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1

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary eutectic salt mixture consisting of Li- Na- and K- carbonates has the potential as gasification catalyst. To verify the literature reported, melting points for various compositions consisting of these three salts and the temperature range over which the mixture remained molten were determined in the lab. For mixtures with different concentrations of the three salts, the temperatures at which the mixtures were found to be in complete molten state were recorded. By increasing the amount of Li2CO3, the melting temperature range was reduced significantly. In the literature, the eutectic mixtures of Li- Na- and K-carbonates are claimed to have a lower activation energy than that of K2CO3 alone and they remain molten at a lower temperature than pure K2CO3. The slow increase in the gasification rates with eutectics reported in the literature is believed to be due to a gradual penetration of the coals and coal char particles by the molten and viscous catalyst phase. The even spreading of the salt phase seems to increase the overall carbon conversion rate. In the next reporting period, a number of eutectic salts and methods of their application on the coal will be identified and tested.

Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-12-04

2

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

2001-12-01

3

A Binary Eutectic Mixture of TNAZ and R-Salt Explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TNAZ is a high performing explosive that is melt castable. However, the casting process can be problematic since TNAZ has a high vapor pressure exacerbated by a fairly high melting temperature. In order to mitigate the ill effects of its high vapor pressure, including a lower melting explosive was explored by making a series of mixtures of TNAZ and R-Salt. Initially, a eutectic temperature and composition was theoretically determined. Then a phase diagram was constructed from a series and mixtures by differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). The vapor pressure of the eutectic composition was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Cylinder testing of the eutectic composition was carried out in copper tubes, 5'' long with 1/2 ``inner diameter and 1/16'' thick walls. The detonation velocity was measured using wire switches along the cylinder length and the expanding wall velocity was measured using PDV gauges. A rough evaluation of JWL equation-of-state parameters has been carried out. A more detailed evaluation is in progress.

Sandstrom, Mary; Manner, Virginia; Pemberton, Steven; Lloyd, Joseph; Tappan, Bryce

2011-06-01

4

Vacuum distillation of a mixture of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts and RE oxidative precipitates and a dechlorination and oxidation of RE oxychlorides.  

PubMed

In this study, a vacuum distillation of a mixture of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and rare-earth oxidative precipitates was performed to separate a pure LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from the mixture. Also, a dechlorination and oxidation of the rare-earth oxychlorides was carried out to stabilize a final waste form. The mixture was distilled under a range of 710-759.5Torr of a reduced pressure at a fixed heating rate of 4 degrees C/min and the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was completely separated from the mixture. The required time for the salt distillation and the starting temperature for the salt vaporization were lowered with a reduction in the pressure. Dechlorination and oxidation of the rare-earth oxychlorides was completed at a temperature below 1300 degrees C and this was dependent on the partial pressure of O2. The rare-earth oxychlorides (NdOCl/PrOCl) were transformed to oxides (Nd2O3/PrO2) during the dechlorination and oxidation process. These results will be utilized to design a concept for a process for recycling the waste salt from an electrorefining process. PMID:18440139

Eun, Hee Chul; Yang, Hee Chul; Cho, Yung Zun; Lee, Han Soo; Kim, In Tae

2008-12-30

5

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salts: reaction kinetics with binary and ternary eutectic catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic studies of the catalytic steam gasification of Illinois No. 6 coal were carried out using binary and ternary eutectic salt mixtures in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of major process variables such as temperature, pressure, catalyst loading and steam flow rate were evaluated for the binary 29% Na2CO3–71% K2CO3 and ternary 43.5% Li2CO3–31.5% Na2CO3–25% K2CO3 eutectic catalyst systems. A

Atul Sheth; Yaw D. Yeboah; Anuradha Godavarty; Yong Xu; Pradeep K. Agrawal

2003-01-01

6

Thermodynamic Assessment of Hot Corrosion Mechanisms of Superalloys Hastelloy N and Haynes 242 in Eutectic Mixture of Molten Salts KF and ZrF4  

SciTech Connect

The KF - ZrF4 system was considered for the application as a heat exchange agent in molten salt nuclear reactors (MSRs) beginning with the work carried out at ORNL in early fifties. Based on a combination of excellent properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity in the molten state, and other thermo-physical and rheological properties, it was selected as one of possible candidates for the nuclear reactor secondary heat exchanger loop.

Michael V. Glazoff

2012-02-01

7

Anthracene + Pyrene Solid Mixtures: Eutectic and Azeotropic Character  

PubMed Central

To better characterize the thermodynamic behavior of a binary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture, thermochemical and vapor pressure experiments were used to examine the phase behavior of the anthracene (1) + pyrene (2) system. A solid-liquid phase diagram was mapped for the mixture. A eutectic point occurs at 404 K at x1 = 0.22. A model based on eutectic formation can be used to predict the enthalpy of fusion associated with the mixture. For mixtures that contain x1 < 0.90, the enthalpy of fusion is near that of pure pyrene. This and X-ray diffraction results indicate that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene have pyrene-like crystal structures and energetics until the composition nears that of pure anthracene. Solid-vapor equilibrium studies show that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene form solid azeotropes at x1 of 0.03 and 0.14. Additionally, mixtures at x1 = 0.99 sublime at the vapor pressure of pure anthracene, suggesting that anthracene behavior is not significantly influenced by x2 = 0.01 in the crystal structure. PMID:21116474

Rice, James W.; Fu, Jinxia; Suuberg, Eric M.

2010-01-01

8

Purification of used eutectic (LiCl-KCl) salt electrolyte from pyroprocessing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separation characteristics of surrogate rare-earth fission products in a eutectic (LiCl-KCl) molten salt were investigated. This system is based on the eutectic salt used for the pyroprocessing treatment of used nuclear fuel (UNF). The investigation was performed using an integrated rare-earth separation apparatus comprising a precipitation reactor, a solid detachment device, and a layer separation device. To separate rare-earth fission products, a phosphate precipitation method using both Li3PO4 and K3PO4 as a precipitant was performed. The use of an equivalent phosphate precipitant composed of 0.408 molar ratio-K3PO4 and 0.592 molar ratio-Li3PO4 can preserve the original eutectic ratio, LiCl-0.592 molar ratio (or 45.2 wt%), as well as provide a high separation efficiency of over 99.5% under conditions of 550 °C and Ar sparging when using La, Nd, Ce, and Pr chlorides. The mixture of La, Nd, Ce, and Pr phosphate had a typical monoclinic (or monazite) structure, which has been proposed as a reliable host matrix for the permanent disposal of a high-level waste form. To maximize the reusability of purified eutectic waste salt after rare-earth separation, the successive rare-earth separation process, which uses both phosphate precipitation and an oxygen sparging method, were introduced and tested with eight rare-earth (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) chlorides. In the successive rare-earth separation process, the phosphate reaction was terminated within 1 h at 550 °C, and a 4-8 h oxygen sparging time were required to obtain over a 99% separation efficiency at 700-750 °C. The mixture of rare-earth precipitates separated by the successive rare-earth separation process was found to be phosphate, oxychloride, and oxide. Through the successive rare-earth separation process, the eutectic ratio of purified salt maintained its original value, and impurity content including the residual precipitant of purified salt can be minimized.

Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

2013-06-01

9

Bonding of sapphire to sapphire by eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An element comprising sapphire, ruby or blue sapphire can be bonded to another element of such material with a eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide. The bonding mixture may be applied in the form of a distilled water slurry or by electron beam vapor deposition. In one embodiment the eutectic is formed in situ by applying a layer of zirconium oxide and then heating the assembly to a temperature above the eutectic temperature and below the melting point of the material from which the elements are formed. The formation of a sapphire rubidium maser cell utilizing eutectic bonding is shown.

Deluca, J. J. (inventor)

1979-01-01

10

Bonding of sapphire to sapphire by eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bonding of an element comprising sapphire, ruby or blue sapphire to another element of such material with a eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide is discussed. The bonding mixture may be applied in the form of a distilled water slurry or by electron beam vapor deposition. In one embodiment the eutectic is formed in situ by applying a layer of zirconium oxide and then heating the assembly to a temperature above the eutectic temperature and below the melting point of the material from which the elements are formed. The formation of a sapphire rubidium maser cell utilizing eutectic bonding is shown.

Deluca, J. J. (inventor)

1975-01-01

11

Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids  

SciTech Connect

Concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are comprised of many miles of fluid-filled pipes arranged in large grids with reflective mirrors used to capture radiation from the sun. Solar radiation heats the fluid which is used to produce steam necessary to power large electricity generation turbines. Currently, organic, oil-based fluid in the pipes has a maximum temperature threshold of 400 °C, allowing for the production of electricity at approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour. The DOE hopes to foster the development of an advanced heat transfer fluid that can operate within higher temperature ranges. The new heat transfer fluid, when used with other advanced technologies, could significantly decrease solar electricity cost. Lower costs would make solar thermal electricity competitive with gas and coal and would offer a clean, renewable source of energy. Molten salts exhibit many desirable heat transfer qualities within the range of the project objectives. Halotechnics developed advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for application in solar thermal power generation. This project focused on complex mixtures of inorganic salts that exhibited a high thermal stability, a low melting point, and other favorable characteristics. A high-throughput combinatorial research and development program was conducted in order to achieve the project objective. Over 19,000 candidate formulations were screened. The workflow developed to screen various chemical systems to discover salt formulations led to mixtures suitable for use as HTFs in both parabolic trough and heliostat CSP plants. Furthermore, salt mixtures which will not interfere with fertilizer based nitrates were discovered. In addition for use in CSP, the discovered salt mixtures can be applied to electricity storage, heat treatment of alloys and other industrial processes.

Raade, Justin; Roark, Thomas; Vaughn, John; Bradshaw, Robert

2013-07-22

12

Estimated heats of fusion of fluoride salt mixtures suitable for thermal energy storage applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heats of fusion of several fluoride salt mixtures with melting points greater than 973 K were estimated from a coupled analysis of the available thermodynamic data and phase diagrams. Simple binary eutectic systems with and without terminal solid solutions, binary eutectics with congruent melting intermediate phases, and ternary eutectic systems were considered. Several combinations of salts were identified, most notable the eutectics LiF-22CaF2 and NaF-60MgF2 which melt at 1039 and 1273 K respectively which posses relatively high heats of fusion/gm (greater than 0.7 kJ/g). Such systems would seemingly be ideal candidates for the light weight, high energy storage media required by the thermal energy storage unit in advanced solar dynamic power systems envisioned for the future space missions.

Misra, A. K.; Whittenberger, J. D.

1986-01-01

13

Eutectic Salt Catalyzed Environmentally Benign and Highly Efficient Biginelli Reaction  

PubMed Central

A simple deep eutectic solvent based on tin (II) chloride was used as a dual catalyst and environmentally benign reaction medium for an efficient synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one derivatives, from aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and urea in good-to-excellent yields and short reaction time. This simple ammonium deep eutectic solvent, easily synthesized from choline chloride and tin chloride, is relatively inexpensive and recyclable, making it applicable for industrial applications. PMID:22649326

Azizi, Najmadin; Dezfuli, Sahar; Hahsemi, Mohmmad Mahmoodi

2012-01-01

14

Development of high temperature transport technology for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in pyroprocessing  

SciTech Connect

The development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a prerequisite and a key issue in the industrialization of pyro-reprocessing for advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The solution of a molten salt centrifugal pump was discarded because of the high corrosion power of a high temperature molten salt, so the suction pump solution was selected. An apparatus for salt transport experiments by suction was designed and tested using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The experimental results of lab-scale molten salt transport by suction showed a 99.5% transport rate (ratio of transported salt to total salt) under a vacuum range of 100 mtorr - 10 torr at 500 Celsius degrees. The suction system has been integrated to the PRIDE (pyroprocessing integrated inactive demonstration) facility that is a demonstrator using non-irradiated materials (natural uranium and surrogate materials). The performance of the suction pump for the transport of molten salts has been confirmed.

Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Hansoo; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Jeong-Guk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daaro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

15

Preparation of eutectic substrate mixtures for enzymatic conversion of ATC to L-cysteine at high concentration levels.  

PubMed

High concentration eutectic substrate solutions for the enzymatic production of L-cysteine were prepared. Eutectic melting of binary mixtures consisting of D,L-2-amino-?(2)-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATC) as a substrate and malonic acid occurred at 39 °C with an ATC mole fraction of 0.5. Formation of eutectic mixtures was confirmed using SEM, SEM-EDS, and XPS surface analyses. Sorbitol, MnSO4, and NaOH were used as supplements for the enzymatic reactions. Strategies for sequential addition of five compounds, including a binary ATC mixture and supplements, during preparation of eutectic substrate solutions were established. Eutectic substrate solutions were stable for 24 h. After 6 h of enzymatic reactions, a 550 mM L-cysteine yield was obtained from a 670 mM eutectic ATC solution. PMID:24249216

Youn, Sung Hun; Park, Hae Woong; Choe, Deokyeong; Shin, Chul Soo

2014-06-01

16

Compatibility of Inconel 617 alloy with eutectic fluoride salts at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Thermal Energy Storage (TES) capsules made of Inconel 617 alloy were filled with high purity eutectic fluoride salts and thermally cycled at eutectic temperature [plus minus]100 K for a period of up to 50,000 hours. The containment life performance characteristics with fluoride salts were examined. The depletion of Al and Cr near the inner edges was found. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy revealed that both Al and Cr were dissolved in the fluoride salts at high temperatures. The changes in melting temperature and heat of fusion of fluoride salts during thermal cycling were measured with Thermal Differential Analysis. A modified diffusion equation for a one-dimensional semi-infinite bar was applied to the depletion of Al on the interior surfaces of the containers. Good agreement was obtained between the analysis and the measured concentration profiles. The present study suggests that the corrosion was a diffusion controlled process and an expected lifetime of 5--7 years is reasonable and predictable based upon the limited diffusion processes.

Luo, A.; Jacobson, D.L. (Department of Chemical, Bio Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6006 (United States)); Ponnappan, R. (Universal Energy Systems, Inc., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Road, Dayton, Ohio 45432 (United States))

1993-01-10

17

Zero-gravity growth of a sodium chloride-lithium fluoride eutectic mixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on Earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convective current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and Earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

1982-01-01

18

Charge transport and structural dynamics in carboxylic-acid-based deep eutectic mixtures.  

PubMed

Charge transport and structural dynamics in the 1:2 mol ratio mixture of lidocaine and decanoic acid (LID-DA), a model deep eutectic mixture (DEM), have been characterized over a wide temperature range using broad-band dielectric spectroscopy and depolarized dynamic light scattering. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements were performed to assess the degree of proton transfer between the neutral parent molecules. From our detailed analysis of the dielectric spectra, we have determined that this carboxylic-acid-based DEM is approximately 25% ionic at room temperature. Furthermore, we have found that the characteristic diffusion rate of mobile charge carriers is practically identical to the rate of structural relaxation at all measured temperatures, indicating that fast proton transport does not occur in LID-DA. Our results demonstrate that while LID-DA exhibits the thermal characteristics of a DEM, its charge transport properties resemble those of a protic ionic liquid. PMID:25025600

Griffin, Philip J; Cosby, Tyler; Holt, Adam P; Benson, Roberto S; Sangoro, Joshua R

2014-08-01

19

Study on a regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic based waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process  

SciTech Connect

A regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuel has been studied. This regeneration process is composed of a chemical conversion process and a vacuum distillation process. Through the regeneration process, a high efficiency of renewable salt recovery can be obtained from the waste salt and rare earth nuclides in the waste salt can be separated as oxide or phosphate forms. Thus, the regeneration process can contribute greatly to a reduction of the waste volume and a creation of durable final waste forms. (authors)

Eun, H.C.; Cho, Y.Z.; Choi, J.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, T.K.; Park, H.S.; Kim, I.T.; Park, G.I. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 3054-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

20

EXAFS study into the speciation of metal salts dissolved in ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents.  

PubMed

The speciation of metals in solution controls their reactivity, and this is extremely pertinent in the area of metal salts dissolved in ionic liquids. In the current study, the speciation of 25 metal salts is investigated in four deep eutectic solvents (DESs) and five imidazolium-based ionic liquids using extended X-ray absorption fine structure. It is shown that in diol-based DESs M(I) ions form [MCl2](-) and [MCl3](2-) complexes, while all M(II) ions form [MCl4](2-) complexes, with the exception of Ni(II), which exhibits a very unusual coordination by glycol molecules. This was also found in the X-ray crystal structure of the compound [Ni(phen)2(eg)]Cl2·2eg (eg = ethylene glycol). In a urea-based DES, either pure chloro or chloro-oxo coordination is observed. In [C6mim][Cl] pure chloro complexation is also observed, but coordination numbers are smaller (typically 3), which can be explained by the long alkyl chain of the cation. In [C2mim][SCN] metal ions are entirely coordinated by thiocyanate, either through the N or the S atom, depending on the hardness of the metal ion according to the hard-soft acid-base principle. With weaker coordinating anions, mixed coordination between solvent and solute anions is observed. The effect of hydrate or added water on speciation is insignificant for the diol-based DESs and small in other liquids with intermediate or strong ligands. One of the main findings of this study is that, with respect to metal speciation, there is no fundamental difference between deep eutectic solvents and classic ionic liquids. PMID:24897923

Hartley, Jennifer M; Ip, Chung-Man; Forrest, Gregory C H; Singh, Kuldip; Gurman, Stephen J; Ryder, Karl S; Abbott, Andrew P; Frisch, Gero

2014-06-16

21

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salts: reaction kinetics for hydrogasification using binary and ternary eutectic catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic study of the hydrogasification of Illinois #6 coal was carried out using a ternary (43.5mol% Li2CO3-31.5mol% Na2CO3-25mol% K2CO3) and a binary (29mol% Na2CO3-71mol% K2CO3) eutectic system. Hydrogasification experiments were carried out in a high-pressure, high-temperature differential fixed-bed gasifier unit to evaluate the product inhibition effect of H2 on the overall steam gasification kinetics. The overall gasification rate was

Atul C Sheth; Chandramouli Sastry; Yaw D Yeboah; Yong Xu; Pradeep Agarwal

2004-01-01

22

Enhancement of specific heat capacity of high-temperature silica-nanofluids synthesized in alkali chloride salt eutectics for solar thermal-energy storage applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we report the anomalous enhancement of specific heat capacity of high-temperature nanofluids. Alkali metal chloride salt eutectics were doped with silica nanoparticles at 1% mass concentration. The specific heat capacity of the nanofluid was enhanced by 14.5%. Dispersion behavior of the nanoparticles in the eutectic was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three independent competing transport mechanisms

Donghyun Shin; Debjyoti Banerjee

2011-01-01

23

An optimal method for phosphorylation of rare earth chlorides in LiCl-KCl eutectic based waste salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on an optimal method for the phosphorylation of rare earth chlorides in LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt generated the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuel was performed. A reactor with a pitched four blade impeller was designed to create a homogeneous mixing zone in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. A phosphorylation test of NdCl3 in the salt was carried out by changing the operation conditions (operation temperature, stirring rate, agent injection amount). Based on the results of the test, a proper operation condition (450 °C, 300 rpm, 1 eq. of phosphorylation agent) for over a 0.99 conversion ratio of NdCl3 to NdPO4 was determined. Under this condition, multi-component rare earth (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Y) chlorides were effectively converted into phosphate forms. It was confirmed that the existing regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt can be greatly improved and simplified through these phosphorylation test results.

Eun, H. C.; Kim, J. H.; Cho, Y. Z.; Choi, J. H.; Lee, T. K.; Park, H. S.; Park, G. I.

2013-11-01

24

Inorganic salt mixtures as electrolyte media in fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel cell designs and techniques for converting chemical energy into electrical energy uses a fuel cell are disclosed. The designs and techniques include an anode to receive fuel, a cathode to receive oxygen, and an electrolyte chamber in the fuel cell, including an electrolyte medium, where the electrolyte medium includes an inorganic salt mixture in the fuel cell. The salt mixture includes pre-determined quantities of at least two salts chosen from a group consisting of ammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate, ammonium trifluoroacetate, and ammonium nitrate, to conduct charge from the anode to the cathode. The fuel cell includes an electrical circuit operatively coupled to the fuel cell to transport electrons from the cathode.

Angell, Charles Austen (Inventor); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Inventor); Francis-Gervasio, Dominic (Inventor)

2012-01-01

25

Salt-induced changes of colloidal interactions in critical mixtures  

E-print Network

We report on salt-dependent interaction potentials of a single charged particle suspended in a binary liquid mixture above a charged wall. For symmetric boundary conditions (BC) we observe attractive particle-wall interaction forces which are similar to critical Casimir forces previously observed in salt-free mixtures. However, in case of antisymmetric BC we find a temperature-dependent crossover from attractive to repulsive forces which is in strong contrast to salt-free conditions. Additionally performed small-angle x-ray scattering experiments demonstrate that the bulk critical fluctuations are not affected by the addition of salt. This suggests that the observed crossover can not be attributed alone to critical Casimir forces. Instead our experiments point towards a possible coupling between the ionic distributions and the concentration profiles in the binary mixture which then affects the interaction potentials in such systems.

Ursula Nellen; Julian Dietrich; Laurent Helden; Shirish Chodankar; Kim Nygard; J. Friso van der Veen; Clemens Bechinger

2011-04-28

26

Enhancement of specific heat capacity of high-temperature silica-nanofluids synthesized in alkali chloride salt eutectics for solar thermal-energy  

E-print Network

chloride salt eutectics for solar thermal-energy storage applications Donghyun Shin, Debjyoti Banerjee for the anoma- lous enhancement of thermal conductivity over that of the neat solvent. Eastman et al. [5] reported thermal conductivity enhance- ment of 30% and 60% for water based nanofluids of Al2O3 and Cu

Banerjee, Debjyoti

27

Eutectic mixture of choline chloride\\/urea as a green solvent in synthesis of a coordination polymer: [Zn(O 3PCH 2CO 2)] · NH 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

A eutectic mixture of choline chloride\\/urea is liquid at ambient temperature and is used as a non-volatile reaction medium for the synthesis and crystallization of a novel coordination polymer, Zn(O3PCH2CO2)·NH4, in which structure-directing ammonium ions are generated in situ from the partial decomposition of urea.

Ju-Hsiou Liao; Pei-Chi Wu; Yi-Hsuan Bai

2005-01-01

28

A randomized, controlled trial of a eutectic mixture of local anesthetic cream (lidocaine and prilocaine) versus penile nerve block for pain relief during circumcision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We set out to compare a eutectic mixture of local anesthetic cream (lidocaine and prilocaine) to dorsal penile nerve block with lidocaine for anesthesia during circumcision. Study Design: In a double-blind study, term newborns were randomized to local anesthetic cream and sodium chloride solution dorsal penile nerve block (n = 31) or to placebo cream and lidocaine dorsal penile

Cynthia R. Howard; Fred M. Howard; Karen Fortune; Patricia Generelli; Denniz Zolnoun; Cynthia tenHoopen; Elisabeth deBlieck

1999-01-01

29

Epilation of upper lip hirsutism with a eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine used as a topical anesthetic.  

PubMed

Twenty-one patients were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study with a eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA). EMLA or placebo was placed on the upper lip for 1 hour; diathermy was then performed for 10 minutes. The pain caused by diathermy was evaluated by the patients and the cosmetologist on a four-point scale. The results of the investigation showed that there was significantly less pain after application of 5 gm of EMLA cream on the upper lip than after application of placebo, assessed both by the patient and by the cosmetologist. Eighteen of 20 patients preferred EMLA (p less than 0.0001). Local reactions were few and mild. PMID:1802904

Hjorth, N; Harring, M; Hahn, A

1991-11-01

30

Liquid-glass transition of water/salt mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is known to exhibit a number of anomalous behaviors and to be an exceptionally poor glass-former. However, both features are strongly affected by applying pressure or adding salt. This means that these two parameters have strong influence on physical factors controlling the unusual features of water. By using a water/salt mixture as a model system, we experimentally demonstrate that the glass-forming ability and the fragility of a water/salt mixture are closely related to its equilibrium phase diagram. The key to this link may be frustration between local ordering and global ordering toward the crystal. Relying on the same role of salt as pressure in water anomalies as a breaker of local tetrahedral order, we infer the behavior of water under pressure from that of a water/salt mixture. This scenario not only explains unusual behavior of water-type liquids such as water, Si and Ge under pressure, but also may provide a general explanation on the link between the equilibrium phase diagram, the glass-forming ability, and the fragility of various materials for a wide class of materials.

Kobayashi, Mika; Tanaka, Hajime

2013-02-01

31

Effect of antagonistic salt on confined near-critical mixture  

E-print Network

We consider a near-critical binary mixture with addition of antagonistic salt confined between weakly charged and selective surfaces. A mesoscopic functional for this system is developed from a microscopic description by a systematic coarse-graining procedure. The functional reduces to the Landau-Brazovskii functional for amphiphilic systems for sufficiently large ratio between the correlation length in the critical binary mixture and the screening length. Our theoretical result agrees with the experimental observation [Sadakane et.al. J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 139}, 234905 (2013)] that the antagonistic salt and surfactant both lead to a similar mesoscopic structure. For very small salt concentration $\\rho_{ion}$ the Casimir potential is the same as in a presence of inorganic salt. For larger $\\rho_{ion}$ the Casimir potential takes a minimum followed by a maximum for separations of order of tens of nanometers, and exhibits an oscillatory decay very close to the critical point. For separations of tens of nanometers the potential between surfaces with a linear size of hundreds of nanometers can be of order of $k_BT$. We have verified that in the experimentally studied samples [Sadakane et.al. J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 139}, 234905 (2013), Leys et.al. Soft Matter {\\bf 9}, 9326 (2013)] the decay length is too small compared to the period of oscillations of the Casimir potential, but the oscillatory force could be observed closer to the critical point.

Faezeh Pousaneh; Alina Ciach

2014-06-13

32

Dimethyl sulfoxide with lignocaine versus eutectic mixture of local anesthetics: prospective randomized study to compare the efficacy of cutaneous anesthesia in shock wave lithotripsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixed with lignocaine and eutectic mixture\\u000a of local anesthetics (EMLA) cream as topically applied surface anesthetics in relieving pain during shock wave lithotripsy\\u000a (SWL) in a prospective randomized study. Of the 160 patients, 80 patients received DMSO with lignocaine and 80 patients received\\u000a EMLA cream, applied

Santosh Kumar; Sunil Kumar; Raguram Ganesamoni; Arup K. Mandal; Seema Prasad; Shrawan K. Singh

2011-01-01

33

Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial of Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetic Creams in Reducing Pain During Hysterosalpingography  

PubMed Central

Background: Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is considered as a primary test in infertility work up worldwide due to its reliability in evaluating abnormalities related to the uterus and fallopian tubes. Objectives: To assess the efficacy of applying eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (lidocaine-prilocaine cream) (EMLA) on the uterine cervix in reducing pain during HSG. Patients and Methods: Eighty patients undergoing HSG as part of infertility evaluation were randomly allocated to groups receiving either EMLA (N = 40) or placebo cream (N = 40) in a double-blinded prospective study. Fifteen minutes before HSG, 5 grams of 5% cream was applied to the uterine cervix using a cervical applicator. The degree of pain experienced by the patient was evaluated during and after HSG at five predefined steps on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: There was no significant difference in the efficacy between EMLA and placebo creams in pain perception during the entire procedure. There was no significant difference in long term pain perception half an hour after the HSG performance. Conclusions: This study does not support the use of EMLA for HSG. PMID:25780541

Kalantari, Mojgan; Zadeh Modares, Shahrzad; Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Hazari, Vajihe; Haghighi, Hadieh; Chehrazi, Mohammad; Razaghi, Melika

2014-01-01

34

Heat Capacity Uncertainty Calculation for the Eutectic Mixture of Biphenyl/Diphenyl Ether Used as Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this study was to calculate the uncertainty at 95% confidence for the experimental values of heat capacity of the eutectic mixture of biphenyl/diphenyl ether (Therminol VP-1) determined from 300 to 370 degrees C. Twenty-five samples were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to obtain the sample heat flow as a function of temperature. The ASTM E-1269-05 standard was used to determine the heat capacity using DSC evaluations. High-pressure crucibles were employed to contain the sample in the liquid state without vaporizing. Sample handling has a significant impact on the random uncertainty. It was determined that the fluid is difficult to handle, and a high variability of the data was produced. The heat capacity of Therminol VP-1 between 300 and 370 degrees C was measured to be equal to 0.0025T+0.8672 with an uncertainty of +/- 0.074 J/g.K (3.09%) at 95% confidence with T (temperature) in Kelvin.

Gomez, J. C.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Mehos, M.

