electrolyte. One approach that we have considered is to raise the temperature of the molten salt electrolyte to a temperature below the melting point so that the battery does not get activated yet may provide sufficient mobility of the ionic species to be able to obtain some useful ac impedance measurements. This hypothesis was put to the test for two Li(Si)/FeS 2 molten salt batteries with two electrolytes of different melting points—a standard LiCl-KCl eutectic that melts at 352 °C and a LiBr-KBr-LiCl eutectic with a melting point of 319 °C. ac impedance measurements as a function of frequency and temperature below the melting point are presented for single cells and batteries.

Singh, Pritpal; Guidotti, Ronald A.; Reisner c, David

175

Cloud point extraction of Cu(II) using a mixture of Triton X-100 and dithizone with a salting-out effect and its application to visual determination.  

PubMed

A method for the separation and concentration of trace copper(II) ion (Cu(II)) via cloud point extraction (CPE) using a nonionic surfactant with a salting-out effect was developed and applied as a technique for the visual determination of Cu(II). Triton X-100 (TX-100), which has a cloud point at 64-67 °C in aqueous solutions, was used as the nonionic surfactant for the CPE of Cu(II). Although CPE with TX-100 requires heating of the solution to separate the surfactant-rich phase from the aqueous phase, the new method achieves phase separation at 15-30 °C owing to the addition of a large amount of salt to the solution, which lowers the cloud point. The compound 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) was selected as the chelating agent for complexation and transfer of Cu(II) to the surfactant-rich phase. The extractability of Cu(II) (initial concentration: 10 ?M) was 96.6±2.1% when Na2SO4 was added to a 20% TX-100/4 ?M dithizone solution (pH 2). Using this method, the visual determination of Cu(II) was possible for concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10 ?M. In addition, the extraction system was successfully applied to the visual determination of Cu(II) in a river water sample. PMID:24209356

Sato, Nobuko; Mori, Masanobu; Itabashi, Hideyuki

2013-12-15

176

Method for the production of uranium chloride salt  

DOEpatents

A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

2013-07-02

177

Physical properties data compilations relevant to energy storage, 2. Molten salts: Data on single and multi-component salt systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work provides selected data with value judgments for a set of 49 salt systems of interest as candidate materials for thermal energy storage sub-systems and for electrochemical energy storage systems. The physical properties assessed are melting points; phase diagrams; eutectic compositions; density; surface tension; viscosity; electrical conductivity; diffusion for ions; heat of fusion; heat capacity; volume change on fusion;

G. J. Janz; C. B. Allen; N. P. Bansal; R. M. Murphy; R. P. T. Tomkins

1979-01-01

178

Models for aqueous electrolyte mixtures for systems extending from dilute range to the fused salt: Evaluation of parameters to high temperatures and pressures  

SciTech Connect

Models based on general equations for the excess Gibbs energy of the aqueous fluid provide thermodynamically consistent structures for evaluating and predicting aqueous electrolyte properties. These equations yield other quantities upon appropriate differentiation, including osmotic and activity coefficients, excess enthalpies, heat capacities, and volumes. For this reason a wide array of experimental data are available from which model parameters and their temperature or pressure dependence can be evaluated. For systems of moderate concentration, the most commonly used model at present is the ion-interaction approach and coworkers. For more concentrated solutions, including those extending to the fused salt, an alternate model based on a Margules-expansion and commonly used for nonelectrolytes was proposed. We discuss these two models and give examples of parameter evaluations for some geologically relevant systems to high temperatures and pressures; also we show applications of the models to calculations of solubility equilibria.

Pabalan, R.T.; Pitzer, K.S.

1988-09-01

179

Eutectic freeze crystallization in a 2nd generation cooled disk column crystallizer for MgSO 4·H 2O system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eutectic freeze crystallization is a new separation process to produce pure ice and salt from concentrated salt solutions. For this new process, specialized crystallizers are being developed. A new, 2nd generation cooled disc column crystallizer (CDCC-2) with 150-l capacity and 5.6 m 2/m 3 cooling area was designed and tested for MgSO 4 crystallization. A heat flux of 1720-5750 W/m 2 was achieved at a temperature difference between coolant and crystallizer bulk solution of 3-6.5 K and a residence time of 1-3 h. Crystallization and gravitational separation of ice and salt are discussed.

Genceli, F. E.; Gärtner, R.; Witkamp, G. J.

2005-02-01

180

Improved solubility of DNA in recyclable and reusable bio-based deep eutectic solvents with long-term structural and chemical stability.  

PubMed

The solubility of DNA in bio-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of choline chloride with levulinic acid, glycerol, ethylene glycol, sorbitol and resorcinol was investigated. The macromolecule was found to be soluble and chemically and structurally stable in DESs consisting of mixtures containing glycerol and ethylene glycol. Furthermore recyclability of the DESs was demonstrated over three consecutive reuses in DNA dissolution. PMID:24022824

Mondal, Dibyendu; Sharma, Mukesh; Mukesh, Chandrakant; Gupta, Vishal; Prasad, Kamalesh

2013-10-25

181

Directionally solidified iron-base eutectic alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pseudobinary eutectic alloys with nominal compositions of Fe-25Ta-22Ni-10Cr and Fe-15.5Nb-14.5Ni-6.0Cr were directionally solidified at 0.5 centimeter per hour. Their microstructure consisted of the fcc, iron solid-solution, matrix phase reinforced by about 41-volume-percent, hcp, faceted Fe2Ta fibers and 41-volume-percent, hcp, Fe2Nb lamellae for the tantalum- and niobium-containing alloys, respectively. The microstructural stability under thermal cycling and the temperature dependence of tensile properties were investigated. These alloys showed low elevated-temperature strength and were not considered suitable for application in aircraft-gas-turbine blades although they may have applicability as vane materials.

Tewari, S. N.

1976-01-01

182

[sup 7]Li-NMR determination of stability constants as a function of temperature for lithium-crown ether complexes in a molten salt mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The stability constants of several crown ethers with lithium ion were determined by [sup 7]Li-NMR measurements. A room temperature, basic molten salt of the composition of 55/45 mol % 1-methyl-3-ethyl-imidazolium chloride to aluminum (III) chloride was used as solvent. On the basis of a 1:1 complex formation the following order was found for the stability constants of the investigated crown ethers: 18-crown-6 < 12-crown-4 < benzo-15-crown-5 < 15-crown-5. A temperature dependence study for 12-crown-4, benzo-15-crown-5, and 15-crown-5 was undertaken for the range 5-84[degree]C. Values of [Delta]H and [Delta]S were calculated. At 5.5[degree]C the splitting of the single, fast exchange peak into two separate signals was observed for benzo-15-crown-5, providing further evidence for the formation of the 1:1 complex. 34 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Gerhard, A. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States) Univ. of Witten/Herdecke (Germany)); Cobranchi, D.P.; Garland, B.A.; Highley, A.M.; Huang, Y.H.; Konya, G.; Eyring, E.M. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Zahl, A.; Eldik, R. van (Univ. of Witten/Herdecke (Germany)); Petrucci, S. (Polytechnic Univ., Farmingdale, NY (United States))

1994-08-11

183

The interference effect of more than one salt in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry Part 1: Effect of magnesium chloride-sodium chloride mixture on manganese  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous interference effects of sodium chloride and magnesium chloride on the atomization of manganese in a graphite furnace were investigated. For this purpose, the individual interference mechanisms of each salt were also studied. It was found that the interference of sodium chloride originates from expulsion of the analyte with matrix and gas phase reaction between manganese and chlorine during the atomization step. In the presence of magnesium chloride, interferences depend on the pyrolysis temperature. If low pyrolysis temperatures are applied, expulsion and gas phase reaction in the atomization step are very likely. At elevated temperatures, MgCl 2 is converted to MgO, which does not cause expulsion or gas phase reaction in the atomization step, although some loss of manganese occurs owing to the volatilization of manganese chloride formed in the pyrolysis step. If sodium chloride and magnesium chloride are present simultaneously, interferences are reduced at elevated pyrolysis temperatures. Obviously, the magnesium oxide generated by the hydrolysis of magnesium chloride acts as a modifier and partially protects the analyte, but some losses cannot be completely eliminated because of the interference due to sodium chloride and the volatilization of manganese chloride.

Ince Tekgül, H.; Akman, S.

1997-05-01

184

Furnace atmosphere effects on casting of eutectic superalloys  

SciTech Connect

Control of furnace atmosphere is a key factor in the use of silica-bonded alumina shell molds for the directional solidification of eutectic superalloys reinforced with tantalum monocarbide whiskers. The use of a furnace atmosphere which is simultaneously oxidizing to aluminum in the eutectic alloy and reducing to silica phases in the mold results in the formation of an alumina barrier layer in situ at the metal/mold interface and an absence of silica phases in the mold region adjacent to this barrier layer. The presence of this microstructure permits castings of eutectics at metal temperatures up to 1750/sup 0/C.

Gigliotti, M.F.X.; Greskovich, C.

1980-02-01

185

Eutectic mixed monolayers in equilibrium with phospholipid-bilayers and triolein-liquid phase.  

PubMed

Triolein (TO) and phospholipids (egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, egg yolk phosphatidylethanolamine, and bovine brain phosphatidylserine) had low mutual solubilities and separated into the TO-liquid phase and phospholipid-bilayers. Spreading pressures of the TO-phospholipid mixture (i.e., surface pressures of the mixed monolayer in equilibrium with the phase-separating lipid mixture) at the air/saline interface were independent of the lipid composition. On the other hand, collapse pressures of the mixed monolayer of TO and phospholipid (i.e., surface pressures of the mixed monolayer in equilibrium with the TO-liquid phase) at the interface changed with the monolayer composition and were lower than the spreading pressure. The experimental data indicated the spreading and collapse pressures as offering a phase diagram for the presence of equilibrium between the mixed monolayer, the phospholipid-bilayers and the TO-liquid phase. The diagram showed that TO and the phospholipids were miscible in the mixed monolayer, forming an eutectic mixed monolayer. When the mixed monolayer initially had the eutectic composition, no collapse of the monolayer was detected until the surface pressure reached the value of the spreading pressure. No specific complex between TO and the phospholipid is required to explain the stability and collapse of the mixed monolayers. The bulk immiscibility of the lipids elucidated by the spreading pressure-measurements, immediately leads to the phase behaviors observed. PMID:8369406

Handa, T; Saito, H; Miyajima, K

1993-06-01

186

Interaction of ?-silicon carbide with lead-lithium eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compatibility of silicon carbide with molten lead-lithium eutectic has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and prolonged heating of ? - SiC pellet in molten Pb-17Li eutectic alloy at 823K. Multiple peaks were present in the DSC analysis. However, XRD analysis has not shown any new phase formation, which indicated that no chemical reaction occurred. An experiment have also been carried out by dipping ? - SiC pellet in molten Pb-17Li eutectic alloy at 823K for 500 h to check the solubility of ? - SiC in molten Pb-17Li. Substantial mass loss of ?-SiC pellet was observed which could be due to dissolution of ?-SiC or its component into the eutectic melt.

Chakraborty, Poulami; Kumar, Sanjay; Fotedar, Ram Kishen; Krishnamurthy, Nagaiyar

2013-06-01

187

Crystal morphology of unmodified aluminium-silicon eutectic microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystallography of eutectic silicon in an unmodified A1-12.7 wt% Si alloy has been studied by transmission electron microscopy and diffraction of thin films cut from bulk samples. Twinning mechanisms are described by which the silicon changes direction or adjusts interflake spacing at the solid-liquid interface. The branching mechanism observed by previous workers is confirmed but found to be infrequent at moderate freezing rates. A side-branching mechanism is described which is considered to be the primary mechanism for branching in the wheatsheaf configuration. Orientation relationships between the eutectic silicon and aluminium phases are described. These differ from those previously observed in thin films drawn from the melt. It is proposed that orientation relationships vary with freezing rate. Evidence is presented that the eutectic aluminium re-nucleates repeatedly during growth of a single eutectic grain.

Shamsuzzoha, M.; Hogan, L. M.

1986-08-01

188

Use of Microgravity to Control the Microstructure of Eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant began in June of 1996. Its long term goal is to be able to control the microstructure of directionally solidified eutectic alloys, through an improved understanding of the influence of convection. The primary objective of the projects in the present grant is to test hypotheses for the reported influence of microgravity on the microstructure of eutectics. The prior experimental results on the influence of microgravity on the microstructure of eutectics have been contradictory. With lamellar eutectics, microgravity had a negligible effect on the microstructure. Microgravity experiments with fibrous eutectics sometimes showed a finer microstructure and sometimes a coarser microstructure. Most research has been done on the MnBi/Bi rod-like eutectic. Larson and Pirich obtained a two-fold finer microstructure both from microgravity and by use of a magnetic field to quench buoyancy-driven convection. Smith, on the other hand, observed no change in microgravity. Prior theoretical work at Clarkson University showed that buoyancy-driven convection in the vertical Bridgman configuration is not vigorous enough to alter the concentration field in front of a growing eutectic sufficiently to cause a measurable change in microstructure. We assumed that the bulk melt was at the eutectic composition and that freezing occurred at the extremum, i.e. with minimum total undercooling at the freezing interface. There have been four hypotheses attempting to explain the observed changes in microstructure of fibrous eutectics caused by convection: I .A fluctuating freezing rate, combined with unequal kinetics for fiber termination and branching. 2. Off-eutectic composition, either in the bulk melt due to an off-eutectic feed or at the freezing interface because of departure from the extremum condition. 3. Presence of a strong habit modifying impurity whose concentration at the freezing interface would be altered by convection. At the beginning of the present grant, we favored the first of these hypotheses and set out to test it both experimentally and theoretically. We planned the following approaches: I .Pass electric current pulses through the MnBi/Bi eutectic during directional solidification in order to produce an oscillatory freezing rate. 2. Directionally solidify the MnBi/Bi eutectic on Mir using the QUELD II gradient freeze furnace developed by Professor Smith at Queen's University. 3. Select another fibrous eutectic system for investigation using the Accelerated Crucible Rotation Technique to introduce convection. 4. Develop theoretical models for eutectic solidification with an oscillatory freezing rate. Because of the problems with Mir, we substituted ground-based experiments at Queen's University with QUELD II vertical and horizontal, with and without vibration of the furnace. The Al-Si system was chosen for the ACRT experiments. Three related approaches were used to model eutectic solidification with an oscillatory freezing rate. A sharp interface model was used to calculate composition oscillations at the freezing interface in response to imposed freezing rate oscillations.

Wilcox. William R.; Regel, Liya L.

1999-01-01

189

Meloxicam transdermal delivery: effect of eutectic point on the rate and extent of skin permeation  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Drug delivery through the skin can transfer therapeutic levels of drugs for pharmacological effects. Analgesics such as NSAIDs have gastrointestinal side effects and topical dosage forms of these drugs are mainly preferred, especially for local pains. Meloxicam is one of NSAIDs with no topical form in the market. In this research, we attempted to quantify the skin permeation of a meloxicam topical preparation and to show how permeation would be increased by using thymol as an enhancer. The effect of eutectic point of drug and thymol mixture on rate and extent of skin permeation was also studied. Materials and Methods: Different mixtures of thymol and meloxicam (2:8, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4, 8:2) were prepared and their melting point were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Then drug permeation was measured using diffusion cells and the Guinea pig skin. Results: Mixtures in ratios 5:5 and 4:6 of meloxicam / thymol showed a new endotherm at 149 and 140°C in DSC thermograms. The permeability of meloxicam from the creams containing 6:4, 5:5 and 4:6 ratios of meloxicam to thymol were 4.71, 15.2, 22.06 µg/cm2 respectively. This was significantly different from the cream of pure meloxicam (3.76 µg/cm2). Conclusion: This study set out to determine that thymol plays as a skin permeation enhancer and increases the meloxicam skin absorption and this enhancement is significant at the eutectic point of drug-enhancer mixture.

Mohammadi-Samani, Soliman; Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Mohammadi, Farhad; Ahmadi, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

190

Optical properties of NaCl-NaF eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new concept is advanced to explain the phenomenon of transmittance versus far-field infrared wavelength of the directionally solidified NaCl-NaF eutectic in terms of the two-dimensional Bragg Scattering and the polarization effect of Rayleigh scattering. This concept can be applied to other eutectic systems as long as the index of refraction of the matrix over a range of wavelength is known. Experimental data are in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction.

Yue, A. S.; Yu, J. G.

1976-01-01

191

The transient phase eutectic process for ceramic-metal bonding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of ceramic-metal bonding using a transient gas-metal eutectic liquid is proposed, confirmed, and investigated using nickel\\/copper-oxygen\\/alumina as a model system. A low temperature gas-metal eutectic melt may be made transient (by solidification) through interaction with a more refractory metal component providing a ceramic-metal bond with good wetting, high strength, a broad process window (relative to conventional gas-metal

Thomas Richard Chapman

2002-01-01

192

Shear Strength of Eutectic Sn-Bi Lead-Free Solders After Corrosion Testing and Thermal Aging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-cost manufacturing in the electronics industry is becoming more demanding, particularly in the production of consumer electronics. Such manufacturing processes require reliable and low-cost lead-free solders. Among the low temperature lead-free solders, eutectic Sn-Bi solder has attracted a great deal of interest since it offers good reliability comparable to that of Sn-Pb solders. In this paper, the shear strength of eutectic 42Sn-58Bi (wt.%) lead-free solder was studied using combinations of environmental tests including thermal aging at 100 °C, salt spray test, and a sequential combination of these tests. Microstructural studies on samples were performed at different time intervals of testing. To study the effect of salt spray and thermal aging on the mechanical reliability, shear testing was performed on the samples. Failure analysis including fractography on samples was conducted at different time intervals using a scanning electron microscope. Considerable corrosion was observed after the salt spray test. This was found to have a significant effect on the shear strength of the solder joints. Additionally, thermal aging was found to cause coarsening and to increase the thickness of intermetallic layers. This was also found to adversely affect the shear strength. The combination test was found to have the most significant effect, as the lowest shear strengths were seen after this testing.

Mostofizadeh, Milad; Pippola, Juha; Frisk, Laura

2014-05-01

193

Ultrasound in lead-bismuth eutectic  

SciTech Connect

The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN) is in the process of designing MYRRHA, a new multi-purpose irradiation facility to replace the ageing BR2. MYRRHA is a fast spectrum reactor cooled with lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). As liquid metal is opaque to visual light, ultrasonic measurement techniques are selected to fulfill essential tasks that, according to our assessment, will be demanded by licensing authorities, in particular: fuel assembly identification and localization of a lost fuel assembly. To that end, a considerable research effort at SCK.CEN is devoted to study ultrasonic propagation in LBE. As ultrasonic experiments in LBE are elaborate and expensive to set up, we are particularly interested in to what extent experiments in water can be extrapolated to LBE - one of the main focuses of this article. We describe and present results of a first experiment with this goal which shows that the signal to noise ratio is better in LBE and that we even see small diffuse reflections up to 40 deg. off normal. On the other hand, we do not see internal reflections in stainless steel objects in LBE which we do in water. Therefore, we conclude that experiments in water can be used to validate algorithms for LBE on the condition that they do not rely on internal reflections. We also present solutions to tackle the essential tasks: fuel assembly identification and lost object localization. The requirements for the ultrasonic equipment implementing these solutions are also discussed. (authors)

Dierckx, M.; Van Dyck, D. [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, BE-2400, Mol (Belgium)

2011-07-01

194

Effect of additives on performance on hydrated-salt TES systems  

SciTech Connect

Calmac's objectives under this contract will be to evaluate a gelling agent, developed by Calor, Ltd. of England, as a means of preventing stratification in sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate and Glauber salt eutectic phase change materials; to determine techniques for the field filling and to develop repair procedures for systems incorporating the Calor gel; to study the effects of ethylene glycol and glycerin on the thermal performance of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate and Glauber salt eutectic PCM; and to evaluate the effect of pH modification of sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate, specifically with regard to subcooling behavior. Progress is reported.

MacCracken, C.D.

1981-01-01

195

Orbital Processing of Eutectic Rod-Like Arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The eutectic is one of only three solidification classes that exist. The others are isostructural and peritectic-class reactions, respectively. Simplistically, in a binaryeutectic phase diagram, a single liquid phase isothermally decomposes to two solid phases in a cooperative manner. The melting point minimum at the eutectic composition, isothermal solidification temperature, near-isocompositional solidification and refined solidification microstructure lend themselves naturally to such applications as brazing and soldering; industries that eutectic alloys dominate. Interest in direct process control of microstructures has led, more recently, to in-situ eutectic directional solidification with applications in electro-magnetics and electro-optics. In these cases, controlled structural refinement and the high aspect ratio and regularity of the distributed eutectic phases is highly significant to the fabrication and application of these in-situ natural composites. The natural pattern formation and scaling of the dispersed phase on a sub-micron scale has enormous potential application, since fabricating bulk materials on this scale mechanically has proven to be particularly difficult. It is thus of obvious importance to understand the solidification of eutectic materials since they are of great commercial significance. The dominant theory that describes eutectic solidification was derived for diffusion-controlled growth of alloys where both solid eutectic phases solidify metallically, i.e. without faceting at the solidification interface. Both high volume fraction (lamellar) and low volume fraction (rod-like) regular metallic arrays are treated by this theory. Many of the useful solders and brazements, however, and most of the regular in-situ composites are characterized by solidification reactions that are faceted/non-faceted in nature, rather than doubly non-faceted (metallic). Further, diffusion-controlled growth conditions are atypical terrestrially since gravitationally-driven convection is pervasive. As a consequence, it is important to determine whether these faceted/non-faceted composites behave in the same manner as their doubly non-faceted counterparts, particularly in the presence of convection. Prior analytical convective sensitivity testing of this theory predicted insensitivity. Prior experimental testing of this theory offered broad-based agreement between theory and experiment, though most results were for high volume fraction lamellar eutectics that solidified without faceting at the solidification interface. Directional solidification experiments of low volume fraction rod eutectics under damped (microgravity or magnetic field) conditions, however, have demonstrated significant sensitivity, challenging this fundamental theory. More recent theories have been proposed which introduce kinetic undercooling, faceting, fluid shear of the solute redistribution zone and the possibility that the interface composition is not the same as the bulk liquid composition. This program tests the established and proposed analytical theories and addresses the origins of discrepancies between the experimental and analytical results.

Larson, David J., Jr.

1998-01-01

196

Characterization of low-melting electrolytes for potential geothermal borehole power supplies: The LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic  

SciTech Connect

The suitability of modified thermal-battery technology for use as a potential power source for geothermal borehole applications is under investigation. As a first step, the discharge processes that take place in LiSi/LiBr-KBr-LiF/FeS{sub 2} thermal cells were studied at temperatures of 350 C and 400 C using pelletized cells with immobilized electrolyte. Incorporation of a reference electrode allowed the relative contribution of each electrode to the overall cell polarization to be determined. The results of single-cell tests are presented, along with preliminary data for cells based on a lower-melting CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic salt.

Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

1998-05-01

197

Effect of Smectic Ordering on the Dielectric Properties of Reentrant Nematic Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the static dielectric constants ?? and ?? as well as the low-frequency dispersion of ?par for mixtures of two eutectic compositions exhibiting a reentrant nematic phase over a range of concentration. The dielectric properties of a nematic mixture, whose concentration is close to the critical concentration ( Ccr) at which the smectic phase appears, are found to

B. R. Ratna; R. Shashidhar; M. Bock; A. Göbl-wunsch; G. Heppke

1983-01-01

198

Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt  

SciTech Connect

Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete occlusion of salt and a uniform distribution of chloride and fission products are desired for incorporation of the powders into the final waste form. The relative effectiveness of the blending process was studied over a series of temperature, time, and composition profiles. The major criteria for determining the effectiveness of the mixing operations were the level and uniformity of residual free salt in the mixtures. High operating temperatures (>775 K) improved salt occlusion. Reducing the chloride levels in the mixture to below 80% of the full salt capacity of the zeolite significantly reduced the free salt level in the final product.

Pereira, C.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

1996-05-01

199

Physical properties data compilations relevant to energy storage. IV. Molton salts: data on additional single and multi-component salt systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work provides selected data with value judgements for an additional set of 107 salt systems of interest as candidate materials for thermal energy storage sub-systems, for electrochemical energy storage systems, and in electrochemical aluminum production. The physical properties assessed are: melting points; phase diagrams; eutectic compositions; density; surface tension; viscosity; electrical conductivity; diffusion constants for ions; heat of

G. J. Janz; R. P. T. Tomkins

1981-01-01

200

21 CFR 1310.12 - Exempt chemical mixtures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...optical isomers and salts of optical isomers. N-phenethyl-4-piperidone (NPP) 8332 Not exempt at any concentration Chemical mixtures containing any amount of NPP are not exempt. Phenylacetic acid, and its salts and esters 8791...

2010-04-01

201

21 CFR 1310.12 - Exempt chemical mixtures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...optical isomers and salts of optical isomers. N-phenethyl-4-piperidone (NPP) 8332 Not exempt at any concentration Chemical mixtures containing any amount of NPP are not exempt. Phenylacetic acid, and its salts and esters 8791...

2009-04-01

202

Dendritic and eutectic solidification of undercooled Co-Sb alloys  

SciTech Connect

Co-20- wt% Sb hypoeutectic, Co-41.4 st% Sb eutectic, and Co-45 wt% Sb hypereutectic alloys were undercooled by up to 224, 225 and 177 K, respectively. The dendritic and eutectic growth velocities during rapid solidification were measured by an infrared technique. It is found that dendrite growth in the hypoeutectic alloy is still in the regime of solute diffusion-controlled growth even at an undercooling of 224 K. A dendritic-equiaxed'' microstructure transition occurs if this hypoeutectic alloy is undercooled by more than 90 K, resulting in an abrupt grain refinement effect. Two undercooling thresholds were observed for the eutectic alloy: below the lower limit of [Delta]T[sup [asterisk

Wei, B.; Herlach, D.M.; Feuerbacher, B. (Inst. fuer Raumsimulation, Stuggart (Germany)); Sommer, F. (Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany))

1993-06-01

203

Properties of Rolled Sheet of Al-Mg2Si Monovariant Eutectic Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rolled sheets were prepared from two Al-Mg2Si monovariant eutectic alloys, one with a quasi-binary eutectic composition, the other containing excess Mg. Their metallography, annealing behavior, age hardening, fracture strength, thermal stability and tensi...

J. Kaneko

1976-01-01

204

Possible mechanism of superconductivity in metal-semiconductor eutectic alloys  

SciTech Connect

The effect due to the tunneling of conduction electrons into the negative-U centers at the disordered metal-semiconductor interfaces on the superconductivity of metal-semiconductor eutectic alloys is considered. Gorkov's formalism is used to calculate T/sub c/ for (i) n/sub I/<<1 and lambdanot =0, (ii) lambda=0. Where n/sub I/ is the concentration of the pairing centers and lambda is the phonon-mediated electron-electron interaction in BCS theory. Our results can qualitatively explain the increase of T/sub c/ in Al-Si, Al-Ge, and Be-Si eutectic alloys.

