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1

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods

1999-01-01

2

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; eva...

Atul Sheth Pradeep Agrawal Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-01-01

3

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3% KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

2000-04-01

4

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures,'' covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3%KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

1998-10-01

5

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary eutectic salt mixture consisting of Li- Na- and K- carbonates has the potential as gasification catalyst. To verify the literature reported, melting points for various compositions consisting of these three salts and the temperature range over which the mixture remained molten were determined in the lab. For mixtures with different concentrations of the three salts, the temperatures at which the mixtures were found to be in complete molten state were recorded. By increasing the amount of Li2CO3, the melting temperature range was reduced significantly. In the literature, the eutectic mixtures of Li- Na- and K-carbonates are claimed to have a lower activation energy than that of K2CO3 alone and they remain molten at a lower temperature than pure K2CO3. The slow increase in the gasification rates with eutectics reported in the literature is believed to be due to a gradual penetration of the coals and coal char particles by the molten and viscous catalyst phase. The even spreading of the salt phase seems to increase the overall carbon conversion rate. In the next reporting period, a number of eutectic salts and methods of their application on the coal will be identified and tested.

Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-12-04

6

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an

Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-01-01

7

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This is the progress report for the DOE grant DE-FG26-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'' for the period April 1999 to October 1999. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University, the University of Tennessee Space Institute and Georgia Institute of Technology. The overall objectives of the project are to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature and system pressure) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. During this reporting period, free swelling index measurements of the coal, fixed-bed gasification experiments, kinetic modeling of the catalyzed gasification, and X-ray diffraction analysis of catalyst and gasified char samples were undertaken. The gasification experiments were carried out using two different eutectic salt mixtures of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (LNK) system and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (NK) system. The gasification process followed a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type model. At 10 wt% of catalyst loading, the activation energy of the ternary catalyst system (LNK) was about half (98kJ/mol) the activation energy of the single catalyst system (K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), which is about 170 kJ/ mole. The binary catalyst system (NK) showed activation energy of about 201 kJ/mol, which is slightly higher, compared to the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} catalyst system. The ternary catalyst system was a much better eutectic catalyst system compared to the binary or single catalyst system. In general, a eutectic with a melting point less than the gasification temperature is a better substitute to the single alkali metal salts because they have good catalyst distribution and dispersion in the carbon matrix. The free selling index of the coal was about 1.5 (1 to 2) in comparison to 2.5 (2 to 3) for the coal samples with ternary eutectic. The results for the raw coal were consistent with those from the Penn State Coal Bank. The XRD characterization showed unidentified peaks in the spectra of some of the samples and require further studies to draw any conclusions at the point.

NONE

1999-10-01

8

Separation of Pure LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt from a Mixture of LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt and Rare-Earth Precipitates by Vacuum Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the vacuum distillation of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in a mixture of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and rare-earth precipitates was carried out to evaluate the vaporization characteristics of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. It was confirmed that the required time for salt vaporization was reduced by a reduction in the pressure. It appeared that the vaporization of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt containing

Hee-Chul EUN; Hee-Chul YANG; Yong-Jun CHO; Hwan-Seo PARK; Eung-Ho KIM; In-Tae KIM

2007-01-01

9

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (e.g., temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. The eutectic catalysts increased gasification rate significantly. The methods of catalyst preparation and addition had significant effect on the catalytic activity and coal gasification. The incipient wetness method gave more uniform catalyst distribution than that of physical mixing for the soluble catalysts resulting in higher gasification rates for the incipient wetness samples. The catalytic activity increased by varying degrees with catalyst loading. The above results are especially important since the eutectic catalysts (with low melting points) yield significant gasification rates even at low temperatures. Among the ternary eutectic catalysts studied, the system 39% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-22.5% Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the best activity and will be used for further bench scale fixed-bed gasification reactor in the next period. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies in the previous reporting period, the project team selected the 43.5% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed-bed studies at UTSI during this reporting period. Temperature was found to have a significant effect on the rate of gasification of coal. The rate of gasification increased up to 1400 F. Pressure did not have much effect on the gasification rates. The catalyst loading increased the gasification rate and approached complete conversion when 10 wt% of catalyst was added to the coal. Upon further increasing the catalyst amount to 20-wt% and above, there was no significant rise in gasification rate. The rate of gasification was lower for a 2:1 steam to char molar ratio (60%) compared to gasification rates at 3.4:1 molar ratio of steam-to-char where the conversion approached 100%. The characterization results of Georgia Tech are very preliminary and inconclusive and will be made available in the next report.

Unknown

1999-04-01

10

Study on room heating utilizing eutectic salt mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through studies of phase change between solid and liquid, an inorganic eutectic mixture, Mg(NO3)2-6H2O\\/MgCl2-6H2O has been developed as a heat storage material. Using this mixture, a room heating system involving a heat storage tank and a simple solar collector has been studied; the feasibility of such a system has been evaluated; and problems which will be encountered in the course

N. Yoneda; S. Takanashi

1978-01-01

11

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

Most of the tasks on the project have successfully been completed and reported. A 12 month no-cost extension has been requested to complete the remaining tasks. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the first six months of the no-cost extensions period. The acetic acid extraction showed that acetic acid has more effect on the extraction of the ternary catalyst (LNK) ions than water. Based on the extraction results, the order of the recovery capability of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} using acetic acid, sulfuric acid and water extractions is sulfuric acid {ge} acetic acid > water; the order for K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is sulfuric acid > water >acetic acid; and the order for Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is acetic acid > sulfuric acid >water. A process flowsheet for the catalyst recovery process was proposed based on the results. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed most of the particles (coal) appear amorphous. Some coal particles are as large as 50-60 {micro}m, but most are smaller. One can also easily see a few crystalline particles (10-20 {micro}m) with sharp facets and corners. The electron micrographs of gasified char samples (reactor-aged) of the LNKcoal mixture showed that a dramatic change is obvious in the morphology and crystallinity of the sample and is consistent with the results obtained from the x-ray diffraction studies. XRD studies of reactor-aged samples showed a substantial increase in the sample crystallinity (due to the gasification of amorphous carbon). The eutectic salt presumably mostly converted to sulfates.

Atul Sheth; Chandramouli Sastry

2001-03-31

12

Molten salt eutectics from atomistic simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their importance for solar thermal power applications, phase-diagrams of molten salt mixture heat transfer fluids (HTFs) are not readily accessible from first principles. We present a molecular dynamics scheme general enough to identify eutectics of any HTF candidate mixture. The eutectic mixture and temperature are located using the liquid mixture free energy and the pure component solid-liquid free energy

Saivenkataraman Jayaraman; Aidan P. Thompson; O. Anatole von Lilienfeld

2011-01-01

13

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salt mixtures. Report for the Period April 1-September 30, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, 'Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures' covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appr...

1998-01-01

14

Vacuum distillation of a mixture of LiCl–KCl eutectic salts and RE oxidative precipitates and a dechlorination and oxidation of RE oxychlorides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a vacuum distillation of a mixture of LiCl–KCl eutectic salt and rare-earth oxidative precipitates was performed to separate a pure LiCl–KCl eutectic salt from the mixture. Also, a dechlorination and oxidation of the rare-earth oxychlorides was carried out to stabilize a final waste form. The mixture was distilled under a range of 710–759.5Torr of a reduced pressure

Hee Chul Eun; Hee Chul Yang; Yung Zun Cho; Han Soo Lee; In Tae Kim

2008-01-01

15

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salts: identification of eutectics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No. 6 coal were identified and various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion were evaluated in this study. In addition, the effects of major process variables such as temperature, pressure, and steam\\/carbon ratio were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and fixed-bed bench scale reactor systems. The

Yaw D Yeboah; Yong Xu; Atul Sheth; Anuradha Godavarty; Pradeep K Agrawal

2003-01-01

16

Thermodynamic Assessment of Hot Corrosion Mechanisms of Superalloys Hastelloy N and Haynes 242 in Eutectic Mixture of Molten Salts KF and ZrF4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This computational work models the behavior of Haynes 242 and Hastelloy N in the binary molten salt eutectic mixture KF-ZrF4. Limiting the principal alloying elements to fournickel, chromium, molybdenum, and ironallows reasonable conclusions to be made ab...

M. V. Glazoff

2012-01-01

17

Vacuum distillation of a mixture of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts and RE oxidative precipitates and a dechlorination and oxidation of RE oxychlorides.  

PubMed

In this study, a vacuum distillation of a mixture of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and rare-earth oxidative precipitates was performed to separate a pure LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from the mixture. Also, a dechlorination and oxidation of the rare-earth oxychlorides was carried out to stabilize a final waste form. The mixture was distilled under a range of 710-759.5Torr of a reduced pressure at a fixed heating rate of 4 degrees C/min and the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was completely separated from the mixture. The required time for the salt distillation and the starting temperature for the salt vaporization were lowered with a reduction in the pressure. Dechlorination and oxidation of the rare-earth oxychlorides was completed at a temperature below 1300 degrees C and this was dependent on the partial pressure of O2. The rare-earth oxychlorides (NdOCl/PrOCl) were transformed to oxides (Nd2O3/PrO2) during the dechlorination and oxidation process. These results will be utilized to design a concept for a process for recycling the waste salt from an electrorefining process. PMID:18440139

Eun, Hee Chul; Yang, Hee Chul; Cho, Yung Zun; Lee, Han Soo; Kim, In Tae

2008-03-22

18

Synthesis and electrochemical properties of lithium cobalt oxides prepared by molten-salt synthesis using the eutectic mixture of LiCl–Li 2CO 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium cobalt oxide powders have been successfully prepared by a molten-salt synthesis (MSS) method using a eutectic mixture of LiCl and Li2CO3 salts. The physico-chemical properties of the lithium cobalt oxide powders are investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle-size analysis and charge–discharge cycling. A lower temperature and a shorter time (?700°C and 1h) in the

Chi-Hwan Han; Young-Sik Hong; Chang Moon Park; Keon Kim

2001-01-01

19

Molten salt eutectics from atomistic simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite their importance for solar thermal power applications, phase-diagrams of molten salt mixture heat transfer fluids (HTFs) are not readily accessible from first principles. We present a molecular dynamics scheme general enough to identify eutectics of any HTF candidate mixture. The eutectic mixture and temperature are located using the liquid mixture free energy and the pure component solid-liquid free energy differences. The liquid mixture free energy is obtained using thermodynamic integration over particle identity transmutations sampled with molecular dynamics at a single temperature. Drawbacks of conventional phase diagram mapping methodologies are avoided by not considering solid mixtures, thereby evading expensive computations of solid phase free energies. Numerical results for binary and ternary mixtures of alkali nitrates agree well with experimental measurements.

Jayaraman, Saivenkataraman; Thompson, Aidan P.; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole

2011-09-01

20

Calibration of gas pressure using the mercury melting curve in conjunction with eutectic ice-salt mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutectic freezing mixtures of ice-KNO3, ice-KCl, ice-NH4Cl and ice-NaCl provide a convenient method of obtaining uniform temperatures close to -2.8, -10.6, -15.3 and -21.1 degrees C, respectively. Calibration to better than +or-0.1% is achievable for gas pressures between 344 and 701 MPa when these mixtures are used in conjunction with a mercury pressure cell and a resistance thermometer accurate to

J. Lusk

1990-01-01

21

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salts: reaction kinetics with binary and ternary eutectic catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic studies of the catalytic steam gasification of Illinois No. 6 coal were carried out using binary and ternary eutectic salt mixtures in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of major process variables such as temperature, pressure, catalyst loading and steam flow rate were evaluated for the binary 29% Na2CO3–71% K2CO3 and ternary 43.5% Li2CO3–31.5% Na2CO3–25% K2CO3 eutectic catalyst systems. A

Atul Sheth; Yaw D. Yeboah; Anuradha Godavarty; Yong Xu; Pradeep K. Agrawal

2003-01-01

22

Optical properties of a solar-absorbing molten salt heat transfer fluid. [Eutectic mixture of KNO3, NaNO2, and NaNO3 with particle suspensions of cobalt oxides or copper oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical absorption properties of a high temperature molten salt heat transfer fluid were measured from 0.35 ..mu..m to 2.5 ..mu..m using both hemispherical transmission and reflection techniques. This fluid has application as a direct-absorbing working fluid in a high temperature central receiver solar energy facility. The absorption spectrum of the pure molten fluid--a eutectic mixture of KNOâ, NaNOâ, and

Drotning

1977-01-01

23

The enthalpy of occlusion of the (lithium chloride + potassium chloride) eutectic salt in zeolite 4A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molar enthalpy of occlusion of the (lithium chloride + potassium chloride) eutectic salt in zeolite 4A at the salt melting temperature ?occHm(Tfus) was measured using differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that up to a mole fraction of the salt x= 0.931 in the (salt + zeolite) mixture, which is near the expected zeolite occlusion limit, ?occHm(Tfus) was negative

Dusan Lexa

1999-01-01

24

Properties of rapidly dissolving eutectic mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) and fenofibrate: the eutectic microstructure.  

PubMed

Poly(ethylene glycol) or PEG is an ideal inactive component for preparing simple binary eutectic mixtures because of its low entropy of fusion ( approximately 0.0076 J/mol-K), lower melting point (approximately 62 degrees C) compared to most pharmaceuticals, miscibility with drugs at elevated temperatures, and its covalent crystalline lattice. Implication of these physicochemical properties on eutectic crystallization and size reduction of the drug is discussed. Enhancement of the dissolution rate of a poorly soluble compound through the formation of PEG-drug eutectics was investigated using fenofibrate. Solid dispersions of PEG-fenofibrate when characterized, revealed that PEG and fenofibrate form a simple eutectic mixture containing 20-25%(w/w) fenofibrate at the eutectic point. Eutectic crystallization led to the formation of an irregular microstructure in which fenofibrate crystals were found to be less than 10 microm in size. Dissolution rate improvement of fenofibrate correlated with the phase diagram, and the amount of fenofibrate released from the dispersions that contained fenofibrate as a eutectic mixture was at least 10-fold higher compared to untreated fenofibrate. On aging, the dissolution rate of the dispersion containing 15%(w/w) fenofibrate in PEG remained unaltered. The results indicate that PEG-drug eutectic formation is a valuable option for particle size reduction and subsequent dissolution rate improvement. PMID:12587112

Law, Devalina; Wang, Weili; Schmitt, Eric A; Qiu, Yihong; Krill, Steven L; Fort, James J

2003-03-01

25

Eutectics and Phase Diagrams of Molten Salts from Molecular Dynamics simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of alkali nitrate salt mixtures as heat transfer fluids in solar thermal power plants is limited by their relatively high melting point. Certain compositions of quaternary and higher dimensional mixtures of alkali and alkaline earth nitrates and nitrites have low melting points. However, the high dimensionality of the search space makes it difficult to find lowest melting compositions. Molecular simulations offer an efficient way to screen for promising mixtures. A molecular dynamics scheme general enough to identify eutectics of any HTF candidate mixture will be presented. The eutectic mixture and temperature are located as the tangent point between free energies of mixing for the liquid and a linear plane connecting the pure solid-liquid free energy differences. The free energy of mixing of the liquid phase is obtained using thermodynamic integration over "alchemical" transmutations sampled with molecular dynamics, in which particle identities are swapped gradually. Numerical results for binary and ternary mixtures of alkali nitrates agree well with experimental measurements.

Jayaraman, Saivenkataraman; von Lilienfeld, Anatole; Thompson, Aidan

2011-03-01

26

The enthalpy of occlusion of the LiC1KC1 eutectic salt in zeolite 4A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molar enthalpy of occlusion of the (lithium chloride + potassium chloride) eutectic salt in zeolite 4A at the salt melting temperature Î{sub 9cc}H{sub m}(T{sub fus}) was measured using differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that up to a mole fraction of the salt x = 0.931 in the (salt + zeolite) mixture, which is near the expected zeolite occlusion

D. Lexa

1999-01-01

27

Thermodynamic Assessment of Hot Corrosion Mechanisms of Superalloys Hastelloy N and Haynes 242 in Eutectic Mixture of Molten Salts KF and ZrF4  

SciTech Connect

The KF - ZrF4 system was considered for the application as a heat exchange agent in molten salt nuclear reactors (MSRs) beginning with the work carried out at ORNL in early fifties. Based on a combination of excellent properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity in the molten state, and other thermo-physical and rheological properties, it was selected as one of possible candidates for the nuclear reactor secondary heat exchanger loop.

Michael V. Glazoff

2012-02-01

28

Low Temperature Synthesis of Lithium Manganese Oxide Using LiCl-Li2CO3 and Manganese Acetate Eutectic Mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine crystalline LiMn2O4 powders have been prepared by Molten-Salt Synthesis (MSS) at 500°C, using an eutectic mixture of lithium chloride, lithium carbonate and manganese acetate salts. Thermo Gravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA\\/DTA) measurements are performed to investigate the thermal decomposition behavior of the precursor salts. The single-phase cubic structure of LiMn2O4 is confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The

M. Helan; L. John Berchmans

2011-01-01

29

Anthracene + Pyrene Solid Mixtures: Eutectic and Azeotropic Character  

PubMed Central

To better characterize the thermodynamic behavior of a binary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture, thermochemical and vapor pressure experiments were used to examine the phase behavior of the anthracene (1) + pyrene (2) system. A solid-liquid phase diagram was mapped for the mixture. A eutectic point occurs at 404 K at x1 = 0.22. A model based on eutectic formation can be used to predict the enthalpy of fusion associated with the mixture. For mixtures that contain x1 < 0.90, the enthalpy of fusion is near that of pure pyrene. This and X-ray diffraction results indicate that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene have pyrene-like crystal structures and energetics until the composition nears that of pure anthracene. Solid-vapor equilibrium studies show that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene form solid azeotropes at x1 of 0.03 and 0.14. Additionally, mixtures at x1 = 0.99 sublime at the vapor pressure of pure anthracene, suggesting that anthracene behavior is not significantly influenced by x2 = 0.01 in the crystal structure.

Rice, James W.; Fu, Jinxia; Suuberg, Eric M.

2010-01-01

30

Anthracene + Pyrene Solid Mixtures: Eutectic and Azeotropic Character.  

PubMed

To better characterize the thermodynamic behavior of a binary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture, thermochemical and vapor pressure experiments were used to examine the phase behavior of the anthracene (1) + pyrene (2) system. A solid-liquid phase diagram was mapped for the mixture. A eutectic point occurs at 404 K at x(1) = 0.22. A model based on eutectic formation can be used to predict the enthalpy of fusion associated with the mixture. For mixtures that contain x(1) < 0.90, the enthalpy of fusion is near that of pure pyrene. This and X-ray diffraction results indicate that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene have pyrene-like crystal structures and energetics until the composition nears that of pure anthracene. Solid-vapor equilibrium studies show that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene form solid azeotropes at x(1) of 0.03 and 0.14. Additionally, mixtures at x(1) = 0.99 sublime at the vapor pressure of pure anthracene, suggesting that anthracene behavior is not significantly influenced by x(2) = 0.01 in the crystal structure. PMID:21116474

Rice, James W; Fu, Jinxia; Suuberg, Eric M

2010-09-01

31

Assessment of plant toxicity threshold of several heat transfer and storage fluids and eutectic salts  

SciTech Connect

Plant toxicity threshold levels of several heat transfer and storage fluids and eutectic salts were determined by using a modified Neubauer technique. Barley seed germination and seedling growth were used for the toxicity tests. The general order of toxicity of the fluids applied to three mineral soils was ethylene gloycol > Dow 200 much greater than Caloria HT43 > Therminol 66. The toxicity order of the fluids applied to an organic soil was ethylene glycol > Caloria HT43 > Dow 200 > Therminol 66. Thus, Therminol 66 was the least toxic among the fluids used. Among the eutectic salts tested Dupont HITEC was more toxic than 8.4 percent NaCl-86.3 percent NaNO/sub 3/-5.3 percent Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ mixture in three of the four soils used. In the fourth soil there was no apparent difference of toxicity between the two salt mixtures. Depending on the fluid and the salt mixture, the toxicity threshold levels for barley seedlings ranged from 4451 to 317,488 ppM in the soils used.

Nishita, H.

1980-10-01

32

The enthalpy of occlusion of the LiC1-KC1 eutectic salt in zeolite 4A.  

SciTech Connect

The molar enthalpy of occlusion of the (lithium chloride + potassium chloride) eutectic salt in zeolite 4A at the salt melting temperature {Delta}{sub 9cc}H{sub m}(T{sub fus}) was measured using differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that up to a mole fraction of the salt x = 0.931 in the (salt + zeolite) mixture, which is near the expected zeolite occlusion limit, {Delta}{sub occ}H{sub m}(T{sub fus}) was negative and directly proportional to x . Thus, within this composition range, the partial molar enthalpy of occlusion of the (lithium chloride + potassium chloride) eutectic salt in zeolite 4A at the salt melting temperature is constant and equal to - (24 {+-}1)kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}.

Lexa, D.; Chemical Engineering

1999-06-01

33

Purification of used eutectic (LiCl-KCl) salt electrolyte from pyroprocessing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separation characteristics of surrogate rare-earth fission products in a eutectic (LiCl-KCl) molten salt were investigated. This system is based on the eutectic salt used for the pyroprocessing treatment of used nuclear fuel (UNF). The investigation was performed using an integrated rare-earth separation apparatus comprising a precipitation reactor, a solid detachment device, and a layer separation device. To separate rare-earth fission products, a phosphate precipitation method using both Li3PO4 and K3PO4 as a precipitant was performed. The use of an equivalent phosphate precipitant composed of 0.408 molar ratio-K3PO4 and 0.592 molar ratio-Li3PO4 can preserve the original eutectic ratio, LiCl-0.592 molar ratio (or 45.2 wt%), as well as provide a high separation efficiency of over 99.5% under conditions of 550 °C and Ar sparging when using La, Nd, Ce, and Pr chlorides. The mixture of La, Nd, Ce, and Pr phosphate had a typical monoclinic (or monazite) structure, which has been proposed as a reliable host matrix for the permanent disposal of a high-level waste form. To maximize the reusability of purified eutectic waste salt after rare-earth separation, the successive rare-earth separation process, which uses both phosphate precipitation and an oxygen sparging method, were introduced and tested with eight rare-earth (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) chlorides. In the successive rare-earth separation process, the phosphate reaction was terminated within 1 h at 550 °C, and a 4-8 h oxygen sparging time were required to obtain over a 99% separation efficiency at 700-750 °C. The mixture of rare-earth precipitates separated by the successive rare-earth separation process was found to be phosphate, oxychloride, and oxide. Through the successive rare-earth separation process, the eutectic ratio of purified salt maintained its original value, and impurity content including the residual precipitant of purified salt can be minimized.

Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

2013-06-01

34

Compatibility of Inconel 617 alloy with eutectic fluoride salts at high temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal Energy Storage (TES) capsules made of Inconel 617 alloy were filled with high purity eutectic fluoride salts and thermally cycled at eutectic temperature +\\/-100 K for a period of up to 50,000 hours. The containment life performance characteristics with fluoride salts were examined. The depletion of Al and Cr near the inner edges was found. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy revealed

Anhua Luo; Dean L. Jacobson; Rengasamy Ponnappan

1993-01-01

35

Low-Temperature Synthesis of Lithium Manganese Oxide Using LiCl-Li2CO3 and Manganese Acetate Eutectic Mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine crystalline LiMn2O4 powders have been prepared by molten salt synthesis (MSS) at 500°C, using an eutectic mixture of lithium chloride, lithium carbonate, and manganese acetate salts. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA\\/DTA) measurements are performed to investigate the thermal decomposition behavior of the precursor salts. The single-phase cubic structure of LiMn2O4 is confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The

M. Helan; L. John Berchmans

2011-01-01

36

Assessment of Plant Toxicity Threshold of Several Heat Transfer and Storage Fluids and Eutectic Salts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plant toxicity threshold levels of several heat transfer and storage fluids and eutectic salts were determined by using a modified Neubauer technique. Barley seed germination and seedling growth were used for the toxicity tests. The general order of toxic...

H. Nishita

1980-01-01

37

The Thermodynamic Analysis of Chemistry Stability of Eutectic Salt Phase Change Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the chemistry stability of eutectic salt phase change materials according to chemical thermodynamic principle, and introduces the methods and steps of thermodynamic calculation and analysis during the process of confecting eutectic salt materials. The paper takes thermodynamic calculation according to the two phase-change materials, Na2CO3-SiO2 and Na2SO4-SiO2. By comparing the relational graph of Gibbs free energy and

Jun Chen; Jin Wang; Jin Song Liu; Jian Hua Liu

2009-01-01

38

Aerosol thermodynamics of potassium salts, double salts, and water content near the eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water uptake by hygroscopic constituents of atmospheric particles has implications for climate and health. This article focuses on three topics related to calculating particle water uptake. First, an electrodynamic balance (EDB) is used to measure water activity for supersaturated binary KNO 3 and KCl solutions. The EDB measurements for KNO 3 confirm earlier predictions, while those for KCl confirm earlier measurements. Second, our earlier theory for the variation in mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) with temperature ( T) is extended to double salt systems. The MDRH( T) equation for double salt systems reduces to the earlier equation under some conditions, and predictions for two systems are in reasonable agreement with solubility-based calculations. Finally, an approximate treatment of water uptake in the MDRH region (i.e., near the eutectic) is evaluated, and a new approach is developed that accounts for particle composition. The new approach represents predictions of a benchmark model well and eliminates most of the error associated with the earlier method. Although simple treatments of water uptake near the eutectic may introduce error into equilibrium calculations, their use can sometimes be justified based on inherent limitations of aerosol representations in chemistry-transport models. Results of this study can be used to improve calculations of water content in atmospheric aerosol models.

Kelly, James T.; Wexler, Anthony S.; Chan, Chak K.; Chan, Man N.

39

Enhanced intestinal absorption of daidzein by borneol/menthol eutectic mixture and microemulsion.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effect of a borneol/menthol eutectic mixture (25:75) and microemulsion on the absorption of daidzein in rat intestinal membrane was evaluated. The microemulsion formulation was composed of ethyl oleate (oil), Cremophor RH40 (surfactant), PEG400 (co-surfactant), and water. The borneol/menthol eutectic mixture and its microemulsion were found to enhance the intestinal absorption of daidzein in vitro. A diffusion chamber system with isolated rat intestinal membranes was used. In contrast, verapamil (0.3 mM), a typical P-glycoprotein inhibitor, showed no effect on the absorption of daidzein by this system. A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in rats. After oral administration of daidzein at a dose of 10 mg/kg in the form of either borneol/menthol eutectic mixtures or suspension, the relative bioavailability of borneol/menthol eutectic mixtures and microemulsion was enhanced by about 1.5- and 3.65-fold, respectively, compared with a daidzein suspension. In conclusion, a borneol/menthol eutectic mixture can enhance the absorption of daidzein, although the mechanism of absorption enhancement is still unclear. PMID:21842308

Shen, Qi; Li, Xi; Li, Wenji; Zhao, Xinyi

2011-08-13

40

Eutectic Salt Catalyzed Environmentally Benign and Highly Efficient Biginelli Reaction  

PubMed Central

A simple deep eutectic solvent based on tin (II) chloride was used as a dual catalyst and environmentally benign reaction medium for an efficient synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one derivatives, from aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and urea in good-to-excellent yields and short reaction time. This simple ammonium deep eutectic solvent, easily synthesized from choline chloride and tin chloride, is relatively inexpensive and recyclable, making it applicable for industrial applications.

Azizi, Najmadin; Dezfuli, Sahar; Hahsemi, Mohmmad Mahmoodi

2012-01-01

41

Eutectic salt catalyzed environmentally benign and highly efficient Biginelli reaction.  

PubMed

A simple deep eutectic solvent based on tin (II) chloride was used as a dual catalyst and environmentally benign reaction medium for an efficient synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one derivatives, from aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and urea in good-to-excellent yields and short reaction time. This simple ammonium deep eutectic solvent, easily synthesized from choline chloride and tin chloride, is relatively inexpensive and recyclable, making it applicable for industrial applications. PMID:22649326

Azizi, Najmadin; Dezfuli, Sahar; Hahsemi, Mohmmad Mahmoodi

2012-04-29

42

Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salts: Recovery, Regeneration, and Recycle of Spent Eutectic Catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalyst recovery studies were conducted for gasified chars produced from steam gasification of Illinois #6 coal catalyzed with two different catalyst systems. A ternary (43.5 mol% Li2 CO3 –31.5 mol% Na2 CO3 –25 mol% K2 CO3 ) and a binary (29 mol% Na2 CO3 –71 mol% K2 CO3 ) eutectic catalyst system were used for gasifying coal. Various extraction schemes,

Atul C. Sheth; Chandramouli Sastry; Yaw D. Yeboah; Yong Xu; Pradeep Agarwal

2003-01-01

43

Materials corrosion in molten lithium fluoride-sodium fluoride-potassium fluoride eutectic salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Static corrosion studies were undertaken to determine the compatibility of several candidate high temperature materials for a heat transfer loop in a molten alkali fluoride eutectic salt, LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol % (commonly referred to as FLiNaK), as well as a molten chloride near eutectic salt, KCl-MgCl2: 68-32 mol %. Several high temperature alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, Nb-1Zr,

Luke Christopher Olson

2009-01-01

44

EUTECTIC DATA: safety, hazards, corrosion, melting points, compositions, and bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present compilation provides an authoritative compendium of properties relative to safety, hazards, corrosion, melting points, and compositions of molten salt eutectic mixtures. The scope of the single salts data in this compilation encompasses the end-components of the eutectic mixtures reported. Each section contains a systems index and bibliography. The bibliographies in Pt. 1 and Pt. 2 total approximately 4000

G. J. Janz; C. B. Allen; J. R. Jr. Downey; R. P. T. Tomkins

1976-01-01

45

EUTECTIC DATA: safety, hazards, corrosion, melting points, compositions, and bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compilation provides an authoritative compendium of properties relative to safety, hazards, corrosion, melting points, and compositions of molten salt eutectic mixtures. The scope of the single salts data in this compilation encompasses the end-components of the eutectic mixtures reported herewith. Each section contains a systems index and bibliography. The bibliographies in Pt. 1 and Pt. 2 total approximately 4000

G. J. Janz; C. B. Allen; J. R. Jr. Downey; R. P. T. Tomkins

1976-01-01

46

Design and implementation of an eutectic salt cooling energy storage system for load management  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air conditioner system with 1800 RT-HR eutectic salt energy storage tank was built for the demonstration of the cooling energy storage (CES) system. Six operation modes are designed to meet different cooling load requirements. By computer simulation, it was found that 38.7% of the electric peak demand has been reduced and 37% of the energy consumption has been shifted

C. S. Chen; J. N. Sheen

1991-01-01

47

Assessment of plant toxicity threshold of several heat transfer and storage fluids and eutectic salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant toxicity threshold levels of several heat transfer and storage fluids and eutectic salts were determined by using a modified Neubauer technique. Barley seed germination and seedling growth were used for the toxicity tests. The general order of toxicity of the fluids applied to three mineral soils was ethylene gloycol > Dow 200 much greater than Caloria HT43 > Therminol

Nishita

1980-01-01

48

Synthesis of Ni 3Al intermetallic powder in eutectic molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The powders of Ni3Al intermetallic compounds were simply and economically synthesized by the chemical reaction in the various molten salts systems. In the relatively low temperature ranges, we studied to synthesize Ni3Al intermetallic powders from Al and NiCl2 in five kinds of eutectic molten salts by varying the reaction time and mole ratio of reactants. Ni3Al intermetallic powders could be

Hyun-Suk Choo; Kwan-Young Lee; Yun-Sung Kim; Jung-Ho Wee

2005-01-01

49

Stabilization of rare earth nuclides in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillation and condensation characteristics of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts containing rare earth precipitates were investigated\\u000a and a conversion of the rare earth oxychlorides to oxides was performed. The distillation flux was increased by about 1,000\\u000a times by reducing the pressure from 760 Torr to 0.5 Torr. The composition of the recovered salts was changed according to\\u000a the condensed spot. The conversion

H. C. Eun; H. C. Yang; Y. Z. Cho; H. S. Park; H. S. Lee; I. T. Kim

2009-01-01

50

Lidocaine Iontophoresis Versus Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics (EMLA??) for IV Placement in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain during venipuncture is a major source of concern to children and their caretakers. Iontophoresis is a novel technique that uses an electrical current to facili- tate movement of solute ions (lidocaine) across the stra- tum corneum barrier to provide dermal analgesia. In this study, we compared dermal analgesia provided by lidocaine iontophoresis and eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA®).

Jeffrey L. Galinkin; John B. Rose; Kathleen Harris; Mehernoor F. Watcha

2002-01-01

51

Eutectic mixtures of capric acid and lauric acid applied in building wallboards for heat energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capric acid (CA) and lauric acid (LA), as phase change materials (PCM), can be applied for energy storage in low temperature. The phase transition temperature and values of latent heat of eutectic mixtures of CA and LA are suitable for being incorporated with building materials to form phase change wallboards used for building energy storage. 120, 240 and 360 accelerated

Lv Shilei; Zhu Neng; Feng Guohui

2006-01-01

52

Distillation and condensation of LiCl–KCl eutectic salts for a separation of pure salts from salt wastes from an electrorefining process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt separation and recovery from the salt wastes generated from a pyrochemical process is necessary to minimize the high-level waste volumes and to stabilize a final waste form. In this study, the thermal behavior of the LiCl–KCl eutectic salts containing rare earth oxychlorides or oxides was investigated during a vacuum distillation and condensation process. LiCl was more easily vaporized than

Hee Chul Eun; Hee Chul Yang; Han Soo Lee; In Tae Kim

2009-01-01

53

Heat storage containers filled with the combination of a eutectic salt and a non-biodegradable filler material  

SciTech Connect

A heat storage article adapted for prevention of stratification of heat storage materials, such as eutectic salts contained within the container element. The article is comprised of a heavy thermally conductive container with an internal cavity. The internal cavity of the container is substantially completely filled with a combination of a non-biodegradable filler material such as glass fiber insulation and a eutectic salt.

Schoenfelder, J.L.

1980-09-23

54

Electrodeposition Characteristics of Uranium in Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic and its Salt Distillation Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrorefining experiments with a crucial anode containing U, elemental rare earths; Gd, Nd and Ce or Nd2O3 were carried out in KCL-LiCL eutectic melt at 500°C. Partitioning behavior of the components according to the applied voltage or current was investigated at various initial U concentrations in a molten salt. Elemental REs concentrations in the cathode deposits increased as the applied

Jong-Hyeon LEE; Young-Ho KANG; Sung-Chan HWANG; Joon-Bo SHIM; Byung-Gil AHN; Eung-Ho KIM; Seong-Won PARK

2006-01-01

55

Study on the distillation rates of LiCl–KCl eutectic salt under different vacuum conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the distillation rate of LiCl–KCl eutectic salt under different vacuums from 0.5 to 50Torr was performed by using thermogravimetric (TG) method. A distillation rate of the order of 10?4–10?5molcm?2s?1 was obtainable at temperatures of 1200–1300K and vacuums of 5–50Torr. Based on the non-isothermal TG data, model distillation flux equations could be derived as a function of temperature.

H.-C. Yang; H.-C. Eun; I.-T. Kim

2009-01-01

56

Catalytic oxidation of methane over KCl-LnCl 3 eutectic molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the partial oxidation of methane (POM) over KCl-LnCl3 (Ln=La, Ce, Sm, Dy, Yb) eutectic molten salts was undertaken. The reaction main products were hydrocarbons (primarily C2, selectivity >70%). The formation of hydrogen was never detected. The catalytic performance is clearly dependent on the rare earth ions properties and the factors that seem to contribute to the variation

Joaquim B. Branco; Gonçalo Lopes; Ana C. Ferreira

2011-01-01

57

Anodic polarization of stainless steel alloys in molten NaNO3-KNO3 eutectic mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the galvanostatic anodic oxidation of two types of stainless steel alloys, ferritic (15.03% Cr) and austenitic (20.45% Cr, 8.37% Ni), in molten NaNO3-KNO3 eutectic mixture at different temperatures ranging from 673-873K. At a temperature of 673K the shape of polarization curves for the alloys is complex, while at higher temperatures it is simple. The passivity potential range

H. A. Abdel-Hakim Ali; A. A. Attia; A. N. Al-Masri; A. M. Baraka

2001-01-01

58

Lauric and palmitic acids eutectic mixture as latent heat storage material for low temperature heating applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palmitic acid (PA, 59.8°C) and lauric acid (LA, 42.6°C) are phase change materials (PCM) having quite high melting temperatures which can limit their use in low temperature solar applications such as solar space heating and greenhouse heating. However, their melting temperatures can be tailored to appropriate value by preparing a eutectic mixture of the lauric and the palmitic acids. In

Kadir Tunçbilek; Ahmet Sari; Sefa Tarhan; Gazanfer Ergüne?; Kamil Kaygusuz

2005-01-01

59

Recycling of LiCl-KCl eutectic based salt wastes containing radioactive rare earth oxychlorides or oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recycling of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt wastes containing radioactive rare earth oxychlorides or oxides was studied to recover renewable salts from the salt wastes and to minimize the radioactive wastes by using a vacuum distillation method. Vaporization of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was effective above 900 °C and at 5 Torr. The condensations of the vaporized salt were largely dependent on temperature gradient. Based on these results, a recycling system of the salt wastes as a closed loop type was developed to obtain a high efficiency of the salt recovery condition. In this system, it was confirmed that renewable salt was recovered at more than 99 wt.% from the salt wastes, and the changes in temperature and pressure in the system could be utilized to understand the present condition of the system operation.

Eun, H. C.; Cho, Y. Z.; Son, S. M.; Lee, T. K.; Yang, H. C.; Kim, I. T.; Lee, H. S.

2012-01-01

60

A novel group of quaternary ammonium salts as ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing number of non-toxic and biodegradable deep eutectic solvents (DES) have been discovered in recent years. This group encompasses the solidified crystalline material 3-(2-aminopyrimidin-1-yl)propanoate (3-2AP), a primary ammonium cation that is a construct of a typical DES. Synthesis of 3-(2-aminopyrimidin-1-yl)propanoate by quarternerization of the amine in the aromatic ring creates a novel deep eutectic solvent. An additional alteration to the DES construct is observed with the formation of a zwitterion between the positively charged quartenary amine group and the negatively charged carboxylate counter ion. The molecular arrangement, or construct, of a deep eutectic solvent will determine both its structure and application in industry. This report describes the synthesis and characterization of an 80:20 urea/3-2AP eutectic mixture with a melting point of 50°C, nearly 120°C lower than the melting temperature of 3-2AP (172.5°C). A cytotoxicity profile for 3-2AP exposed to A549 bronchoaveolar carcinoma cells revealed an LD50 of 337.65 mug/ml.

Sparrow, Christopher R.

61

Compatibility of Inconel 617 alloy with eutectic fluoride salts at high temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal Energy Storage (TES) capsules made of Inconel 617 alloy were filled with high purity eutectic fluoride salts and thermally cycled at eutectic temperature +/-100 K for a period of up to 50,000 hours. The containment life performance characteristics with fluoride salts were examined. The depletion of Al and Cr near the inner edges was found. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy revealed that both Al and Cr were dissolved in the fluoride salts at high temperatures. The changes in melting temperature and heat of fusion of fluoride salts during thermal cycling were measured with Thermal Differential Analysis. A modified diffusion equation for a one-dimensional semi-infinite bar was applied to the depletion of Al on the interior surfaces of the containers. Good agreement was obtained between the analysis and the measured concentration profiles. The present study suggests that the corrosion was a diffusion controlled process and an expected lifetime of 5-7 years is reasonable and predictable based upon the limited diffusion processes.

Luo, Anhua; Jacobson, Dean L.; Ponnappan, Rengasamy

1993-01-01

62

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the tasks on the project have successfully been completed and reported. A 12 month no-cost extension has been requested to complete the remaining tasks. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the first six months of the no-cost extensions period. The acetic acid extraction showed that acetic acid has more effect on the extraction of the ternary catalyst (LNK)

Atul Sheth; Chandramouli Sastry

2001-01-01

63

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the

Yaw D. Yeboah; Yong Xu; Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal

2001-01-01

64

Mass-Transfer Characteristics of Nitrate-Based Salt Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Molten eutectic NaNO sub 3 -KNO sub 3 is being circulated in three thermal-convection loops constructed of alloy 800 and types 304L and 316 stainless steel. The loops are operated at a maximum salt temperature of 595 exp 0 C and a salt temperature differe...

J. H. DeVan P. F. Tortorelli

1980-01-01

65

Loss of anatomical landmarks with eutectic mixture of local anesthetic cream for neonatal male circumcision.  

PubMed

We report two cases of newborns who developed marked local edema after application of a eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA) topical anesthetic cream for neonatal male circumcision (NMC). Although local edema and erythema are known potential side effects of EMLA cream, a common anesthetic used for NMC, the loss of landmarks precluding safe NMC has not previously been reported, and is described here. Although we cannot recommend an alternate local anesthetic for neonates with this reaction to EMLA, based on a review of the published data we think that serious systemic adverse events related to EMLA are extremely rare. PMID:23102766

Plank, Rebeca M; Kubiak, David W; Abdullahi, Rasak Bamidele; Ndubuka, Nnamdi; Nkgau, Maggie M; Dapaah-Siakwan, Fredrick; Powis, Kathleen M; Lockman, Shahin

2012-10-24

66

Eutectics and Phase Diagrams of Molten Salts from Molecular Dynamics simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of alkali nitrate salt mixtures as heat transfer fluids in solar thermal power plants is limited by their relatively high melting point. Certain compositions of quaternary and higher dimensional mixtures of alkali and alkaline earth nitrates and nitrites have low melting points. However, the high dimensionality of the search space makes it difficult to find lowest melting compositions.

Saivenkataraman Jayaraman; Anatole von Lilienfeld; Aidan Thompson

2011-01-01

67

Heat storage containers filled with the combination of a eutectic salt and a non-biodegradable filler material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat storage article adapted for prevention of stratification of heat storage materials, such as eutectic salts contained within the container element. The article is comprised of a heavy thermally conductive container with an internal cavity. The internal cavity of the container is substantially completely filled with a combination of a non-biodegradable filler material such as glass fiber insulation and

Schoenfelder

1980-01-01

68

On the reactive occlusion of the (uranium trichloride + lithium chloride + potassium chloride) eutectic salt in zeolite 4A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between the (uranium trichloride+lithium chloride+potassium chloride) eutectic salt and zeolite 4A has been studied by temperature-resolved synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, evolved gas analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, between 300 and 900 K. The onset of salt occlusion by the zeolite has been detected at 450 K. Evidence of a reaction between zeolitic water and uranium trichloride, leading to

Dusan Lexa; Leonard Leibowitz; Jeremy Kropf

2000-01-01

69

Mass-transfer characteristics of nitrate-based salt mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molten eutectic NaNO3-KNO3 was being circulated in three thermal convection loops constructed of alloy 800 and types 304L and 316 stainless steel. The loops were operated at a maximum salt temperature of 595 C and a salt temperature differential of 235 C. Corrosion specimens contained within each loop were withdrawn for periodic determinations of weight and microstructural changes. Salt samples were analyzed at selected intervals to monitor changes in the composition of the salt. Controlled potential voltammetry was also used. Results indicate low corrosion rates for the austenitic stainless steels in flowing NaNO3-KNO3.