2012-09-01

35

Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthesia Cream Can Reduce Both the Radial Pain and Sympathetic Response During Transradial Coronary Angiography  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives adial artery spasm is one of the most common complications of transradial coronary angiography (TRA): the radial artery is prone to cathecholamine-induced contraction and radial pain during TRA could increase the sympathetic tone. The object of this study was to evaluate whether the eutectic mixture of local anesthesia (EMLA) cream, in addition to lidocaine infiltration, could reduce the sympathetic response by reducing radial pain during TRA. Subjects and Methods Seventy-six patients were randomized 1 : 1 to either EMLA or control groups. Radial pain was measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the verbal rating scale (VRS-4). Sympathetic response, including systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse rate (PR), stroke volume (SV) and total peripheral resistance (TPR), was measured by photoplethysmography. Results Radial pain measured during lidocaine infiltration was significantly lower in the EMLA group (VAS: 3.1 vs. 4.0, p=0.04; VRS-4: 2.0 vs. 2.2, p=0.03) and the sympathetic response was significantly blunted in the EMLA group from baseline to lidocaine infiltration (?SBP, mm Hg: 5 vs. 13, p<0.01; ?DBP, mm Hg: 2 vs. 7, p=0.03; ?PR, beat/min: 2 vs. 8, p<0.01, ?SV, mL: 3 vs. 21, p<0.01; ?TPR, mm Hg · L/min: 1.0 vs. 5.9, p<0.01). Conclusion In patients undergoing TRA, the EMLA cream, in addition to lidocaine infiltration, effectively reduces the radial pain and thereby the sympathetic response, during lidocaine infiltration. PMID:22259603

Youn, Young Jin; Kim, Woo-Taek; Lee, Jun-Won; Ahn, Sung-Gyun; Ahn, Min-Soo; Kim, Jang-Young; Yoo, Byung-Su; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Choe, Kyung-Hoon

2011-01-01

36

Sorption studies on regenerated cellulosic fibers in salt–alkali mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degrees of salt sorption were determined in lyocell and viscose fibers immersed in aqueous solutions of salt–alkali mixtures with the aim of using salt sorption as an indirect measure of changes to fiber accessibility in presence of alkali. The salt–alkali mixtures used were combinations of NaOH with NaCl or NaBr, and of KOH with KCl or KBr. In general,

Adisak Jaturapiree; Avinash P. Manian; Thomas Bechtold

2006-01-01

37

Ionic equilibria in aqueous organic solvent mixtures the dissociation constants of acids and salts in tetrahydrofuran\\/water mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissociation constants of several acids (perchloric, hydrochloric, phosphoric, acetic and benzoic acids) and of some sodium salts (chloride, acetate and benzoate) have been conductometrically determined in tetrahydrofuran\\/water mixtures up to a 90% of tetrahydrofuran in volume. The results demonstrate that conductometry can be successfully applied to determine the dissociation constants of salts and moderately weak and strong acids in

Urmas Muinasmaa; Clara Ràfols; Elisabeth Bosch; Martí Rosés

1997-01-01

38

Measurement of thermophysical properties of molten salts: Mixtures of alkaline carbonate salts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to develop measuring methods for the thermal diffusivity, the specific heat capacity, and the density of molten salts, as well as to measure these properties of mixtures of alkaline carbonate salts. The thermal diffusivity is measured by the stepwise heating method. The sample salt is poured into a thin container, and as a result, a three-layered cell is formed. The thermal diffusivity is obtained from the ratio of temperature rises at different times measured at the rear surface of the cell when the front surface is heated by the stepwise energy from an iodine lamp. The specific heat capacity is measured using an adiabatic scanning calorimeter. The density is measured by Archimedes' principle. Thermal conductivity is determined from the above properties. Measured samples are Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (42.7-57.3, 50.0-50.0, and 62.0-38.0 mol%).

Araki, N.; Matsuura, M.; Makino, A.; Hirata, T.; Kato, Y.

1988-11-01

39

Separation of the isomers of benzene poly(carboxylic acid)s by quaternary ammonium salt via formation of deep eutectic solvents.  

PubMed

Because of similar properties and very low volatility, isomers of benzene poly(carboxylic acid)s (BPCAs) are very difficult to separate. In this work, we found that isomers of BPCAs could be separated efficiently by quaternary ammonium salts (QASs) via formation of deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Three kinds of QASs were used to separate the isomers of BPCAs, including the isomers of benzene tricarboxylic acids (trimellitic acid, trimesic acid, and hemimellitic acid) and the isomers of benzene dicarboxylic acids (phthalic acid and isophthalic acid). Among the QASs, tetraethylammonium chloride was found to have the best performance, which could completely separate BPCA isomers in methyl ethyl ketone solutions. It was found that the hydrogen bond forming between QAS and BPCA results in the selective separation of BPCA isomers. QAS in DES was regenerated effectively by the antisolvent method, and the regenerated QAS was reused four times with the same high efficiency. PMID:25351281

Hou, Yucui; Li, Jian; Ren, Shuhang; Niu, Muge; Wu, Weize

2014-11-26

40

Electrochemical Study on the Electrodeposition of U, Nd, Ce, La and Y on a Liquid Cadmium Cathode in a LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt  

SciTech Connect

Electro-depositions of U, Nd, Ce, La and Y on a liquid cadmium cathode in a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were studied by using an electrolytic cell. For the LiCl-KCl-UCl{sub 3}- NdCl{sub 3}-CeCl{sub 3}-LaCl{sub 3}-YCl{sub 3}/Cd system, cyclic voltammograms and polarization curves were measured and the electrochemical properties of the system were discussed. From the results of the electro-depositions of U and rare earth metals on the LCC, separation factors and recovery ratios of U and REs were obtained and co-electro-depositions of U and REs were investigated. (authors)

Sung Bin Park; Jong Hyeon Lee; Sung Chan Hwang; Young Ho Kang; Joon Bo Shim; Han Soo Lee; Eung Ho Kim; Seong Won Park [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

41

Concentrating aqueous volatile fatty acid salt solutions using a tertiary amine mixture  

E-print Network

coefficients, [] , measure the selectivity of concentrating calcium salts in the aqueous phase. The distribution coefficients generally vary as follows: [] thus, there is less selectivity as the aliphatic group increases in size. The amine mixture was used...

Gaskin, David J

1997-01-01

42

Temperature dependence of the elastic moduli and damping for polycrystalline LiF-22 pct CaF2 eutectic salt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Young's and shear moduli and damping were measured for as-cast polycrystalline LiF-(22 mol pct)CaF2 eutectic specimens as a function of temperature using the piezoelectric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique. The shear modulus decreased with increasing temperature from about 40 GPa at 295 K to about 30 GPa at 1000 K, while the Young modulus decreased from about 115 GPa at 295 K to about 35 GPa at 900 K. These values are compared with those derived from the rule of mixtures using elastic moduli data for LiF and CaF2 single crystals. It is shown that, while the shear modulus data agree reasonably well with the predicted trend, there is a large discrepancy between the theoretical calculations and the Young modulus values, where this disagreement increases with increasing temperature.

Wolfenden, A.; Lastrapes, G.; Duggan, M. B.; Raj, S. V.

1991-01-01

43

Activity coefficients of actinide and rare-earth chlorides in molten LiCl/KCl eutectic salt  

SciTech Connect

Using a numerical Gibbs free-energy minimization technique, the activity coefficients of actinide and rare-earth chlorides in molten LiCl/KCl eutectic at 450 C have been calculated. Laboratory tests of an electrochemical process for separating actinide metals from rare-earth metals in LiCl/KCl solvent at 450 C provided experimental concentration and cathode potential data. The generalized expansion by Wohl was used to express the concentration dependence of the excess Gibbs free energy. The activity coefficients were expressed in terms of the Wohl volume and interaction energy parameters. The Wohl parameters for the activity coefficient expansions were obtained by minimizing the total Gibbs free energy expressed in terms of the experimental mole fractions. This thermodynamic model will be valuable for process design and scale-up calculations.

Bechtel, T.B.; Storvick, T.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-04-01

44

LOCALIZED CORROSION OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELEXPOSED TO MIXTURES OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE AND CHLORIDE SALTS  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted to investigate the corrosivity of moist plutonium oxide/chloride (PuO{sub 2}/Cl-) salt mixtures on 304L and 316L stainless steel coupons. The tests exposed flat coupons for pitting evaluation and 'teardrop' stressed coupons for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation at room temperature to various mixtures of PuO{sub 2} and chloride-bearing salts for periods up to 500 days. The two flat coupons were placed so that the solid oxide/salt mixture contacted about one half of the coupon surface. One teardrop coupon was placed in contact with solid mixture; the second teardrop was in contact with the headspace gas only. The mixtures were loaded with nominally 0.5 wt % water under a helium atmosphere. Observations of corrosion ranged from superficial staining to pitting and SCC. The extent of corrosion depended on the total salt concentration and on the composition of the salt. The most significant corrosion was found in coupons that were exposed to 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 2 wt % chloride salt mixtures that contained calcium chloride. SCC was observed in two 304L stainless steel teardrop coupons exposed in solid contact to a mixture of 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 0.9 wt % NaCl, 0.9 wt % KCl, and 0.2 wt % CaCl{sub 2}. The cracking was associated with the heat-affected zone of an autogenous weld that ran across the center of the coupon. Cracking was not observed in coupons exposed to the headspace gas, nor in coupons exposed to other mixtures with either 0.92 wt% CaCl{sub 2} or no CaCl{sub 2}. The corrosion results point to the significance of the interaction between water loading and the concentration of the hydrating salt CaCl{sub 2} in the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to corrosion.

Zapp, P; Kerry Dunn, K; Jonathan Duffey, J; Ron Livingston, R; Zane Nelson, Z

2008-11-21

45

Electrochemical studies of kinetic properties of titanium- and vanadium-hydrogen systems at intermediate temperatures using molten salt techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel molten salt technique for studying hydrogen transport in Ti an V metals is described. The molten-salt electrolytes were eutectic mixtures of alkali halides dissolved with excess LiH, operating in temperature ranges typically above 300 C, to which electrochemical techniques were difficult to apply conventionally. The authors used the molten salt technique to investigate the thermodynamic properties of the

Bor Yann Liaw; G. Deublein; R. A. Huggins

1995-01-01

46

The effect of ferrocyanide ions on sodium chloride crystallization in salt mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of crystallization inhibitors has been proposed as a potential preventive treatment method against damage and is extensively tested for crystallization of single salts. However, in practice salt mixtures are present. Therefore, before using inhibitors in practice there is a strong need to explore their effect on salt mixtures. In this research, we studied the effect of ferrocyanide ions ([Fe(CN)6]4-) on NaCl crystallization in single salt and in salt mixtures of NaCl-KCl and NaCl-LiCl. A series of micro droplet drying experiments were undertaken. Time lapse microscopy of the crystallization was performed along with NMR measurements of hydrogen, sodium and lithium ions. This gives the possibility to visualize the drying of the droplet while simultaneously obtaining information of both NaCl and LiCl concentration in the droplet. For a NaCl solution droplet, in the presence of inhibitor, a significantly higher supersaturation prior to the onset of crystallization and a change in crystal morphology were observed. On the other hand, for salt mixtures, lower supersaturation compared to single salt and dendritic crystal morphology was seen in the presence of inhibitor. In a porous material, such a type of morphology can promote the formation of efflorescence that causes only little structural damage.

Gupta, Sonia; Pel, Leo; Steiger, Michael; Kopinga, Klaas

2015-01-01

47

Materials corrosion in molten LiF-NaF-KF eutectic salt under different reduction-oxidation conditions  

SciTech Connect

Molten fluoride salts such as FLiNaK (LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol %) have been proposed for use as secondary reactor coolants, media for transfer of high temperature process heat from nuclear reactors to chemical plants, and for concentrated solar power thermal energy storage. In molten fluoride salts, passive oxide films are chemically unstable, and corrosion is driven largely by the thermodynamically driven dissolution of alloying elements into the molten salt environment. Two alloys, Hastelloy{sup R} N and 316L stainless steel were exposed to molten FLiNaK salt in a 316L stainless steel crucible under argon cover gas for 1000 hours at 850 deg. C. Graphite was present in some of the crucibles with the goal of studying corrosion behavior of relevant reactor material combinations. In addition, a technique to reduce alloy corrosion through modification of the reduction-oxidation state was tested by the inclusion of zirconium to the system. Corrosion of 316L stainless steel was noted to occur primarily through surface depletion of chromium, an effect that was enhanced by the presence of graphite. Hastelloy{sup R} N experienced weight gain through electrochemical plating of corrosion products derived from the 316L stainless steel crucible. In the presence of zirconium, both alloys gained weight through plating of zirconium and as a result formed intermetallic layers. (authors)

Sellers, R. S. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison (United States); 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison WI 53711 (United States); Cheng, W. J. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison (United States); National Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology, Taiwan (China); Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Wang, C. J.; Allen, T. R. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison (United States)

2012-07-01

48

Distribution behavior of uranium, neptunium, rare-earth elements ( Y, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) and alkaline-earth metals (Sr,Ba) between molten LiCl?KCI eutectic salt and liquid cadmium or bismuth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution coefficients of uranium neptunium, eight rare-earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) and two alkaline-earth metals (Sr and Ba) between molten LiCl-KCI eutectic salt and either liquid cadmium or bismuth were measured at 773 K. Separation factors of trivalent rare-earth elements to uranium or neptunium in the LiCl-KCl\\/Bi system were by one or two orders

M. Kurata; Y. Sakamura; T. Hijikata; K. Kinoshita

1995-01-01

49

Electroconductivity of molten mixtures of LiCl-KCl eutectics with chlorides of rare-earth elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependences of the specific and molar electroconductivities of LiCl-KCl-LnCl3 (Ln-La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb) molten mixtures were studied. It was shown that the isotherms (1070 K) of molar electroconductivity (?) for most of the studied saline systems have an S-shaped form. The observed patterns of ? isotherms and their dependence on the ratio of components in the saline mixtures under investigation are explained in the context of complex structure of ionic melts.

Kovalevskii, A. V.; Shishalov, V. I.

2011-01-01

50

Measurement of the melting point temperature of several lithium-sodium-beryllium fluoride salt (FLINABE) mixtures.  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium flourides, was studied for molten salt fission reactors and has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for the fusion applications. 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at 460 C. LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at a lower temperature, 363 C, but is rather viscous and has less lithium breeder. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing ternary molten salt for the first wall surface and blanket were investigated. The molten salt (FLiNaBe, a ternary mixture of LiF, BeF2 and NaF) salt was selected because a melting temperature below 350 C that would provide an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor application appeared possible. This information came from a Russian binary phase diagram and a US ternary phase diagram in the 1960's that were not wholly consistent. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and, BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a small stainless steel crucible under vacuum. The proportions of the three salts were selected to yield conglomerate salts with as low a melting temperature as possible. The temperature of the salts and the crucible were recorded during the melting and subsequent re-solidification using a thermocouple directly in the salt pool and two thermocouples embedded in the crucible. One mixture had an apparent melting temperature of 305 C. Particular attention was paid to the cooling curve of the salt temperature to observe evidence of any mixed intermediate phases between the fully liquid and fully solid states. The clarity, texture, and thickness were observed and noted as well. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, and the melting procedure are described. The temperature curves for the melting and cooling of each of the mixtures are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible was also done and is reported in a separate paper.

Boyle, Timothy J.; Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Nygren, Richard Einar; Lutz, Thomas Joseph; McDonald, Jimmie M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

2004-09-01

51

Molten salt thermal energy storage systems: system design. [LiKCOâ mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A five-task research program aimed at the development of molten salt thermal energy storage systems commenced in June 1976. The first topical report, covering Task 1, the selection of suitable salt systems for storage at 850 to 1000°F, was issued in August 1976. It was concluded that a 35 Wt percent LiâCOâ-65 Wt percent KâCOâ (LiKCOâ) mixture was most suitable

H. C. Maru; A. Kardas; V. M. Huang; J. F. Dullea; L. Paul; L. G. Marianowski

1977-01-01

52

Dimethyl sulfoxide with lignocaine versus eutectic mixture of local anesthetics: prospective randomized study to compare the efficacy of cutaneous anesthesia in shock wave lithotripsy.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixed with lignocaine and eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) cream as topically applied surface anesthetics in relieving pain during shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in a prospective randomized study. Of the 160 patients, 80 patients received DMSO with lignocaine and 80 patients received EMLA cream, applied to the skin of the flank at the area of entry of shock waves. SWL was done with Seimens lithostar multiline lithotripter. The pain during the procedure was assessed using visual analog and verbal rating scores. The mean visual analog scale scores for the two groups were 3.03 for DMSO group and 4.43 for EMLA group. The difference of pain score on visual analog scale was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Similarly, the pain scores as rated on the verbal rating scale were also evaluated; the mean score on verbal rating scale were 2.34 for DMSO group and 3.00 for the EMLA group. The difference between the pain score on verbal rating scale was also found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). Our study showed that DMSO with lignocaine is a better local anesthetic agent for SWL than EMLA cream. The stone fragmentation and clearance rates are also better in the DMSO group. PMID:20963406

Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Sunil; Ganesamoni, Raguram; Mandal, Arup K; Prasad, Seema; Singh, Shrawan K

2011-06-01

53

Mixtures of pollution, dust, sea salt, and volcanic aerosol during ACE-Asia: Radiative properties  

E-print Network

Mixtures of pollution, dust, sea salt, and volcanic aerosol during ACE-Asia: Radiative properties Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA Patricia K. Quinn and Timothy S. Bates Pacific was dominated by marine, polluted, volcanic, and dust aerosols. Average total light scattering coefficients (ssp

54

Room Temperature Ionic Liquid-Lithium Salt Mixtures: Optical Kerr Effect Dynamical Measurements  

E-print Network

Room Temperature Ionic Liquid-Lithium Salt Mixtures: Optical Kerr Effect Dynamical Measurements to ionic liquids causes an increase in viscosity and a decrease in ionic mobility that hinders relaxation, caused by the addition of lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide to the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3

Fayer, Michael D.

55

Measurement of the Melting Point Temperature of Several Lithium-Sodium-Beryllium Fluoride Salt (Flinabe) Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium fluorides studied for molten salt fission reactors, has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for fusion applications. The melting points of 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} and LiF-BeF{sub 2} are 460 deg. C and 363 deg. C, but LiF-BeF{sub 2} is rather viscous and has less lithium for breeding. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing liquid for the first wall and blanket were investigated. Flinabe (a mixture of LiF, BeF{sub 2} and NaF) was selected for a molten salt design because a melting temperature below 350 deg. C appeared possible and this provided an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a stainless steel crucible under vacuum. One had an apparent melting temperature of 305 deg. C. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, melting procedures and temperature curves for the melting and cooling are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible is reported in an accompanying paper.

McDonald, J.M; Nygren, R.E.; Lutz, T.J.; Tanaka, T.J; Ulrickson, M.A.; Boyle, T.J.; Troncosa, K.P. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)

2005-04-15

56

Phenothiazine-Salt Mixture, Free Choice, for the Control of the Large Stomach Worm in Range Sheep.  

E-print Network

conditions typical of the Edwards Plateau of Texas indicates that the large stomach worm of sheep can be controlled satisfactorily through the continued use of a 1-to-9 phenothiazine-salt mixture supplied free choice as a method of treatment. Two groups... continued access to the medicated mixture despite the long period of treatment. Comparison of worm-egg counts, larval development in dung samples, and actual worm counts at autopsy indicate that the 1-to4 phenothiazine-salt mixture satisfactorily...

Boughton, I. B.; Hardy, W. T.; Price, D. A.

1953-01-01

57

Diffusion barriers at Mars surface conditions: Salt crusts, particle size mixtures, and dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion coefficient of water vapor through porous media at Mars-like surface conditions is measured for a variety of complex particle size distributions and soil compositions. Micron-sized dust simulants, mixtures of sand- and dust-sized particles, and salt-encrusted sand are examined. We find that while the value of the diffusion coefficient, D, can be reduced by up to a factor of

Troy L. Hudson; Oded Aharonson

2008-01-01

58

Glyme-lithium salt equimolar molten mixtures: concentrated solutions or solvate ionic liquids?  

PubMed

To demonstrate a new family of ionic liquids (ILs), i.e., "solvate" ionic liquids, the properties (thermal, transport, and electrochemical properties, Lewis basicity, and ionicity) of equimolar molten mixtures of glymes (triglyme (G3) and tetraglyme (G4)) and nine different lithium salts (LiX) were investigated. By exploring the anion-dependent properties and comparing them with the reported data on common aprotic ILs, two different classes of liquid regimes, i.e., ordinary concentrated solutions and "solvate" ILs, were found in the glyme-Li salt equimolar mixtures ([Li(glyme)]X) depending on the anionic structures. The class a given [Li(glyme)]X belonged to was governed by competitive interactions between the glymes and Li cations and between the counteranions (X) and Li cations. [Li(glyme)]X with weakly Lewis basic anions can form long-lived [Li(glyme)](+) complex cations. Thus, they behaved as typical ionic liquids. The lithium "solvate" ILs based on [Li(glyme)]X have many desirable properties for lithium-conducting electrolytes, including high ionicity, a high lithium transference number, high Li cation concentration, and high oxidative stability, in addition to the common properties of ionic liquids. The concept of "solvate" ionic liquids can be utilized in an unlimited number of combinations of other metal salts and ligands, and will thus open a new field of research on ionic liquids. PMID:22897246

Ueno, Kazuhide; Yoshida, Kazuki; Tsuchiya, Mizuho; Tachikawa, Naoki; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

2012-09-13

59

Influence of mixtures of calcium-chelating salts on the physicochemical properties of casein micelles.  

PubMed

Calcium-chelating salts (CCS), such as phosphates and citrates, are often added to milk systems to modify physical properties like heat stability. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of binary CCS mixtures on the properties of casein (CN) micelles including the distribution of Ca between the soluble and CN-bound states. Six binary CCS mixtures were prepared from 4 different types of CCS [i.e., trisodium citrate (TSC), disodium phosphate (DSP), tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP), and sodium hexameta phosphate (SHMP)] by combining 2 CCS at a time in 5 different proportions (8.3:91.7, 29.2:70.8, 50:50, 70.8:29.2, and 91.7:8.3). Different concentrations of these mixtures (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7% wt/wt) were added to milk protein concentrate solutions (5% wt/wt) at pH 5.8. The ability of CCS to disperse CN particles and its interaction with Ca were assessed from turbidity measurements, acid-base titration behavior, and the quantity of CN-bound Ca and inorganic phosphate (Pi). Turbidity and the buffering peak at pH ?5.0 during acid titration decreased with an increasing concentration of CCS. This was due to the chelation of Ca and the dispersion of CN micelles. The presence of TSC in mixtures decreased the amount of CN-bound Ca and Pi; however, the presence of TSPP in mixtures increased CN-bound Ca and Pi. When DSP was present at high proportions in mixtures of CCS, the CN-bound Ca and Pi slightly increased. When SHMP was used in mixtures of CCS, CN-bound Ca and Pi increased with the use of a low proportion of SHMP but decreased when SHMP was used at high proportions in the mixture. Combinations of DSP-TSPP used in the proportions 29.2:70.8, 50:50, and 70.8:29.2 resulted in the gelation of milk protein concentrates when the total CCS concentration was ?0.3%. These results indicated that the type of CCS present in a mixture modified CN properties by various mechanisms, including chelation of Ca, dispersion of CN micelles, and formation of new types of Ca-CCS complexes. The type of interaction between the newly formed Ca-CCS complexes and the dispersed CN depended on the proportion, concentration, and type of CCS present in the mixtures. This information is useful in understanding how mixtures of CCS affect CN properties. PMID:21854899

Kaliappan, S; Lucey, J A

2011-09-01

60

Nanostructure of mixtures of protic ionic liquids and lithium salts: effect of alkyl chain length.  

PubMed

The bulk structure of mixtures of two protic ionic liquids, propylammonium nitrate and butylammonium nitrate, with a salt with a common anion, is analyzed at room temperature by means of small angle X-ray scattering and classical molecular dynamics simulations. The study of several structural properties, such as density, radial distribution functions, spatial distribution functions, hydrogen bonds, coordination numbers and velocity autocorrelation functions, demonstrates that increasing the alkyl chain length of the alkylammonium cation results in more segregated, better defined polar and apolar domains, the latter having a larger size. This increase, ascribed to the erosion of the H-bond network in the ionic liquid polar regions as salt is added, is confirmed by means of small angle X-ray scattering measurements, which show a clear linear increase of the characteristic spatial sizes of the studied protic ionic liquids with salt concentration, similar to that previously reported for ethylammonium nitrate (J. Phys. Chem. B, 2014, 118, 761-770). In addition, larger ionic liquid cations lead to a lower degree of hydrogen bonding and to more sparsely packed three-dimensional structures, which are more easily perturbed by the addition of lithium salts. PMID:25609558

Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Carrete, Jesús; Rodríguez, Julio R; Cabeza, Óscar; Gallego, Luis J; Russina, Olga; Varela, Luis M

2015-02-21

61

Study of Eutectic Formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this program are to determine the influence of convection on the microstructure of eutectics and to develop a technique for revealing the longitudinal microstructure of the MnBi-Bi eutectic. Both objectives aim at trying to explain the observed influence of space processing on the microstructure of MnBi-Bi. A computer program was developed and used to determine the concentration field in front of a growing lamellar eutectic. From this the deviation of the interfacial concentration from the eutectic composition was calculated as a function of eutectic composition, freezing rate, convection, and lamellar spacing.

Wilcox, W. R.

1985-01-01

62

Phase diagrams and solvate structures of binary mixtures of glymes and Na salts.  

PubMed

We prepared a series of binary mixtures composed of selected Na salts and glymes (tetraglyme, G4, and pentaglyme, G5) with different salt concentrations and anionic species ([X](-): [N(SO2CF3)2](-) = [TFSA](-), [N(SO2F)2](-) = [FSA](-), ClO4(-), PF6(-)) and studied the effects of concentration, anionic structure, and glyme chain length on their phase diagrams and solvate structures. The phase diagrams clearly illustrate that all the mixtures form 1:1 complexes, [Na(G4 or G5)1][X]. The thermal stability of the equimolar mixtures was drastically improved in comparison with those of diluted systems, indicating that all the glyme molecules coordinate to Na(+) cations to form equimolar complexes. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography revealed that [Na(G5)1][X] forms characteristic solvate structures in the crystalline state irrespective of the paired anion species. A comparison of the solvate structures of the glyme-Na complexes with those of the glyme-Li complexes suggests that the ionic radii of the coordinated alkali-metal cations have substantial effects on the resulting solvate structures. The Raman bands of the complex cations were assigned by quantum chemical calculations. Concentration dependencies of cationic and anionic Raman spectra show good agreement with the corresponding phase diagrams. In addition, the Raman spectra of the 1:1 complexes strongly suggest that the glymes coordinate to Na(+) cation in the same way in both liquid and crystalline states. However, the aggregated structure in the crystalline state is broken by melting, which is accompanied by a change in the anion coordination. PMID:24236499

Mandai, Toshihiko; Nozawa, Risa; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Yoshida, Kazuki; Ueno, Kazuhide; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

2013-12-01

63

A simple, efficient and environmentally benign synthetic protocol for the synthesis of spirooxindoles using choline chloride-oxalic acid eutectic mixture as catalyst/solvent system.  

PubMed

An efficient and environmentally benign domino protocol has been presented for the synthesis of structurally diverse spirooxindoles spiroannulated with pyranopyridopyrimidines, indenopyridopyrimidines, and chromenopyridopyrimidines involving three-component reaction of aminouracils, isatins and cyclic carbonyl compounds in deep eutectic solvent (choline chloride-oxalic acid: 1:1) which acts as efficient catalyst and environmentally benign reaction medium. The present protocol offers several advantages such as operational simplicity with easy workup, shorter reaction times excellent yields with superior atom economy and environmentally benign reaction conditions with the use of cost-effective, recyclable, non-toxic and bio-degradable DES as catalyst/solvent. PMID:25329839

Khandelwal, Sarita; Rajawat, Anshu; Tailor, Yogesh Kumar; Kumar, Mahendra

2014-01-01

64

Eutectic composite explosives containing ammonium nitrate  

SciTech Connect

The eutectic of ammonium nitrate (AN), the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole was prepared and its sensitivity and performance were studied. It was found that this AN formulation was unusual in that it performed ideally at small diameter, which indicated that it was a monomolecular explosive. Sensitivity tests included type 12 impact, Henkin thermal and wedge tests, and performance tests included rate stick/plate dent, cylinder, and aquarium tests. Results were compared with calculations, standard explosives, and another eutectic, ethylendiamine dinitrate (EDD)/AN.

Stinecipher, M.M.