Ting, C.S.; Talwar, D.N.; Ngai, K.L.

1980-10-06

205

The fusion reactor blanket with lithium-lead eutectic alloy Li17-Pb83  

SciTech Connect

Results of improvements of lithium-lead eutectic blanket channels are described in the report. Operations conditions of breeding channels, technics of filling up with eutectic and tritium recovery problems are considered. LOCA and LOFA as well as eutectic-water interaction are analyzed. The article contains a survey of investigations of eutectic and channel structure thermal-mechanical behavior, that was the cause of the up-to-date channel option. There are suggestion for the further development of the channel design.

Danilov, I.V.; Poliksha, V.V.; Sidorov, A.M. [and others

1993-12-31

206

Radioscopic visualization of isothermal solidification of eutectic Ga-ln alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase diagram for a gallium-indium alloy shows that the eutectic is formed at a temperature of 15.3 C and has a eutectic composition of 14.2 at. pct In (21.4 wt pct In). A eutectic melt is expected to solidify completely when the eutectic temperature is reached. This requires that no gravitational segregation occurs in the melt. A survey of

R. Derebail; J. N. Koster

1996-01-01

207

Salt assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the offshore arena is the last great frontier for oil and gas exploration and development, then salt may very well be the last great barrier to exploring that frontier. In the game of seismic acquisition, salt refuses to follow the rules. Its relatively low density coupled with high velocity and structural complexity plays havoc with seismic imaging, rendering data

Duey

1999-01-01

208

High temperature molten salt storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a high-temperature molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) concept, including some materials testing, was developed by Rockwell International's Rocketdyne Division (RD), under contract to SERI, and is described in this document. The main features of the concept are a conical hot tank with a liner and internal insulation that allows unrestricted relative thermal expansion and the use of cathodic protection (impressed voltage) to inhibit corrosion. The RD design uses two tanks and ternary eutectic lithium-sodium-potassium carbonates for sensible heat storage. The tanks were sized for 6 h of storage at a discharge rate of 300 MW, giving 1800 MWh total usable thermal storage capacity. The molten carbonate storage medium is cycled between 425 and 900C. From the design study, no definitive statement can be made as to the cost-effectiveness of cathodic protection. Several anode design issues need to be resolved before cathodic protection can significantly reduce corrosion where the liner comes in contact with molten salts. However, where the tank is exposed to salt vapor, the large corrosion allowance required for the liner without cathodic protection results in a much thicker liner wall and shorter liner life than originally perceived, which affects system costs significantly.

Ives, J.; Newcomb, J. C.; Pard, A. G.

1985-10-01

209

Refinement of Eutectic Silicon Phase of Aluminum A356 Alloy Using High-Intensity Ultrasonic Vibration  

SciTech Connect

The eutectic silicon in A356 alloy can be refined and modified using either chemical, quench, or superheating modification. We observed, for the first time, that the eutectic silicon can also be significantly refined using high-intensity ultrasonic vibration. Rosette-like eutectic silicon is formed during solidification of specimen treated with high-intensity ultrasonic vibration.

Jian, Xiaogang [ORNL; Han, Qingyou [ORNL

2006-01-01

210

Columnar to equiaxed transition of eutectic in hypoeutectic aluminium–silicon alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Directional solidification of unmodified and strontium modified binary, high-purity, aluminium–7 wt% silicon and commercial A356 alloys has been carried out to investigate the mechanism of eutectic solidification. The microstructure of the eutectic growth interface was investigated with optical microscopy and Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD). In the commercial alloys, the eutectic solidification interface extends in the growth direction and creates a

G. Heiberg; K. Nogita; A. K. Dahle; L. Arnberg

2002-01-01

211

Eutectic grain size and strontium concentration in hypoeutectic aluminium–silicon alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently it has been shown that modification with strontium causes an increase in the size of eutectic grains. The eutectic grain size increases because there are fewer nucleation events, possibly due to the poisoning of phosphorus-based nuclei that are active in the unmodified alloy. The current paper investigates the effect of strontium concentration on the eutectic grain size. In the

Stuart D. McDonald; Kazuhiro Nogita; Arne K. Dahle

2006-01-01

212

Fourier Thermal Analysis of the Eutectic Formed in Pb-Sn Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the presence of two different primary phases on the microstructural characteristics and solidification kinetics of Pb-Sn eutectic was analyzed using Fourier thermal analysis method (FTA) and microstructural characterization. Three Pb-Sn alloys, a hypoeutectic, an eutectic, and a hypereutectic alloy, were melted in an electric furnace under an argon atmosphere and poured into sand molds. Cooling curves were obtained and numerically processed using FTA. Microstructural observations of the probes indicate a lamellar morphology for the eutectic microconstituent of the hypereutectic alloy; the eutectic alloy shows the presence of both lamellar and anomalous eutectic and the hypoeutectic alloy shows only the presence of anomalous eutectic. FTA results indicate that in the case of the probes showing the presence of anomalous eutectic, there is a primary eutectic formed during recalescence at high undercooling and a secondary eutectic yielded at low undercooling at the eutectic plateau temperature. This result shows that the cause behind the observed differences in the eutectic morphologies of the experimental alloys lies on the nucleating ability of the primary phase available as a potential substrate for nucleation of the eutectic microconstituent.

Cruz, H.; Ramírez-Argaez, M.; Juarez, A.; Garcia, A.; González-Rivera, C.

2009-06-01

213

Effects of boron on eutectic modification of hypoeutectic Al–Si alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of boron on the eutectic modification and solidification mode of hypoeutectic Al–Si alloys have been studied adding different boride phases. The results show that boron does not cause modification of the eutectic silicon. Boron-containing samples display eutectic nucleation and growth characteristics similar to that of unmodified alloys.

K Nogita; A. K Dahle

2003-01-01

214

Preparation and Characterization of Single Crystals and Epitaxial Layers of Silicon Carbide by Molten Salt Electrolysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The synthesis of silicon carbide by electrolysis of molten salts has been achieved for the first time. Two systems have been investigated, one involving K2SiF6 and Li2CO3 dissolved in a KF/LiF eutectic, the other being a combination of Na2CO3 and SiO2 wit...

D. Elwell R. S. Feigelson T. H. Geballe

1979-01-01

215

Divorced eutectic in a HPDC magnesium–aluminum alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of the eutectic in a thin-wall high pressure die cast (HPDC) U-shape AM60 magnesium box was investigated by light microscope, SEM, TEM and EPMA. The extremely fast cooling rate taking place in the solidification process produces a highly segregated zone near the boundaries of small grains and a fine distribution of ? particles, which is typical of a

S. Barbagallo; H. I. Laukli; O. Lohne; E. Cerri

2004-01-01

216

Microstructural evolution of eutectic Au-Sn solder joints  

SciTech Connect

Current trends toward miniaturization and the use of lead(Pb)-free solder in electronic packaging present new problems in the reliability of solder joints. This study was performed in order to understand the microstructure and microstructural evolution of small volumes of nominally eutectic Au-Sn solder joints (80Au-20Sn by weight), which gives insight into properties and reliability.

Song, Ho Geon

2002-05-31

217

Structure of directionally solidified InSb-Sb eutectic alloy  

SciTech Connect

The eutectic alloy of InSb-Sb has been directionally solidified at various rates in order to investigate the structure changes due to solidification conditions. The boundary energy between the InSb and Sb phases was determined from a dislocation model of the interface.

Umehara, Y.; Koda, S.

1987-11-01

218

Quench modification of aluminium-silicon eutectic alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Directional solidification of aluminium-silicon eutectic alloys were carried out in order to investigate the mechanism by which the quench modification takes place. For this purpose a new type of Bridgman furnace was designed which can attain a high temperature gradient and a high interfacial growth velocity up to 1000 µm-1. It is established that the fibrous structure is the result

S. Khan; R. Elliott

1996-01-01

219

Refinement of Promising Coating Compositions for Directionally Cast Eutectics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The successful application of high creep strength, directionally solidified gamma/gamma prime-delta (Ni-19.7Cb-6Cr-2.5Al) eutectic superalloy turbine blades requires the development of suitable coatings for airfoil, root and internal blade surfaces. In or...

T. E. Strangman E. J. Felten R. S. Benden

1976-01-01

220

Damping Capacity of HypoEutectic Zn-Al Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damping capacity of hypo-eutectic Zn-Al alloys as a function of rolling ratio is investigated. Effect of heat treatment after cold rolling on the damping capacity is discussed. Damping tests were carried out using the method of the free decay of vibrations in bending oscillation. With an increase in rolling reduction, the damping capacity was increased. As the results of tensile

T. Kurosawa; T. Otani; K. Hoshino

1996-01-01

221

Growth of new ternary intermetallic phases from Ca/Zn eutectic flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eutectic 7.3:2.7 molar ratio mixture of calcium and zinc metal melts at 394 °C and was explored as a solvent for the growth of new intermetallic phases for potential use as hydrogen storage materials. The reaction of nickel in this molten mixture produces two new phases—the CaCu 5-related structure CaNi 2Zn 3 ( P6/ mmm, a=8.9814(5) Å, c=4.0665(5) Å) and a new cubic structure Ca 21Ni 2Zn 36 ( Fd-3 m, a=21.5051(4) Å). Palladium-containing reactions produced CaPd 0.85Zn 1.15 with the orthorhombic TiNiSi structure type ( Pnma, a=7.1728(9) Å, b=4.3949(5) Å, c=7.7430(9) Å). Reactions of platinum in the Ca/Zn mixture produce Ca 6Pt 3Zn 5, with an orthorhombic structure related to that of W 3CoB 3 ( Pmmn, a=13.7339(9) Å, b=4.3907(3) Å, c=10.7894(7) Å).

Stojanovic, Milorad; Latturner, Susan E.

2007-03-01

222

Use of Microgravity to Control the Microstructure of Eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant began in June of 1996. Its long term goal is to be able to control the microstructure of directionally solidified eutectic alloys, through an improved understanding of the influence of convection. The primary objective of the present projects is to test hypotheses for the reported influence of microgravity on the microstructure of three fibrous eutectics (MnBi-Bi, InSb-NiSb, Al3Ni-Al). A secondary objective is to determine the influence of convection on the microstructure of other eutectic alloys. Two doctoral students and a masters student supported as a teaching assistant were recruited for this research. Techniques were developed for directional solidification of MnBi-Bi eutectics with periodic application of current pulses to produce an oscillatory freezing rate. Image analysis techniques were developed to obtain the variation in MnBi fiber spacing, which was found to be normally distributed. The mean and standard deviation of fiber spacing were obtained for several freezing conditions. Eighteen ampoules were prepared for use in the gradient freeze furnace QUELD developed at Queen's University for use in microgravity. Nine of these ampoules will be solidified soon at Queen's in a ground-based model. We hope to solidify the other nine in the QUELD that is mounted on the Canadian Microgravity Isolation Mount on MIR. Techniques are being developed for directional solidification of the Al-Si eutectic at different freezing rates, with and without application of accelerated crucible rotation to induce convection. For the first time, theoretical methods are being developed to analyze eutectic solidification with an oscillatory freezing rate. In a classical sharp-interface model, we found that an oscillatory freezing rate increases the deviation of the average interfacial composition from the eutectic, and increases the undercooling of the two phases by different amounts. This would be expected to change the volume fraction solidifying and the fiber spacing. Because of difficulties in tracking the freezing interfaces of the two solid phases, a phase-field model is also being developed. A paper demonstrating application of phase field methods to periodic structures has been submitted for publication.

Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.; Smith, Reginald W.

1998-01-01

223

The transient phase eutectic process for ceramic-metal bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method of ceramic-metal bonding using a transient gas-metal eutectic liquid is proposed, confirmed, and investigated using nickel/copper-oxygen/alumina as a model system. A low temperature gas-metal eutectic melt may be made transient (by solidification) through interaction with a more refractory metal component providing a ceramic-metal bond with good wetting, high strength, a broad process window (relative to conventional gas-metal eutectic bonds), high thermal stability, and controlled thermoelastic stress; transport of a more active species to the ceramic interface may further improve adherence. A eutectic between the low-melting component (copper) and a gas (oxygen) forms at the interface between the refractory metal (nickel) and ceramic (alumina). This interfacial liquid wets the surfaces and promotes bonding. Because the entire copper interlayer is melted, the processing window is wider than conventional gas-metal eutectic in terms of temperature, atmosphere, and time. The liquid (Cu-O) dissolves the active, refractory component (Ni) providing transport to the interface where a refractory bond phase (NiAl2O4) forms. Interactions at temperature consume the liquid phase causing isothermal solidification. Diffusional homogenization further increases the solidus temperature of the joint. Multilayer bond structures were produced using both foils and plating. Oxygen additions were investigated using pre-oxidation of each metal and/or oxidation in-situ. The best bonds resulted from foils combining nickel pre-oxidation with a eutectic atmosphere. The oxide layer slows the oxidation kinetics of the nickel which allows eutectic liquid to form providing wetting, reaction, and adherence to the ceramic. The interfacial bond structure consists of a uniform, thin (sub-micron) reaction layer of nickel-aluminate (NiAl2 O4) spinel. Adhesion is comparable to current technologies and can exceed the ceramic strength. Typical peel failure occurs at the metal-spinel interface. Residual thermo-elastic stress is reduced relative to conventional direct bond copper. A high-temperature peel test was developed to evaluate thermal stability. It showed that strength was maintained to 800°C, the apparatus limit. Long term exposure at 1000°C did not deteriorate bond strength when interfacial oxidation was limited.

Chapman, Thomas Richard

224

The removal of encapsulated catalyst particles from carbon nanotubes using molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method, using molten salts, is described for the removal of encapsulated nickel catalyst particles from multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes, synthesised by the decomposition of methane and hydrogen over a NiO\\/SiO2 aerogel catalyst, were treated in a LiCl–KCl eutectic molten salt and subsequently by hydrochloric acid to remove the nickel catalyst particles. The influence of the

Xuanke Li; Guanming Yuan; Andy Brown; Aidan Westwood; Rik Brydson; Brian Rand

2006-01-01

225

Microstructure and thermal fatigue life of BGAs with eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu balls assembled at 210\\/spl deg\\/C with eutectic Sn-Pb solder paste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventionally, it has been understood that in order to assemble BGAs with eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu solder balls in eutectic Sn-Pb solder paste, a reflow profile having a peak temperature higher than 217degC, which is the melting point of eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu, would be required to achieve complete mixing of the Sn-Pb paste and the Sn-Ag-Cu ball. Nevertheless, it was observed in this

N. Nandagopal; Zequn Mei; Sue Teng

2006-01-01

226

Recent advances in the molten salt technology for the destruction of energetic materials  

SciTech Connect

The DOE has thousands of pounds of energetic materials which result from dismantlement operations at the Pantex Plant. The authors have demonstrated the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for the treatment of explosives and explosive-containing wastes on a 1.5 kilogram of explosive per hour scale and are currently building a 5 kilogram per hour unit. MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as binders and metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic material waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a crucible containing a molten salt, in this case a eutectic mixture of Na, K, and Li carbonates. The following pure component DOE and DoD explosives have been destroyed in LLNL`s experimental unit at their High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K-6, NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following formulations were also destroyed: Comp B, LX-10, LX-16, LX-17, PBX-9404, and XM46, a US Army liquid gun propellant. In this 1.5 kg/hr unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NOx were found to be well below 1T. In addition to destroying explosive powders and molding powders the authors have also destroyed materials that are typical of real world wastes. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the information obtained on the smaller unit, the authors have constructed a 5 kg/hr MSD unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. This unit is currently under shakedown tests and evaluation.

Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.

1995-11-01

227

Mixture Experiments  

SciTech Connect

A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

Piepel, Gregory F.

2007-12-01

228

Microstructural development of eutectic Bi-Sn and eutectic In-Sn during high temperature deformation  

SciTech Connect

Eutectic Bi-Sn and In-Sn solder joints were subjected to high temperature deformation in shear in order to determine whether microstructural instabilities are generated during testing. Dynamic recrystallization had previously been observed in Sn-Pb solder joints during creep and fatigue in shear. The current study shows that Bi-Sn can recrystallize during deformation in creep or at constant strain rate, whereas no microstructural changes are observed in In-Sn. Recrystallization of Bi-Sn is concentrated in a narrow band along the length of the sample, parallel to the direction of shear strain, similar to behavior in Sn-Pb. The recrystallization appears to proceed by migration of interphase boundaries rather than by a nucleation and growth mechanism. A minimum total strain is required to induce obvious recrystallization in Bi-Sn, independent of applied stress or strain rate. This value of strain is much higher than the strain at initiation of tertiary creep or at the maximum shear stress. Onset of tertiary creep and strain softening occur as a result of nonuniform deformation in the samples that is independent of the microstructural instabilities. The creep behavior of In-Sn is relatively straightforward, with a single creep mechanism operating at all temperatures tested. 36 refs., 13 figs.

Goldstein, J.L.F.; Morris, J.W. Jr. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States))

1994-05-01

229

Pearlite-like eutectic of ZL 108 aluminium-silicon alloy containing rare-earth elements rapidly solidified by laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cast aluminium alloys with eutectic composition have been frequently used in industry owing to their low cost, simple processing and light weight. Their mechanical properties strongly depend on their eutectic microstructure. Such methods as adding elements and rapid solidification have been widely used to refine the eutectic. A lot of work on the eutectic structure in cast aluminium alloys has

H. Jiandong; L. Yongbing; L. Zhang

1990-01-01

230

Recent advances in the molten salt destruction of energetic materials  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated the use of the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for destroying explosives, liquid gun propellant, and explosives-contaminated materials on a 1.5 kg of explosive/hr bench- scale unit (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In our recently constructed 5 kg/hr pilot- scale unit we have also demonstrated the destruction of a liquid gun propellant and simulated wastes containing HMX (octogen). MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic materials waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a vessel containing molten salt (a eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium carbonates). The following pure explosives have been destroyed in our bench-scale experimental unit located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K- 6 (keto-RDX), NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following compositions were also destroyed: Comp B, LX- IO, LX- 1 6, LX- 17, PBX-9404, and XM46 (liquid gun propellant). In this 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NO{sub x} were found to be well below 1%. In addition to destroying explosive powders and compositions we have also destroyed materials that are typical of residues which result from explosives operations. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic-bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the process data obtained on the bench-scale unit we designed and constructed a next-generation 5 kg/hr pilot-scale unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. The pilot unit has completed process implementation operations and explosives safety reviews. To date, in this pilot unit we have successfully destroyed liquid gun propellant and dimethylsulfoxide containing HMX in continuous, long-duration runs.

Pruneda, C. O., LLNL

1996-09-01

231

New Method of Filling of High-Temperature Fixed-Point Cells Based on Metal-Carbon Eutectics/Peritectics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method of filling of high-temperature fixed-point cells based on metal-carbon eutectics and peritectics is suggested and tested. In this method a metal and carbon powder mixture is introduced not directly into the crucible, but into an additional container located just above the crucible. The mixture melts inside the container, and the already molten eutectic drops through a small hole in the bottom of the container and fills the crucible drop by drop. The method can be used to obtain a uniform ingot without porous or foundry cavities, to minimize the risk of contamination, and to avoid some other disadvantages. The method was applied to fabricate Re-C and WC-C cells using 5N purity materials. The cells demonstrated a good plateau shape with melting ranges of 0.2 K and 80 mK for Re-C and WC-C, respectively. The Re-C cell was compared with a cell built at NMIJ and showed good agreement with a difference of melting temperatures of only 45 mK.

Khlevnoy, B. B.; Grigoryeva, I. A.; Ibragimov, N. A.

2011-08-01

232

Corrosion of ODS steels in lead bismuth eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are advanced materials being developed for high temperature applications. Their properties (high temperature strength, creep resistance, corrosion/oxidation resistance) make them potentially usable for high temperature applications in liquid metal cooled systems like liquid lead-bismuth eutectic cooled reactors and spallation sources. Corrosion tests on five different ODS alloys were performed in flowing liquid lead-bismuth eutectic in the DELTA Loop at the Los Alamos National Laboratory at 535 °C for 200 h and 600 h. The tested materials were chromium alloyed ferritic/martensitic steels (12YWT, 14YWT, MA957) and Cr-Al alloyed steels (PM2000, MA956). It was shown that the Al alloyed ODS steel above 5.5 wt% Al (PM2000) is highly resistant to corrosion and oxidation in the conditions examined, and that the corrosion properties of the ODS steels depend strongly on their grain size.

Hosemann, P.; Thau, H. T.; Johnson, A. L.; Maloy, S. A.; Li, N.

2008-02-01

233

Coatings for directional eutectics. [for corrosion and oxidation resistance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eleven coating systems based on MCrAlY overlay and diffusion aluminide prototypes were evaluated to determine their capability for protecting the gamma/gamma prime-delta directionally solidified eutectic alloy (Ni-20Cb-6Cr-2.5Al) in gas turbine engine applications. Furnace oxidation and hot corrosion, Mach 0.37 burner-rig, tensile ductility, stress-rupture and thermomechanical fatigue tests were used to evaluate the coated gamma/gamma prime-delta alloy. The diffusion aluminide coatings provided adequate oxidation resistance at 1144 K (1600 F) but offered very limited protection in 114 K (1600 F) hot corrosion and 1366 K (2000 F) oxidation tests. A platinum modified NiCrAlY overlay coating exhibited excellent performance in oxidation testing and had no adverse effects upon the eutectic alloy.

Felten, E. J.; Strangman, T. E.; Ulion, N. E.

1974-01-01

234

Nickel solubility limit in liquid lead–bismuth eutectic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the Accelerator-Driven System (ADS), the Pb–Bi eutectic can be used as spallation target for neutron production. The Pb–Bi flow in contact with the ADS structural steels, T 91 (Fe–9Cr martensitic steel) and 316L (Fe–17Cr–10Ni austenitic steel), can dissolve the main steel components: iron, chromium and nickel. According to literature, in low oxygen containing Pb–Bi, the dissolution

L. Martinelli; F. Vanneroy; J. C. Diaz Rosado; D. L’Hermite; M. Tabarant

2010-01-01

235

Control of eutectic solidification microstructures through laser spot perturbations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a new experimental technique for controlling lamellar (nonfaceted) eutectic microstructures and testing their stability in thin-sample directional solidification (TDS) of a model transparent alloy (CBr4–C2Cl6). We observe the solidification front in real time by optical microscopy. We use micromanipulation with a holographic laser spot array for perturbing the solidification front on a scale ranging from one to

Silvere Akamatsu; Kyuyong Lee; Wolfgang Losert

2006-01-01

236

Powder eutectic coating with Al 3 Ti for steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plates and round bars made of a pure iron or a carbon steel (JIS-S45C) have successfully been coated with Al3Ti powder by the “powder eutectic coating” method. The coated layers are found to show graded microstructures, where the concentrations\\u000a of Fe, Al, and Ti change gradually from the surface toward the inside of a specimen. The microstructure of the coated

H. Kafuku; Y. Tomota; T. Suzuki; M. Isaka

2002-01-01

237

High temperature creep properties of eutectic and near eutectic silver-copper alloys: Application to metal\\/ceramic joining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations of residual stresses in eutectic Ag-Cu braze joints are often required to validate designs for a variety of metal\\/ceramic joining applications. In particular, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) codes have the capability of incorporating either elastic-plastic or minimum creep rate constitutive models for the braze material. Unfortunately, neither high temperature stress-strain or creep data are available in the literature for

J. J. Stephens; S. N. Burchett; F. M. Hosking

1991-01-01

238

Separating Mixtures: How We Concentrate Natural Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity involves separating mixtures of minerals on the basis of their physical properties. Students are shown a piece of granite and see that it is clearly a mixture. Students will try to devise ways of separating some simple mixtures and then see how some of the same methods are used to separate real minerals from mixtures. Students will discover that many useful materials are found as part of mixtures. For example, salt is found in underground deposits mixed with sand and clay. The mixture is called rock salt. Minerals are chemicals found naturally in the Earth and many of them are very useful. To get at the useful minerals, we usually have to separate them from less-useful material which are often called gangue (pronounced gang) by miners.

239

Eutectic reaction and microstructural characteristics of Al (Li)Mg2Si alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal analysis, directional solidification and metallographic techniques were applied to investigate the pseudobinary eutectic reaction process and the microstructural characteristics of Al(Li)-Mg2Si alloys. It was demonstrated that the eutectic reaction curve for L ? Al(Li) + Mg2Si in the Al(Li)-Mg-Si system moves to the Al-rich corner with the increase of Li additions. The pseudobinary eutectic point with the highest melting

S.-P. Li; S.-X. Zhao; M.-X. Pan; D.-Q. Zhao; X.-C. Chen; O. M. Barabash

2001-01-01

240

The initial stage of contact melting and the phase state of melt in eutectic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms of anomalously fast formation of the transient layer and the formation of liquid-phase nucleation sites in the\\u000a initial stage of contact (eutectic) melting are proposed. The reasons for the low melting of eutectics are discussed. A method\\u000a for constructing a hypothetical solidus line in the state diagram of low-dimensional eutectic systems is described. The possibility\\u000a of existence of microinhomogeneous

V. Z. Afashokov; A. A. Ahkubekov; S. N. Ahkubekova; M. M. Baysultanov

2009-01-01

241

Explosive double salts and preparation. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

A new composition of matter has been discovered which is an explosive addition compound of ammonium nitrate (AN) and diethylenetriamine trinitrate (DETN) in a 50:50 molar ratio. the compound is stable over extended periods of time only at temperatures higher than 46/sup 0/C, decomposing to a fine-grained eutectic mixture (which is also believed to be new) of AN and DETN at temperatures lower than 46/sup 0/C. The compound of the invention has an x-ray density of 1.61 g/cm/sup 3/, explodes to form essentially only gaseous products, has higher detonation properties (i.e., detonation velocity and pressure) than those of any mechanical mixture having the same density and composition as the compound of the invention, is a quite insensitive explosive material, can be cast at temperatures attainable by high pressure steam, and is prepared from inexpensive ingredients. Methods of preparing the compound and the fine-grained eutectic composition of the invention are given.

Cady, H.H.; Lee, K.Y.

1982-02-03

242

Salt Tolerance of Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI)  

SciTech Connect

Suppression of ion intensity in the presence of high salt matrices is common in most mass spectrometry ionization techniques. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ionization method that exhibits salt tolerance, and this is investigated. DESI analysis was performed on three different drug mixtures in the presence of 0, 0.2, 2, 5, 10, and 20% NaCl:KCl weight by volume from seven different surfaces. At physiological concentrations individual drugs in each mixture were observed with each surface. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was used to provide additional confirmation for select compounds. Multiple stage experiments, to MS5, were performed for select compounds. Even in the absence of added salt, the benzodiazepine containing mixture yielded sodium and potassium adducts of carbamazepine which masked the ions of interest. These adducts were eliminated by adding 0.1% 7M ammonium acetate to the standard methanol:water (1:1) spray solvent. Comparison of the salt tolerance of DESI with that of electrospray ionization (ESI) demonstrated much better signal/noise characteristics for DESI in this study. The salt tolerance of DESI was also studied by performing limit of detection and dynamic range experiments. Even at a salt concentration significantly above physiological concentrations, select surfaces were effective in providing spectra that allowed the ready identification of the compounds of interest. The already high salt tolerance of DESI can be optimized further by appropriate choices of surface and spray solution.