Devan, J. H.; Tortorelli, P. F.

1981-03-01

70

Frontal polymerizations carried out in Deep-Eutectic mixtures providing both the monomers and the polymerization medium.  

PubMed

Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) based upon mixtures of Acrylic Acid (AA) or Methacrylic Acid (MAA) and Choline Chloride (CCl) demonstrated superior performance than regular organic solvents and even ionic liquids for frontal polymerizations (FPs). Full recovering of CCl after FP provided an interesting green character to the process. PMID:21455538

Mota-Morales, Josué D; Gutiérrez, María C; Sanchez, Isaac C; Luna-Bárcenas, Gabriel; del Monte, Francisco

2011-04-01

71

Interactions between carbamazepine and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000: characterisations of the physical, solid dispersed and eutectic mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of a hydrophilic carrier (PEG 6000) on the polymorphism of carbamazepine, an antiepileptic drug, was investigated in binary physical mixtures and solid dispersions by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetry, hot-stage microscopy (HSM), and X-ray diffractometry, respectively. This study provides also an attempt to develop a method to calculate more precisely the eutectic composition. In rather

Zerrouk Naima; Toscani Siro; Gines-Dorado Juan-Manuel; Chemtob Chantal; Ceólin René; Dugué Jerome

2001-01-01

72

UV–vis absorption spectroscopic study for on-line monitoring of uranium concentration in LiCl–KCl eutectic salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

UV–vis absorption spectroscopy of uranium in LiCl–KCl eutectic salt at 773K was studied for the on-site use in pyrochemical process. Uranium(III) chloride was electrochemically prepared from uranium metal in LiCl–KCl eutectic salt at 773K by using chronopotentiometry. Three absorption peak positions were selected and calibrated for the quantitative analysis of uranium in the molten salt medium. The molar absorptivity and

Y. J. Park; S. E. Bae; Y. H. Cho; J. Y. Kim; K. Song

2011-01-01

73

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salts: reaction kinetics for hydrogasification using binary and ternary eutectic catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic study of the hydrogasification of Illinois #6 coal was carried out using a ternary (43.5mol% Li2CO3-31.5mol% Na2CO3-25mol% K2CO3) and a binary (29mol% Na2CO3-71mol% K2CO3) eutectic system. Hydrogasification experiments were carried out in a high-pressure, high-temperature differential fixed-bed gasifier unit to evaluate the product inhibition effect of H2 on the overall steam gasification kinetics. The overall gasification rate was

Atul C Sheth; Chandramouli Sastry; Yaw D Yeboah; Yong Xu; Pradeep Agarwal

2004-01-01

74

Thermal performance of a eutectic mixture of lauric and stearic acids as PCM encapsulated in the annulus of two concentric pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal performance characteristics of a eutectic mixture of lauric and stearic acids as phase change material (PCM) during the melting and solidification processes were determined experimentally in a vertical two concentric pipe-energy storage system. This study deals with three important subjects: The first one is to determine the eutectic composition ratio of the lauric acid (LA) and stearic acid (SA)

Ahmet Sari; Kamil Kaygusuz

2002-01-01

75

Phase change and heat transfer characteristics of a eutectic mixture of palmitic and stearic acids as PCM in a latent heat storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase change and heat transfer characteristics of a eutectic mixture of palmitic and stearic acids as phase change material (PCM) during the melting and solidification processes were determined experimentally in a vertical two concentric pipes energy storage system. This study deals with three important subjects. First is determination of the eutectic composition ratio of the palmitic acid (PA) and

Gülseren Baran; Ahmet Sari

2003-01-01

76

X-Ray spectroscopy of frozen salt solutions: Are inclusions solid or liquid below the eutectic temperature?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural ice in clouds and on the Earth surface contains many impurities, such as salts or acids. The chemical reactivity of these substances is defined by the thermodynamic state of the impurity. In ice, impurities may be in a solid or liquid. Moreover, impurities may be accumulated in confined reservoirs, such as grain boundaries or triple junctions. In these reservoirs premelting might occur. Hence salts may be in a liquid-like environment, even below the eutectic temperature. Using synchrotron based X-Ray absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy we study the physical state of salt ions in ice, which was frozen from dilute salt solutions. Using XANES and EXAFS we can determine whether the salt ions in the ice are in a solid or a liquid state.

Huthwelker, T.; Krepelova, A.; Zelenay, V.; Bartels-Rausch, T.; Janousch, M.; Ammann, M.

2009-04-01

77

Eutectic mixtures of some fatty acids for low temperature solar heating applications: Thermal properties and thermal reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal properties and thermal reliability of the eutectic mixtures of lauric acid–myristic acid (LA–MA), lauric acid–palmitic acid (LA–PA), myristic acid–stearic acid (MA–SA) as phase change material (PCM) were determined after repeated melt\\/freeze cycles by the method of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The DSC thermal analysis results indicate that the binary systems of LA–MA in ratio of 66.0:34.0wt.%, LA–PA in

Ahmet Sar?

2005-01-01

78

Depth of cutaneous analgesia after application of a eutectic mixture of the local anesthetics lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA cream)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: EMLA cream, a eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine, is a topical anesthetic, frequently used to avoid pain during venipuncture and superficial surgery. However, the depth of analgesia needs further exploration.Objective: Our purpose was to investigate the depth of cutaneous analgesia after application of EMLA cream.Methods: In a single-blind crossover study, EMLA cream was applied under occlusion to the

Carl-Fredrik Wahlgren; Hans Quiding

2000-01-01

79

A low-temperature heat storage system utilizing mixtures of magnesium salt hydrates and ammonium nitrate  

SciTech Connect

The heat storage system based on mixtures of salt hydrates and anhydrous salts desjribed in previous articles has been applied to Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/.6H/sub 2/O and MgCI/sub 2/. 6H/sub 2/O (alone or in eutectic mixtures), added with NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/. Calorimetric measurements showed that in the temperature range 25-60/sup 0/C, Mg(NO/sub 3/). 6H/sub 2/O allows a Thermal Energy Storage (TES) capacity of about 56 kcal/kg (equivalent to 86 kcal/liter), which is slightly lower than the values previously recorded with ammonium alum. When the maximum temperature was lowered to 55/sup 0/ and to 50/sup 0/C, in order to be closer to the peak-efficiency of commercial flat-plate collectors, the best results were obtained, respectively, with Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ .6H/sub 2/O and with the eutectic mixture Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/. 6H/sub 2/O - MgCI/sub 2/. 6H/sub 2/O, both added with NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/. The mixtures of the aforementioned magnesium salts and ammonium nitrate do not show any significant efficiency reduction after many thermal cycles, and at the present stage of the research, they may be considered the most suitable for obtaining heat storages in the temperature range of commercial solar collectors.

Vaccarino, C.; Barbaccia, A.; Frusteri, F.; Galli, G.; Maisano, G.

1985-02-01

80

Tungsten fluorides: syntheses and electrochemical characterization in the FLINAK molten salt eutectic.  

PubMed

The following tungsten fluorides have been synthesized by simple addition reactions or by reduction with tungsten metal at elevated temperature: KWF7, K2WF8, MWF6 (M = K, Na, Rb, Cs), K2WF7, M3WF8 (M = K, Na, Rb), and K3WF6. The compounds were characterized by their Raman spectra and by cyclic voltammetry in the molten FLINAK eutectic melt (46.5, 11.5, and 42.0 mol % of LiF, NaF, and KF, respectively) at 475-800 degrees C. X-ray crystal structures are reported for two new compounds K2WF7 and K3WF6. The crystals of K2WF7 were orthorhombic, space group Pnma (No. 62) with a = 9.800(2) A, b = 5.7360(11) A, c = 11.723(2) A, and Z = 4. Crystals of K3WF6 were cubic, space group Fm3 (No. 225) with a = b = c = 8.9160(10) A, Z = 4. Electrodeposition of tungsten metal on Pt from FLINAK, prepared by the addition of WF6 gas and metallic tungsten to the melt, is suggested to result from reduction of an equilibrium mixture of WF8(3-) and WF6(3-). PMID:11225114

Eklund, S E; Chambers, J Q; Mamantov, G; Diminnie, J; Barnes, C E

2001-02-12

81

Eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA) 5% cream as a primary dressing on a painful lower leg ulcer.  

PubMed

Patients living with chronic leg ulceration may frequently experience moderate to severe wound-related pain, which may not be alleviated by oral analgesics alone. Poorly controlled leg ulcer pain can prevent timely and effective wound management strategies being implemented, and increase wound healing times. Furthermore, patients with poorly controlled leg ulcer pain can experience continuous pain, which significantly affects quality of life. This case report introduces an innovative way of using the eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA) 5% cream to reduce wound-related pain, reduce oral analgesic intake, and improve health-related quality of life for a patient with a painful, chronic lower leg ulcer. PMID:22886329

Purcell, A; Marshall, A; King, J; Buckley, T

2012-07-01

82

Effects of single and repeated applications of a eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA ®) cream on spontaneous and evoked pain in post-herpetic neuralgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analgesic effects of single and repeated applications of a eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA) cream on both spontaneous and evoked pains were evaluated in 11 patients with post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Detection thresholds, pain thresholds and the responses to suprathreshold mechanical and thermal stimuli were quantitatively determined at baseline, 30 min after the first application and after a series

Nadine Attal; Louis Brasseur; Marcel Chauvin; Didier Bouhassira

1999-01-01

83

Investigation of nitrate salts for solar latent heat storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of heat transfer in the discharging of a model solar latent heat storage unit based on various nitrate salts and salt mixtures are investigated. A shell-and-tube-type passive heat exchanger containing NaNO3 or eutectic or off-eutectic mixtures of NaNO3 with KNO3 and Ca(NO3)2 was heated to 40 K above the melting temperature of the salt, when air was made

M. Kamimoto; T. Tanaka; T. Tani; T. Horigome

1980-01-01

84

Eutectic modification in a low-chromium white cast iron by a mixture of titanium, rare earths, and bismuth: I. Effect on microstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work studies the effect of small additions of a mixture of Ti, rare earths (RE), and Bi on the eutectic solidification\\u000a of a low-Cr white cast iron (WCI) commercially designed as Ni-Hard Class I Type B according to the ASTM A532. For this purpose,\\u000a systematic additions of a mixture of ferrotitanium-rare earths-bismuth (Fe-Ti-RE-Bi) up to 2% were made

A. Bedolla-Jacuinde; S. L. Aguilar; B. Hernández

2005-01-01

85

Ethylenediamine Salt of 5-Nitrotetrazole and Preparation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole has been found to be useful as an explosive alone and in eutectic mixtures with ammonium nitrate and/or other explosive compounds. Its eutectic with ammonium nitrate has been demonstrated to behave in a similar...

K. Lee M. D. Coburn

1984-01-01

86

Low temperature molten salt synthesis of SrTiO 3 submicron crystallites and nanocrystals in the eutectic NaCl–KCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eutectic NaCl–KCl molten salts method has been developed for the synthesis of SrTiO3 submicron crystallites and nanocrystals from SrO2 and two kinds (submicron and nano-sized) of TiO2 powders at 700°C, which was much lower than that (generally>1000°C) of the conventional solid state reactions. The characterization results from X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the obtained products were

Hui-Ling Li; Zhen-Ni Du; Gen-Lin Wang; Yong-Cai Zhang

2010-01-01

87

Electrochemical Study on the Electrodeposition of U, Nd, Ce, La and Y on a Liquid Cadmium Cathode in a LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electro-depositions of U, Nd, Ce, La and Y on a liquid cadmium cathode in a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were studied by using an electrolytic cell. For the LiCl-KCl-UCl- NdCl-CeCl-LaCl-YCl\\/Cd system, cyclic voltammograms and polarization curves were measured and the electrochemical properties of the system were discussed. From the results of the electro-depositions of U and rare earth metals on the

Sung Bin Park; Jong Hyeon Lee; Sung Chan Hwang; Young Ho Kang; Joon Bo Shim; Han Soo Lee; Eung Ho Kim; Seong Won Park

2007-01-01

88

Effects of metal salt mixtures on Daphnia magna reproduction  

SciTech Connect

Three binary metal experiments were conducted using a complete block design; testing the chlorides of Cd, Hg, and Zn individually and in combinations of Cd-Hg, Cd-Zn, and Zn-Hg on Daphnia magna reproduction. These mixtures were tested at one-half, once, and twice the 16% reproductive impairment concentration previously determined for individual metals. The Cd-Hg, Cd-Zn, and Zn-Hg mixtures all showed significant reductions in reproduction at concentrations where the metal salts alone caused no significant effect.

Biesinger, K.E.; Christensen, G.M.; Fiandt, J.T.

1986-02-01

89

Ionic liquids and eutectic mixtures as solvent and template in synthesis of zeolite analogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges associated with synthesizing porous materials mean that new classes of zeolites (zeotypes)-such as aluminosilicate zeolites and zeolite analogues-together with new methods of preparing known zeotypes, continue to be of great importance. Normally these materials are prepared hydrothermally with water as the solvent in a sealed autoclave under autogenous pressure. The reaction mixture usually includes an organic template or

Emily R. Cooper; Christopher D. Andrews; Paul S. Wheatley; Paul B. Webb; Philip Wormald; Russell E. Morris

2004-01-01

90

Eutectic modification in a low-chromium white cast iron by a mixture of titanium, rare earths, and bismuth: I. Effect on microstructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work studies the effect of small additions of a mixture of Ti, rare earths (RE), and Bi on the eutectic solidification of a low-Cr white cast iron (WCI) commercially designed as Ni-Hard Class I Type B according to the ASTM A532. For this purpose, systematic additions of a mixture of ferrotitanium-rare earths-bismuth (Fe-Ti-RE-Bi) up to 2% were made to a low-Cr WCI. By means of these additions, a modified carbide structure was obtained. Eutectic carbides changed from a highly interconnected ledeburite structure to more isolated, finer blocky structure. This microstructural change caused variations in the mechanical behavior of the WCI. The decrease in size and reduced connectivity of the eutectic carbides increased fracture toughness as well as wear resistance under dry sliding conditions. The effect of the admixture on the microstructure and mechanical properties is discussed in terms of the segregation and refining effects of the elements that comprise the mixture.

Bedolla-Jacuinde, A.; Aguilar, S. L.; Hernández, B.

2005-04-01

91

Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthesia Cream Can Reduce Both the Radial Pain and Sympathetic Response During Transradial Coronary Angiography  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives adial artery spasm is one of the most common complications of transradial coronary angiography (TRA): the radial artery is prone to cathecholamine-induced contraction and radial pain during TRA could increase the sympathetic tone. The object of this study was to evaluate whether the eutectic mixture of local anesthesia (EMLA) cream, in addition to lidocaine infiltration, could reduce the sympathetic response by reducing radial pain during TRA. Subjects and Methods Seventy-six patients were randomized 1 : 1 to either EMLA or control groups. Radial pain was measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the verbal rating scale (VRS-4). Sympathetic response, including systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse rate (PR), stroke volume (SV) and total peripheral resistance (TPR), was measured by photoplethysmography. Results Radial pain measured during lidocaine infiltration was significantly lower in the EMLA group (VAS: 3.1 vs. 4.0, p=0.04; VRS-4: 2.0 vs. 2.2, p=0.03) and the sympathetic response was significantly blunted in the EMLA group from baseline to lidocaine infiltration (?SBP, mm Hg: 5 vs. 13, p<0.01; ?DBP, mm Hg: 2 vs. 7, p=0.03; ?PR, beat/min: 2 vs. 8, p<0.01, ?SV, mL: 3 vs. 21, p<0.01; ?TPR, mm Hg · L/min: 1.0 vs. 5.9, p<0.01). Conclusion In patients undergoing TRA, the EMLA cream, in addition to lidocaine infiltration, effectively reduces the radial pain and thereby the sympathetic response, during lidocaine infiltration.

Youn, Young Jin; Kim, Woo-Taek; Lee, Jun-Won; Ahn, Sung-Gyun; Ahn, Min-Soo; Kim, Jang-Young; Yoo, Byung-Su; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Choe, Kyung-Hoon

2011-01-01

92

Solubility products of metal sulfides in molten salts: II. Measurements and calculations for lead sulfide in the LiCl-KCl and the LiCl-LiF eutectic compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubilities of lithium sulfide and the solubility products of lead sulfide in the LiCl-KCI and LiCI-LiF eutectic mixtures\\u000a have been measured by an electrochemical titration method in the temperature range from 673 to 823 K. At 823 K, the solubility\\u000a of Li2S in the LiCI-LiF eutectic was much larger than in the LiCI-KCI eutectic (1.95 ? 10?1 compared with

M. L. Saboungi; J. J. Marr; M. Blander

1979-01-01

93

The properties of the surface of molten mixtures of the LiCl-KCl eutectic with praseodymium, samarium, erbium, and ytterbium chlorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependence of surface tension was studied and the excess Gibbs energy of the surface of a sphere with a molar volume of molten quasi-binary mixtures of the LiCl-KCl eutectics with LnCl3 (Ln = Pr, Sm, Er, and Yb) was calculated. The influence of rare-earth and alkali metal cations on the surface properties of the systems studied was considered. Deviations from ideal surface tension isotherms and excess Gibbs energy of the surface of a sphere with a molar volume are explained by the complex structure of melts.

Shishalov, V. I.; Kovalevskii, A. V.

2011-01-01

94

The structure of molten AgCl, AgI and their eutectic mixture as studied by molecular dynamics simulations of polarizable ion model potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of molten AgCl, AgI, and their eutectic mixture Ag(Cl0.43I0.57) is studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations of polarizable ion model potentials. The corresponding static coherent structure factors reproduce quite well the available neutron scattering data. The qualitative behavior of the simulated partial structure factors and radial distribution functions for molten AgCl and AgI is that predicted by the reverse Monte Carlo modeling of the experimental data. The AgI results are also in qualitative agreement with those calculated from ab initio molecular dynamics.

Alcaraz, Olga; Bitrián, Vicente; Trullàs, Joaquim

2011-01-01

95

The structure of molten AgCl, AgI and their eutectic mixture as studied by molecular dynamics simulations of polarizable ion model potentials.  

PubMed

The structure of molten AgCl, AgI, and their eutectic mixture Ag(Cl(0.43)I(0.57)) is studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations of polarizable ion model potentials. The corresponding static coherent structure factors reproduce quite well the available neutron scattering data. The qualitative behavior of the simulated partial structure factors and radial distribution functions for molten AgCl and AgI is that predicted by the reverse Monte Carlo modeling of the experimental data. The AgI results are also in qualitative agreement with those calculated from ab initio molecular dynamics. PMID:21219005

Alcaraz, Olga; Bitrián, Vicente; Trullàs, Joaquim

2011-01-01

96

Synthesis and Characterization of New Materials in Molten Salt Fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of this research was to explore molten salts as growth media for the synthesis of new materials. The molten salt systems investigated in this work were ionic liquids and eutectic mixtures of metal halide salts. The primary characterization methods included: SED-EDS, X-ray diffraction, SQUID magnetometry, Raman and solid state NMR. The main focus was on the magnetic

Parisa Mahjoor

2009-01-01

97

Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation  

SciTech Connect

Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation are disclosed. This salt has been found to be useful as an explosive alone and in eutectic mixtures with ammonium nitrate and/or other explosive compounds. Its eutectic with ammonium nitrate has been demonstrated to behave in a similar manner to a monomolecular explosive such as TNT, and is less sensitive than the pure salt. Moreover, this eutectic mixture, which contains 87.8 mol % of ammonium nitrate, is close to the CO/sub 2/-balanced composition of 90 mol %, and has a relatively low melting point of 110.5 C making it readily castable. The ternary eutectic system containing the ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole, ammonium nitrate and ethylenediamine dinitrate has a eutectic temperature of 89.5 C and gives a measured detonation pressure of 24.8 GPa, which is 97.6% of the calculated value. Both the pure ethylenediamine salt and its known eutectic compounds behave in substantially ideal manner. Methods for the preparation of the salt are described.

Lee, K.Y.; Coburn, M.D.

1985-11-12

98

Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation  

DOEpatents

Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation. This salt has been found to be useful as an explosive alone and in eutectic mixtures with ammonium nitrate and/or other explosive compounds. Its eutectic with ammonium nitrate has been demonstrated to behave in a similar manner to a monomolecular explosive such as TNT, and is less sensitive than the pure salt. Moreover, this eutectic mixture, which contains 87.8 mol % of ammonium nitrate, is close to the CO.sub.2 -balanced composition of 90 mol %, and has a relatively low melting point of 110.5 C. making it readily castable. The ternary eutectic system containing the ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole, ammonium nitrate and ethylenediamine dinitrate has a eutectic temperature of 89.5 C. and gives a measured detonation pressure of 24.8 GPa, which is 97.6% of the calculated value. Both the pure ethylenediamine salt and its known eutectic compounds behave in substantially ideal manner. Methods for the preparation of the salt are described.

Lee, Kien-yin (Los Alamos, NM); Coburn, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

99

Synthesis and properties of high tap-density cathode material for lithium ion battery by the eutectic molten-salt method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spherical Li(Ni1\\/3Co1\\/3Mn1\\/3)O2 with a layered structure has been successfully prepared by the eutectic molten-salt method using 0.24LiCO3–0.76LiOH (with a melting point of 423 °C) and (Ni1\\/3Co1\\/3Mn1\\/3)(OH)2, where the ratio of Li\\/(Ni+Co+Mn) is controlled at 1:1. The tap-density of the powders obtained in this work (2.89) is remarkably higher than that of spherical Li(Ni1\\/3Co1\\/3Mn1\\/3)O2 powders synthesized by other single lithium salts (2.40).

Zhaorong Chang; Zhongjun Chen; Feng Wu; Hongwei Tang; Zhihong Zhu; Xiao Zi Yuan; Haijiang Wang

2008-01-01

100

Activity coefficients of actinide and rare-earth chlorides in molten LiCl\\/KCl eutectic salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a numerical Gibbs free-energy minimization technique, the activity coefficients of actinide and rare-earth chlorides in molten LiCl\\/KCl eutectic at 450 C have been calculated. Laboratory tests of an electrochemical process for separating actinide metals from rare-earth metals in LiCl\\/KCl solvent at 450 C provided experimental concentration and cathode potential data. The generalized expansion by Wohl was used to express

Tom B. Bechtel; Truman S. Storvick

1999-01-01

101

Temperature dependence of the elastic moduli and damping for polycrystalline LiF22% CaF 2 eutectic salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Young's and shear moduli and damping were measured for as-cast polycrystalline LiF-22 (mol%) CaF2 eutectic specimens as a function of temperature using the piezoelectric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique (PUCOT). The shear modulus decreased with increasing temperature from about 40 GPa at 295 K to about 30 GPa at 1000 K, while the Young's modulus decreased from about 115 GPa

A. Wolfenden; G. Lastrapes; M. B. Duggan; S. V. Raj

1991-01-01

102

Microfluid as a mean for piezoresistive strain measurement — a mixture of glycerin with salt water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture of glycerin with salt water is proposed as a mean for piezoresistive strain measurement. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is conducted for the investigation of the electrical conductive behavior of the mixture confined within a definite volume. The role of glycerin is to increase the viscosity of the mixture, to reduce water loss due to evaporation and to lower

Yin-Nee Cheung; Ching-Hsiang Cheng; Chen Chao; King-Lun Kwok; Mo Yang; Samuel Chun-Lap Lo; Wallace Leung

2008-01-01

103

Electrochemical Study on the Electrodeposition of U, Nd, Ce, La and Y on a Liquid Cadmium Cathode in a LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt  

SciTech Connect

Electro-depositions of U, Nd, Ce, La and Y on a liquid cadmium cathode in a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were studied by using an electrolytic cell. For the LiCl-KCl-UCl{sub 3}- NdCl{sub 3}-CeCl{sub 3}-LaCl{sub 3}-YCl{sub 3}/Cd system, cyclic voltammograms and polarization curves were measured and the electrochemical properties of the system were discussed. From the results of the electro-depositions of U and rare earth metals on the LCC, separation factors and recovery ratios of U and REs were obtained and co-electro-depositions of U and REs were investigated. (authors)

Sung Bin Park; Jong Hyeon Lee; Sung Chan Hwang; Young Ho Kang; Joon Bo Shim; Han Soo Lee; Eung Ho Kim; Seong Won Park [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

104

Effects of Selective Adaptation on Coding Sugar and Salt Tastes in Mixtures  

PubMed Central

Little is known about coding of taste mixtures in complex dynamic stimulus environments. A protocol developed for odor stimuli was used to test whether rapid selective adaptation extracted sugar and salt component tastes from mixtures as it did component odors. Seventeen human subjects identified taste components of “salt + sugar” mixtures. In 4 sessions, 16 adapt–test stimulus pairs were presented as atomized, 150-?L “taste puffs” to the tongue tip to simulate odor sniffs. Stimuli were NaCl, sucrose, “NaCl + sucrose,” and water. The sugar was 98% identified but the suppressed salt 65% identified in unadapted mixtures of 2 concentrations of NaCl, 0.1 or 0.05 M, and sucrose at 3 times those concentrations, 0.3 or 0.15 M. Rapid selective adaptation decreased identification of sugar and salt preadapted ambient components to 35%, well below the 74% self-adapted level, despite variation in stimulus concentration and adapting time (<5 or >10 s). The 96% identification of sugar and salt extra mixture components was as certain as identification of single compounds. The results revealed that salt–sugar mixture suppression, dependent on relative mixture-component concentration, was mutual. Furthermore, like odors, stronger and recent tastes are emphasized in dynamic experimental conditions replicating natural situations.

Goyert, Holly F.; Formaker, Bradley K.; Hettinger, Thomas P.

2012-01-01

105

Activity coefficients of actinide and rare-earth chlorides in molten LiCl/KCl eutectic salt  

SciTech Connect

Using a numerical Gibbs free-energy minimization technique, the activity coefficients of actinide and rare-earth chlorides in molten LiCl/KCl eutectic at 450 C have been calculated. Laboratory tests of an electrochemical process for separating actinide metals from rare-earth metals in LiCl/KCl solvent at 450 C provided experimental concentration and cathode potential data. The generalized expansion by Wohl was used to express the concentration dependence of the excess Gibbs free energy. The activity coefficients were expressed in terms of the Wohl volume and interaction energy parameters. The Wohl parameters for the activity coefficient expansions were obtained by minimizing the total Gibbs free energy expressed in terms of the experimental mole fractions. This thermodynamic model will be valuable for process design and scale-up calculations.

Bechtel, T.B.; Storvick, T.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-04-01

106

Chloride salt mixtures affect Gordal cv. green Spanish-style table olive fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work studies the effects of different sodium (in the range of 4–10%), potassium (0–4%) and calcium (0–6%) chloride salt mixtures on the fermentation profile of Gordal olives processed according to the Spanish style. For this purpose, response surface methodology based on a simplex centroid mixture design with constrain (sum of salt percentages = 10%) was used. All treatments reached appropriate titratable

J. Bautista Gallego; F. N. Arroyo López; V. Romero Gil; F. Rodríguez Gómez; P. García García; A. Garrido Fernández

2011-01-01

107

Acidity constants in methanol\\/water mixtures of polycarboxylic acids used in drug salt preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acidic dissociation constants in a number of methanol\\/water mixtures of mono and polycarboxylic acids commonly used in the preparation of drug salts were determined. These solvent mixtures are usually used to determine the pKa of drugs of low aqueous solubility. However, when these drugs are prepared in salt form, the acid–base equilibria of both the basic drug and the

Gemma Garrido; Clara Ràfols; Elisabeth Bosch

2006-01-01

108

LOCALIZED CORROSION OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELEXPOSED TO MIXTURES OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE AND CHLORIDE SALTS  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted to investigate the corrosivity of moist plutonium oxide/chloride (PuO{sub 2}/Cl-) salt mixtures on 304L and 316L stainless steel coupons. The tests exposed flat coupons for pitting evaluation and 'teardrop' stressed coupons for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation at room temperature to various mixtures of PuO{sub 2} and chloride-bearing salts for periods up to 500 days. The two flat coupons were placed so that the solid oxide/salt mixture contacted about one half of the coupon surface. One teardrop coupon was placed in contact with solid mixture; the second teardrop was in contact with the headspace gas only. The mixtures were loaded with nominally 0.5 wt % water under a helium atmosphere. Observations of corrosion ranged from superficial staining to pitting and SCC. The extent of corrosion depended on the total salt concentration and on the composition of the salt. The most significant corrosion was found in coupons that were exposed to 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 2 wt % chloride salt mixtures that contained calcium chloride. SCC was observed in two 304L stainless steel teardrop coupons exposed in solid contact to a mixture of 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 0.9 wt % NaCl, 0.9 wt % KCl, and 0.2 wt % CaCl{sub 2}. The cracking was associated with the heat-affected zone of an autogenous weld that ran across the center of the coupon. Cracking was not observed in coupons exposed to the headspace gas, nor in coupons exposed to other mixtures with either 0.92 wt% CaCl{sub 2} or no CaCl{sub 2}. The corrosion results point to the significance of the interaction between water loading and the concentration of the hydrating salt CaCl{sub 2} in the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to corrosion.

Zapp, P; Kerry Dunn, K; Jonathan Duffey, J; Ron Livingston, R; Zane Nelson, Z

2008-11-21

109

Scaling-Up Eutectic Freeze Crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel crystallization technology, Eutectic Freeze Crystallization (EFC) has been investigated and further developed in this thesis work. EFC operates around the eutectic temperature and composition of aqueous solutions and can be used for recovery of (valuable) dissolved salts (and\\/or or acids) and water from a wide variety of aqueous process streams. Using EFC, processes producing large quantities of saline

F. E. Genceli

2008-01-01

110

Study on the oxidizing reaction of rare-earth chlorides (CeCl 3 and PrCl 3 ) in LiCl-KCI eutectic salt by O 2 injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidizing reaction of some rare-earth chlorides (Pr\\/CeCl3) in an eutectic (LiCl-KCl) salt was studied by O2 injection. In this study, oxychlorides (REOCl) or oxides (REO2) were formed as reaction products. The results conformed to the thermodynamic equilibrium data calculated by HSC-Chemistry\\u000a 5.1 software. The conversion ratio of the rare-earth chlorides to insoluble precipitates was over 0.999, after injecting O2

H. C. Eun; Y. J. Cho; H. C. Yang; H. S. Park; E. H. Kim; I. T. Kim

2007-01-01

111

Distribution behavior of uranium, neptunium, rare-earth elements ( Y, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) and alkaline-earth metals (Sr,Ba) between molten LiCl?KCI eutectic salt and liquid cadmium or bismuth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution coefficients of uranium neptunium, eight rare-earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) and two alkaline-earth metals (Sr and Ba) between molten LiCl-KCI eutectic salt and either liquid cadmium or bismuth were measured at 773 K. Separation factors of trivalent rare-earth elements to uranium or neptunium in the LiCl-KCl\\/Bi system were by one or two orders

M. Kurata; Y. Sakamura; T. Hijikata; K. Kinoshita

1995-01-01

112

Electroconductivity of molten mixtures of LiCl-KCl eutectics with chlorides of rare-earth elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependences of the specific and molar electroconductivities of LiCl-KCl-LnCl3 (Ln-La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb) molten mixtures were studied. It was shown that the isotherms (1070 K) of molar electroconductivity (?) for most of the studied saline systems have an S-shaped form. The observed patterns of ? isotherms and their dependence on the ratio of components in the saline mixtures under investigation are explained in the context of complex structure of ionic melts.

Kovalevskii, A. V.; Shishalov, V. I.

2011-01-01

113

Effects of metal salt mixtures on Daphnia magna reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three binary metal experiments were conducted using a complete block design; testing the chlorides of Cd, Hg, and Zn individually and in combinations of Cd-Hg, Cd-Zn, and Zn-Hg on Daphnia magna reproduction. These mixtures were tested at one-half, once, and twice the 16% reproductive impairment concentration previously determined for individual metals. The Cd-Hg, Cd-Zn, and Zn-Hg mixtures all showed significant

K. E. Biesinger; G. M. Christensen; J. T. Fiandt

1986-01-01

114

Interaction Between Aluminum Nitride-Based Composite Materials and a CaCl2 – KCl Eutectic Molten Salt Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between composite materials based on aluminum nitride and a phosphate binder (PB) and a CaCl2 – KCl molten salt solution is studied as a function of time (10 – 220 h) by a gravimetric method. The test specimens studied were sintered (AlN + PB)-based composite, hot-pressed Y2O3-doped aluminum nitride, graphite, and (AlN + PB)-coated graphite. The concentration of

L. B. Khoroshavin; A. R. Beketov; D. A. Beketov; Yu. P. Zaikov; V. V. Chebykin

2002-01-01

115

The synthesis of Li(Ni 1\\/3Co 1\\/3Mn 1\\/3)O 2 using eutectic mixed lithium salt LiNO 3–LiOH  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lithium-ion battery cathode material, Li(Ni1\\/3Co1\\/3Mn1\\/3)O2, with excellent electrochemical properties was prepared via two-step isothermal sintering, using eutectic lithium salts (0.38LiOH·H2O–0.62LiNO3) mixed with Co, Ni, or Mn hydroxides. Based on analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetric (TG–DSC) analyzer, and Fourier-transform Infrared (FT-IR), this synthetic process consists of procedures including lithium salt melting, permeation,

Zhaorong Chang; Zhongjun Chen; Feng Wu; Xiao-Zi Yuan; Haijiang Wang

2009-01-01

116

Dimethyl sulfoxide with lignocaine versus eutectic mixture of local anesthetics: prospective randomized study to compare the efficacy of cutaneous anesthesia in shock wave lithotripsy.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixed with lignocaine and eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) cream as topically applied surface anesthetics in relieving pain during shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in a prospective randomized study. Of the 160 patients, 80 patients received DMSO with lignocaine and 80 patients received EMLA cream, applied to the skin of the flank at the area of entry of shock waves. SWL was done with Seimens lithostar multiline lithotripter. The pain during the procedure was assessed using visual analog and verbal rating scores. The mean visual analog scale scores for the two groups were 3.03 for DMSO group and 4.43 for EMLA group. The difference of pain score on visual analog scale was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Similarly, the pain scores as rated on the verbal rating scale were also evaluated; the mean score on verbal rating scale were 2.34 for DMSO group and 3.00 for the EMLA group. The difference between the pain score on verbal rating scale was also found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). Our study showed that DMSO with lignocaine is a better local anesthetic agent for SWL than EMLA cream. The stone fragmentation and clearance rates are also better in the DMSO group. PMID:20963406

Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Sunil; Ganesamoni, Raguram; Mandal, Arup K; Prasad, Seema; Singh, Shrawan K

2010-10-21

117

Effects of Metal Salt Mixtures on 'Daphnia magna' Reproduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three binary metal experiments were conducted using a 'complete block design', testing the chlorides of Cd, Hg, and Zn individually and in combinations of Cd-Hg, Cd-Zn, and Zn-Hg on Daphnia magna reproduction. These mixtures were tested at one-half, once ...

K. E. Biesinger G. M. Christensen J. T. Fiandt

1986-01-01

118

Measurement of the melting point temperature of several lithium-sodium-beryllium fluoride salt (FLINABE) mixtures.  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium flourides, was studied for molten salt fission reactors and has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for the fusion applications. 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at 460 C. LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at a lower temperature, 363 C, but is rather viscous and has less lithium breeder. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing ternary molten salt for the first wall surface and blanket were investigated. The molten salt (FLiNaBe, a ternary mixture of LiF, BeF2 and NaF) salt was selected because a melting temperature below 350 C that would provide an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor application appeared possible. This information came from a Russian binary phase diagram and a US ternary phase diagram in the 1960's that were not wholly consistent. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and, BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a small stainless steel crucible under vacuum. The proportions of the three salts were selected to yield conglomerate salts with as low a melting temperature as possible. The temperature of the salts and the crucible were recorded during the melting and subsequent re-solidification using a thermocouple directly in the salt pool and two thermocouples embedded in the crucible. One mixture had an apparent melting temperature of 305 C. Particular attention was paid to the cooling curve of the salt temperature to observe evidence of any mixed intermediate phases between the fully liquid and fully solid states. The clarity, texture, and thickness were observed and noted as well. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, and the melting procedure are described. The temperature curves for the melting and cooling of each of the mixtures are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible was also done and is reported in a separate paper.

Boyle, Timothy J.; Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Nygren, Richard Einar; Lutz, Thomas Joseph; McDonald, Jimmie M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

2004-09-01

119

Molten salt thermal energy storage systems: system design. [LiKCOâ mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A five-task research program aimed at the development of molten salt thermal energy storage systems commenced in June 1976. The first topical report, covering Task 1, the selection of suitable salt systems for storage at 850 to 1000°F, was issued in August 1976. It was concluded that a 35 Wt percent LiâCOâ-65 Wt percent KâCOâ (LiKCOâ) mixture was most suitable

H. C. Maru; A. Kardas; V. M. Huang; J. F. Dullea; L. Paul; L. G. Marianowski

1977-01-01

120

Synthesis of LiNi 1\\/3Co 1\\/3Al 1\\/3O 2 cathode material with eutectic molten salt LiOH-LiNO 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lithium-ion battery cathode material, LiNi1\\/3Co1\\/3Al1\\/3O2, with excellent electrochemical properties was prepared by three-phase temperature sintering, using eutectic lithium salts (0.38LiOH.H2O-0.62LiNO3) mixed with the precursor Ni1\\/3Co1\\/3Al1\\/3(OH)2. This method was simple and inexpensive, and the materials could be mixed uniformly at the eutectic melting point without any grinding. A well-layered ?-NaFeO2 structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The ratio of

Zhao-Rong Chang; Xu Yu; Hong-Wei Tang; Xiao-Zi Yuan; Haijiang Wang

2011-01-01

121

Patterns of three-liquid-phase behavior illustated by alcohol-hydrocarbon-water-salt mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten salts were each dissolved in water and the solutions mixed with equal volumes of one of six hydrocarbons and one of ten monohydric alcohols. The resulting multiphase mixtures were examined for the number of coexisting liquid phases and, in some cases, for the partitioning of alcohol among them. Several unusual patterns of phase behavior have been observed. For example,

B. M. Knickerbocker; C. V. Pesheck; H. T. Davis; L. E. Scriven

1982-01-01

122

Charged colloids in an aqueous mixture with a salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the ion and composition distributions around colloid particles in an aqueous mixture, accounting for preferential adsorption, electrostatic interaction, selective solvation among ions and polar molecules, and composition-dependent ionization. On the colloid surface, we predict a precipitation transition induced by a strong preference of hydrophilic ions to water and a prewetting transition between weak and strong adsorption and ionization. These transition lines extend far from the solvent coexistence curve in the plane of the interaction parameter ? (or the temperature) and the average solvent composition. The colloid interaction is drastically altered by these phase transitions on the surface. In particular, the interaction is much amplified on bridging of wetting layers formed above the precipitation line. Such wetting layers can either completely or partially cover the colloid surface depending on the average solvent composition.

Okamoto, Ryuichi; Onuki, Akira

2011-11-01

123

Measurement of the Melting Point Temperature of Several Lithium-Sodium-Beryllium Fluoride Salt (Flinabe) Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium fluorides studied for molten salt fission reactors, has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for fusion applications. The melting points of 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} and LiF-BeF{sub 2} are 460 deg. C and 363 deg. C, but LiF-BeF{sub 2} is rather viscous and has less lithium for breeding. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing liquid for the first wall and blanket were investigated. Flinabe (a mixture of LiF, BeF{sub 2} and NaF) was selected for a molten salt design because a melting temperature below 350 deg. C appeared possible and this provided an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a stainless steel crucible under vacuum. One had an apparent melting temperature of 305 deg. C. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, melting procedures and temperature curves for the melting and cooling are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible is reported in an accompanying paper.

McDonald, J.M; Nygren, R.E.; Lutz, T.J.; Tanaka, T.J; Ulrickson, M.A.; Boyle, T.J.; Troncosa, K.P. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)

2005-04-15

124

Effect of dissolved inorganic salts on the isothermal vapor–liquid equilibrium of the propionic acid–water mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propionic acid–water is one of the minimum boiling point azeotropic binary mixtures. Alteration of the vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) by addition of inorganic salts is of interest, since it allows bypassing the azeotropic point due to salt-in and salt-out effects. The effect of NaCl, NH4Cl, CaCl2, and AlCl3 at salt concentrations of 1 m and the effect of NaCl molality (0.5–3

Fawzi Banat; Sameer Al-Asheh; Jana Simandl

2002-01-01

125

SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ACTINIDES AND LANTHANIDES FROM MOLTEN SALTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative measurements were made of distribution coefficients of ; metal ions between a fused salt phase and an organic phase for the first time. ; The measurements were made at a temperature of l50 deg C using a LiNOâ- KNO\\/; sub 3\\/ eutectic (m.p. 120 deg C) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) as the active ; extractant with a mixture of

N. M. Isaac; P. R. Fields; D. M. Gruen

1961-01-01

126

A non-ideal model for predicting the effect of dissolved salt on the flash point of solvent mixtures.  

PubMed

Flash point is one of the major quantities used to characterize the fire and explosion hazard of liquids. Herein, a liquid with dissolved salt is presented in a salt-distillation process for separating close-boiling or azeotropic systems. The addition of salts to a liquid may reduce fire and explosion hazard. In this study, we have modified a previously proposed model for predicting the flash point of miscible mixtures to extend its application to solvent/salt mixtures. This modified model was verified by comparison with the experimental data for organic solvent/salt and aqueous-organic solvent/salt mixtures to confirm its efficacy in terms of prediction of the flash points of these mixtures. The experimental results confirm marked increases in liquid flash point increment with addition of inorganic salts relative to supplementation with equivalent quantities of water. Based on this evidence, it appears reasonable to suggest potential application for the model in assessment of the fire and explosion hazard for solvent/salt mixtures and, further, that addition of inorganic salts may prove useful for hazard reduction in flammable liquids. PMID:16908098

Liaw, Horng-Jang; Wang, Tzu-Ai

2006-07-01

127

High-temperature molten salt thermal energy storage systems for solar applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkali and alkaline earth carbonate latent-heat storage salts, metallic containment materials, and thermal conductivity enhancement materials were investigated to satisfy the high temperature (704 to 871 C) thermal energy storage requirements of advanced solar-thermal power generation concepts are described. Properties of the following six salts selected for compatibility studies are given: three pure carbonates, K2CO3, Li2CO3 and Na2CO3; two eutectic mixtures, BaCO3/Na2CO3 and K2CO3/NaCO3, and one off-eutectic mixture of Na2CO3/K2CO3.