1981-01-01

65

Ternary eutectic growth of Ag-Cu-Sb alloy within ultrasonic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid to solid transformation of ternary Ag42.4Cu21.6Sb36 eutectic alloy was accomplished in an ultrasonic field with a frequency of 35 kHz, and the growth mechanism of this ternary eutectic was examined. Theoretical calculations predict that the sound intensity in the liquid phase at the solidification interface increases gradually as the interface moves up from the sample bottom to its top. The growth mode of ( ? + ? + Sb) ternary eutectic exhibits a transition of “divorced eutectic—mixture of anomalous and regular structures—regular eutectic” along the sample axis due to the inhomogeneity of sound field distribution. In the top zone with the highest sound intensity, the cavitation effect promotes the three eutectic phases to nucleate independently, while the acoustic streaming efficiently suppresses the coupled growth of eutectic phases. In the meantime, the ultrasonic field accelerates the solute transportation at the solid-liquid interface, which reduces the solute solubility of eutectic phases.

Zhai, Wei; Hong, Zhenyu; Wei, Bingbo

2007-08-01

66

Kinetics of the Micelle-to-Vesicle Transition: Aqueous Lecithin-Bile Salt Mixtures  

PubMed Central

Important routes to lipid vesicles (liposomes) are detergent removal techniques, such as dialysis or dilution. Although they are widely applied, there has been only limited understanding about the structural evolution during the formation of vesicles and the parameters that determine their properties. We use time-resolved static and dynamic light scattering to study vesicle formation in aqueous lecithin-bile salt mixtures. The kinetic rates and vesicle sizes are found to strongly depend on total amphiphile concentration and, even more pronounced, on ionic strength. The observed trends contradict equilibrium calculations, but are in agreement with a kinetic model that we present. This model identifies the key kinetic steps during vesicle formation: rapid formation of disklike intermediate micelles, growth of these metastable micelles, and their closure to form vesicles once line tension dominates bending energy. A comparison of the rates of growth and closure provides a kinetic criterion for the critical size at which disks close and thus for the vesicle size. The model suggests that liposomes are nonequilibrium, kinetically trapped structures of very long lifetime. Their properties are hence controlled by kinetics rather than thermodynamics. PMID:12944278

Leng, J.; Egelhaaf, S. U.; Cates, M. E.

2003-01-01

67

Structural investigation of thorium in molten lithium–calcium fluoride mixtures for salt treatment process in molten salt reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements on thorium fluoride in molten lithium–calcium fluoride mixtures and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of zirconium and yttrium fluoride in molten lithium–calcium fluoride mixtures have been carried out. In the molten state, coordination number of thorium (Ni) and inter ionic distances between thorium and fluorine in the first neighbor (ri) are nearly constant in all

Masahiko Numakura; Nobuaki Sato; Catherine Bessada; Yoshihiro Okamoto; Hiroshi Akatsuka; Atsushi Nezu; Yasuaki Shimohara; Keisuke Tajima; Hirokazu Kawano; Takeshi Nakahagi; Haruaki Matsuura

2011-01-01

68

Fundamental Properties of Salts  

SciTech Connect

Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

2012-11-01

69

Eutectics as improved pharmaceutical materials: design, properties and characterization.  

PubMed

Eutectics are a long known class of multi-component solids with important and useful applications in daily life. In comparison to other multi-component crystalline solids, such as salts, solid solutions, molecular complexes and cocrystals, eutectics are less studied in terms of molecular structure organization and bonding interactions. Classically, a eutectic is defined based on its low melting point compared to the individual components. In this article, we attempt to define eutectics not just based on thermal methods but from a structural organization view point, and discuss their microstructures and properties as organic materials vis-a-vis solid solutions and cocrystals. The X-ray crystal structure of a cocrystal is different from that of the individual components whereas the unit cell of a solid solution is similar to that of one of the components. Eutectics are closer to the latter species in that their crystalline arrangement is similar to the parent components but they are different with respect to the structural integrity. A solid solution possesses structural homogeneity throughout the structure (single phase) but a eutectic is a heterogeneous ensemble of individual components whose crystal structures are like discontinuous solid solutions (phase separated). Thus, a eutectic may be better defined as a conglomerate of solid solutions. A structural analysis of cocrystals, solid solutions and eutectics has led to an understanding that materials with strong adhesive (hetero) interactions between the unlike components will lead to cocrystals whereas those having stronger cohesive (homo/self) interactions will more often give rise to solid solutions (for similar structures of components) and eutectics (for different structures of components). We demonstrate that the same crystal engineering principles which have been profitably utilized for cocrystal design in the past decade can now be applied to make eutectics as novel composite materials, illustrated by stable eutectics of the hygroscopic salt of the anti-tuberculosis drug ethambutol as a case study. A current gap in the characterization of eutectic microstructure may be fulfilled through pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of X-ray diffraction data, which could be a rapid signature technique to differentiate eutectics from their components. PMID:24322207

Cherukuvada, Suryanarayan; Nangia, Ashwini

2014-01-28

70

Containerless solidification of acoustically levitated Ni-Sn eutectic alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Containerless solidification of Ni-18.7at%Sn eutectic alloy has been achieved with a single-axis acoustic levitator. The temperature, motion, and oscillation of the sample were monitored by a high speed camera. The temperature of the sample can be determined from its image brightness, although the sample moves vertically and horizontally during levitation. The experimentally observed frequency of vertical motion is in good agreement with theoretical prediction. The sample undergoes shape oscillation before solidification finishes. The solidification microstructure of this alloy consists of a mixture of anomalous eutectic plus regular lamellar eutectic. This indicates the achievement of rapid solidification under acoustic levitation condition.

Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

2012-10-01

71

Study of eutectic formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory was developed for the influence of convection on the microstructure of lamellar eutectics. Convection is predicted to produce a coarser microstructure, especially at low freezing rates and large volume fractions of the minority phase. Similary convection is predicted to lower the interfacial undercooling, especially at low freezing rates. Experiments using spin-up/spin-down were performed on the Mn-Bi eutectic. This stirring had a dramatic effect on the microstructure, not only making it coarser but at low freezing rates also changing the morphology of the MnBi. The coarsering persisted to moderately high freezing rates. At the lowest freezing rate, vigorous stirring caused the MnBi to be concentrated at the periphery of the ingot and absent along the center. Progress was made on developing a technique for revealing the three-dimensional microstructure of the MnBi eutectic by time-lapse videotaping while etching.

Wilcox, W. R.; Eisa, G. F.; Baskaran, V.; Richardson, D. C.

1984-01-01

72

New eutectic alloys and their heats of transformation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eutectic compositions and congruently melting intermetallic compounds in binary and multicomponent systems among common elements such as Al, Ca, Cu, Mg, P, Si, and Zn may be useful for high temperature heat storage. In this work, heats of fusion of new multicomponent eutectics and intermetallic phases are reported, some of which are competitive with molten salts in heat storage density at high temperatures. The method used to determine unknown eutectic compositions combined results of differential thermal analysis, metallography, and microprobe analysis. The method allows determination of eutectic compositions in no more than three steps. The heats of fusion of the alloys were measured using commercial calorimeters, a differential thermal analyzer, and a differential scanning calorimeter.

Farkas, D.; Birchenall, C. E.

1985-01-01

73

Equilibrium phase diagrams and water absorption properties of aqueous mixtures of malonic acid and inorganic salts.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric aerosols are usually complex mixtures of inorganic and organic components. Although the thermodynamic properties of inorganic aerosols have been widely studied, the effect of organics on such properties is still under discussion. Solubility in water, water activity of aqueous solutions, deliquescence relative humidity (DRH), eutonic composition, and eutonic DRH were determined for bulk mixtures of malonic acid with ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, and ammonium nitrate at 25oC over the full range of composition (from 0 wt% to the solubility limit of the mixture components). The data was used to construct equilibrium phase diagrams, which show the phase of the mixtures as a function of total composition, dry mixture composition, water content, and ambient relative humidity. Measured water activity of liquid solutions was compared with an extended Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) expression, which then was used to predict water absorption of the mixtures.

Salcedo, D.; Salgado-Olea, G.

2006-12-01

74

Latent energy storage with salt and metal mixtures for solar dynamic applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines three design alternatives for the development of a solar dynamic heat receiver as applied to power systems operating in low earth orbit. These include a base line design used for comparison in ongoing NASA studies, a system incorporating a salt energy storage system with the salt dispersed within a metal mesh and a hybrid system incorporating both a molten salt and molten metal for energy storage. Based on a typical low earth orbit condition, designs are developed and compared to determine the effect of resultant conductivity, heat capacity and heat of fusion on system size, weight, temperature gradients, cycle turbine inlet temperature and material utilization.

Crane, R. A.; Konstantinou, K. S.

1988-01-01

75

Influence of the ammonium salt anion on the synergistic solvent extraction of lanthanides with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone and tridecylamine  

SciTech Connect

The synergistic solvent extraction of Pr, Gd and Yb with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) and primary ammonium salt (tridecylammonium chloride or perchlorate, TDAH(Cl, ClO{sub 4})) in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} has been studied. The composition of the extracted species have been determined as Ln(TTA){sub 3}TDAHA(A{sup {minus}} = Cl{sup {minus}} or ClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}). The values of the equilibrium constant K{sub T,S} have been calculated. The influence of the ammonium salt anion on the extraction process has been discussed. The separation factors of the pairs Gd/Pr and Yb/Gd have been determined.

Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M. [Univ. of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia (Bulgaria). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

1998-08-01

76

Measurement of the Melting Point Temperature of Several Lithium-Sodium-Beryllium Fluoride Salt (Flinabe) Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium fluorides studied for molten salt fission reactors, has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for fusion applications. The melting points of 2LiF-BeFâ and LiF-BeFâ are 460 deg. C and 363 deg. C, but LiF-BeFâ is rather viscous and has less lithium for breeding. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX)

J. M McDonald; R. E. Nygren; T. J. Lutz; T. J Tanaka; M. A. Ulrickson; T. J. Boyle; K. P. Troncosa

2005-01-01

77

Equilibrium phase diagrams and water absorption properties of aqueous mixtures of malonic acid and inorganic salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropospheric aerosols are usually complex mixtures of inorganic and organic components. Although the thermodynamic properties of inorganic aerosols have been widely studied, the effect of organics on such properties is still under discussion. Solubility in water, water activity of aqueous solutions, deliquescence relative humidity (DRH), eutonic composition, and eutonic DRH were determined for bulk mixtures of malonic acid with ammonium

D. Salcedo; G. Salgado-Olea

2006-01-01

78

Detectability by Radar of Salts in Martian Ice Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt in martian ice could have significant implications for ice-rheology near and above eutectic temperatures. Using laboratory data and dielectric modeling, we investigate detection of salts, including perchlorate salts, using radar attenuation.

Winebrenner, D. P.; Stillman, D. E.; Grimm, R. E.

2011-03-01

79

Form and structure of self-assembling particles in monoolein-bile salt mixtures  

SciTech Connect

We studied particle morphology in the isotropic part of the bile salt-monoolein-water phase map using small-angle neutron scattering. The bile salts used in this work are cholylglycine and chenodeoxycholylglycine. These systems are models for particle form and molecular arrangement in intestinal content when bile components are replaced by hydrolysis products of dietary triglycerides. We found that the molecular arrangement of the particles present is qualitatively the same as that in the bile salt-phosphatidylcholine systems. This result indicated that the particle morphology is conserved when the products of dietary triglyceride hydrolysis are incorporated, suggesting that the form of bile particle morphology is retained. These observations suggested further that the bile salt and the presence of a hydrocarbon chain are the most important determinants of the functional form of the bile particles, as the monoglyceride is a single-tailed, nonionic surfactant, as opposed to the phosphatidylcholines, which are two-tailed, zwitterionic surfactants. 55 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

Hjelm, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Schteingart, C.; Hoffmann, A.F. [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States); Sivia, D.S. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom)

1995-11-02

80

Simple Cloud Chambers Using a Freezing Mixture of Ice and Cooking Salt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have developed much simpler cloud chambers that use only ice and cooking salt instead of the dry ice or ice gel pack needed for the cloud chambers produced in our previous work. The observed alpha-ray particle tracks are as clear as those observed using our previous cloud chambers. The tracks can be observed continuously for about 20?min, and…

Yoshinaga, Kyohei; Kubota, Miki; Kamata, Masahiro

2015-01-01

81

Simple cloud chambers using a freezing mixture of ice and cooking salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed much simpler cloud chambers that use only ice and cooking salt instead of the dry ice or ice gel pack needed for the cloud chambers produced in our previous work. The observed alpha-ray particle tracks are as clear as those observed using our previous cloud chambers. The tracks can be observed continuously for about 20?min, and the preparation and operation are simple.

Yoshinaga, Kyohei; Kubota, Miki; Kamata, Masahiro

2015-01-01

82

Binary inorganic salt mixtures as high conductivity liquid electrolytes for >100 degrees C fuel cells.  

PubMed

We report the successful application of low-melting inorganic salts with protonated cations (e.g. ammonium) as electrolytes in fuel cells operating in the temperature range 100-200 degrees C, where even with unoptimized electrodes, cell performance is comparable to that of the phosphoric acid fuel cell operating with optimized electrodes in the same temperature range, while open circuit voltages, and efficiencies at low current densities, can be much better--and there is no need for humidification or pressure to sustain performance. PMID:17345733

Belieres, Jean-Philippe; Gervasio, Don; Angell, C Austen

2006-12-14

83

Corrosion of stainless steels and carbon steel by molten mixtures of commercial nitrate salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isothermal corrosion behavior of two stainless steels and a carbon (C) steel in mixtures of NaNO3 and KNO3 was evaluated to determine if the impurities found in commodity grades of alkali nitrates aggravate corrosivity as applicable\\u000a to an advanced solar thermal energy system. Corrosion tests were conducted for approximately 7000 hours with Types 304 and\\u000a 316 stainless steels at

S. H. Goods; R. W. Bradshaw

2004-01-01

84

Utilization of temporal dominance of sensations and time intensity methodology for development of low-sodium Mozzarella cheese using a mixture of salts.  

PubMed

Evidence has linked excessive salt consumption to the development of chronic degenerative diseases. Therefore, special attention has been given to the consumption of healthier products with reduced sodium contents. This study aimed to develop a Mozzarella cheese with a reduced sodium content using a mixture of salts through acceptance testing and temporal sensory evaluation. The following 3 formulations of Mozzarella cheese were prepared: formulation A (control), which was produced only with NaCl (0% sodium reduction), formulation B (30% sodium reduction), and formulation C (54% sodium reduction). Every formulation was produced using a mixture of salts consisting of NaCl, KCl, and monosodium glutamate at different concentrations. The products underwent sensory acceptance tests, and the time intensity and temporal dominance of sensations were evaluated. The proportions of salts used did not cause strange or bad tastes but did result in lower intensities of saltiness. Mozzarella with low sodium content (B and C) had a sensory acceptance similar to that of traditional Mozzarella (A). Therefore, the use of a mixture of salts consisting of NaCl, KCl, and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative for the production of Mozzarella, with up to a 54% reduction in the sodium content while still maintaining acceptable sensory quality. PMID:24881790

Rodrigues, J F; Gonçalves, C S; Pereira, R C; Carneiro, J D S; Pinheiro, A C M

2014-08-01

85

Coal gasification by CO 2 gas bubbling in molten salt for solar\\/fossil energy hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification with CO2 (the Boudouard reaction: C+CO2=2CO, ?rH°=169.2 kJ\\/mol at 1150 K), which can be applied to a solar thermochemical process to convert concentrated solar heat into chemical energy, was conducted in the molten salt medium (eutectic mixture of Na2CO3 and K2CO3, weight ratio=1\\/1) to provide thermal storage. When CO2 gas was bubbled through the molten salt, higher reaction

Jun Matsunami; Shinya Yoshida; Yoshinori Oku; Osamu Yokota; Yutaka Tamaura; Mitsunobu Kitamura

2000-01-01

86

Gravitational influence on eutectic solidification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of gravity on eutectic solidification was investigated experimentally for Pb-Sn binary eutectic alloys. It is found that the separation of the primary crystals of the binary system from the coupled eutectic occurs over a wide range of cooling rates and gravitational fields (100-100,000 g). The separation is strongly influenced by the nucleation behavior of the particular alloy system. A mechanism for the strong phase separation is postulated on the basis of cloud convection models in atmospheric convection.

Sokolowski, Robert S.; Glicksman, Martin E.

1992-01-01

87

Effects of heating on salt-occluded zeolite  

SciTech Connect

The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel generates a waste stream of fission products in the electrolyte, LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. Argonne National Laboratory is developing a mineral waste form for this waste stream. The waste form consists of a composite formed by hot pressing salt-occluded zeolite and a glass binder. Pressing conditions must be judiciously chosen. For a given pressure, increasing temperatures and hold times give denser products but the zeolite is frequently converted to sodalite. Reducing the temperature or hold time leads to a porous zeolite composite. Therefore, conditions that affect the thermal stability of salt-occluded zeolite both with and without glass are being investigated in an ongoing study. The parameters varied in this stage of the work were heating time, temperature, salt loading, and glass content. The heat-treated samples were examined primarily by X-ray diffraction. Large variations were found in the rate at which salt-occluded zeolite converted to other phases such as nepheline, salt, and sodalite. The products depended on the initial salt loading. Heating times required for these transitions depended on the procedure and temperature used to prepare the salt-occluded zeolite. Mixtures of glass and zeolite reacted much faster than the pure salt-occluded zeolite and were almost always converted to sodalite.

Lewis, M.A.; Hash, M.C.; Pereira, C.; Ackerman, J.P.

1996-05-01

88

Removal of nanoaerosol during the bubbling of the salt melt of beryllium and lithium fluorides for the preparation of reactor radioisotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parameters of aerosol particles formed in the course of the spontaneous thermal condensation of vapors and bubbling a\\u000a 66LiF-34BeF2 (mol %) eutectic salt mixture with helium have been studied. For this purpose, a vertical bubbling mode at T ? 900 K and an ampule device for obtaining reactor radioisotopes for medical applications were used. The rate of the bulk

A. V. Zagnit’ko; D. Yu. Chuvilin

2010-01-01

89

Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode.

Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Hayden, H. Wayne (Oakridge, TN)

1995-01-01

90

Coatings for directional eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant advances have been made in the development of an environmentally stable coating for a very high strength, directionally solidified eutectic alloy designated NiTaC-13. Three duplex (two-layer) coatings survived 3,000 hours on a cyclic oxidation test (1,100 C to 90 C). These coatings were fabricated by first depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam heated source, followed by depositing an aluminizing overlayer. The alloy after exposure with these coatings was denuded of carbide fibers at the substrate/coating interface. It was demonstrated that TaC fiber denudation can be greatly retarded by applying a carbon-bearing coating. The coating was applied by thermal spraying followed by aluminization. Specimens coated with NiCrAlCY+Al survived over 2,000 hours in the cyclic oxidation test with essentially no TaC denudation. Coating ductility was studied for coated and heat-treated bars, and stress rupture life at 871 C and 1,100 C was determined for coated and cycled bars.

Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

1976-01-01

91

Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

2013-07-31

92

Intergranular tellurium cracking of nickel-based alloys in molten Li, Be, Th, U/F salt mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Russia, R&D on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) are concentrated now on fast/intermediate spectrum concepts which were recognized as long term alternative to solid fueled fast reactors due to their attractive features: strong negative feedback coefficients, easy in-service inspection, and simplified fuel cycle. For high-temperature MSR corrosion of the metallic container alloy in primary circuit is the primary concern. Key problem receiving current attention include surface fissures in Ni-based alloys probably arising from fission product tellurium attack. This paper summarizes results of corrosion tests conducted recently to study effect of oxidation state in selected fuel salt on tellurium attack and to develop means of controlling tellurium cracking in the special Ni-based alloys recently developed for molten salt actinide recycler and tranforming (MOSART) system. Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys was tested at temperatures up to 750 °C in stressed and unloaded conditions in molten LiF-BeF2 salt mixture fueled by about 20 mol% of ThF4 and 2 mol% of UF4 at different [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratios: 0.7, 4, 20, 100 and 500. Following Ni-based alloys (in mass%): HN80?-VI (Mo—12, Cr—7.6, Nb—1.5), HN80??Y (Mo—13, Cr—6.8, Al—1.1, Ti—0.9), HN80??W (Mo—9.4, Cr—7.0, Ti—1.7, W—5.5) and ??-721 (W—25.2, Cr—5.7, Ti—0.17) were used for the study in the corrosion facility. If the redox state the fuel salt is characterized by uranium ratio [U(IV)]/[U(III)] < 1 the alloys' specimens get a more negative stationary electrode potential than equilibrium electrode potentials of some uranium intermetallic compounds and alloys with nickel and molybdenum. This leads to spontaneous behavior of alloy formation processes on the specimens' surface and further diffusion of uranium deep into the metallic phase. As consequence of this films of intermetallic compounds and alloys of nickel, molybdenum, tungsten with uranium are formed on the alloys specimens' surface, and intergranular corrosion does not take place. In the fuel salt with [U(IV)]/[U(III)] = 4-20 the potentials of uranium alloy formation with the main components of the tested alloys are not reached, that's why alloys and intermetallic compounds are not formed on the surface of the investigated chromium-nickel alloys. Under such conditions any intergranular tellurium corrosion of the selected alloys does not occur. In the fuel salt with [U(IV)/]/[U(III)] = 100 the potentials of uranium alloy formation with the main components of the tested alloys are not also reached. Under such redox conditions any traces intergranular tellurium IGC on the HN80MTY and H80M-VI alloys specimens are not found. Certain signs of incipient IGC in the form of tellurium presence on the grain boundaries in the HN80MTB and EM-721 alloys surface layer and formation of not too deep cracks on HN80MTB alloy surface were revealed at [U(IV)/]/[U(III)] = 100. With this uranium ratio in the presence of corrosion products on the surface of all of the alloys films, containing tellurium, metals of the construction alloys and carbon, are formed. In the melt with [U(IV)]/[U(III)] = 500 in all of the alloys tested the tellurium IGC took place. The HN80MTY alloy shows the maximum resistance to tellurium IGC. The intensity of tellurium IGC of the alloy (the K parameter) is by 3-5 times lower as compared to other alloys. The EM-721 alloy has the minimal resistance to tellurium IGC (K = 9200 pc m/cm, the depth of cracks is up to 434 ?m). The studies have shown, that the intensity of the nickel alloys IGC is controlled by the [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratio, and its dependence on this parameter is of threshold character. Providing the uranium ratio value's monitoring and regulation, it is possible to control the tellurium corrosion and in such a way to eliminate IGC completely or to minimize its value. The alloys strength characteristics and their structure were changed insignificantly after testing within the [U(IV)]/[U(III)] range from 0.7 t? 100. The changes a

Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexander; Gnidoy, Ivan; Kulakov, Alexander; Uglov, Vadim; Vasiliev, Alexander; Presniakov, Mikhail

2013-09-01

93

Accelerator-driven subcritical fission in molten salt core: Closing the nuclear fuel cycle for green nuclear energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technology for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) is being developed as a basis for the destruction of the transuranics in used nuclear fuel. The molten salt fuel is a eutectic mixture of NaCl and the chlorides of the transuranics and fission products. The core is driven by proton beams from a strong-focusing cyclotron stack. This approach uniquely provides an intrinsically safe means to drive a core fueled only with transuranics, thereby eliminating competing breeding terms.

McIntyre, Peter; Assadi, Saeed; Badgley, Karie; Baker, William; Comeaux, Justin; Gerity, James; Kellams, Joshua; McInturff, Al; Pogue, Nathaniel; Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Sattarov, Akhdiyor; Simpson, Michael; Sooby, Elizabeth; Tsvetkov, Pavel

2013-04-01

94

Accelerator-driven subcritical fission in molten salt core: Closing the nuclear fuel cycle for green nuclear energy  

SciTech Connect

A technology for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) is being developed as a basis for the destruction of the transuranics in used nuclear fuel. The molten salt fuel is a eutectic mixture of NaCl and the chlorides of the transuranics and fission products. The core is driven by proton beams from a strong-focusing cyclotron stack. This approach uniquely provides an intrinsically safe means to drive a core fueled only with transuranics, thereby eliminating competing breeding terms.

McIntyre, Peter; Assadi, Saeed; Badgley, Karie; Baker, William; Comeaux, Justin; Gerity, James; Kellams, Joshua; McInturff, Al; Pogue, Nathaniel; Sattarov, Akhdiyor; Sooby, Elizabeth; Tsvetkov, Pavel [Dept. of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 and Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Simpson, Michael [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls ID 83402 (United States)

2013-04-19

95

Physical properties of liquid NaF-LiF-LaF3 and NaF-LiF-NdF3 eutectic alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical conductivity, thermoelectric power and viscosity measurements were carried out for the ionic liquid mixtures, formed after melting of the NaF-LiF-LaF3 and NaF-LiF-NdF3 eutectics in the wide temperature intervals above the melting points. It was found that temperature coefficient of the thermoelectric power of the both ionic mixtures changes a sign, at 948 ± 5 K in NaF-LiF-LaF3 and at 973 ± 5 K in NaF-LiF-NdF3. It was shown that temperature dependence of viscosity correlates with electrophysical data. The results can be used in choosing a blanket for the liquid salt reactor.

Bulavin, L.; Plevachuk, Yu.; Sklyarchuk, V.; Shtablavyy, I.; Faidiuk, N.; Savchuk, R.

2013-02-01

96

Reaction of graphite fluoride with NaOH–KOH eutectic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphite fluoride has been generally considered chemically inert against strong alkalis under ambient conditions. In the present study we demonstrate that treatment of graphite fluoride with eutectic NaOH–KOH mixture at 250°C induces dramatic structural and textural changes in the solid as evidenced by XRD, FT-IR, Raman, UV–vis absorption and fluorescence and microscopy techniques (TEM, AFM). The reaction proceeds in the

Athanasios B. Bourlinos; Vasilios Georgakilas; Radek Zboril; Dalibor Jancik; Michael A. Karakassides; Andreas Stassinopoulos; Demetrios Anglos; Emmanuel P. Giannelis

2008-01-01

97

Solvatochromic probe behavior within choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents: effect of temperature and water.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown potential as promising environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional solvents. Many common and popular DESs are obtained by simply mixing a salt and a H-bond donor. Properties of such a DES depend on its constituents. Change in temperature and addition of water, a benign cosolvent, can change the physicochemical properties of DESs. The effect of changing temperature and addition of water on solvatochromic probe behavior within three DESs formed from choline chloride combined with 1,2-ethanediol, glycerol, and urea, respectively, in 1:2 mol ratios termed ethaline, glyceline, and reline is presented. Increase in temperature results in reduced H-bond donating acidity of the DESs. Dipolarity/polarizability and H-bond accepting basicity do not change with changing temperature of the DESs. The response of the fluorescence probe pyrene also indicates a decrease in the polarity of the DESs as temperature is increased. Addition of water to DES results in increased dipolarity/polarizability and a decrease in H-bond accepting basicity. Except for pyrene, solvatochromic probes exhibit responses close to those predicted from ideal-additive behavior with slight preferential solvation by DES within the aqueous mixtures. Pyrene response reveals significant preferential solvation by DES and/or the presence of solvent-solvent interactions, especially within aqueous mixtures of ethaline and glyceline, the DESs constituted of H-bond donors with hydroxyl functionalities. FTIR absorbance and Raman spectroscopic measurements of aqueous DES mixtures support the outcomes from solvatochromic probe responses. Aqueous mixtures of ethaline and glyceline possess relatively more interspecies H-bonds as compared to aqueous mixtures of reline, where interstitial accommodation of water within the reline molecular network appears to dominate. PMID:25418894

Pandey, Ashish; Pandey, Siddharth

2014-12-18

98

Treatment of textile wastewaters using Eutectic Freeze Crystallization.  

PubMed

A water treatment process needs to recover both water and other useful products if the process is to be viewed as being financially and environmentally sustainable. Eutectic Freeze Crystallization (EFC) is one such sustainable water treatment process that is able to produce both pure ice (water) and pure salt(s) by operating at a specific temperature. The use of EFC for the treatment of water is particularly useful in the textile industry because ice crystallization excludes all impurities from the recovered water, including dyes. Also, EFC can produce various salts with the intention of reusing these salts in the process. This study investigated the feasibility of EFC as a treatment method for textile industry wastewaters. The results showed that EFC can be used to convert 95% of the wastewater stream to pure ice (98% purity) and sodium sulfate. PMID:25116506

Randall, D G; Zinn, C; Lewis, A E

2014-01-01

99

Directional solidification of eutectic composites in space environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ni-Ni3Ta eutectic and a nickel-base alloy containing 30 wt pct Ta were solidified unidirectionally in an electron beam floating zone melting apparatus. It was found that the volume fraction of the Ni3Ta phase in the Ni-Ni3Ta eutectic mixture was increased from 7.6 to 36 volume pct in agreement with the theory as predicted. Tensile properties of the randomly solidified and unidirectionally solidified Ni-Ni3Ta eutectic were determined as function of solidification rate and temperature. It was found that the ultimate tensile strength decreased as both the test temperature and solidification rate increased. An elongation of 40 pct was obtained for a nickelbase alloy containing 30 wt at room temperature. This unusually large elongation was attributed to the superplastic behavior of the alloy. The critical currents versus the external fields at 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.2 deg for the unidirectionally solidified Pb-Sn eutectic were measured. The values of critical fields at zero critical currents were obtained by extrapolation.