Jackson, Ayanna U. [Purdue University; Talaty, Nari [Purdue University; Cooks, R G [Purdue University; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2007-01-01

243

Prebiotic chemistry in eutectic solutions at the water-ice matrix.  

PubMed

A crystalline ice matrix at subzero temperatures can maintain a liquid phase where organic solutes and salts concentrate to form eutectic solutions. This concentration effect converts the confined reactant solutions in the ice matrix, sometimes making condensation and polymerisation reactions occur more favourably. These reactions occur at significantly high rates from a prebiotic chemistry standpoint, and the labile products can be protected from degradation. The experimental study of the synthesis of nitrogen heterocycles at the ice-water system showed the efficiency of this scenario and could explain the origin of nucleobases in the inner Solar System bodies, including meteorites and extra-terrestrial ices, and on the early Earth. The same conditions can also favour the condensation of monomers to form ribonucleic acid and peptides. Together with the synthesis of these monomers, the ice world (i.e., the chemical evolution in the range between the freezing point of water and the limit of stability of liquid brines, 273 to 210 K) is an under-explored experimental model in prebiotic chemistry. PMID:22660387

Menor-Salván, César; Marín-Yaseli, Margarita R

2012-08-21

244

Chlorate salts and solutions on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chlorate (ClO3-) is an intermediate oxidation species between chloride (Cl-) and perchlorate (ClO4-), both of which were found at the landing site by the Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL). The chlorate ion is almost as stable as perchlorate, and appears to be associated with perchlorate in most terrestrial reservoirs (e.g. Atacama and Antarctica). It is possible that chlorate contributed to the ion sensor response on the WCL, yet was masked by the strong perchlorate signal. However, very little is known about chlorate salts and their effect on the stability of water. We performed evaporation rate experiments in our Mars simulation chamber, which enabled us to determine the activity of water for various concentrations. From this we constructed solubility diagrams for NaClO3, KClO3, Mg(ClO3)2 and Ca(ClO3)2, and determined the Pitzer parameters for each salt. Chlorate salt eutectic temperatures range from 270 K (KClO3) to 204 K (Mg(ClO3)2). Modeling the addition of chlorate to the initial WCL solutions shows that it precipitates in concentrations comparable to other common salts, such as gypsum and epsomite, and implies that chlorates may play an important role in the wet chemistry on Mars.

Hanley, Jennifer; Chevrier, Vincent F.; Berget, Deanna J.; Adams, Robert D.

2012-04-01

245

A new technique for direct traceability of contact thermometry Co-C eutectic cells to the ITS-90  

SciTech Connect

The eutectic Co-C melting point is a promising system to serve as a thermometric fixed-point in the temperature range above 1084.62 °C (copper freezing point). During the last decade, LNE-Cnam has developed and characterized some fixed-point devices, based on eutectic Co-C alloy, for applications to contact and radiation thermometry. Above 962 °C, the ITS-90 is realized by radiation thermometry by the extrapolation from a Ag, Au or Cu fixed point using the Planck law for radiation. So the only way for assigning a temperature in the scale to a Co-C cell (?1324 °C) is by radiation thermometry. An indirect method is commonly used to assign a temperature to a high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) cell designed for contact thermometry is to fill a pyrometric cell with the same mixture as the contact thermometry cell. In this case, the temperature assigned to the pyrometric cell is attributed to the contact cell. This paper describes a direct method allowing the determination of the melting temperature realized by a 'contact thermometry' Co-C cell by comparison to a 'radiation thermometry' Co-C cell whose melting temperature was assigned in accordance to the scale by extrapolation from the Cu point. In addition, the same Co-C cell is studied with a standard Pt/Pd thermocouple.

Failleau, G.; Deuzé, T.; Bourson, F.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M. [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam, 61 rue du Landy 93210 La Plaine Saint Denis (France)] [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam, 61 rue du Landy 93210 La Plaine Saint Denis (France)

2013-09-11

246

A new technique for direct traceability of contact thermometry Co-C eutectic cells to the ITS-90  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eutectic Co-C melting point is a promising system to serve as a thermometric fixed-point in the temperature range above 1084.62 °C (copper freezing point). During the last decade, LNE-Cnam has developed and characterized some fixed-point devices, based on eutectic Co-C alloy, for applications to contact and radiation thermometry. Above 962 °C, the ITS-90 is realized by radiation thermometry by the extrapolation from a Ag, Au or Cu fixed point using the Planck law for radiation. So the only way for assigning a temperature in the scale to a Co-C cell (~1324 °C) is by radiation thermometry. An indirect method is commonly used to assign a temperature to a high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) cell designed for contact thermometry is to fill a pyrometric cell with the same mixture as the contact thermometry cell. In this case, the temperature assigned to the pyrometric cell is attributed to the contact cell. This paper describes a direct method allowing the determination of the melting temperature realized by a "contact thermometry" Co-C cell by comparison to a "radiation thermometry" Co-C cell whose melting temperature was assigned in accordance to the scale by extrapolation from the Cu point. In addition, the same Co-C cell is studied with a standard Pt/Pd thermocouple.

Failleau, G.; Deuzé, T.; Bourson, F.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.

2013-09-01

247

Refinement of Promising Coating Compositions for Directionally Cast Eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful application of high creep strength, directionally solidified gamma/gamma prime-delta (Ni-19.7Cb-6Cr-2.5Al) eutectic superalloy turbine blades requires the development of suitable coatings for airfoil, root and internal blade surfaces. In order to improve coatings for the gamma/gamma prime-delta alloy, the current investigation had the goals of (1) refining promising coating compositions for directionally solidified eutectics, (2) evaluating the effects of coating/ substrate interactions on the mechanical properties of the alloy, and (3) evaluating diffusion aluminide coatings for internal surfaces. Burner rig cyclic oxidation, furnace cyclic hot corrosion, ductility, and thermal fatigue tests indicated that NiCrAlY+Pt(63 to 127 micron Ni-18Cr-12Al-0.3Y + 6 micron Pt) and NiCrAlY(63 to 127 micron Ni-18Cr-12Al-0.3Y) coatings are capable of protecting high temperature gas path surfaces of eutectic alloy airfoils. Burner rig (Mach 0.37) testing indicated that the useful coating life of the 127 micron thick coatings exceeded 1000 hours at 1366 K (2000 deg F). Isothermal fatigue and furnance hot corrosion tests indicated that 63 micron NiCrAlY, NiCrAlY + Pt and platinum modified diffusion aluminide (Pt + Al) coating systems are capable of protecting the relatively cooler surfaces of the blade root. Finally, a gas phase coating process was evaluated for diffusion aluminizing internal surfaces and cooling holes of air-cooled gamma/gamma prime-delta turbine blades.

Strangman, T. E.; Felten, E. J.; Benden, R. S.

1976-01-01

248

Directional solidification of Pb-Sn eutectic with vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pb-Sn eutectic alloy was directionally solidified at 1.4 to 3.2 cm/hr with forced convection induced by axial vibration of the growth ampoule with a frequency of 10 to 40 Hz and an amplitude of 0.5 to 1.0 mm. To determine the exact growth rate, an interface demarcation technique was applied. The lamellar spacing was increased 10 to 40 percent in ingots solidified with vibration compared to those solidified without vibration. The average intensity of convection in the melt under axial vibration of the ampoule was estimated by comparing the experimental results with a theoretical model.

Caram, Rubens; Banan, Mohsen; Wilcox, William R.

1991-01-01

249

Supercooling effects in faceted eutectic Nb-Si alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of melt supercooling on the microstructure of an Nb-58 at. pct Si alloy is investigated experimentally using an electromagnetic levitation apparatus. It is found that, starting with an alloy nominally of eutectic composition, nucleation of Nb5Si3 occurs in the supercooled liquid first. Upon further cooling, the remaining liquid continues to supercool until the second phase, NbSi2 is nucleated, which is commonly accompanied by rapid recalescence. The primary phase exibits a eutectoid-type decomposition. The observations are discussed with reference to the results of quantitative microstructural measurements, compositional and thermal analysis, and preliminary thermodynamic modeling of the phase diagram.

Gokhale, A. B.; Sarkar, G.; Abbaschian, G. J.; Haygarth, J. C.; Wojcik, C.

1988-01-01

250

Separating Mixtures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson the students will learn how to classify the materials as mixtures, elements and compounds and identify the properties of each group. Also the concept of separation of mixtures will be introduced to the students. Since barring a few exceptions, almost every element or compound is found naturally in an impure state such as a mixture of two or more substances. Many times the need to separate it into its individual components arises and chemical engineers use separation techniques to do this. Separation applications in the field of chemical engineering are very important. A good example is that of crude oil. Crude oil is a mixture of various hydrocarbons and is valuable in this natural form. Demand is greater, however, for the purified various hydrocarbons such as natural gases, gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, lubricating oils, asphalt, etc.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

251

Zwitterionic salts as mild organocatalysts for transesterification.  

PubMed

The exothermic reaction of 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl or 4-nitrophenyl isothiocyanate with 4-pyrrolidinopyridine (PPY) gave the corresponding arylaminothiocarbonylpyridinium salts in quantitative yields. These novel zwitterionic salts were effective as organocatalysts for the transesterification reaction of an equimolar mixture of methyl carboxylates and alcohols in hydrocarbons such as heptane and octane under azeotropic reflux conditions with the removal of methanol. In sharp contrast, PPY was inert as a catalyst under the same reaction conditions. PMID:18442240

Ishihara, Kazuaki; Niwa, Masatoshi; Kosugi, Yuji

2008-06-01

252

Control of mechanical and wear properties of a commercial Al-Si eutectic alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties examined as a function of microstructural modification were ultimate tensile strength, fracture elongation, Vickers hardness and wear resistance. The microstructural modification was achieved by rapid cooling and additions of small amounts of strontium and lithium master alloys into the eutectic melt. In all experiments the commercial ETIAL 140 alloy was cast instead of a high-purity aluminium-silicon eutectic. This

M. A. Savas; S. Altintas

1992-01-01

253

Solidification Behavior and Microstructural Evolution of Near-Eutectic Zn-Al Alloys under Intensive Shear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of intensive shear on the solidification behavior and microstructural evolution of binary Zn-Al alloys is presented at hypoeutectic, eutectic, and hypereutectic compositions. It is found that the intensive shear, applied on the eutectic melt prior to solidification at a temperature above but close the eutectic temperature, can significantly reduce the size of eutectic cells, but the solidified microstructure still remains the lamellar morphology. For applying intensive shear on the melt during solidification, the nucleation occurs at temperatures very close to the equilibrium condition and requires very small undercooling for both the primary solidification and the eutectic solidification. The intensive shear can significantly alter the microstructural morphology. In contrast to the dendritic morphology formed in the conventional solidification, the primary Al-rich phase in hypoeutectic Zn-Al alloy and the primary Zn-rich phase in hypereutectic Zn-Al alloy under intensive shear exhibit fine and spherical particles, respectively. The lamellae morphology of Zn-rich phase and Al-rich phase formed in the conventional eutectic solidification exhibit fine and spherical particles. The increase of intensity of shear promotes the independence of solid Zn-rich particles and Al-rich particles during the eutectic solidification, resulting in the uniform and separate distribution of two solid particles in the matrix. It is speculated that the high intensity of shear can result in the independent nucleation of individual eutectic phase throughout the whole melt, and the separate growth of solid phases in the subsequent solidification.

Ji, S.; Fan, Z.

2009-01-01

254

Eutectic grains in unmodified and strontium-modified hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Additions of strontium to hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys modify the morphology of the eutectic silicon phase from a coarse platelike structure to a fine fibrous structure. Thermal analysis, interrupted solidification, and microstructural examination of sand castings in this work revealed that, in addition to a change in silicon morphology, modification with strontium also causes an increase in the size of eutectic grains. The eutectic grain size increases because fewer grains nucleate, possibly due to poisoning of the phosphorus-based nucleants, that are active in the unmodified alloy. A simple growth model is developed to estimate the interface velocity during solidification of a eutectic grain. The model confirms, independent of microstructural observations, that the addition of 100 ppm strontium increases the eutectic grain size by at least an order of magnitude compared with the equivalent unmodified alloy. The model predicts that the growth velocity varies significantly during eutectic growth. At low strontium levels, these variations may be sufficient to cause transitions between flake and fibrous silicon morphologies depending on the casting conditions. The model can be used to rationally interpret the eutectic grain structure and silicon morphology of fully solidified aluminum-silicon castings and, when coupled with reliable thermal data, can be used to estimate the eutectic grain size.

McDonald, Stuart D.; Dahle, Arne K.; Taylor, John A.; Stjohn, David H.

2004-06-01

255

Inverse Analysis of Eutectic Nucleation and Growth Kinetics in Hypoeutectic Al-Cu Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nucleation and growth kinetics of equiaxed eutectic grains in hypoeutectic Al-Cu alloys has been investigated numerically and experimentally. Three-dimensional geometries of eutectic/primary phases obtained by X-ray microtomography (XMT) have been used to generate computational domains for use with a eutectic transformation model. The samples for XMT analysis were extracted from a series of small-scale castings of Al-20 wt pct Cu solidified with different cooling rates to obtain a variety of microstructures. The stochastic nucleation technique has been coupled with a deterministic cellular automaton (CA) model to simulate the nucleation and growth of eutectic grains within the interdendritic network characterized by the XMT analysis. An inverse analysis approach has been employed to quantify the deterministic nucleation and growth relationships in the eutectic solidification model. Metallographic measurements of eutectic size and density made on cast samples solidified with a variety of cooling rates and quenched at different times after the start of the eutectic transformation were used in the inverse analysis. The current approach provides a realistic description of eutectic grain evolution in multicomponent alloys.

Khajeh, Ehsan; Maijer, Daan M.

2011-01-01

256

Effects of boron on eutectic solidification in hypoeutectic Al–Si alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of boron on the solidified microstructure and cooling curve of Al–7Si alloy were investigated. The results show that B has no significant effects on the shape factor of eutectic silicon but the mean area of eutectic silicon phase is reduced when the grain size is reduced within a certain range.

Geng Huiyuan; Li Yanxiang; Chen Xiang; Wang Xue

2005-01-01

257

Eutectic solidification in hypoeutectic Al–Si alloys: electron backscatter diffraction analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleation and growth of the eutectic in hypoeutectic Al–Si foundry alloys has been investigated by the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping technique using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Sample preparation procedures for optimizing mapping have been developed. To obtain a sufficiently smooth surface from a cast Al–Si eutectic microstructure for EBSD mapping, an appropriate preparation technique by ion milling was

K Nogita; A. K Dahle

2001-01-01

258

A fully coupled 2D model of equiaxed eutectic solidification  

SciTech Connect

We propose a model of equiaxed eutectic solidification that couples the macroscopic level of heat diffusion with the microscopic level of nucleation and growth of the eutectic grains. The heat equation with the source term corresponding to the latent heat release due to solidification is calculated numerically by means of an implicit finite difference method. In the time stepping scheme, the evolution of solid fraction is deduced from a stochastic model of nucleation and growth which uses the local temperature (interpolated from the FDM mesh) to determine the local grain density and the local growth rate. The solid-liquid interface of each grain is tracked by using a subdivision of each grain perimeter in a large number of sectors. The state of each sector (i.e. whether it is still in contact with the liquid or already captured by an other grain) and the increase of radius of each grain during one time step allows one to compute the increase of solid fraction. As for deterministic models, the results of the model are the evolution of temperature and of solid fraction at any point of the sample. Moreover the model provides a complete picture of the microstructure, thus not limiting the microstructural information to the average grain density but allowing one to compute any stereological value of interest. We apply the model to the solidification of gray cast iron.

Charbon, Ch.; LeSar, R.

1995-12-31

259

Microstructural development and mechanical behavior of eutectic bismuth-tin and eutectic indium-tin in response to high temperature deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical behavior and microstructure of eutectic Bi-Sn and In-Sn solders were studied in parallel in order to better understand high temperature deformation of these alloys. Bi-Sn solder joints were made with Cu substrates, and In-Sn joints were made with either Cu or Ni substrates. The as-cast microstructure of Bi-Sn is complex regular, with the two eutectic phases interconnected in

Goldstein

1993-01-01

260

How a protein can remain stable in a solvent with high content of urea: insights from molecular dynamics simulation of Candida antarctica lipase B in urea?:?choline chloride deep eutectic solvent.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are utilized as green and inexpensive alternatives to classical ionic liquids. It has been known that some of DESs can be used as solvent in the enzymatic reactions to obtain very green chemical processes. DESs are quite poorly understood at the molecular level. Moreover, we do not know much about the enzyme microstructure in such systems. For example, how some hydrolase can remain active and stable in a deep eutectic solvent including 9 M of urea? In this study, the molecular dynamics of DESs as a liquid was simulated at the molecular level. Urea?:?choline chloride as a well-known eutectic mixture was chosen as a model DES. The behavior of the lipase as a biocatalyst was studied in this system. For comparison, the enzyme structure was also simulated in 8M urea. The thermal stability of the enzyme was also evaluated in DESs, water, and 8M urea. The enzyme showed very good conformational stability in the urea?:?choline chloride mixture with about 66% urea (9 M) even at high temperatures. The results are in good agreement with recent experimental observations. In contrast, complete enzyme denaturation occurred in 8M urea with only 12% urea in water. It was found that urea molecules denature the enzyme by interrupting the intra-chain hydrogen bonds in a "direct denaturation mechanism". However, in a urea?:?choline chloride deep eutectic solvent, as a result of hydrogen bonding with choline and chloride ions, urea molecules have a low diffusion coefficient and cannot reach the protein domains. Interestingly, urea, choline, and chloride ions form hydrogen bonds with the surface residues of the enzyme which, instead of lipase denaturation, leads to greater enzyme stability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the microstructural properties of a macromolecule are examined in a deep eutectic solvent. PMID:24930496

Monhemi, Hassan; Housaindokht, Mohammad Reza; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Bozorgmehr, Mohammad Reza

2014-06-25

261

Stabilization of charged and neutral colloids in salty mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a mechanism for the stabilization of colloids in liquid mixtures without use of surfactants or polymers. When a suitable salt is added to a solvent mixture, the coupling of the colloid's surface chemistry and the preferential solvation of ions leads to a repulsive force between colloids that can overcome van der Waals attraction. This repulsive force is substantial in a large range of temperatures, mixture composition, and salt concentrations. The increased repulsion due to addition of salt occurs even for charged colloids. This mechanism may be useful in experimental situations where steric stabilization with surfactants or polymers is undesired.

Samin, Sela; Tsori, Yoav

2013-12-01

262

Evaporation of mercury impurity from liquid lead-bismuth eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equilibrium evaporation of mercury from dilute solutions in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) was studied in argon atmosphere. Mercury present as impurity in LBE was evaporated and detected by atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. A method which could accurately simulate the experimental data was developed. Coefficients of the Henry constant temperature correlation for mercury dissolved in LBE were determined. Experiments with samples from several different batches of LBE revealed that mercury at mole fractions between 10-6 and 10-12 and temperatures between 150 and 350 °C evaporated from liquid LBE close to ideal behavior. Evaporation of mercury from solid LBE on the other hand was unexpectedly high. These results are important for safety evaluations of LBE based spallation targets and accelerator driven systems.

Aerts, A.; Danaci, S.; Gonzalez Prieto, B.; Van den Bosch, J.; Neuhausen, J.

2014-05-01

263

Self Assembled Structures by Directional Solidification of Eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interest in ordered porous structures has grown because of there unique properties such as photonic bandgaps, high backing packing density and high surface to volume ratio. Inspired by nature, biometric strategies using self assembled organic molecules dominate the development of hierarchical inorganic structures. Directional solidification of eutectics (DSE) also exhibit self assembly characteristics to form hierarchical metallic and inorganic structures. Crystallization of diphasic materials by DSE can produce two dimensional ordered structures consisting of rods or lamella. By selective removal of phases, DSE is capable to fabricate ordered pore arrays or ordered pin arrays. Criteria and limitations to fabricate hierarchical structures will be presented. Porous structures in silicon base alloys and ceramic systems will be reported.

Dynys, Frederick W.; Sayir, Ali

2004-01-01

264

Electroplated Fe films prepared from a deep eutectic solvent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroplating of Fe films was carried out from choline chloride-ethylene glycol types of DES (Deep Eutectic Solvent). We investigated magnetic properties of the plated Fe films and evaluated the productivity for the electroplating process. Consequently, we found that surface morphology and current efficiency of the plated films were affected by the bath temperature. We obtained the Fe films with relatively smooth surface and high current efficiency in the bath temperature range from 70 to 110 °C. The deposition rate for our process depended on the current density, and we obtained high deposition rate value of approximately 120 ?m/h. We also obtained high current efficiency values of approximately 90% in the wide range of plating time. These results indicate that the DES-based bath has industrial advantages for mass-producing Fe films. Therefore, we conclude that the DES-based bath is an attractive plating bath for Fe films.

Yanai, T.; Shiraishi, K.; Shimokawa, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Ohgai, T.; Nakano, M.; Suzuki, K.; Fukunaga, H.

2014-05-01

265

On the phenomenology of tilted domains in lamellar eutectic growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that, due to the coupling between tilt (amplitude of the antisymmetric part of the font profile) and phase dynamics, the phenomenology of tilt domains of finite width proposed by Coullet et al. within the assumption of a subcritical homogeneous tilt bifurcation retains the same qualitative features when this bifurcation is direct, as is the case for lamellar eutectics. Nous montrons que, du fait du couplage entre les dynamiques d'inclinaison (amplitude de la partie impaire du profil de front) et de phase, la phénoménologie des domaines d'inclinaison de largeur finie proposée par Coullet et al. pour le cas d'une bifurcation d'inclinaison homogène sous critique garde les mêmes caractéristiques qualitatives quand cette bifurcation est directe, comme c'est le cas pour la croissance eutectique lamellaire.

Caroli, B.; Caroli, C.; Fauve, S.

1992-03-01

266

Traceable Co-C eutectic points for thermocouple calibration  

SciTech Connect

National Measurement Institute of Australia (NMIA) has developed a miniature crucible design suitable for measurement by both thermocouples and radiation thermometry, and has established an ensemble of five Co-C eutectic-point cells based on this design. The cells in this ensemble have been individually calibrated using both ITS-90 radiation thermometry and thermocouples calibrated on the ITS-90 by the NMIA mini-coil methodology. The assigned ITS-90 temperatures obtained using these different techniques are both repeatable and consistent, despite the use of different furnaces and measurement conditions. The results demonstrate that, if individually calibrated, such cells can be practically used as part of a national traceability scheme for thermocouple calibration, providing a useful intermediate calibration point between Cu and Pd.

Jahan, F.; Ballico, M. J. [National Measurement Institute, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)] [National Measurement Institute, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

2013-09-11

267

Powder eutectic coating with Al3Ti for steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plates and round bars made of a pure iron or a carbon steel (JIS-S45C) have successfully been coated with Al3Ti powder by the “powder eutectic coating” method. The coated layers are found to show graded microstructures, where the concentrations of Fe, Al, and Ti change gradually from the surface toward the inside of a specimen. The microstructure of the coated layer consists of Al3Ti, ?3 (Al22Fe3Ti8), ?2 (Al2FeTi), and B2 (FeAl). When the coated specimens were subjected to heat-cycling tests between 293 and 973 K, they showed no cracking, no peeling, little oxidation, and no significant changes in microstructure.

Kafuku, H.; Tomota, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Isaka, M.

2002-10-01

268

A New Model for the Thermal Conductivity of Molten Salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new model based on rough hard-sphere theory is proposed for the thermal conductivity of molten salts. The model incorporates a smooth hard-sphere contribution using the properties of argon, as well as characteristic parameters based on the melting point of the molten salt. It is demonstrated that it is possible to correlate the thermal conductivity of monovalent and multivalent molten salts within experimental error using this approach. Furthermore, in salts with a common anion, the single adjustable parameter in the model exhibits regular behavior with the molecular weight of the salt. It is also shown that the thermal conductivity of several molten-salt mixtures can be predicted without any mixture parameters.

Hossain, Mohammad Z.; Kassaee, Mohamad H.; Jeter, Sheldon; Teja, Amyn S.

2014-03-01

269

Organic non-quaternary clathrate salts for petroleum separation  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for separating hydrocarbon feed streams containing mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons and non-aromatic hydrocarbons into aromatics lean raffinate streams and aromatics rich extract streams by contacting the hydrocarbon feed streams with an organic non-quaternary clathrate salt having less than 16 carbon atoms in the cation, whereby the clathrate salt selectively interacts with the aromatic component of the hydrocarbon feed mixture producing a raffinate phase of reduced aromatic content a hydrocarbon - salt clathrate and an extract phase of increased aromatic content containing the clathrate salt and combined aromatic hydrocarbon, separating the raffinate phase from the extract phase and releasing the aromatic hydrocarbon from the clathrate salt of the extract phase to recover an aromatics rich stream and the organic non-quaternary salt which is recycled for contact with fresh hydrocarbon feed.

Boate, D.R.; Zaworotko, M.J.

1993-06-15

270

Eutectic superalloys by edge-defined, film-fed growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of producing directionally solidified eutectic alloy composites by edge-defined, film-fed growth (EFG) was carried out. The three eutectic alloys which were investigated were gamma + delta, gamma/gamma prime + delta, and a Co-base TaC alloy containing Cr and Ni. Investigations into the compatibility and wettability of these metals with various carbides, borides, nitrides, and oxides disclosed that compounds with the largest (negative) heats of formation were most stable but poorest wetting. Nitrides and carbides had suitable stability and low contact angles but capillary rise was observed only with carbides. Oxides would not give capillary rise but would probably fulfill the other wetting requirements of EFG. Tantalum carbide was selected for most of the experimental portion of the program based on its exhibiting spontaneous capillary rise and satisfactory slow rate of degradation in the liquid metals. Samples of all three alloys were grown by EFG with the major experimental effort restricted to gamma + delta and gamma/gamma prime + delta alloys. In the standard, uncooled EFG apparatus, the thermal gradient was inferred from the growth speed and was 150 to 200 C/cm. This value may be compared to typical gradients of less than 100 C/cm normally achieved in a standard Bridgman-type apparatus. When a stream of helium was directed against the side of the bar during growth, the gradient was found to improve to about 250 C/cm. In comparison, a theoretical gradient of 700 C/cm should be possible under ideal conditions, without the use of chills. Methods for optimizing the gradient in EFG are discussed, and should allow attainment of close to the theoretical for a particular configuration.

Hurley, G. F.

1975-01-01

271

Measurement of bile salt hydrolase activity from Lactobacillus acidophilus based on disappearance of conjugated bile salts.  