Petri, R. J.; Claar, T. D.

1980-03-01

128

Investigation of phase coexistence in block copolymer/salt mixtures near order-disorder phase transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixtures of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) copolymer and lithium bis(trifluromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt can microphase separate into ion-conducting (PEO/LiTFSI) and mechanically reinforcing (PS) domains, facilitating their application as solid electrolytes in lithium batteries. PS-b-PEO/LiTFSI mixtures that exhibit thermally accessible order-disorder phase transitions (ODTs) are used to gain thermodynamic insight to the polymer/salt system. The Gibbs phase rule requires a coexistence of phases during a phase transition in binary systems. We use birefringence and SAXS measurements to confirm the presence of coexisting ordered and disordered phases near the ODT and quantify their relative volume fractions throughout the coexistence temperature window.

Thelen, Jacob; Balsara, Nitash

2013-03-01

129

Diffusion barriers at Mars surface conditions: Salt crusts, particle size mixtures, and dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion coefficient of water vapor through porous media at Mars-like surface conditions is measured for a variety of complex particle size distributions and soil compositions. Micron-sized dust simulants, mixtures of sand- and dust-sized particles, and salt-encrusted sand are examined. We find that while the value of the diffusion coefficient, D, can be reduced by up to a factor of

Troy L. Hudson; Oded Aharonson

2008-01-01

130

Nitrogen Conservation in Simulated Food Waste Aerobic Composting Process with Different Mg and P Salt Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effects of three types of Mg and P salt mixtures (potassium phosphate [K3PO4]\\/magnesium sulfate [MgSO4], potassium dihydrogen phosphate [K2HPO4]\\/MgSO4, KH2PO4\\/MgSO4) on the conservation of N and the biodegradation of organic materials in an aerobic food waste composting process, batch experiments were undertaken in four reactors (each with an effective volume of 30 L). The synthetic food waste

Yu Li; Bensheng Su; Jianlin Liu; Xianyuan Du; Guohe Huang

2011-01-01

131

Molten salts as promising catalysts for oxidation of diesel soot: importance of experimental conditions in testing procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic activity for soot oxidation of three eutectic salt mixtures based on oxides or sulphates of molybdenum, vanadium, and cesium, was studied and compared with the activity of catalysts reported in literature. It is shown that some of these mixtures have a high activity above their melting point of about 625K. The activity of these catalysts can be up

S. J Jelles; B. A. A. L van Setten; M Makkee; J. A Moulijn

1999-01-01

132

Debye-Hückel theory for mixtures of rigid rodlike ions and salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like-charged surfaces are able to attract each other if they are embedded in an electrolyte solution of multivalent rodlike ions, even if the rods are long. To reproduce this ability the Poisson-Boltzmann model has recently been extended so as to account for the rodlike structure of the mobile ions. Our model properly accounts for intraionic correlations but still neglects correlations between different rodlike ions. For sufficiently long rods, the model shows excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations and exhibits two minima - a depletion and a bridging minimum - in the interaction free energy. In the present work, we generalize the Poisson-Boltzmann model to systems with polydisperse rod lengths and arbitrary charge distributions along the rods, including the presence of salt. On the level of the linearized Debye-Hückel model we derive a general criterion for whether an electrolyte with given distribution of rodlike ions is able to mediate attraction between like-charged surfaces. We numerically analyze two special cases, namely the influence of salt on symmetric and asymmetric mixtures of monodisperse rodlike ions. The symmetric mixture is characterized by the presence of both negatively and positively charged (but otherwise identical) rodlike ions. For the asymmetric mixture, the system contains rodlike ions of only one type. We demonstrate that the addition of salt retains the depletion minimum but tends to eliminate the bridging minimum.

Bohinc, Klemen; Reš?i?, Jurij; Maset, Stefano; May, Sylvio

2011-02-01

133

Chloride salt mixtures affect Gordal cv. green Spanish-style table olive fermentation.  

PubMed

This work studies the effects of different sodium (in the range of 4-10%), potassium (0-4%) and calcium (0-6%) chloride salt mixtures on the fermentation profile of Gordal olives processed according to the Spanish style. For this purpose, response surface methodology based on a simplex centroid mixture design with constrain (sum of salt percentages = 10%) was used. All treatments reached appropriate titratable acidity levels, but this parameter could not be related to the initial chloride salt concentration. The presence of CaCl(2) led to lower initial and after-fermentation pHs, delayed sugar diffusion into the brine, its maximum concentration and titratable acidity formation. CaCl(2) also delayed Enterobacteriaceae and yeast sprang, decreasing their overall growth. This chloride salt also showed a tendency to reduce overall lactic acid bacteria growth. KCl had a similar behaviour to NaCl but, in general, increased overall microbial growth. Thus, a partial substitution of NaCl in Spanish-style green olives with KCl and CaCl(2) does not substantially modify the fermentation profile but does produce some changes, which, when properly managed, could help to improve product processing. PMID:21839381

Bautista Gallego, J; Arroyo López, F N; Romero Gil, V; Rodríguez Gómez, F; García García, P; Garrido Fernández, A

2011-06-12

134

Protease activation in glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents  

PubMed Central

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of a choline salt (chloride or acetate form) and glycerol are prepared as easily accessible, biodegradable, and inexpensive alternatives to conventional aprotic cation-anion paired ionic liquids. These DES systems display excellent fluidity coupled with thermal stability to nearly 200 °C. In this work, the transesterification activities of cross-linked proteases (subtilisin and ?-chymotrypsin), immobilized on chitosan, were individually examined in these novel DESs. In the 1:2 molar ratio mixture of choline chloride/glycerol containing 3% (v/v) water, cross-linked subtilisin exhibited an excellent activity (2.9 ?mo l min?1 g?1) in conjunction with a selectivity of 98% in the transesterification reaction of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester with 1-propanol. These highly encouraging results advocate more extensive exploration of DESs in protease-mediated biotransformations of additional polar substrates and use of DESs in biocatalysis more generally.

Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A.; Holmes, Shaletha

2011-01-01

135

Protease activation in glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of a choline salt (chloride or acetate form) and glycerol are prepared as easily accessible, biodegradable, and inexpensive alternatives to conventional aprotic cation-anion paired ionic liquids. These DES systems display excellent fluidity coupled with thermal stability to nearly 200 °C. In this work, the transesterification activities of cross-linked proteases (subtilisin and ?-chymotrypsin), immobilized on chitosan, were individually examined in these novel DESs. In the 1:2 molar ratio mixture of choline chloride/glycerol containing 3% (v/v) water, cross-linked subtilisin exhibited an excellent activity (2.9 ?mo l min(-1) g(-1)) in conjunction with a selectivity of 98% in the transesterification reaction of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester with 1-propanol. These highly encouraging results advocate more extensive exploration of DESs in protease-mediated biotransformations of additional polar substrates and use of DESs in biocatalysis more generally. PMID:21909232

Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A; Holmes, Shaletha

2011-11-01

136

Physico-chemical investigations on the electronic partial conductivity of molten electrolytes, especially of the eutectic mixture LiCl-KCl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The self-discharge of lithium-sulfur batteries caused by the electronic partial conductivity of the electrolyte was estimated. Stationary polarization measurements were used to determine the electronic conductivity in the eutectic melt LiCl-KCl at temperatures from 400 to 500 C. From investigations on the solubility of lithium in the melt, the diffusion coefficient of the conducting particles was obtained using a coulometric titration method.

Rickert, H.; Meyer, M.

1984-09-01

137

Electrochemical impedance investigations of redox mechanisms of refractory metal compounds in molten salts. I. Niobium chloride and oxychloride in CsCl–NaCl eutectic melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical studies of the redox mechanisms of niobium chloride and oxychloride in CsCl–NaCl eutectic melts at 550°C are reported. Cyclic voltammograms and electrochemical impedance spectra have been measured in situ over a wide potential range between the limits of chlorine evolution and metal deposition at various oxide concentrations 0?Ox\\/Nb?3. In analyzing the impedance spectra we have focused on the determination

U. Stöhr; W. Freyland

1999-01-01

138

Nitrogen conservation in simulated food waste aerobic composting process with different Mg and P salt mixtures.  

PubMed

To assess the effects of three types of Mg and P salt mixtures (potassium phosphate [K3PO4]/magnesium sulfate [MgSO4], potassium dihydrogen phosphate [K2HPO4]/MgSO4, KH2PO4/MgSO4) on the conservation of N and the biodegradation of organic materials in an aerobic food waste composting process, batch experiments were undertaken in four reactors (each with an effective volume of 30 L). The synthetic food waste was composted of potatoes, rice, carrots, leaves, meat, soybeans, and seed soil, and the ratio of C and N was 17:1. Runs R1-R3 were conducted with the addition of K3PO4/ MgSO4, K2HPO4/MgSO4, and KH2PO4/MgSO4 mixtures, respectively; run R0 was a blank performed without the addition of Mg and P salts. After composting for 25 days, the degrees of degradation of the organic materials in runs R0-R3 were 53.87, 62.58, 59.14, and 49.13%, respectively. X-ray diffraction indicated that struvite crystals were formed in runs R1-R3 but not in run R0; the gaseous ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) losses in runs R0-R3 were 21.2, 32.8, 12.6, and 3.5% of the initial total N, respectively. Of the tested Mg/P salt mixtures, the K2HPO4/ MgSO4 system provided the best combination of conservation of N and biodegradation of organic materials in this food waste composting process. PMID:21850832

Li, Yu; Su, Bensheng; Liu, Jianlin; Du, Xianyuan; Huang, Guohe

2011-07-01

139

Molten salt synthesis of potassium hexatitanate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potassium hexatitanate fibrous crystals have been synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction and via molten salt process. The molten salt process has been shown to be effective in preparing fine and non-agglomerated K2Ti6O13 whiskers. The type of molten salt (KCl, NaCl-KCl) has a significant effect on the chemical composition of the whiskers. By using a eutectic mixture of NaCl and KCl, the replacement of potassium ions in solid potassium hexatitanate by smaller sodium ions from the chloride flux can be achieved. The characterization of the samples was carried out by means of XRD, SEM, EDX and WDX.

Zaremba, T.

2012-09-01

140

Eutectic modification in a low-chromium white cast iron by a mixture of titanium, rare earths, and bismuth: Part II. effect on the wear behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we studied the wear behavior of a low-Cr white cast iron (WCI) modified with ferrotitanium-rare earths-bismuth\\u000a (Fe-Ti-RE-Bi) up to 2%. These additions modified the eutectic carbide structure of the alloy from continuous ledeburite into\\u000a a blocky, less interconnected carbide network. The modified structure was wear tested under pure sliding conditions against\\u000a a hardened M2 steel counter-face using

A. Bedolla-Jacuinde; S. L. Aguilar; C. Maldonado

2005-01-01

141

A high temperature corrosion kinetic study of HK-40 superalloy surface treated, in contact with eutectic mixture 82% K 2S 2O 7-18% V 2O 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion kinetics of the HK-40 superalloy have been studied by electrochemical methods in inert and oxidizing atmospheres in contact with 82% K2S2O7-18% V2O5 (molar ratio) molten mixture, in order to establish the influence of oxygen in the corrosion process. The effect of the operation temperature and the presence of carbon residues mixed with the molten salt mixture is also

E. Otero; A. Pardo; F. J. Pérez; J. F. álvarez; M. V. Utrilla

1997-01-01

142

Measurement of standard potentials of actinides (U,Np,Pu,Am) in LiCl–KCl eutectic salt and separation of actinides from rare earths by electrorefining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrochemical separation of actinides from rare earths in LiCl–KCl eutectic–liquid metal systems has been studied. The electromotive forces of galvanic cells of the form, Ag|Ag(I), LiCl–KCl?actinide(III), LiCl–KCl|actinide, were measured and standard potentials were determined for uranium, neptunium and plutonium to be ?1.283 V, ?1.484 V and ?1.593 V (at 450°C vs. Ag\\/AgCl (1wt%–AgCl)), respectively. A typical cyclic voltammogram of americium

Y. Sakamura; T. Hijikata; K. Kinoshita; T. Inoue; T. S. Storvick; C. L. Krueger; J. J. Roy; D. L. Grimmett; S. P. Fusselman; R. L. Gay

1998-01-01

143

SEPARATION OF METAL SALTS BY ADSORPTION  

DOEpatents

It has been found that certain metal salts, particularly the halides of iron, cobalt, nickel, and the actinide metals, arc readily absorbed on aluminum oxide, while certain other salts, particularly rare earth metal halides, are not so absorbed. Use is made of this discovery to separate uranium from the rare earths. The metal salts are first dissolved in a molten mixture of alkali metal nitrates, e.g., the eutectic mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and then the molten salt solution is contacted with alumina, either by slurrying or by passing the salt solution through an absorption tower. The process is particularly valuable for the separation of actinides from lanthanum-group rare earths.

Gruen, D.M.

1959-01-20

144

Eutectic modification in a low-chromium white cast iron by a mixture of titanium, rare earths, and bismuth: Part II. effect on the wear behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we studied the wear behavior of a low-Cr white cast iron (WCI) modified with ferrotitanium-rare earths-bismuth (Fe-Ti-RE-Bi) up to 2%. These additions modified the eutectic carbide structure of the alloy from continuous ledeburite into a blocky, less interconnected carbide network. The modified structure was wear tested under pure sliding conditions against a hardened M2 steel counter-face using a load of 250 N. It was observed that wear resistance increased as the modifier admixture increased. The modified structure had smaller more isolated carbides than the WCI with no Fe-Ti-RE-Bi additions. It was observed that large carbides fracture during sliding, which destabilizes the structure and causes degradation in the wear behavior. A transition from abrasive to oxidative wear after 20 km sliding occurred for all alloys. In addition, the modified alloys exhibited higher values of hardness and fracture toughness. These results are discussed in terms of the modified eutectic carbide microstructure.

Bedolla-Jacuinde, A.; Aguilar, S. L.; Maldonado, C.

2005-06-01

145

Assessment of a Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid in a Parabolic Trough Solar Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation was carried out to investigate the feasibility of utilizing a molten salt as the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and for thermal storage in a parabolic trough solar field to improve system performance and to reduce the levelized electricity cost. The operating SEGS1 plants currently use a high temperature synthetic oil consisting of a eutectic mixture of biphenyl\\/diphenyl oxide.

D. Kearney; U. Herrmann; P. Nava; B. Kelly; R. Mahoney; J. Pacheco; R. Cable; N. Potrovitza; D. Blake; H. Price

2003-01-01

146

Effect of salt of various concentrations on liquid limit, and hydraulic conductivity of different soil-bentonite mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of the various concentrations of NaCl and CaCl2 on the four different soil-bentonite mixtures has been evaluated. The results show that the liquid limit of the mixtures decreases with an increase in the salt concentration. Liquid limit decreased significantly with an increase in CaCl2 concentration from 0 to 0.1 N. However, a further increase in the concentration did not produce any significant decrease in liquid limit. A quite opposite trend was observed for the NaCl solution. An increase in NaCl concentration from 0 to 0.1 N did not produce any major decrease in the liquid limit, but a further increase in concentration from 0.1 to 1 N decreased the liquid limit significantly. Consolidation tests were carried out on the mixtures to evaluate the effect of mineralogical composition of the bentonite on the hydraulic conductivity ( k) of the mixture in the presence of various salts concentrations. The k for any mixtures was found to be decreasing with decrease in the salt concentration. At relatively low concentration, Ca2+ had more effect on the k in comparison to the same concentration of Na+. However, at 1 N of NaCl and CaCl2 almost an equal value of k was observed. A comparison of the performance of four bentonites showed that the mixture with bentonite having highest exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) exhibited the lowest k when permeated with de-ionized (DI) water, however, k increased with an increase in the salt concentration. Similarly, mixture with a bentonite of lower ESP exhibited a higher k with DI water but with the increase in the salt concentration alteration in the k, compared to all other mixtures, was relatively less.

Mishra, Anil Kumar; Ohtsubo, Masami; Li, Loretta Y.; Higashi, Takahiro; Park, Junboum

2009-05-01

147

Eutectic composite explosives containing ammonium nitrate  

SciTech Connect

The eutectic of ammonium nitrate (AN), the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole was prepared and its sensitivity and performance were studied. It was found that this AN formulation was unusual in that it performed ideally at small diameter, which indicated that it was a monomolecular explosive. Sensitivity tests included type 12 impact, Henkin thermal and wedge tests, and performance tests included rate stick/plate dent, cylinder, and aquarium tests. Results were compared with calculations, standard explosives, and another eutectic, ethylendiamine dinitrate (EDD)/AN.

Stinecipher, M.M.

1981-01-01

148

Thermal energy storage by means of the latent heat of fusion of a mineral salt - Study of a direct contact dynamic exchanger with salt crystallization during flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a heat exchanger in which the storage medium (a mineral salt) comes into direct contact with the heat transfer agent for the recovery of thermal energy stored in molten salt is investigated. Preliminary experiments on heat transfer and phase separation in a mixture of a molten NaNO2, NaNO3, KNO3 eutectic (melting point 142 C) with a synthetic

J. Pantaloni; O. Favre; R. Bailleux; G. Finiels; J. Marchisio

1979-01-01

149

Effect of salt of various concentrations on liquid limit, and hydraulic conductivity of different soil-bentonite mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of the various concentrations of NaCl and CaCl2 on the four different soil-bentonite mixtures has been evaluated. The results show that the liquid limit of the mixtures\\u000a decreases with an increase in the salt concentration. Liquid limit decreased significantly with an increase in CaCl2 concentration from 0 to 0.1 N. However, a further increase in the concentration did not produce

Anil Kumar Mishra; Masami Ohtsubo; Loretta Y. Li; Takahiro Higashi

2009-01-01

150

Fast dissolving eutectic compositions of curcumin.  

PubMed

The bioactive herbal ingredient curcumin was screened with pharmaceutically acceptable coformers to discover solid-state forms of high solubility. Mechano-chemical grinding of curcumin with cocrystal formers in a fixed stoichiometry ratio resulted in binary eutectic compositions of curcumin-coformer with nicotinamide (1:2), ferulic acid (1:1), hydroquinone (1:1), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1:1), and l-tartaric acid (1:1). The eutectic nature of the product crystalline solids was established by differential scanning calorimetry, and the absence of hydrogen-bonded crystalline phases such as cocrystals/salts was ascertained by powder X-ray diffraction, IR-Raman, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The best case of CUR-NAM eutectic exhibits 10-fold faster IDR and 6-times higher AUC compared to crystalline curcumin. PMID:23041131

Goud, N Rajesh; Suresh, Kuthuru; Sanphui, Palash; Nangia, Ashwini

2012-10-03

151

CO2 capture from simulated fuel gas mixtures using semiclathrate hydrates formed by quaternary ammonium salts.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the feasibility of semiclathrate hydrate-based precombustion CO2 capture, thermodynamic, kinetic, and spectroscopic studies were undertaken on the semiclathrate hydrates formed from a fuel gas mixture of H2 (60%) + CO2 (40%) in the presence of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs) such as tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) and fluoride (TBAF). The inclusion of QASs demonstrated significantly stabilized hydrate dissociation conditions. This effect was greater for TBAF than TBAB. However, due to the presence of dodecahedral cages that are partially filled with water molecules, TBAF showed a relatively lower gas uptake than TBAB. From the stability condition measurements and compositional analyses, it was found that with only one step of semiclathrate hydrate formation with the fuel gas mixture from the IGCC plants, 95% CO2 can be enriched in the semiclathrate hydrate phase at room temperature. The enclathration of both CO2 and H2 in the cages of the QAS semiclathrate hydrates and the structural transition that results from the inclusion of QASs were confirmed through Raman and (1)H NMR measurements. The experimental results obtained in this study provide the physicochemical background required for understanding selective partitioning and distributions of guest gases in the QAS semiclathrate hydrates and for investigating the feasibility of a semiclathrate hydrate-based precombustion CO2 capture process. PMID:23718261

Park, Sungwon; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Youngjun; Seo, Yongwon

2013-06-11

152

Low-cost central receiver solar power plant using molten salt as a heat transfer and storage medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes an alternative approach to solar thermal power plants to reduce the electricity cost relative to the first generation water\\/steam systems. The cost reduction is achieved by generating a 950 F 2400 psig steam by pumping an eutectic salt mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate as the heat transfer and storage medium to the steam generator and\\/or

T. R. Tracey

1979-01-01

153

Synthesis of LiMn 2 O 4 by molten salt technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium manganese oxide powders have been successfully prepared by a molten salt synthesis using eutectic mixture of LiCl\\u000a and MnO2 salt at 900 °C. The synthesis was performed in open atmosphere. The crystalline powders were characterized for their phase\\u000a identification using X-ray diffraction analysis. The physicochemical properties of the lithium manganese oxide powders are\\u000a investigated by thermal analysis (thermo gravimetric analysis\\/

M. Helan; L. John Berchmans; A. Zahir Hussain

2010-01-01

154

Ternary eutectic growth of Ag-Cu-Sb alloy within ultrasonic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid to solid transformation of ternary Ag42.4Cu21.6Sb36 eutectic alloy was accomplished in an ultrasonic field with a frequency of 35 kHz, and the growth mechanism of this ternary eutectic was examined. Theoretical calculations predict that the sound intensity in the liquid phase at the solidification interface increases gradually as the interface moves up from the sample bottom to its top. The growth mode of ( ? + ? + Sb) ternary eutectic exhibits a transition of “divorced eutectic—mixture of anomalous and regular structures—regular eutectic” along the sample axis due to the inhomogeneity of sound field distribution. In the top zone with the highest sound intensity, the cavitation effect promotes the three eutectic phases to nucleate independently, while the acoustic streaming efficiently suppresses the coupled growth of eutectic phases. In the meantime, the ultrasonic field accelerates the solute transportation at the solid-liquid interface, which reduces the solute solubility of eutectic phases.

Zhai, Wei; Hong, Zhenyu; Wei, Bingbo

2007-08-01

155

Eutectic melting in metal borohydrides.  

PubMed

A series of monometallic borohydrides and borohydride eutectic mixtures have been investigated during thermal ramping by mass spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and photography. Mixtures of LiBH4-NaBH4, LiBH4-KBH4, LiBH4-Mg(BH4)2, LiBH4-Ca(BH4)2, LiBH4-Mn(BH4)2, NaBH4-KBH4, and LiBH4-NaBH4-KBH4 all displayed melting behaviour below that of the monometallic phases (up to 167 °C lower). Generally, each system behaves differently with respect to their physical behaviour upon melting. The molten phases can exhibit colour changes, bubbling and in some cases frothing, or even liquid-solid phase transitions during hydrogen release. Remarkably, the eutectic melt can also allow for hydrogen release at temperatures lower than that of the individual components. Some systems display decomposition of the borohydride in the solid-state before melting and certain hydrogen release events have also been linked to the adverse reaction of samples with impurities, usually within the starting reagents, and these may also be coupled with bubbling or frothing of the ionic melt. PMID:24141723

Paskevicius, Mark; Ley, Morten B; Sheppard, Drew A; Jensen, Torben R; Buckley, Craig E

2013-10-21

156

Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.  

PubMed

Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping. PMID:23485244

Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

2013-01-01

157

Kinetics of the Micelle-to-Vesicle Transition: Aqueous Lecithin-Bile Salt Mixtures  

PubMed Central

Important routes to lipid vesicles (liposomes) are detergent removal techniques, such as dialysis or dilution. Although they are widely applied, there has been only limited understanding about the structural evolution during the formation of vesicles and the parameters that determine their properties. We use time-resolved static and dynamic light scattering to study vesicle formation in aqueous lecithin-bile salt mixtures. The kinetic rates and vesicle sizes are found to strongly depend on total amphiphile concentration and, even more pronounced, on ionic strength. The observed trends contradict equilibrium calculations, but are in agreement with a kinetic model that we present. This model identifies the key kinetic steps during vesicle formation: rapid formation of disklike intermediate micelles, growth of these metastable micelles, and their closure to form vesicles once line tension dominates bending energy. A comparison of the rates of growth and closure provides a kinetic criterion for the critical size at which disks close and thus for the vesicle size. The model suggests that liposomes are nonequilibrium, kinetically trapped structures of very long lifetime. Their properties are hence controlled by kinetics rather than thermodynamics.

Leng, J.; Egelhaaf, S. U.; Cates, M. E.

2003-01-01

158

Physical Chemistry of Molten Salt Batteries. Final Report for Period October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980. Current-Induced Composition Gradients in Molten LiCl-KCl.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current induced composition gradients were demonstrated in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic mixture, the electrolyte of an LiAl/LiCl-KCl/FeS/sub x/ battery. The gradients were produced by electrolysis of the salt between LiAl electrodes at currents of 50 to 1...

J. Braunstein S. Cantor C. E. Vallet

1981-01-01

159

Synthesis of LiSm 0.01Mn 1.99O 4 by molten salt technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samarium substituted lithium manganese oxide powders were successfully prepared by molten-salt synthesis (MSS) using eutectic mixture of LiCl, SmCl3·6H2O and MnO2 salt at 700 °C. The synthesis was carried out in open atmosphere. The crystalline powders were characterized for their phase identification using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The physico-chemical properties of the samarium substituted lithium manganese oxide powders were investigated

M. Helan; L. John Berchmans

2010-01-01

160

Investigations of neutron characteristics for salt blanket models; integral fission cross section measurements of neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Neutron characteristics of salt blanket micromodels containing eutectic mixtures of sodium, zirconium and uranium sulphides were measured on FKBN-2M, BIGR and MAKET installations. The effective fission cross sections of neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes were measured on the neutron spectra formed by micromodels. KEYWORDS: transmutation, minor actinides, fluoride salts, micromodel, critical assembly, neutron spectrum, multiplication coefficient, fission, effective cross section, nuclear track detector, nuclear data library

Novoselov, G. F.; Gavrilov, V. V.; Kuvshinov, M. (Mikhail); Bogdanov, V. M. (Vladimir Mikha?lovich); Maslov, Georgi? Vladimirovich,; Vyachin, V. (Vladimir); Mashnik, S. G. (Stepan G.); Gorelov, V. I. (Vladimir Ivanovich); Fomushkin, E. F.

2001-01-01

161

Containerless solidification of acoustically levitated Ni-Sn eutectic alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Containerless solidification of Ni-18.7at%Sn eutectic alloy has been achieved with a single-axis acoustic levitator. The temperature, motion, and oscillation of the sample were monitored by a high speed camera. The temperature of the sample can be determined from its image brightness, although the sample moves vertically and horizontally during levitation. The experimentally observed frequency of vertical motion is in good agreement with theoretical prediction. The sample undergoes shape oscillation before solidification finishes. The solidification microstructure of this alloy consists of a mixture of anomalous eutectic plus regular lamellar eutectic. This indicates the achievement of rapid solidification under acoustic levitation condition.

Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

2012-10-01

162

Density measurements of the lithium fluoride\\/lithium sulfide eutectic at high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A straightforward and reliable method to determine densities of molten salts at high temperatures was de-veloped by Janz and Lorenz several years ago.[1] This method was followed in order to determine the density of the LiF\\/Li2S eutectic[2] over the temperature range of 1176 to 1355 K in which the eutectic is liquid. The rel-ative lack of data for this eutectic

Charles L. Lloyd; James B. Gilbert

1994-01-01

163

Density measurements of the lithium fluoride\\/lithium sulfide eutectic at high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A straightforward and reliable method to determine densities of molten salts at high temperatures was de-veloped by Janz and\\u000a Lorenz several years ago.[1] This method was followed in order to determine the density of the LiF\\/Li2S eutectic[2] over the temperature range of 1176 to 1355 K in which the eutectic is liquid. The rel-ative lack of data for this eutectic

Charles L. Lloyd; James B. Gilbert

1994-01-01

164

Surface chemical properties of eutectic and frozen NaCl solutions probed by XPS and NEXAFS.  

PubMed

We study the surface of sodium chloride-water mixtures above, at, and below the eutectic temperature using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron-yield near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The NaCl frozen solutions are mimicking sea-salt deposits in ice or snow. Sea-salt particles emitted from the oceans are a major contributor to the global aerosol burden and can act as a catalyst for heterogeneous chemistry or as cloud condensation nuclei. The nature of halogen ions at ice surfaces and their influence on surface melting of ice are of significant current interest. We found that the surface of the frozen solution, depending on the temperature, consists of ice and different NaCl phases, that is, NaCl, NaCl·2H(2)O, and surface-adsorbed water. PMID:20954232

K?epelová, Adéla; Huthwelker, Thomas; Bluhm, Hendrik; Ammann, Markus

2010-12-17

165

Fundamental Properties of Salts  

SciTech Connect

Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

2012-11-01

166

Oxidation of hydrogen halides to elemental halogens with catalytic molten salt mixtures  

DOEpatents

A process for oxidizing hydrogen halides by means of a catalytically active molten salt is disclosed. The subject hydrogen halide is contacted with a molten salt containing an oxygen compound of vanadium and alkali metal sulfates and pyrosulfates to produce an effluent gas stream rich in the elemental halogen. The reduced vanadium which remains after this contacting is regenerated to the active higher valence state by contacting the spent molten salt with a stream of oxygen-bearing gas.

Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

1978-01-01

167

New eutectic alloys and their heats of transformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eutectic compositions and congruently melting intermetallic compounds in binary and multi-component systems among common elements such as AI, Ca, Cu, Mg, P, Si, and Zn may be useful for high temperature heat storage. In this work, heats of fusion of new multicomponent eutectics and intermetallic phases are reported, some of which are competitive with molten salts in heat storage density at high temperatures. The method used to determine unknown eutectic compositions combined results of differential thermal analysis, metallography, and microprobe analysis. The method allows determination of eutectic compositions in no more than three steps. The heats of fusion of the alloys were measured using commercial calorimeters, a differential thermal analyzer, and a differential scanning calorimeter.

Farkas, Diana; Birchenall, C. E.

1985-03-01

168

Re-evaluation of the eutectic region of the LiBr-KBr-LiF system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a two-hour thermal battery required the use of a molten salt that had a lower melting point and larger liquidus range than the LiCl-KCl eutectic which melts at 352 C. Several candidate eutectic electrolyte systems were evaluated for the...

L. Redey R. A. Guidotti

1996-01-01

169

Coatings for Directional Eutectics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Significant advances have been made in the development of an environmentally stable coating for a very high strength, directionally solidified eutectic alloy designated NiTaC-13. Three duplex (two-layer) coatings survived 3,000 hours on a cyclic oxidation...

J. R. Rairden M. R. Jackson

1976-01-01

170

Measurement of the melting point temperature of several lithium-sodium-beryllium fluoride salt (FLINABE) mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium flourides, was studied for molten salt fission reactors and has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for the fusion applications. 2LiF-BeF melts at 460 C. LiF-BeF melts at a lower temperature, 363 C, but is rather viscous and has less lithium breeder. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program,

Timothy J. Boyle; Kenneth P. Troncosa; Richard Einar Nygren; Thomas Joseph Lutz; Jimmie M. McDonald; Tina Joan Tanaka; Michael Andrew Ulrickson

2004-01-01

171

Effect of dietary supplementation of gallic acid and linoleic acid mixture or their synthetic salt on egg quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a dietary supplementation of gallic acid and linoleic acid mixture (MGL) and their synthetic salt, sodium 2,3-dihydroxy-5-(((9E,12E)-octadeca-9,12-dienyloxy)carbonyl)phenolate (NGL), on egg quality was investigated. A total of 120 laying hens were allotted into five groups over 4weeks of the experimental period. Birds were fed the following diets: (1) control [commercial diet (CD)], (2) 0.05% MGL (w\\/w, GA:LA=1:1, equal

Samooel Jung; Byung Hee Han; Kichang Nam; Dong U. Ahn; Jun Heon Lee; Cheorun Jo

2011-01-01

172

Supramolecular ensembles in eutectic alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main concepts of the theory of eutectics are analysed. The most essential results of investigations on eutectic alloys of inorganic compounds are surveyed. Evidence in favour of the supramolecular concept of eutectics is presented. This concept takes into account interactions of incommensurate substructures and gives an insight into the mechanisms of formation of supramolecular eutectic assemblies in boundary regions ('non-autonomous phases'). Using the static one-dimensional Frenkel — Kontorova model for finite systems, it is shown that the consideration of these mechanisms in terms of supramolecular chemistry simplifies analysis of the behaviour of inorganic eutectic systems in the course of crystallisation under conditions both close to and far from equilibrium, including crystallization upon quenching and under external actions. The supramolecular concept bridges gaps between the definitions 'compound', 'eutectic' and 'solution' in physicochemical analysis.

Pervov, Vladislav S.; Mikheikin, Igor'D.; Makhonina, Elena V.; Butskii, Vladimir D.

2003-09-01

173

Corrosion of Steels in Contact with Molten Salts as Latent Heat Storage Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The corrosion behaviour of mild steel (St35.8), boiler steel 13CrMo44 and stainless steel X10CrNiMo1810 in contact with the eutectic salt mixtures AlCl sub 3 -NaCl, LiCl-LiNO sub 3 -NaCl, NaCl-NaNO sub 3 and KCl-LiCl is investigated. The test conditions a...

D. Heine

1985-01-01

174

Novel room temperature molten salt electrolyte based on LiTFSI and acetamide for lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel room temperature molten salt (RTMS) electrolyte composed of lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfone)imide (LiN(SO2CF3)2, LiTFSI) and acetamide was found. Both LiTFSI and acetamide are solid at room temperature, but their mixture is a liquid at room temperature with a eutectic temperature of ?67 °C at a molar ratio of 1:4 (LiTFSI:Acetamide). The room temperature ionic conductivities of some compositions of

Yongsheng Hu; Hong Li; Xuejie Huang; Liquan Chen

2004-01-01

175

Solidification of high temperature molten salts for thermal energy storage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solidification of phase change materials for the high temperature thermal energy storage system of an advanced solar thermal power system has been examined theoretically. In light of the particular thermophysical properties of candidate phase change high temperature salts, such as the eutectic mixture of NaF - MgF2, the heat transfer characteristics of one-dimensional inward solidification for a cylindrical geometry

J. W. Sheffield

1981-01-01

176

Synthesis and fluorescence properties of Y 2O 3:Eu by molten salt synthesis method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red phosphors Y2O3:Eu were synthesized via molten salt synthesis method with the eutectic mixtures of KNO3-NaNO3 or KCl-NaCl as the fluxes. The as-prepared samples were investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The results showed that as-synthesized phosphors had good cubic crystallinity and the effect of annealing temperature on crystallinity was significant.

Xiaoyong WU; Yujun LIANG; Mingyu LIU; Rui CHEN; Yongzhou LI

2010-01-01

177

Anodic behavior of a carbon plate in an LiCl-KCl binary molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of a negative pole of a carbon plate (a mixture of graphite with glassy carbon) in a eutectic LiCl-KCl binary molten salt has been investigated at 360–500 °C, as a fundamental study on high temperature lithium secondary cells. Both cyclic voltammetric and galvanostatic charge\\/discharge data suggested that reversible insertion\\/extraction of lithium can take place accompanied by stage formation.

Atsushi Adachi; Yasushi Katayama; Takashi Miura; Tomiya Kishi

1997-01-01

178

Substituent effects on ferrocenes in aluminum chloride-butylpyridinium chloride molten-salt mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The visible absorption spectra and reduction potentials of 11 ferrocenes containing electron-withdrawing substituents were determined in an N-n-butylpyridinium chloride-aluminum chloride molten salt. When the substituent(s) on the cyclopentadienyl ring(s) of ferrocene were varied, the reduction potential was caused to range over 1.25 V, and the wavelength for maximum absorption of visible light was varied by nearly 200 nm. These changes are greater than have been observed for similar ferrocenes in other nonaqueous solvents. Evidence is presented for specific interactions of particular ferrocenes with the molten salt.

Edgecombe, A.L.; Fowler, J.S.; Gibbard, H.F. (Gould Research Center, Rolling Meadows, IL (USA)); Slocum, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Phillips, J. (Altus Corp., San Jose, CA (USA))

1990-02-01

179

Detectability by Radar of Salts in Martian Ice Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt in martian ice could have significant implications for ice-rheology near and above eutectic temperatures. Using laboratory data and dielectric modeling, we investigate detection of salts, including perchlorate salts, using radar attenuation.

Winebrenner, D. P.; Stillman, D. E.; Grimm, R. E.

2011-03-01

180

Photovoltaic performance of dye sensitized solar cell based on rutile TiO 2 scaffold electrode prepared by a 2 step bi-layer process using molten salt matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye sensitized solar cells were made on TiO2 scaffold anodes of rutile particles. These TiO2 scaffold anodes were grown from rutile seeds by using a molten salt synthesis technique. Different thickness coatings of mixed amorphous titanium hydroxide and NaCl–KCl eutectic salt mixture on the rutile seeds were heat treated at different temperatures. The rutile whiskers of different aspect ratios were

B. Roy; P. A. Fuierer; S. Aich

2011-01-01

181

Ion specificity at a low salt concentration in water-methanol mixtures exemplified by a growth of polyelectrolyte multilayer.  

PubMed

By use of a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), we have investigated the specific ion effect on the growth of poly(sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate)/poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) multilayer at a salt concentration as low as 2.0 mM in water-methanol mixtures. QCM-D results demonstrate that specific ion effect can be observed in methanol and water-methanol mixtures though it is negligible in water. Moreover, the specific ion effect is amplified as the molar fraction of methanol (xM) increases from 0% to 75% but is weakened again with the further increase of xM from 75% to 100%. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements reveal that the counterion-polyelectrolyte segment interactions may not account for the observed ion specificity. By extending the Collins' concept of matching water affinities to methanol and water-methanol mixtures, we suggest that the ion-solvent interactions and the resulted counterion-charged group interactions are responsible for the occurrence of the specific ion effect. The conductivity measurements indicate that water and methanol molecules may form complexes, and the change of relative proportion of complexes with the xM causes the amplification or weakening of the specific ion effect. PMID:23425248

Long, Yunchao; Wang, Tao; Liu, Lvdan; Liu, Guangming; Zhang, Guangzhao

2013-03-05

182

Calculation of the sound velocity in LiF-KBr salt mixtures with a miscibility gap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model is proposed for an ionic melt with many kinds of ions. It uses the Debye-Hückel theory to take into account the Coulomb interaction and the van der Waals approach to consider the direct contribution of the excluded volume forces. For LiF-KBr salt melts with a miscibility gap, the immiscibility dome, density, isothermal compressibility, and the sound velocity above and below the critical mixing point are calculated. The calculation results are compared with recent experimental data.

Zinatulina, A. R.; Tkachev, N. K.

2010-08-01

183

Conformational transitions of flexible hydrophobic polyelectrolytes in solutions of monovalent and multivalent salts and their mixtures.  

PubMed

Conformations of cationic polyelectrolytes (PEs), a weak poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) and a strong poly(N-methyl-2-vinylpyridinium iodide) (qP2VP), adsorbed on mica from saline solutions in the presence of counterions of different valences are studied using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). Quantitative characteristics of chain conformations are analyzed using AFM images of the adsorbed molecules. The results of the statistical analysis of the chain contour reveal collapse of the PE coils when ionic strength is in a range from tens to hundreds of millimoles per kilogram and re-expansion of the coils with a further increase of ionic strength up to a region of the saturated saline solutions. The competition between monovalent and multivalent counterions simultaneously present in solutions strongly affects conformations of PE chains even at a very small fraction of multivalent counterions. Shrinkage of PE coils is steeper for multivalent counterions than for monovalent counterions. However, the re-expansion is only incremental in the presence of multivalent counterions. Extended adsorbed coils at low salt concentrations and at very high concentrations of monovalent salt exhibit conformation corresponding to a 2D coil with 0.95 fraction of bound segments (segments in "trains") in the regime of diluted surface concentration of the PE. Shrunken coils in the intermediate range of ionic strength resemble 3D-globules with 0.8 fraction of trains. The incrementally re-expanded PE coils at a high ionic strength remain unchanged at higher multivalent salt concentrations up to the solubility limit of the salt. The formation of a strong PE complex with multivalent counterions at high ionic strength is not well understood yet. A speculative explanation of the observed experimental result is based on possible stabilization of the complex due to hydrophobic interactions of the backbone. PMID:22413781

Trotsenko, Oleksandr; Roiter, Yuri; Minko, Sergiy

2012-03-29

184

Effect of organic acid and salt mixture on shelf-life extension and growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in moo yor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated the effects of organic acids and salts solution on shelf-life extension and growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in moo yor (pork bologna). A mixture of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid and their sodium salts was added to moo yor at various concentrations of 0 (control), 0.5, 0.75 and 1% (w\\/v) then stored

Puntarika Ratanatriwong; Preyatudsaney Prachaiyo; Pisit Wongsa-Ngasri

185

Comparative study of dielectric properties of MgNb 2 O 6 prepared by molten salt and ceramic method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium niobate (MgNb2O6) powder was synthesized by the conventional ceramic route as well as by the molten salt route using a eutectic mixture of\\u000a NaCl-KCl as the salt and Mg(NO3)2-6H2O and TiO2 as the starting materials. Pure phase of MgNb2O6 could be obtained by the molten salt method at 1100°C. However, in ceramic method the pure phase of MgNb2O6 was

Vishnu Shanker; Ashok K. Ganguli

2003-01-01

186

Electrochemical production of KNO/sub 3//NANO/sub 3/ salt mixture  

SciTech Connect

A process for the electrolytic production of a chloride-free mixture consisting essentially of sodium and potassium nitrates is disclosed. In this process, an anolyte brine comprised of a mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides dissolved therein is electrolyzed in a membrane type electrolysis type cell to produce a mixed alkali metal hydroxide catholyte solution. The catholyte is reacted with nitric acid to form a mixed potassium-sodium nitrate solution. By properly adjusting the ratio of potassium chloride to sodium chloride concentration in the anolyte brine, a final nitrate product containing about from about 40% to about 80% NaNO/sub 3/ and from about 60% to about 20% KNO/sub 3/ by weight can be produced. The resulting product, after drying is suitable for use in many solar panel heat transfer applications.

Dotson, R.L.; Carpenter, L.D.; Miles, R.C.

1984-08-14

187

Reactions of coal and model coal compounds in room temperature molten salt mixtures  

SciTech Connect

A 2:1 AlCl/sub 3/-pyridinium chloride molten salt solution was used as the reaction medium for the alkylation of diphenylethane and a bituminous coal by 2-propanol. Probably accompanying the room temperature Friedel-Crafts alkylation is a reduction of C=O to -C-OH. Completely deuterated 2-propanol did not react at all with the pyridinium ring. The pyridinium chloride serves to lower the temperature at which the AlCl/sub 3/ is able to catalyze the reactions. The pyridinium chloride also catalyzes the Friedel-Crafts alkylation.