Yue, A. S.

1972-01-01

100

Rapid eutectic growth under containerless condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid eutectic growth in a highly undercooled liquid was accomplished by containerlessly processing Co-Mo eutectic alloy in a drop tube. The containerless state during free fall produces substantial undercoolings up to 391 K (0.24TE) in falling droplets before crystallization. The eutectic growth mechanism is found to transform from lamellar eutectic to anomalous eutectic if the droplet undercooling exceeds a critical value of about 56 K, which coincides well with the lower boundary of the calculated eutectic coupled zone. Although the reduced gravity level of 10-2-10-3 g has little influence on this eutectic growth mechanism transition, it frequently results in the formation of spherical anomalous eutectic grains owing to the symmetrical temperature field and concentration field surrounding solid/liquid interface. Both theoretical analyses and experimental observations indicate that the independent nucleation and cooperative branched growth of two eutectic phases are responsible for the eutectic growth mechanism transition. The three-dimensional structural model of anomalous eutectic grain is a two-phase composite dendrite.

Han, X. J.; Wang, N.; Wei, B.

2002-07-01

101

Applications of molten salts in plutonium processing  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium is efficiently recovered from scrap at Los Alamos by a series of chemical reactions and separations conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. These processes usually employ a molten salt or salt eutectic as a heat sink and/or reaction medium. Salts for these operations were selected early in the development cycle. The selection criteria are being reevaluated. In this article we describe the processes now in use at Los Alamos and our studies of alternate salts and eutectics.

Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

1987-01-01

102

Fluoride salts and container materials for thermal energy storage applications in the temperature range 973 to 1400 K  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multicomponent fluoride salt mixtures were characterized for use as latent heat of fusion heat storage materials in advanced solar dynamic space power systems with operating temperatures in the range of 973 to 1400 K. The melting points and eutectic composition for many systems with published phase diagrams were verified, and several new eutectic compositions were identified. Additionally, the heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The extent of corrosion of various metals by fluoride melts was estimated from thermodynamic considerations, and equilibrium conditions inside a containment vessel were calculated as functions of the initial moisture content of the salt and free volume above the molten salt. Preliminary experimental data on the corrosion of commercial, high-temperature alloys in LiF-19.5CaF2 and NaF-27CaF2-36MgF2 melts are presented and compared to the thermodynamic predictions.

Misra, Ajay K.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

1987-01-01

103

Fluoride salts and container materials for thermal energy storage applications in the temperature range 973 - 1400 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multicomponent fluoride salt mixtures were characterized for use as latent heat of fusion heat storage materials in advanced solar dynamic space power systems with operating temperatures in the range of 973 to 1400 K. The melting points and eutectic composition for many systems with published phase diagrams were verified, and several new eutectic compositions were identified. Additionally, the heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The extent of corrosion of various metals by fluoride melts was estimated from thermodynamic considerations, and equilibrium conditions inside a containment vessel were calculated as functions of the initial moisture content of the salt and free volume above the molten salt. Preliminary experimental data on the corrosion of commercial, high-temperature alloys in LiF-19.5CaF2 and NaF-27CaF2-36MgF2 melts are presented and compared to the thermodynamic predictions.

Misra, Ajay K.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

104

Fluoride salts and container materials for thermal energy storage applications in the temperature range 973 - 1400 K  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multicomponent fluoride salt mixtures were characterized for use as latent heat of fusion heat storage materials in advanced solar dynamic space power systems with operating temperatures in the range of 973 to 1400 K. The melting points and eutectic composition for many systems with published phase diagrams were verified, and several new eutectic compositions were identified. Additionally, the heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The extent of corrosion of various metals by fluoride melts was estimated from thermodynamic considerations, and equilibrium conditions inside a containment vessel were calculated as functions of the initial moisture content of the salt and free volume above the molten salt. Preliminary experimental data on the corrosion of commercial, high-temperature alloys in LiF-19.5CaF2 and NaF-27CaF2-36MgF2 melts are presented and compared to the thermodynamic predictions.

Misra, Ajay K.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

1987-01-01

105

Concentration changes during eutectic solidification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermotransport (or thermal diffusion, Soret effect) is shown to cause significant amount of segregation during the directional solidification of aluminum-copper eutectic. The concentration changes are predicted quantitatively and they are a function of temperature gradient, rate of melting and solidification and the time of soaking. There is a fair agreement between the experiments and calculations. A process is suggested where these concentration changes may be minimized.

Bhat, B. N.

1974-01-01

106

Solidification of high temperature molten salts for thermal energy storage systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solidification of phase change materials for the high temperature thermal energy storage system of an advanced solar thermal power system has been examined theoretically. In light of the particular thermophysical properties of candidate phase change high temperature salts, such as the eutectic mixture of NaF - MgF2, the heat transfer characteristics of one-dimensional inward solidification for a cylindrical geometry have been studied. The Biot number for the solidified salt is shown to be the critical design parameter for constant extraction heat flux. A fin-on-fin design concept of heat transfer surface augmentation is proposed in an effort to minimize the effects of the salt's low thermal conductivity and large volume change upon fusing.

Sheffield, J. W.

1981-01-01

107

Nonlinear Neural Network-Based Mixture Model for Estimating the Concentration of Nitrogen Salts in Turbid Inland Waters Using  

E-print Network

in Turbid Inland Waters Using Hyperspectral Imagery Javier Plaza, Pablo Martínez, Rosa Pérez, Antonio Plaza are able to infer water quality parameters of turbid inland waters, and to use those parameters Spain, are also used in this study to estimate the concentration of nitrogen salts in turbid inland

Plaza, Antonio J.

108

Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Proerties of Ti-(Ni, Fe)-Sn Ultrafine Eutectic Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafine eutectic alloys have been developed in Ti-Ni, Ti-Fe and Ti-(Ni, Fe)-Sn alloys. The Ti76Ni24 and (Ti74Ni26)97Sn3 ultrafine eutectic alloys consist of a mixture of ?-Ti and Ti2Ni phases, and ?-Ti(Sn) and Ti2Ni phases, respectively, whereas the Ti70.5Fe29.5 and (Ti70.5Fe29.5)97Sn3 alloys are composed by a mixture of ?-Ti(Sn) and FeTi phases with relatively spherical colony. The compression tests of Ti76Ni24, (Ti74Ni26)97Sn3 and Ti70.5Fe29.5 ultrafine eutectic alloys reveal a strength of 1400 ~ 1800 MPa with very limited plastic strain of 0.1 ~ 1%. On the contrary, a (Ti70.5Fe29.5)97Sn3 alloy exhibits high strength of 2270 MPa with enhanced plastic strain of 3.1%. Based on these results, it is feasible to suggest that the eutectic morphology and interfacial coherency between the Ti solid solution and intermetallic phases influence to control the macroscopic plasticity of the Ti-Ni and Ti-Fe ultrafine eutectic alloys.

Pi, Dong Hyouk; Kim, Ki Buem; Park, Jin Man; Han, Jun Hee; Kim, Do Hyang

109

Mixture or Solution?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Textbook definition: "Mixtures are formed simply by blending two or more substances together in some random proportion without chemically changing the individual substances in the mixture." Mixtures can then be broken down into homogeneous and heterogeneous. A homogeneous mixture is called a solution: salt or sugar and water, air (solution of gases). These have a constant composition throughout the solution. A heterogeneous mixture would be: salt with sugar (no water), water with gasoline or oil, salt with sand. These have areas with differing compositions (you could usually see the separation of the two things).

steve burns

2011-10-09

110

Phase-field modeling of eutectic solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a eutectic phase-field model, developed by extending the interface field method (Steinbach and Pezzolla, Physica D 134 (1999) 385) under a condition that coexisting phases at a given point have an equal chemical potential difference between solute atom and solvent atom. Also an anisotropic eutectic phase-field equation is derived explicitly. The equilibrium interface geometries, calculated using the isotropic

Seong Gyoon Kim; Won Tae Kim; Toshio Suzuki; Machiko Ode

2004-01-01

111

Germanium Nanowire Growth Below the Eutectic Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanowires are conventionally assumed to grow via the vapor-liquid-solid process, in which material from the vapor is incorporated into the growing nanowire via a liquid catalyst, commonly a low melting point eutectic alloy. However, nanowires have been observed to grow below the eutectic temperature, and the state of the catalyst remains controversial. Using in situ microscopy, we showed that, for

S. Kodambaka; J. Tersoff; M. C. Reuter; F. M. Ross

2007-01-01

112

Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Multivalent Ion Concentrations in Molten Salt  

SciTech Connect

Electrorefining of spent metallic nuclear fuel in high temperature molten salt systems is a core technology in pyroprocessing, which in turn plays a critical role in the development of advanced fuel cycle technologies. In electrorefining, spent nuclear fuel is treated electrochemically in order to effect separations between uranium, noble metals, and active metals, which include the transuranics. The accumulation of active metals in a lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt electrolyte occurs at the expense of the UCl3-oxidant concentration in the electrolyte, which must be periodically replenished. Our interests lie with the accumulation of active metals in the molten salt electrolyte. The real-time monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte is highly desirable for controlling electrochemical operations and assuring materials control and accountancy. However, real-time monitoring is not possible with current methods for sampling and chemical analysis. A new solid-state electrochemical sensor is being developed for real-time monitoring of actinide ion concentrations in a molten salt electrorefiner. The ultimate function of the sensor is to monitor plutonium concentrations during electrorefining operations, but in this work gadolinium was employed as a surrogate material for plutonium. In a parametric study, polycrystalline sodium beta double-prime alumina (Na-ß?-alumina) discs and tubes were subject to vapor-phase exchange with gadolinium ions (Gd3+) using a gadolinium chloride salt (GdCl3) as a precursor to produce gadolinium beta double-prime alumina (Gd-ß?-alumina) samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and microstructural analysis were performed on the ion-exchanged discs to determine the relationship between ion exchange and Gd3+ ion conductivity. The ion-exchanged tubes were configured as potentiometric sensors in order to monitor real-time Gd3+ ion concentrations in mixtures of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) in LiCl-KCl eutectic molten salts through measurement of the potential difference between a reference and working electrode.

Peter A. Zink; Jan-Fong Jue; Brenda E. Serrano; Guy L. Fredrickson; Ben F. Cowan; Steven D. Herrmann; Shelly X. Li

2010-07-01

113

Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are disclosed for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode. 2 figures.

Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W.

1995-01-10

114

Phase behavior of quinary mixtures of the type H/sub 2/O-oil-nonionic amphiphile-ionic amphiphile-salt  

SciTech Connect

Five-component mixtures H/sub 2/O-oil-nonionic amphiphile-ionic amphiphile-salt may separate into three liquid phases. In this three-phase body one finds the highest mutual solubility between H/sub 2/O and oil, combined with the lowest interfacial tension between the aqueous and the oil-rich phase. The position of the three-phase body on the temperature scale as well as its extensions depends systematically on the nature of the components, on the ratio between the nonionic and ionic amphiphile, as well as on the brine concentration. An empirical description of the phase behavior is presented that permits qualitative predictions as to the temperature at which to find the three-phase body and what efficiency of the amphiphiles to expect.

Kahlweit, M.; Strey, R.

1988-03-24

115

Influence of the amine salt anion on the synergic solvent extraction of praseodymium with mixtures of chelating extractants and tridodecylamine  

SciTech Connect

The solvent extraction of Pr with thenoyltrifluoroacetone, (HTTA) or 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazol-5-one(HP) and tridodecylammonium salt (TDAHA,A{sup -} = Cl{sup -},NO{sub 3}{sup -}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} has been studied. The composition of the extracted species has been determined as Pr(TTA){sub 3} TDAHA and TDAH{sup +}[PrP{sub 4}]{sup -}. The values of the equilibrium constants, have been calculated. The extraction mechanism has been discussed on the basis of the experimental data. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M. [Higher Inst. of Chemical Technology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

1995-11-01

116

Synergistic solvent extraction of lanthanides with mixtures of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone and primary ammonium salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synergistic solvent extraction of Pr, Gd and Yb with mixtures of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (HP) and tridecylammonium chloride or perchlorate (TDAHCl, TDAHClO4) in C6H6 was studied. The composition of the extracted species was determined as TDAH[LnP4]. The values of the equilibrium constant as well as the values of the synergistic coefficient and separation factor were calculated. The influence of the synergistic

I. L. Dukov; V. M. Jordanov

1998-01-01

117

Enhanced electroanalysis in lithium potassium eutectic (LKE) using microfabricated square microelectrodes.  

PubMed

Molten salts (MSs) are an attractive medium for chemical and electrochemical processing and as a result there is demand for MS-compatible analysis technologies. However, MSs containing redox species present a challenging environment in which to perform analytical measurements because of their corrosive nature, significant thermal convection and the high temperatures involved. This paper outlines the fabrication and characterization of microfabricated square microelectrodes (MSMs) designed for electrochemical analysis in MS systems. Their design enables precise control over electrode dimension, the minimization of stress because of differential thermal expansion through design for high temperature operation, and the minimization of corrosive attack through effective insulation. The exemplar MS system used for characterization was lithium chloride/potassium chloride eutectic (LKE), which has potential applications in pyrochemical nuclear fuel reprocessing, metal refining, molten salt batteries and electric power cells. The observed responses for a range of redox ions between 400 and 500 °C (673 and 773 K) were quantitative and typical of microelectrodes. MSMs also showed the reduced iR drop, steady-state diffusion-limited response, and reduced sensitivity to convection seen for microelectrodes under ambient conditions and expected for these electrodes in comparison to macroelectrodes. Diffusion coefficients were obtained in close agreement with literature values, more readily and at greater precision and accuracy than both macroelectrode and previous microelectrode measurements. The feasibility of extracting individual physical parameters from mixtures of redox species (as required in reprocessing) and of the prolonged measurement required for online monitoring was also demonstrated. Together, this demonstrates that MSMs provide enhanced electrode devices widely applicable to the characterization of redox species in a range of MS systems. PMID:25284431

Corrigan, Damion K; Blair, Ewen O; Terry, Jonathan G; Walton, Anthony J; Mount, Andrew R

2014-11-18

118

COMPUTATIONAL THERMODYNAMIC MODELING OF HOT CORROSION OF ALLLOYS HAYNES 242 AND HASTELLOYTMN FOR MOLTEN SALT SERVICE  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of thermodynamic aspects of hot corrosion of the superalloys Haynes 242 and HastelloyTM N in the eutectic mixtures of KF and ZrF4 is carried out for development of Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). This work models the behavior of several superalloys, potential candidates for the AHTR, using computational thermodynamics tool (ThermoCalc), leading to the development of thermodynamic description of the molten salt eutectic mixtures, and on that basis, mechanistic prediction of hot corrosion. The results from these studies indicated that the principal mechanism of hot corrosion was associated with chromium leaching for all of the superalloys described above. However, HastelloyTM N displayed the best hot corrosion performance. This was not surprising given it was developed originally to withstand the harsh conditions of molten salt environment. However, the results obtained in this study provided confidence in the employed methods of computational thermodynamics and could be further used for future alloy design efforts. Finally, several potential solutions to mitigate hot corrosion were proposed for further exploration, including coating development and controlled scaling of intermediate compounds in the KF-ZrF4 system.

Michael V. Glazoff; Piyush Sabharwall; Akira Tokuhiro

2014-09-01

119

Effect of PEG-salt mixture on the gelation temperature and morphology of MC gel for sustained delivery of drug.  

PubMed

Gelation temperature of MC was reduced from 59°C to 54°C with the addition of 10% PEG. Sodium tartrate (NaT) and sodium citrate (NaC) were added to the MC-PEG solution to further reduce the gelation temperature close to physiological temperature. Different techniques were used to measure the gelation temperature of all formulations. It was observed that NaC was more effective in reducing the gelation temperature of MC-PEG combination than NaT. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) images of hydrogels containing NaC and NaT showed that NaC containing hydrogel having an interconnected microporous structure instead of the hollow rod like structure as in the case of NaT containing hydrogel. In vitro drug release studies showed that drug release time increased from 6 to 9h by only changing the type of salt from NaT to NaC in MC-PEG combination. PMID:23121941

Bain, Mrinal Kanti; Maity, Dipanwita; Bhowmick, Biplab; Mondal, Dibyendu; Mollick, Md Masud Rahaman; Sarkar, Gunjan; Bhowmik, Manas; Rana, Dipak; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

2013-01-16

120

Production of niobium powder by direct electrochemical reduction of solid Nb 2 O 5 in a eutectic CaCl 2 NaCl melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of electro-deoxidation was used to reduce solid Nb2O5 to niobium metal in a CaCl2-NaCl eutectic melt. The direct electrochemical reduction of Nb2O5 was achieved by electrolysis in the eutectic melt at 1123 and 1173 K, respectively, at a controlled potential of 3.1 V, below\\u000a the decomposition potential of the salts. Analysis of the anodic reaction gases carried by

X. Y. Yan; D. J. Fray

2002-01-01

121

The promise of eutectics for aircraft turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of the first generation eutectics, gamma/gamma transition - delta and NiTaC-13, is described in detail. Several second generation systems, such as gamma/gamma transition - alpha and NiTaC 3-116A, gamma - beta, and COTAC 74 are also reviewed with particular emphasis on their critical physical and mechanical properties, future research directions, and potential applications. Results of recent cost-benefit analyses of eutectic turbine blades are discussed.

Gray, H. R.

1977-01-01

122

Phase-field models for eutectic solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses two methods for modeling eutectic solidification using the phase-field approach. First, a multi-phase-field\\u000a model is used to study the three-dimensional morphological evolution of binary eutectics. Performing the calculations in three\\u000a dimensions allows observation of both lamellar and rod-like structures as well as transient phenomena such as lamellar fault\\u000a motion, rod-branching, and nucleation or elimination of phases as

Daniel Lewis; James Warren; William Boettinger; Tamás Pusztai; László Gránásy

2004-01-01

123

Eutectic experiment development for space processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ground base test plan and a specimen evaluation scheme have been developed for the aluminum-copper eutectic solidification experiment to be run in the M518 multipurpose electric furnace during the Skylab mission. Besides thermal and solidification studies a detailed description is given of the quantitative metallographic technique which is appropriate for characterizing eutectic structures. This method should prove a key tool for evaluating specimen microstructure which is the most sensitive indicator of changes produced during solidification. It has been recommended that single grain pre-frozen eutectic specimens be used to simplify microstructural evaluation and to eliminate any porosity in the as-cast eutectic specimens. High purity (99.999%) materials from one supplier should be employed for all experiments. Laboratory studies indicate that porosity occurs in the MRC as-cast eutectic ingots but that this porosity can be eliminated by directional freezing. Chemical analysis shows that the MRC ingots are slightly Al rich and contain about .03% impurity. Because of the impurity content the lower cooldown rate (1.2 C/min) should be used for eutectic freezing if MRC material is used in the M518 furnace.

Hopkins, R. H.

1972-01-01

124

The binary eutectic of NSAIDS and two-phase liquid system for enhanced membrane permeation.  

PubMed

The eutectic properties of binary mixtures of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with ibuprofen were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and phase equilibrium diagrams. The melting points of selected NSAIDs were significantly depressed due to binary eutectic formation with ibuprofen. Ketoprofen and ibuprofen were selected to study the effect of eutectic formation on membrane permeation using Franz diffusion cells and snake skin as the model membrane. The presence of aqueous isopropyl alcohol (IPA) was necessary to completely transform the solid drugs into an oily state at ambient temperature. As much as the 99.6% of ibuprofen and the 88.8% of ketoprofen added were found in the oily phase of the two-phase liquid system formed when aqueous IPA was added to the eutectic mixture. Due to the high drug concentration in the oily phase, and maximum thermodynamic activity, the two-phase liquid system showed enhanced membrane permeation rates of ibuprofen (37.5 microg/cm2/hr) and ketoprofen (33.4 microg/cm2/hr) compared to other reference preparations used. PMID:15776808

Yuan, Xudong; Capomacchia, A C

2005-01-01

125

Improved calcium sulfate recovery from a reverse osmosis retentate using eutectic freeze crystallization.  

PubMed

A novel low temperature crystallization process called eutectic freeze crystallization (EFC) can produce both salt(s) and ice from a reverse osmosis (RO) stream by operating at the eutectic temperature of a solution. The EFC reject stream, which is de-supersaturated with respect to the scaling component, can subsequently be recycled back to the RO process for increased water recovery. This paper looks at the feasibility of using EFC to remove calcium sulfate from an RO retentate stream and compares the results to recovery rates at 0 and 20 °C. The results showed that there was a greater yield of calcium sulfate obtained at 0 °C as compared with 20 °C. Operation under eutectic conditions, with only a 20% ice recovery, resulted in an even greater yield of calcium sulfate (48%) when compared with yields obtained at operating temperatures of 0 and 20 °C (15% at 0 °C and 13% at 20 °C). The theoretical calcium recoveries were found to be 75 and 70% at 0 and 20 °C respectively which was higher than the experimentally determined values. The EFC process has the added advantage of producing water along with a salt. PMID:23128631

Randall, D G; Mohamed, R; Nathoo, J; Rossenrode, H; Lewis, A E

2013-01-01

126

Mixtures of l-Amino Acids as Reaction Medium for Formation of Iron Nanoparticles: The Order of Addition into a Ferrous Salt Solution Matters  

PubMed Central

Owing to Mössbauer spectroscopy, an advanced characterization technique for iron-containing materials, the present study reveals previously unknown possibilities using l-amino acids for the generation of magnetic particles. Based on our results, a simple choice of the order of l-amino acids addition into a reaction mixture containing ferrous ions leads to either superparamagnetic ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide particles, or magnetically strong Fe0-Fe2O3/FeOOH core-shell particles after chemical reduction. Conversely, when ferric salts are employed with the addition of selected l-amino acids, only Fe0-Fe2O3/FeOOH core-shell particles are observed, regardless of the addition order. We explain this phenomenon by a specific transient/intermediate complex formation between Fe2+ and l-glutamic acid. This type of complexation prevents ferrous ions from spontaneous oxidation in solutions with full air access. Moreover, due to surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy we show that the functional groups of l-amino acids are not destroyed during the borohydride-induced reduction. These functionalities can be further exploited for (i) attachment of l-amino acids to the as-prepared magnetic particles, and (ii) for targeted bio- and/or environmental applications where the surface chemistry needs to be tailored and directed toward biocompatible species. PMID:24071943

Šišková, Karolína M.; Machala, Libor; Tu?ek, Ji?i; Kašlík, Josef; Mojzeš, Peter; Zbo?il, Radek

2013-01-01

127

Resolving Issues of Content Uniformity and Low Permeability Using Eutectic Blend of Camphor and Menthol  

PubMed Central

The aim of present study were to arrest the problem of content uniformity without the use of harmful organic solvent and to improve ex vivo permeability of captopril, a low dose class III drug as per biological classification system. Eutectic mixture of camphor and menthol was innovatively used in the work. Captopril solution in eutectic mixture was blended with Avicel PH 102 and then the mixture was blended with mannitol in different ratios. Formulated batches were characterized for angle of repose and Carr's index. A selected batch was filled in hard gelatin capsule. Tablet dosage form was also developed. Capsules and tablets were characterized for in vitro drug release in 0.1N HCl. Additionally, the captopril tablets were analyzed for content uniformity and ex vivo drug permeation study using rat ileum in modified apparatus. The measurement of angle of repose and Carr's index revealed that the powder blend exhibited good flow property and compressibility. The captopril capsules and tablets exhibited immediate drug release in 0.1 N HCl. The captopril tablets passed content uniformity test as per IP 1996. Ex vivo permeation of captopril, formulated with eutectic mixture, was faster than control. The permeation was increased by 15% at the end of 3 h. Tablets and capsule exhibited reasonable short term stability with no considerable change in performance characteristics. PMID:20376214

Gohel, M. C.; Nagori, S. A.

2009-01-01

128

Hygroscopic properties of NaCl and NaNO3 mixture particles as reacted inorganic sea-salt aerosol surrogates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NaCl in fresh sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles can partially or fully react with atmospheric NOx / HNO3, so internally mixed NaCl and NaNO3 aerosol particles can co-exist over a wide range of mixing ratios. Laboratory-generated, micrometer-sized NaCl and NaNO3 mixture particles at ten mixing ratios (mole fractions of NaCl (XNaCl) = 0.1 to 0.9) were examined systematically to observe their hygroscopic behavior, derive experimental phase diagrams for deliquescence and efflorescence, and understand the efflorescence mechanism. During the humidifying process, aerosol particles with the eutonic composition (XNaCl = 0.38) showed only one phase transition at their mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 67.9(± 0.5)%. On the other hand, particles with other mixing ratios showed two distinct deliquescence transitions, i.e., the eutonic component dissolved at MDRH and the remainder in the solid phase dissolved completely at their DRHs depending on the mixing ratios, resulting in a phase diagram composed of four different phases, as predicted thermodynamically. During the dehydration process, NaCl-rich particles (XNaCl > 0.38) showed two-stage efflorescence transitions: the first stage was purely driven by the homogeneous nucleation of NaCl and the second stage at the mutual efflorescence RH (MERH) of the eutonic components, with values in the range of 30.0-35.5%. Interestingly, aerosol particles with the eutonic composition (XNaCl = 0.38) also showed two-stage efflorescence with NaCl crystallizing first followed by heterogeneous nucleation of the remaining NaNO3 on the NaCl seeds. NaNO3-rich particles XNaCl ? 0.3) underwent single-stage efflorescence transitions at ERHs progressively lower than the MERH, because of the homogeneous nucleation of NaCl and the almost simultaneous heterogeneous nucleation of NaNO3 on the NaCl seeds. SEM/EDX elemental mapping indicated that the effloresced NaCl-NaNO3 particles at all mixing ratios were composed of a homogeneously crystallized NaCl moiety in the center, surrounded either by the eutonic component (for XNaCl > 0.38) or NaNO3 (for XNaCl ? 0.38). During the humidifying or dehydration process, the amount of eutonic composed part drives particle/droplet growth or shrinkage at the MDRH or MERH (second ERH), respectively, and the amount of remnant pure salts (NaCl or NaNO3 in NaCl- or NaNO3-rich particles, respectively) drives the second DRHs or first ERHs, respectively. Therefore, their behavior can be a precursor to the optical properties and direct radiative forcing for these atmospherically relevant mixture particles representing the coarse, reacted inorganic SSAs. In addition, the NaCl-NaNO3 mixture aerosol particles can maintain an aqueous phase over a wider RH range than the genuine SSA surrogate (i.e., pure NaCl particles), making their heterogeneous chemistry more probable.

Gupta, D.; Kim, H.; Park, G.; Li, X.; Eom, H.-J.; Ro, C.-U.

2014-12-01

129

Temperature dependence of fluorescence for EuCl3 in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt.  

PubMed

The fluorescence of EuCl(3) in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt according to temperature changes was investigated, and the spontaneous partial reduction of Eu(3+) to Eu(2+) at high temperature was confirmed by the fluorescence results. The fluorescence decreases when the temperature increases, and this was examined in detail. The studies of fluorescence provided information regarding the chemical and physical behavior of europium ions in the molten salt according to the temperature changes. It is applicable for monitoring species and concentrations and estimating the approximate chemical structure of the ions in molten salts. PMID:20678668

Im, Hee-Jung; Kim, Tack-Jin; Song, Kyuseok

2010-08-15

130

Dosimetry using silver salts  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method for detecting ionizing radiation. Exposure of silver salt AgX to ionizing radiation results in the partial reduction of the salt to a mixture of silver salt and silver metal. The mixture is further reduced by a reducing agent, which causes the production of acid (HX) and the oxidized form of the reducing agent (R). Detection of HX indicates that the silver salt has been exposed to ionizing radiation. The oxidized form of the reducing agent (R) may also be detected. The invention also includes dosimeters employing the above method for detecting ionizing radiation.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-06-24

131

Reactive eutectic brazing of nitinol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although NiTiNb alloys are well known as wide-hysteresis shape-memory alloys with important applications as coupling materials, the significance of one aspect of the Ni-Ti-Nb ternary system has not been fully appreciated. Based on the existence of a quasibinary NiTi-Nb eutectic isopleth in this ternary system, a novel braze method has been devised to fabricate metallurgical bonds between functional nitinol (NiTi) sections. When NiTi and pure Nb are brought into contact at temperatures above 1170°C, spontaneous melting occurs, forming a liquid that is extremely reactive and not only wets NiTi surfaces, but also apparently dissolves oxide scales, obviating the need for fluxes and providing for efficient capillary flow into joint crevices. The melting process is diffusion-controlled and rate-limited by the diffusivity of Nb in the liquid. The braze liquid will subsequently solidify into microstructures containing predominantly ordered NiTi and disordered bcc-Nb. Mechanical tests revealed that the braze joints are strong, ductile, and biocompatible. With appropriate post-braze aging, the functional performance of the parent NiTi alloy can be restored. Micro-alloying the Nb fluer metal with Zr or tungsten showed great potential for solution-strengthening of the braze joints. For applications where biocompatibility is not an issue, Nb metal can be substituted by pure vanadium as the braze filler, which is demonstrated to possess tensile strengths that can be potentially superior to the Nb counterparts.