PubMed

Bile salt hydrolase activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus was measured based on the disappearance of sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate from the reaction mixture using HPLC. The amount of sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate that disappeared was proportional to the amount of sodium cholate that appeared in the mixture as detected by HPLC. Sodium glycocholate did not precipitate at the enzyme reaction conditions (37 degrees C and pH 5.4) for determining bile salt hydrolase activity. The bile salt hydrolase assay was insensitive to low oxidation-reduction potential when measuring bile salt hydrolase from L. acidophilus, an intestinal microorganism. However, EDTA and freezing temperatures were necessary to maintain stability of the partially purified enzyme during storage. PMID:10194663

Corzo, G; Gilliland, S E

1999-03-01

272

Characteristics and sintering behaviour of 3 mol % Y 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 powders synthesized by reaction in molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia powders have been synthesized by reaction in molten salts at 450 °C. To obtain a Y2O3-ZrO2 solid solution powder, it was necessary to use yttrium salts (not yttrium oxide directly) in molten NaNO3-KNO3 eutectic. The agglomeration state of the powders depended on their washing conditions. An alcohol-washed powder containing soft agglomerates led to a fine-grained and high-density

M. Descemond; C. Brodhag; F. Thevenot; B. Durand; M. Jebrouni; M. Roubin

1993-01-01

273

Preparation and characterization of salt hydrates encapsulated in polyamide membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic water activity control is a common technique in organic-phase biocatalysis. This can be accomplished by using the transitions of salt hydrates between their various hydrated forms as a water buffer. While this technique is well established, the use of free salt crystals in the reaction mixture poses numerous problems such as difficult recovery and poisoning of the biocatalyst. This

B. J. Heßbrügge; A. M. Vaidya

1997-01-01

274

Effects of ultrasound and temperature on copper electro reduction in Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES).  

PubMed

This paper concerns a preliminary study for a new copper recovery process from ionic solvent. The aim of this work is to study the reduction of copper in Deep Eutectic Solvent (choline chloride-ethylene glycol) and to compare the influence of temperature and the ultrasound effects on kinetic parameters. Solutions were prepared by dissolution of chloride copper salt CuCl2 (to obtain Copper in oxidation degree II) or CuCl (to obtain Copper in oxidation degree I) and by leaching metallic copper directly in DES. The spectrophotometry UV-visible analysis of the leached solution showed that the copper soluble form obtained is at oxidation degree I (Copper I). Both cyclic voltammetry and linear voltammetry were performed in the three solutions at three temperatures (25, 50 and 80°C) and under ultrasonic conditions (F=20kHz, PT=5.8W) to calculate the mass transfer diffusion coefficient kD and the standard rate coefficient k°. These parameters are used to determine that copper reduction is carried out via a mixed kinetic-diffusion control process. Temperature and ultrasound have the same effect on mass transfer for reduction of Cu(II)/Cu(I). On the other hand, temperature is more beneficial than ultrasound for mass transfer of Cu(I)/Cu. Standard rate constant improvement due to temperature increase is of the same order as that obtained with ultrasound. But, by combining higher temperature and ultrasound (F=20kHz, PT=5.6W at 50°C), reduction limiting current is increased by a factor of 10 compared to initial conditions (T=25°C, silent), because ultrasonic stirring is more efficient in lower viscosity fluid. These values can be considered as key-parameters in the design of copper recovery in global processes using ultrasound. PMID:24629581

Mandroyan, Audrey; Mourad-Mahmoud, Mahmoud; Doche, Marie-Laure; Hihn, Jean-Yves

2014-11-01

275

Spasmodic growth during the rapid solidification of undercooled Ag-Cu eutectic melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A melt fluxing technique has been used to undercool Ag-Cu eutectic alloy by 10-70 K and the subsequent recalescence has been studied using high speed imaging. Spasmodic growth of the solidification front was observed, in which the growth front would make a series of quasi-periodic jumps separated by extended periods during which time growth appeared to arrest. Evidence of this previously unreported mode of growth is presented. The high speed images and microstructural evidence support the theory that anomalous eutectics form by the growth and subsequent remelting of eutectic dendrites.

Clopet, C. R.; Cochrane, R. F.; Mullis, A. M.

2013-01-01

276

Ice/hydrohalite crystallization structures in sub-eutectic freezing experiments in the system NaCl-H20 and possible implications for the properties of frozen brines in Europa: A preliminary report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfates are likely to be the most abundant solutes in the subsurface Europan liquid ocean. NaCl may also be a significant component of such liquids based on the compositions of stony meteorites like those thought to be among the source materials for the silicates in Europa's interior. The system NaCl-H20 exhibits a eutectic at -20.8°C and 23.3 weight percent NaCl between ice Ih and hydrohalite (NaCl.2H20). This low eutectic temperature compared to Mg and Na sulfate hydrate/ice eutectics indicates that hydrohalite should be among the last salts to crystallize in brine upwellings along rifts and other places where resurfacing by melt extrusion occurs on Europa. We conducted a suite of freezing experiments on NaCl brines with 20.3, 23.3, and 26.6 (saturated) weight percent NaCl by holding these liquids at a few degrees below the eutectic temperature. These runs produced ice-rich, eutectic and hydrohalite-rich aggregates of both phases, respectively, as confirmed by cryogenic x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Based on direct observations of crystals forming at the tops and bottoms of the sample chambers and on refractive index measurements of subsequently melted sample material, marked fractional crystallization and segregation by density of ice, hydrohalite, and residual liquids occurred in the 20.3 and 26.6% samples and less so in for the eutectic composition. Crystallization of very fine grained eutectic intergrowths was recognized in cryogenic SEM images of all these samples and they were especially prominent in samples frozen from saturated brine. These samples were very difficult to cleave compared to pure polycrystalline ice, and hence are likely to have high fracture toughness. Direct measurements of this property and also the effects of partial melting on ductile flow rates are planned on such samples. Refracturing of such regions of fine eutectoid ice/hydrohalite intergrowths is likely to be inhibited in refrozen rifts compared to more ice-rich regions on Europa.

Rieck, K.; Kirby, S. H.; Stern, L. A.

2005-12-01

277

Effects of salinity and flooding on the infectivity of salt marsh arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Aster tripolium L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt marshes are characterized by the occurrence of combined salinity and flooding stresses. The individual and combined effects of salinity and flooding on the establishment and activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization in the salt marsh halophyte Aster tripolium L. by indigenous salt marsh AM fungi were evaluated. A. tripolium plants were cultivated in a mixture of sand and salt

Luís M. Carvalho; Patrícia M. Correia; Isabel Caçador; M. Amélia Martins-Loução

2003-01-01

278

Dissolution of Eutectic ?-Mg17Al12 Phase in Magnesium AZ91 Cast Alloy at Temperatures Close to Eutectic Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge on the dissolution kinetics of ?-eut phase in cast Mg AZ91 alloy at temperatures close to the eutectic temperature is very useful for various processes of the alloy. In the present study, dissolution of ?-eut phase has been investigated experimentally and considered theoretically. Results have confirmed that the kinetics of ?-eut dissolution is basically diffusion controlled. Optimum times for dissolution heat treatment practice of different sizes of cast microstructure which are cooling rate dependant during casting could be suggested based on the present calculation. For fusion welding of the alloy, the present results indicate the difficulty of having a heating rate lower than the critical value (“critical heating rate”) for a significant reduction of the phase to avoid constitutional liquation.

Zhu, Tianping; Chen, Zhan W.; Gao, Wei

2010-08-01

279

High temperature rechargeable molten salt cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a high temperature rechargeable molten salt cell. It comprises: a member of the group consisting of lithium, lithium aluminum alloy, lithium silicon alloy, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, an alkali metal, a group II A element, a group II A alloy and composite mixtures thereof, as the anode, a chemical compound of the composition XYSâ wherein X is

E. J. Plichta; W. K. Behl

1991-01-01

280

Viscosity Measurement of Molten Carbonate Salt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes research on the eutectic property values of lithium/sodium/potassium carbonate. This carbonate eutectic is the leading candidate for high-temperature heat transfer fluids for a direct-absorption receiver concept being researched at t...

G. J. Janz

1986-01-01

281

Fission product ion exchange between zeolite and a molten salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and has been demonstrated through processing the sodium-bonded SNF from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho. In this process, components of the SNF, including U and species more chemically active than U, are oxidized into a bath of lithium-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt. Uranium is removed from the salt solution by electrochemical reduction. The noble metals and inactive fission products from the SNF remain as solids and are melted into a metal waste form after removal from the molten salt bath. The remaining salt solution contains most of the fission products and transuranic elements from the SNF. One technique that has been identified for removing these fission products and extending the usable life of the molten salt is ion exchange with zeolite A. A model has been developed and tested for its ability to describe the ion exchange of fission product species between zeolite A and a molten salt bath used for pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The model assumes (1) a system at equilibrium, (2) immobilization of species from the process salt solution via both ion exchange and occlusion in the zeolite cage structure, and (3) chemical independence of the process salt species. The first assumption simplifies the description of this physical system by eliminating the complications of including time-dependent variables. An equilibrium state between species concentrations in the two exchange phases is a common basis for ion exchange models found in the literature. Assumption two is non-simplifying with respect to the mathematical expression of the model. Two Langmuir-like fractional terms (one for each mode of immobilization) compose each equation describing each salt species. The third assumption offers great simplification over more traditional ion exchange modeling, in which interaction of solvent species with each other is considered. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Gougar, Mary Lou D.

282

Electrolyte salts for power sources  

DOEpatents

Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

1995-11-28

283

The Effect of Eutectic Microstructures on the Mechanical Properties of Ceramic Oxides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various experimental techniques for the production of unidirectionally solidified oxide eutectics were examined. These included a modified Bridgman-Starkbarger technique and bottom cooling of melts held in platinum crucibles. It was concluded that the bes...

C. O. Hulse J. A. Batt

1974-01-01

284

Microstructure of directionally solidified Ti-Fe eutectic alloy with low interstitial and high mechanical strength  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of Ti alloys can be considerably enhanced by combining Ti and other elements, causing an eutectic transformation and thereby producing composites in situ from the liquid phase. This paper reports on the processing and characterization of a directionally solidified Ti-Fe eutectic alloy. Directional solidification at different growth rates was carried out in a setup that employs a water-cooled copper crucible combined with a voltaic electric arc moving through the sample. The results obtained show that a regular fiber-like eutectic structure was produced and the interphase spacing was found to be a function of the growth rate. Mechanical properties were measured using compression, microindentation and nanoindentation tests to determine the Vickers hardness, compressive strength and elastic modulus. Directionally solidified eutectic samples presented high values of compressive strength in the range of 1844-3000 MPa and ductility between 21.6 and 25.2%.

Contieri, R. J.; Lopes, E. S. N.; Taquire de La Cruz, M.; Costa, A. M.; Afonso, C. R. M.; Caram, R.

2011-10-01

285

Study of zirconium/stainless steel interface in tubular junctions made by eutectic diffusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reprocessing plants and pressurized water loops for fuels irradiation have zirconium (or zircaloy) and austenitic stainless steel tubes connected by mean of diffusion bondings. These bondings are achieved by producing an eutectic film at the interface bet...

J. Y. Blanc R. Le Goff P. Regnier

1990-01-01

286

Growth of eutectic silicon from primary silicon crystals in aluminium-silicon alloys  

SciTech Connect

Technological interest in aluminium-silicon alloys derives, fundamentally, from their excellent moulding properties provided by the presence of silicon. In addition, they possess high thermal and electrical conductivities and good corrosion resistance. The possibility of modification of their cast structure by adding small quantities of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements makes their mechanical characteristics very competitive. Metallographic observations of the structures of primary and eutectic silicon crystals, and their possible synergistic influence, provide useful data on the critical stages of formation and growth of eutectic silicon phase. The nucleation and growth of eutectic silicon, removed from the cooperative precipitation zone, induce refinement in crystal size and, therefore, an improvement of the mechanical properties of the moulded structure. The aim of this investigation was to observe the influence of primary silicon crystals on the nucleation and growth of eutectic silicon.

Criado, A.J.; Martinez, J.A.; Calabres, R. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering] [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering

1997-01-01

287

Hypereutectic heat storage alloy: Final report, Silicon shell integrity in molten Al-Si eutectic  

SciTech Connect

As a part of a program to evaluate the feasibility of using silicon encapsulated spheres of aluminum--silicon eutectic for thermal energy storage at temperatures near 650/degree/C, experiments were done to test the dimensional stability of the interface between silicon and the eutectic to thermal cycling. Cycled samples were sectioned and examined by optical micrography and by electron microscopy (SEM/EDX) techniques. Little or no degradation of the interface was observed at 600/degree/C (eutectic temperature 577/degree/C) while catastrophic degradation occurred at 700/degree/C. AT 650/degree/C interpenetration of 0.1/endash/0.2 mm was observed between the silicon and the eutectic alloys, with occasional larger (3/endash/4 mm) intrusions. 11 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Bennett, M.R.; Braunstein, J.

1988-06-01

288

Effect of boron on the microstructure of near-eutectic Al-Si alloys  

SciTech Connect

The effect of boron on the microstructure of a near-eutectic Al-Si alloy (ZL109) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron beam microprobe analysis (EPMA). It was found that {alpha}-Al dendrites and eutectic clusters were significantly refined by the addition of boron. Another interesting discovery is that the near-eutectic alloy exhibited hypereutectic structure characteristics when the level of boron added exceeds 0.3%, i.e., primary Si is precipitated in the eutectic microstructure. A new type of nucleation substrate for the primary Si is found, Al {sub x}Ca {sub m}B {sub n}Si. This appears to be the main reason for the precipitation of primary Si.

Wu Yuying [Key Laboratory of Materials Liquid Structure and Heredity, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong (China)]. E-mail: wyy532001@163.com; Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Materials Liquid Structure and Heredity, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong (China); Bian Xiufang [Key Laboratory of Materials Liquid Structure and Heredity, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong (China)

2007-02-15

289

High-temperature non-eutectic indium-tin joints fabricated by a fluxless process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new alternative solder joint made of a non-eutectic indium–tin (In–Sn) multilayer composite deposited in high vacuum is reported. The unique features of this design are that it is fluxless, oxidation-free, and more importantly the fabricated joint achieves a re-melting temperature significantly higher than the bonding temperature. The In–Sn non-eutectic multilayer structure with a thin gold film evaporated as a

Ricky W Chuang; Chin C Lee

2002-01-01

290

Localized silicon fusion and eutectic bonding for MEMS fabrication and packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon fusion and eutectic bonding processes based on the technique of localized heating have been successfully demonstrated. Phosphorus-doped polysilicon and gold films are applied separately in the silicon-to-glass fusion bonding and silicon-to-gold eutectic bonding experiments. These films are patterned as line-shape resistive heaters with widths of 5 or 7 ?m for the purpose of heating and bonding. In the experiments,

Y. T. Cheng; Liwei Lin; Khalil Najafi

2000-01-01

291

Microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe–Cr–C eutectic composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, an Fe–Cr–C eutectic alloy was prepared from industry-grade materials and subjected to unidirectional solidification (UDS), through which new types of fibre reinforced composites, eutectic composites, were generated. The composites obtained were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). According to XRD, the composites consist of three phases, i.e. ?,

Liming Lu; Hiroshi Soda; Alexander McLean

2003-01-01

292

Eutectic structures in friction spot welding joint of aluminum alloy to copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dissimilar joint of AA5083 Al alloy and copper was produced by friction spot welding. The Al-MgCuAl2 eutectic in both coupled and divorced manners were found in the weld. At a relatively high temperature, mass transport of Cu due to plastic deformation, material flow, and atomic diffusion, combined with the alloy system of AA5083 are responsible for the ternary eutectic melting.

Shen, Junjun; Suhuddin, Uceu F. H.; Cardillo, Maria E. B.; dos Santos, Jorge F.

2014-05-01

293

Studies on the dry sliding wear behaviour of hypoeutectic and eutectic Al–Si alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of grain refiner and or modifier on the wear behaviour of hypoeutectic (Al–0.2, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7Si) and eutectic (Al–12Si) alloys has been investigated using a Pin-On-Disc machine. Various parameters such as alloy composition, normal pressure, sliding speed and sliding distance were studied on the hypoeutectic and eutectic Al–Si alloys. The cast master alloys (Al–5Ti–1B, Al–1Ti–3B

S. A. Kori; T. M. Chandrashekharaiah

2007-01-01

294

Eutectic grains in unmodified and strontium-modified hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additions of strontium to hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys modify the morphology of the eutectic silicon phase from a\\u000a coarse platelike structure to a fine fibrous structure. Thermal analysis, interrupted solidification, and microstructural\\u000a examination of sand castings in this work revealed that, in addition to a change in silicon morphology, modification with\\u000a strontium also causes an increase in the size of eutectic

Stuart D. McDonald; Arne K. Dahle; John A. Taylor; David H. StJohn

2004-01-01

295

Preliminary study of the electrolysis of aluminum sulfide in molten salts  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary laboratory-scale study of the electrolysis of aluminum sulfide in molten salts investigated the (1) solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ in molten salts, (2) electrochemical behavior of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/, and (3) electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ with the determination of current efficiency as a function of current density. The solubility measurements show that MgCl/sub 2/-NaCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte at 1023 K can dissolve up to 3.3 mol % sulfide. The molar ratio of sulfur to aluminum in the eutectic is about one, which suggests that some sulfur remains undissolved, probably in the form of MgS. The experimental data and thermodynamic calculations suggest that Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ dissolves in the eutectic to form AlS/sup +/ species in solution. Addition of AlCl/sub 3/ to the eutectic enhances the solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/; the solubility increases with increasing AlCl/sub 3/ concentration. The electrode reaction mechanism for the electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ was elucidated by using linear sweep voltammetry. The cathodic reduction of aluminum-ion-containing species to aluminum proceeds by a reversible, diffusion-controlled, three-electron reaction. The anodic reaction involves the two-electron discharge of sulfide-ion-containing species, followed by the fast dimerization of sulfur atoms to S/sub 2/. Electrolysis experiments show that Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ dissolved in molten MgCl/sub 2/-NaCl-KCl eutectic or in eutectic containing AlCl/sub 3/ can be electrolyzed to produce aluminum and sulfur. In the eutectic at 1023 K, the electrolysis can be conducted up to about 300 mA/cm/sup 2/ for the saturation solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/. Although these preliminary results are promising, additional studies are needed to elucidate many critical operating parameters before the technical potential of the electrolysis can be accurately assessed. 20 figures, 18 tables.

Minh, N.Q.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

1983-02-01

296

Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt  

DOEpatents

A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

1982-09-20

297

Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt  

DOEpatents

A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

Mullins, Lawrence J. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, Dana C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

298

Prussian blue nanospheres synthesized in deep eutectic solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel route for controlled synthesis of Prussian blue nanospheres (PB NSs) with different sizes by using deep eutectic solvents (DES) as both solvent and template provider was demonstrated. The size-controlled PB NSs were obtained directly by the coordination of Fe(CN)64- ion with Fe3+ ion in the DES. The probable mechanism of formation of PB NSs was discussed based on the characterization results of UV-visible, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectronic spectrum and transfer electron microscopy. Furthermore, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of the synthesized PB NSs were investigated, and it has demonstrated that the PB NSs exhibited excellent catalytic activity for H2O2 reduction, and then extended this strategy to glucose sensing, by detecting H2O2 formed from the enzymatic reaction of glucose oxidase with its substrate glucose. The linear calibration range for glucose was from 0.9 ?M to 0.12 mM, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The limit of detection was 0.3 ?M and the sensitivity was 61.7 A cm-2 M-1. The present study provides a general platform for the controlled synthesis of novel nanomaterials in DES and can be extended to other optical, electronic and magnetic nanocompounds.A novel route for controlled synthesis of Prussian blue nanospheres (PB NSs) with different sizes by using deep eutectic solvents (DES) as both solvent and template provider was demonstrated. The size-controlled PB NSs were obtained directly by the coordination of Fe(CN)64- ion with Fe3+ ion in the DES. The probable mechanism of formation of PB NSs was discussed based on the characterization results of UV-visible, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectronic spectrum and transfer electron microscopy. Furthermore, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of the synthesized PB NSs were investigated, and it has demonstrated that the PB NSs exhibited excellent catalytic activity for H2O2 reduction, and then extended this strategy to glucose sensing, by detecting H2O2 formed from the enzymatic reaction of glucose oxidase with its substrate glucose. The linear calibration range for glucose was from 0.9 ?M to 0.12 mM, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The limit of detection was 0.3 ?M and the sensitivity was 61.7 A cm-2 M-1. The present study provides a general platform for the controlled synthesis of novel nanomaterials in DES and can be extended to other optical, electronic and magnetic nanocompounds. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31830j

Sheng, Qinglin; Liu, Ruixiao; Zheng, Jianbin

2012-10-01

299

Theoretical Investigation of Binary Eutectic Alloy Nanoscale Phase Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, embedded binary eutectic alloy nanostructures (BEANs) have drawn some attention. A previously calculated equilibrium structure map predicts four possible nanocrystal alloy morphologies: phase-separated, bi-lobe, core-shell and inverse core-shell governed by two dimensionless interface energy parameters. The shape of the bilobe nanoparticles is obtained by finding the surface area of all interfaces that minimizes the overall energy, while also maintaining mechanical equilibrium at the triple point. Two representative alloy systems displaying eutectic phase diagrams and negligible solid solubility were chosen: GeSn and AuGe. GeSn samples were prepared by sequential implantation of Ge and Sn into SiO2. AuGe samples were prepared by implanting Ge within Au-doped silica films. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed bi-lobe nanocrystals in both samples. Therefore, the interface energies in both systems must be such that the dimensionless parameters lie in the region of bi-lobe stability. Careful analysis of the bi-lobe structure leads to the determination of two dimensionless length scales, which describe the bi-lobe independent of the size of the nanoparticle. These two parameters, eta 1 and eta 2 can be used to calculate contours of equal eta 1 and eta 2 over the entire range of bi-lobe stability. Experimental measurement and comparison to predicted structures leads to determination of acting dimensionless interface energies. Experimentally available wetting data is then used to calculate the remaining interface energies in the system. gamma Ge(s)/SiO2 was found to be between 0.82-0.99 J/m2 . gamma Ge0.22Sn0.78(l)/SiO2 and gamma Au0.53Ge0.47(l)/SiO2 are determined to be 1.20 and 0.94 J/m2 , respectively. To investigate the possibility of size effects at the nanoscale, size dependent phase diagrams for the AuGe and GeSn system are determined. This is done by the theoretical approach first outlined by Weissmueller et al., which takes into account the energy contribution of the various morphologies listed above. Results from this calculation are compared to those using the tangent line construction approach. The composition dependent surface energies of binary alloy liquids required in this calculation are determined using Butler's equation.

Boswell-Koller, Cosima Nausikaa

300

Structure and properties of molten oxide-salt clinkers  

SciTech Connect

The change in the structure and properties of a eutectic clinker solution is determined in the presence of individual and complexes of alkali and halogen-containing additions. It is shown that the structure of the modified alloys depends upon the acid-base properties of the dissolving ions, whereas the nature of the modifying effect depends upon the displacement of the acid-base equilibrium in the melt. The principles governing the changes in the viscosity and surface tension of the clinker liquid as a function of the nature and concentration of the modifiers can be used for predicting the kinetics of liquid-phase sintering of raw Portland cement mixtures.

Kuznetsova, T.V.; Osokin, A.P.; Potapova, E.N.; Burygin, V.V.

1988-05-01

301

Formation mechanism of primary phases and eutectic structures within undercooled Pb-Sb-Sn ternary alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solidification characteristics of three types of Pb-Sb-Sn ternary alloys with different primary phases were studied under substantial undercooling conditions. The experimental results show that primary (Pb) and SbSn phases grow in the dendritic mode, whereas primary (Sb) phase exhibits faceted growth in the form of polygonal blocks and long strips. (Pb) solid solution phase displays strong affinity with SbSn intermetallic compound so that they produce various morphologies of pseudobinary eutectics, but it can only grow in the divorced eutectic mode together with (Sb) phase. Although (Sb) solid solution phase and SbSn intermetallic compound may grow cooperatively within ternary eutectic microstructures, they seldom form pseudobinary eutectics independently. The (Pb)+(Sb)+SbSn ternary eutectic structure usually shows lamellar morphology, but appears as anomalous eutectic when its volume fraction becomes small. EDS analyses reveal that all of the three primary (Pb), (Sb) and SbSn phases exhibit conspicuous solute trapping effect during rapid solidification, which results in the remarkable extension of solute solubility.

Wang, Weili; Dai, Fuping; Wei, Bingbo

2007-08-01

302

Growth and characterization of the NiAl-NiAlNb eutectic structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite presenting potential as high-temperature structural material, the NiAl intermetallic compound cannot be easily employed due to its low room temperature fracture toughness and poor creep strength. A solution for such a problem is combining such a compound with other phase using a eutectic transformation, as in the case of the NiAl-NiAlNb eutectic structure. In this study, several samples containing Ni, Al and Nb were arc melted in order to evaluate the eutectic composition of this transformation, as well as the temperature at which it occurs. The resulting phases were the B2 NiAl and the Laves phase NiAlNb. It was found that the eutectic alloy occurs close to 16.0 at% Nb and the eutectic transformation temperature is 1487 °C. The amount of NiAl phase clearly decreases when the Nb content is raised. Thus, hypoeutectic alloys present NiAl dendrites with NiAlNb precipitated at the grain boundaries while hypereutectic alloys present primary dendrites of NiAlNb. The eutectic alloy was directionally solidified at growth rates varying from 5.0 to 50.0 mm/h. As expected, the lamellar spacing was found to decrease as the growth rate was increased.

Ferrandini, P. L.; Araujo, F. L. G. U.; Batista, W. W.; Caram, R.

2005-02-01

303

Superconductor precursor mixtures made by precipitation method  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for preparing highly pure homogeneous precursor powder mixtures for metal oxide superconductive ceramics. The mixes are prepared by instantaneous precipitation from stoichiometric solutions of metal salts such as nitrates at controlled pH's within the 9 to 12 range, by addition of solutions of non-complexing pyrolyzable cations, such as alkyammonium and carbonate ions.

Bunker, Bruce C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lamppa, Diana L. (Albuquerque, NM); Voigt, James A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01

304

Mechanochemical synthesis of layered hydroxy salts  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Ultrafast synthesis method was developed for the synthesis of layered hydroxy salts. ? Preparation of hydroxy single salt by this method requires only one minute. ? Hydroxy salts with variable Ni/Zn ratio could be synthesized by varying the metal contents of the starting mixture. ? This synthesis method is solvent free and environment friendly. -- Abstract: A simple one minute synthesis method was adapted for the preparation of layered hydroxy salts of copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium by grinding the metal salts with sodium hydroxide in a mortar. This solvent free method is environment friendly and fast. This method could be extended to the preparation of Ni/Zn hydroxy double salts. The Ni/Zn ratio could be varied from 1.2 to 1.9 by varying the metal contents of the precursor salts without the formation of any impurities in the sample. The prepared compounds had similar characteristics as that of the samples prepared by precipitation route. No sign of carbonate contamination was observed in any of the prepared samples.