Newman, D.S.; Winans, R.E.; McBeth, R.L.

1984-05-01

188

Fermentation profiles of Manzanilla-Aloreña cracked green table olives in different chloride salt mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

NaCl plays an important role in table olive processing affecting the flavour and microbiological stability of the final product. However, consumers demand foods low in sodium, which makes necessary to decrease levels of this mineral in fruits. In this work, the effects of diverse mixtures of NaCl, CaCl2 and KCl on the fermentation profiles of cracked directly brined Manzanilla-Aloreña olives,

J. Bautista-Gallego; F. N. Arroyo-López; M. C. Durán-Quintana; A. Garrido-Fernández

2010-01-01

189

Water sorption and time-dependent crystallization behaviour of freeze-dried lactose–salt mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water sorption properties of freeze-dried lactose, lactose\\/CaCl2, lactose\\/NaCl, lactose\\/MgCl2, and lactose\\/KCl mixtures in their molar ratio of (9:1) were investigated. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and Guggenheim–Anderson–de Boer (GAB) models were used to model water sorption properties. Water is known to function as a plasticizer, depressing the glass transition and facilitating crystallization. Crystallization in the present study resulted in loss of sorbed water

A. M. Elmonsef Omar; Yrjö H. Roos

2007-01-01

190

Corrosion of stainless steels and carbon steel by molten mixtures of commercial nitrate salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isothermal corrosion behavior of two stainless steels and a carbon (C) steel in mixtures of NaNO3 and KNO3 was evaluated to determine if the impurities found in commodity grades of alkali nitrates aggravate corrosivity as applicable\\u000a to an advanced solar thermal energy system. Corrosion tests were conducted for approximately 7000 hours with Types 304 and\\u000a 316 stainless steels at

S. H. Goods; R. W. Bradshaw

2004-01-01

191

Physical and electrochemical properties of new binary room-temperature molten salt electrolyte based on LiBETI and acetamide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new binary room-temperature molten salt electrolyte based on lithium bis(perfluoroethysulfonyl) imide (LiN(SO2C2F5)2, LiBETI) and acetamide has been prepared and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), IR, Raman spectroscopy, ac impedance, and cyclic voltammetry, etc. Both LiBETI and acetamide are solid, but their mixture is a liquid at room temperature with a eutectic temperature of ?57 °C at a molar

Yongsheng Hu; Zhaoxiang Wang; Xuejie Huang; Liquan Chen

2004-01-01

192

Ceramic foam as a potential molten salt oxidation catalyst support in the removal of soot from diesel exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory study has been carried out to determine the potential of open-pore ceramic foam as support for molten-salt diesel soot oxidation catalysts. These catalysts are based on eutectic mixtures of Cs2O, V2O5, MoO3, and Cs2SO4. Open-pore ceramic foams are very interesting, since they can act as supports and as soot filters. 50ppi ?-alumina foam has been tested as support

B. A. A. L van Setten; J Bremmer; S. J Jelles; M Makkee; J. A Moulijn

1999-01-01

193

Thermoreversible Vesicle-to-Micelle Transitions in Surfactant-Salt Mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixtures of the cationic surfactant, CTAB and the organic compound, 5-methyl salicylic acid (5mS) spontaneously self-assemble into unilamellar vesicles at room temperature. Upon heating, these vesicles undergo a thermoreversible transition to wormlike micelles. This phase transition results in a 1000-fold increase in the solution viscosity with increasing temperature. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements show that the phase transition from vesicles to micelles is a continuous one, with the vesicles and micelles co-existing over a range of temperatures. A mechanism for the above phase transition is proposed, based on the desorption of bound aromatic counterions from the vesicle as a function of temperature.

Ketner, Aimee; Davies, Tanner; Raghavan, Srinivasa

2006-03-01

194

Molten salt synthesis of LiMn 2O 4 using chloride–carbonate melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium manganese oxide powders have been successfully prepared by molten salt synthesis (MSS) route using the eutectic mixture of LiCl, MnCl2·4H2O and Li2CO3 salts. The synthesis was performed at 700°C using an electrical resistance furnace. The crystalline powders were characterized using TGA\\/DTA, XRD, FT-IR, AAS, CHNS, EDAX, EPR and SEM analyses. The lattice constant value for LiMn2O4 is a=8.1834Å. The

M. Helan; L. John Berchmans; Timy P. Jose; A. Visuvasam; S. Angappan

2010-01-01

195

Molten salt synthesis of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate stannate powders and ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powders and ceramics with a composition (Pb0.97La0.02) (Zr0.66Sn0.27Ti0.07)O3 were prepared by the molten salt synthesis (MSS) method, using Li2SO4–Na2SO4 and NaCl–KCl eutectic mixtures as the flux. The influences of processing parameters, such as temperature, time, and type of molten salts, on the formation and sinterability of PLZST were investigated. XRD and SEM were used for characterization of the as-prepared powders

Shixi Zhao; Qiang Li; Lin Wang; Yiling Zhang

2006-01-01

196

Coal gasification by CO 2 gas bubbling in molten salt for solar\\/fossil energy hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification with CO2 (the Boudouard reaction: C+CO2=2CO, ?rH°=169.2 kJ\\/mol at 1150 K), which can be applied to a solar thermochemical process to convert concentrated solar heat into chemical energy, was conducted in the molten salt medium (eutectic mixture of Na2CO3 and K2CO3, weight ratio=1\\/1) to provide thermal storage. When CO2 gas was bubbled through the molten salt, higher reaction

Jun Matsunami; Shinya Yoshida; Yoshinori Oku; Osamu Yokota; Yutaka Tamaura; Mitsunobu Kitamura

2000-01-01

197

Chalcogenide chemistry in molten salts. I. Selenium(IV) acido-basic and redox properties in the LiCl–KCl eutectic melt at 450, 500, 550 and 600 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten salt chemistry of chalcogenides has become a major concern in relation to two current great application domains which are (i) nuclear energy (pyrochemical nuclear waste treatment and molten salt reactors) and (ii) electrodeposition of functional material thin films (photovoltaic, magnetism, supraconductivity, etc.). This paper reports experimental data relevant to the molten salt chemistry of selenium in the molten LiCl–KCl

Sylvie Rouquette-Sanchez; Gérard S. Picard

2004-01-01

198

Distribution behavior of plutonium and americium in LiCl–KCl eutectic\\/liquid cadmium systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamics of plutonium and americium in LiCl–KCl eutectic\\/liquid cadmium systems was studied with interest in the oxidation state of americium in the salt phase. The standard potential of plutonium vs. the Ag\\/AgCl (1 wt% AgCl) electrode, E0Pu\\/Pu(III), in the LiCl–KCl eutectic was measured in the temperature range of 400–500°C and given by the equation with a standard deviation, ?=0.0009

Y Sakamura; O Shirai; T Iwai; Y Suzuki

2001-01-01

199

Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode.

Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Hayden, H. Wayne (Oakridge, TN)

1995-01-01

200

Physical chemistry of molten salt batteries. Final report for period October 1, 1979September 30, 1980. Current-induced composition gradients in molten LiCl-KCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current induced composition gradients were demonstrated in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic mixture, the electrolyte of an LiAl\\/LiCl-KCl\\/FeS\\/sub x\\/ battery. The gradients were produced by electrolysis of the salt between LiAl electrodes at currents of 50 to 100 mA cm⁻², and quenching. Analysis of composition profiles in quenched samples was by atomic absorption spectroscopy, which gave good precision, and by x-ray

J. Braunstein; S. Cantor; C. E. Vallet

1981-01-01

201

Removal of nanoaerosol during the bubbling of the salt melt of beryllium and lithium fluorides for the preparation of reactor radioisotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parameters of aerosol particles formed in the course of the spontaneous thermal condensation of vapors and bubbling a 66LiF-34BeF2 (mol %) eutectic salt mixture with helium have been studied. For this purpose, a vertical bubbling mode at T ≈ 900 K and an ampule device for obtaining reactor radioisotopes for medical applications were used. The rate of the bulk

A. V. Zagnit'ko; D. Yu. Chuvilin

2010-01-01

202

A non-ideal model for predicting the effect of dissolved salt on the flash point of solvent mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flash point is one of the major quantities used to characterize the fire and explosion hazard of liquids. Herein, a liquid with dissolved salt is presented in a salt-distillation process for separating close-boiling or azeotropic systems. The addition of salts to a liquid may reduce fire and explosion hazard. In this study, we have modified a previously proposed model for

Horng-Jang Liaw; Tzu-Ai Wang

2007-01-01

203

Accelerator-driven subcritical fission in molten salt core: Closing the nuclear fuel cycle for green nuclear energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technology for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) is being developed as a basis for the destruction of the transuranics in used nuclear fuel. The molten salt fuel is a eutectic mixture of NaCl and the chlorides of the transuranics and fission products. The core is driven by proton beams from a strong-focusing cyclotron stack. This approach uniquely provides an intrinsically safe means to drive a core fueled only with transuranics, thereby eliminating competing breeding terms.

McIntyre, Peter; Assadi, Saeed; Badgley, Karie; Baker, William; Comeaux, Justin; Gerity, James; Kellams, Joshua; McInturff, Al; Pogue, Nathaniel; Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Sattarov, Akhdiyor; Simpson, Michael; Sooby, Elizabeth; Tsvetkov, Pavel

2013-04-01

204

Flow strength of highly hydrated Mg and Na-sulfate hydrate salts, pure and in mixtures with water ice, with application to Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We selected two Europan-ice-shell candidate highly hydrated sulfate salts for a laboratory survey of ductile flow properties: MgSO4·7H2O (epsomite) and Na2SO4·10H2O (mirabilite), called MS7 and NS10, respectively. Polycrystalline samples in pure form and in mixtures with water ice I were tested using our cryogenic high-pressure creep apparatus at temperatures 232 ? T ? 294 K, confining pressures P = 50

William B. Durham; Laura A. Stern; Tomoaki Kubo; Stephen H. Kirby

2005-01-01

205

Design of eutectic photoinitiator blends for UV\\/visible curable acrylated printing inks and coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimisation of photoinitiator systems used in UV printing inks and coatings has been carried out by means of Design of Experiments (Mixture designs). Mixture designs have been used to improve the reactivity of photoinitiator blends in order to design cost effective, synergistic, near eutectic photoinitiator blends for curing UV printing inks. Both the reactivity and bulk stability of photoinitiator

Juan Segurola; Norman S Allen; Michele Edge; Adam Mc Mahon

1999-01-01

206

Devitrification studies of wollastonite-tricalcium phosphate eutectic glass.  

PubMed

The present paper describes and discusses the devitrification and crystallization process of wollastonite-tricalcium phosphate (W-TCP) eutectic glass. This process was studied in situ from room temperature up to 1375 degrees C, by neutron diffractometry in vacuum. The data obtained were combined and compared with those performed in ambient atmosphere by differential thermal analysis and with those of samples fired in air at selected temperatures, and then cooled down and subsequently studied by laboratory XRD and field emission scanning electron microscopy fitted with energy X-ray dispersive spectroscopy. The experimental evidence indicates that the devitrification of W-TCP eutectic glass begins at approximately 870 degrees C with the crystallization of a Ca-deficient apatite phase, followed by wollastonite-2M (CaSiO(3)) crystallization at approximately 1006 degrees C. At 1375 degrees C, the bio-glass-ceramic is composed of quasi-rounded colonies formed by a homogeneous mixture of pseudowollastonite (CaSiO(3)) and alpha-tricalcium phosphate (Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)). This microstructure corresponds to irregular eutectic structures. It was also found that it is possible to obtain from the eutectic composition of the wollastonite-tricalcium phosphate binary system a wide range of bio-glass-ceramics, with different crystalline phases present, through appropriate design of thermal treatments. PMID:19427932

Magallanes-Perdomo, M; Pena, P; De Aza, P N; Carrodeguas, R G; Rodríguez, M A; Turrillas, X; De Aza, S; De Aza, A H

2009-05-04

207

Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Proerties of Ti(Ni, Fe)Sn Ultrafine Eutectic Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafine eutectic alloys have been developed in Ti-Ni, Ti-Fe and Ti-(Ni, Fe)-Sn alloys. The Ti76Ni24 and (Ti74Ni26)97Sn3 ultrafine eutectic alloys consist of a mixture of alpha-Ti and Ti2Ni phases, and beta-Ti(Sn) and Ti2Ni phases, respectively, whereas the Ti70.5Fe29.5 and (Ti70.5Fe29.5)97Sn3 alloys are composed by a mixture of beta-Ti(Sn) and FeTi phases with relatively spherical colony. The compression tests of Ti76Ni24,

Dong Hyouk Pi; Ki Buem Kim; Jin Man Park; Jun Hee Han; Do Hyang Kim

2009-01-01

208

A More Rational Treatment of the AcidBase Equilibria Applying the Proton Condition, or the Hydroxyl Condition, in Equilibrium. How the Hydroxyls are Additive in Equilibrium: Dissolutions of Bases, Salts and Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calculus of the acid-base equilibria can be rationalized by applying the proton condition or the hydroxyl condition in every case, on solutions of strong bases, mixtures of bases, mixtures of acids and bases, and different salts. Furthermore, applying the proton condition or the hydroxyl condition in equilibrium, it is clearly pointed out that the hydroxyls in equilibrium are additive

Alfonso Casado-Riobó

2008-01-01

209

Prevention of crystallization fouling during eutectic freeze crystallization in fluidized bed heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutectic freeze crystallization is a promising separation technique to produce salt and ice crystals with very high purities and requires less energy than competitive evaporative crystallization techniques. A drawback of this technique is crystallization fouling, which seriously reduces heat transfer rates. Solid–liquid fluidized bed heat exchangers may be attractive crystallizers for this purpose, since they have demonstrated to prevent severe

P. Pronk; C. A. Infante Ferreira; G. J. Witkamp

2008-01-01

210

Design of a Eutectic Freeze Crystallization process for multicomponent waste water stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex, hypersaline brines originating from the mining and extractive metallurgical industries have the potential to be treated using Eutectic Freeze Crystallization (EFC). Although EFC has been shown to be effective in separating a single salt and water, it has yet to be applied to the complex hypersaline brines that are typical of reverse osmosis retentates in South Africa. This paper

A. E. Lewis; J. Nathoo; K. Thomsen; H. J. Kramer; G. J. Witkamp; S. T. Reddy; D. G. Randall

2010-01-01

211

Corrosion of Selected Alloys in Eutectic Lithium-Sodium-Potassium Carbonate at 900 deg C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is an ongoing interest at the US Department of Energy in using molten salts as high temperature sensible heat storage media in advanced solar thermal systems. In this report, the compatibility of selected alloys in eutectic lithium-sodium-potassium ...

R. T. Coyle T. M. Thomas P. Schissel

1986-01-01

212

Fluoride salts and container materials for thermal energy storage applications in the temperature range 973 - 1400 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multicomponent fluoride salt mixtures were characterized for use as latent heat of fusion heat storage materials in advanced solar dynamic space power systems with operating temperatures in the range of 973 to 1400 K. The melting points and eutectic composition for many systems with published phase diagrams were verified, and several new eutectic compositions were identified. Additionally, the heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The extent of corrosion of various metals by fluoride melts was estimated from thermodynamic considerations, and equilibrium conditions inside a containment vessel were calculated as functions of the initial moisture content of the salt and free volume above the molten salt. Preliminary experimental data on the corrosion of commercial, high-temperature alloys in LiF-19.5CaF2 and NaF-27CaF2-36MgF2 melts are presented and compared to the thermodynamic predictions.

Misra, Ajay K.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

213

Ionic liquid analogues formed from hydrated metal salts.  

PubMed

A dark green, viscous liquid can be formed by mixing choline chloride with chromium(III) chloride hexahydrate and the physical properties are characteristic of an ionic liquid. The eutectic composition is found to be 1:2 choline chloride/chromium chloride. The viscosity and conductivity are measured as a function of temperature and composition and explained in terms of the ion size and liquid void volume. The electrochemical response of the ionic liquid is also characterised and it is shown that chromium can be electrodeposited efficiently to yield a crack-free deposit. This approach could circumvent the use of chromic acid for chromium electroplating, which would be a major environmental benefit. This method of using hydrated metal salts to form ionic liquids is shown to be valid for a variety of other salt mixtures with choline chloride. PMID:15281161

Abbott, Andrew P; Capper, Glen; Davies, David L; Rasheed, Raymond K

2004-08-01

214

Corrosion of selected alloys in eutectic lithium-sodium-potassium carbonate at 900C  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an ongoing interest at the US Department of Energy in using molten salts as high temperature sensible heat storage media in advanced solar thermal systems. In this report, the compatibility of selected alloys in eutectic lithium-sodium-potassium carbonate, the salt that will be used in the near-term engineering experiments, has been evaluated at 900C. Several combinations of oxidation potential

R. T. Coyle; T. M. Thomas; P. Schissel

1986-01-01

215

Energetic salts based on dipicrylamine and its amino derivative.  

PubMed

Energetic salts based on dipicrylamine and its amino derivative were synthesized. All salts were fully characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C), vibrational spectroscopy (IR), and elemental analysis. Ethylenediammonium di-DPA (DPA=dipicrylamine) and 1,3-diaminoguanidinium DPA were further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. These salts exhibit reasonable physical properties, such as high densities (1.71-1.81 g cm(-3)), good thermal stabilities (T(d) =155-285 °C), and low solubilities in water. The impact sensitivity of 1-methyl-3,4,5-triamino-1,2,4-triazolium DPA is lower than that of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and for some other energetic salts their impact sensitivities are comparable to that of TNT. Based on experimental densities and theoretical calculations carried out by using the Gaussian 03 suite of programs, all the salts have calculated detonation pressures (22.5-27.8 GPa) and velocities (7226-7917 m s(-1)) that exceed those of conventional TNT. The toxicities of these salts measured by luminescent bacteria toxicity tests are much lower than that of TNT, and two binary eutectic mixtures with melting points that fall between 70 and 100 °C were identified. PMID:22038898

Huang, Haifeng; Zhou, Zhiming; Song, Jinhong; Liang, Lixuan; Wang, Kai; Cao, Dan; Sun, Wenwen; Dong, Xuemin; Xue, Min

2011-10-31

216

Tallow based detergent formulations: Mixtures of alcohol sulfates, salts of a -sulfo acids and esters, and soap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saturated (I, ROSO3Na) and unsaturated (II, R’OSO3Na) tallow alcohol sulfates, the disodium salt ofa-sulfonated saturated tallow fatty acids (III, RCH(SO3Na)CO2Na), the sodium salt of the methyl ester ofa-sulfonated saturated tallow fatty acids (IV, RCH(SO3Na) CO2CH3), and commercial tallow soap flakes (V) were compared, singly and in combinations, as built and unbuilt solutions in soft\\u000a and hard water, with respect to

A. J. Stirton; R. G. Bistline; Eileen B. Leardi; M. V. Nuñez-Ponzoa

1967-01-01

217

A novel mouse model of combined hyperlipidemia associated with steatosis and liver injury by a single-dose intragastric administration of schisandrin b/cholesterol/bile salts mixture.  

PubMed

Hyperlipidemia is referred to as hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, or both in combined hyperlipidemia. Here, a novel mouse model of combined hyperlipidemia is described. Mice were orally given a single dose of a modeling agent (MA) made of a mixture of schisandrin B/cholesterol/bile salts (1/2/0.5 g/kg) suspended in olive oil. MA treatment increased serum triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) (up to 422% and 100% at 12 - 96 h post-treatment, respectively) and hepatic TG and TC (up to 220% and 26%, respectively) in a time- and dose-dependent manner, associated with elevation of high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein levels. Serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferase activities, indicators of liver cell damage, were also elevated (up to 198%) at 48 and 72 h post-MA treatment. Fenofibrate blocks MA-induced hyperlipidemia, lipid accumulation in the liver, as well as liver injury. Oral administration of a mixture of schisandrin B, cholesterol, and bile salt could generate an interesting mouse model of combined hyperlipidemia associated with hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis. PMID:24096833

Pan, Si-Yuan; Jia, Zhan-Hong; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Qing; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Nan; Zhu, Pei-Li; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Ko, Kam-Ming

2013-10-04

218

Eutectic solidification and its role in casting porosity formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding and controlling the eutectic solidification process in Al-Si alloys permits prediction of the formation of casting porosity, eventually leading to methods for its control and elimination. In addition, it enables control of eutectic structure, silicon morphology, and eutectic grain size to further improve the alloy properties. This paper presents the current understanding of eutectic solidification in hypoeutectic Al-Si foundry alloys and the relationship between eutectic solidification and porosity formation. New concepts in engineering eutectic solidification are also explored.

Lu, L.; Nogita, K.; McDonald, S. D.; Dahle, A. K.; Lu, L.; Dahle, A. K.

2004-11-01

219

Solidification of high temperature molten salts for thermal energy storage systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solidification of phase change materials for the high temperature thermal energy storage system of an advanced solar thermal power system has been examined theoretically. In light of the particular thermophysical properties of candidate phase change high temperature salts, such as the eutectic mixture of NaF - MgF2, the heat transfer characteristics of one-dimensional inward solidification for a cylindrical geometry have been studied. The Biot number for the solidified salt is shown to be the critical design parameter for constant extraction heat flux. A fin-on-fin design concept of heat transfer surface augmentation is proposed in an effort to minimize the effects of the salt's low thermal conductivity and large volume change upon fusing.

Sheffield, J. W.

1981-06-01

220

Transdermal delivery from eutectic systems: enhanced permeation of a model drug, ibuprofen.  

PubMed

The formation of eutectic systems between ibuprofen (ibu) and seven terpene skin penetration enhancers was studied and, by using the eutectic systems as donors, the effects of melting point depression of the delivery system on transdermal delivery were investigated. A range of ibu:terpene binary mixtures were melted together, cooled, and recrystallised. Composition/melting point phase diagrams were determined by DSC and FT-IR analysis was used to investigated the nature of the interaction. Permeation of ibu across human epidermal membrane from the eutectic system was measured and compared to the flux from a saturated aqueous solution across skin and skin pretreated with the terpenes. The eutectic, i.e. minimum, melting points of these systems ranged from 32 degrees C for ibu:thymol 40:60 (% w/w) to -13 degrees C for ibu:1,8-cineole 40:60 (% w/w) compared to 76 degrees C for ibu alone. FT-IR studies indicated that only the terpenes which formed hydrogen bonds with ibu produced eutectic systems. Each set of ibu:terpene eutectic systems produced a significant (t-test, p = 0.05) increase in flux compared to a saturated aqueous solution applied to untreated and to terpene pretreated skin. For example, ibu:thymol 40:60 (% w/w) produced a flux of 150 micrograms/cm2/h, 5.9 times the flux from a saturated aqueous solution with thymol pretreated skin and 12.7 times the flux from a saturated aqueous solution across non-pretreated skin. In conclusion, a hydrogen bonding interaction is the primary mechanism by which some terpenes form binary eutectic mixtures with ibu. The resultant melting point depression of the delivery system is correlated with a significant increase in transdermal permeation. PMID:9685897

Stott, P W; Williams, A C; Barry, B W

1998-01-01

221

Microstructure and Physical Properties of Sulfate Hydrate/Ice Eutectic Aggregates in the Binary System Sodium-Sulfate/Water at Planetary Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflectance spectra data from Mars Odyssey, Galileo and potentially from Cassini suggest the presence of hydrated salts on numerous satellites in environments such as evaporate beds or combined with water ice. Improved mission data on these occurrences indicate that grain structures and properties of such materials merit a closer look using laboratory methods. Here we report the synthesis of a two-phase aggregate of sodium sulfate hydrate and water ice made by eutectic solidification from solution, characterization of its microstructure using cryogenic SEM, and comparison of its physical properties to those of its end-member components. Samples are crystallized from solution using a precision cryobath and seeded growth. The reaction is a "simple" one meaning that there is no solid solution formation in either of the two solid phases. The eutectic composition we studied for the sodium sulfate hydrate is 4wt% Na2SO4, which corresponds to about .06 volume fraction of Na2SO4?10H2O, mirabilite, and .94 ice I. The eutectic microstructure observed with this volume fraction, which is termed "broken lamellar", consists of fairly uniform blade-like mirabilite grains arranged in roughly parallel columns within a water ice matrix. The blades and matrix material form a lamella that alternates with lamellae of pure ice. Energy dispersive spectroscopy of these eutectic mixtures confirms the presence of the two crystalline phases. Also, we find that lamellar spacing decreases with increasing growth rate. Constant-strain-rate tests in compression are carried out in the cryogenic gas deformation apparatus at LLNL in a pressure-temperature range appropriate to the icy satellites. We report the rheology of the two-phase aggregate and compare it to the strength properties of pure water ice and pure mirabilite. With the aid of numerous studies on similar structures in the literature on metals, we analyze the deformation mechanics from the perspective of defect and crack propagation between the two phases in the eutectic structure. This ongoing investigation is the first of several planned experimental studies of sulfate-hydrate binaries with ice I that are likely to be important in the icy satellites.

McCarthy, C. M.; Kirby, S.; Durham, W.; Stern, L.

2004-12-01

222

Salt Bath Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A salt bath furnace is basically a ceramic or metal container filled with molten salt into which work is immersed for either heating or cooling. The furnace contains salt such as nitrates, nitrites, caustic soda, chlorides, carbonates, and cyanide. Mixtures of salt are selected to give a specific temperature range and a desired treatment (or lack of treatment) to the

Gordon W. Anderson

1974-01-01

223

Molten salt thermal energy storage systems: Salt selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 31 inorganic salts and salt mixtures, including 9 alkali and alkaline earth carbonate mixtures, were evaluated for their suitability as heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage materials at temperatures of 850 to 1000 F. Thermophysical properties, safety hazards, corrosion, and cost of these salts were compared on a common basis. It is concluded that because alkali carbonate mixtures show

H. C. Maru; H. F. Dullea; V. S. Huang

1976-01-01

224

Eutectic nucleation in Al-Si alloys  

SciTech Connect

In addition to a change in silicon morphology, modification of aluminium-silicon alloys with strontium or sodium increases the size of the eutectic grains. To determine the mechanism responsible, eutectic solidification in commercial purity and ultra-high purity aluminium-silicon alloys, with and without strontium additions, was examined by a quenching technique. In the commercial unmodified alloy, nucleation was prolific while in the high-purity unmodified alloy few eutectic grains nucleated. The addition of strontium to the commercial alloy reduced the number of eutectic grains that nucleated. Addition of strontium to the high-purity alloy did not significantly alter nucleation. It is concluded that commercial purity alloys contain a large number of potent nuclei that are susceptible to poisoning by impurity modification. The flake-to-fibre transition that occurs with impurity modification is shown to be independent of any change in eutectic nucleation mode and frequency.

McDonald, Stuart D.; Nogita, Kazuhiro; Dahle, Arne K

2004-08-16

225

Ammonia losses from surface-placed mixtures of urea-calcium-potassium salts in the presence of phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus compounds frequently are mixed with urea containing materials for economy in fertilizer operations. There is little published information on NH3 losses from surface application of these mixtures. However, there is evidence that P can react and precipitate with adsorbed and added Ca and increase the potential for NH3 loss. This paper compares NH3 losses from surface applied urea plus

L. B. Fenn; G. Tatum; G. Horst

1990-01-01

226

Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are disclosed for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode. 2 figures.

Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W.

1995-01-10

227

Applications of Molten Salts in Plutonium Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plutonium is efficiently recovered from scrap at Los Alamos by a series of chemical reactions and separations conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 900 deg C. These processes usually employ a molten salt or salt eutectic as a heat sink and/or reac...

D. F. Bowersox D. C. Christensen J. D. Williams

1987-01-01

228

Molten salt pyrolysis of latex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latex-rich plants such as guayule or extracts thereof pyrolyzed in an inert nitrogen atmosphere in inorganic salt melts such as a LiCl\\/KCl eutectic at a temperature of about 500°C. Yield over 60% of a highly aromatic, combustible hydrocarbon oil suitab for use as a synthetic liquid fuel.

Bauman

1981-01-01

229

Re-evaluation of the eutectic region of the LiBr-KBr-LiF system  

SciTech Connect

The separator pellet in a thermal battery consists of electrolyte immobilized by a binder (typically, MgO powder). The melting point of the electrolyte determines the effective operating window for its use in a thermal battery. The development of a two-hour thermal battery required the use of a molten salt that had a lower melting point and larger liquidus range than the LiCl-KCl eutectic which melts at 352 C. Several candidate eutectic electrolyte systems were evaluated for their suitability for this application. One was the LiCl-LiBr-KBr eutectic used at Argonne National Laboratories for high-temperature rechargeable batteries for electric-vehicle applications. Using a custom-designed high-temperature conductivity cell, the authors were able to readily determine the liquidus region for the various compositions studied around the original eutectic for the LiBr-KBr-LiF system. The actual eutectic composition was found to be 60.0 m/o LiBr-37.5 m/o KBr-2.5 m/o LiF with a melting point of 324 {+-} 0.5 C.

Redey, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Guidotti, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-05-01

230

Use of a D-optimal design with constrains to quantify the effects of the mixture of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chloride salts on the growth parameters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effect of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, and MgCl2 on the water activity (a\\u000a w) and the growth parameters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied by means of a D-optimal mixture design with constrains (total salt concentrations ? 9.0%, w\\/v). The a\\u000a w was linearly related to the concentrations of the diverse salts; its decrease, by similar concentrations of salts, followed\\u000a the order

J. Bautista-Gallego; F. N. Arroyo-López; A. Chiesa; M. C. Durán-Quintana; A. Garrido-Fernández

2008-01-01

231

Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Multivalent Ion Concentrations in Molten Salt  

SciTech Connect

Electrorefining of spent metallic nuclear fuel in high temperature molten salt systems is a core technology in pyroprocessing, which in turn plays a critical role in the development of advanced fuel cycle technologies. In electrorefining, spent nuclear fuel is treated electrochemically in order to effect separations between uranium, noble metals, and active metals, which include the transuranics. The accumulation of active metals in a lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt electrolyte occurs at the expense of the UCl3-oxidant concentration in the electrolyte, which must be periodically replenished. Our interests lie with the accumulation of active metals in the molten salt electrolyte. The real-time monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte is highly desirable for controlling electrochemical operations and assuring materials control and accountancy. However, real-time monitoring is not possible with current methods for sampling and chemical analysis. A new solid-state electrochemical sensor is being developed for real-time monitoring of actinide ion concentrations in a molten salt electrorefiner. The ultimate function of the sensor is to monitor plutonium concentrations during electrorefining operations, but in this work gadolinium was employed as a surrogate material for plutonium. In a parametric study, polycrystalline sodium beta double-prime alumina (Na-ß?-alumina) discs and tubes were subject to vapor-phase exchange with gadolinium ions (Gd3+) using a gadolinium chloride salt (GdCl3) as a precursor to produce gadolinium beta double-prime alumina (Gd-ß?-alumina) samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and microstructural analysis were performed on the ion-exchanged discs to determine the relationship between ion exchange and Gd3+ ion conductivity. The ion-exchanged tubes were configured as potentiometric sensors in order to monitor real-time Gd3+ ion concentrations in mixtures of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) in LiCl-KCl eutectic molten salts through measurement of the potential difference between a reference and working electrode.

Peter A. Zink; Jan-Fong Jue; Brenda E. Serrano; Guy L. Fredrickson; Ben F. Cowan; Steven D. Herrmann; Shelly X. Li

2010-07-01

232

Power plant I - Fused salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar thermal power plant using fused salt as the heat transfer fluid for steam power generation is analyzed for the feasibility of economic operation. The salt is also stored in a tank reservoir for maintaining the primary heat loop at temperatures high enough for the salts to remain liquid, and also to provide reserve power for the steam generator. Initial studies were with eutectic (hitec) salt comprising Na, KOH, and nitrites melting at 146 C, and further studies were performed employing draw salt, which has no nitrite, is more stable at high temperature, and melts at 225 C. The use of draw salt was found to allow a 5 percent reduction in storage capacity. Further examinations of the effects of the hitec salts on corrosion and composition degradation at high temperatures are indicated. The molten salt system is projected to offer an efficiency of 26 percent.

Roche, M.

233

Mixtures obtained by reacting trans-(±)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane with acetylacetone in the presence of simple cobalt(II) salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of a metal ion, racemic trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (trans-(±)DCH) reacts with acetylacetone (acacH) (1:2.5 mole ratio) to form the bisoxoenamine condensation product, boe (1). CoCl2·6H2O and Co(ClO4)2·6H2O each react with trans-(±)DCH in air to give complexes containing the oxidised Co(III) ion, [Co((±)DCH)3]3+, which does not subsequently react with added acacH to give a Schiff base complex. Mixtures of complexes

Malachy McCann; Sean Townsend; Michael Devereux; Vickie McKee; Brian Walker

2001-01-01

234

Molecular to ionic transition of BiCl3 in LiCl KCl eutectic melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local structures of molten BiCl3 and its mixtures in LiCl KCl eutectic melt were investigated by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique. The first Bi Cl correlation in molten pure BiCl3 shows covalent nature, since the distance was almost the same as sum of the covalent radii of Bi and Cl and the coordination number was almost 3. The similar property was also observed in the mixture of 75% BiCl3 with LiCl KCl eutectic melt. Drastic change was detected in 25% BiCl3 mixture melt. The first Bi Cl distance was the sum of the ionic radii in molten 25% BiCl3 melt. The results suggest that BiCl3 changes from molecular liquid to ionic by mixing with alkali chlorides.

Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Minato, Kazuo

2005-07-01

235

Research on self-propagating eutectic boriding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, preliminary research has been undertaken on self-propagating eutectic boriding. The results show that with boron carbide (B4C) as the boriding agent and heated by the energy released by thermite reaction during the process of self-propagating combustion, a layer of eutectic or hypoeutectic structure can be formed on the surface of steel with the thickness of up to

C. L. Ge; R. C. Ye

2002-01-01

236

Effect of PEG-salt mixture on the gelation temperature and morphology of MC gel for sustained delivery of drug.  

PubMed

Gelation temperature of MC was reduced from 59°C to 54°C with the addition of 10% PEG. Sodium tartrate (NaT) and sodium citrate (NaC) were added to the MC-PEG solution to further reduce the gelation temperature close to physiological temperature. Different techniques were used to measure the gelation temperature of all formulations. It was observed that NaC was more effective in reducing the gelation temperature of MC-PEG combination than NaT. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) images of hydrogels containing NaC and NaT showed that NaC containing hydrogel having an interconnected microporous structure instead of the hollow rod like structure as in the case of NaT containing hydrogel. In vitro drug release studies showed that drug release time increased from 6 to 9h by only changing the type of salt from NaT to NaC in MC-PEG combination. PMID:23121941

Bain, Mrinal Kanti; Maity, Dipanwita; Bhowmick, Biplab; Mondal, Dibyendu; Mollick, Md Masud Rahaman; Sarkar, Gunjan; Bhowmik, Manas; Rana, Dipak; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

2012-08-19

237

Applications of molten salts in plutonium processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium is efficiently recovered from scrap at Los Alamos by a series of chemical reactions and separations conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 900°C. These processes usually employ a molten salt or salt eutectic as a heat sink and\\/or reaction medium. Salts for these operations were selected early in the development cycle. The selection criteria are being reevaluated. In

D. F. Bowersox; D. C. Christensen; J. D. Williams

1987-01-01

238

Electrode reaction of the Np3+\\/Np couple in LiCl–KCl eutectic melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical behaviour of the Np3+\\/Np couple in the LiCl–KCl eutectic salt was investigated by electromotive force measurements, cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry in the temperature region between 723 and 823 K. The standard redox potential of the Np3+\\/Np couple vs Ag\\/AgCl (1.00 wt %) was measured and given by the equation, ENp3+\\/Np° = -2.0298 + 0.000706 T, where E is

O. Shirai; M. Iizuka; T. Iwai; Y. Arai

2001-01-01

239

Electrochemical behavior of actinide ions in LiCl–KCl eutectic melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrodeposition and dissolution of uranium and plutonium in LiCl–KCl eutectic salt on tungsten and molybdenum working electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry at 723, 773 and 823K. It is suggested from the voltammograms that the electrodeposition and dissolution of U and Pu, U3+\\/U and Pu3+\\/Pu, may be quasi-reversible, while the redox reaction of U4+\\/U3+ is reversible. The adsorption and

O. Shirai; T. Iwai; Y. Suzuki; Y. Sakamura; H. Tanaka

1998-01-01

240

Electrolysis of plutonium nitride in LiCl–KCl eutectic melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrolysis of plutonium nitride, PuN, was investigated in the LiCl–KCl eutectic salt with 0.54 wt% PuCl3 at 773 K in order to understand the dissolution of PuN at the anode and the deposition of metal at the cathode from the viewpoint of the application of a pyrochemical process to nitride fuel cycle. It was found from cyclic voltammetry that

O. Shirai; T Iwai; K Shiozawa; Y Suzuki; Y Sakamura; T Inoue

2000-01-01

241

Electrolysis of Burnup-Simulated Uranium Nitride Fuels in LiCl-KCl Eutectic Melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical behavior of burnup-simulated uranium nitride fuels containing representative solid fission product elements, UN+Mo (Mo = 2.84 wt%), UN+Pd (Pd = 4.6 wt%) and (U, Nd)N (NdN = 8.0 wt%), was investigated in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt with 0.54 wt% UCl3 in order to clarify the effects of fission products on the dissolution of actinide nitrides and the

Takumi SATOH; Takashi IWAI; Yasuo ARAI

2009-01-01

242

Molten salt synthesis of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramic powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (Pb0.95La0.03)(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PLZT) was synthesized by one step molten salt method with the starting materials of PbC2O4, La2O3, ZrO(NO3)2·2H2O and TiO2 in the NaCl–KCl eutectic mixtures in the temperature range of 700–1000°C. The single phase of (Pb0.95La0.03)(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 powders was prepared at a temperature as low as 850°C for 5h. The effects of process parameters, such as soaking

Zongying Cai; Xianran Xing; Lu Li; Yeming Xu

2008-01-01

243

Density measurements of the lithium fluoride/lithium sulfide eutectic at high temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A straightforward and reliable method to determine densities of molten salts at high temperatures was de-veloped by Janz and Lorenz several years ago.[1] This method was followed in order to determine the density of the LiF/Li2S eutectic[2] over the temperature range of 1176 to 1355 K in which the eutectic is liquid. The rel-ative lack of data for this eutectic is surprising given its potential usefulness in the study of advanced batteries'31 and electrowinning of metals from molten sulfides.[41] The method is based on the fact that a solid piece of metal of known volume suspended from a pan balance into a molten salt will weigh less than if it were sus-pended in air at the same temperature. This difference in weight measured in grams will be equal to the buoyant force of the liquid at that temperature. The density of the salt bath can then readily be determined by dividing this difference by the volume of the solid piece of metal that is immersed in the bath. The procedure can be re-peated to give density values over a range of temperatures.

Lloyd, Charles L.; Gilbert, James B.

1994-10-01

244

Internal zone growth method for producing metal oxide metal eutectic composites  

DOEpatents

An improved method for preparing a cermet comprises preparing a compact having about 85 to 95 percent theoretical density from a mixture of metal and metal oxide powders from a system containing a eutectic composition, and inductively heating the compact in a radiofrequency field to cause the formation of an internal molten zone. The metal oxide particles in the powder mixture are effectively sized relative to the metal particles to permit direct inductive heating of the compact by radiofrequency from room temperature. Surface melting is prevented by external cooling or by effectively sizing the particles in the powder mixture.

Clark, Grady W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Holder, John D. (Knoxville, TN); Pasto, Arvid E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1980-01-01

245

Low-frequency electrical properties of ice-silicate mixtures.  

PubMed

The low-frequency electrical properties of mixtures of silicates and saline H(2)O were measured over broad ranges of temperature and frequency to assess the subfreezing interactions between these materials synoptically, particularly the effects of adsorbed, unfrozen water. Adsorbed water content was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance. Materials were chosen to control effects of grain size and mineralogical complexity, and the initial salt content was also specified. The temperature-dependent DC conductivity of a sand-salt-H(2)O mixture was found to be described well by Archie's law, with either brine or salt hydrate (above and below the eutectic, respectively) as the conductive and partially saturating phase. For materials with pore sizes less than a few micrometers, the brine/hydrate channels become disconnected, and the DC conductivity is controlled by the surrounding ice. High DC conductivity in a montmorillonite-H(2)O mixture is attributed to proton mobility in interlayer adsorbed water. The ice content of the sand mixture was recovered from the static dielectric permittivity using a power-law mixing model. Ice relaxation frequencies were higher than those observed in defect-saturated saline ice, indicating that additional defects are able to form in proximity to silicate surfaces. Five dielectric relaxations related to H(2)O were identified: two orientation polarizations (ice and adsorbed water), two Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarizations (because of the conductivity differences between hydrate and silicate and adsorbed water and ice, respectively), and a low-frequency dispersion, probably caused by charge hopping. Thicknesses of a few H(2)O monolayers and the preference of hydronium for surface sites, making adsorbed water slightly acidic, favor protons as the mobile charges responsible for these adsorbed-water interfacial polarizations. PMID:20408561

Stillman, David E; Grimm, Robert E; Dec, Steven F

2010-05-13

246

Reactive eutectic brazing of nitinol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although NiTiNb alloys are well known as wide-hysteresis shape-memory alloys with important applications as coupling materials, the significance of one aspect of the Ni-Ti-Nb ternary system has not been fully appreciated. Based on the existence of a quasibinary NiTi-Nb eutectic isopleth in this ternary system, a novel braze method has been devised to fabricate metallurgical bonds between functional nitinol (NiTi) sections. When NiTi and pure Nb are brought into contact at temperatures above 1170°C, spontaneous melting occurs, forming a liquid that is extremely reactive and not only wets NiTi surfaces, but also apparently dissolves oxide scales, obviating the need for fluxes and providing for efficient capillary flow into joint crevices. The melting process is diffusion-controlled and rate-limited by the diffusivity of Nb in the liquid. The braze liquid will subsequently solidify into microstructures containing predominantly ordered NiTi and disordered bcc-Nb. Mechanical tests revealed that the braze joints are strong, ductile, and biocompatible. With appropriate post-braze aging, the functional performance of the parent NiTi alloy can be restored. Micro-alloying the Nb fluer metal with Zr or tungsten showed great potential for solution-strengthening of the braze joints. For applications where biocompatibility is not an issue, Nb metal can be substituted by pure vanadium as the braze filler, which is demonstrated to possess tensile strengths that can be potentially superior to the Nb counterparts.

Low, Ke-Bin

247

Mixtures of l-Amino Acids as Reaction Medium for Formation of Iron Nanoparticles: The Order of Addition into a Ferrous Salt Solution Matters.  