Low, Ke-Bin

132

Stability of eutectic interface during directional solidification  

SciTech Connect

Directional solidification of eutectic alloys shows different types of eutectic morphologies. These include lamellar, rod, oscillating and tilting modes. The growth of these morphologies occurs with a macroscopically planar interface. However, under certain conditions, the planar eutectic front becomes unstable and gives rise to a cellular or a dendritic structure. This instability leads to the cellular/dendritic structure of either a primary phase or a two-phase structure. The objective of this work is to develop a fundamental understanding of the instability of eutectic structure into cellular/dendritic structures of a single phase and of two-phases. Experimental studies have been carried out to examine the transition from a planar to two-phase cellular and dendritic structures in a ceramic system of Alumina-Zirconia (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2}) and in a transparent organic system of carbon tetrabromide and hexachloroethane (CBr{sub 4}-C{sub 2}Cl{sub 6}). Several aspects of eutectic interface stability have been examined.

Han, S.H.

1996-04-23

133

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are viable cosolvents for enzyme-catalyzed epoxide hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special group of ionic liquids, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been tested as cosolvents in enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of a chiral (1,2)-trans-2-methylstyrene oxide. The choline chloride:ethane diol (ET), choline chloride:glycerol (GLY) and choline:chloride:urea (REL) DESs were included in the reaction mixtures with epoxide and the potato epoxide hydrolase StEH1. The effect of the DESs on enzyme function was primarily elevations

Diana Lindberg; Mario de la Fuente Revenga; Mikael Widersten

2010-01-01

134

Eutectic growth under acoustic levitation conditions.  

PubMed

Samples of Pb-Sn eutectic alloy with a high density of 8.5 x 10(3) kg/m(3) are levitated with a single-axis acoustic levitator, and containerlessly melted and then solidified in argon atmosphere. High undercoolings up to 38 K are obtained, which results in a microstructural transition of "lamellas-broken lamellas-dendrites." This transition is further investigated in the light of the coupled zone for eutectic growth and the effects of ultrasound. The breaking of regular eutectic lamellas and suppression of gravity-induced macrosegregation of (Pb) and (Sn) dendrites are explained by the complicated internal flow inside the levitated drop, which is jointly induced by the shape oscillation, bulk vibration and rotation of the levitated drop. The ultrasonic field is also found to drive forced surface vibration, which subsequently excites capillary ripples and catalyzes nucleation on the sample surface. PMID:12513291

Xie, W J; Cao, C D; Lü, Y J; Wei, B

2002-12-01

135

Tin-silver-copper eutectic temperature and composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A careful investigation of the Sn-Ag-Cu phase diagram near the ternary eutectic composition was undertaken using annealed\\u000a alloys and differential scanning calorimetry to settle some uncertainties in the eutectic composition. The eutectic composition\\u000a was found to be 3.5 wt pct Ag, 0.9 wt pct Cu, and the balance Sn. The published eutectic temperature, 217 C, was confirmed.\\u000a A value of

M. E. Loomans; M. E. Fine

2000-01-01

136

Thermodynamic study of (anthracene + benzo[a]pyrene) solid mixtures  

PubMed Central

To characterize better the thermodynamic behavior of a binary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture, thermochemical and vapor pressure experiments were used to examine the phase behavior of the {anthracene (1) + benzo[a]pyrene (2)} system. A solid-liquid phase diagram was mapped for the mixture. A eutectic point occurs at x1 = 0.26. The eutectic mixture is an amorphous solid that lacks organized crystal structure and melts between T = (414 and 420) K. For mixtures that contain 0.10 < x1 < 0.90, the enthalpy of fusion is dominated by that of the eutectic. Solid-vapor equilibrium studies show that mixtures of anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene at x1 < 0.10 sublime at the vapor pressure of pure benzo[a]pyrene. These results suggest that the solid-vapor equilibrium of benzo[a]pyrene is not significantly influenced by moderate levels of anthracene in the crystal structure. PMID:20814451

Rice, James W.; Suuberg, Eric M.

2010-01-01

137

Separating a Mixture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can explore means of physically separating a mixture using dissolving, filtration, and evaporation. Separating a sand/salt mixture is a common experiment in physical science class that requires almost no adaptation for learners with visual impairments. This activity also provides experience in popular laboratory techniques of dissolving, filtration, and evaporation. In this activity, the learner will use filters and funnels to separate sand and salt.

Perkins School for the Blind

2012-07-12

138

Microstructure Of MnBi/Bi Eutectic Alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collection of three reports describes studies of directional solidification of MnBi/Bi eutectic alloy. Two of the reports, "Influence of Convection on Lamellar Spacing of Eutectics" and "Influence of Convection on Eutectic Microstructure," establish theoretical foundation for remaining document. Reports seek to quantify effect of convection on concentration field of growing lamellar eutectic. Remaining report, "Study of Eutectic Formation," begins by continuing theoretical developments. New technique under development by one of the authors helps to reveal three-dimensional microstructures of alloys.

Wilcox, William R.; Eisa, G. F.; Baskaran, B.; Richardson, Donald C.

1988-01-01

139

Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation  

SciTech Connect

Recovery of actinides is an integral part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycling processes have been developed in the past for recovering actinides from spent metallic and nitride fuels. The process is essentially to dissolve the spent fuel in a molten salt and then extract just the actinides for reuse in a reactor. Extraction is typically done through electrorefining, which involves electrochemical reduction of the dissolved actinides and plating onto a cathode. Knowledge of a number of basic thermokinetic properties of salts and salt-fuel mixtures is necessary for optimizing present and developing new approaches for pyrometallurgical waste processing. The properties of salt-fuel mixtures are presently being studied, but there are so many solutes and varying concentrations that direct experimental investigation is prohibitively time consuming and expensive (particularly for radioactive elements like Pu). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the number of required experiments through modeling of salt and salt-fuel mixture properties. This project will develop first-principles-based molecular modeling and simulation approaches to predict fundamental thermokinetic properties of dissolved actinides and fission products in molten salts. The focus of the proposed work is on property changes with higher concentrations (up to 5 mol%) of dissolved fuel components, where there is still very limited experimental data. The properties predicted with the modeling will be density, which is used to assess the amount of dissolved material in the salt; diffusion coefficients, which can control rates of material transport during separation; and solute activity, which determines total solubility and reduction potentials used during electrorefining. The work will focus on La, Sr, and U, which are chosen to include the important distinct categories of lanthanides, alkali earths, and actinides, respectively. Studies will be performed using LiCl-KCl salt at the eutectic composition (58 mol% LiCl, 42 mol% KCl), which is used for treating spent EBR-II fuel. The same process being used for EBRII fuel is currently being studied for widespread international implementation. The methods will focus on first-principles and first- principles derived interatomic potential based simulations, primarily using molecular dynamics. Results will be validated against existing literature and parallel ongoing experimental efforts. The simulation results will be of value for interpreting experimental results, validating analytical models, and for optimizing waste separation by potentially developing new salt configurations and operating conditions.

Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

2013-10-01

140

Anion effect on the binary and ternary phase diagrams of chiral medetomidine salts and conglomerate crystal formation.  

PubMed

The binary phase diagrams of hydrogen halides salts of medetomidine (Med.HX, X:Br,I) and hydrogen oxalate salt of medetomidine (Med.Ox) were determined based on thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) and their crystal structure behavior was confirmed by comparison of the X-ray diffractometry and FT-IR spectroscopy of the racemate and pure enantiomer. All hydrogen halide salts presented racemic compound behavior. Heat of fusion of halides salt of (rac)-medetomidine decreased with ionic radius increase. Eutectic points for Med.HCl (previously reported), Med.HBr, and Med.HI rest were unchanged approximately. The solubility of different enantiomeric mixtures of Med.HBr and Med.HI were measured at 10, 20, and 30°C in 2-propanol showing a solubility increase with ionic radius. A binary phase diagram of Med.Ox shows a racemic conglomerate behavior. The solubility of enantiomeric mixtures of Med.Ox were measured at 10, 20, 30, and 40°C. The ternary phase diagram of Med.Ox in ethanol conforms to a conglomerate crystal forming system, favoring its enantiomeric purification by preferential crystallization. PMID:24574075

Choobdari, Ebrahim; Fakhraian, Hossein; Peyrovi, Mohammad Hassan

2014-03-01

141

H, not O or pressure, causes eutectic T depression in the Fe-FeS System to 8 GPa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fe-FeS system maintains a eutectic temperature of 990 ± 10 °C to at least 8 GPa if starting materials and pressure media are rigorously dehydrated. Literature reports of pressure-induced freezing point depression of the eutectic for the Fe-FeS system are not confirmed. Modest addition of oxygen alone is confirmed to cause negligible freezing point depression at 6 GPa. Addition of H alone causes a progressive decrease in the eutectic temperature with P in the Fe-FeS-H system to below 965 °C at 6 GPa to below 950 °C at 8 GPa. It is our hypothesis that moisture contamination in unrigorously dried experiments may be an H source for freezing point depression. O released from H2O disproportionation reacts with Fe and is sequestered as ferropericlase along the sample capsules walls, leaving the H to escape the system and/or enter the Fe-FeS mixture. The observed occurrence of ferropericlase on undried MgO capsule margins is otherwise difficult to explain, because an alternate source for the oxygen in the ferropericlase layer is difficult to identify. This study questions the use of pressure-depressed Fe-S eutectic temperatures and suggests that the lower eutectic temperatures sometimes reported are achieved by moving into the ternary Fe-S-H system. These results adjust slightly the constraints on eutectic temperatures allowed for partly solidified cores on small planets. H substantially diminishes the temperature extent of the melting interval in Fe-S by reducing the melting points of the crystalline phases more than it depresses the eutectic.

Buono, Antonio S.; Walker, David

2015-04-01

142

Spectrophotometric and electrochemical study of neptunium ions in molten NaCl-CsCl eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical oxidation states of NpO2+, Np4+ and Np3+ in NaCl-CsCl eutectic were controlled by using Cl2, O2, H2 and Ar gas mixtures, the redox behavior and electronic absorption properties of their Np ions were studied. The Np4+ was prepared from NpO2Cl by bubbling Cl2 gas into the melt in the presence of carbon rod. Np3+ was quantitatively prepared by bubbling H2-Ar gas mixture. The molar absorptivities of NpO2+, Np4+ and Np3+ were determined in molten NaCl-CsCl eutectic at 923 K and hypersensitive transitions of Np4+ and Np3+ ions were assigned. Since the polarizing ability of the cations in the NaCl-CsCl eutectic is lower than that in some other melts, it has been shown that the coordination symmetry of the Np-Cl complex is higher. In the electrochemical measurement of Np4+, the cathodic current for the reduction of Np4+ was found to be controlled by the diffusion of Np4+. The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient between 823 and 923 K was formulated to be lnD=-4304/T-6.172. The formal redox potential of the Np4+|Np3+ couple depended on the temperature, this dependence was formulated as ENp|Np?'=-1.313+6.210×10-4T V (vs. Cl2|Cl-).

Uehara, Akihiro; Nagai, Takayuki; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Osamu; Yamana, Hajimu

2013-06-01

143

Electrical properties of saline ices and ice-silicate mixtures: geophysical and astrobiological consequences (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed broadband (1 mHz - 1 MHz) electrical-properties measurements of laboratory-produced saline ice, salt hydrates, and ice-silicate mixtures, as well as terrestrial polar ices and permafrosts (see also Grimm et al, NS04, this meeting), in order to understand investigation depths of EM induction and surface-penetrating radar, the recovery of interior properties, and habitability. The electrical properties of saline H2O are controlled by the binary phase relations between ice and salt hydrate. Above the eutectic temperature, formation of interconnected brine channels (manifested by high DC electrical conductivity) requires bulk salt concentrations exceeding ~3 mM. This is equivalent to a minimum brine-channel width of a few microns. Presumably high capillary pressures in submicron fluid spaces lead to segregation of brine into pockets and hence electrical cutoff. In ice-silicate mixtures, brine channels are evident above the eutectic temperature only when pore diameters exceed a few microns, regardless of salt concentration. This is also consistent with small-pore capillary segregation of fluid. Below the eutectic temperature, salt hydrate always forms electrically interconnected networks, even at trace volumes. Interfacial unfrozen water was measured by NMR to be present at 2-3 equivalent H2O monolayers but has negligible DC conductivity. Dielectric relaxations due to rotation of interfacial water and protonic defects in ice and salt hydrate were identified, as well as interfacial polarizations arresting charge translation in salt hydrates and interfacial water. Because the dielectric permittivities measured at 1 MHz approached known radiofrequency (RF) values, almost all of the dispersion is determined by “low frequency” mechanisms. At RF, the total intrinsic absorption in a surface-penetrating radar signal can be estimated, but understanding individual mechanisms must come from low-frequency measurements and geological context. In addition to the well-understood losses caused by trace impurities of acid or salt in relatively pure ice, we are now able to quantify additional absorption in subfreezing materials caused by salt hydrates, and, in the presence of silicates, unfrozen interfacial water. The latter has been suggested to be suitable to support subfreezing microbial life (Jakosky et al., Astrobiology, 3, 343, 2003; Mohlman, op cit, 5, 770, 2005). However, the DC electrical conductivity of interfacial water is many decades smaller than nominal fresh water, so the total rate of charge transport through interfacial water must be negligible compared to fresh water. Furthermore, a few monolayers of H2O (< 1 nm) are only a few times the size of major ions and much too small to accommodate large organic molecules. The possibility of subfreezing microbial activity on Mars would then be attributed to freezing-point depression of salt-rich ice, and not interfacial water.

Grimm, R. E.; Stillman, D.

2009-12-01

144

Corrosion of selected alloys in eutectic lithium-sodium-potassium carbonate at 900C  

SciTech Connect

There is an ongoing interest at the US Department of Energy in using molten salts as high temperature sensible heat storage media in advanced solar thermal systems. In this report, the compatibility of selected alloys in eutectic lithium-sodium-potassium carbonate, the salt that will be used in the near-term engineering experiments, has been evaluated at 900C. Several combinations of oxidation potential and acidity in the salt were used in the experiments. It was found that the extent of corrosion was dramatically lower for experiments conducted at high oxygen potential compared to experiments at low oxygen potential. For Inconel 600, Hastelloy N, and nickel the results indicated that corrosion rates substantially below 1 mm/year/side might reasonably be expected and that a reevaluation of alloys the showed poor corrosion resistance under low oxygen potential would be advisable.

Coyle, R.T.; Thomas, T.M.; Schissel, P.

1986-01-01

145

Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt

William A. Brummond; Ravindra S. Upadhye; Cesar O. Pruneda

1995-01-01

146

Study on the recovery of purified MgSO 4·7H 2O crystals from industrial solution by eutectic freezing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutectic freezing, characterized by a simultaneous crystallization of ice and salt, was applied to recover magnesium sulphate heptahydrate from a magnesium sulphate industrial stream emitted from flue gas desulphurization. Key aspects of the recovery process for further pilot-scale investigation were studied in a laboratory-scale batch crystallizer with focus on discovering the type of the hydrate product and the quality of

C. Himawan; H. J. M. Kramer; G. J. Witkamp

2006-01-01

147

Removal of nanoaerosol during the bubbling of the salt melt of beryllium and lithium fluorides for the preparation of reactor radioisotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parameters of aerosol particles formed in the course of the spontaneous thermal condensation of vapors and bubbling a 66LiF-34BeF2 (mol %) eutectic salt mixture with helium have been studied. For this purpose, a vertical bubbling mode at T ? 900 K and an ampule device for obtaining reactor radioisotopes for medical applications were used. The rate of the bulk removal and the chemical composition of aerosols were measured. The size distribution of the aerosol particles was bimodal, and the mass concentration of the particles exceeded by far the maximum permissible concentration (MPC). The characteristics of regenerated nickel multilayer nanofilters for ultrahigh filtration of aerosols from the salt liquid melt were analyzed.

Zagnit'ko, A. V.; Chuvilin, D. Yu.

2010-06-01

148

A solar-thermal energy harvesting scheme: enhanced heat capacity of molten HITEC salt mixed with Sn/SiO(x) core-shell nanoparticles.  

PubMed

We demonstrated enhanced solar-thermal storage by releasing the latent heat of Sn/SiO(x) core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a eutectic salt. The microstructures and chemical compositions of Sn/SiO(x) core-shell NPs were characterized. In situ heating XRD provides dynamic crystalline information about the Sn/SiO(x) core-shell NPs during cyclic heating processes. The latent heat of ?29 J g(-1) for Sn/SiO(x) core-shell NPs was measured, and 30% enhanced heat capacity was achieved from 1.57 to 2.03 J g(-1) K(-1) for the HITEC solar salt without and with, respectively, a mixture of 5% Sn/SiO(x) core-shell NPs. In addition, an endurance cycle test was performed to prove a stable operation in practical applications. The approach provides a method to enhance energy storage in solar-thermal power plants. PMID:24675904

Lai, Chih-Chung; Chang, Wen-Chih; Hu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zhiming M; Lu, Ming-Chang; Chueh, Yu-Lun

2014-05-01

149

Characterization of lead-bismuth eutectic nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, lead-bismuth eutectic alloy nanowires were fabricated by a novel vacuum melting method and centrifugal process. An anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template was used to produce an array of ordered, dense, and continuous Pb-Bi nanowires. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy investigations reveal that nanowires with a diameter of 80 nm are composed of Pb7Bi3 and Bi phases, and have a single orientation of growth. Magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis measurements have been used to characterize the superconductive and magnetic properties of the nanowires. The results show that Pb-Bi nanowires have a slightly lower superconducting transition temperature than Pb-Bi eutectic alloy bulk, and only about 1% superconductivity volume fraction in magnetic fields both perpendicular and parallel to the plate. In magnetization curves, a fairly large hysteresis is observed for both field orientations.

Kuo, C. G.; Hsu, Y. Y.; Wu, M. K.; Chao, C. G.

2005-04-01

150

Two-stage eutectic metal brushes  

DOEpatents

A two-stage eutectic metal brush assembly having a slip ring rigidly coupled to a shaft, the slip ring being electrically coupled to first voltage polarity. At least one brush is rigidly coupled to a second ring and slidingly engaged to the slip ring. Eutectic metal at least partially fills an annulus between the second ring and a stationary ring. At least one conductor is rigidly coupled to the stationary ring and electrically coupled to a second voltage polarity. Electrical continuity is maintained between the first voltage polarity and the second voltage polarity. Periodic rotational motion is present between the stationary ring and the second ring. Periodic rotational motion is also present between the brush and the slip ring.

Hsu, John S (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

2009-07-14

151

New eutectic ionic liquids for lipase activation and enzymatic preparation of biodiesel†  

PubMed Central

The enzymatic preparation of biodiesel has been hampered by the lack of suitable solvents with desirable properties such as high lipase compatibility, low cost, low viscosity, high biodegradability, and ease of product separation. Recent interest in using ionic liquids (ILs) as advanced reaction media has led to fast reaction rates and high yields in the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel. However, conventional (i.e., cation–anion paired) ILs based on imidazolium and other quaternary ammonium salts remain too expensive for wide application at industrial scales. In this study, we report on newly-synthesized eutectic ILs derived from choline acetate or choline chloride coupled with biocompatible hydrogen-bond donors, such as glycerol. These eutectic solvents have favorable properties including low viscosity, high biodegradability, and excellent compatibility with Novozym® 435, a commercial immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B. Furthermore, in a model biodiesel synthesis system, we demonstrate high reaction rates for the enzymatic transesterification of Miglyol® oil 812 with methanol, catalyzed by Novozym® 435 in choline acetate/glycerol (1 : 1.5 molar ratio). The high conversion (97%) of the triglyceride obtained within 3 h, under optimal conditions, suggests that these novel eutectic solvents warrant further exploration as potential media in the enzymatic production of biodiesel. PMID:21283901

Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A.; Holmes, Shaletha

2012-01-01

152

New eutectic ionic liquids for lipase activation and enzymatic preparation of biodiesel.  

PubMed

The enzymatic preparation of biodiesel has been hampered by the lack of suitable solvents with desirable properties such as high lipase compatibility, low cost, low viscosity, high biodegradability, and ease of product separation. Recent interest in using ionic liquids (ILs) as advanced reaction media has led to fast reaction rates and high yields in the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel. However, conventional (i.e., cation-anion paired) ILs based on imidazolium and other quaternary ammonium salts remain too expensive for wide application at industrial scales. In this study, we report on newly-synthesized eutectic ILs derived from choline acetate or choline chloride coupled with biocompatible hydrogen-bond donors, such as glycerol. These eutectic solvents have favorable properties including low viscosity, high biodegradability, and excellent compatibility with Novozym(®) 435, a commercial immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B. Furthermore, in a model biodiesel synthesis system, we demonstrate high reaction rates for the enzymatic transesterification of Miglyol(®) oil 812 with methanol, catalyzed by Novozym(®) 435 in choline acetate/glycerol (1:1.5 molar ratio). The high conversion (97%) of the triglyceride obtained within 3 h, under optimal conditions, suggests that these novel eutectic solvents warrant further exploration as potential media in the enzymatic production of biodiesel. PMID:21283901

Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A; Holmes, Shaletha

2011-03-21

153

Directionally solidified eutectic gamma plus beta nickel-base superalloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A directionally solidified multivariant eutectic gamma + beta nickel-base superalloy casting having improved high temperature strength and oxidation resistance properties is provided. This comprises a two phase eutectic structure containing, on a weight percent basis, 5.0-15.0 tungsten, 8.5-14.5 aluminum, 0.0-35.0 cobalt and the balance being nickel. Embedded within the gamma phase nickel-base matrix are aligned eutectic beta phase (primarily (NiCo)Al reinforcing lamellae.

Jackson, M. R. (inventor)

1977-01-01

154

Free energy barriers for homogeneous crystal nucleation in a eutectic system of binary hard spheres.  

PubMed

In this study, the free energy barriers for homogeneous crystal nucleation in a system that exhibits a eutectic point are computed using Monte Carlo simulations. The system studied is a binary hard sphere mixture with a diameter ratio of 0.85 between the smaller and larger hard spheres. The simulations of crystal nucleation are performed for the entire range of fluid compositions. The free energy barrier is found to be the highest near the eutectic point and is nearly five times that for the pure fluid, which slows down the nucleation rate by a factor of 10(-31). These free energy barriers are some of highest ever computed using simulations. For most of the conditions studied, the composition of the critical nucleus corresponds to either one of the two thermodynamically stable solid phases. However, near the eutectic point, the nucleation barrier is lowest for the formation of the metastable random hexagonal closed packed (rhcp) solid phase with composition lying in the two-phase region of the phase diagram. The fluid to solid phase transition is hypothesized to proceed via formation of a metastable rhcp phase followed by a phase separation into respective stable fcc solid phases. PMID:23656140

Ganagalla, Srinivasa Rao; Punnathanam, Sudeep N

2013-05-01

155

Pattern selection dynamics in rod eutectics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cooperative or diffusively coupled growth of multiple phases during solidification is one of the most widely observed and generally important classes of phase transformations in materials. Technologically, low melting temperature and small freezing range contribute to excellent casting fluidity and fine composite structures give rise to favorable properties. Both of these features contribute to the wide application of eutectic alloys in the casting, welding, and soldering of engineered components. Despite the broad-based technological importance, many fundamental questions regarding eutectic solidification remain unanswered, severely limiting our ability to employ computational methods in the prediction of microstructure for the effective design of new materials and processes. At the core of the most persistent questions, lie problems involving multicomponent thermodynamics, solid-liquid and solid-solid interfacial phenomena, morphological stability, chemical and thermal diffusion, and nucleation phenomena. In the current study, pattern selection dynamics in rod eutectics are investigated using systematic directional solidification experiments and phase field simulations. Directional solidification of a succinonitrile-camphor (SCN-DC) transparent alloy in thin slab geometries of various thicknesses reveals two main points. First, a velocity is indentified at which a transition in array basis vectors is observed in specimens with many rows of rods (i.e. bulk). This transition amounts to a 90 degree rotation of the rod array, shifting from alignment of 1st nearest neighbors to alignment of 2nd nearest neighbors along the slide wall. Second, significant array distortion is observed with decreasing slide thickness, delta, which ultimately leads to a single-row (quasi-3D) morphology where delta/lambda is on the order of unity. In our analysis of these observations, we use a geometrical model to describe the rod arrangement as a function of slide thickness, providing excellent agreement with observation, down to this quasi-3D regime. Further experimental investigation of the early stages of growth shows that the mechanisms involved in the initial dynamics are critical to the array development, especially under geometrical constraint. Phase field simulations show that several rod-type eutectic morphologies are stable over different growth/boundary conditions. Normal circular-rod staggered-array morphologies become unstable and give way to distorted rods and lamellar structures with decreasing material thickness. Distended or peanut-shaped rods are also observed under certain conditions. The boundaries of stability for these growth morphologies and the associated dynamics are investigated here.

Serefoglu, Melis

156

A facile approach to prepare a dual functionalized DNA based material in a bio-deep eutectic solvent.  

PubMed

DNA (Salmon testes) was functionalized by Fe3O4 nanoparticles and protonated layered dititanate sheets (H2·Ti2O5·H2O) in a mixture of choline chloride and ethylene glycol (a deep eutectic solvent) to yield a hybrid material having magnetic and antibacterial properties. Ti sheets were found to interact with the phosphate moieties, while Fe interacted with the base pair of DNA in the hybrid material. PMID:24609301

Mondal, Dibyendu; Bhatt, Jitkumar; Sharma, Mukesh; Chatterjee, Shruti; Prasad, Kamalesh

2014-04-18

157

Phase selection during crystallization of undercooled liquid eutectic lead-tin alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During rapid solidification substantial amounts of undercooling are in general required for formation of metastable phases. Crystallization at varying levels of undercooling and melting of metastable phases were studied during slow cooling and heating of emulsified PB-Sn alloys. Besides the experimental demonstration of the reversibility of metastable phase equilibra, two different principal solidification paths have been identified and compared with the established metastable phase diagram and predictions from classical nucleation theory. The results suggest that the most probable solidification path is described by the 'step rule' resulting in the formation of metastable phases at low undercooling, whereas the stable eutectic phase mixture crystallizes without metastable phase formation at high undercooling.

Fecht, H. J.

1991-01-01

158

The Effect of Salt Water on Rice.  

E-print Network

in the use of any salt water at all. HOW TO DETECT SALT. Salt water may be detected in three ways-by taste, by urinometzr, and by nitrate of silver. I (a) By Taste. Water containing 0.2 per cznt salt has a faint salt taste. The salt taste increases.... If the liquid remains yellow, it contains lore than 0.15 per cent of salt. If it turns red, the amount of salt present 3 negligible. If the solution does not turn red, add a second ounce of the nitrate of ilver to it, and shake. If the mixture turns red...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1909-01-01

159

Eutectic epsilon-near-zero metamaterial terahertz waveguides  

E-print Network

Eutectic epsilon-near-zero metamaterial terahertz waveguides M. Massaouti,1 A. A. Basharin,1,2 M phenomena of enhanced THz transmission through a subwavelength LiF dielectric rod lattice embedded that subwavelength waveguiding of terahertz radiation is achieved within an alkali­halide eutectic metamaterial

160

Eutectic superalloys by edge-defined, film-fed growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of producing directionally solidified eutectic alloy ; composites by edge-defined, film-fed growth (EFG) was carried out. The three ; eutectic alloys which were investigated were gamma + delta, gamma\\/gamma prime + ; delta, and a Co-base TaC alloy containing Cr and Ni. Investigations into the ; compatibility and wettability of these metals with various carbides, borides, ; nitrides,

Hurley

1975-01-01

161

Binary eutectic in-class exercise (Di-An)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students work through a binary eutectic phase diagram in small groups and try to determine a set of generalizations that explain the behavior of such systems (e.g., "the first liquid produced upon heating is always the eutectic composition").