Thomas, Nygil, E-mail: nygill@gmail.com [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph's College, 36 Langford Road, Bangalore 560027 (India)] [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph's College, 36 Langford Road, Bangalore 560027 (India)

2012-11-15

305

Characterization of potassium salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid  

SciTech Connect

Potassium salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid with varying amounts of cation, K{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} (x = 1, 2, 3) have been prepared and their characteristics investigated by thermal analyses, FT-IR and micro-Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis. It was found that the number of replaced protons by potassium ions in the 12-tungstophosphoric acid structure has influence on the presence of different protonic species, their dynamic equilibrium and on the conductivity of salts. The results reported in this study have been applied to improve the structural model of insoluble acidic salts. It is shown that an acidic potassium salt presents a mixture of neutral salt and unreacted acid. The nature of this mixture depends on the number of replaced protons-oxonium ions by cations. Preliminary measurements with synthesized compounds as solid electrolytes in fuel cells have been done, too.

Holclajtner-Antunovic, I., E-mail: ivanka@ffh.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, P.O. Box 47, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Mioc, U.B. [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, P.O. Box 47, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, P.O. Box 47, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Todorovic, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box. 158, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box. 158, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanovic, Z. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Davidovic, M. [Institute Gosa, Milana Rakica 35, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Institute Gosa, Milana Rakica 35, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Bajuk-Bogdanovic, D. [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, P.O. Box 47, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, P.O. Box 47, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Lausevic, Z. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

2010-11-15

306

Treatment of molten salt wastes by phosphate precipitation: removal of fission product elements after pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels in chloride melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of fission product elements from molten salt wastes arising from pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels has been investigated. The experiments were conducted in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 550 °C and NaCl-KCl equimolar mixture at 750 °C. The behavior of the following individual elements was investigated: Cs, Mg, Sr, Ba, lanthanides (La to Dy), Zr, Cr, Mo, Mn, Re (to simulate Tc), Fe, Ru, Ni, Cd, Bi and Te. Lithium and sodium phosphates were used as precipitants. The efficiency of the process and the composition of the solid phases formed depend on the melt composition. The distribution coefficients of these elements between chloride melts and precipitates were determined. Some volatile chlorides were produced and rhenium metal was formed by disproportionation. Lithium-free melts favor formation of double phosphates. Some experiments in melts containing several added fission product elements were also conducted to study possible co-precipitation reactions. Rare earth elements and zirconium can be removed from both the systems studied, but alkaline earth metal fission product elements (Sr and Ba) form precipitates only in NaCl-KCl based melts. Essentially the reverse behavior was found with magnesium. Some metals form oxide rather than phosphate precipitates and the behavior of certain elements is solvent dependent. Caesium cannot be removed completely from chloride melts by a phosphate precipitation technique.

Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Griffiths, Trevor R.; Thied, Robert C.

2003-11-01

307

Salt tectonics on Venus  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

1986-05-01

308

The effect of porosity and gamma-gamma-prime eutectic content on the fatigue behavior of hydrogen charged PWA 1480  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study addresses the effect of systematically varying gamma-gamma-prime eutectic content and porosity level on the fatigue life of a hydrogen-charged single crystal PWA 1480 superalloy. Four microstructural variants are produced, and differences in gamma-gamma-prime eutectic morphology among the four processing variants are analyzed. Single valued tensile test data indicate that the tensile and yield strength of the PWA 1480 are degraded by hydrogen charging, with the exception of the material given a eutectic solution treatment. It is shown that the reduction of the fatigue life can be minimized by a duplex thermomechanical treatment consisting of a eutectic solution followed by hot isostatic pressing.

Gayda, J.; Dreshfield, R. L.; Gabb, T. P.

1991-01-01

309

Identification of salt-alloy combinations for thermal energy storage applications in advanced solar dynamic power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic calculations based on the available data for flouride salt systems reveal that a number of congruently melting compositions and eutectics exist which have the potential to meet the lightweight, high energy storage requirements imposed for advanced solar dynamic systems operating between about 1000 and 1400 K. Compatibility studies to determine suitable containment alloys to be used with NaF-22CaF2-13MgF2, NaF-32CaF2,

J. D. Whittenberger; A. K. Misra

1987-01-01

310

Lead-bismuth eutectic technology for Hyperion reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small lead-bismuth eutectic-cooled reactor concept (referred to as the Hyperion reactor concept) is being studied at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Hyperion Power Generation. In this report, a critical assessment of the lead-bismuth eutectic technology for Hyperion reactor is presented based on currently available knowledge. Included are: material compatibility, oxygen control, thermal hydraulics, polonium control. The key advances in the technology and their applications to Hyperion reactor design are analyzed. Also, the near future studies in main areas of the technology are recommended for meeting the design requirements. For cases with an outlet temperature below 550 °C, LBE was selected, while for cases with an outlet temperature above 550 °C, liquid lead was selected. Except SVBR-75/100, the primary coolant system is pool-type and natural convection. No reactor has an intermedium loop. Except SSTAR, steam generator is used as the energy conversion system. SSTAR uses Super critical CO2 brayton. The flow velocity of the primary coolant is limited to 2.0 m/s. Except ELYS, nitride fuel is selected. ELYS selects U-oxide fuel. Martensitic stainless steel is selected for the cladding materials (EP823 for Russian design, HT-9 for Japan and U.S design, T-91 for EU design, compositions of the steels are given in Table 3). The complexity as well as the cost of the reactor can be reduced by employing direct contacting energy conversion system without an intermediate loop which would be needed in a sodium cooled reactor. This is because LBE has low vapor pressure and does not react with air and water intensively. For such a design (without the intermediate loop), the designer has to concern that the primary coolant system may be pressurized by the high pressure steam when there is a break at the steam generator or heat exchanger.SSTAR employs super critical CO2 (S-CO2) Brayton for the energy conversion system. This system can be very compact, offers the prospect of higher thermal efficiencies with lower Pb outlet temperature and small turbomachinery reducing the footprint and cost of the power converter [7]. However, there are few studies on the S-CO2 compatibility with structural materials at high temperatures, and the corrosion can become serious issues. Further studies are needed to find a structural material having good corrosion resistance to S-CO2 at the operating temperature.When the flow velocity is high, the mechanical erosion may become a serious problem, especially for the heavy liquid metal. The flow velocity of the primary coolant is limited by constrain of avoiding erosion of the protective layer, which is a disadvantage of using LBE as coolant. For current Hyperion reactor design, the flow velocity is designed to be less than 2.0 m/s, which is based on Russian operation experience. Theoretically, the upper limit of the velocity is not clear, and it should be different for different primary coolant system design.

Zhang, J.; Kapernick, R. J.; McClure, P. R.; Trapp, T. J.

2013-10-01

311

Image matching technology in high power LED's eutectic welding.  

PubMed

As the integration packaging density of high-power LED (Light Emitting Diode) chip modules become higher and higher, the accuracy and speed of visual inspection require higher demands correspondingly. The accurate position matching of substrates and flip-chip LEDs is one of the key technologies in the automatic eutectic welding process. In this paper we propose a method based on image features to complete the matching of the substrates and the flip-chip LEDs. Firstly, the substrate images and the flip-chip images are pre-processed respectively to obtain binary images. Then we apply Hough transformation to detect straight lines on the binary images, and find out the main linear directions to trigger the mechanical arms to adjust the positions of the substrate and the chip initially. Thirdly, we use eight neighbors interconnected domain algorithm for the first time to locate notable features of the substrate, and pass the located information to the control system to trigger the mechanical arm to adjust the substrate for the second time. At the same time, projection algorithm is applied to locate the anode of the flip-chip to drive the mechanical arm to adjust the position of the flip-chip again. Finally, the position information is used to trigger the mechanical arm to accomplish the matching of the substrate and the flip-chip. The proposed method improves the speed of matching on the basis of the accuracy of matching, which achieves these requirements of real-time and high accuracy applications. PMID:24921546

Ge, Peng; Yin, Peipei; Wang, Hong; Chang, Tianhai

2014-06-01

312

Directional solidification of the alumina-zirconia ceramic eutectic system  

SciTech Connect

It is possible to produce alumina-zirconia ceramic samples through existing solidification techniques. The resulting microstructures typically consist of rods of zirconia in an alumina matrix, although a lamellar structure has been noted in some cases. In nearly all cases, colony growth was present which may possibly result from grain size, repeated nucleation events, and lamellar oscillations. In the same vein, it appears that the amount of impurities within the system might be the underlying cause for the colony growth. Colony growth was diminished through impurity control as the higher purity samples exhibited colony free behavior. In addition to colony formations, faceted alumina dendrites or nonfaceted zirconia dendrites may result in the ceramic if the sample is solidified out of the coupled zone. In all cases, for larger-sized Bridgman samples, a lower limit in the eutectic spacing was noted. The solidification model which includes the kinetic effect has been developed, although the effect appears to be negligible under present experimental conditions. A spacing limit might also occur due to the result of heat flow problems. Heat flow out of the ceramic is difficult to control, often causing radial and not axial growth. This behavior is exaggerated in the presence of impurities. Thus, higher purity powders should always be used. Higher purity samples, in addition to yielding a more microstructurally uniform ceramic, also showed increased directionality. In the future, the kinetic model needs to be examined in more detail, and further research needs to be accomplished in the area of molten ceramics. Once better system constants are in place, the kinetic model will give a better indication of the behavior in the alumina-zirconia system.

Boldt, C.

1994-07-27

313

Retrospective salt tectonics  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

Jackson, M.P.A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

314

Ionic liquid and deep eutectic solvent-activated CelA2 variants generated by directed evolution.  

PubMed

Chemoenzymatic cellulose degradation is one of the key steps for the production of biomass-based fuels under mild conditions. An effective cellulose degradation process requires diverse physico-chemical dissolution of the biomass prior to enzymatic degradation. In recent years, "green" solvents, such as ionic liquids and, more recently, deep eutectic liquids, have been proposed as suitable alternatives for biomass dissolution by homogenous catalysis. In this manuscript, a directed evolution campaign of an ionic liquid tolerant ?-1,4-endoglucanase (CelA2) was performed in order to increase its performance in the presence of choline chloride/glycerol (ChCl:Gly) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), as a first step to identify residues which govern ionic strength resistance and obtaining insights for employing cellulases on the long run in homogenous catalysis of lignocellulose degradation. After mutant library screening, variant M4 (His288Phe, Ser300Arg) was identified, showing a dramatically reduced activity in potassium phosphate buffer and an increased activity in the presence of ChCl:Gly or [BMIM]Cl. Further characterization showed that the CelA2 variant M4 is activated in the presence of these solvents, representing a first report of an engineered enzyme with an ionic strength activity switch. Structural analysis revealed that Arg300 could be a key residue for the ionic strength activation through a salt bridge with the neighboring Asp287. Experimental and computational results suggest that the salt bridge Asp287-Arg300 generates a nearly inactive CelA2 variant and activity is regained when ChCl:Gly or [BMIM]Cl are supplemented (~5-fold increase from 0.64 to 3.37 ?M 4-MU/h with the addition ChCl:Gly and ~23-fold increase from 3.84 to 89.21 ?M 4-pNP/h with the addition of [BMIM]Cl). Molecular dynamic simulations further suggest that the salt bridge between Asp287 and Arg300 in variant M4 (His288Phe, Ser300Arg) modulates the observed salt activation. PMID:24802079

Lehmann, Christian; Bocola, Marco; Streit, Wolfgang R; Martinez, Ronny; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

2014-06-01

315

Retrospective salt tectonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ

1996-01-01

316

Sugar and Salt Solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens when sugar and salt are added to water? Pour in sugar, shake in salt, and evaporate water to see the effects on concentration and conductivity. Zoom in to see how different sugar and salt compounds dissolve. Zoom in again to explore the role of water.

Simulations, Phet I.; Lancaster, Kelly; Reid, Sam; Moore, Emily; Chamberlain, Julia; Loeblein, Trish

2011-10-12

317

Utah: Salt Lake Region  

article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     ... Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... the obvious difference in snow cover between the winter and summer views, water color changes in parts of the Great Salt Lake are apparent ...

2013-04-18

318

Plant salt tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity adversely affects crop productivity and quality. The success of breeding programs aimed at salinity tolerant crop varieties is limited by the lack of a clear understanding of the molecular basis of salt tolerance. Recent advances in genetic analysis of Arabidopsis mutants defective in salt tolerance, and molecular cloning of these loci, have showed some insight into salt stress

Viswanathan Chinnusamy; Jian-Kang Zhu

319

Deformation and fracture of a directionally solidified NiAl-28Cr-6Mo eutectic alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A directionally solidified alloy based on the NiAl-(Cr, Mo) eutectic was examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the microstructure and room temperature deformation and fracture behavior. The microstructure consisted of a lamellar morphology with a group of zone axes (111) growth direction for both the NiAl and (Cr, Mo) phases. The interphase boundary between the eutectic phases was semicoherent and composed of a well-defined dislocation network. In addition, a fine array of coherent NiAl precipitates was dispersed throughout the (Cr, Mo) phase. The eutectic morphology was stable at 1300 K with only coarsening of the NiAl precipitates occurring after heat treatment for 1.8 ks (500 h). Fracture of the aligned eutectic is characterized primarily by a crack bridging/renucleation mechanism and is controlled by the strength of the semicoherent interface between the two phases. However, contributions to the toughness of the eutectic may arise from plastic deformation of the NiAl phase and the geometry associated with the fracture surface.

Chen, X. F.; Johnson, D. R.; Noebe, R. D.; Oliver, B. F.

1995-01-01

320

Solidification microstructure of Bridgman-grown Si-TaSi2 eutectic in situ composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directionally solidified Si-TaSi2 eutectic in situ composite was fabricated by Bridgman growth technique with a high temperature gradient. The microstructure and solid/liquid interface morphology evolvement were systematically investigated. The grown Si-TaSi2 presents typical semiconductor-metal eutectic structure with the TaSi2 regularly and uniformly embedded into Si matrix. As the solidification rate increases from 6 to 150 µm/s, the fiber diameter and eutectic spacing rapidly decrease, whereas the rod density increases. The eutectic spacing and solidification rate obey the relationship of ?V0.53=73.7 ?m1.53/s0.53. Under the optimal solidification parameter (V=100 µm/s), the fiber diameter is 1.37 ?m, average eutectic spacing is 3.83 ?m, and rod density is 3×106 rod/cm2, which well satisfy the requirement of Spindt field emission arrays. Furthermore, the solid/liquid interface undergoes an evolvement of planar-shallow cell-cell with the increase of solidification rate.

Yang, Xinyu; Zhang, Jun; Su, Haijun; Jie, Ziqi; Liu, Lin; Fu, Hengzhi

2013-08-01

321

PU/SS EUTECTIC ASSESSMENT IN 9975 PACKAGINGS IN A STORAGE FACILITY DURING EXTENDED FIRE  

SciTech Connect

In a radioactive material (RAM) packaging, the formation of eutectic at the Pu/SS (plutonium/stainless steel) interface is a serious concern and must be avoided to prevent of leakage of fissile material to the environment. The eutectic temperature for the Pu/SS is rather low (410 C) and could seriously impact the structural integrity of the containment vessel under accident conditions involving fire. The 9975 packaging is used for long term storage of Pu bearing materials in the DOE complex where the Pu comes in contact with the stainless steel containment vessel. Due to the serious consequences of the containment breach at the eutectic site, the Pu/SS interface temperature is kept well below the eutectic formation temperature of 410 C. This paper discusses the thermal models and the results for the extended fire conditions (1500 F for 86 minutes) that exist in a long term storage facility and concludes that the 9975 packaging Pu/SS interface temperature is well below the eutectic temperature.

Gupta, N.

2012-03-26

322

Interactions between iron, manganese, and the Al-Si eutectic in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sand-cast plates were used to determine the effect of iron and manganese concentrations on porosity levels in Al-9 pct Si-0.5 pct Mg alloys. Iron increased porosity levels. Manganese additions increased porosity levels in alloys with 0.1 pct Fe, but reduced porosity in alloys with 0.6 and 1 pct Fe. Thermal analysis and quenching were undertaken to determine the effect of iron and managanese on the solidification of the Al-Si eutectic. At high iron levels, the presence of large ?-Al5FeSi was found to reduce the number of eutectic nucleation events and increase the eutectic grain size. The preferential formation of ?-Al15Mn3Si2 upon addition of manganese reversed these effects. It is proposed that this interaction is due to ?-Al5FeSi and the Al-Si eutectic having common nuclei. Porosity levels are proposed to be controlled by the eutectic grain size and the size of the iron-bearing intermetallic particles rather than the specific intermetallic phase that forms.

Dinnis, C. M.; Taylor, J. A.; Dahle, A. K.

2006-11-01

323

Some Peculiarities of Eutectic Crystallization of LaB 6-(Ti,Zr)B 2 Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structures of eutectic LaB 6-(Ti,Zr)B 2 alloys are studied after directional crystallization. The eutectic compositions and monovariant equilibrium between two quasibinary eutectics in this system were determined. Varying the TiB 2/ZrB 2 borides ratio permits us to control in their solid solutions the corresponding cell dimensions and, consequently, the boron-boron distances in the resulting quasibinary borides. Our previous assumptions that the perfectness of the real structure is determined by differences in the distances between boron atoms in boron sublattices of hexa- and diboride phases were confirmed. It is shown that forming the regular whiskers structure is much easier for complex (Ti,Zr)B 2 boride than for individual TiB 2 or ZrB 2 borides.

Paderno, Yu.; Paderno, V.; Filippov, V.

2000-10-01

324

Studies of directionally solidified eutectic Bi/MnBi at low growth velocities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deviation from the interrod spacing (?) and growth velocity (V) relation ?2V = constant, anticipated for diffusion-only rod eutectic growth, has been observed at growth velocities ?5 cm/h (14 µm/s) in directionally solidified eutectic Bi-Mn (Bi/MnBi). At lower growth velocities, V? 0.5 cm/h, a breakdown in the aligned rod eutectic, cooperative growth mechanism, has also been noted. The ?2V relation has been experimentally determined over a range of furnace (growth) velocities (0.5 ? V ? 50 cm/h), thermal gradients in the liquid (40 ? GL ? 120 °C/cm) and solidification orientation with respect to the direction of gravity (parallel, antiparallel, and perpendicular). Naturally induced, convective instabilities are suggested as a possible, lower growth velocity limit for cooperative growth in this system.

Pirich, Ron G.

1984-12-01

325

Solidification processing of eutectic alloys; Proceedings of the Symposium, Cincinnati, OH, Oct. 12-15, 1987  

SciTech Connect

The papers presented in this volume address the effect of solidification processing variables, such as cooling rate, nucleation hierarchy, and the faceted or nonfaceted nature of the constituent phases, on the eutectic morphology and resulting properties. Topics discussed include the current status of the modeling of eutectic growth and directional solidification experiments on a variety of alloys, such as aluminum foundry alloy A 356, Si- and GaAs-based eutectics for electronic applications, and Cu-Al in-situ composites. Particular attention is given to undercooled and rapidly solidified alloys, including classical simple alloys, such as Pb-Sn as well as more complicated alloys such as Nb-Si, alumina-zirconia, and Cr90Ta10.

Stefanescu, D.M.; Abbaschian, G.J.; Bayuzick, R.J.

1988-01-01

326

Structural and phonon transmission study of Ge-Au-Ge eutectically bonded interfaces  

SciTech Connect

This thesis presents a structural analysis and phonon transparency investigation of the Ge-Au-Ge eutectic bond interface. Interface development was intended to maximize the interfacial ballistic phonon transparency to enhance the detection of the dark matter candidate WIMPs. The process which was developed provides an interface which produces minimal stress, low amounts of impurities, and insures Ge lattice continuity through the interface. For initial Au thicknesses of greater than 1,000 {angstrom} Au per substrate side, eutectic epitaxial growth resulted in a Au dendritic structure with 95% cross sectional and 90% planar Au interfacial area coverages. In sections in which Ge bridged the interface, lattice continuity across the interface was apparent. Epitaxial solidification of the eutectic interface with initial Au thicknesses < 500 A per substrate side produced Au agglomerations thereby reducing the Au planar interfacial area coverage to as little as 30%. The mechanism for Au coalescence was attributed to lateral diffusion of Ge and Au in the liquid phase during solidification. Phonon transmission studies were performed on eutectic interfaces with initial Au thicknesses of 1,000 {angstrom}, 500 {angstrom}, and 300 {angstrom} per substrate side. Phonon imaging of eutectically bonded samples with initial Au thicknesses of 300 {angstrom}/side revealed reproducible interfacial percent phonon transmissions from 60% to 70%. Line scan phonon imaging verified the results. Phonon propagation TOF spectra distinctly showed the predominant phonon propagation mode was ballistic. This was substantiated by phonon focusing effects apparent in the phonon imaging data. The degree of interface transparency to phonons and resulting phonon propagation modes correlate with the structure of the interface following eutectic solidification. Structural studies of samples with initial Au thickness of 1,000 {angstrom}/side appear to correspond with the phonon transmission study.

Knowlton, W.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

1995-07-01

327

Environmental effects on ultra-high temperature creep behavior of directionally solidified oxide eutectic ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies were undertaken to assess the environmental effects on ultra-high temperature tensile creep behavior of directionally solidified Al2O3\\/Y3Al5O12(YAG) and Al2O3\\/GdAlO3(GAP) eutectic ceramics. Tensile creep deformation tests conducted under constant stress ranging 100–200MPa at temperature range of 1673–1873K at different environmental conditions consisting of air and at different water vapor pressure, pH2O, up to 0.6MPa. These eutectic ceramics exhibited a

Yoshihisa Harada; Takayuki Suzuki; Kazumi Hirano; Narihito Nakagawa; Yoshiharu Waku

2005-01-01

328

Numerical study: Iron corrosion-resistance in lead-bismuth eutectic coolant by molecular dynamics method  

SciTech Connect

In this present work, we report numerical results of iron (cladding) corrosion study in interaction with lead-bismuth eutectic coolant of advanced nuclear reactors. The goal of this work is to study how the oxygen can be used to reduce the corrosion rate of cladding. The molecular dynamics method was applied to simulate corrosion process. By evaluating the diffusion coefficients, RDF functions, MSD curves of the iron and also observed the crystal structure of iron before and after oxygen injection to the coolant then we concluded that a significant and effective reduction can be achieved by issuing about 2% number of oxygen atoms to lead-bismuth eutectic coolant.

Arkundato, Artoto; Su'ud, Zaki; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Widayani,; Celino, Massimo [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Physics Department Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences Universitas (Indonesia); Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Physics Department Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung (Indonesia); ENEA, CR Cassacia, Via Anguillarese 301, Roma (Italy)

2012-06-06

329

Low-Temperature Interface Reaction Between Titanium and the Eutectic Silver-Copper Brazing Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reaction zones formed at 790 °C between solid titanium and liquid Ag-Cu eutectic alloys (pure and Ti-saturated) have been\\u000a characterized. When pure Ag-Cu eutectic alloy with 40 at.% Cu is used, the interface reaction layer sequence is: ?Ti\\/Ti2Cu\\/TiCu\\/Ti3Cu4\\/TiCu4\\/L. Because of the fast dissolution rate of Ti in the alloy, the reaction zone remains very thin (3-6 ?m) whatever the reaction\\u000a time. When the

J. Andrieux; O. Dezellus; F. Bosselet; J. C. Viala

2009-01-01

330

Numerical study: Iron corrosion-resistance in lead-bismuth eutectic coolant by molecular dynamics method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this present work, we report numerical results of iron (cladding) corrosion study in interaction with lead-bismuth eutectic coolant of advanced nuclear reactors. The goal of this work is to study how the oxygen can be used to reduce the corrosion rate of cladding. The molecular dynamics method was applied to simulate corrosion process. By evaluating the diffusion coefficients, RDF functions, MSD curves of the iron and also observed the crystal structure of iron before and after oxygen injection to the coolant then we concluded that a significant and effective reduction can be achieved by issuing about 2% number of oxygen atoms to lead-bismuth eutectic coolant.

Arkundato, Artoto; Su'ud, Zaki; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Widayani; Celino, Massimo

2012-06-01

331

Water uptake by salts during the electrolyte processing for thermal batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water uptake of single salts and electrolytes were measured in industrial conditions (dry-room). The water uptake rate ? (g h -1 cm -2) was expressed with respect to the apparent area of contact of the salt with atmosphere of the dry room. The water uptake by potassium-based salts was very low. LiF and LiCl salts were found to behave similarly. For LiBr- and LiI-based salts and mixtures, we pointed out a linear relationship between the water uptake and the elapsed time. Water uptake by magnesium oxide reached a limit after 200 h. This work provides a set of data concerning the rate of water uptake by single salts, salt mixtures and magnesia used in thermal battery electrolytes.

Masset, Patrick; Poinso, Jean-Yves; Poignet, Jean-Claude

332

Molten nitrate salt technology development status report  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing thermal energy storage as potentially critical to the successful commercialization of solar thermal power systems, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established a comprehensive and aggressive thermal energy storage technology development program. Of the fluids proposed for heat transfer and energy storage molten nitrate salts offer significant economic advantages. The nitrate salt of most interest is a binary mixture of NaNO/sub 3/ and KNO/sub 3/. Although nitrate/nitrite mixtures have been used for decades as heat transfer and heat treatment fluids the use has been at temperatures of about 450/sup 0/C and lower. In solar thermal power systems the salts will experience a temperature range of 350 to 600/sup 0/C. Because central receiver applications place more rigorous demands and higher temperatures on nitrate salts a comprehensive experimental program has been developed to examine what effects, if any, the new demands and temperatures have on the salts. The experiments include corrosion testing, environmental cracking of containment materials, and determinations of physical properties and decomposition mechanisms. This report details the work done at Sandia National Laboratories in each area listed. In addition, summaries of the experimental programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of New York, EIC Laboratories, Inc., and the Norwegian Institute of Technology on molten nitrate salts are given. Also discussed is how the experimental programs will influence the near-term central receiver programs such as utility repowering/industrial retrofit and cogeneration. The report is designed to provide easy access to the latest information and data on molten NaNO/sub 3//KNO/sub 3/ for the designers and engineers of future central receiver projects.

Carling, R.W.; Kramer, C.M.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.; Goods, S.H.; Mar, R.W.; Munford, J.W.; Karnowsky, M.M.; Biefeld, R.N.; Norem, N.J.

1981-03-01

333

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOEpatents

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath. 2 figs.

Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.

1996-02-13

334

Solidification of binary and Sr-modified Al-Si eutectic alloys - Theoretical analysis of solute fields  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes experimental data in available literature concerning the eutectic spacing lambda and growth undercooling Delta-T in the Al-Si binary eutectic and in the strontium-modified eutectic. The expression for Delta-T obtained in Jackson and Hunt's model is used, before application of the minimum undercooling growth criterion. It is shown that, for the binary eutectic, the results can be interpreted quantitatively by means of this equation. On the other hand, it is shown that the results for the modified alloy cannot be interpreted on this basis and that a contribution of the kinetic undercooling for growth of Si has to be taken into account. A high level of kinetic undercooling is found (ranging from 5 to 15 K depending on the solidification rate). This analysis also predicts a significant silicon-enrichment of the interfacial liquid, especially in the modified eutectic (up to 2 wt pct). 13 refs.