PubMed

Owing to Mössbauer spectroscopy, an advanced characterization technique for iron-containing materials, the present study reveals previously unknown possibilities using l-amino acids for the generation of magnetic particles. Based on our results, a simple choice of the order of l-amino acids addition into a reaction mixture containing ferrous ions leads to either superparamagnetic ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide particles, or magnetically strong Fe0-Fe2O3/FeOOH core-shell particles after chemical reduction. Conversely, when ferric salts are employed with the addition of selected l-amino acids, only Fe0-Fe2O3/FeOOH core-shell particles are observed, regardless of the addition order. We explain this phenomenon by a specific transient/intermediate complex formation between Fe2+ and l-glutamic acid. This type of complexation prevents ferrous ions from spontaneous oxidation in solutions with full air access. Moreover, due to surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy we show that the functional groups of l-amino acids are not destroyed during the borohydride-induced reduction. These functionalities can be further exploited for (i) attachment of l-amino acids to the as-prepared magnetic particles, and (ii) for targeted bio- and/or environmental applications where the surface chemistry needs to be tailored and directed toward biocompatible species. PMID:24071943

Sišková, Karolína M; Machala, Libor; Tu?ek, Ji?i; Kašlík, Josef; Mojzeš, Peter; Zbo?il, Radek

2013-09-25

248

Retrieving volcanic, desert dust, and sea-salt particle properties from two/three-component particle mixtures after long-range transport using UV-VIS polarization Lidar and T-matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During transport by advection, atmospheric nonspherical particles, such as volcanic, desert dust or sea-salt particles experience several chemical and physical processes, leading to a complex vertical atmospheric layering at remote sites where intrusion episodes occur. In this contribution, a new methodology is proposed to analyze this complex vertical layering in the case of a two/three-component particle external mixtures after long-range transport. This methodology relies on a precise analysis of the spectral and polarization properties of the light backscattered by atmospheric particles. It is based on combining a sensitive and accurate UV-VIS polarization Lidar experiment with accurate T-matrix numerical simulations and air mass back-trajectories. The Lyon UV-VIS polarization Lidar is used to efficiently partition the particle mixture into its nonspherical components, while the T-matrix algorithm is used for computing backscattering and depolarization properties specific to nonspherical volcanic, desert dust and sea-salt particles, the latter being described in the cubic shape approximation. It is shown that, after long-range transport, the particle mixtures' depolarization ratio ?p differs from the nonspherical particles' depolarization ratio ?ns due to the presence of spherical particles in the mixture. Hence, after identifying a tracer for nonspherical particles, particle backscattering coefficients specific to each nonspherical component can be retrieved in a two component external mixture. For three-component mixtures, the spectral properties of light must in addition be addressed by using a dual-wavelength polarization Lidar. Hence, for the first time, in a three-component external mixture, the nonsphericity of each particle is taken into account in a so-called 2? + 2? formalism. Applications of this new methodology are then demonstrated in two case studies carried out in Lyon, France, related to the mixing of Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash with sulphate particles (case of a two-component mixture) and to the mixing of dust with sea-salt and water-soluble particles (case of a three-component mixture). This new methodology, which is able to provide separate vertical profiles of mixed atmospheric dust, sea-salt and water-soluble particles, may be useful for accurate radiative forcing assessments.

David, G.; Thomas, B.; Nousiainen, T.; Miffre, A.; Rairoux, P.

2013-01-01

249

Temperature dependence of fluorescence for EuCl3 in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt.  

PubMed

The fluorescence of EuCl(3) in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt according to temperature changes was investigated, and the spontaneous partial reduction of Eu(3+) to Eu(2+) at high temperature was confirmed by the fluorescence results. The fluorescence decreases when the temperature increases, and this was examined in detail. The studies of fluorescence provided information regarding the chemical and physical behavior of europium ions in the molten salt according to the temperature changes. It is applicable for monitoring species and concentrations and estimating the approximate chemical structure of the ions in molten salts. PMID:20678668

Im, Hee-Jung; Kim, Tack-Jin; Song, Kyuseok

2010-06-25

250

Eutectic nucleation in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys  

SciTech Connect

The nucleation mechanism of eutectic grains in hypoeutectic Al-Si foundry alloys has been investigated by examining deep etched specimens in high-resolution field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM) and by using in-situ Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling and microscopy. Both unmodified and Sr-modified alloys were studied to characterize the nucleation mechanism of eutectic silicon flakes and fibers. It is proposed that following nucleation of eutectic Al on the primary {alpha}-Al dendrites, fine Si particles form at the solidification front upon which the eutectic Si flakes and fibers could develop. The formation of small Si particles is attributed to Si enrichment of the remaining melt due to the formation of eutectic Al (aluminum spikes) at the eutectic temperature. A hypothesis is then proposed to explain the mechanism of eutectic grains formation with main emphasis on the eutectic Si phase.

Nafisi, S. [Facility for Electron Microscopy Research, McGill University, 3640 University St., Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada)], E-mail: snafisi@ipsco.com; Ghomashchi, R. [Advanced Materials and Processing Research Institute, Suite 122, A7-1390 Major MacKenzie, ON, L4S 0A1 (Canada); Vali, H. [Facility for Electron Microscopy Research, McGill University, 3640 University St., Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada)

2008-10-15

251

Eutectic growth under acoustic levitation conditions.  

PubMed

Samples of Pb-Sn eutectic alloy with a high density of 8.5 x 10(3) kg/m(3) are levitated with a single-axis acoustic levitator, and containerlessly melted and then solidified in argon atmosphere. High undercoolings up to 38 K are obtained, which results in a microstructural transition of "lamellas-broken lamellas-dendrites." This transition is further investigated in the light of the coupled zone for eutectic growth and the effects of ultrasound. The breaking of regular eutectic lamellas and suppression of gravity-induced macrosegregation of (Pb) and (Sn) dendrites are explained by the complicated internal flow inside the levitated drop, which is jointly induced by the shape oscillation, bulk vibration and rotation of the levitated drop. The ultrasonic field is also found to drive forced surface vibration, which subsequently excites capillary ripples and catalyzes nucleation on the sample surface. PMID:12513291

Xie, W J; Cao, C D; Lü, Y J; Wei, B

2002-12-10

252

Tin-silver-copper eutectic temperature and composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A careful investigation of the Sn-Ag-Cu phase diagram near the ternary eutectic composition was undertaken using annealed\\u000a alloys and differential scanning calorimetry to settle some uncertainties in the eutectic composition. The eutectic composition\\u000a was found to be 3.5 wt pct Ag, 0.9 wt pct Cu, and the balance Sn. The published eutectic temperature, 217 C, was confirmed.\\u000a A value of

M. E. Loomans; M. E. Fine

2000-01-01

253

Thermomigration in eutectic SnPb alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermomigration (TM) behavior in eutectic SnPb alloy was observed under a constant thermal gradient of 1000 °C/cm. Pb phase was depleting in the hot side, so Pb atom should be the dominant migration species in the current studied conditions. By estimating the depletion atomic volume in the hot side, TM atomic flux in SnPb was estimated to be 7.02×1013 atoms/cm2 s. The important TM parameter, the molar heat flux (Q*), of eutectic SnPb alloy was obtained and found to be 22.16 kJ/mole.

Chuang, Y. C.; Liu, C. Y.

2006-04-01

254

Flow strength of highly hydrated Mg- and Na-sulfate hydrate salts, pure and in mixtures with water ice, with application to Europa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We selected two Europan-ice-shell candidate highly hydrated sulfate salts for a laboratory survey of ductile flow properties: MgSO4 ?? 7H2O (epsomite) and Na2SO4 ?? 10H2O (mirabilite), called MS7 and NS10, respectively. Polycrystalline samples in pure form and in mixtures with water ice I were tested using our cryogenic high-pressure creep apparatus at temperatures 232 ??? T ??? 294 K, confining pressures P = 50 and 100 MPa, and strain rates 4 ?? 10-8 ??? ???dot;e ??? 7 ?? 10-5 s-1. Grain size of NS10 samples was > 100 ??m. The flow strength ?? of pure MS7 was over 100 times that of polycrystalline ice I at comparable conditions; that of pure NS10 over 20 times that of ice. In terms of the creep law ???dot;e = A??n e-Q/RT, where R is the gas constant, we determine parameter values of A = 1012.1 MPa-ns-1, n = 5.4, and Q = 128 kJ/mol for pure NS10. Composites of ice I and NS10 of volume fraction ?? NS10 have flow strength ??c = [??NS10??NS10J + (1 - ?? NS10)??iceIJ]1/J where J ??? -0.5, making the effect on the flow of ice with low volume fractions of NS10 much like that of virtually undeformable hard rock inclusions. Being much stronger and denser than ice, massive sulfate inclusions in the warmer, ductile layer of the Europan ice shell are less likely to be entrained in convective ice flow and more likely to be drawn to the base of the ice shell by gravitational forces and eventually expelled. With only smaller, dispersed sulfate inclusions, at probable sulfate ?? < 0.2, the shell may be treated rheologically as pure, polycrystalline ice, with boundary conditions perhaps influenced by the high density and low thermal conductivity of the hydrated salts. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

Durham, W. B.; Stern, L. A.; Kubo, T.; Kirby, S. H.

2005-01-01

255

Calculation of Binary Eutectic Phase Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The phase diagrams of 65 simple binary eutectic phase diagrams are calculated from the properties of the elemental constituents. The liquid phase is assumed to behave as an ideal solution and the terminal solid solution regions were assumed to be ideal an...

J. E. Davison

1969-01-01

256

STUDIES ON METALLIC THORIUM PRODUCTION FROM KOREAN MONAZITE SAND. PART 5. METALLIC THORIUM PRODUCTION BY FUSED SALTS ELECTROLYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic thorium production was attempted by fused salts electrolysis in ; an argon atmosphere, using the thorium fluoride double salts system. The ; electrolyte was pure thorium salts obtained from processing Korean monazite sands ; through alkali decomposition and solvent extraction. The bath content consisted ; of sodium chloride -potassium chloride and thorium salt eutectic. Relations ; between current densities,

D. Kim; J. Lee; H. Lee

1960-01-01

257

Thermodynamic study of (anthracene + benzo[a]pyrene) solid mixtures.  

PubMed

To characterize better the thermodynamic behavior of a binary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture, thermochemical and vapor pressure experiments were used to examine the phase behavior of the {anthracene (1) + benzo[a]pyrene (2)} system. A solid-liquid phase diagram was mapped for the mixture. A eutectic point occurs at x(1) = 0.26. The eutectic mixture is an amorphous solid that lacks organized crystal structure and melts between T = (414 and 420) K. For mixtures that contain 0.10 < x(1) < 0.90, the enthalpy of fusion is dominated by that of the eutectic. Solid-vapor equilibrium studies show that mixtures of anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene at x(1) < 0.10 sublime at the vapor pressure of pure benzo[a]pyrene. These results suggest that the solid-vapor equilibrium of benzo[a]pyrene is not significantly influenced by moderate levels of anthracene in the crystal structure. PMID:20814451

Rice, James W; Suuberg, Eric M

2010-11-01

258

Thermodynamic study of (anthracene + benzo[a]pyrene) solid mixtures  

PubMed Central

To characterize better the thermodynamic behavior of a binary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture, thermochemical and vapor pressure experiments were used to examine the phase behavior of the {anthracene (1) + benzo[a]pyrene (2)} system. A solid-liquid phase diagram was mapped for the mixture. A eutectic point occurs at x1 = 0.26. The eutectic mixture is an amorphous solid that lacks organized crystal structure and melts between T = (414 and 420) K. For mixtures that contain 0.10 < x1 < 0.90, the enthalpy of fusion is dominated by that of the eutectic. Solid-vapor equilibrium studies show that mixtures of anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene at x1 < 0.10 sublime at the vapor pressure of pure benzo[a]pyrene. These results suggest that the solid-vapor equilibrium of benzo[a]pyrene is not significantly influenced by moderate levels of anthracene in the crystal structure.

Rice, James W.; Suuberg, Eric M.

2010-01-01

259

Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic solder  

DOEpatents

A Pb-free solder includes a ternary eutectic composition consisting essentially of about 93.6 weight % Sn-about 4.7 weight % Ag-about 1.7 weight % Cu having a eutectic melting temperature of about 217 C and variants of the ternary composition wherein the relative concentrations of Sn, Ag, and Cu deviate from the ternary eutectic composition to provide a controlled melting temperature range (liquid-solid ``mushy`` zone) relative to the eutectic melting temperature (e.g. up to 15 C above the eutectic melting temperature). 5 figs.

Anderson, I.E.; Yost, F.G.; Smith, J.F.; Miller, C.M.; Terpstra, R.L.

1996-06-18

260

Effect of Additives on Performance on Hydrated-Salt TES Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calmac's objectives under this contract will be to evaluate a gelling agent, developed by Calor, Ltd. of England, as a means of preventing stratification in sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate and Glauber salt eutectic phase change materials; to determine tec...

C. D. MacCracken

1981-01-01

261

Separating a Mixture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can explore means of physically separating a mixture using dissolving, filtration, and evaporation. Separating a sand/salt mixture is a common experiment in physical science class that requires almost no adaptation for learners with visual impairments. This activity also provides experience in popular laboratory techniques of dissolving, filtration, and evaporation. In this activity, the learner will use filters and funnels to separate sand and salt.

Blind, Perkins S.

2012-07-12

262

Spectrophotometric and electrochemical study of neptunium ions in molten NaCl-CsCl eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical oxidation states of NpO2+, Np4+ and Np3+ in NaCl-CsCl eutectic were controlled by using Cl2, O2, H2 and Ar gas mixtures, the redox behavior and electronic absorption properties of their Np ions were studied. The Np4+ was prepared from NpO2Cl by bubbling Cl2 gas into the melt in the presence of carbon rod. Np3+ was quantitatively prepared by bubbling H2-Ar gas mixture. The molar absorptivities of NpO2+, Np4+ and Np3+ were determined in molten NaCl-CsCl eutectic at 923 K and hypersensitive transitions of Np4+ and Np3+ ions were assigned. Since the polarizing ability of the cations in the NaCl-CsCl eutectic is lower than that in some other melts, it has been shown that the coordination symmetry of the Np-Cl complex is higher.In the electrochemical measurement of Np4+, the cathodic current for the reduction of Np4+ was found to be controlled by the diffusion of Np4+. The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient between 823 and 923 K was formulated to be lnD=-4304/T-6.172. The formal redox potential of the Np4+|Np3+ couple depended on the temperature, this dependence was formulated as ENp|Np??=-1.313+6.210×10-4TV (vs. Cl2|Cl-).

Uehara, Akihiro; Nagai, Takayuki; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Osamu; Yamana, Hajimu

2013-06-01

263

Hygroscopic Salts on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results on the influence of a salt-rich regolith in the water cycle of Mars. Global climate modeling shows that the relative humidity on the Martian surface often reaches values above the deliquescence point of salts that are common components of the regolith. At the deliquescence point, these salts will absorb atmospheric water vapor and form a saturated, transient liquid solution that is stable under a range of temperatures. If atmospheric temperatures fall below the eutectic point of the solution, the later will freeze in the pore space of the regolith, thereby resulting in a net transport of water from the vapor phase in the atmosphere, to the solid state in the regolith. This simple model partially accounts for some the distribution of water on the Martian surface as revealed by Mars Odyssey, in particular, we find that: even though the Cl and surface water distributions detected by HEND/ODYSSEY are highly correlated, salt deliquescence under the the present atmospheric conditions does not explain the overall distribution of water in the near surface regolith. However deliquescence of salt-rich soils could be an important contributor to the distribution of water in the regolith at high obliquity. In that scenario the water in the near-surface regolith would be the remnant of high obliquity conditions salt deliquescence is still active in different regions on Mars today, and it should be introduced as a parameter in the modern GCMs as a new ground/atmosphere interaction

Melchiorri, R.; Davila, A. F.; Chittenden, J.; Haberle, R. M.

2008-12-01

264

Salt River Salt Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Salt River Salt Banks are located on the north shore of the Salt River on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. Three small springs emerge above and flow over the salt banks resulting in the formation of stalactites. The mechanism by which the banks wer...

E. L. Smith G. L. Bender

1973-01-01

265

Two-stage eutectic metal brushes  

DOEpatents

A two-stage eutectic metal brush assembly having a slip ring rigidly coupled to a shaft, the slip ring being electrically coupled to first voltage polarity. At least one brush is rigidly coupled to a second ring and slidingly engaged to the slip ring. Eutectic metal at least partially fills an annulus between the second ring and a stationary ring. At least one conductor is rigidly coupled to the stationary ring and electrically coupled to a second voltage polarity. Electrical continuity is maintained between the first voltage polarity and the second voltage polarity. Periodic rotational motion is present between the stationary ring and the second ring. Periodic rotational motion is also present between the brush and the slip ring.

Hsu, John S (Oak Ridge, TN)

2009-07-14

266

Thermomigration in eutectic SnPb alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermomigration (TM) behavior in eutectic SnPb alloy was observed under a constant thermal gradient of 1000 °C\\/cm. Pb phase was depleting in the hot side, so Pb atom should be the dominant migration species in the current studied conditions. By estimating the depletion atomic volume in the hot side, TM atomic flux in SnPb was estimated to be 7.02×1013

Y. C. Chuang; C. Y. Liu

2006-01-01

267

Aluminum arsenide eutectic gallium arsenide solar cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved gallium arsenide solar cell is provided by forming a P+ layer on top of a wafer of vertical PN junction eutectic gallium arsenide crystal by liquid phase epitaxial growth of P doped GaAs followed by liquid phase epitaxial growth at Al(x)AsGa(1-x) on the surface of the vertical PN junction substrate. The deposited GaAs layer with P dopant and

Rahilly

1976-01-01

268

Aluminum arsenide eutectic gallium arsenide solar cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved gallium arsenide solar cell is provided by forming a P + layer on top of a wafer of plural vertical PN junction eutectic gallium arsenide crystal by liquid phase epitaxial growth of P doped GaAs followed by liquid phase epitaxial growth at Al\\/sub x\\/AsGa\\/sub l-x\\/ on the surface of the vertical PN junction substrate. The deposited GaAs layer

Rahilly

1978-01-01

269

Electrical properties of saline ices and ice-silicate mixtures: geophysical and astrobiological consequences (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed broadband (1 mHz - 1 MHz) electrical-properties measurements of laboratory-produced saline ice, salt hydrates, and ice-silicate mixtures, as well as terrestrial polar ices and permafrosts (see also Grimm et al, NS04, this meeting), in order to understand investigation depths of EM induction and surface-penetrating radar, the recovery of interior properties, and habitability. The electrical properties of saline H2O are controlled by the binary phase relations between ice and salt hydrate. Above the eutectic temperature, formation of interconnected brine channels (manifested by high DC electrical conductivity) requires bulk salt concentrations exceeding ~3 mM. This is equivalent to a minimum brine-channel width of a few microns. Presumably high capillary pressures in submicron fluid spaces lead to segregation of brine into pockets and hence electrical cutoff. In ice-silicate mixtures, brine channels are evident above the eutectic temperature only when pore diameters exceed a few microns, regardless of salt concentration. This is also consistent with small-pore capillary segregation of fluid. Below the eutectic temperature, salt hydrate always forms electrically interconnected networks, even at trace volumes. Interfacial unfrozen water was measured by NMR to be present at 2-3 equivalent H2O monolayers but has negligible DC conductivity. Dielectric relaxations due to rotation of interfacial water and protonic defects in ice and salt hydrate were identified, as well as interfacial polarizations arresting charge translation in salt hydrates and interfacial water. Because the dielectric permittivities measured at 1 MHz approached known radiofrequency (RF) values, almost all of the dispersion is determined by “low frequency” mechanisms. At RF, the total intrinsic absorption in a surface-penetrating radar signal can be estimated, but understanding individual mechanisms must come from low-frequency measurements and geological context. In addition to the well-understood losses caused by trace impurities of acid or salt in relatively pure ice, we are now able to quantify additional absorption in subfreezing materials caused by salt hydrates, and, in the presence of silicates, unfrozen interfacial water. The latter has been suggested to be suitable to support subfreezing microbial life (Jakosky et al., Astrobiology, 3, 343, 2003; Mohlman, op cit, 5, 770, 2005). However, the DC electrical conductivity of interfacial water is many decades smaller than nominal fresh water, so the total rate of charge transport through interfacial water must be negligible compared to fresh water. Furthermore, a few monolayers of H2O (< 1 nm) are only a few times the size of major ions and much too small to accommodate large organic molecules. The possibility of subfreezing microbial activity on Mars would then be attributed to freezing-point depression of salt-rich ice, and not interfacial water.

Grimm, R. E.; Stillman, D.

2009-12-01

270

Adsorption of eutectic LiCl-KCl into zeolite 4A using a mechanically fluidized vacuum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-temperature mixer has been used to absorb LiCl-KCl eutectic salt powders into zeolite 4A. In situ sampling has been performed, allowing for a time-resolved view of the adsorption reaction. The weight percent free (nonabsorbed) chloride ions has been used as a measure of the effectiveness of the adsorption process. Using zeolite 4A powder with no binder, the free chloride

Michael F. Simpson; Terry J. Battisti

1999-01-01

271

Evaluation of 2.25Cr1Mo Alloy for Containment of LiCl\\/KCl Eutectic during the Pyrometallurgical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of uranium from the Mk-IV and Mk-V electrorefiner vessels containing a LiCl\\/KCl eutectic salt has been on-going for 14 and 12 years, respectively, during the pyrometallurgical processing of used nuclear fuel. Although austenitic stainless steels are typically utilized for LiCl\\/KCl salt systems, the presence of cadmium in the Mk-IV electrorefiner dictates an alternate material. A 2.25Cr-1Mo alloy (ASME SA-387)

B. R. Westphal; S. X. Li; G. L. Fredrickson; D. Vaden; T. A. Johnson; J. C. Wass

2011-01-01

272

New eutectic ionic liquids for lipase activation and enzymatic preparation of biodiesel.  

PubMed

The enzymatic preparation of biodiesel has been hampered by the lack of suitable solvents with desirable properties such as high lipase compatibility, low cost, low viscosity, high biodegradability, and ease of product separation. Recent interest in using ionic liquids (ILs) as advanced reaction media has led to fast reaction rates and high yields in the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel. However, conventional (i.e., cation-anion paired) ILs based on imidazolium and other quaternary ammonium salts remain too expensive for wide application at industrial scales. In this study, we report on newly-synthesized eutectic ILs derived from choline acetate or choline chloride coupled with biocompatible hydrogen-bond donors, such as glycerol. These eutectic solvents have favorable properties including low viscosity, high biodegradability, and excellent compatibility with Novozym(®) 435, a commercial immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B. Furthermore, in a model biodiesel synthesis system, we demonstrate high reaction rates for the enzymatic transesterification of Miglyol(®) oil 812 with methanol, catalyzed by Novozym(®) 435 in choline acetate/glycerol (1:1.5 molar ratio). The high conversion (97%) of the triglyceride obtained within 3 h, under optimal conditions, suggests that these novel eutectic solvents warrant further exploration as potential media in the enzymatic production of biodiesel. PMID:21283901

Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A; Holmes, Shaletha

2011-01-31

273

Mixed nitrate salt heat transfer medium and process for providing the same  

SciTech Connect

A process for producing particles of a non-friable eutectic mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate for solar power station use is disclosed. In one embodiment of the invention, the particles are produced by shock chilling a molten stream of mixed nitrate material and crushing the resulting flakes to a size range of between about -5 mesh and about +30 mesh. In a second embodiment, particles of this size are produced by spray granulation of a concentrated solution of mixed nitrate salts onto a fluidized bed to produce dry, free-flowing, solid spheres. In both embodiments, the particles are extremely hard, resistant to moisture pickup and adaptable to being readily shipped by bulk containers.

Fiorucci, L.C.

1984-02-07

274

Removal of nanoaerosol during the bubbling of the salt melt of beryllium and lithium fluorides for the preparation of reactor radioisotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parameters of aerosol particles formed in the course of the spontaneous thermal condensation of vapors and bubbling a 66LiF-34BeF2 (mol %) eutectic salt mixture with helium have been studied. For this purpose, a vertical bubbling mode at T ? 900 K and an ampule device for obtaining reactor radioisotopes for medical applications were used. The rate of the bulk removal and the chemical composition of aerosols were measured. The size distribution of the aerosol particles was bimodal, and the mass concentration of the particles exceeded by far the maximum permissible concentration (MPC). The characteristics of regenerated nickel multilayer nanofilters for ultrahigh filtration of aerosols from the salt liquid melt were analyzed.

Zagnit'ko, A. V.; Chuvilin, D. Yu.

2010-06-01

275

A study of freezing and melting with eutectic interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of freezing and melting following sudden constant between a pool of binary eutectic-forming solution and an underlying solid layer of the lighter pool component was investigated. Experiments were conducted using various salt (Kl, NaCl, MgCl2, or CaCl2) solutions as the pool and air-bubble-free ice as the solid. Both the melting regime and the selective freezing regime were studied. Experimentally, the temperature transients and the phase-change rates were measured and the interface morphology as well as the micro-physical process near the phase-change front were observed. In the selective freezing study, the growth of a solid-liquid two phase region over a subcooled ice slab was investigated. Assuming that each infinitesimal element of the two-phase region is in local thermodynamic equilibrium with the solid and that the solid is semi-infinite in extent, a similarity model was developed to predict the dependence of the freezing rate and temperature distribution on the parameters of the system.

Fang, L. J.

1984-12-01

276

Free energy barriers for homogeneous crystal nucleation in a eutectic system of binary hard spheres.  

PubMed

In this study, the free energy barriers for homogeneous crystal nucleation in a system that exhibits a eutectic point are computed using Monte Carlo simulations. The system studied is a binary hard sphere mixture with a diameter ratio of 0.85 between the smaller and larger hard spheres. The simulations of crystal nucleation are performed for the entire range of fluid compositions. The free energy barrier is found to be the highest near the eutectic point and is nearly five times that for the pure fluid, which slows down the nucleation rate by a factor of 10(-31). These free energy barriers are some of highest ever computed using simulations. For most of the conditions studied, the composition of the critical nucleus corresponds to either one of the two thermodynamically stable solid phases. However, near the eutectic point, the nucleation barrier is lowest for the formation of the metastable random hexagonal closed packed (rhcp) solid phase with composition lying in the two-phase region of the phase diagram. The fluid to solid phase transition is hypothesized to proceed via formation of a metastable rhcp phase followed by a phase separation into respective stable fcc solid phases. PMID:23656140

Ganagalla, Srinivasa Rao; Punnathanam, Sudeep N

2013-05-01

277

Solubilization of Genistein in Poly(Ethylene Glycol) via Eutectic Crystal Melting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genistein (5,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone) is a phytoestrogen found in soybean. It possesses various biological/pharmacological functions, e.g., tyrosine kinase inhibitory, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial activities. However, genistein has poor water solubility and skin permeability, which have seemingly prohibited the progress to preclinical evaluation. Eutectic melting approach has been performed as a means of solubilizing genistein in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Eutectic phase diagrams of blends containing genistein and PEG having three different molecular weights, i.e., 44k, 7k, and 500 g/mol, were established by means of DSC and compared with the theoretical liquidus and solidus lines, calculated self-consistently by taking into consideration all interactions including amorphous-amorphous, crystal-amorphous, amorphous-crystal, and crystal-crystal interactions. The eutectic temperatures were found to decrease with decreasing molecular weight of PEG. Guided by the phase diagram, it was found that genistein can be dissolved in PEG500 up to ˜7 wt% at room temperature. More importantly, the solubility of genistein in PEG can be improved to meet the end-use criteria of the PEG/genistein mixtures.

Buddhiranon, Sasiwimon; Kyu, Thein

2012-02-01

278

Viscosity measurement of molten carbonate salt  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research on the eutectic property values of lithium/sodium/potassium carbonate. This carbonate eutectic is the leading candidate for high-temperature heat transfer fluids for a direct-absorption receiver concept being researched at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) for solar thermal central receiver systems. Measurements of the absolute viscosity of the carbonate eutectic were taken and compared to the results from previously published data. Two samples were tested: a ternary eutectic prepared from Reagent Grade quality components and a ternary eutectic prepared from Commercial Grade quality components. For each sample the absolute viscosity was determined with accuracy limits of Congruent to +- 3%, and at five temperatures: 500/sup 0/, 600/sup 0/, 700/sup 0/, 900/sup 0/, and 900/sup 0/C (+-5/sup 0/C). Some limited measurements using materials having calibration quality data sets were included as a check on the accuracy limits. Both samples were provided by SERI along with reports of analyses and purity specifications for the component carbonate salts. This report gives results of these measurements, together with a complete account of the measurement technique, a description of the high-temperature viscometer facility, and the error analyses and accuracy statements. An appendix gives details on sample qualities, numerical data sets from measurements, and graphical analyses.

Janz, G.J.

1986-09-01

279

Ionothermal synthesis of two oxalate-bridged lanthanide(III) chains with slow magnetization relaxation by using a deep eutectic solvent.  

PubMed

Two novel isostructural oxalate-bridged lanthanide(III) chains, (choline)[Ln(ox)(H2O)3Cl]Cl·H2O (Ln = Dy/Er), were first obtained ionothermally by using a choline chloride-oxalic acid eutectic mixture as both solvent and structure-directing agent, both of which show field-induced slow relaxation of magnetization. PMID:23903323

Meng, Yan; Liu, Jun-Liang; Zhang, Ze-Min; Lin, Wei-Quan; Lin, Zhuo-Jia; Tong, Ming-Liang

2013-08-01

280

Synthesis and Electronic Applications of Oxide-Metal Eutectic Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review is given of important developments in the synthesis of oxide-metal eutectic composites and the composite application in the continuing development of field emitters. Known metal oxide-metal binary and ternary eutectic systems are listed. The synt...

J. D. Holder J. K. Cochran D. N. Hill A. T. Chapman G. W. Clark

1980-01-01

281

ELECTRODE POTENTIALS IN MOLTEN LITHIUM SULFATE-POTASSIUM SULFATE EUTECTIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium sulfate --potassium sulfate eutectic (80% lithium sulfate by ; mole; melting point 535 deg ) was shown to be an adequate molten solvent for ; electrochemical investigations at 625 deg . A procedure for preparing the ; eutectic melt was established. The silver(I) --silver(0) system was found to be ; a satisfactory reference electrode in this melt. The

C. H. Liu

1962-01-01

282

Investigation of TiC C Eutectic and WC C Peritectic High-Temperature Fixed Points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiC C eutectic (2,761°C) and WC C peritectic (2,749°C) fixed points were investigated to compare their potential as high-temperature thermometric reference points. Two TiC C and three WC C fixed-point cells were constructed, and the melting and freezing plateaux were evaluated by means of radiation thermometry. The repeatability of the TiC C eutectic within a day was 60 mK with a melting range roughly 200 mK. The repeatability of the melting temperature of the WC C peritectic within 1 day was 17 mK with a melting range of ˜70 mK. The repeatability of the freezing temperature of the WC C peritectic was 21 mK with a freezing range less than 20 mK. One of the TiC C cells was constructed from a TiC and graphite powder mixture. The filling showed the reaction with the graphite crucible was suppressed and the ingot contained less voids, although the lack of high-purity TiC powder poses a problem. The WC C cells were easily constructed, like metal carbon eutectic cells, without any evident reaction with the crucible. From these results, it is concluded that the WC C peritectic has more potential than the TiC C eutectic as a high-temperature reference point. The investigation of the purification of the TiC C cell during filling and the plateau observation are also reported.

Sasajima, Naohiko; Yamada, Yoshiro

2008-06-01

283

The interference effect of more than one salt in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry Part 1: Effect of magnesium chloride-sodium chloride mixture on manganese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous interference effects of sodium chloride and magnesium chloride on the atomization of manganese in a graphite furnace were investigated. For this purpose, the individual interference mechanisms of each salt were also studied. It was found that the interference of sodium chloride originates from expulsion of the analyte with matrix and gas phase reaction between manganese and chlorine during

H. Ince Tekgül; S. Akman

1997-01-01

284

Production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL-2999 during growth in the presence of curing salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL-2999 was inoculated into meat mixtures with curing salts and into yeast extractsucrose (YES) and sucrose-ammonium salts (SAS) broth with and without curing salts to determine if the presence of curing salts significantly affected growth and aflatoxin production by the mold. The effect of individual curing salts or curing salt mixtures on growth and toxin elaboration by the

K. R. Meier; E. H. Marth

1977-01-01

285

Conditioning of Waste LiCl Salt from Pyrochemical Process Using Zeolite A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrolytic (LiCl-LiO) reduction process (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process; ACP) and the electrorefining process, which are being developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), are to generate two types of molten salt wastes such as a LiCl salt and a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, respectively. These waste salts must meet certain criteria for a disposal. A conditioning process

J. G. Kim; J. H. Lee; E. H. Kim; D. H. Ahn; J. H. Kim

2006-01-01

286

Separation of adhered salt from uranium deposits generated in electro-refiner  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to increase a throughput of the salt removal process from uranium deposits which is generated on the solid\\u000a cathode of electro-refiner in pyroprocess. In this study, it was proposed to increase the throughput of the salt removal process\\u000a by the separation of the liquid salt prior to the distillation of the LiCl–KCl eutectic salt from the uranium

S. W. KwonK; K. M. Park; H. G. Ahn; H. S. Lee; J. G. Kim

2011-01-01

287

Prediction and experimental verification of the salt effect on the vapour–liquid equilibrium of water–ethanol–2-propanol mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental vapour–liquid equilibria of water–ethanol–2-propanol saturated with NaNO3, NaCl, KCl and containing 0.05mol CH3COOK\\/mol total solvent compared well with those predicted by Tan–Wilson and Tan–non-random two liquid (NRTL) models for multicomponent solvent–solute mixture using a set of solvent–solvent interaction parameters obtained from the regression of the vapour–liquid equilibrium of the solvent mixture without the dissolved solute and a set of

T. C. Tan; C. M. Chai; A. T. Tok; K. W. Ho

2004-01-01

288

Long-wavelength limit of the static structure factors for mixtures of two simple molten salts with a common ion and generalized Bhatia Thornton formalism: Molecular dynamics study of molten mixture Ag(Br0.7I0.3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relation between thermodynamic properties and the long-wavelength limit of the structure factors for mixtures of two simple molten salts with a common ion is derived. While the long-wavelength limit of the partial structure factors for binary ionic systems is directly related to the isothermal compressibility, for ternary ionic systems it is shown that it is also related to the mean square thermal fluctuation in the relative concentration of the non-common ions. This result leads to a generalization of the Bhatia Thornton formalism. From the local fluctuations in the total number-density, charge-density, and relative concentration, six static structure factors, and the corresponding spatial correlation functions, are defined. By introducing three complementary structure factors, it is possible to describe either these mixtures as a system of cations and anions irrespective of the species of the non-common ions, or solely the binary subsystem of the non-common ions. The generalized structure factors and their long-wavelength limits are illustrated by molecular dynamics simulation results of the molten mixture Ag(Br0.7I0.3). The mixture retains the charge order characteristic of pure molten monovalent salts and the topological order observed in monovalent ionic melts in which the cations are smaller than the anions, while the main trends of the anionic chemical order are those of simple binary alloys. The long-wavelength fluctuations in the local relative concentration are found to be very sensitive to the choice of the short-range interactions between the non-common ions.

Bitrián, Vicente; Trullàs, Joaquim; Silbert, Moises

2008-12-01

289

Improved solubility of DNA in recyclable and reusable bio-based deep eutectic solvents with long-term structural and chemical stability.  

PubMed

The solubility of DNA in bio-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of choline chloride with levulinic acid, glycerol, ethylene glycol, sorbitol and resorcinol was investigated. The macromolecule was found to be soluble and chemically and structurally stable in DESs consisting of mixtures containing glycerol and ethylene glycol. Furthermore recyclability of the DESs was demonstrated over three consecutive reuses in DNA dissolution. PMID:24022824

Mondal, Dibyendu; Sharma, Mukesh; Mukesh, Chandrakant; Gupta, Vishal; Prasad, Kamalesh

2013-09-24

290

The effect of divalent cations (Ca ++ and Mg ++ ) on the optimal salinity and salt tolerance of petroleum sulfonate and ethoxylated sulfonate mixtures in relation to improved oil recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was demonstrated that a surfactant formulation consisting of a petroleum sulfonate and an ethoxylate sulfonate can tolerate\\u000a a large amount of CaCl2 and MgCl2 in solution without any precipitation or phase-separation. The stability of this surfactant formulation was not influenced\\u000a significantly by the presence of divalent cations. The maximum salt concentration permissible for a stable formulation depended\\u000a primarily on

V. K. Bansal; D. O. Shah

1978-01-01

291

Observations on the rare earths. I. Ion exchange studies on thorium-rare earth mixtures. II. X-ray diffraction studies on certain rare earths salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation of Th and Nd ions was studied by passing solutions of thorium nitrate and neodymium chloride and mixtures of these two solutions through beds of Amberlite IR-100H contained in glass tubes. The following eluting agents were investigated: 0.5, 5, and 10% hydrochloric acid solutions; 5 and 10% citric acid solutions; saturated ammonium oxalate solutions; saturated ammonium carbonate solutions; 5%

1948-01-01

292

A hydro-geochemical analysis of the saturation process with salt water of a bentonite crushed granite rock mixture in an engineered nuclear barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A MX-80 sodium bentonite crushed granite rock mixture is being saturated in the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory managed by SKB (the Swedish Company of nuclear waste management) as part of the “Backfill and Plug Test Project”. The Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory is placed in the Swedish Island of Äspö, an underground full-scale laboratory where different testing construction procedures and handling

C. Mata; L. do N. Guimarães; A. Ledesma; A. Gens; S. Olivella

2005-01-01

293

Electrochemical studies of kinetic properties of titanium- and vanadium-hydrogen systems at intermediate temperatures using molten salt techniques  

SciTech Connect

A novel molten salt technique for studying hydrogen transport in Ti an V metals is described. The molten-salt electrolytes were eutectic mixtures of alkali halides dissolved with excess LiH, operating in temperature ranges typically above 300 C, to which electrochemical techniques were difficult to apply conventionally. The authors used the molten salt technique to investigate the thermodynamic properties of the Ti-H system previously. In this work, they determined composition-dependent diffusion and permeation data of hydrogen in Ti and in binary hydride phases using a galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT). The results are in accordance with the best values reported by others using different techniques. They also reported some preliminary results regarding the kinetic properties of hydrogen in V and its hydride measured by more conventional time-lag and steady-state permeation techniques. The successful application of this molten salt technique in the metal hydrogen systems opened a new arena for potential application in energy conversion and storage.

Liaw, B.Y.; Deublein, G.; Huggins, R.A. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-07-01

294

Electrochemical separation of actinides and fission products in molten salt electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt electrochemical separation may be applied to accelerator-based conversion (ABC) and transmutation systems by dissolving the fluoride transport salt in LiCl-KCl eutectic solvent. The resulting fluoride-chloride mixture will contain small concentrations of fission product rare earths (La, Nd, Gd, Pr, Ce, Eu, Sm, and Y) and actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm). The Gibbs free energies of formation of the metal chlorides are grouped advantageously such that the actinides can be deposited on a solid cathode with the majority of the rare earths remaining in the electrolyte. Thus, the actinides are recycled for further transmutation. Rockwell and its partners have measured the thermodynamic properties of the metal chlorides of interest (rare earths and actinides) and demonstrated separation of actinides from rare earths in laboratory studies. A model is being developed to predict the performance of a commercial electrochemical cell for separations starting with PUREX compositions. This model predicts excellent separation of plutonium and other actinides from the rare earths in metal-salt systems.

Gay, R. L.; Grantham, L. F.; Fusselman, S. P.; Grimmett, D. L.; Roy, J. J. [Rockwell International/Rocketdyne Division Canoga Park, California 91309-7922 (United States)

1995-09-15

295

Incineration in molten salts of alpha-contaminated solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incineration by the molten salt process is found to be suitable for the safe destruction of alpha-contaminated waste without pollution but with the possibility of plutonium recovery. A detailed description of the processes involved in the incineration process is given covering: combustion, acid dissolution, recovery of U and\\/or Pu by electrolytic means, separation of ash, and recycling of the eutectic

G. Brambilla; E. Quercioli; L. Beaulardi; R. Gritti

2008-01-01

296

Exploratory corrosion tests on alloys in molten salts at 900 C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of exploratory corrosion tests on sixteen different alloys at 900 C in molten eutectic sodium-potassium carbonate, in molten eutectic sodium-potassium-magnesium chloride and in molten sodium hydroxide are presented. The salts and many of the alloys were chosen for this study based on results reported in the literature; other alloys that were tested had no previously reported testing in

R. T. Coyle; R. W. Burrows; T. M. Thomas; G. Y. Lai

2008-01-01

297

Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in full- and low-sodium frankfurters at 4, 7, or 10°C using spray-dried mixtures of organic acid salts.  

PubMed

In meat processing, powdered ingredients are preferred to liquids because of ease of handling, mixing, and storing. This study was conducted to assess Listeria monocytogenes inhibition and the physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of frankfurters that were prepared with organic acid salts as spray-dried powders (sodium lactate-sodium acetate, sodium lactate-sodium acetate-sodium diacetate, and potassium acetate-potassium diacetate) or liquids (sodium lactate, sodium lactate-sodium diacetate, potassium lactate, and potassium lactate-sodium diacetate). Full-sodium (1.8% salt) and low-sodium (1.0% salt) frankfurters were prepared according to 10 and 5 different formulations (n = 3), respectively, and were dip inoculated with a six-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (?4 log CFU/g). Populations of Listeria and mesophilic aerobic bacteria were quantified during storage at 4, 7, and 10°C for up to 90 days. Four powder and two liquid full-sodium formulations and one powder low-sodium formulation, all of which contained diacetate except for 1% sodium lactate-sodium acetate powder, completely inhibited Listeria growth at 4°C. However, Listeria grew in full-sodium formulations at 10°C and in low-sodium formulations at 7 and 10°C except for the formulation containing 0.8% potassium acetate-0.2% potassium diacetate powder. All formulations were similar in terms of water activity, cooking yield, moisture, and protein content. Sodium content and pH were affected by the concentrations of sodium and diacetate, respectively. Frankfurter appearance, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability were similar (P > 0.05) regardless of the formulation, except for flavor and overall acceptability of the low-sodium formulation containing potassium acetate-potassium diacetate. Based on these findings, cosprayed powders appear to be a viable alternative to current liquid inhibitors for control of Listeria in processed meats. PMID:23992500

Sansawat, Thanikarn; Zhang, Lei; Jeong, Jong Y; Xu, Yanyang; Hessell, Gerald W; Ryser, Elliot T; Harte, Janice B; Tempelman, Robert; Kang, Iksoon

2013-09-01

298

Deliquescence of NaCl–NaNO3, KNO3–NaNO3, and NaCl–KNO3 salt mixtures from 90 to 120°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

: We conducted reversed deliquescence experiments in saturated NaCl–NaNO3–H2O, KNO3–NaNO3–H2O, and NaCl–KNO3–H2O systems from 90 to 120°C as a function of relative humidity and solution composition. NaCl, NaNO3, and KNO3 represent members of dust salt assemblages that are likely to deliquesce and form concentrated brines on high-level radioactive waste package surfaces in a repository environment at Yucca Mountain, NV. Discrepancy

Susan Carroll; Laura Craig; Thomas J Wolery

2005-01-01

299

Eutectic mixed monolayers in equilibrium with phospholipid-bilayers and triolein-liquid phase.  