Allen Glazner

162

Production of chlorine from chloride salts  

DOEpatents

A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

1981-01-01

163

Solidification of eutectic system alloys in space (M-19)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is well known that in the liquid state eutectic alloys are theoretically homogeneous under 1 g conditions. However, the homogeneous solidified structure of this alloy is not obtained because thermal convection and non-equilibrium solidification occur. The present investigators have clarified the solidification mechanisms of the eutectic system alloys under 1 g conditions by using the in situ observation method; in particular, the primary crystals of the eutectic system alloys never nucleated in the liquid, but instead did so on the mold wall, and the crystals separated from the mold wall by fluid motion caused by thermal convection. They also found that the equiaxed eutectic grains (eutectic cells) are formed on the primary crystals. In this case, the leading phase of the eutectic must agree with the phase of the primary crystals. In space, no thermal convection occurs so that primary crystals should not move from the mold wall and should not appear inside the solidified structure. Therefore no equiaxed eutectic grains will be formed under microgravity conditions. Past space experiments concerning eutectic alloys were classified into two types of experiments: one with respect to the solidification mechanisms of the eutectic alloys and the other to the unidirectional solidification of this alloy. The former type of experiment has the problem that the solidified structures between microgravity and 1 g conditions show little difference. This is why the flight samples were prepared by the ordinary cast techniques on Earth. Therefore it is impossible to ascertain whether or not the nucleation and growth of primary crystals in the melt occur and if primary crystals influence the formation of the equiaxed eutectic grains. In this experiment, hypo- and hyper-eutectic aluminum copper alloys which are near eutectic point are used. The chemical compositions of the samples are Al-32.4mass%Cu (Hypo-eutectic) and Al-33.5mass%Cu (hyper-eutectic). Long rods for the samples are cast by the Ohno Continuous Casting Process and they show the unidirectionally solidified structure. Each flight and ground sample was made of these same rods. The dimensions of all samples are 4.5 mm in diameter and 23.5 mm in length. Each sample is put in a graphite capsule and then vacuum sealed in a double silica ampoule. Then the ampoule is put in the tantalum cartridge and sealed by electron beam welding. For onbard experiments, a Continuous Heating Furnance (CHF) will be used for melting and solidifying samples under microgravity conditions. Six flight samples will be used. Four samples are hypo-eutectic and two are hyper-eutectic alloys. The surface of the two hypo-eutectic alloy samples are covered with aluminum oxide film to prevent Marangoni convection expected under microgravity conditions. Each sample will be heated to 700 C and held at that temperature for 5 min. After that the samples will be allowed to cool to 500 C in the furnace and they will be taken out of the furnace for He gas cooling. The heating and cooling diagrams for the flight experiments are shown. After collecting the flight samples, the solidified structures of the samples will be examined and the mechanisms of eutectic solidification under microgravity conditions will be determined. It is likely that successful flight experiment results will lead to production of high quality eutectic alloys and eutectic composite materials in space.

Ohno, Atsumi

1993-01-01

164

Diffusionless crystal growth in a eutectic system during rapid solidification  

SciTech Connect

Experiments on nonequilibrium rapid eutectic growth are surveyed. The applicability limits of the modern theoretical models describing rapid solidification of binary systems are assessed. A problem of rapid eutectic growth when the local equilibrium is violated in the solute diffusion field (in the bulk liquid and at the solid-liquid interface) is formulated. An analytical solution to the problem of rapid lamellar eutectic growth under local nonequilibrium conditions in the solute diffusion field is found. It is shown that the diffusion-limited growth of a eutectic pattern ceases as soon as a chemically homogeneous crystalline phase begins to grow when the critical point V=V{sub D} is achieved (V is the solid-liquid interface velocity and V{sub D} is the solute diffusion speed in the bulk liquid). At V {>=} V{sub D}, eutectic decomposition is suppressed and the nascent homogeneous crystalline phase has the initial (nominal) chemical composition of the binary system.

Galenko, P. K., E-mail: peter.galenko@dlr.de; Herlach, D. M. [German Aerospace Center, Institute of Space Simulation (Germany)

2006-07-15

165

Observations on the rare earths. I. Ion exchange studies on thorium-rare earth mixtures. II. X-ray diffraction studies on certain rare earths salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation of Th and Nd ions was studied by passing solutions of thorium nitrate and neodymium chloride and mixtures of these two solutions through beds of Amberlite IR-100H contained in glass tubes. The following eluting agents were investigated: 0.5, 5, and 10% hydrochloric acid solutions; 5 and 10% citric acid solutions; saturated ammonium oxalate solutions; saturated ammonium carbonate solutions; 5%

1948-01-01

166

Improved solubility of DNA in recyclable and reusable bio-based deep eutectic solvents with long-term structural and chemical stability.  

PubMed

The solubility of DNA in bio-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of choline chloride with levulinic acid, glycerol, ethylene glycol, sorbitol and resorcinol was investigated. The macromolecule was found to be soluble and chemically and structurally stable in DESs consisting of mixtures containing glycerol and ethylene glycol. Furthermore recyclability of the DESs was demonstrated over three consecutive reuses in DNA dissolution. PMID:24022824

Mondal, Dibyendu; Sharma, Mukesh; Mukesh, Chandrakant; Gupta, Vishal; Prasad, Kamalesh

2013-10-25

167

The ionothermal synthesis of metal organic frameworks, Ln(C 9O 6H 3)((CH 3NH) 2CO) 2, using deep eutectic solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three new isostructural materials Ln(TMA)(DMU) 2 (Ln(C 9O 6H 3)((CH 3NH) 2CO) 2; Ln: La 1, Nd 2, Eu 3; TMA: trimesate, DMU: dimethylurea) have been synthesised ionothermally using a choline chloride/dimethylurea deep eutectic mixture as the solvent. Normally in ionothermal synthesis the urea portion of the deep eutectic solvent is unstable, breaking down to release ammonium cations that act as templates. In the case of 1- 3, however, the dimethylurea remains intact and is incorporated into the final structure.

Himeur, Farida; Stein, Irene; Wragg, David S.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Lightfoot, Philip; Morris, Russell E.

2010-04-01

168

The Effect of Salt Stoichiometry on Protein-Salt Interactions Determined by Ternary Diffusion in Aqueous Solutions  

E-print Network

The Effect of Salt Stoichiometry on Protein-Salt Interactions Determined by Ternary Diffusion of salt stoichiometry on the transport properties of lysozyme-salt aqueous mixtures. We find that the two cross-diffusion coefficients are very sensitive to salt stoichiometry. One of the cross

Annunziata, Onofrio

169

Method for the production of uranium chloride salt  

SciTech Connect

A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

2013-07-02

170

MOLTEN SALTS FOR CIVILIAN POWER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten salts provide the basis of a new family of liquid fuel power ; reactors. The range of solubility of uranium and thorium compounds makes the ; system flexible, and allows the consideration of a variety of reactors. Suitable ; salt mixtures have meltirg points in the 85O to 95O deg F range and will probably ; prove to be

McPherson

1957-01-01

171

Cloud point extraction of Cu(II) using a mixture of Triton X-100 and dithizone with a salting-out effect and its application to visual determination.  

PubMed

A method for the separation and concentration of trace copper(II) ion (Cu(II)) via cloud point extraction (CPE) using a nonionic surfactant with a salting-out effect was developed and applied as a technique for the visual determination of Cu(II). Triton X-100 (TX-100), which has a cloud point at 64-67 °C in aqueous solutions, was used as the nonionic surfactant for the CPE of Cu(II). Although CPE with TX-100 requires heating of the solution to separate the surfactant-rich phase from the aqueous phase, the new method achieves phase separation at 15-30 °C owing to the addition of a large amount of salt to the solution, which lowers the cloud point. The compound 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) was selected as the chelating agent for complexation and transfer of Cu(II) to the surfactant-rich phase. The extractability of Cu(II) (initial concentration: 10 ?M) was 96.6±2.1% when Na2SO4 was added to a 20% TX-100/4 ?M dithizone solution (pH 2). Using this method, the visual determination of Cu(II) was possible for concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10 ?M. In addition, the extraction system was successfully applied to the visual determination of Cu(II) in a river water sample. PMID:24209356

Sato, Nobuko; Mori, Masanobu; Itabashi, Hideyuki

2013-12-15

172

Eutectic propeties of primitive Earth's magma ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely accepted that the early Earth was partially molten (if not completely) due to the high energy dissipated by terrestrial accretion [1]. After core formation, subsequent cooling of the magma ocean has led to fractional crystallization of the primitive mantle. The residual liquid corresponds to what is now called the fertile mantle or pyrolite. Melting relations of silicates have been extensively investigated using the multi-anvil press, for pressures between 3 and 25 GPa [2,3]. Using the quench technique, it has been shown that the pressure affects significantly the solidus and liquidus curves, and most probably the composition of the eutectic liquid. At higher pressures, up to 65 GPa, melting studies were performed on pyrolite starting material using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) technique [4]. However, the quench technique is not ideal to define melting criteria, and furthermore these studies were limited in pressure range of investigation. Finally, the use of pyrolite may not be relevant to study the melting eutectic temperature. At the core-mantle boundary conditions, melting temperature is documented by a single data point on (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 olivine, provided by shock wave experiments at around 130-140 GPa [5]. These previous results present large uncertainties of ~1000 K. The aim of this study is to determine the eutectic melting temperature in the chemically simplified system composed of the two major lower mantle phases, the MgSiO3 perovskite and MgO periclase. We investigated melting in-situ using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell coupled with angle dispersive X-ray diffraction at the ID27 beamline of the ESRF [6]. Melting relations were investigated in an extended P-T range comparable to those found in the Earth's lower mantle, i.e. from 25 to 120 GPa and up to more than 5000 K. Melting was evidenced from (a) disappearance of one of the two phases in the diffraction pattern, (b) drastic changes of the diffraction image itself, and/or (c) appearance of a broad band of diffuse X-ray scattering associated to the presence of silicate liquid. The pressure evolution of the eutectic temperature is found below the melting curve of pure MgSiO3 perovskite [7] for more than 500 K and also below the solidus curve of pyrolite [4] for 100-200 K at 60 GPa. References [1] B. T. Tonks, H. J. Melosh, Journal of Geophysical Research 98 5319 (1993). [2] Litasov, K., and Ohtani, E. Physics of The Earth and Planetary Interiors, 134(1-2), 105-127, (2002). [3] E. Ito, A. Kubo, T. Katsura et al., Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 143-144 397 (2004). [4] A. Zerr, R. Boehler, Nature 506-508 (1994). [5] J. A. Akins, S. N. Luo, P. D. Asimov et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 31 doi:10.1029/2004GL020237 (2004). [6] Schultz et al. International Journal of High Pressure Research. 25, 1, 71-83 (2005). [7] Zerr, A. and Boehler, R. Science, 262, 553-555 (1993).

Lo Nigro, G.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Perillat, J.-P.

2009-04-01

173

Deep eutectic solvents as novel extraction media for protein partitioning.  

PubMed

Four kinds of green deep eutectic solvent (DES) were synthesized, including choline chloride (ChCl)-urea, tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl)-urea, tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPMBr)-urea and ChCl-methylurea. An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) based ChCl-urea DES was studied for the first time for the extraction of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Single factor experiments proved that the extraction efficiency of BSA was influenced by the mass of the DES, concentration of K2HPO4 solution, separation time and extraction temperature. The optimum conditions were determined through an orthogonal experiment with the four factors described above. The results showed that under the optimum conditions, the average extraction efficiency could reach up to 99.94%, 99.72%, 100.05% and 100.05% (each measured three times). The relative standard deviations (RSD) of extraction efficiencies in precision, repeatability and stability experiments were 0.5533% (n = 5), 0.8306% (n = 5) and 0.9829% (n = 5), respectively. UV-vis and FT-IR spectra confirmed that there were no chemical interactions between BSA and the DES in the extraction process, and the CD spectra proved that the conformation of BSA did not change after extraction. The conductivity, DLS and TEM were combined to investigate the microstructure of the top phase and the possible mechanism for the extraction. The results showed that hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding interactions and the salting-out effect played important roles in the transfer process, and the aggregation and surrounding phenomenon were the main driving forces for the separation. All of these results proved that ionic liquid (IL)-based ATPSs could potentially be substituted with DES-based ATPSs to offer new possibilities in the extraction of proteins. PMID:24699681

Zeng, Qun; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Ding, Xueqin; Chen, Jing; Xu, Kaijia

2014-05-21

174

Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten Salts for Concentrating Solar Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

A key technological issue facing the success of future Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants is creating an economical Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. Current TES systems use either sensible heat in fluids such as oil, or molten salts, or use thermal stratification in a dual-media consisting of a solid and a heat-transfer fluid. However, utilizing the heat of fusion in inorganic molten salt mixtures in addition to sensible heat , as in a Phase change material (PCM)-based TES, can significantly increase the energy density of storage requiring less salt and smaller containers. A major issue that is preventing the commercial use of PCM-based TES is that it is difficult to discharge the latent heat stored in the PCM melt. This is because when heat is extracted, the melt solidifies onto the heat exchanger surface decreasing the heat transfer. Even a few millimeters of thickness of solid material on heat transfer surface results in a large drop in heat transfer due to the low thermal conductivity of solid PCM. Thus, to maintain the desired heat rate, the heat exchange area must be large which increases cost. This project demonstrated that the heat transfer coefficient can be increase ten-fold by using forced convection by pumping a hyper-eutectic salt mixture over specially coated heat exchanger tubes. However,only 15% of the latent heat is used against a goal of 40% resulting in a projected cost savings of only 17% against a goal of 30%. Based on the failure mode effect analysis and experience with pumping salt at near freezing point significant care must be used during operation which can increase the operating costs. Therefore, we conclude the savings are marginal to justify using this concept for PCM-TES over a two-tank TES. The report documents the specialty coatings, the composition and morphology of hypereutectic salt mixtures and the results from the experiment conducted with the active heat exchanger along with the lessons learnt during experimentation.

Mathur, Anoop [Terrafore Inc.] [Terrafore Inc.

2013-08-14

175

Deliquescence of NaCl–NaNO3, KNO3–NaNO3, and NaCl–KNO3 salt mixtures from 90 to 120°C  

PubMed Central

We conducted reversed deliquescence experiments in saturated NaCl–NaNO3–H2O, KNO3–NaNO3–H2O, and NaCl–KNO3–H2O systems from 90 to 120°C as a function of relative humidity and solution composition. NaCl, NaNO3, and KNO3 represent members of dust salt assemblages that are likely to deliquesce and form concentrated brines on high-level radioactive waste package surfaces in a repository environment at Yucca Mountain, NV. Discrepancy between model prediction and experiment can be as high as 8% for relative humidity and 50% for dissolved ion concentration. The discrepancy is attributed primarily to the use of 25°C models for Cl–NO3 and K–NO3 ion interactions in the current Yucca Mountain Project high-temperature Pitzer model to describe the nonideal behavior of these highly concentrated solutions.

Carroll, Susan; Craig, Laura; Wolery, Thomas J

2005-01-01

176

A solar-thermal energy harvesting scheme: enhanced heat capacity of molten HITEC salt mixed with Sn/SiOx core-shell nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrated enhanced solar-thermal storage by releasing the latent heat of Sn/SiOx core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a eutectic salt. The microstructures and chemical compositions of Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs were characterized. In situ heating XRD provides dynamic crystalline information about the Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs during cyclic heating processes. The latent heat of ~29 J g-1 for Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs was measured, and 30% enhanced heat capacity was achieved from 1.57 to 2.03 J g-1 K-1 for the HITEC solar salt without and with, respectively, a mixture of 5% Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs. In addition, an endurance cycle test was performed to prove a stable operation in practical applications. The approach provides a method to enhance energy storage in solar-thermal power plants.We demonstrated enhanced solar-thermal storage by releasing the latent heat of Sn/SiOx core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a eutectic salt. The microstructures and chemical compositions of Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs were characterized. In situ heating XRD provides dynamic crystalline information about the Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs during cyclic heating processes. The latent heat of ~29 J g-1 for Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs was measured, and 30% enhanced heat capacity was achieved from 1.57 to 2.03 J g-1 K-1 for the HITEC solar salt without and with, respectively, a mixture of 5% Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs. In addition, an endurance cycle test was performed to prove a stable operation in practical applications. The approach provides a method to enhance energy storage in solar-thermal power plants. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental results are included for the following: SEM images of the HITEC molten salt with and without a mixture of Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs; statistical diameter distribution of pure Sn and Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs; the HAADF image and EDS linescan profile of a Sn/SiOx core-shell NP; XRD analysis for Sn NPs annealing at different heating temperatures; the XRD spectra of Sn/SiOx core-shell NPs before and after RTA for the shell protection test. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06810b

Lai, Chih-Chung; Chang, Wen-Chih; Hu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zhiming M.; Lu, Ming-Chang; Chueh, Yu-Lun

2014-04-01

177

Creep resistance of directionally solidified eutectic ceramics : experiments and model  

E-print Network

The creep resistance of the directionally solidified eutectic ceramic of Al?0?/c-ZrO?(Y?0?) was studied in the temperature range of 1200-1520?C both exprimentally and by the mechanistic dislocation model. The topologically ...

Yi, Jin, 1971-

2004-01-01

178

Use of Microgravity to Control the Microstructure of Eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant began in June of 1996. Its long term goal is to be able to control the microstructure of directionally solidified eutectic alloys, through an improved understanding of the influence of convection. The primary objective of the projects in the present grant is to test hypotheses for the reported influence of microgravity on the microstructure of eutectics. The prior experimental results on the influence of microgravity on the microstructure of eutectics have been contradictory. With lamellar eutectics, microgravity had a negligible effect on the microstructure. Microgravity experiments with fibrous eutectics sometimes showed a finer microstructure and sometimes a coarser microstructure. Most research has been done on the MnBi/Bi rod-like eutectic. Larson and Pirich obtained a two-fold finer microstructure both from microgravity and by use of a magnetic field to quench buoyancy-driven convection. Smith, on the other hand, observed no change in microgravity. Prior theoretical work at Clarkson University showed that buoyancy-driven convection in the vertical Bridgman configuration is not vigorous enough to alter the concentration field in front of a growing eutectic sufficiently to cause a measurable change in microstructure. We assumed that the bulk melt was at the eutectic composition and that freezing occurred at the extremum, i.e. with minimum total undercooling at the freezing interface. There have been four hypotheses attempting to explain the observed changes in microstructure of fibrous eutectics caused by convection: I .A fluctuating freezing rate, combined with unequal kinetics for fiber termination and branching. 2. Off-eutectic composition, either in the bulk melt due to an off-eutectic feed or at the freezing interface because of departure from the extremum condition. 3. Presence of a strong habit modifying impurity whose concentration at the freezing interface would be altered by convection. At the beginning of the present grant, we favored the first of these hypotheses and set out to test it both experimentally and theoretically. We planned the following approaches: I .Pass electric current pulses through the MnBi/Bi eutectic during directional solidification in order to produce an oscillatory freezing rate. 2. Directionally solidify the MnBi/Bi eutectic on Mir using the QUELD II gradient freeze furnace developed by Professor Smith at Queen's University. 3. Select another fibrous eutectic system for investigation using the Accelerated Crucible Rotation Technique to introduce convection. 4. Develop theoretical models for eutectic solidification with an oscillatory freezing rate. Because of the problems with Mir, we substituted ground-based experiments at Queen's University with QUELD II vertical and horizontal, with and without vibration of the furnace. The Al-Si system was chosen for the ACRT experiments. Three related approaches were used to model eutectic solidification with an oscillatory freezing rate. A sharp interface model was used to calculate composition oscillations at the freezing interface in response to imposed freezing rate oscillations.

Wilcox. William R.; Regel, Liya L.

1999-01-01

179

Interaction of ?-silicon carbide with lead-lithium eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compatibility of silicon carbide with molten lead-lithium eutectic has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and prolonged heating of ? - SiC pellet in molten Pb-17Li eutectic alloy at 823K. Multiple peaks were present in the DSC analysis. However, XRD analysis has not shown any new phase formation, which indicated that no chemical reaction occurred. An experiment have also been carried out by dipping ? - SiC pellet in molten Pb-17Li eutectic alloy at 823K for 500 h to check the solubility of ? - SiC in molten Pb-17Li. Substantial mass loss of ?-SiC pellet was observed which could be due to dissolution of ?-SiC or its component into the eutectic melt.

Chakraborty, Poulami; Kumar, Sanjay; Fotedar, Ram Kishen; Krishnamurthy, Nagaiyar

2013-06-01

180

Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of storing thermal energy at temperatures of 450 C to 535 C in the form of latent heat of fusion was examined for over 30 inorganic salts and salt mixtures. Alkali carbonate mixtures were chosen as phase-change storage materials in this temperature range because of their relatively high storage capacity and thermal conductivity, moderate cost, low volumetric expansion upon melting, low corrosivity, and good chemical stability. Means of improving heat conduction through the solid salt were explored.

Maru, H. C.; Dullea, J. F.; Kardas, A.; Paul, L.; Marianowski, L. G.; Ong, E.; Sampath, V.; Huang, V. M.; Wolak, J. C.

1978-01-01

181

Molten Salt Fuel Version of Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE)  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt with dissolved uranium is being considered for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) fission blanket as a backup in case a solid-fuel version cannot meet the performance objectives, for example because of radiation damage of the solid materials. Molten salt is not damaged by radiation and therefore could likely achieve the desired high burnup (>99%) of heavy atoms of {sup 238}U. A perceived disadvantage is the possibility that the circulating molten salt could lend itself to misuse (proliferation) by making separation of fissile material easier than for the solid-fuel case. The molten salt composition being considered is the eutectic mixture of 73 mol% LiF and 27 mol% UF{sub 4}, whose melting point is 490 C. The use of {sup 232}Th as a fuel is also being studied. ({sup 232}Th does not produce Pu under neutron irradiation.) The temperature of the molten salt would be {approx}550 C at the inlet (60 C above the solidus temperature) and {approx}650 C at the outlet. Mixtures of U and Th are being considered. To minimize corrosion of structural materials, the molten salt would also contain a small amount ({approx}1 mol%) of UF{sub 3}. The same beryllium neutron multiplier could be used as in the solid fuel case; alternatively, a liquid lithium or liquid lead multiplier could be used. Insuring that the solubility of Pu{sup 3+} in the melt is not exceeded is a design criterion. To mitigate corrosion of the steel, a refractory coating such as tungsten similar to the first wall facing the fusion source is suggested in the high-neutron-flux regions; and in low-neutron-flux regions, including the piping and heat exchangers, a nickel alloy, Hastelloy, would be used. These material choices parallel those made for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL. The nuclear performance is better than the solid fuel case. At the beginning of life, the tritium breeding ratio is unity and the plutonium plus {sup 233}U production rate is {approx}0.6 atoms per 14.1 MeV neutron.

Moir, R W; Shaw, H F; Caro, A; Kaufman, L; Latkowski, J F; Powers, J; Turchi, P A

2008-10-24

182

Magnetic Anisotropy of MnSb&sngbnd;Sb Aligned Eutectic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unidirectional solidification of melts of MnSb&sngbnd;Sb eutectic at 2 cm?h has produced an aligned structure. The ferromagnetic MnSb phase exists in the eutectic as rods 2 ? in diameter and several millimeters in length in an Sb matrix. X-ray examination has shown the fibers to be single crystals all having the same orientation relative to the single-crystal matrix. Both as-cast

M. R. Jackson; R. N. Tauber; R. W. Kraft

1968-01-01

183

Lamellar coupled growth in the neopentylglycol-(D)camphor eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lamellar eutectic growth was investigated in the transparent organic alloy neopentylglycol-(D)camphor of eutectic composition (NPG-45.3 wt% DC) using bulk (3D) and thin (2D) samples. Two types of eutectic grains were observed in the polycrystalline samples, either with lamellae well aligned to the direction of solidification or inclined at an angle of 21.5±1.5°. The well aligned grains were used for determining lamellar spacing as function of growth velocity V and temperature gradient G. Based on these data the Jackson-Hunt constant was evaluated to be KJH=1.60±0.15 ?m3 s-1. For low growth velocity experiments the contact angles for (DC) and (NPG) lamellae at eutectic triple junctions were also evaluated, being ?(DC)=50.9±4.1° and ?(NPG)=41.8±4.7°, respectively. Using these values, as well as phase diagram data and the Gibbs-Thomson coefficients, the chemical coefficient of diffusion of (D)camphor in the eutectic liquid at eutectic temperature 53 °C was estimated to be DL=97±15 ?m2 s-1.

Witusiewicz, V. T.; Sturz, L.; Hecht, U.; Rex, S.

2014-01-01

184

Deliquescence of NaCl-NaNO3, KNO3-NaNO3, and NaCl-KNO3 Salt Mixtures From 90 to 120?C  

SciTech Connect

We conducted reversed deliquescence experiments in saturated NaCl-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O, KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O, and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O systems from 90 to 120 C as a function of relative humidity and solution composition. NaCl, NaNO{sub 3}, and KNO{sub 3} represent members of dust salt assemblages that are likely to deliquesce and form concentrated brines on high-level radioactive waste package surfaces in a repository environment at Yucca Mountain, NV, USA. Discrepancy between model prediction and experimental code can be as high as 8% for relative humidity and 50% for dissolved ion concentration. The discrepancy is attributed primarily to the use of 25 C models for Cl-NO{sub 3} and K-NO{sub 3} ion interactions in the current Yucca Mountain Project high-temperature Pitzer model to describe the non-ideal behavior of these highly concentrated solutions.

Carroll, S A; Craig, L; Wolery, T J

2004-10-20

185

[sup 7]Li-NMR determination of stability constants as a function of temperature for lithium-crown ether complexes in a molten salt mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The stability constants of several crown ethers with lithium ion were determined by [sup 7]Li-NMR measurements. A room temperature, basic molten salt of the composition of 55/45 mol % 1-methyl-3-ethyl-imidazolium chloride to aluminum (III) chloride was used as solvent. On the basis of a 1:1 complex formation the following order was found for the stability constants of the investigated crown ethers: 18-crown-6 < 12-crown-4 < benzo-15-crown-5 < 15-crown-5. A temperature dependence study for 12-crown-4, benzo-15-crown-5, and 15-crown-5 was undertaken for the range 5-84[degree]C. Values of [Delta]H and [Delta]S were calculated. At 5.5[degree]C the splitting of the single, fast exchange peak into two separate signals was observed for benzo-15-crown-5, providing further evidence for the formation of the 1:1 complex. 34 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Gerhard, A. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States) Univ. of Witten/Herdecke (Germany)); Cobranchi, D.P.; Garland, B.A.; Highley, A.M.; Huang, Y.H.; Konya, G.; Eyring, E.M. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Zahl, A.; Eldik, R. van (Univ. of Witten/Herdecke (Germany)); Petrucci, S. (Polytechnic Univ., Farmingdale, NY (United States))

1994-08-11

186

Shear Strength of Eutectic Sn-Bi Lead-Free Solders After Corrosion Testing and Thermal Aging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-cost manufacturing in the electronics industry is becoming more demanding, particularly in the production of consumer electronics. Such manufacturing processes require reliable and low-cost lead-free solders. Among the low temperature lead-free solders, eutectic Sn-Bi solder has attracted a great deal of interest since it offers good reliability comparable to that of Sn-Pb solders. In this paper, the shear strength of eutectic 42Sn-58Bi (wt.%) lead-free solder was studied using combinations of environmental tests including thermal aging at 100 °C, salt spray test, and a sequential combination of these tests. Microstructural studies on samples were performed at different time intervals of testing. To study the effect of salt spray and thermal aging on the mechanical reliability, shear testing was performed on the samples. Failure analysis including fractography on samples was conducted at different time intervals using a scanning electron microscope. Considerable corrosion was observed after the salt spray test. This was found to have a significant effect on the shear strength of the solder joints. Additionally, thermal aging was found to cause coarsening and to increase the thickness of intermetallic layers. This was also found to adversely affect the shear strength. The combination test was found to have the most significant effect, as the lowest shear strengths were seen after this testing.

Mostofizadeh, Milad; Pippola, Juha; Frisk, Laura

2014-05-01

187

Are deep eutectic solvents benign or toxic?  