Sens, H.; Eustathopoulos, N.; Camel, D.; Favier, J.J. (CEA, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble (France) Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Electrochimie et d'Electrometallurgie, Saint-Martin-d'Heres (France))

1992-07-01

335

Numerical study of the effect of the shape of the phase diagram on the eutectic freezing temperature  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the reliability of metal-carbon eutectic systems as fixed points for the next generation of high-temperature standards the effect of thermodynamic properties related to the shape of eutectic phase diagram on the freezing temperature is investigated within the context of the numerical multi-phase-field model. The partition coefficient and liquidus slopes of the two solids involved in the eutectic reaction are varied deliberately and independently. The difference between the eutectic temperature and the freezing temperature is determined in dependence of the solid/liquid (s/l) interface shape and concentration. Where appropriate reference is made to the Jackson-Hunt analytical theory. It is shown that there are mainly two typical conditions to decrease the undercooling: 1) a small liquidus slope and 2) the associated difference between the eutectic composition and the liquid composition during solidification.

Ode, M.; Shimono, M. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba (Japan)] [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba (Japan); Sasajima, N.; Yamada, Y. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ, AIST), Tsukuba (Japan)] [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ, AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Bloembergen, P. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ, AIST), Tsukuba, Japan and National Institute of Metrology, Beijing 100013 (China)] [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ, AIST), Tsukuba, Japan and National Institute of Metrology, Beijing 100013 (China)

2013-09-11

336

Long-range periodic structure induced by coupling of the solvation effect and concentration fluctuation in water and 3-methylpyridine with salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments were performed on mixtures of 3-methylpyridine, D2O, and salts to investigate concentration fluctuations and structures in the vicinity of the critical point. The temperature-dependence of the SANS profile of a mixture without salt showed critical phenomena that were consistent with 3D-Ising behavior. On the other hand, the SANS profiles with salt added mixtures could not

K. Sadakane; H. Seto; M. Nagao

2006-01-01

337

Synthesis of oxide perovskite solid solutions using the molten salt method  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt method has in the past been employed to synthesize a large number of compounds at low temperatures. In this work we report the formation of solid solutions of BaTiO{sub 3}{endash}SrTiO{sub 3} and BaZrO{sub 3}{endash}SrZrO{sub 3} using a molten salt eutectic of NaOH{endash}KOH as a solvent. Alkaline earth carbonates and titanium oxide were used as precursors for the titanate system, and alkaline earth carbonates and zirconium oxide were used as precursors for the zirconate system. It was found that both systems form solid solutions throughout the composition range. The implications of these results with regards to the applicability of the molten salt method as a tool to investigate low temperature phase equilibria are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 Materials Research Society.}

Gopalan, S.; Mehta, K.; Virkar, A.V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 304 EMRO University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

1996-08-01

338

ISOPAR L Release Rates from Saltstone Using Simulated Salt Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will produce a Deactivated Salt Solution (DSS) that will go to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). Recent information indicates that solvent entrainment in the DSS is larger than expected. The main concern is with Isopar{reg_sign} L, the diluent in the solvent mixture, and its flammability

Bronikowski

2006-01-01

339

ISOPAR L RELEASE RATES FROM SALTSTONE USING SIMULATED SALT SOLUTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will produce a Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) that will go to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). Recent information indicates that solvent entrainment in the DSS is larger than expected. The main concern is with Isopar{reg_sign} L, the diluent in the solvent mixture, and its flammability

J Zamecnik; M Michael Bronikowski; A Alex Cozzi; R Russell Eibling; C Charles Nash

2008-01-01

340

Structure of molten salts  

SciTech Connect

A brief review of the structure of molten salts is given with special emphasis on structural features in reciprocal space. Selected diffraction results on halide salts containing monovalent and divalent cations are presented, along with recent results on salts containing trivalent cations. Different models and computational techniques, such as random packing of structural units, the reference interaction site model, and reverse Monte Carlo are used to derive structural information at the partial level. 15 refs., 3 figs.

Saboungi, M.L.; Howe, M.A.; Price, D.L.

1990-01-01

341

Eutectic melting temperature of the lowermost Earth's mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partial melting of the Earth's deep mantle probably occurred at different stages of its formation as a consequence of meteoritic impacts and seismology suggests that it even continues today at the core-mantle boundary. Melts are important because they dominate the chemical evolution of the different Earth's reservoirs and more generally the dynamics of the whole planet. Unfortunately, the most critical parameter, that is the temperature profile inside the deep Earth, remains poorly constrained accross the planet history. Experimental investigations of the melting properties of materials representative of the deep Earth at relevant P-T conditions can provide anchor points to refine past and present temperature profiles and consequently determine the degree of melting at the different geological periods. Previous works report melting relations in the uppermost lower mantle region, using the multi-anvil press [1,2]. On the other hand, the pyrolite solidus was determined up to 65 GPa using optical observations in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) [3]. Finally, the melting temperature of (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 olivine is documented at core-mantle boundary (CMB) conditions by shock wave experiments [4]. Solely based on these reports, experimental data remain too sparse to draw a definite melting curve for the lower mantle in the relevant 25-135 GPa pressure range. We reinvestigated melting properties of lower mantle materials by means of in-situ angle dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements in the LH-DAC at the ESRF [5]. Experiments were performed in an extended P-T range for two starting materials: forsterite and a glass with chondrite composition. In both cases, the aim was to determine the onset of melting, and thus the eutectic melting temperatures as a function of pressure. Melting was evidenced from drastic changes of diffraction peak shape on the image plate, major changes in diffraction intensities in the integrated pattern, disappearance of diffraction rings, and changes in the relation between sample-temperature and laser-power. In this work, we show that temperatures higher than 4000 K are necessary for melting mean mantle at the 135 GPa pressure found at the core mantle boundary (CMB). Such temperature is much higher than that from estimated actual geotherms. Therefore, melting at the CMB can only occur if (i) pyrolitic mantle resides for a very long time in contact with the outer core, (ii) the mantle composition is severely affected by additional elements depressing the solidus such as water or (iii) the temperature gradient in the D" region is amazingly steep. Other implications for the temperature state and the lower mantle properties will be presented. References (1) Ito et al., Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 143-144, 397-406, 2004 (2) Ohtani et al., Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 100, 97-114, 1997 (3) Zerr et al., Science, 281, 243-246, 1998 (4) Holland and Ahrens, Science, 275, 1623-1625, 1997 (5) Schultz et al., High Press. Res., 25, 1, 71-83, 2005.

Andrault, D.; Lo Nigro, G.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Bouhifd, M.; Garbarino, G.; Mezouar, M.

2009-12-01

342

Evaluation of magnesium-aluminum eutectic to improve combustion efficiency in low burning rate propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A previous investigation indicated that combustion efficiency of low burning-rate propellants could be improved if the aluminum fuel was replaced by aluminum particles coated with a magnesium-aluminum eutectic alloy (ALCAL). The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the possibility of improving the combustion efficiency of these propellants by admixing the eutectic with the aluminum rather than coating the aluminum. Tests of three propellants similar in every respect except for the metal fuel were conducted in test motors with 4.54 kg (10 lbm) of propellant. The first propellant used aluminum fuel; the second contained aluminum admixed with magnesium-aluminum eutectic; the third used ALCAL. The test results show the the admixed fuel gave better low burning-rate combustion efficiency than the other two. The test results also showed that the ALCAL was deficient in that much, if not all, of the coating material could be found as the fine particles in a bimodal mix of aluminum and eutectic. The combustion efficiency of low burning-rate aluminized propellants can be significantly improved by mixing a small amount of magnesium-aluminum alloy with the aluminum fuel.

Northam, B. G.; Sullivan, E. M.

1973-01-01

343

Eutectic freeze crystallization: Application to process streams and waste water purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two case studies are presented using eutectic freeze crystallization (EFC) as an alternative for evaporative crystallization: a 7.8 ton day?1 35 w% aqueous sodium nitrate and a 24 ton day?1 12 w% copper sulfate stream. The proposed crystallizer is a cooled disk column crystallizer (CDCC), using indirect cooling for heat transfer. In single stage operation, the formed ice crystals are

F. van der Ham; G. J. Witkamp; J. de Graauw; G. M. van Rosmalen

1998-01-01

344

Banding due to temperature oscillations in the unidirectional solidification of eutectic alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Banding observed in unidirectional solidification of eutectic alloys is shown to be due to melting back of the freezing interface because of oscillations in the temperature of the furnace. General theoretical criteria as to the amplitude and frequency of the permissible temperature oscillations are given to ensure that banding will not occur.

Kidron, A.

1972-01-01

345

Eutectic Solidification of MgO-MgAl2O4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Directional solidification of the MgO-MgAl2O4 eutectic yields MgO whiskers in a spinel matrix. Microstructures produced at solidification rates of 0.4 to 30.0 cm/h were studied. The interlamellar spacing agrees with the inverse-square-root dependence on s...

F. L. Kennard R. C. Bradt V. S. Stubican

1973-01-01

346

Damage by eutectic particle cracking in aluminum casting alloys A356/357  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strain dependence of particle cracking in aluminum alloys A356/357 in the T6 temper has been studied in a range of microstructures produced by varying solidification rate and Mg content, and by chemical (Sr) modification of the eutectic silicon. The damage accumulates linearly with the applied strain for all microstructures, but the rate depends on the secondary dendrite arm spacing and modification state. Large and elongated eutectic silicon particles in the unmodified alloys and large ?-phase (Al9FeMg3Si5) particles in alloy A357 show the greatest tendency to cracking. In alloy A356, cracking of eutectic silicon particles dominates the accumulation of damage while cracking of Fe-rich particles is relatively unimportant. However, in alloy A357, especially with Sr modification, cracking of the large ?-phase intermetallics accounts for the majority of damage at low and intermediate strains but becomes comparable with silicon particle cracking at large strains. Fracture occurs when the volume fraction of cracked particles (eutectic silicon and Fe-rich intermetallics combined) approximates 45 pct of the total particle volume fraction or when the number fraction of cracked particles is about 20 pct. The results are discussed in terms of Weibull statistics and existing models for dispersion hardening.

Wang, Q. G.; Caceres, C. H.; Griffiths, J. R.

2003-12-01

347

Determination of the elastic moduli of a directionally solidified nickel-based TaC eutectic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of ultrasonic wave velocities in a polycrystalline directionally solidified nickel based eutectic alloy are used to evaluate the three independent single crystal elastic moduli at temperatures between 298 to 925 K. The Cu and C44 moduli are obtained directly from high frequency wave propagation along the D.S. axis, corresponding to . Evaluation of C12 requires measurements at lower frequencies

E. S. Fisher

1980-01-01

348

Observations on the Mechanisms of Fatigue in Eutectic Pb-Sn Solder Joints.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Near-eutectic Pb-Sn solders are widely used for joints in electrical devices. These are liable to failure by thermal fatigue during operation of the device. Since the thermal fatigue load is often in shear, the mechanisms of thermal fatigue in shear fare ...

D. Tribula D. Grivas D. R. Frear J. W. Morris

1988-01-01

349

Use of Eutectic Fixed Points to Characterize a Spectrometer for Earth Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small palm-sized, reference spectrometer, mounted on a remote-controlled model helicopter is being developed and tested by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in conjunction with City University, London. The developed system will be used as a key element for field vicarious calibration of optical earth observation systems in the visible-near infrared (VNIR) region. The spectrometer is hand held, low weight, and uses a photodiode array. It has good stray light rejection and wide spectral coverage, allowing simultaneous measurements from 400 to 900 nm. The spectrometer is traceable to NPL’s primary standard cryogenic radiometer via a high-temperature metal-carbon eutectic fixed-point blackbody. Once the fixed-point temperature has been determined (using filter radiometry), the eutectic provides a high emissivity and high stability source of known spectral radiance over the emitted spectral range. All wavelength channels of the spectrometer can be calibrated simultaneously using the eutectic transition without the need for additional instrumentation. The spectrometer itself has been characterized for stray light performance and wavelength accuracy. Its long-term and transportation stability has been proven in an experiment that determined the “World’s Bluest Sky”—a process that involved 56 flights, covering 100,000 km in 72 days. This vicarious calibration methodology using a eutectic standard is presented alongside the preliminary results of an evaluation study of the spectrometer characteristics.

Salim, Saber G. R.; Fox, Nigel P.; Woolliams, Emma R.; Winkler, Rainer; Pegrum, Heather M.; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Ken T. V.

2007-12-01

350

Eutectic Temperatures for Low and High Pressure Phases of Sodium Sulfate Hydrates with Applications to Europa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use optical images of crystallization in the Na_2SO_4-H_2O system, coupled with measurements of pressure, temperature, and volume changes, to report eutectic transitions for pressures up to 375 MPa, with implications for modeling Europa's ocean.

Dougherty, A. J.; Avidon, J. A.; Hogenboom, D. L.; Kargel, J. S.

2012-03-01

351

Fabrication of cellular shape memory alloy materials by reactive eutectic brazing using niobium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel metal-joining process is described that exploits interfacial reactions between nitinol and pure niobium to produce a reactive eutectic liquid that readily creates a robust metallurgical bond between nitinol and itself. With this new reactive-brazing process we have been able to create prototypes of superelastic cellular honeycomb topologies from conventional nitinol precursor materials such as tubes and corrugated sheets.

David S. Grummon; John A. Shaw; John Foltz

2006-01-01

352

The effect of substrate on the microstructure and creep of eutectic In-Sn  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted in order to determine and understand the effect of substrate on the behavior of eutectic In-Sn. Samples for mechanical testing were produced with either bare Cu or Ni on Cu substrates. Both the microstructure and the mechanical behavior are strongly dependent on substrate. When eutectic In-Sn is joined to bare Cu, Cu diffusion into the joint causes the alloy to become off-eutectic, giving a nonuniform and irregular microstructure. The addition of a layer of Ni acts as a diffusion barrier, preventing Cu diffusion sufficiently such that a uniform, normal colony-based eutectic forms. Deformation is more uniform in the In-Sn on Ni, while it is concentrated along the length of the joint in the In-Sn on Cu. This distinction is reflected in the different shapes of shear stress-strain curves between In-Sn on Cu and In-Sn on Ni. The stress exponents and activation energies for creep also vary with substrate. Creep deformation is governed by the In-rich [beta] phase for In-Sn on Cu and by the Sn-rich [gamma] phase for In-Sn on Ni. If In-Sn on Ni samples are aged, the microstructure coarsens and the mechanical behavior changes to resemble that of the as-cast In-Sn on Cu.

Goldstein, J.L.F. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering); Morris, J.W. Jr. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1994-12-01

353

Microstructure and creep of eutectic indium\\/tin on copper and nickel substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior during creep in shear of eutectic indium-tin joints on copper and nickel substrates was examined in order to determine the effect of creep deformation on the microstructure of the alloy. Primary creep was absent in all the samples tested. The stress exponent at 20° C was much higher for samples on nickel than for those on copper, indicating

J. L. Freer; J. W. Morris

1992-01-01

354

Microstructure and creep of eutectic indium/tin on copper and nickel substrates  

SciTech Connect

The behavior during creep in shear of eutectic indium-tin joints on copper and nickel substrates was examined in order to determine the effect of creep deformation on the microstructure of the alloy. Primary creep was absent in all the samples tested. The stress exponent at 20[degree] C was much higher for samples on nickel than for those on copper, indicating a different creep deformation mechanism. Also, the microstructure within the indium-tin joints differed significantly with a change of substrate. Samples with a nickel substrate showed a colony microstructure that was not observed in those with a copper substrate. Thus, eutectic morphology is important in determining deformation mechanism during creep. The microstructure within the joints in tested and untested regions of the samples was effectively the same. This is quite distinct from the behavior of eutectic lead-tin observed in previous work. Lead-tin formed a recrystallized band of material along a region of concentrated shear deformation. While the deformation pattern in the indium-tin samples appeared to be the same as for lead-tin, the microstructural changes did not occur. This implies that the behavior observed in lead-tin is not universal to eutectic alloys. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Freer, J.L.; Morris, J.W. Jr. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1992-06-01

355

Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations of Rod Eutectics and the Surface Roughening Transition in Binary Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we report on two related topics: Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of the steady state growth of rod eutectics from the melt, and a study of the surface roughness of binary alloys. We have implemented a three dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo (k...

D. N. Bentz W. Betush K. A. Jackson

2003-01-01

356

Over-Modification Band in Aluminum--Silicon Eutectic Solidified Structure Modified with Sodium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nature and origin of so called ''over modification band'' which appears in the microscopic structure of eutectic Al--Si alloy treated with an excessive amount of sodium has been investigated in detail by the method of (1) the optical and scanning elec...

K. Kobayashi H. Shingu R. Ozaki

1972-01-01

357

Coarsening of silicon fibres in modified eutectic aluminium-silicon alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

which formed adjacent to the mould walls during the initial stages of solidification. In the present work these effects were eliminated by using heated moulds, giving rise to fully eutectic microstructures. The alloys were examined in the as-cast state or after heat treatment at 510 ° C for 1.3, 8, 50 or 200 h. The morphology of the silicon phase

T. B. Abbott; B. A. Parker

1988-01-01

358

The role of trace element segregation in the eutectic modification of hypoeutectic Al–Si alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modification of the eutectic silicon in hypoeutectic Al–Si alloys causes a structural transformation of the silicon phase from a needle-like to a fine fibrous morphology and is carried out extensively in industry to improve mechanical properties. It has been documented that the fibrous silicon phase in chemically modified alloys is heavily twinned. It has been proposed that this increased density

K. Nogita; H. Yasuda; M. Yoshiya; S. D. McDonald; K. Uesugi; A. Takeuchi; Y. Suzuki

2010-01-01

359

Directional solidification of aluminium-silicon eutectic alloy in a magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By the use of a vertical Bridgman growth method, the Al-Si eutectic alloy containing 11.6 wt% Si was directionally solidified in a vertical magnetic field of 35,000 Oe and without the magnetic field. The application of the magnetic field showed a pronounced tendency to suppress the development of the primary Al phase dendrites.

Aoki, Y.; Hayashi, S.; Komatsu, H.

1983-06-01

360

About the shape of eutectic grains solidifying in a thermal gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

In eutectic alloys solidified in a thermal gradient, it has been observed that the final shape of the grains nucleated in the bulk of the liquid is more elongated in the direction opposite to that of the heat flow. This experimental result appears to be in contraction with that expected for the growth of an isolated grain, since the portion

M. Rappaz; C. Charbon; R. Sasikumar

1994-01-01

361

Effect of superheating temperatures on microstructure and properties of strontium modified aluminium–silicon eutectic alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superheating temperature on strontium modification of Al–Si alloy has tremendous effect on its solidification characteristics, which determines the structural refinement and hence the properties of the alloy. In this study, it is observed that as the superheating temperature is increased up to an optimum temperature of 750°C, the eutectic silicon becomes more globular and well distributed all over the entire

M. M. Haque; Ahmad F. Ismail

2005-01-01

362

Influence of Mg on Grain Refinement of Near Eutectic Al-Si Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the grain-refinement practice is well established for wrought Al alloys, in the case of foundry alloys such as near eutectic Al-Si alloys, the underlying mechanisms and the use of grain refiners need better understanding. Conventional grain refiners such as Al-5Ti-1B are not effective in grain refining the Al-Si alloys due to the poisoning effect of Si. In this work, we report the results of a newly developed grain refiner, which can effectively grain refine as well as modify eutectic and primary Si in near eutectic Al-Si alloys. Among the material choices, the grain refining response with Al-1Ti-3B master alloy is found to be superior compared to the conventional Al-5Ti-1B master alloy. It was also found that magnesium additions of 0.2 wt pct along with the Al-1Ti-3B master alloy further enhance the near eutectic Al-Si alloy's grain refining efficiency, thus leading to improved bulk mechanical properties. We have found that magnesium essentially scavenges the oxygen present on the surface of nucleant particles, improves wettability, and reduces the agglomeration tendency of boride particles, thereby enhancing grain refining efficiency. It allows the nucleant particles to act as potent and active nucleation sites even at levels as low as 0.2 pct in the Al-1Ti-3B master alloy.

Ravi, K. R.; Manivannan, S.; Phanikumar, G.; Murty, B. S.; Sundarraj, Suresh

2011-07-01

363

Aluminium phosphide as a eutectic grain nucleus in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys.  

PubMed

Aluminium phosphide (AlP) particles are often suggested to be the nucleation site for eutectic silicon in Al-Si alloys, since both the crystal structure and lattice parameter of AlP (crystal structure: cubic F43m; lattice parameter: 5.421 A) are close to that of silicon (cubic Fd3m, 5.431 A), and the melting point is higher than the Al-Si eutectic temperature. However, the crystallographic relationships between AlP particles and the surrounding eutectic silicon are seldom reported due to the difficulty in analysing the AlP particles, which react with water during sample preparation for polishing. In this study, the orientation relationships between AlP and Si are analysed by transmission electron microscopy using focused ion-beam milling for sample preparation to investigate the nucleation mechanism of eutectic silicon on AlP. The results show a clear and direct lattice relationship between centrally located AlP particles and the surrounding silicon in the hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy. PMID:15585468

Nogita, Kazuhiro; McDonald, Stuart D; Tsujimoto, Katsuhiro; Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Dahle, Arne K

2004-01-01

364

On the relation between primary and eutectic solidification structures in gray iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solidification of hypoeutectic gray cast iron starts with the nucleation of primary austenite crystals. Before graphite is nucleated, and the eutectic structure is formed, these crystals start to grow as columnar or equiaxed dendrites. However, very little is known about these dendrites, and especially how they influence the subsequent eutectic structure. Besides, it has previously been shown that the primary solidification structure influences the formation of defects. Shrinkage porosity was found between the dendrites, in the grain boundaries, and the formation of the primary solidification structure was found to influence problems related to metal expansion penetration. Therefore a better understanding about the formation of this structure is of importance. In this work, different inoculants and their influence on the formation of the micro- and macrostructures has been investigated. The inoculants considered are commercially used inoculants, i.e. inoculants used in the foundries, as well as different iron powders. The addition of iron powder is used to promote the primary solidification structure. It is shown that the nucleation of the dendrites is influenced by the amount of iron powder. Secondary dendrite arm spacing is a quantitative measurement in the microstructure related to these dendrites, which in turn depends on the solidification time. Eutectic cell size, on the other hand, is found to depend on secondary dendrite arm spacing. It is shown how the addition of inoculants influences both primary and eutectic solidification structures, and how they are related to each other.

Elmquist, L.; Sonawane, P. A.

2012-01-01

365

Diffusion Welding of a Directionally Solidified gamma/gamma Prime - delta Eutectic Alloy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hot-press diffusion welding parameters were developed for a directionally solidified, gamma/gamma prime-delta eutectic alloy. Based on metallography, a good diffusion weld was achieved at 1100 C under 34.5 MPa (5 ksi) pressure for 1 hour. In addition, a d...

T. J. Moore

1977-01-01

366

Natural deep eutectic solvents as new potential media for green technology.  

PubMed

Developing new green solvents is one of the key subjects in Green Chemistry. Ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents, thus, have been paid great attention to replace current harsh organic solvents and have been applied to many chemical processing such as extraction and synthesis. However, current ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents have still limitations to be applied to a real chemical industry due to toxicity against human and environment and high cost of ILs and solid state of most deep eutectic solvents at room temperature. Recently we discovered that many plant abundant primary metabolites changed their state from solid to liquid when they were mixed in proper ratio. This finding made us hypothesize that natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) play a role as alternative media to water in living organisms and tested a wide range of natural products, which resulted in discovery of over 100 NADES from nature. In order to prove deep eutectic feature the interaction between the molecules was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All the tested NADES show clear hydrogen bonding between components. As next step physical properties of NADES such as water activity, density, viscosity, polarity and thermal properties were measured as well as the effect of water on the physical properties. In the last stage the novel NADES were applied to the solubilization of wide range of biomolecules such as non-water soluble bioactive natural products, gluten, starch, and DNA. In most cases the solubility of the biomolecules evaluated in this study was greatly higher than water. Based on the results the novel NADES may be expected as potential green solvents at room temperature in diverse fields of chemistry. PMID:23427801

Dai, Yuntao; van Spronsen, Jaap; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

2013-03-01

367

Transient and steady state creep response of ice I and magnesium sulfate hydrate eutectic aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using uniaxial compression creep experiments, we characterized the transient and steady state deformation behaviors of eutectic aggregates of system ice I and MgSO4 11H2O (MS11; meridianiite), which has significance because of its likely presence on moons of the outer solar system. Synthetic samples of eutectic liquid bulk composition, which produce eutectic colonies containing 0.35-0.50 volume fraction MS11, were tested as functions of colony size and lamellar spacing, temperature (230-250 K), and confining pressure (0.1 and 50 MPa) to strains ???0.2. Up to a differential stress of 6 MPa, the ice I-MS11 aggregates display an order of magnitude higher effective viscosity and higher stress sensitivity than do aggregates of pure polycrystalline ice at the same conditions. The creep data and associated microstructural observations demonstrate, however, that the aggregates are additionally more brittle than pure ice, approaching rate-independent plasticity that includes rupture of the hydrate phase at 6-8 MPa, depending on the scale of the microstructure. Microstructures of deformed samples reveal forms of semibrittle flow in which the hydrate phase fractures while the ice phase deforms plastically. Semibrittle flow in the icy shell of a planetary body would truncate the lithospheric strength envelope and thereby decrease the depth to the brittle-ductile transition by 55% and reduce the failure limit for compressional surface features from 10 to ???6 MPa. A constitutive equation that includes eutectic colony boundary sliding and intracolony flow is used to describe the steady state rheology of the eutectic aggregates. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

McCarthy, C.; Cooper, R. F.; Goldsby, D. L.; Durham, W. B.; Kirby, S. H.

2011-01-01

368

On the nature of eutectic carbides in Cr-Ni white cast irons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical and tribological properties of white cast irons are strongly dependent on whether they contain M7C3 or M3C carbides (M = Fe, Cr, etc.). In an effort to improve the wear resistance of such materials, the United States Bureau of Mines has studied the effects of adding 0.3 to 2.3 wt pct (throughout) Si to hypoeutectic irons containing approximately 8.5 pct Cr and 6.0 pct Ni. The eutectic carbides formed were identified by electron microprobe analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron (SEM) and optical microscopies. In addition, differential thermal analysis (DTA) was used to study the process of solidification. At Si contents of 0.3 and 1.2 pct, the eutectic carbides exhibited a duplex structure, consisting of cores of M7C3 surrounded by shells of M3C. Additionally, the microstructure contained ledeburite (M3C + ?Fe (austenite)). At the higher Si content of 1.6 pct, the eutectic carbides consisted entirely of M7C3, and some ledeburite remained. Last, when the Si content was raised to 2.3 pct, the eutectic carbides again consisted entirely of M7C3, but ledeburite was no longer formed. These observations can be explained in terms of the effects of Si and, to a lesser extent, of Ni on the shape of the liquidus surface of the metastable Fe-Cr-C phase diagram. The addition of Si reduces the roles played by the four-phase class II p reaction L + M7C3 ? M3C + ?Fe and the ledeburitic eutectic reaction L ? M3C + ?Fe in the overall process of solidification.