PubMed Central

Triolein (TO) and phospholipids (egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, egg yolk phosphatidylethanolamine, and bovine brain phosphatidylserine) had low mutual solubilities and separated into the TO-liquid phase and phospholipid-bilayers. Spreading pressures of the TO-phospholipid mixture (i.e., surface pressures of the mixed monolayer in equilibrium with the phase-separating lipid mixture) at the air/saline interface were independent of the lipid composition. On the other hand, collapse pressures of the mixed monolayer of TO and phospholipid (i.e., surface pressures of the mixed monolayer in equilibrium with the TO-liquid phase) at the interface changed with the monolayer composition and were lower than the spreading pressure. The experimental data indicated the spreading and collapse pressures as offering a phase diagram for the presence of equilibrium between the mixed monolayer, the phospholipid-bilayers and the TO-liquid phase. The diagram showed that TO and the phospholipids were miscible in the mixed monolayer, forming an eutectic mixed monolayer. When the mixed monolayer initially had the eutectic composition, no collapse of the monolayer was detected until the surface pressure reached the value of the spreading pressure. No specific complex between TO and the phospholipid is required to explain the stability and collapse of the mixed monolayers. The bulk immiscibility of the lipids elucidated by the spreading pressure-measurements, immediately leads to the phase behaviors observed.

Handa, T; Saito, H; Miyajima, K

1993-01-01

300

Production of chlorine from chloride salts  

DOEpatents

A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

1981-01-01

301

Effects of heating on salt-occluded zeolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel generates a waste stream of fission products in the electrolyte, LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. Argonne National Laboratory is developing a mineral waste form for this waste stream. The waste form consists of a composite formed by hot pressing salt-occluded zeolite and a glass binder. Pressing conditions must be judiciously chosen. For a given pressure,

M. A. Lewis; M. C. Hash; C. Pereira; J. P. Ackerman

1996-01-01

302

Method for the production of uranium chloride salt  

DOEpatents

A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

2013-07-02

303

Facile morphology-controlled synthesis and luminescence properties of BaMoO4:Eu3+ microparticles and micro-rods obtained by a molten-salt reaction route.  

PubMed

This work focuses on the synthesis of morphology-controlled BaMoO4:Eu3+ micro-crystals such as microparticles and micro-rods using a facile molten salt method, and their morphology, structural characterization, and luminescent properties were comparatively investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and fluorescence spectra. The molten salt method synthesized products from a reaction of BaMoO4 precursor obtained by a co-precipitation method of BaCl2 and Na2MoO4 with an eutectic salt mixture of NaCl-KCl at 700 degrees C. Detailed studies revealed that the formation of the different morphologies of the micro-crystals was strongly dependent on the weight ratio of the salt (NaCl-KCl) to the BaMoO4 precursor, and the formation mechanism of the products in the present molten salt system was also investigated. Based on the investigations of the photoluminescence properties, the samples with different morphologies prepared by the molten salt method had the strongest red emission at 615 nm, corresponding to the Eu3+ 5D0-7F2 transition in the BaMoO4 host lattice, and the emission intensity of BaMoO4:Eu3+ microparticles was stronger than that of BaMoO4:Eu3+ micro-rods. PMID:22413257

Xia, Zhiguo; Jin, Shuai; Sun, Jiayue; Du, Haiyan; Du, Peng; Liao, Libing

2011-11-01

304

Experimental Investigation Evaporation of Liquid Mixture Droplets during Depressurization into Air Stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to develop experimental method to study the evaporation process of liquid mixture droplets during depressurization and into air stream. During the experiment, a droplet was suspended on a thermocouple; an infrared thermal imager was used to measure the droplet surface temperature transition. Saltwater droplets were used to investigate the evaporation process during depressurization, and volatile liquid mixtures of ethanol, methanol and acetone in water were applied to experimentally research the evaporation into air stream. According to the results, the composition and concentration has a complex influence on the evaporation rate and the temperature transition. With an increase in the share of more volatile component, the evaporation rate increases. While, a higher salt concentration in water results in a lower evaporation rate. The shape variation of saltwater droplet also depends on the mass concentration in solution, whether it is higher or lower than the eutectic point (22.4%). The results provide important insight into the complex heat and mass transfer of liquid mixture during evaporation.

Liu, L.; Bi, Q. C.; Terekhov, Victor I.; Shishkin, Nikolay E.

2010-03-01

305

Interaction of ?-silicon carbide with lead-lithium eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compatibility of silicon carbide with molten lead-lithium eutectic has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and prolonged heating of ? - SiC pellet in molten Pb-17Li eutectic alloy at 823K. Multiple peaks were present in the DSC analysis. However, XRD analysis has not shown any new phase formation, which indicated that no chemical reaction occurred. An experiment have also been carried out by dipping ? - SiC pellet in molten Pb-17Li eutectic alloy at 823K for 500 h to check the solubility of ? - SiC in molten Pb-17Li. Substantial mass loss of ?-SiC pellet was observed which could be due to dissolution of ?-SiC or its component into the eutectic melt.

Chakraborty, Poulami; Kumar, Sanjay; Fotedar, Ram Kishen; Krishnamurthy, Nagaiyar

2013-06-01

306

Corrosion of ODS steels in lead–bismuth eutectic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are advanced materials being developed for high temperature applications. Their properties (high temperature strength, creep resistance, corrosion\\/oxidation resistance) make them potentially usable for high temperature applications in liquid metal cooled systems like liquid lead–bismuth eutectic cooled reactors and spallation sources. Corrosion tests on five different ODS alloys were performed in flowing liquid lead–bismuth eutectic

P. Hosemann; H. T. Thau; A. L. Johnson; S. A. Maloy; N. Li

2008-01-01

307

Containerless solidification of undercooled oxide and metallic eutectic melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-speed video was employed to monitor the in situ recalescence of undercooled oxide Al2O3–36.8at.% ZrO2 and metallic Ni–18.7at.% Sn eutectics that were processed on an aero-acoustic levitator and an electromagnetic levitator, respectively. For the oxide eutectic, the entire sample becomes brighter and brighter without any clear recalescence front during spontaneous crystallization. When the sample was seeded at desired undercoolings,

Mingjun Li; Kosuke Nagashio; Kazuhiko Kuribayashi

2004-01-01

308

Processing of iron-titanium powder mixtures by transient liquid phase sintering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient liquid phase sintering was examined for Fe-Ti powder mixtures. The experimental plan included the effects of several processing variables, such as green density, particle size, composition, heating rate, sintering temperature, and sintering time. During heating, pores form at the Ti particle sites. At the first eutectic temperature (1085 °C), liquid spreading is inhibited by a surrounding intermetallic envelope, leading to swelling. At the second eutectic temperature (1289 °C), the liquid penetrates along the iron grain boundaries and provides densification. The amount of densification depends on the amount of liquid formed at the second eutectic temperature and its duration as determined by the titanium content and heating rate.

German, R. M.; Dunlap, J. W.

1986-02-01

309

Effect of calcium salts of a mixture of conjugated linoleic acids containing trans-10, cis-12 in the diet on milk fat synthesis in goats.  

PubMed

Dietary supplements of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing trans-10, cis-12 CLA decrease milk fat secretion in the lactating cow and sheep, but their effects on mammary lipogenesis in the goat are less well defined. Eight lactating goats were used in two 4 x 4 Latin-square experiments with 14 d experimental periods to examine the effects of calcium salts of CLA methyl esters (CaCLA) containing trans-10, cis-12 on milk fat synthesis. Experimental treatments consisted of incremental inclusion of 0, 30, 60 or 90 g of CaCLA/d (corresponding to 7.47, 14.9 and 22.4 g/d of trans-10, cis-12 CLA) offered during the first 10 d of each experimental period that replaced maize grain in concentrates (Experiment 1) or calcium salts of palm oil fatty acids (Experiment 2). Relative to the control, inclusion of 30, 60 or 90 g CaCLA/d in the diet reduced milk fat yield by 19.8, 27.9 and 32.3 % and 17.5, 39.0 and 49.3 % in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Decreases in milk fat were due to reductions in the secretion of fatty acids synthesised de novo rather than the uptake of fatty acids from the peripheral circulation. Indirect comparisons with the studies in the lactating cow indicated a lower efficacy of CaCLA supplements on mammary lipogenesis in the goat. In conclusion, CaCLA in the diet inhibits milk fat synthesis in the goat, responses that are dependent on the supply of dietary fatty acids, with evidence that the caprine is less sensitive to the anti-lipogenic effects of trans-10, cis-12 CLA compared with the bovine or ovine. PMID:18814802

Shingfield, Kevin J; Rouel, Jacques; Chilliard, Yves

2008-09-25

310

Adsorption of eutectic LiCl-KCl into zeolite 4A using a mechanically fluidized vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

A high-temperature mixer has been used to absorb LiCl-KCl eutectic salt powders into zeolite 4A. In situ sampling has been performed, allowing for a time-resolved view of the adsorption reaction. The weight percent free (nonabsorbed) chloride ions has been used as a measure of the effectiveness of the adsorption process. Using zeolite 4A powder with no binder, the free chloride concentration leveled off at 0.4--0.5 wt % in less than 5 h at 500 C. Zeolite 4A granules ({minus}60 + 200 mesh) containing binder yielded a free chloride concentration of 0.02 wt % after 5 h at 500 C. It is concluded that the improved performance from the granulated zeolite can be attributed to better mixing within the retort. A 50% reduction in the free chloride concentration below the melting point of the salt suggests that solid-state adsorption of the salt into the zeolite is possible.

Simpson, M.F.; Battisti, T.J. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1999-06-01

311

[Microcalorimetric study of thermodynamic values of aqueous phase transition and eutectic melting in the binary and ternary systems Na-DNA--H20 and Na-DNA--H20--NaCl].  

PubMed

Thermodynamic parameters of water phase transition and eutectics melting in DNA water-salt solution were studied by means of low temperature scanning differential microcalorimetry at different concentrations of polyanions. DNA hydration was measured and the character of changes in Na+ counterion binding was revealed during the transition of double helix into the state of random coils. PMID:678564

Mrevlishvili, G M; Dzhaparidze, G Sh; Sokhadze, V M; Chanchalashvili, Z I; Bilinska, B

312

Ultrasound in lead-bismuth eutectic  

SciTech Connect

The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN) is in the process of designing MYRRHA, a new multi-purpose irradiation facility to replace the ageing BR2. MYRRHA is a fast spectrum reactor cooled with lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). As liquid metal is opaque to visual light, ultrasonic measurement techniques are selected to fulfill essential tasks that, according to our assessment, will be demanded by licensing authorities, in particular: fuel assembly identification and localization of a lost fuel assembly. To that end, a considerable research effort at SCK.CEN is devoted to study ultrasonic propagation in LBE. As ultrasonic experiments in LBE are elaborate and expensive to set up, we are particularly interested in to what extent experiments in water can be extrapolated to LBE - one of the main focuses of this article. We describe and present results of a first experiment with this goal which shows that the signal to noise ratio is better in LBE and that we even see small diffuse reflections up to 40 deg. off normal. On the other hand, we do not see internal reflections in stainless steel objects in LBE which we do in water. Therefore, we conclude that experiments in water can be used to validate algorithms for LBE on the condition that they do not rely on internal reflections. We also present solutions to tackle the essential tasks: fuel assembly identification and lost object localization. The requirements for the ultrasonic equipment implementing these solutions are also discussed. (authors)

Dierckx, M.; Van Dyck, D. [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, BE-2400, Mol (Belgium)

2011-07-01

313

Are deep eutectic solvents benign or toxic?  

PubMed

In continuation of investigation for environmentally benign protocol for new solvents termed deep eutectic solvents (DESs), it is herein reported results concerning the toxicity and cytotoxicity of choline chloride (ChCl) based DESs with four hydrogen bond donors including glycerine, ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and urea. The toxicity was investigated using two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and two Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cytotoxicity effect was tested using the Artemia salina leach. It was found that there was no toxic effect for the tested DESs on all of the studied bacteria confirming their benign effects on these bacteria. Nevertheless, it was found that the cytotoxicity of DESs was much higher than their individual components (e.g. glycerine, ChCl) indicating that their toxicological behavior is different. For our best knowledge this is the first time that toxicity and cytotoxicity of DESs were studied. The toxicity and cytotoxicity of DESs varied depending on the structure of components. Careful usage of the terms non-toxicity and biodegradability must be considered. More investigation on this matter is required. PMID:23200570

Hayyan, Maan; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Hayyan, Adeeb; Al-Saadi, Mohammed A; AlNashef, Inas M; Mirghani, Mohamed E S; Saheed, Olorunnisola Kola

2012-11-28

314

Deliquescence of NaCl-NaNO3, KNO3-NaNO3, and NaCl-KNO3 Salt Mixtures From 90 to 120?C  

SciTech Connect

We conducted reversed deliquescence experiments in saturated NaCl-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O, KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O, and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O systems from 90 to 120 C as a function of relative humidity and solution composition. NaCl, NaNO{sub 3}, and KNO{sub 3} represent members of dust salt assemblages that are likely to deliquesce and form concentrated brines on high-level radioactive waste package surfaces in a repository environment at Yucca Mountain, NV, USA. Discrepancy between model prediction and experimental code can be as high as 8% for relative humidity and 50% for dissolved ion concentration. The discrepancy is attributed primarily to the use of 25 C models for Cl-NO{sub 3} and K-NO{sub 3} ion interactions in the current Yucca Mountain Project high-temperature Pitzer model to describe the non-ideal behavior of these highly concentrated solutions.

Carroll, S A; Craig, L; Wolery, T J

2004-10-20

315

[sup 7]Li-NMR determination of stability constants as a function of temperature for lithium-crown ether complexes in a molten salt mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The stability constants of several crown ethers with lithium ion were determined by [sup 7]Li-NMR measurements. A room temperature, basic molten salt of the composition of 55/45 mol % 1-methyl-3-ethyl-imidazolium chloride to aluminum (III) chloride was used as solvent. On the basis of a 1:1 complex formation the following order was found for the stability constants of the investigated crown ethers: 18-crown-6 < 12-crown-4 < benzo-15-crown-5 < 15-crown-5. A temperature dependence study for 12-crown-4, benzo-15-crown-5, and 15-crown-5 was undertaken for the range 5-84[degree]C. Values of [Delta]H and [Delta]S were calculated. At 5.5[degree]C the splitting of the single, fast exchange peak into two separate signals was observed for benzo-15-crown-5, providing further evidence for the formation of the 1:1 complex. 34 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Gerhard, A. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States) Univ. of Witten/Herdecke (Germany)); Cobranchi, D.P.; Garland, B.A.; Highley, A.M.; Huang, Y.H.; Konya, G.; Eyring, E.M. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Zahl, A.; Eldik, R. van (Univ. of Witten/Herdecke (Germany)); Petrucci, S. (Polytechnic Univ., Farmingdale, NY (United States))

1994-08-11

316

Investigation of the evaporation of rare earth chlorides in a LiCl–KCl molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium dendrites which were deposited at a solid cathode of an electrorefiner contained a certain amount of salts. These\\u000a salts should be removed for the recovery of pure metal using a cathode processor. In the uranium deposits from the electrorefining\\u000a process, there are actinide chlorides and rare earth chlorides in addition to uranium chloride in the LiCl–KCl eutectic salt.\\u000a The

Sung Bin Park; Dong Wook Cho; Moon Sik Woo; Sung Chan Hwang; Young Ho Kang; Jeong Guk Kim; Hansoo Lee

2011-01-01

317

Molten salt synthesis of alkali niobate powders  

SciTech Connect

A mixture of niobium pentoxide, an oxide of an alkali selected from the group consisting of sodium, potassium, lithium and mixtures thereof, and an alkali chloride salt solvent is heated to melt the chloride salt solvent in which the niobium oxide and alkali oxide dissolve and react precipitating the alkali niobate.

Arendt, R.H.; Rosolowski, J.H.

1980-11-18

318

Molten Salt Fuel Version of Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE)  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt with dissolved uranium is being considered for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) fission blanket as a backup in case a solid-fuel version cannot meet the performance objectives, for example because of radiation damage of the solid materials. Molten salt is not damaged by radiation and therefore could likely achieve the desired high burnup (>99%) of heavy atoms of {sup 238}U. A perceived disadvantage is the possibility that the circulating molten salt could lend itself to misuse (proliferation) by making separation of fissile material easier than for the solid-fuel case. The molten salt composition being considered is the eutectic mixture of 73 mol% LiF and 27 mol% UF{sub 4}, whose melting point is 490 C. The use of {sup 232}Th as a fuel is also being studied. ({sup 232}Th does not produce Pu under neutron irradiation.) The temperature of the molten salt would be {approx}550 C at the inlet (60 C above the solidus temperature) and {approx}650 C at the outlet. Mixtures of U and Th are being considered. To minimize corrosion of structural materials, the molten salt would also contain a small amount ({approx}1 mol%) of UF{sub 3}. The same beryllium neutron multiplier could be used as in the solid fuel case; alternatively, a liquid lithium or liquid lead multiplier could be used. Insuring that the solubility of Pu{sup 3+} in the melt is not exceeded is a design criterion. To mitigate corrosion of the steel, a refractory coating such as tungsten similar to the first wall facing the fusion source is suggested in the high-neutron-flux regions; and in low-neutron-flux regions, including the piping and heat exchangers, a nickel alloy, Hastelloy, would be used. These material choices parallel those made for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL. The nuclear performance is better than the solid fuel case. At the beginning of life, the tritium breeding ratio is unity and the plutonium plus {sup 233}U production rate is {approx}0.6 atoms per 14.1 MeV neutron.

Moir, R W; Shaw, H F; Caro, A; Kaufman, L; Latkowski, J F; Powers, J; Turchi, P A

2008-10-24

319

Complexes responsible for ionic transport in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt  

SciTech Connect

DFT calculations using DMol software at the DNP/UHF/BLYP level were firstly performed in order to determine the more stable isolated chloro-complexes of lithium and/or potassium cations. An Inverse Isotropic Monte Carlo technique was then used for obtaining a 3-D model of this melt from the pair correlation functions computed by Lantelme and Turq. At last, DFT calculation derived complexes were looked for in the melt model using a lab-made software. This procedure showed the presence of LiCl{sub 2{sup {minus}}} and K{sub 2}Cl{sup +} complexes in molten KCl eutectic. This procedure allows a better understanding of the structure of melt and suggests answers to some phenomena that occur in molten salts such as the Chemla effect. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Hebant, P.; Picard, G.S. [Laboratoire d`Electrochimie et de Chimie Analytique (URA 216), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11 rue P & M Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Mouron, L.; Legendre, J. [Laboratoire de Modelisation Appliquee a la Chimie]|[Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11 rue P & M Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

1996-04-01

320

Physical properties of oils and mixtures of oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical properties of palm, palm kernel and coconut oils are reviewed and compared and contrasted with the properties\\u000a of other oils and fats. More information is available for palm oil than for the other two. The properties of mixtures of the\\u000a oils also are considered, especially mixtures of palm and palm kernel oils in which a eutectic interaction occurs.

R. E. Timms

1985-01-01

321

Reprocessing method of ceramic nuclear fuels in low-melting nitrate molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic nuclear fuel is reprocessed through a method wherein the fuel is dispersed in a molten eutectic mixture of at least two alkali metal nitrates and heated to a temperature in the range between 200 and 300°C. That heated mixture is then subjected to the action of a gaseous stream containing nitric acid vapors, preferably in the presence of a

G. Brambilla; G. Caporali; M. Zambianchi

1976-01-01

322

Relating composition, structural order, entropy and transport in multi-component molten salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulations of the LiF-BeF2 molten salt mixture are used to establish relationships between composition, structural order, entropy, and transport properties of multi-component ionic liquids. A sharp rise in tetrahedral order associated with formation of the fluoroberyllate network occurs for compositions with BeF2 concentrations greater than that of the Li2BeF4-BeF2 eutectic. The excess entropy of the liquid in this regime, within the pair correlation approximation, is strongly correlated with the local tetrahedral order. The different degree of participation of beryllium, fluorine, and lithium ions in the cooperative dynamics of the fluoroberyllate network can be related to the degree of deviation from Rosenfeld-type excess entropy scaling, with the lithium ions remaining essentially unaffected by the liquid state network. We demonstrate that the deviations from Nernst-Einstein and Stokes-Einstein behaviour emerge only in temperature-composition regimes where tetrahedral order strongly correlates with the pair entropy. Implications for understanding structure-property relationships in other ionic liquids, such as molten salts, oxide melts, and RTILs are considered.

Jabes, B. Shadrack; Chakravarty, Charusita

2012-04-01

323

Relating composition, structural order, entropy and transport in multi-component molten salts.  

PubMed

Molecular dynamics simulations of the LiF-BeF(2) molten salt mixture are used to establish relationships between composition, structural order, entropy, and transport properties of multi-component ionic liquids. A sharp rise in tetrahedral order associated with formation of the fluoroberyllate network occurs for compositions with BeF(2) concentrations greater than that of the Li(2)BeF(4)-BeF(2) eutectic. The excess entropy of the liquid in this regime, within the pair correlation approximation, is strongly correlated with the local tetrahedral order. The different degree of participation of beryllium, fluorine, and lithium ions in the cooperative dynamics of the fluoroberyllate network can be related to the degree of deviation from Rosenfeld-type excess entropy scaling, with the lithium ions remaining essentially unaffected by the liquid state network. We demonstrate that the deviations from Nernst-Einstein and Stokes-Einstein behaviour emerge only in temperature-composition regimes where tetrahedral order strongly correlates with the pair entropy. Implications for understanding structure-property relationships in other ionic liquids, such as molten salts, oxide melts, and RTILs are considered. PMID:22502533

Jabes, B Shadrack; Chakravarty, Charusita

2012-04-14

324

Salt tectonics  

SciTech Connect

Salt deposits have economic significance because of their importance as oil and gas traps and their potential as radioactive waste disposal sites. This article reviews the formation of salt domes, beginning with a description of the formation of salt deposits as evaporites and a discussion of early attempts to model the development of salt domes. Current work on tectonics of salt dome formation and related tectonics is then discussed in detail.

Talbot, C.J.; Jackson, M.P.A.

1988-01-01

325

Transient and steady state creep response of ice I and magnesium sulfate hydrate eutectic aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice\\/hydrate eutectic aggregates are much stronger than pure ice at low stressAt high stress, eutectic aggregates display semibrittle behaviorA semibrittle icy shell would require less stress to form folds and cracks

Christine McCarthy; Reid F. Cooper; David L. Goldsby; William B. Durham; Stephen H. Kirby

2011-01-01

326

Effect of amino acids on the eutectic behavior of NaCl solutions studied by DSC.  

PubMed

The effect of a series of amino acids on the eutectic behavior of NaCl solutions at isotonic concentration has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The inclusion of different amino acids had different effects on eutectic formation. The amino acids were grouped into four categories based on their effect on eutectic formation: category C were amino acids that had no effect on eutectic formation; category D amino acids inhibited eutectic formation; category T amino acids shifted the melting of the eutectic to a lower temperature; category E amino acids caused the formation of a new eutectic with a melting temperature approximately -5 degrees C. The mechanism of these different effects on eutectic behavior is discussed, based on the chemical structure of the amino acids. PMID:15925578

Chen, N J; Morikawa, J; Hashimoto, T

2005-04-09

327

Thermoelectric parameters of eutectic Ge-InAs alloy  

SciTech Connect

If a semiconductor is made as an alloy containing small inclusions (a few micrometers), one expects that the size of the composition-inhomogeneity regions would be reduced, with corresponding changes in the thermoelectric parameters by comparison with large single crystals (several centimeters). This has been tested with a eutectic InAs-Ge alloy containing small germanium inclusions. The eutectic alloys were made my Bridgmans method. The conductivity and thermo-emf parallel and perpendicular to the axis were measured along with the thermal conductivity at 298-940 K. The parameters were affected by Ga acceptor and Sb and Te donors.

Leonov, V.V.; Gantimurova, Z.K.

1988-04-01

328

Palladium-Carbon Eutectic Fixed Point for Thermocouple Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Pd-C eutectic fixed point has been produced using a molybdenum disilicide element, electrically heated furnace that was built in-house. The eutectic fixed point was measured with two Pt/Pd thermocouples calibrated at the fixed points of Sn, Zn, Al, Ag, and Au. An ITS-90 temperature of (1490.69 ± 0.88) °C ( k = 2) was obtained for the inflection point of the melting plateau. Diffusion of Pd into the thermowell and onto the thermocouple protection tube was observed.

Todd, A. D. W.; Gotoh, M.; Woods, D. J.; Hill, K. D.

2011-01-01

329

Lead-bismuth eutectic technology for Hyperion reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small lead-bismuth eutectic-cooled reactor concept (referred to as the Hyperion reactor concept) is being studied at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Hyperion Power Generation. In this report, a critical assessment of the lead-bismuth eutectic technology for Hyperion reactor is presented based on currently available knowledge. Included are: material compatibility, oxygen control, thermal hydraulics, polonium control. The key advances in the technology and their applications to Hyperion reactor design are analyzed. Also, the near future studies in main areas of the technology are recommended for meeting the design requirements.

Zhang, J.; Kapernick, R. J.; McClure, P. R.; Trapp, T. J.

2013-10-01

330

Cobalt-Carbon Eutectic Fixed Point for Contact Thermometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Co-C eutectic fixed points were constructed for thermocouple calibration. The eutectic fixed points were measured with a Pt/Pd thermocouple calibrated at the freezing temperatures of Sn, Zn, Al, Ag, and Au. A temperature of (1323.99 ± 0.52) °C ( k = 2) was determined via this method. The cell design allowed filling to be accomplished in a single step. Each cell was held above 1300 °C for at least 42 h and was subjected to at least 20 melt/freeze cycles with no mechanical failure occurring.

Todd, A. D. W.; Gotoh, M.; Woods, D. J.; Hill, K. D.

2011-01-01

331

Refinement of Eutectic Silicon Phase of Aluminum A356 Alloy Using High-Intensity Ultrasonic Vibration  

SciTech Connect

The eutectic silicon in A356 alloy can be refined and modified using either chemical, quench, or superheating modification. We observed, for the first time, that the eutectic silicon can also be significantly refined using high-intensity ultrasonic vibration. Rosette-like eutectic silicon is formed during solidification of specimen treated with high-intensity ultrasonic vibration.

Jian, Xiaogang [ORNL; Han, Qingyou [ORNL

2006-01-01

332

Refinement of eutectic silicon phase of aluminum A356 alloy using high-intensity ultrasonic vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eutectic silicon in A356 alloy can be refined and modified using either chemical, quench, or superheating modification. We observed, for the first time, that the eutectic silicon can also be significantly refined using high-intensity ultrasonic vibration. Rosette-like eutectic silicon is formed during solidification of specimen treated with high-intensity ultrasonic vibration.

Xiaogang Jian; T. T. Meek; Q. Han

2006-01-01

333

The thermal conductivity of the molten NaNO3-KNO3 eutectic between 525 and 590 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molten salts are one of the few remaining classes of fluids for which standardquality (±1% accuracy) data on thermal conductivity have not hitherto been available. We have therefore developed a new apparatus based on the transient hot-wire technique to obtain reference-quality measurements of the thermal conductivity of molten salts at high temperatures. Liquid metal-filled quartz capillaries served as insulated hot wires in our method, and in addition, a two-wire technique was used in order to obtain absolute values of the thermal conductivity. New data for the NaNO3-KNO3 eutectic between 525 and 590 K are reported in this paper and comparisons with other recent measurements are shown.

Diguilio, R. M.; Teja, A. S.

1992-07-01

334

Microstructural evolution of eutectic Au-Sn solder joints  

SciTech Connect

Current trends toward miniaturization and the use of lead(Pb)-free solder in electronic packaging present new problems in the reliability of solder joints. This study was performed in order to understand the microstructure and microstructural evolution of small volumes of nominally eutectic Au-Sn solder joints (80Au-20Sn by weight), which gives insight into properties and reliability.

Song, Ho Geon

2002-05-31

335

Use of Microgravity to Control the Microstructure of Eutectics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This grant began in June of 1996. Its long term goal is to be able to control the microstructure of directionally solidified eutectic alloys, through an improved understanding of the influence of convection. The primary objective of the present projects i...

W. R. Wilcox L. L. Regel R. W. Smith

1998-01-01

336

Mechanical behaviour of the Cd-Zn eutectic composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and the resultant mechanical properties of the unidirectionally solidified Cd-Zn eutectic have been examined over a wide range of growth rates. The yield and ultimate strengths when tested in tension and compression were found to increase monotonically with the growth rate. The deformation of the matrix in tension occurred mostly by twinning whereas slip-controlled deformation was observed in

M. Sahoo; R. A. Porter; R. W. Smith

1976-01-01

337

Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure

James A. Horton; H. Wayne Hayden

1995-01-01

338

Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method are disclosed for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point

J. A. Horton; H. W. Hayden

1995-01-01

339

Semiconductor-Metal Eutectic Composites for High Power Switching.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews the accomplishments of a research program that sought to develop a totally new material for high-power transistor switching. The material, which we have generally referred to as SME for semiconductor-metal eutectic, is a composite with...

Q. Nguyen P. Rossoni M. Levinson B. M. Ditchek

1992-01-01

340

Reduction of voiding in eutectic ball grid array solder joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid progress of ball grid array (BGA) component technology has served to alleviate many problems associated with the placement and soldering of high lead count, fine pitch surface mount technology (SMT) packages. An unfortunate result of this process, however, is the occurrence of voids in the interconnecting eutectic solder balls of these packages. Large voids can affect the mechanical

William Casey

1999-01-01

341

Improving fatigue life in near-eutectic Sn Pb solders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to technical advances in packaging technology, solder joint thermal shear fatigue failures pose reliability concerns and limit current packaging designs in the electronics industry. Past work has shown that thermal fatigue failures, as well as isothermal fatigue and creep failures, in the commonly used near-eutectic Sn-Pb solders are preceded by the formation of a band of coarsened material. Examination

Summers

1991-01-01

342

Salt precipitation during the freeze-concentration of phosphate buffer solutions.  

PubMed

Salt precipitation during the freeze concentration of phosphate solutions was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), in view of its practical importance in the cryopreservation or freeze-drying of biological materials. It was found that the fraction of salt precipitated depends on the initial salt concentration; it began to decrease with decreasing concentration at approx. 1 M. Salt precipitation also depends on the cooling rate. In some cases, cooling at approx. 10(3) degree min-1 inhibited salt precipitation which had been observed during slow cooling (0.62 degree min-1), without, however, affecting the shape of the ice melting endotherm. In the case of ternary phosphate buffers, the fraction of salt precipitating depends on the salt composition as well as the initial concentration and cooling rate. Near the composition of the ternary eutectic or the composition where two salts are present at the same concentration, salts were prevented from precipitation. PMID:2611352

Murase, N; Franks, F

1989-11-01

343

Molten salt oxidation as an alternative to incineration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Molten Salt Oxidation was originally developed by Rockwell International as part of their coal gasification, and nuclear-and hazardous-waste treatment programs. Single-stage oxidation units employing molten carbonate salt mixtures were found to process up...

L. W. Gray M. G. Adamson J. F. Cooper J. C. Farmer R. S. Upadhye

1992-01-01

344

Making Bath Salts for Mother's Day, a Primary Chemistry Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a guided discovery where students make chemical mixtures using sodium, learn about the Periodic Table, view salt under a microscope, and have a final result of bath salts for the bathtub

345

Salt Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are shading light on the molecular nature of salt tolerance effectors and regulatory pathways.

Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

2002-01-01

346

Detection of Eutectic Solidification during Freezing of Electrolyte Solutions by Electric Impedance Measuremen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study was carried out to develop a technique for detecting the occurrence of eutectic solidification of electrolyte solutions, which is a potential cause of cellular damage during freezing of cells and tissues. The electric impedance of a sodium chloride or a potassium chloride aqueous solution between two parallel electrodes was measured at subzero temperatures as a function of the frequency ranged from 1 to 105 Hz. The impedance increased abruptly with decreasing temperature near the eutectic point, suggesting the possible detection of eutectic solidification. Some extent of supercooling was observed before the eutectic solidification, while the impedance drop agreed well with the eutectic temperature during thawing.

Yoshida, Keisuke; Adachi, Kenji; Yoshimori, Takashi; Uchida, Satoru; Takamatsu, Hiroshi

347

Organic alloy systems suitable for the investigation of regular binary and ternary eutectic growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent organic alloys showing a plastic crystal phase were investigated experimentally using differential scanning calorimetry and directional solidification with respect to find a suitable model system for regular ternary eutectic growth. The temperature, enthalpy and entropy of phase transitions have been determined for a number of pure substances. A distinction of substances with and without plastic crystal phases was made from their entropy of melting. Binary phase diagrams were determined for selected plastic crystal alloys with the aim to identify eutectic reactions. Examples for lamellar and rod-like eutectic solidification microstructures in binary systems are given. The system (D)Camphor Neopentylglycol Succinonitrile is identified as a system that exhibits, among others, univariant and a nonvariant eutectic reaction. The ternary eutectic alloy close to the nonvariant eutectic composition solidifies with a partially faceted solid liquid interface. However, by adding a small amount of Amino-Methyl-Propanediol (AMPD), the temperature of the nonvariant eutectic reaction and of the solid state transformation from plastic to crystalline state are shifted such, that regular eutectic growth with three distinct nonfaceted phases is observed in univariant eutectic reaction for the first time. The ternary phase diagram and examples for eutectic microstructures in the ternary and the quaternary eutectic alloy are given.

Sturz, L.; Witusiewicz, V. T.; Hecht, U.; Rex, S.

2004-09-01

348

Eutectic nucleation and growth in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys at different strontium levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of different levels of strontium on nucleation and growth of the eutectic in a commercial hypoeutectic Al-Si foundry alloy have been investigated by optical microscopy and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) mapping by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microstructural evolution of each specimen during solidification was studied by a quenching technique at different temperatures and Sr contents. By comparing the orientation of the aluminum in the eutectic to that of the surrounding primary aluminum dendrites by EBSD, the eutectic formation mechanism could be determined. The results of these studies show that the eutectic nucleation mode, and subsequent growth mode, is strongly dependent on Sr level. Three distinctly different eutectic growth modes were found, in isolation or sometimes together, but different for each Sr content. At very low Sr contents, the eutectic nucleated and grew from the primary phase. Increasing the Sr level to between 70 and 110 ppm resulted in nucleation of independent eutectic grains with no relation to the primary dendrites. At a Sr level of 500 ppm, the eutectic again nucleated on and grew from the primary phase while a well-modified eutectic structure was still present. A slight dependency of eutectic growth radially from the mold wall opposite the thermal gradient was observed in all specimens in the early stages of eutectic solidification.

Dahle, A. K.; Nogita, K.; McDonald, S. D.; Zindel, J. W.; Hogan, L. M.

2001-04-01

349

Bactericidal mixture of sulfite salt and surfactant quaternary ammonium salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluid drive oil recovery processes which use an aqueous liquid are commonly faced with a problem in the control of both aerobic bacteria and anaerobic bacteria in the waters or aqueous liquids utilized for injection. The presence of anaerobic bacteria, such as the sulfate-reducing bacteria, is of primary concern, because of the metal corrosion, formation plugging, and possible hydrogen sulfide

C. F. Blankenhorn; T. S. Felmann

1973-01-01

350

Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt  

SciTech Connect

Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete occlusion of salt and a uniform distribution of chloride and fission products are desired for incorporation of the powders into the final waste form. The relative effectiveness of the blending process was studied over a series of temperature, time, and composition profiles. The major criteria for determining the effectiveness of the mixing operations were the level and uniformity of residual free salt in the mixtures. High operating temperatures (>775 K) improved salt occlusion. Reducing the chloride levels in the mixture to below 80% of the full salt capacity of the zeolite significantly reduced the free salt level in the final product.

Pereira, C.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

1996-05-01

351

Mixture Experiments  

SciTech Connect

A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

Piepel, Gregory F.

2007-12-01

352

Plastic and Anelastic Responses of Ice-I/Magnesium Sulfate Hydrate Eutectic Aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of non-ice material (e.g. salt-hydrate) on the surface of icy satellites requires that we consider the influence of a second phase on the mechanical properties of ice. We are investigating experimentally the flow-strength and relaxation response (attenuation) of two-phase aggregates of magnesium sulfate hydrate and ice-I through compression creep tests (T = 240-250K; ? = 0.9-9.0 MPa) in a 1-atm, dead-weight, deformation apparatus modified for cryogenic use. All samples in our study crystallize from a homogeneous liquid solution that produces a classical eutectic microstructure. A misting and hot-pressing technique allows us to control grain size, or more accurately, colony size, in the samples. The steady-state (secondary) creep response of the ice/hydrate aggregate reveals that it has a viscosity that is at least an order of magnitude greater than that of pure polycrystalline ice at the same stress and temperature in what appears to be a dislocation creep regime. Since heterophase boundaries are found to be an effective barrier to dislocation motion, we attribute the increase in strength to the high volume of incoherent interfaces that the eutectic microstructure provides. We are also examining the transient (primary) creep in the strain response; this relaxation is an indication of the dissipative quality of the material from which we may begin to understand how mechanical energy (such as that from tidal loading) could be absorbed (dissipated) in the crust as heat. Information gleaned from these experiments can help constrain models of crustal thickness and surface dynamics on Europa.

McCarthy, C.; Cooper, R. F.; Goldsby, D. L.; Kirby, S. H.; Durham, W. B.

2006-12-01

353

Microstructural development of eutectic Bi-Sn and eutectic In-Sn during high temperature deformation  

SciTech Connect

Eutectic Bi-Sn and In-Sn solder joints were subjected to high temperature deformation in shear in order to determine whether microstructural instabilities are generated during testing. Dynamic recrystallization had previously been observed in Sn-Pb solder joints during creep and fatigue in shear. The current study shows that Bi-Sn can recrystallize during deformation in creep or at constant strain rate, whereas no microstructural changes are observed in In-Sn. Recrystallization of Bi-Sn is concentrated in a narrow band along the length of the sample, parallel to the direction of shear strain, similar to behavior in Sn-Pb. The recrystallization appears to proceed by migration of interphase boundaries rather than by a nucleation and growth mechanism. A minimum total strain is required to induce obvious recrystallization in Bi-Sn, independent of applied stress or strain rate. This value of strain is much higher than the strain at initiation of tertiary creep or at the maximum shear stress. Onset of tertiary creep and strain softening occur as a result of nonuniform deformation in the samples that is independent of the microstructural instabilities. The creep behavior of In-Sn is relatively straightforward, with a single creep mechanism operating at all temperatures tested. 36 refs., 13 figs.

Goldstein, J.L.F.; Morris, J.W. Jr. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States))

1994-05-01

354

New Method of Filling of High-Temperature Fixed-Point Cells Based on Metal-Carbon Eutectics/Peritectics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method of filling of high-temperature fixed-point cells based on metal-carbon eutectics and peritectics is suggested and tested. In this method a metal and carbon powder mixture is introduced not directly into the crucible, but into an additional container located just above the crucible. The mixture melts inside the container, and the already molten eutectic drops through a small hole in the bottom of the container and fills the crucible drop by drop. The method can be used to obtain a uniform ingot without porous or foundry cavities, to minimize the risk of contamination, and to avoid some other disadvantages. The method was applied to fabricate Re-C and WC-C cells using 5N purity materials. The cells demonstrated a good plateau shape with melting ranges of 0.2 K and 80 mK for Re-C and WC-C, respectively. The Re-C cell was compared with a cell built at NMIJ and showed good agreement with a difference of melting temperatures of only 45 mK.

Khlevnoy, B. B.; Grigoryeva, I. A.; Ibragimov, N. A.

2011-08-01

355

CONTROLLED POTENTIAL COULOMETRIC AND POLAROGRAPHIC INVESTIGATIONS OF METALLIC IONS IN FUSED SALTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of platinum(II)--platinum(O) reference electrodes used in ; fused lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic were compared and tested with ; respect to their stability with repeated use. One type was completely enclosed ; in a borosilicate glass tube, the glass serving as a salt bridge to the melt, ; whereas the other contained a small asbestos fiber sealed into the

Caton; R. D. Jr

1963-01-01

356

Separation of Some Post-Transition Metal Ions by Thin-Layer Chromatography in Molten Salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the use of molten salts as an eluent for thin-layer chromatography of inorganic ions. The separation of some post-transition metal ions can be successfully accomplished through the use of alkali metal nitrate eutectic melts. The mechanism of separation appears to be one of cation exchange with the silica gel used as the adsorbent. By appropriate

Steven Abbe; Leonard F. Druding

1969-01-01

357

Corrosion of Materials in Molten Alkali Carbonate Salt at 900 Degrees C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work was done to assess the compatibility of selected ceramics and alloys with ternary eutectic lithium-sodium-potassium carbonate at 900 deg C. This salt has been chosen for use in pilot-scale studies of the Direct Absorption Receiver, which will be...

R. T. Coyle T. M. Thomas P. Schissel

1985-01-01

358

Hydride-containing molten salts and their technology implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydride-conducting molten salts such as LiH in eutectic LiCl-KCl are attractive electrolyte systems for intermediate-temperature applications. The chemically reducing characteristics of these hydride melts provide a unique method to clean metal surfaces. The high conductivity of these hydride melts makes them the best electrolytes for hydrogen-based energy applications at intermediate temperatures. We will review some earlier work on hydride-conducting molten

Bor Y. Liaw

1993-01-01

359

Molten salt EMF cell measurements on U–Ga alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gibbs free energies of formation of UGa3, UGa2 and U2Ga3 were determined by using high temperature molten salt galvanic cell measurements. Three cells were assembled and EMFs were measured. The typical cell is as follows: U(s)\\/\\/UCl3inLiCl–KCl(eutectic)(l)\\/\\/U–Ga(twophasealloy), where pure uranium is used as one of the electrodes and the other electrode is a two phase U–Ga alloy. The two phase

B Prabhakara Reddy; R Kandan; K Nagarajan; P. R Vasudeva Rao

2001-01-01

360

Theoretical study on the structures and properties of mixtures of urea and choline chloride.  