PubMed

In continuation of investigation for environmentally benign protocol for new solvents termed deep eutectic solvents (DESs), it is herein reported results concerning the toxicity and cytotoxicity of choline chloride (ChCl) based DESs with four hydrogen bond donors including glycerine, ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and urea. The toxicity was investigated using two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and two Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cytotoxicity effect was tested using the Artemia salina leach. It was found that there was no toxic effect for the tested DESs on all of the studied bacteria confirming their benign effects on these bacteria. Nevertheless, it was found that the cytotoxicity of DESs was much higher than their individual components (e.g. glycerine, ChCl) indicating that their toxicological behavior is different. For our best knowledge this is the first time that toxicity and cytotoxicity of DESs were studied. The toxicity and cytotoxicity of DESs varied depending on the structure of components. Careful usage of the terms non-toxicity and biodegradability must be considered. More investigation on this matter is required. PMID:23200570

Hayyan, Maan; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Hayyan, Adeeb; Al-Saadi, Mohammed A; AlNashef, Inas M; Mirghani, Mohamed E S; Saheed, Olorunnisola Kola

2013-02-01

188

Influence of convection on eutectic microstructure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When the MnBi-Bi eutectic is directionally solidified, it forms fibers of MnBi in a matrix of bismuth. When the material solidified in space at rates of 30 and 50 cm/hr, the average fiber spacing lambda was about one half of the value obtained in cases in which the same material solidified on earth. Neither an altered temperature gradient nor a fluctuating freezing rate are apparently responsible for the change in lambda, and the possibility is studied that natural convection increases lambda on earth by perturbing the compositional field in the melt ahead of the growing solid. A theoretical analysis is conducted along with some experiments. On the basis of the theoretical results for lamellar growth, it is concluded that the spacing lambda increases with increasing stirring, especially at small freezing rates. The experiments indicate that at low growth rates the cross-sectional area of the MnBi blades increases with increased stirring and with decreased growth rate.

Baskaran, V.; Eisa, G. F.; Wilcox, W. R.

1985-01-01

189

Ultrasound in lead-bismuth eutectic  

SciTech Connect

The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN) is in the process of designing MYRRHA, a new multi-purpose irradiation facility to replace the ageing BR2. MYRRHA is a fast spectrum reactor cooled with lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). As liquid metal is opaque to visual light, ultrasonic measurement techniques are selected to fulfill essential tasks that, according to our assessment, will be demanded by licensing authorities, in particular: fuel assembly identification and localization of a lost fuel assembly. To that end, a considerable research effort at SCK.CEN is devoted to study ultrasonic propagation in LBE. As ultrasonic experiments in LBE are elaborate and expensive to set up, we are particularly interested in to what extent experiments in water can be extrapolated to LBE - one of the main focuses of this article. We describe and present results of a first experiment with this goal which shows that the signal to noise ratio is better in LBE and that we even see small diffuse reflections up to 40 deg. off normal. On the other hand, we do not see internal reflections in stainless steel objects in LBE which we do in water. Therefore, we conclude that experiments in water can be used to validate algorithms for LBE on the condition that they do not rely on internal reflections. We also present solutions to tackle the essential tasks: fuel assembly identification and lost object localization. The requirements for the ultrasonic equipment implementing these solutions are also discussed. (authors)

Dierckx, M.; Van Dyck, D. [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, BE-2400, Mol (Belgium)

2011-07-01

190

Characterization of low-melting electrolytes for potential geothermal borehole power supplies: The LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic  

SciTech Connect

The suitability of modified thermal-battery technology for use as a potential power source for geothermal borehole applications is under investigation. As a first step, the discharge processes that take place in LiSi/LiBr-KBr-LiF/FeS{sub 2} thermal cells were studied at temperatures of 350 C and 400 C using pelletized cells with immobilized electrolyte. Incorporation of a reference electrode allowed the relative contribution of each electrode to the overall cell polarization to be determined. The results of single-cell tests are presented, along with preliminary data for cells based on a lower-melting CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic salt.

Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

1998-05-01

191

Applicability evaluation of Deep Eutectic Solvents-Cellulase system for lignocellulose hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) have recently emerged as a new generation of ionic liquids for lignocellulose pretreatment. However, DESs contain salt components which tend to inactivate cellulase in the subsequent saccharification process. To alleviate this problem, it is necessary to evaluate the applicability of the DESs-Cellulase system. This was accomplished in the present study by first studying the stability of cellulase in the presence of selected DESs followed by applicability evaluation based on glucose production, energy consumption and kinetic performance. Results showed that the cellulase was able to retain more than 90% of its original activity in the presence of 10% (v/v) for glycerol based DES (GLY) and ethylene glycol based DES (EG). Furthermore, both DESs system exhibited higher glucose percentage enhancement and lower energy consumption as compared to diluted alkali system. Among the two DESs studied, EG showed comparatively better kinetic performance. PMID:25661309

Gunny, Ahmad Anas Nagoor; Arbain, Dachyar; Nashef, Enas Muen; Jamal, Parveen

2015-04-01

192

Explosive double salts and preparation  

DOEpatents

Applicants have discovered a new composition of matter which is an explosive addition compound of ammonium nitrate (AN) and diethylenetriamine trinitrate (DETN) in a 50:50 molar ratio. The compound is stable over extended periods of time only at temperatures higher than 46.degree. C., decomposing to a fine-grained eutectic mixture (which is also believed to be new) of AN and DETN at temperatures lower than 46.degree. C. The compound of the invention has an x-ray density of 1.61 g/cm.sup.3, explodes to form essentially only gaseous products, has higher detonation properties (i.e., detonation velocity and pressure) than those of any mechanical mixture having the same density and composition as the compound of the invention, is a quite insensitive explosive material, can be cast at temperatures attainable by high pressure steam, and is prepared from inexpensive ingredients. Methods of preparing the compound of the invention and the fine-grained eutectic composition of the invention are given.

Cady, Howard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Lee, Kien-yin (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

193

Making Bath Salts for Mother's Day, a Primary Chemistry Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a guided discovery where students make chemical mixtures using sodium, learn about the Periodic Table, view salt under a microscope, and have a final result of bath salts for the bathtub

194

In-situ laser synthesis of Nd-Al-O coatings: the role of sublattice cations in eutectic formation.  

PubMed

Neodymium aluminate coatings have been prepared in-situ by the laser zone melting (LZM) method, using a CO2 SLAB-type laser emitting at 10.6?µm. Polycrystalline Al2O3 commercial plates have been used as substrates, and coatings were prepared from the corresponding mixtures of powdered neodymium and aluminium oxides as starting materials. Microstructure, studied by SEM and phase composition, studied by XRD, proved the in-situ formation of a NdAlO3/NdAl11O18 eutectic. As a result, a well integrated composite coating was formed. Nanoindentation tests are consistent with excellent integration between coating and substrate. Structural similarities between the eutectic components within the coating, as well as between these and the substrate, are consistent with the crystallographic concepts proposed by Vegas (Ramos-Gallardo & Vegas, 1997), where cation sub-arrays play an important role governing metal oxide structures. These structure sublattices are suggested as the driving force behind eutectic oxide formation. PMID:25643721

de Francisco, Isabel; Bea, Jose Antonio; Vegas, Angel; Carda, Juan Bautista; de la Fuente, German Francisco

2015-02-01

195

Development of media for dynamic latent heat storage for the low-temperature range. Part 1: Thermal analyses of selected salt hydrate systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phase change temperatures and phase change enthalpies of seventeen salt hydrates, three double salts, and four eutectics were measured thermodynamically and the results reported herein. Good results were obtained, especially for congruently melting salt hydrates. Incongruently melting salt hydrates appear less suitable for heat storage applications. The influence of the second phase - water, acid and hydroxide - to the latent heat is described. From these results, basic values of the working temperatures and storage capabilities of various storage media compositions may be derived.

Kanwischer, H.; Tamme, R.

1985-01-01

196

Directionally solidified eutectic gamma-gamma nickel-base superalloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A directionally solidified multivariant eutectic gamma-gamma prime nickel-base superalloy casting having improved high temperature properties was developed. The alloy is comprised of a two phase eutectic structure consisting essentially of on a weight percent base, 6.0 to 9.0 aluminum, 5.0 to 17.0 tantalum, 0-10 cobalt, 0-6 vanadium, 0-6 rhenium, 2.0-6.0 tungsten, and the balance being nickel, subject to the proviso that the sum of the atomic percentages of aluminum plus tantalum is within the range of from 19-22, and the ratio of atomic percentages of tantalum to aluminum plus tantalum is within the range of from 0.12 to 0.23. Embedded within the gamma nickel-base matrix are aligned eutectic gamma prime phase (primarily nickel-aluminum-tantalum) reinforcing fibers.

Jackson, M. R. (inventor)

1977-01-01

197

Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt  

SciTech Connect

Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete occlusion of salt and a uniform distribution of chloride and fission products are desired for incorporation of the powders into the final waste form. The relative effectiveness of the blending process was studied over a series of temperature, time, and composition profiles. The major criteria for determining the effectiveness of the mixing operations were the level and uniformity of residual free salt in the mixtures. High operating temperatures (>775 K) improved salt occlusion. Reducing the chloride levels in the mixture to below 80% of the full salt capacity of the zeolite significantly reduced the free salt level in the final product.

Pereira, C.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

1996-05-01

198

Transient and steady state creep response of ice I and magnesium sulfate hydrate eutectic aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice\\/hydrate eutectic aggregates are much stronger than pure ice at low stressAt high stress, eutectic aggregates display semibrittle behaviorA semibrittle icy shell would require less stress to form folds and cracks

Christine McCarthy; Reid F. Cooper; David L. Goldsby; William B. Durham; Stephen H. Kirby

2011-01-01

199

HIMERT: A Pan-European Project for the Development of Metal-Carbon Eutectics as Temperature Standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal-carbon eutectic mixtures show much promise for high-temperature standards applications. A research project, Novel, High temperature, Metal-carbon Eutectic fixed points for Radiation Thermometry, Radiometry and Thermocouples (HIMERT) was accepted by the European Union (submitted under the Framework 5 Growth Programme) with a view to developing a unified European approach to these standards. The objectives of the project are to develop fixed-point cells both for radiation thermometry/radiometry and contact thermometry calibration applications. In total three sets of cells will be developed, two for radiation thermometry (by BNM-INM and NPL) and one for contact sensors (by BNM-LNE) and comparisons performed of the differing crucible designs. The cells developed for radiation thermometry will be calibrated according to the ITS-90 and measured radiometrically by a third participant (PTB). A set of cells will be transported to a laboratory external to the EU (the National Metrology Institute of Japan, NMIJ) for comparison with the cells developed there. In parallel with the experimental work a theoretical investigation of the eutectic process will be elaborated by the Universidad de Valladolid. Involvement of manufacturers of both contact sensors (Thermocoax) and IR thermometers (LAND Instruments) will ensure that the project works towards the provision of better high temperature standards for the wider measurement community. In addition, at the end of the project a discussion workshop will be held where the research team will present their findings to the high temperature user community in European industry with the aim of improving metrological standards through stimulating the uptake of metal-carbon eutectic technology on a broad front. A description of the project is given and first results are presented.

Machin, G.; Beynon, G.; Edler, F.; Fourrez, S.; Hartmann, J.; Lowe, D.; Morice, R.; Sadli, M.; Villamanan, M.

2003-09-01

200

Effects of Pb contamination on the eutectic SnAg solder joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutectic Sn-Ag solder is being considered as a potential replacement for Sn-Pb solders. A potential drawback to using the eutectic Sn-Ag solder is its higher melting point, 221°C, compared with the eutectic Pb-Sn solder. Owing to its higher melting temperature, the eutectic Sn-Ag solder is also being considered for automotive under-the-hood applications, which experience high temperature environments. Electronic components and\\/or

S. Choi; T. R. Bieler; K. N. Subramanian; J. P. Lucas

2001-01-01

201

Prebiotic phosphate ester syntheses in a deep eutectic solvent.  

PubMed

We report a route to synthesize a wide range of organophosphates of biological significance in a deep eutectic solvent (2:1 urea and choline chloride), utilizing various orthophosphate sources. Heating an organic alcohol in the solvent along with a soluble phosphorus source yields phosphorus esters of choline as well as that of the added organic in yields between 15 to 99 %. In addition, phosphite analogs of biological phosphates and peptides were also formed by the simple mixing of reagents and heating at 60-70 °C in the deep eutectic solvent. The presented dehydration reactions are relevant to prebiotic and green chemistry in alternative solvents. PMID:24368625

Gull, Maheen; Zhou, Manshui; Fernández, Facundo M; Pasek, Matthew A

2014-02-01

202

Cobalt-Carbon Eutectic Fixed Point for Contact Thermometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Co-C eutectic fixed points were constructed for thermocouple calibration. The eutectic fixed points were measured with a Pt/Pd thermocouple calibrated at the freezing temperatures of Sn, Zn, Al, Ag, and Au. A temperature of (1323.99 ± 0.52) °C ( k = 2) was determined via this method. The cell design allowed filling to be accomplished in a single step. Each cell was held above 1300 °C for at least 42 h and was subjected to at least 20 melt/freeze cycles with no mechanical failure occurring.

Todd, A. D. W.; Gotoh, M.; Woods, D. J.; Hill, K. D.

2011-01-01

203

Palladium-Carbon Eutectic Fixed Point for Thermocouple Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Pd-C eutectic fixed point has been produced using a molybdenum disilicide element, electrically heated furnace that was built in-house. The eutectic fixed point was measured with two Pt/Pd thermocouples calibrated at the fixed points of Sn, Zn, Al, Ag, and Au. An ITS-90 temperature of (1490.69 ± 0.88) °C ( k = 2) was obtained for the inflection point of the melting plateau. Diffusion of Pd into the thermowell and onto the thermocouple protection tube was observed.

Todd, A. D. W.; Gotoh, M.; Woods, D. J.; Hill, K. D.

2011-01-01

204

How polar are choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents?  

PubMed

Developing and characterizing green solvents with low toxicity and cost is one of the most important issues in chemistry. Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs), in this regard, have shown tremendous promise. Compared to popular organic solvents, DESs possess negligible VOCs and are non-flammable. Compared to ionic liquids, which share many characteristics but are ionic compounds and not ionic mixtures, DESs are cheaper to make, much less toxic and mostly biodegradable. An estimate of the polarity associated with DESs is essential if they are to be used as green alternatives to common organic solvents in industries and academia. As no one physical parameter can satisfactorily represent solute-solvent interactions within a medium, polarity of DESs is assessed through solvatochromic optical spectroscopic responses of several UV-vis absorbance and molecular fluorescence probes. Information on the local microenvironment (i.e., the cybotactic region) that surrounds several solvatochromic probes [betaine dye, pyrene, pyrene-1-carboxaldehyde, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS), p-toluidinyl-6-naphthalene sulfonate (TNS), 6-propionyl-2-(dimethylaminonaphthalene) (PRODAN), coumarin-153, and Nile Red] for four common and popular DESs formed from choline chloride combined with 1,2-ethanediol, glycerol, urea, and malonic acid, respectively, in 1?:?2 molar ratios termed ethaline, glyceline, reline, and maline is obtained and used to assess the effective polarity afforded by each of these DESs. The four DESs as indicated by these probe responses are found to be fairly dipolar in nature. Absorbance probe betaine dye and fluorescence probes ANS, TNS, PRODAN, coumarin-153, and Nile Red, whose solvatochromic responses are based on photoinduced charge-transfer, imply ethaline and glyceline, DESs formed using alcohol-based H-bond donors, to be relatively more dipolar in nature as compared to reline and maline. The pyrene polarity scale, which is based on polarity-induced changes in vibronic bands, indicates reline, the DES composed of urea as the hydrogen bond donor, to be significantly more dipolar than the other three DESs. Response of pyrene-1-carboxaldehyde, a polarity probe based on inversion of n-?* and ?-?* states, hints at maline to be the most dipolar of the four DESs. The molecular structure of the H-bond donor in a DES clearly controls the dipolarity afforded by the DES. H-bonding and other specific solute-solvent interactions are found to play an important role in solvatochromic probe behavior for the four DESs. The cybotactic region of a probe dissolved in a DES affords information on the polarity of the DES towards solutes of similar nature and functionality. PMID:24305780

Pandey, Ashish; Rai, Rewa; Pal, Mahi; Pandey, Siddharth

2014-01-28

205

Nonisothermal eutectic crystallization K. R. Elder1,2  

E-print Network

field model was used to describe the dynamics of the solidification of an undercooled liquid phase can be a complex process involving both solidification dynamics and concentration phase separation A model for the dynamics of nonisothermal eutectic growth is examined in the limit of a spatially uniform

Gunton, James D.

206

Phase-Field Model for Solidification of a Eutectic Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss two phase-field models for solidification of a eutectic alloy, a situation in which a liquid may transform into two distinct solid phases. The first is based on a regular solution model for the solid with a chemical miscibility gap. This model suffers from the deficiency that, in the sharp interface limit, it approximates a free-boundary

A. A. Wheeler; G. B. McFadden; W. J. Boettinger

1996-01-01

207

Molten salt pyrolysis of latex. [synthetic hydrocarbon fuel production using the Guayule shrub  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Latex-rich plants such as Guayule or extracts thereof are pyrolyzed in an inert nitrogen atmosphere inorganic salt melts such as a LiCl/KCl eutectic at a temperature of about 500 C. The yield is over 60% of a highly aromatic, combustible hydrocarbon oil suitable for use as a synthetic liquid fuel.

Bauman, A. J. (inventor)

1981-01-01

208

Use of Microgravity to Control the Microstructure of Eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant began in June of 1996. Its long term goal is to be able to control the microstructure of directionally solidified eutectic alloys, through an improved understanding of the influence of convection. The primary objective of the present projects is to test hypotheses for the reported influence of microgravity on the microstructure of three fibrous eutectics (MnBi-Bi, InSb-NiSb, Al3Ni-Al). A secondary objective is to determine the influence of convection on the microstructure of other eutectic alloys. Two doctoral students and a masters student supported as a teaching assistant were recruited for this research. Techniques were developed for directional solidification of MnBi-Bi eutectics with periodic application of current pulses to produce an oscillatory freezing rate. Image analysis techniques were developed to obtain the variation in MnBi fiber spacing, which was found to be normally distributed. The mean and standard deviation of fiber spacing were obtained for several freezing conditions. Eighteen ampoules were prepared for use in the gradient freeze furnace QUELD developed at Queen's University for use in microgravity. Nine of these ampoules will be solidified soon at Queen's in a ground-based model. We hope to solidify the other nine in the QUELD that is mounted on the Canadian Microgravity Isolation Mount on MIR. Techniques are being developed for directional solidification of the Al-Si eutectic at different freezing rates, with and without application of accelerated crucible rotation to induce convection. For the first time, theoretical methods are being developed to analyze eutectic solidification with an oscillatory freezing rate. In a classical sharp-interface model, we found that an oscillatory freezing rate increases the deviation of the average interfacial composition from the eutectic, and increases the undercooling of the two phases by different amounts. This would be expected to change the volume fraction solidifying and the fiber spacing. Because of difficulties in tracking the freezing interfaces of the two solid phases, a phase-field model is also being developed. A paper demonstrating application of phase field methods to periodic structures has been submitted for publication.

Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.; Smith, Reginald W.

1998-01-01

209

Recent advances in the molten salt technology for the destruction of energetic materials  

SciTech Connect

The DOE has thousands of pounds of energetic materials which result from dismantlement operations at the Pantex Plant. The authors have demonstrated the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for the treatment of explosives and explosive-containing wastes on a 1.5 kilogram of explosive per hour scale and are currently building a 5 kilogram per hour unit. MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as binders and metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic material waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a crucible containing a molten salt, in this case a eutectic mixture of Na, K, and Li carbonates. The following pure component DOE and DoD explosives have been destroyed in LLNL`s experimental unit at their High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K-6, NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following formulations were also destroyed: Comp B, LX-10, LX-16, LX-17, PBX-9404, and XM46, a US Army liquid gun propellant. In this 1.5 kg/hr unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NOx were found to be well below 1T. In addition to destroying explosive powders and molding powders the authors have also destroyed materials that are typical of real world wastes. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the information obtained on the smaller unit, the authors have constructed a 5 kg/hr MSD unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. This unit is currently under shakedown tests and evaluation.

Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.

1995-11-01

210

Bath Salts  

MedlinePLUS

Synthetic cathinones, often called “bath salts,” are powerful, illegal, and can cause hallucinations and violent behavior, among other dangerous effects. Twitter Facebook RSS 582 Exposures Jan. 1, ...

211

Salts & Solubility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive simulation, learners will add different salts to water and then watch the salts dissolve and achieve a dynamic equilibrium with solid precipitate. Learners will also compare the number of ions in NaCl to other slightly soluble salts, and they will relate the charges on ions to the number of ions in the formula of a salt. Learners will also learn how to calculate Ksp values. This activity includes an online simulation, sample learning goals, a teacher's guide, and translations in over 20 languages.

2012-12-27

212

Effect of inorganic salts on crystallization of poly(ethylene glycol) in frozen solutions.  

PubMed

The effect of inorganic salts on eutectic crystallization of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 1500-20,000 in frozen solution was studied to model the polymer and inorganic salt interaction in freeze-dried formulations. Thermal analysis of an aqueous PEG 3000 solution showed a eutectic PEG crystallization exotherm at approximately -47 degrees C and a subsequent PEG crystal melting endotherm at -14.9 degrees C. Addition of sodium chloride prevented the PEG crystallization in the freeze-concentrated solution surrounding ice crystals. Higher concentration NaCl was required to retain higher molecular weight PEG in the amorphous state. Various inorganic salts prevented the PEG crystallization to varying degrees depending mainly on the position of the anion in the Hofmeister's lyotropic series. Some salting-in and 'intermediate' salts (NaSCN, NaI, NaBr, NaCl, LiCl, KCl, and RbCl) inhibited the crystallization of PEG 7500 in frozen solutions. On the other hand, salting-out salts (NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, Na2SO4, and NaF) did not show an apparent effect on the PEG crystallization. Some salting-out salts induced PEG crystallization in PEG and sucrose combination frozen solutions. The varying abilities of salts to prevent the PEG crystallization in frozen solutions strongly suggested that the solutes had different degrees of miscibility in the freeze-concentrates. PMID:15607262

Izutsu, Ken-ichi; Aoyagi, Nobuo

2005-01-01

213

Mixture Experiments  

SciTech Connect

A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

Piepel, Gregory F.

2007-12-01

214

Salt Painting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this art meets chemistry activity, early learners discover the almost magical absorbent properties of salt while creating ethereal watercolor paintings. Learners first use watercolor to paint an image. Then, they sprinkle salt on the wet paint and observe. Use the provided discussion questions to encourage reflection.

OMSI

2004-01-01

215

Recent advances in the molten salt destruction of energetic materials  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated the use of the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for destroying explosives, liquid gun propellant, and explosives-contaminated materials on a 1.5 kg of explosive/hr bench- scale unit (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In our recently constructed 5 kg/hr pilot- scale unit we have also demonstrated the destruction of a liquid gun propellant and simulated wastes containing HMX (octogen). MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic materials waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a vessel containing molten salt (a eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium carbonates). The following pure explosives have been destroyed in our bench-scale experimental unit located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K- 6 (keto-RDX), NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following compositions were also destroyed: Comp B, LX- IO, LX- 1 6, LX- 17, PBX-9404, and XM46 (liquid gun propellant). In this 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NO{sub x} were found to be well below 1%. In addition to destroying explosive powders and compositions we have also destroyed materials that are typical of residues which result from explosives operations. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic-bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the process data obtained on the bench-scale unit we designed and constructed a next-generation 5 kg/hr pilot-scale unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. The pilot unit has completed process implementation operations and explosives safety reviews. To date, in this pilot unit we have successfully destroyed liquid gun propellant and dimethylsulfoxide containing HMX in continuous, long-duration runs.

Pruneda, C. O., LLNL

1996-09-01

216

Nucleation and Growth of Eutectic Si in Al-Si Alloys with Na Addition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Al-5 wt pct Si-based alloys with Na additions (19 and 160 ppm) have been produced by controlled sand casting and melt spinning. Entrained droplet technique and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to investigate the nucleation behavior of eutectic Si. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography were used to investigate the distribution of Na atoms within eutectic Si and at the interfaces between eutectic Si and eutectic Al. It was found that (i) only 19 ppm Na addition results into a high undercooling (49 K (49 °C)) of the entrained eutectic droplet. However, further increasing Na addition up to 160 ppm exerts no positive effect on the nucleation of eutectic Si, instead a decreased undercooling (29 K (29 °C)) was observed. (ii) Na addition suppresses the growth of eutectic Si due to the Na segregation at the interface between eutectic Si and eutectic Al, and (iii) Na addition promotes significant multiple Si twins, which can be attributed to the proposed adsorption of Na atoms at the intersection of Si twins and along the <112>Si growth direction of Si. The present investigation demonstrates, for the first time, a direct observation on the distribution of Na atoms within eutectic Si and thereby provides strong experimental supports to the well-accepted impurity-induced twinning growth mechanism and poisoning of the twin plane re-entrant edge growth mechanism.

Li, J. H.; Barrirero, J.; Engstler, M.; Aboulfadl, H.; Mücklich, F.; Schumacher, P.

2015-03-01

217

Choline chloride-thiourea, a deep eutectic solvent for the production of chitin nanofibers.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of the mixtures of choline halide (chloride/bromide)-urea and choline chloride-thiourea were used as solvents to prepare ?-chitin nanofibers (CNFs). CNFs of diameter 20-30 nm could be obtained using the DESs comprising of the mixture of choline chloride and thiourea (CCT 1:2); however, NFs could not be obtained using the DESs having urea (CCU 1:2) as hydrogen bond donor. The physicochemical properties of thus obtained NFs were compared with those obtained using a couple of imidazolium based ionic liquids namely, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulphate [(Bmim)HSO4] and 1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulphate [(Hmim)HSO4] as well as choline based bio-ILs namely, choline hydrogen sulphate [(Chol)HSO4] and choline acrylate. The CNFs obtained using the DES as a solvent were used to prepare calcium alginate bio-nanocomposite gel beads having enhanced elasticity in comparison to Ca-alginate beads. The bio-nanocomposite gel beads thus obtained were used to study slow release of 5-fluorouracil, an anticancer drug. PMID:24528755

Mukesh, Chandrakant; Mondal, Dibyendu; Sharma, Mukesh; Prasad, Kamalesh

2014-03-15

218

Coatings for directional eutectics. [for corrosion and oxidation resistance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eleven coating systems based on MCrAlY overlay and diffusion aluminide prototypes were evaluated to determine their capability for protecting the gamma/gamma prime-delta directionally solidified eutectic alloy (Ni-20Cb-6Cr-2.5Al) in gas turbine engine applications. Furnace oxidation and hot corrosion, Mach 0.37 burner-rig, tensile ductility, stress-rupture and thermomechanical fatigue tests were used to evaluate the coated gamma/gamma prime-delta alloy. The diffusion aluminide coatings provided adequate oxidation resistance at 1144 K (1600 F) but offered very limited protection in 114 K (1600 F) hot corrosion and 1366 K (2000 F) oxidation tests. A platinum modified NiCrAlY overlay coating exhibited excellent performance in oxidation testing and had no adverse effects upon the eutectic alloy.

Felten, E. J.; Strangman, T. E.; Ulion, N. E.

1974-01-01

219

Microstructure, crystallography, and creep of directionally solidified oxide eutectics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The directional solidification of eutectic melts, was investigated in CaZrO3-ZrO2, SrZrO3-ZrO2, MgO-MgAl2O4, MgO-ZrO2, MgO-CaO, Al2O3-ZrO2, and MgTi2O5-TiO2 to determine what parameters control the resultant structures. The creep properties of the MgO-MgAl2O4 directionally solidified eutectic with colony and grain structures and a nearly stoichiometric MgAl2O4 single crystal were investigated in four point bend. A true composite strengthening behavior was suggested in

W. J. Minford

1977-01-01

220

Eutectic liquid alloys for plasmonics: theory and experiment.  

PubMed

We report a method based on density functional theory molecular dynamics that allows us to calculate the plasmonic properties of liquid metals and metal alloys from first principles with no a priori knowledge of the system. We show exceptional agreement between the simulated and measured optical constants of liquid Ga and the room temperature liquid In-Ga eutectic alloy (T(m) = 289 K). We then use this method to analyze the plasmonic properties of various alloy concentrations in the In-Ga system. The plasmonic performance of the In-Ga system decreases with increasing In concentration. However, the benefits of a room-temperature plasmonic liquid are likely to outweigh the minor reduction in plasmonic performance when moving from pure Ga to the eutectic composition. Our results show that density functional theory molecular dynamics can be used as a predictive tool for studying the optical properties of liquid metal systems amenable to plasmonics. PMID:22985257

Blaber, Martin G; Engel, Clifford J; Vivekchand, S R C; Lubin, Steven M; Odom, Teri W; Schatz, G C

2012-10-10

221

High resolution microstructural and microchemical analysis of zirconia eutectic interfaces  

SciTech Connect

Resolution of microscopic analytical methods has greatly improved over the past decade, and it is now possible to examine periodic variations in structure and chemistry at a scale much finer than the spacing typical of eutectic structures (1-5 [mu]m). During the current year, studies were completed on ZrO[sub 2]-NiO and ZrO[sub 2]-MnO eutectic systems, and study was initiated on microchemical variation in two spinodal systems: Cu-Ni-Sn and SnO[sub 2]-TiO[sub 2]. Work was also initiated on metal/oxide interface microchemistry, in particular the corrosion interface resulting during oxidation of Cu-Sn alloys. 6 figs.