Laird, G.; Nielsen, R. L.; MacMillan, N. H.

1991-08-01

369

The fabrication of all-silicon micro gas chromatography columns using gold diffusion eutectic bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature programming of gas chromatography (GC) separation columns accelerates the elution rate of chemical species through the column, increasing the speed of analysis, and hence making it a favorable technique to speedup separations in microfabricated GCs (micro-GC). Temperature-programmed separations would be preferred in an all-silicon micro-column compared to a silicon-Pyrex® micro-column given that the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of silicon is 2 orders of magnitude higher than Pyrex®. This paper demonstrates how to fabricate all-silicon micro-columns that can withstand the temperature cycling required for temperature-programmed separations. The columns were sealed using a novel bonding process where they were first bonded using a gold eutectic bond, then annealed at 1100 °C to allow gold diffusion into silicon and form what we call a gold diffusion eutectic bond. The gold diffusion eutectic-bonded micro-columns when examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) and blade insertion techniques showed bonding strength comparable to the previously reported anodic-bonded columns. Gas chromatography-based methane injections were also used as a novel way to investigate proper sealing between channels. A unique methane elution peak at various carrier gas inlet pressures demonstrated the suitability of gold diffusion eutectic-bonded channels as micro-GC columns. The application of gold diffusion eutectic-bonded all-silicon micro-columns to temperature-programmed separations (120 °C min-1) was demonstrated with the near-baseline separation of n-C6 to n-C12 alkanes in 35 s.

Radadia, A. D.; Salehi-Khojin, A.; Masel, R. I.; Shannon, M. A.

2010-01-01

370

SALT for Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

Bancroft, W. Jane

1996-01-01

371

Molten salt electrolyte separator  

DOEpatents

The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1996-07-09

372

A History of Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe.

Massimo Círillo; Giovambattista Capasso; Vito Andrea Di Leo; Natale Gaspare De Santo

1994-01-01

373

Acids and Salts (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids and Salts: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore a few properties of common acids and their salts. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

374

Reliability of Au-Ge and Au-Si Eutectic Solder Alloys for High-Temperature Electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature electronics will facilitate deeper drilling, accessing harder-to-reach fossil fuels in oil and gas industry. A key requirement is reliability under harsh conditions for a minimum continuous operating time of 500 h at 300°C. Eutectic solder alloys are generally favored due to their excellent fatigue resistance. Performance of Au-Ge and Au-Si eutectic solder alloys at 300°C up to 500 h has been evaluated. Nanoindentation results confirm the loss of strength of Au-Ge and Au-Si eutectic solder alloys during thermal aging at 300°C, as a result of grain coarsening. However, the pace at which the Au-Ge eutectic alloy loses its strength is much slower when compared with Au-Si eutectic alloy. The interfacial reactions between these eutectic solder alloys and the underbump metallization (UBM), i.e., electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) UBM and Cu/Au UBM, have been extensively studied. Spalling of Au3Cu intermetallic compound is observed at the interface between Au-Ge eutectic solder and the Cu/Au UBM, when aged at 300°C for 500 h, while the consumption of ENIG UBM is nominal. Unlike the Au-Si solder joint, hot ball shear testing at high temperature confirmed that the Au-Ge joint on ENIG UBM, when aged at 300°C for 500 h, could still comply with the minimum qualifying bump shear strength based on the UBM dimension used in this work. Thus, it has been determined that, among these two binary eutectic alloys, Au-Ge eutectic alloy could fulfill the minimum requirement specified by the oil and gas exploration industry.

Chidambaram, Vivek; Yeung, Ho Beng; Shan, Gao

2012-08-01

375

Viscosity of Multi-Component Molten Nitrate Salts: liquidus to 200 Degrees C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The viscosity of molten salts comprising ternary and quaternary mixtures of the nitrates of sodium, potassium, lithium and calcium was determined experimentally. Viscosity was measured over the temperature range from near the relatively low liquidus tempe...

R. W. Bradshaw

2010-01-01

376

Metal-halide mixtures for latent heat energy storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some candidates for alkali metal and alkali halide mixtures suitable for thermal energy storage at temperatures 600 C are identified. A solar thermal system application which offer advantages such as precipitation of salt crystals away from heat transfer surfaces, increased thermal conductivity of phase change materials, corrosion inhibition, and a constant monotectic temperature, independent of mixture concentrations. By using the lighters, metal rich phase as a heat transfer medium and the denser, salt rich phase as a phase change material for latent heat storage, undesirable solidification on the heat transfer surface may be prevented, is presented.

Chen, K.; Manvi, R.

1981-01-01

377

Mg-Al-Ca In-Situ Composites with a Refined Eutectic Structure and Their Compressive Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of Mg\\u000a x\\u000a (Al2Ca)100?x\\u000a (76 ? x ? 87) ternary alloys near the Mg-(Mg,Al)2Ca pseudo-binary eutectic point, different phases and morphologies based on ultrafine eutectic microstructure have been obtained\\u000a by controlling the composition and changing the cooling rate via either induction melting or copper mold casting. For 81 ? x ? 87, the chill-cast alloys with ductile Mg dendrites embedded in an ultrafine [Mg + (Mg,Al)2Ca] eutectic

Ling-Ling Shi; Jian Xu; Evan Ma

2008-01-01

378

Amine Salts as Bonding Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The polyamine compound, TEPAN, a partially cyanoethylated tetraethylene pentamine, is reacted with a selected ammonium salt to form an adduct of TEPAN and the selected ammonium salt. The ammonium salt is selected from ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium n...

M. E. Ducote H. C. Allen

1983-01-01

379

Fetal bile salt metabolism  

PubMed Central

Bile salt metabolism was studied in fetal dogs 1 wk before term. The size and distribution of the fetal bile salt pool were measured, and individual bile salts were identified. The hepatic excretion of endogenous bile salts was studied in bile fistula fetuses, and the capacity of this excretory mechanism was investigated by the i.v. infusion of a load of sodium taurocholate-14C up to 20 times the endogenous pool size. The total fetal bile salt pool was 30.9±2.7 ?moles, of which two-thirds was in the fetal gallbladder. Expressed on a body weight basis, this was equal to approximately one-half the estimated pool size in the adult dog (119.2±11.3 vs. 247.5±33.1 ?moles/kg body wt). Measurable quantities of bile salt were found in small bowel (6.0±1.8 ?moles), large bowel (1.1±0.3 ?moles), liver (1.2±0.5 ?moles), and plasma (0.1±0.03 ?moles). Plasma bile salt levels were significantly greater in fetal than in maternal plasma (1.01±0.24 ?g/ml vs. 0.36±0.06 ?g/ml; P < 0.05). Fetal hepatic bile salt excretion showed a fall over the period of study from 2.04±0.34 to 0.30±0.07 ?moles/hr. The maximal endogenous bile salt concentration in fetal hepatic bile was 18.7±1.5 ?moles/ml. The concentration in fetal gallbladder bile was 73.9±8.6 ?moles/ml; and, in those studies in which hepatic and gallbladder bile could be compared directly, the gallbladder appeared to concentrate bile four- to fivefold. Taurocholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, and taurodeoxycholate were present in fetal bile, but no free bile salts were identified. The presence of deoxycholate was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and gas liquid chromatography, and the absence of microorganisms in fetal gut suggests that it was probably transferred from the maternal circulation. After infusion of a taurocholate load, fetal hepatic bile salt excretion increased 30-fold, so that 85-95% of the dose was excreted by the fetal liver during the period of observation. Placental transfer accounted for less than 5% of the dose. Fetal bile volume increased 15-fold on average, while bile salt concentrations increased two- to threefold. It is concluded that bile salt is taken up, conjugated, and excreted by the fetal liver with remarkable efficiency. The excreted material is either stored and concentrated in the fetal gallbladder or released into the intestine and reabsorbed to be reexcreted in bile.

Smallwood, R. A.; Lester, R.; Piasecki, G. J.; Klein, P. D.; Greco, R.; Jackson, B. T.

1972-01-01

380

Seasonal flows on dark martian slopes, thermal condition for liquescence of salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RSLs are narrow, dark albedo features on relatively steep slopes that appear during warm seasons and fade in the cold ones. So far they have only been observed in mid-latitudes where surface temperature is too high, periodically exceeding 300 K, for the presence of shallow ground ice. We attempt to determine what conditions are needed for the liquescence of salt to occur exactly when the RSLs are observed. If the eutectic temperature is exceeded, and humidity is high enough, salts may produce liquid brines through absorption of water vapor and liquescence. We calculate regolith temperature as a function of time and depth, for different macroscopic distributions of salt, for two different microphysical models of the distribution of salt on the regolith grains. Model parameters which are varied include surface albedo, thermal inertia of the dry regolith, the depths at which salt is present, and the salt content. We find that it is possible, for liquescence of magnesium perchlorate to occur where and when RSLs have been observed, but only within a very narrow range of parameters.

Kossacki, Konrad J.; Markiewicz, Wojciech J.

2014-05-01

381

Crushed Salt Constitutive Model  

SciTech Connect

The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

Callahan, G.D.

1999-02-01

382

Development of a sanded expansive salt grout for repository sealing application. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sanded version of the basic BCT 1-F expansive salt grout was developed by the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station in early 1983 for use in a test by Terra Tek in the Fall of 1983 in Salt Lake City. This grout is known as TT83. Initial laboratory tests showed this mixture had adequate workability, impermeability, strength, and positive

A. D. Buck; J. A. Boa; D. M. Walley

1985-01-01

383

Pyrolytic conversion of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons with basic salt catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention relates to a process for improving the pyrolytic conversion of waste selected from rubber and plastic to low molecular weigt olefinic materials by employing basis salt catalysts in the waste mixture. The salts comprise alkali or alkaline earth compounds, particularly sodium carbonate, in an amount of greater than about 1 weight percent based on the waste feed.

R. C. Wingfield Jr; J. Braslaw; R. L. Gealer

1985-01-01

384

Stabilization of 238Pu-contaminated combustible waste by molten salt oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surrogate studies were conducted using the molten salt oxidation system at the Naval Surface Warfare Center-Indian Head Division. This system uses a rotary feed system and an alumina molten salt oxidation vessel. The combustible materials were tested individually and together in a homogenized mixture. A slurry containing pyrolyzed cheesecloth ash spiked with cerium oxide, which is used as a surrogate for plutonium, and ethylene glycol were also treated in the molten salt oxidation vessel. .

Stimmel, Jay J.; Remerowski, Mary Lynn; Ramsey, Kevin B.; Heslop, J. Mark

2000-07-01

385

X-ray powder diffraction data on salts of ?-sulfonated long chain acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports x-ray powder diffraction study for twentyfour salts of ?-sulfonated normal long chain fatty acids. Acid\\u000a and neutral sodium, potassium lithium, cesium, calcium, magnesium, and triethanolammonium salts of ?-sulfolauric, myristic,\\u000a palmitic, stearic, and behenic acids were examined. The method can be used to identify and distinguish the individual salts\\u000a and has possible application to the analysis of mixtures.

D. A. Lutz; J. K. Weil; A. J. Stirton; L. P. Witnauer

1961-01-01

386

Quantitative estimation of the hydrophilic- hydrophobic balance of mixed bile salt solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the derivation of a bile salt monomeric hydrophobicity index that quantitatively defines the composite hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of a mixture of bile salts. The index is based on the logarithms of bile salt capacity factors determined using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (stationary phase octadecyl silane; mobile phase methanol-water 70:30 w\\/w, ionic strength 0.15). It has

Douglas M. Heuman

387

The Mixtures Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation illustrates the separation of mixtures using physical properties. The interactive simulation allows "lab attendants" to separate mixtures using virtual tools. Separation mechanisms are chosen based upon substances' physical properties, and findings are recorded in a chart.

388

Chemical Safety: Molten Salt Baths Cited as Lab Hazards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses danger of explosions with molten salts baths, commonly used as heat-transfer media. One such explosion involved use of a bath containing 3-lb sodium nitrite and 1-lb potassium thiocyanate. Although most commercially available mixtures for heat transfer contain oxidizers, a reducer (thiocyanate) was included which possibly triggered the…

Baum, Rudy

1982-01-01

389

Proceedings of the fifth international symposium on molten salts  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on electrochemistry. Topics considered include the electronic resistivity of lithium and iron oxides, the electrotwinning of intermetallic compounds, the electrochemical intercalation of lithium in graphite using a molten-salt cell, an electrochemical study of indium behaviour in sodium chloride-potassium chloride mixtures, and voltammetry of sodium polysulfides at metal electrodes.

Johnson, K.; Inman, D.; Saboungi, M.L.; Newman, D.S.

1985-01-01

390

Stress Analysis, Thermomechanical Fatique Evaluation, and Root Subcomponent Testing of gamma/gamma Prime-delta Eutectic Alloy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) and root subcomponent tensile, creep, and low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests were conducted to determine the capability of a fully lamellar directionally solidified eutectic alloy to sustain the airfoil thermal fatigue and root a...

K. D. Sheffler J. J. Jackson

1976-01-01

391

Automated detection and characterization of microstructural features: application to eutectic particles in single crystal Ni-based superalloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serial sectioning methods continue to produce an abundant amount of image data for quantifying the three-dimensional nature of material microstructures. Here, we discuss a methodology to automate detecting and characterizing eutectic particles taken from serial images of a production turbine blade made of a heat-treated single crystal Ni-based superalloy (PWA 1484). This method includes two important steps for unassisted eutectic particle characterization: automatically identifying a seed point within each particle and segmenting the particle using a region growing algorithm with an automated stop point. Once detected, the segmented eutectic particles are used to calculate microstructural statistics for characterizing and reconstructing statistically representative synthetic microstructures for single crystal Ni-based superalloys. The significance of this work is its ability to automate characterization for analysing the 3D nature of eutectic particles.

Tschopp, M. A.; Groeber, M. A.; Fahringer, R.; Simmons, J. P.; Rosenberger, A. H.; Woodward, C.

2010-03-01

392

Correlation between fragility and eutectic instability and glass-forming ability in binary metallic glasses under growth controlled conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We find that the fragility can be correlated to the eutectic instability and the glass forming ability in binary metallic glass formers under growth controlled conditions via a dimensionless parameter ? defined as DfT0/2(Te - T0), where Df is fragility parameter, T0 is Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann temperature, and Te is eutectic temperature. It is shown that the large ? value, which results from high Df and from that T0 is close to the eutectic temperature, can lead to small interface growth velocity and undercooling of eutectic structure, and good glass forming ability. This indicates that high ? leads to small characteristic diffusion length resulting from sluggish material transport that governs the glass forming ability. The results might provide an in-depth insight into the glass formation mechanism and be helpful for searching new glasses in growth controlled process.

Wang, N.; Ji, L.; Yao, W. J.; Zheng, Y. P.

2012-05-01

393

Growth and microstructure evolution of the Nb{sub 2}Al-Al{sub 3}Nb eutectic in situ composite  

SciTech Connect

In situ composite materials obtained by directional growth of eutectic alloys usually show improved properties, that make them potential candidates for high temperature applications. The eutectic alloy found in the Al-Nb system is composed of the two intermetallic phases Al{sub 3}Nb (D0{sub 22}) and Nb{sub 2}Al (D8{sub b}). This paper describes the directional solidification of an Al-Nb eutectic alloy using a Bridgman type facility at growth rates varying from 1.0 to 2.9 cm/h. Longitudinal and transverse sections of grown samples were characterized regarding the solidification microstructure by using optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction. Despite both phases being intermetallic compounds, the eutectic microstructure obtained was very regular. The results obtained were discussed regarding the effect of the growth rate on the microstructure, lamellar-rod transition and variation of phase volume fraction.

Rios, C.T. [State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6122, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Ferrandini, P.L. [Centro Universitario da FEI, C.P.85, CEP:09850-901, SP-Brasil (Brazil); Milenkovic, S. [State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6122, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Caram, R. [State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6122, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil)]. E-mail: rcaram@fem.unicamp.br

2005-03-15

394

Peculiarities of aluminium interaction with Ga85In15 eutectics as evidenced by X-ray synchrotron diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of X-ray synchrotron techniques, viz., diffraction, EXAFS/XANES spectroscopy and microtomography, is applied to elucidate microstructural changes in a technical aluminium alloy treated with GaIn eutectics. Such a treatment gives rise simultaneously to a prominent enbrittlement of the material and its activation towards reaction with water with the hydrogen evolution. The latter fact makes the activated aluminium a promising energy carrier for the small-scale hydrogen energetics. It is demonstrated that both phenomena are caused by the fast diffusion of the eutectics along intergrain boundaries and microcracks throughout the bulk of polycrystalline Al. The diffusion is promoted by the formation of (Al-Ga-In) solid solution in near-surface regions of Al crystalline grains. The progressive loss of activity of aluminium treated with GaIn eutectics upon a prolonged storage in humid air is due to the decomposition of the eutectics accompanied by the segregation of indium metal and partial gallium oxidation.

Nizovskii, A. I.; Bukhtiyarov, V. I.; Veligzhanin, A. A.; Zubavichus, Y. V.; Murzin, V. Y.; Chernyshov, A. A.; Khlebnikov, A. S.; Senin, R. A.; Kazakov, I. V.; Vorobyov, A. A.

2012-09-01

395

Soluble salts at the Phoenix Lander site, Mars: A reanalysis of the Wet Chemistry Laboratory data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) on the Phoenix Mars Scout Lander analyzed soils for soluble ions and found Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, and ClO4-. The salts that gave rise to these ions can be inferred using aqueous equilibrium models; however, model predictions are sensitive to the initial solution composition. This is problematic because the WCL data is noisy and many different ion compositions are possible within error bounds. To better characterize ion concentrations, we reanalyzed WCL data using improvements to original analyses, including Kalman optimal smoothing and ion-pair corrections. Our results for Rosy Red are generally consistent with previous analyses, except that Ca2+ and Cl- concentrations are lower. In contrast, ion concentrations in Sorceress 1 and Sorceress 2 are significantly different from previous analyses. Using the more robust Rosy Red WCL analysis, we applied equilibrium models to determine salt compositions within the error bounds of the reduced data. Modeling with FREZCHEM predicts that WCL solutions evolve Ca-Mg-ClO4-rich compositions at low temperatures. These unusual compositions are likely influenced by limitations in the experimental data used to parameterize FREZCHEM. As an alternative method to evaluate salt assemblages, we employed a chemical divide model based on the eutectic temperatures of salts. Our chemical divide model predicts that the most probable salts in order of mass abundance are MgSO4·11H2O (meridianiite), MgCO3·nH2O, Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O, NaClO4·2H2O, KClO4, NaCl·2H2O (hydrohalite), and CaCO3 (calcite). If ClO3- is included in the chemical divide model, then NaClO3 precipitates instead of NaClO4·2H2O and Mg(ClO3)2·6H2O precipitates in addition to Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O. These salt assemblages imply that at least 1.3 wt.% H2O is bound in the soil, noting that we cannot account for water in hydrated insoluble salts or deliquescent brines. All WCL solutions within error bounds precipitate Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O and/or Mg(ClO3)2·6H2O salts. These salts have low eutectic temperatures and are highly hygroscopic, which suggests that brines will be stable in soils for much of the Martian summer.

Toner, J. D.; Catling, D. C.; Light, B.

2014-07-01

396

Amine salts of nitroazoles  

DOEpatents

Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

1993-10-26

397

Poor Teenage Salt Habits  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... MedlinePlus Pages Dietary Sodium Nutrition Obesity in Children Teen Health Transcript Open almost any kitchen cabinet and ... dietary fixture across all age groups with today's teens consuming as much salt as adults. After tracking ...

398

Aging characteristics of Ga\\/1-x\\/\\/Al\\/x\\/As double-heterostructure lasers bonded with gold eutectic alloy solder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging characteristics of Ga1?xAlxAs DH lasers bonded with gold eutectic alloy solder and indium solder were studied. In the lasers bonded with indium solder, it was found that thermal resistance increased during the aging test and the activation energy for the increasing rate of thermal resistance was 0.6 eV. Sixteen lasers bonded with gold-tin eutectic alloy solder have been operating

K. Fujiwara; T. Fujiwara; K. Hori; M. Takusagawa

1979-01-01

399

A cobalt carbon eutectic fixed point for the calibration of contact thermometers at temperatures above 1100 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical cobalt-carbon (Co-C) eutectic fixed point cell was constructed at PTB to demonstrate its use for improvement of the calibration of noble-metal thermocouples at temperatures above 1100 °C. The melting and freezing temperatures of the Co-C eutectic were measured in different high-temperature furnaces at PTB and INMETRO (Brazil) to show its stability by using a Pt\\/Pd thermocouple. The reproducibility

F. Edler; A. C. Baratto

2005-01-01

400

Refinement of promising coating compositions for directionally cast eutectics. [Ni19. 7Nb6Cr2. 5Al  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful application of high creep strength, directionally solidified gamma\\/gamma'-delta (Ni--19.7Nb--6Cr--2.5Al) eutectic superalloy turbine blades requires the development of suitable coatings for airfoil, root and internal blade surfaces. In order to improve coatings for the gamma\\/gamma'-delta alloy, the current investigation had the goals of refining promising coating compositions for directionally solidified eutectics, evaluating the effects of coating\\/substrate interactions on the

T. E. Strangman; E. J. Felten; R. S. Benden

1976-01-01

401

Compatibility of surface-coated steels, refractory metals and ceramics to high temperature lead–bismuth eutectic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compatibility of cladding material with lead–bismuth eutectic at temperature higher than 650°C is one of the most crucial issues for feasibility of lead–bismuth-cooled fast reactors with cycle efficiency as high as 40%. In order to search for corrosion-resistant materials with lead–bismuth eutectic at temperature higher than 650°C, surface-coated steels, some refractory metals and various ceramics were tested by means of

Abu Khalid Rivai; Minoru Takahashi

2008-01-01

402

Hardness and mechanical property relationships in directionally solidified aluminium-silicon eutectic alloys with different silicon morphologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardness and tensile property measurements made on directionally solidified Al-Si eutectic alloys show that definite but different hardness-growth velocity and hardness-silicon interparticle spacing relationships exist for alloys with different silicon eutectic phase morphologies. Tensile property measurements show that hardness and 0.2% proof stress follow silicon interparticle spacing relationships of the same form. It is suggested that hardness can only be

S. Khan; A. Ourdjini; Q. S. Named; M. A. Alam Najafabadi; R. Elliott

1993-01-01

403

The effects of a eutectic modifier on microstructure and surface corrosion behavior of Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoeutectic aluminum–silicon alloys can have significant improvements in mechanical properties by inducing structural modification\\u000a in the normally occurring eutectic. The eutectic modification may affect not only the mechanical properties but also the corrosion\\u000a resistance of such alloys. It is well known that structural parameters such as grain size and interdendritic spacing can significantly\\u000a affect corrosion resistance of alloys. However, to

Wislei R. Osório; Noé Cheung; José E. Spinelli; Pedro R. Goulart; Amauri Garcia

2007-01-01

404

Creep properties of eutectic Sn3.5Ag solder joints reinforced with mechanically incorporated Ni particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creep deformation behavior of eutectic Sn-3.5Ag based Ni particle rein forced composite solder joints was investigated.\\u000a The Ni particle reinforced composite solder was prepared by mechanically dispersing 15 vol.% of Ni particles into eutectic\\u000a Sn-3.5Ag solder paste. Static-loading creep tests were carried out on solder joint specimens at 25 C, 65 C, and 105 C, representing\\u000a homologous temperatures ranging

F. Guo; J. Lee; J. P. Lucas; K. N. Subramanian; T. R. Bieler

2001-01-01

405

Enhancement of coupled growth of off-eutectic alloys by ``stop-and-go'' technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beneficial effect of solutal (gravity induced) or other convective segregation on promoting plane front growth in directionally solidified off-eutectic alloys has been investigated. Specifically, it has been found that halting directional solidification for periods of the order an hour frequently results in plane front growth after resumption of solidification in alloys which originally grow dendritically. This is attributed to liquid homogenization during the stop period. This homogenization produces a liquid with composition within the coupled growth region. The process has been analyzed and conditions under which this process is feasible are related to the alloy composition and phase diagram characteristics as well as the growth parameters, thermal gradient, and solidification rate. The process is illustrated by and the analysis compared with selected experiments in the Co-CoAl eutectic.

Frydman, S. S.; Courtney, T. H.

1982-06-01

406

Directional solidification of (Ti, Zr) carbide-(Ti, Zr) diboride eutectics  

SciTech Connect

The ZrC-ZrB2, ZrC-TiB2, and TiC-TiB2 metal diboride-metal carbide pseudo-binary eutectic systems have been successfully solidified directionally by means of the floating zone method. The first and third of these eutectics possess a morphology consisting of columnar grains of parallel lamellae with interlamellar spacings that adhere to the lambda-squared (R) C relationship, while the second is noted to solidify in a Chinese calligraphy-like morphology of broken and deformed lamellae. This phenomenon may be related to solid solution effects, but it did not prevent the interlamellar spacings from following the aforementioned law. The calligraphic effect's values are larger than those of the other two systems, and the constant, C, is accordingly about an order of magnitude larger. All three of these cubic-hexagonal systems exhibited identical epitaxial relationships. 24 references.

Sorrell, C.C.; Beratan, H.R.; Bradt, R.C.; Stubican, V.C.

1984-03-01

407

Development of Ti/Ti{sub 3}Sn functionally gradient material produced by eutectic bonding method  

SciTech Connect

Although many materials which have a single function have been developed, future needs are anticipated to include materials which have various functions. A functionally gradient material (FGM) which has characteristics of two different materials is a promising candidate for multi-functional material. The present methods for production of FGM, however, are very complicated and costly. In this study the authors answer the serious problem of high production cost by fabricating the FGM by a eutectic bonding method. This fabrication method includes structural control of FGM by changing the cooling process. They describe Ti/Ti{sub 3}Sn FGM obtained by the eutectic bonding method, and tell how the structure of its composition gradient part is changed by controlling the cooling process.

Kirihara, S.; Takeda, M.; Tsujimoto, T. [Ibaraki Univ., Hitachi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering] [Ibaraki Univ., Hitachi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

1996-07-15

408

Formation of a crystallization courtyard in eutectic systems and crystal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so-called crystallization courtyard is investigated that forms in processes of mass crystallization around the Ge and Si crystals and their solid solutions (Ge+Si) during cooling of hypereutectic alloys in the Ge-Al, Si-Al, and (Ge+Si)-Al eutectic systems. For the first time, data on the composition and microhardness of this crystallization courtyard are given and its role is shown as a stopper of cracking in an Al-(Ge,Si) system during rapid cooling after the heating system is turned off. For the first time, it is suggested that a crystallization courtyard forms in all hypereutectic systems (including every system in which the amount of the taken solvent does not correspond to the eutectic point).