PubMed

In this work, we investigated in detail the structural characteristics of mixtures of choline chloride and urea with different urea contents by performing molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, and offer possible explanations for the low melting point of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea with a ratio of 1:2. The insertion of urea molecules was found to change the density distribution of cations and anions around the given cations significantly, disrupting the long-range ordered structure of choline chloride. Moreover, with increasing urea concentration, the hydrogen bond interactions between choline cations and Cl(-) anions decreased, while those among urea molecules obviously increased. From the hydrogen bond lifetimes, it was found that a ratio of 1:2 between choline chloride and urea is necessary for a reasonable strength of hydrogen bond interaction to maintain the low melting point of the mixture of choline chloride with urea. In addition, it was also deduced from the interaction energies that a urea content of 67.7 % may make the interactions of cation-anion, cation-urea and anion-urea modest, and thus results in the lower melting point of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea. The present results may offer assistance to some extent for understanding the physicochemical properties of the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea, and give valuable information for the further development and application of deep eutectic solvents. PMID:23435478

Sun, Hui; Li, Yan; Wu, Xue; Li, Guohui

2013-02-23

361

Development of High-Temperature Transport Technologies of Molten Salt Slurry in Pyrometallurgical Reprocessing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrometallurgical-reprocessing is one of the most promising technologies for advanced fuel cycle with favorable economic potential and intrinsic proliferation resistance. The development of transport technology for molten salt is a key issue in the industrialization of pyro-reprocessing. As for pure molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt at approximately 773 K, we have already reported the successful results of transport using gravity and

Takatoshi Hijikata; Tadafumi Koyama

2010-01-01

362

Nickel-plating for active metal dissolution resistance in molten fluoride salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ni electroplating of Incoloy-800H was investigated with the goal of mitigating Cr dissolution from this alloy into molten 46.5%LiF–11.5%NaF–42%KF eutectic salt, commonly referred to as FLiNaK. Tests were conducted in graphite crucibles at a molten salt temperature of 850°C. The crucible material graphite accelerates the corrosion process due to the large activity difference between the graphite and the alloy. For

Luke Olson; Kumar Sridharan; Mark Anderson; Todd Allen

2011-01-01

363

ENGINEERING EXPERIENCE AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY IN HANDLING FUSED CHLORIDE SALTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two fused chloride salt eutectics, binary LiCl-KCl and ternary NaCl- KCl-;\\u000a MgCl, were used in fuel processing studies as part of the Liquid Metal ;\\u000a Fuel Reactor research and development program. Results of engineering work done ;\\u000a at Brookhaven since 1950 are summarized. It was demonstrated that fused chloride ;\\u000a salt technology is sufficiently developed so that loops and other

C. J. Raseman; H. Susskind; G. Farber; W. E. McNulty; F. J. Salzano

1960-01-01

364

Development of a supported molten-salt Wacker catalyst for the oxidation of ethylene to acetaldehyde  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified supported molten-salt Wacker catalyst involving palladium chloride\\/copper chloride is developed by replacing the conventional aqueous reaction medium (HâO + HCl) with a eutectic melt of cuprous chloride and potassium chloride and supporting it on a porous support. Experimental studies for the oxidation of ethylene to acetaldhyde over the supported molten-salt catalyst (SMSC) show the kinetics to be similar

V. Rao; R. Datta

1988-01-01

365

Synthesis of oxide perovskite solid solutions using the molten salt method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molten salt method has in the past been employed to synthesize a large number of compounds at low temperatures. In this work we report the formation of solid solutions of BaTiO3 - SrTiO3 and BaZrO3 - SrZrO3 using a molten salt eutectic of NaOH- KOH as a solvent. Alkaline earth carbonates and titanium oxide were used as precursors for

Srikanth Gopalan; Karun Mehta; Anil V. Virkar

1996-01-01

366

High temperature molten salt storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a high-temperature molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) concept, including some materials testing, was developed by Rockwell International's Rocketdyne Division (RD), under contract to SERI, and is described in this document. The main features of the concept are a conical hot tank with a liner and internal insulation that allows unrestricted relative thermal expansion and the use of cathodic protection (impressed voltage) to inhibit corrosion. The RD design uses two tanks and ternary eutectic lithium-sodium-potassium carbonates for sensible heat storage. The tanks were sized for 6 h of storage at a discharge rate of 300 MW, giving 1800 MWh total usable thermal storage capacity. The molten carbonate storage medium is cycled between 425 and 900C. From the design study, no definitive statement can be made as to the cost-effectiveness of cathodic protection. Several anode design issues need to be resolved before cathodic protection can significantly reduce corrosion where the liner comes in contact with molten salts. However, where the tank is exposed to salt vapor, the large corrosion allowance required for the liner without cathodic protection results in a much thicker liner wall and shorter liner life than originally perceived, which affects system costs significantly.

Ives, J.; Newcomb, J. C.; Pard, A. G.

1985-10-01

367

Recent advances in the molten salt technology for the destruction of energetic materials  

SciTech Connect

The DOE has thousands of pounds of energetic materials which result from dismantlement operations at the Pantex Plant. The authors have demonstrated the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for the treatment of explosives and explosive-containing wastes on a 1.5 kilogram of explosive per hour scale and are currently building a 5 kilogram per hour unit. MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as binders and metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic material waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a crucible containing a molten salt, in this case a eutectic mixture of Na, K, and Li carbonates. The following pure component DOE and DoD explosives have been destroyed in LLNL`s experimental unit at their High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K-6, NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following formulations were also destroyed: Comp B, LX-10, LX-16, LX-17, PBX-9404, and XM46, a US Army liquid gun propellant. In this 1.5 kg/hr unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NOx were found to be well below 1T. In addition to destroying explosive powders and molding powders the authors have also destroyed materials that are typical of real world wastes. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the information obtained on the smaller unit, the authors have constructed a 5 kg/hr MSD unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. This unit is currently under shakedown tests and evaluation.

Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.

1995-11-01

368

Effect of inorganic salts on crystallization of poly(ethylene glycol) in frozen solutions.  

PubMed

The effect of inorganic salts on eutectic crystallization of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 1500-20,000 in frozen solution was studied to model the polymer and inorganic salt interaction in freeze-dried formulations. Thermal analysis of an aqueous PEG 3000 solution showed a eutectic PEG crystallization exotherm at approximately -47 degrees C and a subsequent PEG crystal melting endotherm at -14.9 degrees C. Addition of sodium chloride prevented the PEG crystallization in the freeze-concentrated solution surrounding ice crystals. Higher concentration NaCl was required to retain higher molecular weight PEG in the amorphous state. Various inorganic salts prevented the PEG crystallization to varying degrees depending mainly on the position of the anion in the Hofmeister's lyotropic series. Some salting-in and 'intermediate' salts (NaSCN, NaI, NaBr, NaCl, LiCl, KCl, and RbCl) inhibited the crystallization of PEG 7500 in frozen solutions. On the other hand, salting-out salts (NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, Na2SO4, and NaF) did not show an apparent effect on the PEG crystallization. Some salting-out salts induced PEG crystallization in PEG and sucrose combination frozen solutions. The varying abilities of salts to prevent the PEG crystallization in frozen solutions strongly suggested that the solutes had different degrees of miscibility in the freeze-concentrates. PMID:15607262

Izutsu, Ken-ichi; Aoyagi, Nobuo

2004-11-11

369

Salt Water Desalination by the Freezing Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigations of the most important units of the new method of salt water desalination by artificial freezing with the help of liquid hydrocarbons (propane-butane mixture) were conducted. Investigation of contact heat transfer processes indicates that th...

I. M. Rutgaizer S. Seitkurbanov V. I. Petrov

1969-01-01

370

Effectiveness of Anticorrosion Additives in Deicing Salts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose and objective of this study was to evaluate in the laboratory the effectiveness of several anticorrosive salts to reduce corrosion of autobody steel. Also the effects of mixtures of sodium chloride (treated and nontreated) and calcium chloride...

B. F. Himmelman M. C. Parsons

1967-01-01

371

Salts & Solubility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive simulation, learners will add different salts to water and then watch the salts dissolve and achieve a dynamic equilibrium with solid precipitate. Learners will also compare the number of ions in NaCl to other slightly soluble salts, and they will relate the charges on ions to the number of ions in the formula of a salt. Learners will also learn how to calculate Ksp values. This activity includes an online simulation, sample learning goals, a teacher's guide, and translations in over 20 languages.

Adams, Wendy; Koch, Linda; Lemaster, Ron; Loeblein, Trish; Perkins, Kathy; Harlow, Danielle

2011-01-01

372

Lead–lithium eutectic material database for nuclear fusion technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully validated material databases are needed for coherent technological developments in any R&D field. For nuclear fusion technology (NFT), within a near-term perspective of qualification and licensing of nuclear components and systems, this goal is both compulsory and urgent. This mandatory requirement applies for the particular case of the Pb–Li eutectic database as fusion reactor material. Pb16Li is today a

E. Mas de les Valls; L. A. Sedano; L. Batet; I. Ricapito; A. Aiello; O. Gastaldi; F. Gabriel

2008-01-01

373

Dry sliding wear of eutectic Al–Si  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wear of as-cast eutectic Al–Si was studied using pin-on-disk tribotests in two different environments, air and dry argon.\\u000a The counterface in all tests was yttria-stabilized zirconia. It was found that wear of the Al–Si was reduced by about 60%\\u000a by the removal of oxygen from the test environment. The zirconia counterfaces showed measurable wear after tests performed\\u000a in air,

I. BakerY; Y. Sun; F. E. Kennedy; P. R. Munroe

2010-01-01

374

Creep behavior of Ni-Cr lamellar eutectic alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural changes that occur during creep deformation at 625 and 760C, with creep and creep rupture data of a directionally\\u000a solidified Ni-Cr lamellar eutectic alloy are presented and discussed. It is shown that the characteristic features of stage\\u000a I deformation are the formation of dislocation tangles in the nickel-rich phase and shearing of the cellular structure; these\\u000a features are

Ram Kossowsky

1970-01-01

375

Cavitational Failure Phenomenon in Pb-Sn Eutectic Solders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report concerns mechanisms on the formation of r-type crack (or cavitation) associated with grain boundary sliding in Pb-Sn eutectic solders used for microelectronic applications. The experimental works indicate that cavitation takes place in a specimen deformed in a tensile test at a relatively low strain rate of 7×10-6\\/ s and in specimens fatigued at 0.1% to 0.2% strain range

Seong-Min Lee

1995-01-01

376

Microstructure evolution of eutectic SnAg solder joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser and infrared reflow soldering methods were used to make Sn-Ag eutectic solder joints for surface-mount components on\\u000a printed wiring boards. The microstructures of the joints were evaluated and related to process parameters. Aging tests were\\u000a conducted on these joints for times up to 300 days and at temperature up to 190C. The evolution of microstructure during\\u000a aging was examined.

Wenge Yang; Robert W. Messler; Lawrence E. Felton

1994-01-01

377

Microstructure evolution of eutectic SnAg solder joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser and infrared reflow soldering methods were used to make Sn-Ag eutectic solder joints for surface-mount components on printed wiring boards. The microstructures of the joints were evaluated and related to process parameters. Aging tests were conducted on these joints for times up to 300 days and at temperature up to 190°C. The evolution of microstructure during aging was examined.

Wenge Yang; Robert W. Messler; Lawrence E. Felton

1994-01-01

378

Al Cu eutectic: an experimental study of its melting properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equilibrium melting curves of nominally 99.9999% pure Al-Cu eutectic samples were realized. The end of the linear portion of the melting curves, the run-off point, was found to be (548.1608 ± 0.0007) °C. The uncertainty is one standard deviation of the twelve measured values. Some of the samples were then doped with Si, Fe and Ag. These impurities shifted their

J. Ancsin

2007-01-01

379

Eutectic epsilon-near-zero metamaterial terahertz waveguides.  

PubMed

We present and analyze the unique phenomena of enhanced THz transmission through a subwavelength LiF dielectric rod lattice embedded in an epsilon-near-zero KCl host. Our experimental results in combination with theoretical calculations show that subwavelength waveguiding of terahertz radiation is achieved within an alkali-halide eutectic metamaterial as result of the coupling of Mie-resonance modes arising in the dielectric lattice. PMID:23546270

Massaouti, M; Basharin, A A; Kafesaki, M; Acosta, M F; Merino, R I; Orera, V M; Economou, E N; Soukoulis, C M; Tzortzakis, S

2013-04-01

380

Recent advances in the molten salt destruction of energetic materials  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated the use of the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for destroying explosives, liquid gun propellant, and explosives-contaminated materials on a 1.5 kg of explosive/hr bench- scale unit (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In our recently constructed 5 kg/hr pilot- scale unit we have also demonstrated the destruction of a liquid gun propellant and simulated wastes containing HMX (octogen). MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic materials waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a vessel containing molten salt (a eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium carbonates). The following pure explosives have been destroyed in our bench-scale experimental unit located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K- 6 (keto-RDX), NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following compositions were also destroyed: Comp B, LX- IO, LX- 1 6, LX- 17, PBX-9404, and XM46 (liquid gun propellant). In this 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NO{sub x} were found to be well below 1%. In addition to destroying explosive powders and compositions we have also destroyed materials that are typical of residues which result from explosives operations. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic-bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the process data obtained on the bench-scale unit we designed and constructed a next-generation 5 kg/hr pilot-scale unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. The pilot unit has completed process implementation operations and explosives safety reviews. To date, in this pilot unit we have successfully destroyed liquid gun propellant and dimethylsulfoxide containing HMX in continuous, long-duration runs.

Pruneda, C. O., LLNL

1996-09-01

381

Ce-doped Al2O3-YAG eutectic and its application for white LEDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ce-doped Al2O3-YAG (Y3Al5O12, yttrium aluminum garnet) eutectic, a resin-free phosphor for white light emitting diodes (WLEDs), was successfully grown by the Czochralski method. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy show that this material has a typical eutectic structure of interpenetrating sapphire and garnet phases, as well as lamellar spacing in the order of tens of microns. The eutectic has a higher Ce3+ segregation coefficient than YAG single crystal. The photoluminescence properties of this eutectic were also investigated. Results show that it is characterized by a wide excitation band, and that the luminous efficiency of a eutectic-packaged LED is higher than that of a phosphor powder-packaged LED. The findings indicate that the Al2O3-YAG eutectic is a promising phosphor for WLED applications.

Sai, Qinglin; Zhao, Zhiwei; Xia, Changtai; Xu, Xiaodong; Wu, Feng; Di, Juqing; Wang, Lulu

2013-10-01

382

Nucleation behaviour and anomalous eutectic formation in highly undercooled Fe2O3La2O3 eutectic melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing an aero-acoustic levitator, the Fe2O3-16.5 mol% La2O3 eutectic alloy was levitated, melted, undercooled and then solidified under a containerless condition when a continuous laser beam heating system was incorporated. By revealing the surface and cross-sectional microstructures, copious nucleation is confirmed to take place in the undercooled melts solidified by either an external seeding or spontaneous crystallization. The nucleation behaviour

Mingjun Li; Kosuke Nagashio; Kazuhiko Kuribayashi

2003-01-01

383

Salt Painting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this art meets chemistry activity, early learners discover the almost magical absorbent properties of salt while creating ethereal watercolor paintings. Learners first use watercolor to paint an image. Then, they sprinkle salt on the wet paint and observe. Use the provided discussion questions to encourage reflection.

Omsi

2004-01-01

384

Processing of iron-titanium powder mixtures by transient liquid phase sintering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient liquid phase sintering was examined for Fe-Ti powder mixtures. The experimental plan included the effects of several processing variables, such as green density, particle size, composition, heating rate, sintering temperature, and sintering time. During heating, pores form at the Ti particle sites. At the first eutectic temperature (1085 °C), liquid spreading is inhibited by a surrounding intermetallic envelope, leading

R. M. German; J. W. Dunlap

1986-01-01

385

Encapsulation of vacuum sensors in a wafer level package using a gold-silicon eutectic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum package based on gold-silicon eutectic wafer bonding has been developed and evaluated using high sensitivity poly-Si Pirani vacuum sensors. Encapsulation of the devices was achieved by bonding a silicon cap wafer to a device wafer using a Au-Si eutectic solder at or above 390°C in a vacuum bonder. The Au-Si eutectic solder encircled the devices, providing an airtight

Jay Mitchell; G. R. Lahiji; K. Najafi

2005-01-01

386

Transient and steady state creep response of ice I and magnesium sulfate hydrate eutectic aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using uniaxial compression creep experiments, we characterized the transient and steady state deformation behaviors of eutectic aggregates of system ice I and MgSO4 • 11H2O (MS11; meridianiite), which has significance because of its likely presence on moons of the outer solar system. Synthetic samples of eutectic liquid bulk composition, which produce eutectic colonies containing 0.35-0.50 volume fraction MS11, were tested

Christine McCarthy; Reid F. Cooper; David L. Goldsby; William B. Durham; Stephen H. Kirby

2011-01-01

387

Reliability of Eutectic Sn-Pb Solder Bumps and Flip Chip Assemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study on the reliability of eutectic Sn-Pb (Sn63\\/Pb37) solder bumps and the reliability of eutectic Sn-Pb bumped flip chip (FC) assemblies mounted on an FR- 4 substrate. The growth kinetics of Sn-Ni intermetallic compound, Ni 3 Sn 4 , on eutectic Sn-Pb solder bumped chips with Ni(P)\\/Au metallization was investigated. The growth of Ni 3

Xingjia Huang; Christine Kallmayer; Rolf Aschenbrenner; W. Ricky Lee

388

Inhibition effect of sugar-based amphiphiles on eutectic formation in the freezing-thawing process of aqueous NaCl solution.  

PubMed

DSC and simultaneous XRD-DSC measurements were carried out to clarify the interaction among the ingredients in a ternary aqueous solution composed of NaCl, a sugar-based amphiphile or free sugar, and water. Two aspects of the inhibition of eutectic formation were suggested through the addition of the sugar amphiphile. One was the retention of the glass state of the eutectic phase, and the other was the trapping of NaCl hydrate into the sugar moiety of the amphiphilic aggregate. The difference between the free sugar and the amphiphilic one in terms of the trapping of NaCl hydrate was attributable to their dissimilarity in the dissolution state. The results indicated that the free sugars in water could interact with NaCl hydrate on the basis of their various hydroxyl groups. On the other hand, the sugar-based amphiphiles generated a self-assembly aggregate in the system, and interacted with NaCl hydrate by a salting-in effect with their sugar moiety in the freezing-thawing process. It was confirmed that the number of sugar units played an important role in trapping NaCl hydrate in the system. The effects of the structural isomerism in the sugars were slight with regard to the inhibition of eutectic formation. PMID:17391663

Ogawa, Shigesaburo; Osanai, Shuichi

2007-01-30

389

Cathode for molten salt batteries  

DOEpatents

A molten salt electrochemical system for battery applications comprises tetravalent sulfur as the active cathode material with a molten chloroaluminate solvent comprising a mixture of AlCl.sub.3 and MCl having a molar ratio of AlCl.sub.3 /MCl from greater than 50.0/50.0 to 80/20.

Mamantov, Gleb (Knoxville, TN); Marassi, Roberto (Camerino, IT)

1977-01-01

390

Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of Nd3+ in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of the laser-induced fluorescence of Nd3+ in LiCl-KCl eutectic in the wavelength region of 360-900 nm were investigated for information concerning the chemical speciation of Nd-chloride complexes. When pumped at either 355 or 532 nm, Nd3+ in molten salt emits visible and near-IR fluorescence. The fluorescence peaks at 750 nm (4F7/2 + 4S3/2 ? 4I9/2) and 810 nm (4F5/2 + 2H9/2 ? 4I9/2) were particularly prominent at temperatures above the melting point. The fluorescence decay of these transition lines showed a bi-exponential behaviour of the fluorescence lifetime. These results provide evidence that two different chemical species of Nd3+ coexist in this system.

Jung, E. C.; Bae, S.-E.; Park, Y. J.; Song, K.

2011-11-01

391

Salt effects on the partition coefficients of phenol in two-phase mixtures of water and carbon dioxide at pressures from (8 to 30) MPa at a temperature of 313 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partition coefficients Kc of phenol between an aqueous solution containing different salts and a compressed CO2 phase have been determined at T=313K. For NaCl and (CH3)4NBr a pressure range from 8MPa to around 30MPa was investigated, for KCl and NaBr measurements were performed at a pressure of 22MPa. The salt concentration has been varied between (0.25 and 3.0)mol·dm?3. With increasing

Klaus-Dieter Wagner; Nicolaus Dahmen; PiaGriesheimer

2003-01-01

392

Measurements of the partial electronic conductivity in lithium chloride - potassium chloride molten salts  

SciTech Connect

The partial electronic conductivity of the lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic molten salt electrolyte has been studied as a function of lithium activity, temperature and melt composition using the Wagner asymmetric d-c polarization technique. Measurements were made over the temperature range 383-465/sup 0/C and at lithium activities extending from 1.95 X 10/sup -7/ to unity. The results confirmed the applicability of this technique to molten salt systems. The partial electronic conductivity was shown to be much greater than the partial hole conductivity over the range of lithium activities investigated, and was found to increase monotonically with temperature and lithium activity, but decreased on addition of excess LiCl to the eutectic composition. Approximate values of self-discharge currents for cells utilizing an ''Al/LiAl'' negative electrode and a LiCl-KCl molten salt electrolyte have been calculated.

Reynolds, G.J.; Huggins, R.A.; Lee, M.C.Y.

1983-05-01

393

A new technique for direct traceability of contact thermometry Co-C eutectic cells to the ITS-90  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eutectic Co-C melting point is a promising system to serve as a thermometric fixed-point in the temperature range above 1084.62 °C (copper freezing point). During the last decade, LNE-Cnam has developed and characterized some fixed-point devices, based on eutectic Co-C alloy, for applications to contact and radiation thermometry. Above 962 °C, the ITS-90 is realized by radiation thermometry by the extrapolation from a Ag, Au or Cu fixed point using the Planck law for radiation. So the only way for assigning a temperature in the scale to a Co-C cell (~1324 °C) is by radiation thermometry. An indirect method is commonly used to assign a temperature to a high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) cell designed for contact thermometry is to fill a pyrometric cell with the same mixture as the contact thermometry cell. In this case, the temperature assigned to the pyrometric cell is attributed to the contact cell. This paper describes a direct method allowing the determination of the melting temperature realized by a "contact thermometry" Co-C cell by comparison to a "radiation thermometry" Co-C cell whose melting temperature was assigned in accordance to the scale by extrapolation from the Cu point. In addition, the same Co-C cell is studied with a standard Pt/Pd thermocouple.

Failleau, G.; Deuzé, T.; Bourson, F.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.

2013-09-01

394

Ionic liquids in biotransformations: from proof-of-concept to emerging deep-eutectic-solvents.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids (ILs) have been extensively assessed in biotransformations with different purposes, for example, non-conventional (co-)solvents, performance additives, coating agents for immobilizing/stabilizing enzymes, and IL-membrane-based processes. Fuelled by their premature labelling as 'green solvents', academic research has flourished. However, in recent years environmental aspects related to ILs have been strongly addressed, stating that many ILs commonly used cannot be regarded as 'green derivatives'. Likewise, ILs costs are still a barrier for practical uses. Attempting to combine sustainability with the promising added-values of ILs, the third generation of ILs is currently under development. Likewise, deep-eutectic-solvents (DESs) appear in the horizon as an attractive and cost-effective option for using ionic solvents in biotransformations. DESs are often produced by gently warming and stirring two (bio-based and cheap) salts (e.g. choline chloride and urea). First successful uses of DES in biotransformations were reported recently. It may be expected that knowledge accumulated in (second generation) ILs and biotransformations could be turned into real applications by using these DESs, and third generation ILs, in the coming years. PMID:21112808

Domínguez de María, Pablo; Maugeri, Zaira

2010-11-26

395

Prebiotic chemistry in eutectic solutions at the water-ice matrix.  

PubMed

A crystalline ice matrix at subzero temperatures can maintain a liquid phase where organic solutes and salts concentrate to form eutectic solutions. This concentration effect converts the confined reactant solutions in the ice matrix, sometimes making condensation and polymerisation reactions occur more favourably. These reactions occur at significantly high rates from a prebiotic chemistry standpoint, and the labile products can be protected from degradation. The experimental study of the synthesis of nitrogen heterocycles at the ice-water system showed the efficiency of this scenario and could explain the origin of nucleobases in the inner Solar System bodies, including meteorites and extra-terrestrial ices, and on the early Earth. The same conditions can also favour the condensation of monomers to form ribonucleic acid and peptides. Together with the synthesis of these monomers, the ice world (i.e., the chemical evolution in the range between the freezing point of water and the limit of stability of liquid brines, 273 to 210 K) is an under-explored experimental model in prebiotic chemistry. PMID:22660387

Menor-Salván, César; Marín-Yaseli, Margarita R

2012-06-01

396

Mechanism of the formation of carbon oxides under conditions of the oxidative chlorination of methane: IV. Kinetics of the reaction of CCl 4 with oxygen on copper-containing salt catalysts for methane oxychlorination at reduced partial pressures of Cl 2 in the reaction mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the oxidative dechlorination of CCl4 on two supported salt catalysts for methane oxychlorination (CuCl2-KCl and CuCl2-KCl-LaCl3) in the presence of methane at 350–450°C was studied using a gradientless method. It was found that, at $$\\u000aP_{Cl_2 } \\u000a$$ > 0.15 kPa, the presence of methane in the reaction mixture had no effect on the kinetics of CCl4

A. G. Aglulin

2009-01-01

397

Isothermal corrosion testing of steels in molten nitrate salts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were performed to evaluate the corrosivity of several nitrate salt mixtures on the containment materials likely to be used in a molten-salt solar central receiver power plant. Objective was to determine if common salt impurities (e.g., chloride) agg...

J. M. Chavez M. R. Prairie R. W. Bradshaw S. H. Goods S. R. Dunkin

1993-01-01

398

Candidate molten salt investigation for an accelerator driven subcritical core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing accelerator driven subcritical fission to destroy transuranics in SNF.The core is a vessel containing a molten mixture of NaCl and transuranic chlorides.Molecular dynamics used to calculate the thermophysical properties of the salt.Density and molecular structure for actinide salts reported here.The neutronics of ADS fission in molten salt are presented.

Sooby, E.; Baty, A.; Beneš, O.; McIntyre, P.; Pogue, N.; Salanne, M.; Sattarov, A.

2013-09-01

399

Influence of Phosphorus on the Nucleation of Eutectic Silicon in Al-Si Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of phosphorus (P) in the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic silicon (Si) and the evolution of eutectic grains in hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys were investigated. Systematic additions of P in the range of 0.5 to 20 ppm to Al-7 wt pct Si alloys of different purities have shown that the morphology of the eutectic Si changes from a fine plate- to a coarse flake-like structure. The growth of eutectic grains was investigated by interrupting the eutectic reaction by quenching experiments. Moreover, the macroscopic growth mode of the eutectic grains was characterized by electron backscatter diffraction. An increase in P concentration from 2 to 3 ppm resulted in a transition of the macroscopic growth mode of the Al-Si eutectic in high purity alloys from growth with a planar front with a strong dependence of the thermal gradient, to nucleation in the vicinity of the primary Al dendrites and subsequent growth of distinct eutectic grains. It is suggested that AlP particles are the key impurities acting as potential nucleation sites for eutectic Si. This is further substantiated as with increasing P concentration nucleation and growth of the Al-Si occurred at higher temperatures close the equilibrium Al-Si eutectic solidification temperature at 850 K (577 °C). In addition, the recalescence undercooling ?T R,eu was reduced from 4.5 K (0.5 ppm P) to 1.5 K (20 ppm P) in high purity alloys. This was accompanied by a drastic increase of the nucleation rate of the eutectic grains.

Ludwig, Thomas Hartmut; Schaffer, Paul Louis; Arnberg, Lars

2013-08-01

400

A new flow calorimeter using a eutectic molten salt as the temperature control medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new isothermal flow calorimeter for measuring heats of mixing of two fluid streams at high temperatures and pressures is described. The main advantages of the new calorimeter over earlier ones are simplification of the design making it easier to maintain the equipment, reduction of the temperature gradients so that baseline corrections are minimized, and ability to make reliable measurements

Saowarux Fuangswasdi; John L Oscarson; Li Zhou; Reed M Izatt

2001-01-01

401

Eutectic salt promoted lithium zirconate: Novel high temperature sorbent for CO 2 capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance, cost efficient CO2 capture technologies are desired to significantly reduce CO2 emissions from large stationary sources, i.e., fossil fuel-fired power stations. Advanced processes based on solid regenerable sorbents that efficiently absorb CO2 and release it in concentrated form can be less toxic, less corrosive and economically attractive relative to commercially existing solvent-based technologies. In this study, a number

Daniel J. Fauth; Elizabeth A. Frommell; James S. Hoffman; Randall P. Reasbeck; Henry W. Pennline

2005-01-01

402

Minimization of Eutectic Salt Waste from Pyroprocessing by Oxidative Precipitation of Lanthanides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lab-scale lanthanide precipitation apparatus, which has a 4 kg\\/batch size, was installed and tested. By using this lab-scale apparatus, cooxidative precipitation experiments of lanthanides were carried out. As lanthanides, 8 rare-earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd) were used. By a reaction with oxygen, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd were converted to their

Yung-Zun CHO; Gil-Ho PARK; Hee-Chul YANG; Dae-Seok HAN; Han-Soo LEE; In-Tae KIM

2009-01-01

403

Operating experience with off-peak brick furnaces, pressurized water systems, and eutectic salt systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the efforts of the Load Management Branch of the TVA to investigate the performance of thermal storage devices in both the residential and commercial-industrial sectors. Tests are being conducted on the performance of cool storage devices as well as heat storage systems in the commercial industrial area. In the residential sector, demonstrations include both time-of-day and

E. L. Colston; B. G. Beames; A. B. Dahmus

1983-01-01

404

Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOEpatents

A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01

405

Composition gradients in electrolyzed LiCl-KCl eutectic melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of transport in a mixed electrolyte has previously predicted significant composition gradients in the LiCl-KCl electrolyte of high temperature LiS/ batteries. Composition gradients in quenched electrolyzed LiCl-KCl eutectic contained in yttria felt are measured with high distance resolution by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The reported results include composition profiles of LiCl-KCl coontained in porous Y2O3 and electrolyzed in three cells, two with solid Li-Al electrodes and one with a porous Li-Al anode.

Vallet, C. E.; Heatherly, D. E.; Braunstein, J.

1983-12-01

406

Pattern Formation and Growth Kinetics in Eutectic Systems  

SciTech Connect

Growth patterns during liquid/solid phase transformation are governed by simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer mechanisms, creation of new interfaces, jump of the crystallization units from liquid to solid and their rearrangement in the solid matrix. To examine how the above processes influence the scale of microstructure, two eutectic systems are chosen for the study: a polymeric system polyethylene glycol-p-dibromobenzene (PEG-DBBZ) and a simple molecular system succinonitrile (SCN)-camphor. The scaling law for SCN-camphor system is found to follow the classical Jackson-Hunt model of circular rod eutectic, where the diffusion in the liquid and the interface energy are the main physics governing the two-phase pattern. In contrast, a significantly different scaling law is observed for the polymer system. The interface kinetics of PEG phase and its solute concentration dependence thus have been critically investigated for the first time by directional solidification technique. A model is then proposed that shows that the two-phase pattern in polymers is governed by the interface diffusion and the interface kinetics. In SCN-camphor system, a new branch of eutectic, elliptical shape rodl, is found in thin samples where only one layer of camphor rods is present. It is found that the orientation of the ellipse can change from the major axis in the direction of the thickness to the direction of the width as the velocity and/or the sample thickness is decreased. A theoretical model is developed that predicts the spacing and orientation of the elliptical rods in a thin sample. The single phase growth patterns of SCN-camphor system were also examined with emphasis on the three-dimensional single cell and cell/dendrite transition. For the 3D single cell in a capillary tube, the entire cell shape ahead of the eutectic front can be described by the Saffmann-Taylor finger only at extremely low growth rate. A 3D directional solidification model is developed to characterize the cell shape and tip undercooling and the experimental results are compared with the predictions of the model. From the investigation of cell/dendrite transition, a model is proposed, from which the condition for the onset of the transition can be obtained.

Jing Teng

2007-12-01

407

Cavitational Failure Phenomenon in Pb-Sn Eutectic Solders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report concerns mechanisms on the formation of r-type crack (or cavitation) associated with grain boundary sliding in Pb-Sn eutectic solders used for microelectronic applications. The experimental works indicate that cavitation takes place in a specimen deformed in a tensile test at a relatively low strain rate of 7×10-6/ s and in specimens fatigued at 0.1% to 0.2% strain range and a frequency of 1.67×10-2/ s. Based on these phenomenological observations, it is discussed that the presence of cavities requires large sliding displacements combined with a high stresses.

Lee, Seong-Min

1995-11-01

408

Directionally Solidified Pseudo-Binary Eutectics of Ni-Cr-(Hf, Zr).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pseudo-binary eutectic, in which the intermetallic Ni7Hf2 reinforces the Ni-Cr solid solution phase, was previously predicted in the Ni-Cr-Hf system by a computer analysis. The experimental determination of pseudo binary eutectic compositions and the di...

Y. G. Kim R. L. Ashbrook

1975-01-01

409

Oxygen Partial Pressure: A Key to Alloying and Discovery in Metal Oxide--Metal Eutectic Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Control of oxygen partial pressure is essential in the directional solidification of oxide--metal eutectic composites by techniques involving gas-solid and gas-liquid interactions. The existence of end components in the eutectic composite is Po sub 2 sens...

J. D. Holder G. W. Clark B. F. Oliver

1978-01-01

410

Characteristics of the binary faceted eutectic: benzoic acid - salicylic acid system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consistent symmetry relations computed from the heterogeneous nucleation data of the non-ideal benzoic acid - salicylic acid eutectic system verifies the validity of nucleation theory. The kinetics of crystal growth from the molten state of the system follows the dislocation mechanism. Anomalous behaviour of both viscosity and activation energy for the eutectic melt confirms the essence of specific interactions

B. L. Sharma; S. Tandon; S. Gupta

2009-01-01

411

Thermodynamic and lamella models relationship for the eutectic system benzoic acid– cinnamic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation reveals the relationship between excess thermodynamic functions and the growth habits of the eutectic phases from the melt by continuous melt-growth technique. Excess thermodynamic functions computed for different compositions of the benzoic acid - cinnamic acid eutectic system have been found consistent with the criteria of spontaneity and Planck formulation, and their reliability has been ascertained by

B. L. Sharma; R. Jamwal; R. Kant

2004-01-01

412

Fluoride salts as phase change materials for thermal energy storage in the temperature range 1000-1400 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eutectic compositions and congruently melting intermediate compounds in binary and ternary fluoride salt systems were characterized for potential use as latent heat of fusion phase change materials to store thermal energy in the temperature range 1000-1400 K. The melting points and eutectic compositions for many systems with published phase diagrams were experimentally verified and new eutectic compositions having melting points between 1000 and 1400 K were identified. Heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting compounds were experimentally measured by differential scanning calorimetry. For a few systems in which heats of mixing in the melts have been measured, heats of fusion of the eutectics were calculated from thermodynamic considerations and good agreement was obtained between the measured and calculated values. Several combinations of salts with high heats of fusion per unit mass (greater than 0.7 kJ/g) have been identified for possible use as phase change materials in advanced solar dynamic space power applications.

Misra, Ajay K.

1988-04-01

413

Molten salt synthesis and thermoelectric properties of Ca 2Co 2O 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molten salt method was applied to synthesize Ca2Co2O5 powder by using Co3O4 and CaCO3 as raw materials and CaCO3–CaCl2 as eutectic salt. The formation process and molten salt mechanism of Ca2Co2O5 were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that sheet-like particles can be obtained at 963 K. Moreover, the electrical conductivity and

J. Pei; G. Chen; X. Li; Y. X. Li; N. Zhou

2009-01-01

414

Hydride-containing molten salts and their technology implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydride-conducting molten salts such as LiH in eutectic LiCl-KCl are attractive electrolyte systems for intermediate-temperature applications. The chemically reducing characteristics of these hydride melts provide a unique method to clean metal surfaces. The high conductivity of these hydride melts makes them the best electrolytes for hydrogen-based energy applications at intermediate temperatures. We will review some earlier work on hydride-conducting molten salts and their potential applications in energy technology. We will also describe some recent work on these hydride-containing molten salts for energy conversion and storage applications, including hydrogen sensing and hydrogen storage, electrochemical characterizations, and thermodynamic and kinetic investigations of metal-hydrogen reactions. More recently, lithium deuteride containing eutectic LiCl-KCl melts have been used for excess heat production by the process of electrolysis to charge deuterium into metal matrix such as Pd and Ti. From these studies we illustrate the prospects of this hydride molten salt technology and its implications for the use in intermediate-temperature electro-chemical energy conversion configurations. It will also reveal some interesting electrochemical aspects involved in the processes.

Liaw, Bor Y.

1993-03-01

415

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are viable cosolvents for enzyme-catalyzed epoxide hydrolysis.  

PubMed

A special group of ionic liquids, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been tested as cosolvents in enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of a chiral (1,2)-trans-2-methylstyrene oxide. The choline chloride:ethane diol (ET), choline chloride:glycerol (GLY) and choline:chloride:urea (REL) DESs were included in the reaction mixtures with epoxide and the potato epoxide hydrolase StEH1. The effect of the DESs on enzyme function was primarily elevations of K(M) (up to 20-fold) and with lesser effects on turnover numbers (twofold variation). The regioselectivity in hydrolysis of the (1R,2R)-2-trans-methylstyrene oxide was altered in the presence of GLY or ET to favor epoxide ring opening at the benzylic carbon (R=2.33), enhancing the regioselectivity observed in buffer-only systems (R=1.35). The DES solutions dissolved 1.5-fold higher epoxide concentrations as compared to phosphate buffer. The total conversion of high concentration (40 g/l) of (1S,2S)-MeSO was not negatively affected by addition of 40% GLY. PMID:20438773

Lindberg, Diana; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Widersten, Mikael

2010-05-07

416

The eutectic phase in water ice: a microenvironment conducive to non-enzymatic biopolymer formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water was probably essential for the synthetic reactions that led to the formation of the first biopolymers and, in time, to the emergence of life. Spatial exploration has established that water exists on Mars, Europa and comets, mostly as ice. This medium could have been advantageous for the synthesis of biopolymers because ice tends to preserve organic chemicals, such as polymer building blocks, by reducing temperature-dependent degradation. In addition, it concentrates them, and could likely have ordered them, thereby facilitating their polymerization. We review here recent results we have obtained exploring non-enzymatic ribonucleotide condensations forming RNA oligomers in the eutectic phase in water ice. At -18°C, the formation of mixed polymers proceeded efficiently in the presence of low concentrations of Pb2+/Mg2+ in reaction mixtures containing the four phosphoimidazolide-activated nucleobases. Product yields corresponded to a monomer incorporation of 80-90% into oligomers up to 22-mer in length with a high fraction of natural RNA linkages (3'-5'). Thus, an extensive ice layer or ice deposits on the early Earth and Mars may have provided a broad niche for the synthesis of biopolymers or their precursors.

Monnard, Pierre-Alain; Deamer, David W.; Szostak, Jack W.

2004-03-01

417

In situ electrochemical digital holographic microscopy; a study of metal electrodeposition in deep eutectic solvents.  

PubMed

This study has shown for the first time that digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can be used as a new analytical tool in analysis of kinetic mechanism and growth during electrolytic deposition processes. Unlike many alternative established electrochemical microscopy methods such as probe microscopy, DHM is both the noninvasive and noncontact, the unique holographic imaging allows the observations and measurement to be made remotely. DHM also provides interferometric resolution (nanometer vertical scale) with a very short acquisition time. It is a surface metrology technique that enables the retrieval of information about a 3D structure from the phase contrast of a single hologram acquired using a conventional digital camera. Here DHM has been applied to investigate directly the electro-crystallization of a metal on a substrate in real time (in situ) from two deep eutectic solvent (DES) systems based on mixture of choline chloride and either urea or ethylene glycol. We show, using electrochemical DHM that the nucleation and growth of silver deposits in these systems are quite distinct and influenced strongly by the hydrogen bond donor of the DES. PMID:23751128

Abbott, Andrew P; Azam, Muhammad; Ryder, Karl S; Saleem, Saima

2013-06-25

418

Influence of IMC in the Semisolid Behaviour of an Eutectic Sn-Pb/Cu Slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mixture of a liquid Sn-Pb alloy reinforced with solid Cu particles has been found to show thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviour. The presence of an intermetallic compound (IMC) between the Cu particles and the molten matrix has some very important consequences in the rheological behaviour of the slurry. The semisolid material is obtained mixing a sufficient amount of Cu particles with a liquid eutectic Sn-Pb alloy by mechanical stirring at a given temperature and time. The intermetallic compound is formed from the reaction of solid Cu and liquid Sn. This reaction results in some displacement in the phase diagram, affecting the liquid alloy composition, moving the liquidus temperature and therefore altering the balance of %wt solid- %wt liquid necessary to obtain the best thixotropic behaviour. In this work a model of the solid fraction of the slurry taking into account the IMC growth rate is presented. This model is also used to predict the processing window under which the material keeps the thixotropic behaviour.

Merizalde, Carlos; Cabrera, José-María; Prado, José-Manuel

2007-04-01

419

Catalytic properties of platinum-promoted acid cesium salts of molybdophosphoric and molybdovanadophosphoric heteropoly acids in the gas-phase oxidation of benzene to phenol with an O 2 + H 2 mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid salts Cs\\u000a x\\u000a H3 + n ? x\\u000a PMo12 ? n\\u000a V\\u000a n\\u000a O40 (n = 0, 1, 2, or 3; x = 2.5 or 3.5) with coprecipitated or supported platinum were studied using thermogravimetry, IR spectroscopy, and temperature-programmed\\u000a reduction. The thermal region of the full stability of these salts is limited by the decomposition temperature of the corresponding

L. I. Kuznetsova; L. G. Detusheva; N. I. Kuznetsova; S. V. Koshcheev; V. I. Zaikovskii; Yu. A. Chesalov; V. A. Rogov; V. B. Fenelonov; V. A. Likholobov

2009-01-01

420

Salt-hydrate thermal-energy-storage system for space heating and air conditioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Latent heat storage equipment using three different salts was developed. The salts are: sodium sulfate pentahydrate which melts at 460 C, magnesium chloride hexahydrate which melts at 1150 C, and a eutectic combination of seven different materials which melts at 70 C. Stirring pumps, tanks, and tubing materials, and field filling of the salts into their tanks are developed. good performance for the tank/heat exchangers with all three salts is reported. Both the 1150 C and 460 C salts are almost equivalent in volume storage to water/ice. The 79.0 C salt, however, begins at about 56% of the BTU's per cubic foot of water/ice and declines due to separation to 40% after repeated cycling.

MacCracken, C. D.; Armstrong, J. M.; MacCracken, M. M.; Silvetti, B. M.

1980-07-01

421

Removal of alkaline-earth elements by a carbonate precipitation in a chloride molten salt  

SciTech Connect

Separation of some alkaline-earth chlorides (Sr, Ba) was investigated by using carbonate injection method in LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salts. The effects of the injected molar ratio of carbonate([K{sub 2}(or Li{sub 2})CO{sub 3}/Sr(or Ba)Cl{sub 2}]) and the temperature(450-750 deg.) on the conversion ratio of the Sr or Ba carbonate were determined. In addition, the form of the Sr and Ba carbonate resulting from the carbonation reaction with carbonates was identified via XRD and SEM-EDS analysis. In these experiments, the carbonate injection method can remove Sr and Ba chlorides effectively over 99% in both LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salt conditions. When Sr and Ba were co-presented in the eutectic molten salt, they were carbonated in a form of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.3}CO{sub 3}. And when Sr was present in LiCl molten salt, it was carbonated in the form of SrCO{sub 3}. Carbonation ratio increased with a decreasing temperature and it was more favorable in the case of a K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} injection than that of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Based on this experiment, it is postulated that carbonate precipitation method has the potential for removing alkali-earth chlorides from LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salts. (authors)

Yung-Zun Cho; In-Tae Kim; Hee-Chui Yang; Hee-Chui Eun; Hwan-Seo Park; Eung-Ho Kim [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

422

Chlorate salts and solutions on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chlorate (ClO3-) is an intermediate oxidation species between chloride (Cl-) and perchlorate (ClO4-), both of which were found at the landing site by the Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL). The chlorate ion is almost as stable as perchlorate, and appears to be associated with perchlorate in most terrestrial reservoirs (e.g. Atacama and Antarctica). It is possible that chlorate contributed to the ion sensor response on the WCL, yet was masked by the strong perchlorate signal. However, very little is known about chlorate salts and their effect on the stability of water. We performed evaporation rate experiments in our Mars simulation chamber, which enabled us to determine the activity of water for various concentrations. From this we constructed solubility diagrams for NaClO3, KClO3, Mg(ClO3)2 and Ca(ClO3)2, and determined the Pitzer parameters for each salt. Chlorate salt eutectic temperatures range from 270 K (KClO3) to 204 K (Mg(ClO3)2). Modeling the addition of chlorate to the initial WCL solutions shows that it precipitates in concentrations comparable to other common salts, such as gypsum and epsomite, and implies that chlorates may play an important role in the wet chemistry on Mars.

Hanley, Jennifer; Chevrier, Vincent F.; Berget, Deanna J.; Adams, Robert D.

2012-04-01

423

A quantitative analysis on latent heat of an aqueous binary mixture.  

PubMed

The latent heat during phase change of water-NaCl binary mixture was measured using a differential scanning calorimeter, and the magnitude for two distinct phase change events, water/ice and eutectic phase change, were analyzed considering the phase change characteristics of a binary mixture. During the analysis, the latent heat associated with each event was calculated by normalizing the amount of each endothermic peak with only the amount of sample participating in each event estimated from the lever rule for the phase diagram. The resulting latent heat of each phase change measured is 303.7 +/- 2.5 J/g for water/ice phase change, and 233.0 +/- 1.6 J/g for eutectic phase change, respectively regardless of the initial concentration of mixture. Although the latent heats of water/ice phase change in water-NaCl mixtures are closely correlated, further study is warranted to investigate the reason for smaller latent heat of water/ice phase change than that in pure water (335 J/g). The analysis using the lever rule was extended to estimate the latent heat of dihydrate as 115 J/g with the measured eutectic and water/ice latent heat values. This new analysis based on the lever rule will be useful to estimate the latent heat of water-NaCl mixtures at various concentrations, and may become a framework for more general analysis of latent heat of various biological solutions. PMID:16337621

Han, Bumsoo; Choi, Jeung Hwan; Dantzig, Jonathan A; Bischof, John C

2005-12-06

424

Salt Marsh  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

High school level and higher description of Spartina salt marshes with pictures. Page is full of fantastic photographs most featuring a descriptive caption. Topics discussed include zonation, succession, and the intertidal zone. The habitat's associated flora and fauna are discussed. Organisms of particular interest include: Spartina alterniflora, Spartina patens, Geukenzia demissa, Mytilus edulis, Distichlis spicata, Salicornia, Melampus bidentatus, Ilyanassa obsoleta, and Hydrobia totteni.

425

Dynamic solidification mechanism of ternary Ag-Cu-Ge eutectic alloy under ultrasonic condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic solidification of ternary Ag38.5Cu33.4Ge28.1 eutectic alloy within a 35 kHz ultrasonic field is investigated and compared with both its equilibrium solidification by DSC method and its rapid solidification in drop tube. The volume fractions of the primary (Ge) phase and pseudobinary (Ag+ ? 2) eutectic solidified within ultrasonic field are larger than those formed under equilibrium state, whereas that of ternary (Ag+ ? 2+Ge) eutectic exhibits the reverse trend. During rapid solidification, the liquid alloy droplet directly solidifies into ternary (Ag+ ? 2+Ge) eutectic if its diameter is smaller than 350 ?m. The ultrasound stimulates the nucleation of alloy melt and prevents the bulk undercooling. With the increase of sound intensity, the primary (Ge) phase transfers from faceted dendrites to nonfaceted blocks with blunt edges, and its grain size is remarkably reduced. Both pseudobinary (Ag+ ? 2) and ternary (Ag+ ? 2+Ge) eutectics experience a morphological transition from regular to anomalous structures. This indicates that their cooperative growth mode is replaced by independent growth of eutectic phases under the combined effects of cavitation and acoustic streaming. The ultrasound also shows a prominent coarsening effect to the pseudobinary (Ag+ ? 2) and ternary (Ag+ ? 2 +Ge) eutectics.

Zhai, Wei; Hong, ZhenYu; Mei, CeXiang; Wang, WeiLi; Wei, BingBo

2013-02-01

426

Effect of Alloying Elements on the Electrification-Fusion Phenomenon in Sn-Based Eutectic Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of alloying elements on the electrification-fusion phenomenon in Sn-based eutectic alloys (Sn-9Zn and Sn-37Pb) under alternating current was investigated in this study. Experimental results showed that the critical fusion current densities (CFCD) of Sn-based alloys were closely related to both the conductivity of the individual phase and the eutectic temperature. While the electrical current density value required to trigger microstructural evolution for the Sn-9Zn alloy was larger than the CFCD of pure Sn (1399 A/cm2), that for the Sn-37Pb alloy was not. Through in situ examination of the microstructural evolution during electrification-fusion tests, the initial liquation site emerged from individual Sn-based eutectic phase (i.e., the Sn/Zn eutectic phase or Sn/Pb eutectic phase); The liquation regions in the Sn/Zn eutectic phase and ?-Sn phase of the Sn-9Zn alloy were not concentrated over the observation area. The liquation regions in the Sn/Pb eutectic phase and ?-Sn phase of the Sn-37Pb alloy were extensively distributed over the observation area. According to the fusion distributed density at the observation area, the Sn-9Zn alloy has great potential to replace the Sn-37Pb alloy in future electrification applications.

Lan, Gong-An; Lui, Truan-Sheng; Chen, Li-Hui

2013-02-01

427

Role of Sulfur on the Transition from Graphite to Cementite Eutectic in Cast Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current study, an analytic solution is considered to explain the influence of sulfur on the transition from graphite to cementite eutectic in cast iron. The outcome from the current study indicates that this transition can be related to (a) the graphite nucleation potential (directly characterized by the cell count and indirectly by the nucleation coefficients; (b) the eutectic graphite growth rate coefficient; (c) the temperature range between the equilibrium temperature for graphite eutectic and the formation temperature for cementite eutectic; and (d) the liquid volume fraction, after pre-eutectic austenite solidification. In addition, the absolute and the relative chilling tendencies, as well as critical cooling rates including the chill width of the cast iron can be predicted from the current study. The analytic model was experimentally verified for castings with various sulfur contents. It is found that the main role of sulfur on the transition from graphite to cementite eutectic is through its effect on lowering the growth coefficient, and hence, the graphite eutectic growth rate. In addition, it is found that with the increasing sulfur content, the critical cooling rate is significantly reduced, thus increasing the absolute and the relative chilling tendency values, including the chill width.

Fra?, Edward; Górny, Marcin; Lopez, Hugo F.; Kawalec, Magdalena

2013-06-01

428

Synthesis of. beta. -bromoselenonium salts  

SciTech Connect

The addition of diorganoselenium dihalides at a double bond was studied for the case of acyclic, cyclic, and framework olefins. The electrophilic addition of tetramethyleneselenium dibromide to olefins takes place stereospecifically in accordance with the Markovnikov rule and leads to the formation of tetramethylene(1-bromo-2-alkyl)selenonium bromides. In the reaction of the dibromide with norbornadiene the authors obtained a 3:1 mixture of two salts which was isolated as a mixture of the tetraphenylborates (total yield 72%); the ratio of the isomers was established by means of the PMR spectra.

Magdesieva, N.M.; Gordeev, M.F.

1987-10-10

429

Critical temperature of the lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid metals such as Bi and Pb and Pb Bi eutectic alloy are serious contenders for use as coolant in LMFBRs in lieu of sodium due to a number of attractive characteristics (high density, low moderation, low neutron absorption and activation, high boiling point and poor interaction with water and air, etc.). Analysis of hypothetical accidents is of relevance to predict the catastrophe involving loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in LMFBRs. One key parameter to take into account is the critical temperature data of the liquid metals for reactor safety analysis. This communication reports the application of a theoretical model called internal pressure approach to predict the critical temperature (Tc) of the LBE alloy for the first time.

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

2005-05-01

430

Powder eutectic coating with Al3Ti for steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plates and round bars made of a pure iron or a carbon steel (JIS-S45C) have successfully been coated with Al3Ti powder by the “powder eutectic coating” method. The coated layers are found to show graded microstructures, where the concentrations of Fe, Al, and Ti change gradually from the surface toward the inside of a specimen. The microstructure of the coated layer consists of Al3Ti, ?3 (Al22Fe3Ti8), ?2 (Al2FeTi), and B2 (FeAl). When the coated specimens were subjected to heat-cycling tests between 293 and 973 K, they showed no cracking, no peeling, little oxidation, and no significant changes in microstructure.

Kafuku, H.; Tomota, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Isaka, M.

2002-10-01

431

Oxygen concentration measurement in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic  

SciTech Connect

Liquid lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) eutectic (LBE) may see extensive use as a coolant fluid, and perhaps also as a spallation target, in next generation nuclear energy systems. While it is not as reactive as alkali metal liquids, it does present a long term corrosion problem with some materials, notably stainless steels. Mitigation of the corrosion problem may be achieved by producing and maintaining a protective oxide on exposed surfaces, through control of the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the LBE. We have developed an oxygen sensor based on available zirconia-based solid electrolytes used in the automotive industry, which represents a relatively inexpensive source of reproducible and reliable components. We will present the design considerations and characteristics of our sensor unit, and describe its use in the LBE test loop at Los Alamos for measurement and control of dissolved oxygen concentration.

Darling, T. W. (Timothy W.); Li, N. (Ning)

2001-01-01

432

Microstructure evolution of eutectic Sn-Ag solder joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser and infrared reflow soldering methods were used to make Sn-Ag eutectic solder joints for surface-mount components on printed wiring boards. The microstructures of the joints were evaluated and related to process parameters. Aging tests were conducted on these joints for times up to 300 days and at temperature up to 190°C. The evolution of microstructure during aging was examined. The results showed that Sn-Ag solder microstructure is unstable at high temperature, and microstructural evolution can cause solder joint failure. Cu-Sn intermetallics in the solder and at copper-solder interfaces played an important role in both the microstructure evolution and failure of solder joints. Void and crack formation in the aged joints was also observed.

Yang, Wenge; Messler, Robert W.; Felton, Lawrence E.

1994-08-01

433

Traceable Co-C eutectic points for thermocouple calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Measurement Institute of Australia (NMIA) has developed a miniature crucible design suitable for measurement by both thermocouples and radiation thermometry, and has established an ensemble of five Co-C eutectic-point cells based on this design. The cells in this ensemble have been individually calibrated using both ITS-90 radiation thermometry and thermocouples calibrated on the ITS-90 by the NMIA mini-coil methodology. The assigned ITS-90 temperatures obtained using these different techniques are both repeatable and consistent, despite the use of different furnaces and measurement conditions. The results demonstrate that, if individually calibrated, such cells can be practically used as part of a national traceability scheme for thermocouple calibration, providing a useful intermediate calibration point between Cu and Pd.

Jahan, F.; Ballico, M. J.

2013-09-01

434

The electrodeposition of silver composites using deep eutectic solvents.  

PubMed

Silver is an important metal for electronic connectors, however, it is extremely soft and wear can be a significant issue. This paper describes how improved wear resistant silver coatings can be obtained from the electrolytic deposition of silver from a solution of AgCl in an ethylene glycol/choline chloride based Deep Eutectic Solvent. An up to 10-fold decrease in the wear volume is observed by the incorporation of SiC or Al(2)O(3) particles. The work also addresses the fundamental aspect of speciation of silver chloride in solution using EXAFS to probe solution structure. The size but not the nature of the composite particles is seen to change the morphology and grain size of the silver deposit. Grain sizes are shown to be consistent with previous nucleation studies. The addition of LiF is found to significantly affect the deposit morphology and improve wear resistance. PMID:22249451

Abbott, Andrew P; El Ttaib, Khalid; Frisch, Gero; Ryder, Karl S; Weston, David

2012-01-17

435

Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence  

SciTech Connect

The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature. Nitrate to chloride ratios of the NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture are about NO{sub 3}:Cl = 19:1. The role of nitrate on corrosion at higher temperatures is addressed in a companion report (Dixit et al., 2005).

Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

2005-11-04

436

Ice/hydrohalite crystallization structures in sub-eutectic freezing experiments in the system NaCl-H20 and possible implications for the properties of frozen brines in Europa: A preliminary report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfates are likely to be the most abundant solutes in the subsurface Europan liquid ocean. NaCl may also be a significant component of such liquids based on the compositions of stony meteorites like those thought to be among the source materials for the silicates in Europa's interior. The system NaCl-H20 exhibits a eutectic at -20.8°C and 23.3 weight percent NaCl between ice Ih and hydrohalite (NaCl.2H20). This low eutectic temperature compared to Mg and Na sulfate hydrate/ice eutectics indicates that hydrohalite should be among the last salts to crystallize in brine upwellings along rifts and other places where resurfacing by melt extrusion occurs on Europa. We conducted a suite of freezing experiments on NaCl brines with 20.3, 23.3, and 26.6 (saturated) weight percent NaCl by holding these liquids at a few degrees below the eutectic temperature. These runs produced ice-rich, eutectic and hydrohalite-rich aggregates of both phases, respectively, as confirmed by cryogenic x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Based on direct observations of crystals forming at the tops and bottoms of the sample chambers and on refractive index measurements of subsequently melted sample material, marked fractional crystallization and segregation by density of ice, hydrohalite, and residual liquids occurred in the 20.3 and 26.6% samples and less so in for the eutectic composition. Crystallization of very fine grained eutectic intergrowths was recognized in cryogenic SEM images of all these samples and they were especially prominent in samples frozen from saturated brine. These samples were very difficult to cleave compared to pure polycrystalline ice, and hence are likely to have high fracture toughness. Direct measurements of this property and also the effects of partial melting on ductile flow rates are planned on such samples. Refracturing of such regions of fine eutectoid ice/hydrohalite intergrowths is likely to be inhibited in refrozen rifts compared to more ice-rich regions on Europa.

Rieck, K.; Kirby, S. H.; Stern, L. A.

2005-12-01

437

Anelastic Response of Ice-I/Magnesium Sulfate Hydrate Eutectic Aggregates Obtained from Creep and Cyclic-Loading Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large icy satellites of the giant planets are subjected to periodic stress due to their resonance-effected orbital eccentricity. The dissipation of this tidal elastic energy represents a potentially significant internal energy source, the magnitude of which depends on the anelastic properties of the various material layers (ice, rock, etc.). In an icy satellite incorporating an internal ocean, as is suggested for Europa, most of the tidal dissipation (attenuation) occurs in the outer ice layer. Current models for attenuation in the icy shell rely on the inversion of a Maxwell model of steady-state rheology because, to date, no direct dynamic measurements of energy absorption in polycrystalline ice at low-stress/low-frequency planetary conditions have been reported. We are pursuing transient and steady-state creep as well as direct attenuation measurements on polycrystalline ice-I and on eutectic aggregates of ice-I and salt hydrates, such as those suggested to be present on the surface of Europa by the near-infrared spectral data. We focus primarily on system H2O-MgSO4 because it represents the best (binary-system) fit to the spectral data. Samples are fabricated using a misting/sifting technique in order to obtain fine grain-size, or, more accurately, eutectic colony-size (< 25 ?m). Transformation of the time- domain data suggest the Maxwell model of steady state is inappropriate for understanding attenuation in pure ice, and wildly inappropriate for a ice-I/magnesium sulfate hydrate eutectic material, which demonstrates far higher attenuation (e.g., a factor of 102 at 1 Hz) than that predicted from the model. The absorption behavior of solid-state heterophase boundaries are argued as crucial in this behavior. Attenuation (cyclic compression- compression) experiments have commenced; we will report initial results, comparing these to earlier studies of the static response. Information gleaned from these experiment can help constrain models of crustal thickness and surface dynamics on Europa and icy satellites in general.

McCarthy, C.; Goldsby, D. L.; Cooper, R. F.

2007-12-01

438

Characterization of alumina/yttrium-aluminum garnet and alumina/yttrium-aluminum perovskite eutectics  

SciTech Connect

Alumina/yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) and alumina/yttrium-aluminum perovskite (YAP) eutectics were made by directional solidification. The two systems were characterized using transmitted polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The alumina/YAG system exhibited a degenerate eutectic with a Chinese script morphology, while the alumina/YAP eutectic had a rod/lamellae morphology. The c-axis of alumina was aligned perpendicular to the solidification direction, and elongated grains were aligned along the solidification direction in both systems. A single orientation relationship between alumina and YAG was observed. Several orientation relationships were observed in the alumina/YAP system. 5 refs.

Matson, L.E.; Hay, R.S.; Mah, T.

1990-08-01

439

Phase-field modeling of microelastically controlled eutectic lamellar growth in a Ti-Fe system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a microelastical phase-field model to incorporate elastic energy and misfit stresses in eutectic growth. We apply the model to assess the formation of eutectic structures in Ti-Fe alloy, which exhibit high lattice mismatch owing to difference between lattice parameters of ?-Ti and FeTi phases. Numerical simulations of both directional and free eutectic growth are performed by applying cubic anisotropy to the Ti-Fe system. The resulted microstructures are presented and the corresponding stress distributions are evaluated.

Ebrahimi, Z.; Rezende, J. L.; Kundin, J.

2012-06-01

440

Structural and physical properties of rapidly solidified lead-bismuth eutectic alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure, internal friction, hardness, thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of the rapidly solidified Bi55.5Pb44.5 eutectic alloy have been investigated. X-ray diffraction and optical metallographic analysis show that the Bi55.5Pb44.5 eutectic alloy consists of rhombohedral bismuth phase, face centered cubic lead phase, and a metastable [(Pb-Bi)] phase. The physical properties such as thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of the Bi55.5Pb44.5 eutectic

Mustafa Kamal; Maher El-Tonsy; Abu Bakr El-Bediwi; Eman Kashita

2004-01-01

441

Microstructure and physical properties of bismuth-lead-tin ternary eutectic alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using different experimental techniques, microstructure, electrical resistivity, attenuation coefficient, and mechanical and thermal properties of the quenched Bi-Pb-Sn ternary eutectic alloy have been investigated. From the X-ray analysis, Bi3Pb7 and Bi-Sn meta-stable phases are detected, in addition to rhombohedral bismuth and Sn body-centered tetragonal phases. This study also compared the physical properties of the Bi-Sn-Pb ternary eutectic alloys with the base binary Bi-Sn and Bi-Pb eutectic alloys.

Kamal, M.; Moharram, B. M.; Farag, H.; El-Bediwi, A.; Abosheiasha, H. F.

2006-07-01

442

NEW BETA HEAT-TREATING SALT BATHS FOR REDUCING HYDROGEN PICKUP BY URANIUM RODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

BS> Hydrogen pickup by U was studied in different salt mixtures at 1350 ;\\u000a deg F under dry and wet atmospheres. Of the salts investigdted, 50 wt.% KCl-50 ;\\u000a wt.% NaCl and 50 wt.% KCl-50 wt.% NaâCOâ gave the best results for ;\\u000a low H pickup, corrosion of U, and salt stability at 1350 deg F. These salt ;\\u000a mixtures

L. L. Lortscher; K. A. Sense; R. B. Jr. Filbert

1957-01-01

443

Electrodeposition of copper composites from deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride.  

PubMed

Here we describe for the first time the electrolytic deposition of copper and copper composites from a solution of the metal chloride salt in either urea-choline chloride, or ethylene glycol-choline chloride based eutectics. We show that the deposition kinetics and thermodynamics are quite unlike those in aqueous solution under comparable conditions and that the copper ion complexation is also different. The mechanism of copper nucleation is studied using chronoamperometry and it is shown that progressive nucleation leads to a bright nano-structured deposit. In contrast, instantaneous nucleation, at lower concentrations of copper ions, leads to a dull deposit. This work also pioneers the use of the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) to monitor both current efficiency and the inclusion of inert particulates into the copper coatings. This technique allows the first in situ quantification or particulate inclusion. It was found that the composition of composite material was strongly dependent on the amount of species suspended in solution. It was also shown that the majority of material was dragged onto the surface rather than settling on to it. The distribution of the composite material was found to be even throughout the coating. This technology is important because it facilitates deposition of bright copper coatings without co-ligands such as cyanide. The incorporation of micron-sized particulates into ionic liquids has resulted, in one case, in a decrease in viscosity. This observation is both unusual and surprising; we explain this here in terms of an increase in the free volume of the liquid and local solvent perturbation. PMID:19458829

Abbott, Andrew P; El Ttaib, Khalid; Frisch, Gero; McKenzie, Katy J; Ryder, Karl S

2009-03-26

444

A physical and chemical analysis of fast quenched particles of UO2 and ZrO2 mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interaction between molten fuel of a nuclear reactor, which is called corium and mainly consisted of UO2 and ZrO2, and sub-cooled water may result in a steam explosion. It is one of the outstanding reactor safety issues. To investigate the fundamental mechanism behind the recent experimental observation that the composition of the material highly affected the strength of the steam explosion, a physical and chemical analysis for the fast quenched particles of UO2 and ZrO2 mixture at different compositions was performed. Six cases were selected for the study, in which the melt composition was changed, while other initial and boundary conditions of the molten fuel and water interaction tests were maintained the same. It was observed that the cases at eutectic composition resulted in a spontaneous steam explosion, while the cases at non-eutectic composition did not result in a spontaneous steam explosion. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) was performed for fast quenched particles along a cross-section. Results demonstrated that the UO2 and ZrO2 mixtures formed a solid solution of U1-xZrxO2. The mechanism for the hydrogen generation during the molten material and water interaction was examined by thermogravity analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and hydrogen reduction analysis. It was demonstrated that the hydrogen generation was not directly related to the oxidation of UO2. Morphologies observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the particles from the eutectic mixture had many holes, while the particles at non-eutectic mixture did not. The existence of mush phase for the non-eutectic mixture is suggested to be the reason for the non-explosive nature.

Min, Beong Tae; Song, Jin Ho; Park, Yang Soon; Kim, Jong Gu

2006-11-01

445

Thermal Properties and Thermal Reliability of Capric Acid\\/Stearic Acid Mixture for Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the preparation of capric acid\\/stearic acid mixture as novel phase change material for latent heat thermal energy storage and determination of its thermal properties and thermal reliability by using differential scanning calorimetry analysis technique. The differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the capric acid\\/stearic acid mixture with eutectic composition (83\\/17 wt%) was suitable phase change material

A. Kara?pekl?; A. Sar?; K. Kaygusuz

2009-01-01

446

On the stability of boron nitride with lithium alloy electrodes in molten salt cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to determine the stability of boron nitride separator material in molten salt cells using lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic electrolyte and two stainless steel screen electrodes. The potentials of these electrodes were set by two separate electrical circuits and a lithium-silicon (Li-Si) reservoir electrode. The boron nitride separator was found stable at potentials above -136 mV

R. A. Sharma; T. G. Bradley

1981-01-01

447

Removal of alkaline-earth elements by a carbonate precipitation in a chloride molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation of some alkaline-earth chlorides (Sr, Ba) was investigated by using carbonate injection method in LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salts. The effects of the injected molar ratio of carbonate([K(or Li)CO\\/Sr(or Ba)Cl]) and the temperature(450-750 deg.) on the conversion ratio of the Sr or Ba carbonate were determined. In addition, the form of the Sr and Ba carbonate resulting from

Yung-Zun Cho; In-Tae Kim; Hee-Chui Yang; Hee-Chui Eun; Hwan-Seo Park; Eung-Ho Kim

2007-01-01

448

Preparation and characterization of single crystals and epitaxial layers of silicon carbide by molten salt electrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of silicon carbide by electrolysis of molten salts has been achieved for the first time. Two systems have been investigated, one involving K2SI F6 and LI2 CO3 Dissolved in a KF\\/LI F eutectic, the other being a combination of NA2 CO3 and Si O2 with Na BO3 and Li F. The latter system has given much more reproducible

T. H. Geballe; R. S. Feigelson; D. Elwell

1979-01-01

449

Measurements of the partial electronic conductivity in lithium chloride - potassium chloride molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partial electronic conductivity of the lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic molten salt electrolyte has been studied as a function of lithium activity, temperature and melt composition using the Wagner asymmetric d-c polarization technique. Measurements were made over the temperature range 383-465°C and at lithium activities extending from 1.95 X 10⁻⁷ to unity. The results confirmed the applicability of this technique

G. J. Reynolds; R. A. Huggins; M. C. Y. Lee

1983-01-01

450

Molten salt synthesis of LaAlO 3 powder at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhombohedral LaAlO3 powder was synthesised by reacting equimolar La2O3 and Al2O3 in a molten KF–KCl eutectic salt for 3h between 630 and 800°C. The lowest synthesis temperature (630°C) is about 1000°C lower than that of conventional mixed oxide synthesis, and close to or lower than those used by most wet chemical methods. The LaAlO3 particle size increased from <3 to

Zushu Li; Shaowei Zhang; William Edward Lee

2007-01-01

451

Diffusion behavior of actinide and lanthanide elements in molten salt for reductive extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of the development of reductive extraction, the diffusion coefficients of actinide and lanthanide ions in LiCl–KCl eutectic salt were measured by a capillary method. The temperature ranged from 723 to 873K. The obtained values of the diffusion coefficients are considerably high in the order of 10?9m2\\/s and no significant problem is found for the development of reductive extraction.

Daichi Yamada; Takayuki Murai; Kimikazu Moritani; Takayuki Sasaki; Ikuji Takagi; Hirotake Moriyama; Kensuke Kinoshita; Hajimu Yamana

2007-01-01

452

Corrosion of materials in molten alkali carbonate salt at 900 degrees C  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was done to assess the compatibility of selected ceramics and alloys with ternary eutectic lithium-sodium-potassium carbonate at 900°C. This salt has been chosen for use in pilot-scale studies of the Direct Absorption Receiver, which will be evaluated at the Advanced Components Test Facility. The candidate containment materials for the receiver were identified in earlier work at SERI and

R. T. Coyle; T. M. Thomas; P. Schissel

1985-01-01

453

Disposal of Savannah River Plant waste salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 26-million gallons of soluble low-level waste salts will be produced during solidification of 6-million gallons of high-level defense waste in the proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Soluble wastes (primarily NaNOâ, NaNOâ, and NaOH) stored in the waste tanks will be decontaminated by ion exchange and solidified in concrete. The resulting salt-concrete mixture,

Dukes

1982-01-01

454

Zwitterionic salts as mild organocatalysts for transesterification.  

PubMed

The exothermic reaction of 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl or 4-nitrophenyl isothiocyanate with 4-pyrrolidinopyridine (PPY) gave the corresponding arylaminothiocarbonylpyridinium salts in quantitative yields. These novel zwitterionic salts were effective as organocatalysts for the transesterification reaction of an equimolar mixture of methyl carboxylates and alcohols in hydrocarbons such as heptane and octane under azeotropic reflux conditions with the removal of methanol. In sharp contrast, PPY was inert as a catalyst under the same reaction conditions. PMID:18442240

Ishihara, Kazuaki; Niwa, Masatoshi; Kosugi, Yuji

2008-04-29

455

Molten salt destruction of energetic materials: Emission and absorption measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectroscopic aspects of decomposition behaviors of the high explosives LX-17 (92.5 wt % 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) plus 1.5 wt % Kel-F 800 plastic binder), LX-04 (85 wt % octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) plus 15 wt % Viton A plastic binder), and 2,6-Dinitrotoluene (DNT) were investigated when 0.3 or 1.0 g samples were immersed into molten salt baths (700 °C molten LiC1-NaC1-KC1 eutectics). UV-VIS

Michelle L. Pantoya; Benjamin D. Shaw

2002-01-01

456

Anomalous Phenomena in Zirconium, Hafnium, and Titanium Salt Solutions, Studied by Capillary Isotachophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capillary isotachophoresis was used to separate mixtures of solutions containing zirconium, hafnium, titanium, and aluminum salts with various anions. Anomalous phenomena occurring in separation of mixtures in solutions with medium and high concentrations are described and analyzed.

O. V. Oshurkova; A. I. Gorshkov; V. P. Nesterov

2001-01-01

457

A study of the growth, structure, and properties of profiled eutectic composites of halide compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of an experimental study are reported in which eutectic composites were produced on the basis of the binary eutectics of the following halides: NaCl-LiF; LiF-NaF, NaCl-NaF, NaF-CaF2, and CaF2-MgF2. Crystals of the eutectic composites, with a rod-like or a plate-like structural component embedded in a matrix of the other component, were grown from the melt using edge-defined film-fed crystal growth (a version of the Stepanov method) and Czochralski growth. The physicomechanical and optical properties of the eutectic composite crystals are examined in relation to their structural characteristics.

Rogalskii, G. I.; Vettegren, V. I.; Peller, V. V.; Khartmann, E.

1985-12-01

458

The Effect of Eutectic Microstructures on the Mechanical Properties of Ceramic Oxides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various experimental techniques for the production of unidirectionally solidified oxide eutectics were examined. These included a modified Bridgman-Starkbarger technique and bottom cooling of melts held in platinum crucibles. It was concluded that the bes...

C. O. Hulse J. A. Batt

1974-01-01

459

Study of uranium solubility in gallium-indium eutectic alloy by emf method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium in Ga-In eutectic alloy as well as activity of uranium in U-Ga and U-In alloys were determined between 573 and 1073 K using electromotive force (emf) method.

Volkovich, V. A.; Maltsev, D. S.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Osipenko, A. G.; Raspopin, S. P.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.

2013-02-01

460

Solidification microstructure of laser floating zone remelted Al2O3/YAG eutectic in situ composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alumina based eutectic in situ composite is now considered to be a promising candidate for ultrahigh temperature structural materials due to its excellent performance even close to its melting point. In this work, Laser Floating Zone (LFZ) solidification experiments have been performed on Al2O3/Y2O3 containing 18.5 mol% Y2O3 eutectic in situ composite at growth rate between 8 and 800 ?m/s. The solid/liquid (S/L) interface morphology of this system was reported. Based on the interface morphology, the lamellar selection mechanism of irregular eutectic systems was also discussed. The solidification microstructure evolution was studied, and the characteristic scale of irregular eutectic systems was analyzed using a mathematical model considering non-isothermal interface morphology. An important parameter, ?, which represents relationship between characteristic scales, was also given.

Song, K.; Zhang, J.; Jia, X. J.; Su, H. J.; Liu, L.; Fu, H. Z.

2012-04-01

461

Effect of boron on the microstructure of near-eutectic Al-Si alloys  

SciTech Connect

The effect of boron on the microstructure of a near-eutectic Al-Si alloy (ZL109) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron beam microprobe analysis (EPMA). It was found that {alpha}-Al dendrites and eutectic clusters were significantly refined by the addition of boron. Another interesting discovery is that the near-eutectic alloy exhibited hypereutectic structure characteristics when the level of boron added exceeds 0.3%, i.e., primary Si is precipitated in the eutectic microstructure. A new type of nucleation substrate for the primary Si is found, Al {sub x}Ca {sub m}B {sub n}Si. This appears to be the main reason for the precipitation of primary Si.

Wu Yuying [Key Laboratory of Materials Liquid Structure and Heredity, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong (China)]. E-mail: wyy532001@163.com; Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Materials Liquid Structure and Heredity, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong (China); Bian Xiufang [Key Laboratory of Materials Liquid Structure and Heredity, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong (China)

2007-02-15

462

Cold-crucible directional solidification of refractory metal-silicide eutectics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microcomposite structures generated by directional solidification of eutectics offer many unique microstructural advantages, including thermodynamic stability, directional alignment, and a fine dispersion of component phases. In an effort to improve the performance of advanced turbine engines, a Czochralski crystal growth method in conjunction with cold-crucible induction melting has been developed for the production of high-temperature eutectic composites. Cold-crucible directional solidification has been successfully applied to the growth of refractory metal-silicide eutectics into directional microcomposites. The eutectics studied include Cr-Cr3Si,Nb-Nb3Si,and V-V3Si, which have melting temperatures ofl,705°C, 1,880°C, and 1,870°C, respectively.

Chang, K.-M.; Bewlay, B. P.; Sutliff, J. A.; Jackson, M. R.

1992-06-01

463

Formation mechanism of the primary faceted phase and complex eutectic structure within an undercooled Ag-Cu-Ge alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solidified microstructure of bulk undercooled Ag40Cu30Ge30 alloy consists of three parts: primary (Ge) phase, the complex structure of (Ag + Ge) and (Ag + ? 2) pseudobinary eutectics, and (Ag + Ge + ? 2) ternary eutectic. In comparison, the pseudobinary eutectic no longer appears in an alloy droplet solidified in a drop tube. Once the undercooling exceeds 225 K and the cooling rate is greater than 2×103 K s-1, the microstructure of the solidified droplet is totally composed of anomalous ternary eutectic. In both cases, the primary (Ge) phase exhibits various faceted growth morphologies at different undercoolings, such as columnar block, long dendrite, equiaxed dendrite and rod-like crystal. Some refined side branches grow from the equiaxed (Ge) dendritic branches composed of {111} twins, which is ascribed to the rapid epitaxial growth of (Ag + Ge) pseudobinary eutectic from the (Ge) dendritic branches. Moreover, both the primary (Ge) phase and the (Ge) phase in the (Ag + Ge) pseudobinary eutectic are effective heterogeneous nuclei for the (Ag+? 2) pseudobinary eutectic. As undercooling increases, the (Ge) phase in the (Ag + Ge+? 2) ternary eutectic transforms from faceted to non-faceted phase, while the independent nucleation and growth of the (Ag) and ? 2 phases in the ternary eutectic displaces their previous cooperative growth. These growth kinetics transitions result in the formation of anomalous ternary eutectic.

Ruan, Y.; Dai, F. P.; Wei, B.

2010-11-01

464

Formation mechanism of the primary faceted phase and complex eutectic structure within an undercooled Ag-Cu-Ge alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solidified microstructure of bulk undercooled Ag40Cu30Ge30 alloy consists of three parts: primary (Ge) phase, the complex structure of (Ag + Ge) and (Ag + ? 2) pseudobinary eutectics, and (Ag + Ge + ? 2) ternary eutectic. In comparison, the pseudobinary eutectic no longer appears in an alloy droplet solidified in a drop tube. Once the undercooling exceeds 225 K and the cooling rate is greater than 2×103 K s-1, the microstructure of the solidified droplet is totally composed of anomalous ternary eutectic. In both cases, the primary (Ge) phase exhibits various faceted growth morphologies at different undercoolings, such as columnar block, long dendrite, equiaxed dendrite and rod-like crystal. Some refined side branches grow from the equiaxed (Ge) dendritic branches composed of {111} twins, which is ascribed to the rapid epitaxial growth of (Ag + Ge) pseudobinary eutectic from the (Ge) dendritic branches. Moreover, both the primary (Ge) phase and the (Ge) phase in the (Ag + Ge) pseudobinary eutectic are effective heterogeneous nuclei for the (Ag+ ? 2) pseudobinary eutectic. As undercooling increases, the (Ge) phase in the (Ag + Ge+ ? 2) ternary eutectic transforms from faceted to non-faceted phase, while the independent nucleation and growth of the (Ag) and ? 2 phases in the ternary eutectic displaces their previous cooperative growth. These growth kinetics transitions result in the formation of anomalous ternary eutectic.

Ruan, Y.; Dai, F. P.; Wei, B.

2011-07-01

465

Research on the mechanism of thermal fatigue in near-eutectic Pb-Sn solders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the microstructures of solder joints and the mechanisms of thermal fatigue, which is an important source of failure in electronic devices. The solder joints studied were near-eutectic Pb--Sn solder contacts on copper. The microstructure of the joints is described. While the fatigue life of near-eutectic solder joints is strongly dependent on the operating conditions and on the

J. W. Jr. Morris; D. Grivas; D. Tribula; T. Summers; D. Frear

1989-01-01

466

Studies on phase transformations in a rapidly solidified Ni-base eutectic superalloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few systematic studies of the phase transformation in Ni-Al-Mo alloys has been reported despite the engineering importance of this eutectic system. In this work, eutectic Ni-base superalloys with small additions of V and Re or Cr were melt-spun at different wheel speeds. The highly supersaturated microstructure resulting from the chilled block metal spinning (CBMS) process was used as a basis

1988-01-01

467

Mechanical properties of eutectic alloys ?-NiAl + ?-Re and spray coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the structure and mechanical properties of eutectic alloys ?-NiAl + ?-Re of the ternary system Ni-Al-Re. We\\u000a have established that the best combination of mechanical characteristics, determined by local loading with a rigid indentor,\\u000a is exhibited by the alloy containing 2.5 at.% Re, the structure of which consists of the eutectic ?-NiAl + ?-Re. Rhenium inclusions\\u000a can

V. E. Oliker; M. Yu. Barabash; E. F. Grechishkin; I. S. Martsenyuk; Yu. N. Podrezov; V. F. Gorban’

2006-01-01

468

Comparison of nickel carbon and iron carbon eutectic fixed point cells for the calibration of thermocouples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three nickel-carbon (Ni-C) and three iron-carbon (Fe-C) eutectic fixed points cells of a new design, meeting the requirements for reliable applications and being suitable for the calibration of thermocouples, were constructed at PTB and Inmetro. Their melting temperatures were compared by using the high-temperature furnace of PTB (HTF-R) and two platinum\\/palladium (Pt\\/Pd) thermocouples. The measured emfs of the Ni-C eutectic

F. Edler; A. C. Baratto

2006-01-01

469

Oxygen partial pressure: a key to alloying and discovery in metal oxide--metal eutectic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of oxygen partial pressure is essential in the directional solidification of oxide--metal eutectic composites by techniques involving gas-solid and gas-liquid interactions. The existence of end components in the eutectic composite is Poâ sensitive as are melt stoichiometry, solid phase compositions, and vapor losses due to oxidation-volatilization. Simple criteria are postulated which can aid the experimentalist in selecting the proper

J. D. Holder; G. W. Clark; B. F. Oliver

1978-01-01

470

Solid–liquid interfacial energy for solid succinonitrile in equilibrium with succinonitrile dichlorobenzene eutectic liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equilibrated grain boundary groove shapes for solid succinonitrile (SCN) in equilibrium with the succinonitrile (SCN) dichlorobenzene (DCB) eutectic liquid were directly observed. From the observed grain boundary groove shapes, the Gibbs–Thomson coefficient and solid–liquid interfacial energy for solid SCN in equilibrium with the SCN DCB eutectic liquid have been determined to be (5.43±0.27)×10?8Km and (7.95±0.80)×10?3Jm?2 with present numerical method

Y. Ocak; S. Akbulut; U. Böyük; M. Erol; K. Ke?lio?lu; N. Mara?l?

2006-01-01

471

Thermophysical properties of the liquid Pb84.1Au15.9 eutectic alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-gold eutectic alloy is under consideration as target material of spallation sources. The thermohydraulic design of such a target or related coolant systems requires a reliable data basis regarding the temperature dependent physical properties of such alloys. We present measurements of the electrical and thermal conductivity, thermoelectric power, viscosity and surface tension for liquid Pb84.1Au15.9 alloy of eutectic composition in a wide temperature range between the melting point and about 1000 K.

Plevachuk, Yu.; Sklyarchuk, V.; Yakymovych, A.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.

2013-03-01

472

Breakup of eutectic carbide network of white cast irons at high temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fracture toughness of white cast irons is related to the morphology of eutectic carbides,being better when isolated than when network-like. In this paper observations on the breakup of eutectic cementite network during annealing treatment of white cast irons are reported using a high temperature microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dissolution-induced breakup and capillarity-induced breakup are identified. The former

Ma Qian; Liu Baicheng; Wang Zhaochang

1995-01-01

473

Monotonic and fatigue deformation of Ni-W directionally solidified eutectic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike many eutectic composites, the Ni-W eutectic exhibits extensive ductility by slip. Furthermore, its properties may be\\u000a greatly varied by proper heat treatments. Here results of studies of deformation in both monotonic and fatigue loading are\\u000a reported. During monotonie deformation the fiber \\/matrix interface acts as a source of dislocations at low strains and an\\u000a obstacle to matrix slip at

G. Garmong; J. C. Williams

1975-01-01

474

Localized silicon fusion and eutectic bonding for MEMS fabrication and packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon fusion and eutectic bonding processes based on the technique of localized heating have been successfully demonstrated. Phosphorus-doped polysilicon and gold films are applied separately in the silicon-to-glass fusion bonding and silicon-to-gold eutectic bonding experiments. These films are patterned as line-shape resistive heaters with widths of 5 or 7 ?m for the purpose of heating and bonding. In the experiments,

Y. T. Cheng; Liwei Lin; Khalil Najafi

2000-01-01

475

Fluxless bondings of silicon to alumina substrate using electroplated eutectic Au-Sn solder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large 6 mm times 9 mm silicon dice have been successfully bonded on alumina substrate with electroplated Au80Sn20 eutectic alloy. Eutectic AuSn is one of the best known hard solders having excellent fatigue-resistance and mechanical properties. A fluxless bonding process in 50 militorrs of vacuum environment is presented. Vacuum environment is employed to prevent tin oxidation during the process. The

Jong S. Kim; Won S. Choi; A. Shkel; C. C. Lee

2006-01-01