Gurin, V. N.; Osipov, V. N.; Derkachenko, L. I.; Korchunov, B. N.; Popova, T. B.

2014-03-01

409

High temperature oxidation resistant coatings for the directionally solidified Ni-Nb-Cr-Al eutectic superalloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Protective coatings required for the Ni-Nb-Cr-Al directionally solidified eutectic superalloy were developed and evaluated on the basis of oxidation resistance, diffusional stability, thermal fatigue, and creep resistance. NiCrAlY+Pt and NiCrAlY physical vapor-deposition coating systems exhibited the best combination of properties. Burner-rig testing indicated that the useful life of a 127-micron-thick NiCrAlY+Pt coating exceeds 1000 h at 1366 K. Eutectic-alloy creep lives at 1311 K and a stress of 151.7 MN/sq m were greater for NiCrAlY+Pt-coated specimens than for uncoated specimens by a factor of two.

Strangman, T. E.; Ulion, N. E.; Felten, E. J.

1977-01-01

410

Microstructural Effects on High Cycle Fatigue of Ni-AI-Mo Aligned Eutectics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two nickel-base aligned eutectics, AG15 (Ni-8.1 wt pct Al-26.4 wt pct Mo) and AG34 (Ni-6.3 wt pct Al-31.2 wt pct Mo), have been tested in high cycle fatigue at room temperature. Experimental variables were test environment and post-solidification heat treatment. The fatigue lives of both alloys and the crack propagation resistance of AG15 improved substantially in tests performed in vacuum vs those performed in air. AG34 had a higher fatigue limit than AGI5; both alloys showed surface initiation and stage I crack propagation. Post-solidification heat treatment had a beneficial effect on the S-N lives of AG34 specimens. Fatigue resistance of both alloys is compared with that of other nickel or cobalt base eutectics strengthened with brittle fibers.

Tartaglia, J. M.; Stoloff, N. S.

1981-06-01

411

Fatigue of Ni-Ai-Mo aligned eutectics at elevated temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elevated-temperature mechanical behavior of two aligned eutectics (Ni-8.1 wt pct Al-26.4 wt pct Mo and Ni-6.3 wt pct Al-31.2 wt pct Mo) has been investigated utilizing monotonic and cyclic testing in vacuum. Tensile yield strength and fatigue resistance increased from 25 to 725 °C, but then were reduced at 825 °C. The fatigue lives of specimens tested at 725 °C decreased sharply with decreasing frequency. A shift from surface to internal crack initiation was observed upon increasing the test temperature from 725 to 825 °C. Stage II crack propagation was observed at both temperatures, in contrast to stage I cracking at 25 °C. The test results are compared to those for other nickel and cobalt-base aligned eutectics to show that the frequency effect on fatigue life is not limited to the Ni-AI-Mo system.

Tartaglia, J. M.; Stoloff, N. S.

1981-11-01

412

Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

2000-02-02

413

Salt Lake City, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

2002-01-01

414

Salt and hypertension  

PubMed Central

1 Studies comparing different communities have suggested that the amount of salt in the diet may play an important role in determining blood pressure levels within a particular community. Intervention studies have also suggested that salt intake may play an important role in determining blood pressure levels in man. 2 In animals, where more clearcut experiments can be done, an increase in salt intake both in inherited forms of hypertension and experimental hypertension causes a further rise in blood pressure. Recent work has suggested that this rise in blood pressure could be related to an inherited or imposed defect in the kidney's ability to excrete sodium, which will give rise to greater compensatory mechanisms to overcome the sodium retention. These compensatory mechanisms might eventually be responsible for the development of high blood pressure. 3 In patients who have already developed high blood pressure, restricting the amount of salt in the diet does cause a fall in blood pressure in many patients. However, short-term reduction of salt intake in normotensive subjects causes little, if any, fall in blood pressure. The effectiveness of short term salt restriction in lowering blood pressure in adults therefore appears to be related to the severity of the high blood pressure and, probably more directly, to the suppression of the renin system that occurs as blood pressure rises.

MacGregor, G. A.

1986-01-01

415

The peculiarities of crystallization of low-temperature eutectic in magnesium-lead system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density of low-temperature eutectic in magnesium-lead system (83.06 at. % Pb) has been measured by gamma-raying of the samples\\u000a with narrow beam from cesium-137 isotope over the temperature range 293–1000 K of solid and liquid states. Approximation density\\u000a dependences have been obtained and data of this work and other authors have been compared. Reference tables of temperature\\u000a dependences of the

S. V. Stankus; R. A. Khairulin

2010-01-01

416

Current-Induced Phase Partitioning in Eutectic Indium-Tin Pb-Free Solder Interconnect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural changes from high-density electric currents were examined in a eutectic In-Sn\\/Cu interconnect. Under electrical\\u000a loading, Sn and In migrated in opposite directions, creating a partition of the Sn- and In-rich phases between the anode and\\u000a the cathode. At the anode, a net gain of Sn atoms resulted in the formation of massive, columnar hillocks on the surface,\\u000a but a

John P. Daghfal; J. K. Shang

2007-01-01

417

Selective Au-Si eutectic bonding for Si-based MEMS applications  

SciTech Connect

A novel method of fabricating three-dimensional silicon micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) is presented, using selectivity thin film deposited Au-Si eutectic bond pads. Utilizing this process, complicated structures such as microgrippers and microchannels are fabricated. Bond strengths are higher than the silicon fracture strength and the bond areas can be localized and aligned to the processed wafer. The process and the applications are described in this paper.

Lee, A.; Lehew, S.; Yu, C. [and others

1995-05-22

418

Determination of the elastic moduli of a directionally solidified nickel-based TaC eutectic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of ultrasonic wave velocities in a polycrystalline directionally solidified nickel based eutectic alloy are used\\u000a to evaluate the three independent single crystal elastic moduli at temperatures between 298 to 925 K. The Cu and C44 moduli are obtained directly from high frequency wave propagation along the D.S. axis, corresponding to . Evaluation\\u000a of C12 requires measurements at lower frequencies

E. S. Fisher

1980-01-01

419

Partially-constrained thermomechanical fatigue of eutectic tin-bismuth\\/copper solder joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small bimetallic load-frames with reference assembly stiffness, k', and fully-constrained shear strain, gammafc, were used to simulate the thermo-mechanical conditions experienced by eutectic Bi-42wt.%Sn-to-Cu solder joints. Shear stress and strain were induced in the solder joint by a 45-minute, 0 to 100°C temperature cycle and were calculated from the assembly temperature, joint configuration, and measured elastic strain in the load-frame.

C. H. Raeder; R. W. Messler Jr.; L. F. Coffin Jr.

1999-01-01

420

Tensile tests on MANET II steel in circulating Pb–Bi eutectic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Off-beam tensile tests have been performed on MANET II steel in the eutectic Pb–55.5Bi (LBE) and Ar during commissioning of the LiSoR loop, an experimental liquid metal loop, which was developed to investigate the influence of Pb–Bi on possible structural materials under static load and irradiation. Test temperatures were 180–300 °C. MANET II (11% CrMoVNb steel) exhibits good swelling and

H. Glasbrenner; F. Gröschel; T. Kirchner

2003-01-01

421

The mechanical properties of the superplastic AI 33 Pct Cu eutectic alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of the superplastic Al-33 Pct Cu eutectic alloy at temperatures from 673 to 723 K. Specimens were tested in a well-annealed condition and there was no evidence for grain growth even at the lowest experimental strain rate of 6.7 × 1(10-7 s-1. It is shown that the stress-strain curves rapidly attain a

Atul H. Chokshi; Terence G. Langdon

1988-01-01

422

The mechanical properties of the superplastic AI 33 Pct Cu eutectic alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of the superplastic Al-33 Pct Cu eutectic alloy at temperatures\\u000a from 673 to 723 K. Specimens were tested in a well-annealed condition and there was no evidence for grain growth even at the\\u000a lowest experimental strain rate of 6.7 × 1(10-7 s-1. It is shown that the stress-strain curves rapidly attain a

Atul H. Chokshi; Terence G. Langdon

1988-01-01

423

Thermodynamic Analysis and Experimental Study of Composite Structure Formation in Eutectic Alloys ? Al + Mg2Si  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Al ? Mg ? Si phase diagram was studied and the formation conditions for a regular two-phase eutectic structure (a-Al + Mg2Si) were established. Concentration limits were found for optimum alloy compositions with maximum melting point (~595°C) and a narrow (or zero) melting (crystallization) range (less than 5°C). The structures of these alloys are formed by Mg2Si monocrystal fibers

Tatyana N. Legkaya; N. P. Korzhova; O. V. Sulzhenko

2000-01-01

424

Measurement of solid liquid interfacial energy in the In Bi eutectic alloy at low melting temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gibbs-Thomson coefficient and solid-liquid interfacial energy of the solid In solution in equilibrium with In Bi eutectic liquid have been determined to be (1.46 ± 0.07) × 10-7 K m and (40.4 ± 4.0) × 10-3 J m-2 by observing the equilibrated grain boundary groove shapes. The grain boundary energy of the solid In solution phase has been calculated

N. Marasli; S. Akbulut; Y. Ocak; K. Keslioglu; U. Böyük; H. Kaya; E. Çadirli

2007-01-01

425

Structure of the ternary gallium-indium-tin eutectic system in the liquid state  

Microsoft Academic Search

An x-ray study has been made of the short-range structure of the ternary gallium-indium-tin eutectic system in the liquid state at T = 288, 308, and 368 °K. Intensity curves were compared with the diffraction reflections of the components. The radial distribution of atoms was calculated. This distribution is interpreted for model ``quasieutectic'' and statistical distributions of the scattering atoms.

Ya. I. Dutchak; N. M. Klym; V. S. Frenchko

1969-01-01

426

Structure of the ternary gallium-indium-tin eutectic system in the liquid state  

Microsoft Academic Search

An x-ray study has been made of the short-range structure of the ternary gallium-indium-tin eutectic system in the liquid state at T = 288, 308, and 368 °K. Intensity curves were compared with the diffraction reflections of the components. The radial distribution of atoms was calculated. This distribution is interpreted for model “quasieutectic” and statistical distributions of the scattering atoms.

Ya. I. Dutchak; N. M. Klym; V. S. Frenchko

1969-01-01

427

Corrosion behaviors of US steels in flowing lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion tests of several US martensitic and austenitic steels were performed in a forced circulation lead–bismuth eutectic non-isothermal loop at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Russia. Tube and rod specimens of austenitic steels 316\\/316L, D-9, and martensitic steels HT-9, T-410 were inserted in the loop. Experiments were carried out simultaneously at 460°C and 550°C for 1000, 2000

Jinsuo Zhang; Ning Li; Yitung Chen; A. E. Rusanov

2005-01-01

428

The effect of humidity on friction and wear of an aluminium–silicon eutectic alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sliding wear of an aluminium–silicon eutectic alloy against cast iron counterface in 3–100% relative humidity range has\\u000a been investigated. The results show that the moisture content has a significant effect on the friction and wear of the Al–Si\\u000a alloy. The wear rate decreases by two orders of magnitude as the relative humidity increases from 3% to 100%. At low

BING K. YEN

1997-01-01

429

Effect of surface etching on the lubricated sliding wear of an eutectic aluminium–silicon alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a study of the formation of wear grooves on near-eutectic aluminium–silicon alloy flats, by sliding a steel ball. The formation of the grooves are tracked on etched and unetched flats as functions of normal load and sliding distance. The groove is initially formed by plastic flow, and then expanded by micro-abrasion as the ball continues to slide

S. Das; T. Perry; S. K. Biswas

2006-01-01

430

Effect of element additions on wear property of eutectic aluminium-silicon alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cerium, zinc and zirconium additions and subsequent heat treatment on wear of the eutectic aluminium-silicon alloys have been investigated in dry sliding against a steel counterface by using a pin-on-disc machine. Wear surfaces and debris were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Wear characteristics of both binary Al-Si alloys and a commercial LM 13 alloy, were also studied

Mohd Harun; I. A. Talib; A. R. Daud

1996-01-01

431

Nucleation mechanism of the eutectic phases in aluminum-silicon hypoeutectic alloys  

SciTech Connect

A theory is presented to explain the mechanism of formation of the eutectic phases in Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys. Results include optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, as well as selected area electron diffraction analysis and elemental X-ray mapping performed on Al-Si hypoeutectic alloy samples. The alloy samples had precisely controlled chemistry and were solidified at various cooling rates. The data presented support the proposed theory with microstructural and crystallographic evidence.

Shankar, Sumanth; Riddle, Yancy W.; Makhlouf, Makhlouf M

2004-09-06

432

Effect of antimony on the growth kinetics of aluminium-silicon eutectic alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

On treating aluminium-silicon alloy with 0.2 wt% Sb, it was revealed that antimony refines the eutectic structure by reducing the interflake spacing rather than acting as a modifier. The growth mechanism is similar to the unmodified Al=Si flake structure, giving the relationships of the type ?T=K1V0.51 and ?=K2V-0.4, where K1 and K2 are constants at high solidification rate, the transition

S. Khan; R. Elliott

1994-01-01

433

Microstructure and properties of a bismuth-indium-tin eutectic alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ternary eutectic alloy with a composition of 57.2%Bi, 24.8%In and 18%Sn was continuously cast into wire of 2 mm diameter with casting speeds of 14 and 79 mm min-1 using the Ohno continuous casting process. The microstructures and mechanical properties of the wires were compared with those of statically cast specimens. Extensive segregation of massive bismuth crystals, bismuth complex

S. Sengupta; H. Soda; A. McLean

2002-01-01

434

Nucleation mechanism of the eutectic phases in aluminum–silicon hypoeutectic alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory is presented to explain the mechanism of formation of the eutectic phases in Al–Si hypoeutectic alloys. Results include optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, as well as selected area electron diffraction analysis and elemental X-ray mapping performed on Al–Si hypoeutectic alloy samples. The alloy samples had precisely controlled chemistry and were solidified at various cooling rates. The data

Sumanth Shankar; Yancy W. Riddle; Makhlouf M Makhlouf

2004-01-01

435

Synergism in the extraction of ascorbic and nicotinic acids by binary solvent mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution coefficients of ascorbic and nicotinic acids in systems aqueous salt solution-binary mixture of hydrophilic solvents were determined. Butanol, ethyl acetate, and butyl acetate were used as hydrophilic solvents and sodium chloride and sulfate as salting out agents. The synergistic effect was interpreted and the synergistic coefficients, complex formation constants, and solvation numbers calculated.

Mokshina, N. Ya.; Erina, O. V.; Pakhomova, O. A.; Savushkin, R. V.

2007-12-01

436

Solid–liquid and liquid–liquid equilibria for 1,3,5-trioxane, or 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane + selected n-alkane mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid–liquid and liquid–liquid equilibrium temperatures for mixtures of 1,3,5-trioxane, or 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane with n-heptane, or with n-tridecane, or with n-hexadecane are reported. The equilibrium temperatures were measured by a dynamic method. Mixtures with n-tridecane, or n-hexadecane show a eutectic point. 1,4,7,10,13,16-Hexaoxacyclooctadecane present a transition point in solid phase, which depends on the solvent. Dipole–dipole interactions are stronger in solutions with 1,3,5-trioxane.Mixtures

U. Domanska; J. A. González

2003-01-01

437

On the Freezing and Melting Behavior of the Eutectic Pt-C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of referring to freezing as an alternative to melting for defining the eutectic transition temperature has been studied using two Pt-C cells constructed at NIM, one of a sleeve type, and the other of a hybrid type, including support. Freezing and melting experiments have been done by varying the offset of the furnace temperature T furn with respect to the nominal eutectic temperature T E used to freeze the fixed point with offsets ( T furn- T E)freeze from -5 K to -40 K, followed by melting at a fixed offset ( T furn- T E)melt = + 20 K. Plotting the liquidus temperatures T liq,freeze and T liq,melt obtained for freezing and melting against {(T_E-T_furn)^{1/2}_freeze} resulted in linear relations for both cells, allowing extrapolation toward T liq,freeze(0) and T liq, melt(0). For the cells Pt-C5# and Pt-C6# under study: T liq,melt(0)- T liq,freeze(0) = 10 mK and 20 mK, respectively, with a standard uncertainty of 30 mK for both T liq,melt(0) and T liq,freeze(0). The coherence of the results obtained for melting and freezing indicates that freezing can be used, as an alternative to melting, to define the liquidus temperature T liq(0) of the eutectic Pt-C.

Dong, W.; Bloembergen, P.; Wang, T.; Duan, Y. Y.

2011-12-01

438

Martensitic transformation and ordering in heat-resistant Ni-Co-Cr-AI ?/? eutectics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of thin-foil transmission electron microscopy was used to examine phase transformations in the ?-phase, representing the main heat-resistant component, of ?/? eutectics of the Ni-Co-Cr-Al system (mass % : 0 15 Co, 14 20 Cr, 8.5 10.5 Al). The martensitic transformation ?(B2)to L10 took place in all the alloys, except those with 20 mass % Cr, when they were quenched in water from 1200°C. It was found for the first time that high-rank superstructures A2B (Ni2Al) and A5B3 (Ni5Al3) could be formed in a complex-alloyed ? solid solution. Phase transformations L1{0}toA_5B_3, L1_0to 14M, L1_0to B2to A_2B, and L1_0to B2to A_5B_3 were observed in the ?-component of the eutectics when isothennal annealing temperature was increased from 250 to 600°C. At a temperature of 400°C and higher those transformations were accompanied by the decomposition of the ? solid solution and the appearance of dispersed ?-Cr particles. Structural features of the aforementioned phase transformations in heat-resistant quaternary eutectics were considered.

Kositsyn, S. V.; Katayeva, N. V.; Kositsyna, I. I.; Valiullin, A. I.; Litvinov, V. S.

2003-10-01

439

In-situ observation of eutectic growth in Al-based alloys by light microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental method for the in-situ observation of solidification in eutectic metallic alloys growing at moderate temperatures, i.e. 500-600 °C was developed. It is based on unidirectional solidification of thin samples (200 to 700 ?m thick) contained in rectangular quartz glass tubes allowing for in-situ observation of growth on the sample surface by means of light microscopy using a long-distance microscope. The method is illustrated for two-phase eutectic growth in Al-17.5Cu-1.0Ag, Al-11.8Si and Al-11.8Si-0.025Sr as well as for three phase growth in Al-13.3Cu-5.7Si, all at%. Coupled growth of lamellar Al-Al2Cu eutectic in Al-17.5Cu-1.0Ag was investigated in more detail with regard to spacing selection: experiments were performed in a temperature gradient of 38±1 K cm-1 using different, but constant withdrawal velocities ranging from 0.025 to 1.8 ?m s-1. Measured spacing was compared with literature data and discussed with reference to the Jackson-Hunt theory and the recent amendment proposed by Akamatsu, Faivre, Karma and Plapp. In-situ observations were complemented by post-mortem metallographic analysis using SEM and EBSD in transverse sections.

Witusiewicz, V. T.; Hecht, U.; Rex, S.

2013-06-01

440

Lowering Salt in Your Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... or less for sodium, per serving. Q. Are salt substitutes safe? A. Many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride and can be used by ... heart disease. Check with your doctor before using salt substitutes. Q. What is FDA's role in regulating salt? ...

441

Structure of stratum corneum lipids characterized by FT-Raman spectroscopy and DSC. II. Mixtures of ceramides and saturated fatty acids.  

PubMed

Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to study the thermotropic phase behaviour of mixtures of ceramides type IV (CER) and stearic acid (SA). For comparison the melting behaviour of SA was re-examined. The Raman spectra of all mixtures in the solid state show sharp bands associated with trans sequencies of the alkyl chain residues of both lipids. These features demonstrate that the hydrocarbon chains are highly ordered in the mixtures, too. The temperature dependence of the conformationally sensitive bands is used to estimate the degree of order in terms of the relative population of trans and gauche conformations. The DSC heating curves for the mixtures show two endothermic transitions which are typical for eutectic melting. The factor group splitting of the CH2 scissoring mode, arising from the orthorhombic subcell packing of SA, disappears in the course of the eutectic melting of samples with a SA content lower than 90 mol%. Both DSC and Raman spectroscopic studies reveal that CER and SA are immiscible in the solid state. The phase diagram of the system is a simple eutectic type one. The addition of SA to CER shifts the melting temperature of ceramides to lower values. However, though SA is a major component of stratum corneum (SC) it is not efficient enough to increase the fluidity of ceramides. PMID:9353900

Neubert, R; Rettig, W; Wartewig, S; Wegener, M; Wienhold, A

1997-09-24

442

Apparatus and method for making metal chloride salt product  

DOEpatents

A method of producing metal chlorides is disclosed in which chlorine gas is introduced into liquid Cd. CdCl.sub.2 salt is floating on the liquid Cd and as more liquid CdCl.sub.2 is formed it separates from the liquid Cd metal and dissolves in the salt. The salt with the CdCl.sub.2 dissolved therein contacts a metal which reacts with CdCl.sub.2 to form a metal chloride, forming a mixture of metal chloride and CdCl.sub.2. After separation of bulk Cd from the salt, by gravitational means, the metal chloride is obtained by distillation which removes CdCl.sub.2 and any Cd dissolved in the metal chloride.

Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL; Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Homer Glen, IL) [Homer Glen, IL; Richmann, Michael K. (Carlsbad, NM) [Carlsbad, NM

2007-05-15

443

Brazing characteristics of a Zr-Ti-Cu-Fe eutectic alloy filler metal for Zircaloy-4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Zr-Ti-Cu-Fe quaternary eutectic alloy was employed as a new Be-free brazing filler metal for Zircaloy-4 to supersede physically vapor-deposited Be coatings used conventionally with several disadvantages. The quaternary eutectic composition of Zr58Ti16Cu10Fe16 (at.%) showing a low melting temperature range from 832 °C to 853 °C was designed by a partial substitution of Zr with Ti based on a Zr-Cu-Fe ternary eutectic system. By applying an alloy ribbon with the determined composition, a highly reliable joint was obtained with a homogeneous formation of predominantly grown ?-Zr phases owing to a complete isothermal solidification, exhibiting strength higher than that of Zircaloy-4. The homogenization of the joint was rate-controlled by the diffusion of the filler elements (Ti, Cu, and Fe) into the Zircaloy-4 base metal, and the detrimental segregation of the Zr2Fe phase in the central zone was completely eliminated by an isothermal holding at a brazing temperature of 920 °C for 10 min. The quaternary eutectic composition of Zr58Ti16Cu10Fe16 (at.%) with a low melting temperature range from 832 °C to 853 °C was determined by substituting a part of Zr with Ti based on a Zr-Cu-Fe ternary eutectic system. For the sample brazed at 880 °C, the joint formed a dendritic growth structure with a continuous segregation in the central zone, whereas the isothermally solidified joint at 920 °C consisted of only a homogeneous dendritic structure without segregation. The primary phase solidified isothermally was a hexagonal ?-Zr rather than a ?-Zr owing to a relatively low brazing temperature, and it nucleated to grow into a joint with a dendritic structure. In an interdendritic region, a fine lamellar structure with alternate ?-Zr and Zr3Fe phases was produced by a eutectoid decomposition of a (Cu-Fe)-rich ?-Zr phase, i.e., ?-Zr ? ?-Zr + Zr3F, at the cooling stage. A Zr2Fe phase was formed continuously in the segregated center zone owing to a sluggish diffusion of the filler elements (Ti, Cu, and Ni), and accordingly a disappearance of the central Zr2Fe phase was rate-controlled by the outward diffusion of the filler elements into the base metal. When the detrimental Zr2Fe phase was eliminated by a complete isothermal solidification at 920 °C, the strength of the joint was high enough to cause yielding and fracture in the base Zircaloy-4 (see Fig. 9).

Lee, Jung G.; Lim, C. H.; Kim, K. H.; Park, S. S.; Lee, M. K.; Rhee, C. K.

2013-10-01

444

Salt Made the World Go Round: MRBLOCH Salt Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Don't you just love it when everything can be summed up with one simple explanantion? Created by David Bloch, this Website proves that life as we know depends upon salt. Sections of the site look at salt in relation to a wide range of areas of study, such as Physiology, Geology, Archaeology, Paleoclimatology, Religion, and Economics. For example, the Economics section provides information on the use of salt as money, the history of the control of salt by monopolies, and the influence of the salt trade on transportation. The Religion section points out the importance of salt in religious practices, such as Jewish koshering and Egyptian embalming. Also included are links to over fifty additional salt sites, an email list, and an announcement for Salt 2000, the 8th World Salt Symposium, to be held in the Hague in May 2000.

Bloch, David.

445

The Influence of Cr on the Solidification Behavior of Polycrystalline ?(Ni)/ ?'(Ni3Al)- ?(Ni3Nb) Eutectic Ni-Base Superalloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current investigation, the effect of Cr on the solidification characteristics and as-cast microstructure of pseudobinary ?- ? eutectic alloys based on a near-eutectic composition (Ni-5.5Al-13.5Nb at. pct) was investigated. It was found that Cr additions promote the formation of a higher volume fraction of ?- ? eutectic microstructure in the interdendritic region. Increasing levels of Cr also triggered morphological changes in the ?- ? eutectic and the formation of ?- ?'- ? ternary eutectic during the last stage of solidification. A detailed characterization of the as-cast alloys also revealed that Cr additions suppressed the liquidus, solidus, and ?' precipitation temperature of these ?/ ?'- ? eutectic alloys. A comparison of the experimental results with thermodynamic calculations using the CompuTherm Pandat database (CompuTherm LLC, Madison, WI) showed qualitative agreement.

Xie, Mengtao; Helmink, Randolph; Tin, Sammy

2012-04-01

446

Phase behaviour of deionized binary mixtures of charged colloidal spheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review recent work on the phase behaviour of binary charged sphere mixtures as a function of particle concentration and composition. Both size ratios ? and charge ratios ? are varied over a wide range. Unlike the case for hard spheres, the long-ranged Coulomb interaction stabilizes the crystal phase at low particle concentrations and shifts the occurrence of amorphous solids to particle concentrations considerably larger than the freezing concentration. Depending on ? and ?, we observe upper azeotrope, spindle, lower azeotrope and eutectic types of phase diagrams, all known well from metal systems. Most solids are of body centred cubic structure. Occasionally stoichiometric compounds are formed at large particle concentrations. For very low ?, entropic effects dominate and induce a fluid-fluid phase separation. Since for charged spheres the charge ratio ? is also decisive for the type of phase diagram, future experiments with charge variable silica spheres are suggested.

Lorenz, Nina J.; Schöpe, Hans Joachim; Reiber, Holger; Palberg, Thomas; Wette, Patrick; Klassen, Ina; Holland-Moritz, Dirk; Herlach, Dieter; Okubo, Tsuneo

2009-11-01