Notis, M.R.

1993-03-17

222

Eutectic bonding of boron-aluminum structural components. II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eutectic bonding is a diffusion brazing process developed for fabricating boron-aluminum components from composite monolayer. This process relies on the diffusion of a thin surface film of copper into the aluminum matrix to form a liquid phase when heated above the copper-aluminum eutectic temperature of 1018 F. This type of fabrication offers design flexibility in that skin thickness may be varied, the stiffness geometry and orientation can be varied, and local reinforcement can be added. In addition, this type of boron-aluminum structure offers high efficiency. Also, this method of construction can be cost-comparative with complex titanium shapes; simple tooling permits easy layup, bonding is a one-step operation, and little finish machining is required.

Niemann, J. T.; Garrett, R. A.

1974-01-01

223

Lead–lithium eutectic material database for nuclear fusion technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully validated material databases are needed for coherent technological developments in any R&D field. For nuclear fusion technology (NFT), within a near-term perspective of qualification and licensing of nuclear components and systems, this goal is both compulsory and urgent. This mandatory requirement applies for the particular case of the Pb–Li eutectic database as fusion reactor material. Pb16Li is today a

E. Mas de les Valls; L. A. Sedano; L. Batet; I. Ricapito; A. Aiello; O. Gastaldi; F. Gabriel

2008-01-01

224

An in situ grown eutectic magnetoelectric composite material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A eutectic composite material with the mixed spinel cobalt ferrite-cobalt titanate and the perovskite barium titanate as co-existing phases has been prepared, which shows a magnetoelectric effect due to the mechanical coupling of the piezomagnetic spinel and the piezoelectric perovskite. The maximum value of the magnetoelectric effect ?E\\/?H obtained up till now is 5.0 × 10-2 V cm-1 Oe-1 at

A. M. J. G. Run; D. R. Terrell; J. H. Scholing

1974-01-01

225

Evaluation of ultrasonic signals from diffusion and eutectic bond interfaces  

SciTech Connect

A research program is in progress at Rocky Flats to determine correlations between ultrasonic signal content and diffusion or eutectic bond joint condition, and to develop a computer-controlled scanning, data acquisition and analysis system which utilizes these correlations and waveform analysis techniques. The initial efforts to determine effective ultrasonic waveform parameters to characterize the strength of bond interfaces is complete. A development version of a computer-controlled, automated scanning and data acquisition system is in operation.

Brown, C. M.

1980-12-10

226

Eutectic-Free Superalloy Made By Directional Solidification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By suitable control of thermal conditions in directional-solidification process, supperalloy structural and machine components (e.g., turbine blades) cast with microstructures enhancing resistance to fatigue. Specific version of process and thermal conditions chosen to reduce micro-segregation during solidification and to minimize or eliminate script carbide and eutectic-phase inclusions, which are brittle inclusions found to decrease resistance to fatigue.

Schmidt, Deborah Dianne

1995-01-01

227

An approximate formula for recalescence in binary eutectic alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In alloys, solidification takes place along various paths which may be ascertained via phase diagrams; while there would be no single formula applicable to all alloys, an approximate formula for a specific solidification path would be useful in estimating the fraction of the solid formed during recalescence. A formulation is here presented of recalescence in binary eutectic alloys. This formula is applied to Ag-Cu alloys which are of interest in containerless solidification, due to their formation of supersaturated solutions.

Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.

1993-01-01

228

Separating Mixtures: How We Concentrate Natural Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity involves separating mixtures of minerals on the basis of their physical properties. Students are shown a piece of granite and see that it is clearly a mixture. Students will try to devise ways of separating some simple mixtures and then see how some of the same methods are used to separate real minerals from mixtures. Students will discover that many useful materials are found as part of mixtures. For example, salt is found in underground deposits mixed with sand and clay. The mixture is called rock salt. Minerals are chemicals found naturally in the Earth and many of them are very useful. To get at the useful minerals, we usually have to separate them from less-useful material which are often called gangue (pronounced gang) by miners.

229

Metastable Eutectic Equilibrium in Natural Environments: Recent Development and Research Opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical ordering at metastable eutectics was recognized in non-equilibrium gas-to- solid condensation experiments to constrain 'silicate' dust formation in O-rich circumstellar environments. The predictable metastable eutectic behavior successfully predicted the observed ferromagnesiosilica compositions of circumstellar dust presolar and solar nebula grains in the matrix of the collected aggregate IDPs (Interplanetary Dust Particles). Many of the experimentally determined metastable eutectic solids match the fundamental building blocks of common rock-forming layer silicates: this could have implications for the origin of Life. The physical conditions conducive to metastable eutectic behavior, i.e. high temperature and (ultra) fast quenching, lead to unique amorphous, typically nano- to micrometer-sized, materials. The new paradigm of metastable eutectic behavior opens the door to new and exciting research opportunities in uncovering the many implications of these unique amorphous, and typically nano-to micrometer-sized, metastable eutectic materials.

Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Jablonska, Mariola; Karner, James M.

2000-01-01

230

Metastable Eutectic Equilibrium in Natural Environments: Recent Developments and Research Opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical ordering at metastable eutectics was recognized in non-equilibrium gas-to- solid condensation experiments to constrain 'silicate' dust formation in O-rich circumstellar environments. The predictable metastable eutectic behavior successfully predicted the observed ferromagnesiosilica, compositions of circumstellar dust, presolar and solar nebula grains in the matrix of the collected aggregate IDPs. Many of the experimentally determined metastable eutectic solids match the fundamental building blocks of common rock-forming layer silicates: this could have implications for the origin of Life. The physical conditions conducive to metastable eutectic behavior, i.e. high temperature and (ultra)fast quenching, lead to unique amorphous, typically nano- to micrometer-sized, materials. The new paradigm of metastable eutectic behavior opens the door to new and exciting research opportunities in uncovering the many implications of these unique amorphous and typically nano- to micrometer-sized, metastable eutectic materials.

Rietmeijer, Fans J. M.; Nuth, Joseph A., II; Jablonska, Mariola; Karner, James M.

2000-01-01

231

Separating Mixtures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how to classify materials as mixtures, elements or compounds and identify the properties of each type. The concept of separation of mixtures is also introduced since nearly every element or compound is found naturally in an impure state such as a mixture of two or more substances, and it is common that chemical engineers use separation techniques to separate mixtures into their individual components. For example, the separation of crude oil into purified hydrocarbons such as natural gas, gasoline, diesel, jet fuel and/or lubricants.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

232

Effect of Ni on eutectic structural evolution in hypereutectic Al–Mg 2Si cast alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to investigate the eutectic structural evolution of hypereutectic Al–20% Mg2Si with Ni addition under a gravity casting process. Three-dimensional morphologies of eutectic phases were observed in detail using field emission scanning electron microscopy, after Al matrix was removed by deep etching or extraction. The results show that Al–Mg2Si binary eutectic gradually evolves into Al–Mg2Si–NiAl3

Chong Li; Yaping Wu; Hui Li; Yuying Wu; Xiangfa Liu

2010-01-01

233

Improvement in the properties of Sn-Zn Eutectic based Pb-free solder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The melting temperature, 183OC, of the conventional eutectic Sn-Pb solder has become an important reference point for the development of Pb-free solder. The closest eutectic temperature to the Sn-Pb solder is 198°C of Sn-9Zn system. People have expressed strong interest in the Sn-9Zn system because of its relatively low eutectic temperature comparing to several other investigated Pb-free solders. Sn- Zn

Kwang-Lung Lin; Kang-I Chen; Hui-Min Hsu; Chia-Ling Shi

2003-01-01

234

Transient and steady state creep response of ice I and magnesium sulfate hydrate eutectic aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using uniaxial compression creep experiments, we characterized the transient and steady state deformation behaviors of eutectic aggregates of system ice I and MgSO4 • 11H2O (MS11; meridianiite), which has significance because of its likely presence on moons of the outer solar system. Synthetic samples of eutectic liquid bulk composition, which produce eutectic colonies containing 0.35-0.50 volume fraction MS11, were tested

Christine McCarthy; Reid F. Cooper; David L. Goldsby; William B. Durham; Stephen H. Kirby

2011-01-01

235

Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of Nd 3+ in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of the laser-induced fluorescence of Nd3+ in LiCl-KCl eutectic in the wavelength region of 360-900 nm were investigated for information concerning the chemical speciation of Nd-chloride complexes. When pumped at either 355 or 532 nm, Nd3+ in molten salt emits visible and near-IR fluorescence. The fluorescence peaks at 750 nm (4F7/2 + 4S3/2 ? 4I9/2) and 810 nm (4F5/2 + 2H9/2 ? 4I9/2) were particularly prominent at temperatures above the melting point. The fluorescence decay of these transition lines showed a bi-exponential behaviour of the fluorescence lifetime. These results provide evidence that two different chemical species of Nd3+ coexist in this system.

Jung, E. C.; Bae, S.-E.; Park, Y. J.; Song, K.

2011-11-01

236

Micro-to-nano-scale deformation mechanisms of a bimodal ultrafine eutectic composite.  

PubMed

The outstading mechanical properties of bimodal ultrafine eutectic composites (BUECs) containing length scale hierarchy in eutectic structure were demonstrated by using AFM observation of surface topography with quantitative height measurements and were interpreted in light of the details of the deformation mechanisms by three different interface modes. It is possible to develop a novel strain accommodated eutectic structure for triggering three different interface-controlled deformation modes; (I) rotational boundary mode, (II) accumulated interface mode and (III) individual interface mode. A strain accommodated microstructure characterized by the surface topology gives a hint to design a novel ultrafine eutectic alloys with excellent mechanical properties. PMID:25265897

Lee, Seoung Wan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Hong, Sung Hwan; Park, Hae Jin; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Nae Sung; Seo, Yongho; Suh, Jin Yoo; Eckert, Jürgen; Kim, Do Hyang; Park, Jin Man; Kim, Ki Buem

2014-01-01

237

Micro-to-nano-scale deformation mechanisms of a bimodal ultrafine eutectic composite  

PubMed Central

The outstading mechanical properties of bimodal ultrafine eutectic composites (BUECs) containing length scale hierarchy in eutectic structure were demonstrated by using AFM observation of surface topography with quantitative height measurements and were interpreted in light of the details of the deformation mechanisms by three different interface modes. It is possible to develop a novel strain accommodated eutectic structure for triggering three different interface-controlled deformation modes; (I) rotational boundary mode, (II) accumulated interface mode and (III) individual interface mode. A strain accommodated microstructure characterized by the surface topology gives a hint to design a novel ultrafine eutectic alloys with excellent mechanical properties. PMID:25265897

Lee, Seoung Wan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Hong, Sung Hwan; Park, Hae Jin; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Nae Sung; Seo, Yongho; Suh, Jin Yoo; Eckert, Jürgen; Kim, Do Hyang; Park, Jin Man; Kim, Ki Buem

2014-01-01

238

Chiral mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An index evaluating the amount of chirality of a mixture of colored random variables is defined. Properties are established. Extreme chiral mixtures are characterized and examples are given. Connections between chirality, Wasserstein distances, and least squares Procrustes methods are pointed out.

Petitjean, Michel

2002-08-01

239

Ionic liquids in biotransformations: from proof-of-concept to emerging deep-eutectic-solvents.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids (ILs) have been extensively assessed in biotransformations with different purposes, for example, non-conventional (co-)solvents, performance additives, coating agents for immobilizing/stabilizing enzymes, and IL-membrane-based processes. Fuelled by their premature labelling as 'green solvents', academic research has flourished. However, in recent years environmental aspects related to ILs have been strongly addressed, stating that many ILs commonly used cannot be regarded as 'green derivatives'. Likewise, ILs costs are still a barrier for practical uses. Attempting to combine sustainability with the promising added-values of ILs, the third generation of ILs is currently under development. Likewise, deep-eutectic-solvents (DESs) appear in the horizon as an attractive and cost-effective option for using ionic solvents in biotransformations. DESs are often produced by gently warming and stirring two (bio-based and cheap) salts (e.g. choline chloride and urea). First successful uses of DES in biotransformations were reported recently. It may be expected that knowledge accumulated in (second generation) ILs and biotransformations could be turned into real applications by using these DESs, and third generation ILs, in the coming years. PMID:21112808

Domínguez de María, Pablo; Maugeri, Zaira

2011-04-01

240

Prebiotic chemistry in eutectic solutions at the water-ice matrix.  

PubMed

A crystalline ice matrix at subzero temperatures can maintain a liquid phase where organic solutes and salts concentrate to form eutectic solutions. This concentration effect converts the confined reactant solutions in the ice matrix, sometimes making condensation and polymerisation reactions occur more favourably. These reactions occur at significantly high rates from a prebiotic chemistry standpoint, and the labile products can be protected from degradation. The experimental study of the synthesis of nitrogen heterocycles at the ice-water system showed the efficiency of this scenario and could explain the origin of nucleobases in the inner Solar System bodies, including meteorites and extra-terrestrial ices, and on the early Earth. The same conditions can also favour the condensation of monomers to form ribonucleic acid and peptides. Together with the synthesis of these monomers, the ice world (i.e., the chemical evolution in the range between the freezing point of water and the limit of stability of liquid brines, 273 to 210 K) is an under-explored experimental model in prebiotic chemistry. PMID:22660387

Menor-Salván, César; Marín-Yaseli, Margarita R

2012-08-21

241

A new technique for direct traceability of contact thermometry Co-C eutectic cells to the ITS-90  

SciTech Connect

The eutectic Co-C melting point is a promising system to serve as a thermometric fixed-point in the temperature range above 1084.62 °C (copper freezing point). During the last decade, LNE-Cnam has developed and characterized some fixed-point devices, based on eutectic Co-C alloy, for applications to contact and radiation thermometry. Above 962 °C, the ITS-90 is realized by radiation thermometry by the extrapolation from a Ag, Au or Cu fixed point using the Planck law for radiation. So the only way for assigning a temperature in the scale to a Co-C cell (?1324 °C) is by radiation thermometry. An indirect method is commonly used to assign a temperature to a high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) cell designed for contact thermometry is to fill a pyrometric cell with the same mixture as the contact thermometry cell. In this case, the temperature assigned to the pyrometric cell is attributed to the contact cell. This paper describes a direct method allowing the determination of the melting temperature realized by a 'contact thermometry' Co-C cell by comparison to a 'radiation thermometry' Co-C cell whose melting temperature was assigned in accordance to the scale by extrapolation from the Cu point. In addition, the same Co-C cell is studied with a standard Pt/Pd thermocouple.

Failleau, G.; Deuzé, T.; Bourson, F.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M. [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam, 61 rue du Landy 93210 La Plaine Saint Denis (France)] [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam, 61 rue du Landy 93210 La Plaine Saint Denis (France)

2013-09-11

242

Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.  

SciTech Connect

Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300oC, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

Bauer, Stephen J.; Urquhart, Alexander

2014-03-01

243

Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect

The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets, and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat transfer equipment designs. All of the data discussed above were taken under forced convective conditions (both laminar and turbulent). Some recent data taken at ORNL under free convection conditions are also presented and results discussed. This data was taken using a simple crucible experiment with an instrumented nickel heater inserted in the salt to induce natural circulation within the crucible. The data was taken over a temperature range of 550oC to 650oC in FLiNaK salt. This data covers both laminar and turbulent natural convection conditions, and is compared to existing forms of natural circulation correlations.

Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

244

Synthesis of cerium rich intermetallics using molten metal eutectics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal eutectic fluxes are useful for exploratory synthesis of new intermetallic phases. In this work the use of cerium/transition metal eutectics such as: Ce/Co, Ce/Ni, and Ce/Fe have yielded many new synthetically and magnetically complex phases. Structural units that were previously observed in phases grown in La/Ni eutectic reactions have also been observed in new structures and analogs grown from cerium/transition metal eutectics. These structural units include a main group element coordinated by 9 rare-earth atoms (such as the Al Ce9 clusters seen in Ce31.0(2)Fe11.8(5)Al6.5(6) B13C4), trigonal planar FeC3 units (also seen in Ce31.0(2)Fe11.8(5)Al6.5(6)B 13C4), iron clusters capped by light elements (Fe4C 6 frustrated tetrahedral in Ce21Fe8M7C 14, and larger Fe clusters in Ce33Fe14B25 C34). Variants of these building blocks were observed in Ce10Co2B7C16 with square Co units and chains of B and C connected to them, Fe2C8 units observed in Ce7Fe2C9, and FeC4 observed in Ce4FeGa0.85Al0.15C4 and Ce4FeAlC4. Two new phases were grown from Ce/Fe eutectic, Ce33Fe 14B25C34 and Ce33Fe13B 18C34 which exhibits very similar structures, but significantly different magnetic behavior. Structurally these two phases are similar. Both crystallize in the Im-3m space group, but differ by the centering of the Fe clusters. Ce33Fe14B25C34 contains Fe clusters centered by B atoms and Al doped on the Fe2 site. In Ce33Fe13B18C34, the Fe cluster is a perfect cuboctahedron. Ce33Fe14B25 C34 exhibits mixed valent behavior of cerium at 75K and no magnetic moment on iron, where-as Ce33Fe13B18C 34 exhibits tetravalent cerium and its iron clusters undergo a ferromagnetic transition at 180K. Another borocarbide, Ce10Co2B7C 16 was synthesized from Ce/Co eutectic flux. This structure features squares of Co surrounded by chains of C and B and a sea of cerium atoms. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements at 1 Tesla were fit to a modified Curie-Weiss law and a moment per Ce was calculated to be 2.70microB. Field dependent data were collected at 200K and 2K. Paramagnetic behavior dominated at 200K and at 2K, ferromagnetic behavior was observed. XPS measurements were used to confirm that Ce is in the 3+ oxidation state. Intermetallics containing different Fe clusters (Y5Mg 5Fe4AlSi, La6Fe10Al3Si, Ce21Fe8Al7-xSixC12, and Ce33Fe13.1Al1.1B24.8C 34) were explored as potential catalysts for conversion of methane to Carbon Nanotubes (CNT). Different growth temperatures were explored. At 690ºC, Ce33Fe14B25C34 catalyzed the growth of single walled carbon nanotubes, Ce21Fe8Al7-x SixC12 multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and all other structures did not catalyze the growth of CNT.

Tucker, Patricia Christine

245

Fluoride salts as phase change materials for thermal energy storage in the temperature range 1000-1400 K  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eutectic compositions and congruently melting intermediate compounds in binary and ternary fluoride salt systems were characterized for potential use as latent heat of fusion phase change materials to store thermal energy in the temperature range 1000-1400 K. The melting points and eutectic compositions for many systems with published phase diagrams were experimentally verified and new eutectic compositions having melting points between 1000 and 1400 K were identified. Heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting compounds were experimentally measured by differential scanning calorimetry. For a few systems in which heats of mixing in the melts have been measured, heats of fusion of the eutectics were calculated from thermodynamic considerations and good agreement was obtained between the measured and calculated values. Several combinations of salts with high heats of fusion per unit mass (greater than 0.7 kJ/g) have been identified for possible use as phase change materials in advanced solar dynamic space power applications.

Misra, Ajay K.

1988-01-01

246

Salt Tolerance of Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI)  

SciTech Connect

Suppression of ion intensity in the presence of high salt matrices is common in most mass spectrometry ionization techniques. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ionization method that exhibits salt tolerance, and this is investigated. DESI analysis was performed on three different drug mixtures in the presence of 0, 0.2, 2, 5, 10, and 20% NaCl:KCl weight by volume from seven different surfaces. At physiological concentrations individual drugs in each mixture were observed with each surface. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was used to provide additional confirmation for select compounds. Multiple stage experiments, to MS5, were performed for select compounds. Even in the absence of added salt, the benzodiazepine containing mixture yielded sodium and potassium adducts of carbamazepine which masked the ions of interest. These adducts were eliminated by adding 0.1% 7M ammonium acetate to the standard methanol:water (1:1) spray solvent. Comparison of the salt tolerance of DESI with that of electrospray ionization (ESI) demonstrated much better signal/noise characteristics for DESI in this study. The salt tolerance of DESI was also studied by performing limit of detection and dynamic range experiments. Even at a salt concentration significantly above physiological concentrations, select surfaces were effective in providing spectra that allowed the ready identification of the compounds of interest. The already high salt tolerance of DESI can be optimized further by appropriate choices of surface and spray solution.

Jackson, Ayanna U. [Purdue University; Talaty, Nari [Purdue University; Cooks, R G [Purdue University; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2007-01-01

247

Pattern Formation and Growth Kinetics in Eutectic Systems  

SciTech Connect

Growth patterns during liquid/solid phase transformation are governed by simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer mechanisms, creation of new interfaces, jump of the crystallization units from liquid to solid and their rearrangement in the solid matrix. To examine how the above processes influence the scale of microstructure, two eutectic systems are chosen for the study: a polymeric system polyethylene glycol-p-dibromobenzene (PEG-DBBZ) and a simple molecular system succinonitrile (SCN)-camphor. The scaling law for SCN-camphor system is found to follow the classical Jackson-Hunt model of circular rod eutectic, where the diffusion in the liquid and the interface energy are the main physics governing the two-phase pattern. In contrast, a significantly different scaling law is observed for the polymer system. The interface kinetics of PEG phase and its solute concentration dependence thus have been critically investigated for the first time by directional solidification technique. A model is then proposed that shows that the two-phase pattern in polymers is governed by the interface diffusion and the interface kinetics. In SCN-camphor system, a new branch of eutectic, elliptical shape rodl, is found in thin samples where only one layer of camphor rods is present. It is found that the orientation of the ellipse can change from the major axis in the direction of the thickness to the direction of the width as the velocity and/or the sample thickness is decreased. A theoretical model is developed that predicts the spacing and orientation of the elliptical rods in a thin sample. The single phase growth patterns of SCN-camphor system were also examined with emphasis on the three-dimensional single cell and cell/dendrite transition. For the 3D single cell in a capillary tube, the entire cell shape ahead of the eutectic front can be described by the Saffmann-Taylor finger only at extremely low growth rate. A 3D directional solidification model is developed to characterize the cell shape and tip undercooling and the experimental results are compared with the predictions of the model. From the investigation of cell/dendrite transition, a model is proposed, from which the condition for the onset of the transition can be obtained.

Jing Teng

2007-12-01

248

Development of high temperature fasteners using directionally solidified eutectic alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The suitability of the eutectics for high temperature fasteners was investigated. Material properties were determined as a function of temperature, and included shear parallel and perpendicular to the growth direction and torsion parallel to it. Techniques for fabricating typical fastener shapes included grinding, creep forming, and direct casting. Both lamellar Ni3Al-Ni3Nb and fibrous (Co,Cr,Al)-(Cr,Co)7C3 alloys showed promise as candidate materials for high temperature fastener applications. A brief evaluation of the performance of the best fabricated fastener design was made.

George, F. D.

1972-01-01

249

Directional solidification of Pb-Sn eutectic with vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pb-Sn eutectic alloy was directionally solidified at 1.4 to 3.2 cm/hr with forced convection induced by axial vibration of the growth ampoule with a frequency of 10 to 40 Hz and an amplitude of 0.5 to 1.0 mm. To determine the exact growth rate, an interface demarcation technique was applied. The lamellar spacing was increased 10 to 40 percent in ingots solidified with vibration compared to those solidified without vibration. The average intensity of convection in the melt under axial vibration of the ampoule was estimated by comparing the experimental results with a theoretical model.

Caram, Rubens; Banan, Mohsen; Wilcox, William R.

1991-01-01

250

Pattern formation and growth kinetics in eutectic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth patterns during liquid/solid phase transformation are governed by simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer mechanisms, creation of new interfaces, jump of the crystallization units from liquid to solid and their rearrangement in the solid matrix. To examine how the above processes influence the scale of microstructure, two eutectic systems are chosen for the study: a polymeric system polyethylene glycol-p-dibromobenzene (PEG-DBBZ) and a simple molecular system succinonitrile (SCN)-camphor. The scaling law for SCN-camphor system is found to follow the classical Jackson-Hunt model of circular rod eutectic, where the diffusion in the liquid and the interface energy are the main physics governing the two-phase pattern. In contrast, a significantly different scaling law is observed for the polymer system. The interface kinetics of PEG phase and its solute concentration dependence thus have been critically investigated for the first time by directional solidification technique. A model is then proposed that shows that the two-phase pattern in polymers is governed by the interface diffusion and the interface kinetics. In SCN-camphor system, a new branch of eutectic, elliptical shape rod, is found in thin samples where only one layer of camphor rods is present. It is found that the orientation of the ellipse can change from the major axis in the direction of the thickness to the direction of the width as the velocity and/or the sample thickness is decreased. A theoretical model is developed that predicts the spacing and orientation of the elliptical rods in a thin sample. The single phase growth patterns of SCN-camphor system were also examined with emphasis on the three-dimensional single cell and cell/dendrite transition. For the 3D single cell in a capillary tube, the entire cell shape ahead of the eutectic front can be described by the Saffmann-Taylor finger only at extremely low growth rate. A 3D directional solidification model is developed to characterize the cell shape and tip undercooling and the experimental results are compared with the predictions of the model. From the investigation of cell/dendrite transition, a model is proposed, from which the condition for the onset of the transition can be obtained.

Teng, Jing

251

Use of formulations based on choline chloride-malonic acid deep eutectic solvent for back end of line cleaning in integrated circuit fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interconnection layers fabricated during back end of line processing in semiconductor manufacturing involve dry etching of a low-k material and deposition of copper and metal barriers to create copper/dielectric stacks. After plasma etching steps used to form the trenches and vias in the dielectric, post etch residues (PER) that consist of organic polymer, metal oxides and fluorides, form on top of copper and low-k dielectric sidewalls. Currently, most semiconductor companies use semi aqueous fluoride (SAF) based formulations containing organic solvent(s) for PER removal. Unfortunately, these formulations adversely impact the environmental health and safety (EHS) requirements of the semiconductor industry. Environmentally friendly "green" formulations, free of organic solvents, are preferred as alternatives to remove PER. In this work, a novel low temperature molten salt system, referred as deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been explored as a back end of line cleaning (BEOL) formulation. Specifically, the DES system comprised of two benign chemicals, malonic acid (MA) and choline chloride (CC), is a liquid at room temperature. In certain cases, the formulation was modified by the addition of glacial acetic acid (HAc). Using these formulations, selective removal of three types of PER generated by timed CF4/O2 etching of DUV PR films on Cu was achieved. Type I PER was mostly organic in character (fluorocarbon polymer type) and had a measured thickness of 160 nm. Type II PER was much thinner (25 nm) and consisted of a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds (copper fluorides). Further etching generated 17 nm thick Type III PER composed of copper fluorides and oxides. Experiments were also conducted on patterned structures. Cleaning was performed by immersing samples in a temperature controlled (30 or 40° C) double jacketed vessel for a time between 1 and 5 minutes. Effectiveness of cleaning was characterized using SEM, XPS and single frequency impedance measurements. Type II and III residues, which contained copper compounds were removed in CC/MA DES within five minutes through dissolution and subsequent complexation of copper by malonic acid. Removal of Type I PER required the addition of glacial acetic acid to the DES formulation. Single frequency impedance measurement appears to be a good in situ method to follow the removal of the residues. High water solubility of the components of the system in conjunction with their environmental friendly nature, make the DES an attractive alternative to SAF.

Taubert, Jenny

252

How a protein can remain stable in a solvent with high content of urea: insights from molecular dynamics simulation of Candida antarctica lipase B in urea?:?choline chloride deep eutectic solvent.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are utilized as green and inexpensive alternatives to classical ionic liquids. It has been known that some of DESs can be used as solvent in the enzymatic reactions to obtain very green chemical processes. DESs are quite poorly understood at the molecular level. Moreover, we do not know much about the enzyme microstructure in such systems. For example, how some hydrolase can remain active and stable in a deep eutectic solvent including 9 M of urea? In this study, the molecular dynamics of DESs as a liquid was simulated at the molecular level. Urea?:?choline chloride as a well-known eutectic mixture was chosen as a model DES. The behavior of the lipase as a biocatalyst was studied in this system. For comparison, the enzyme structure was also simulated in 8M urea. The thermal stability of the enzyme was also evaluated in DESs, water, and 8M urea. The enzyme showed very good conformational stability in the urea?:?choline chloride mixture with about 66% urea (9 M) even at high temperatures. The results are in good agreement with recent experimental observations. In contrast, complete enzyme denaturation occurred in 8M urea with only 12% urea in water. It was found that urea molecules denature the enzyme by interrupting the intra-chain hydrogen bonds in a "direct denaturation mechanism". However, in a urea?:?choline chloride deep eutectic solvent, as a result of hydrogen bonding with choline and chloride ions, urea molecules have a low diffusion coefficient and cannot reach the protein domains. Interestingly, urea, choline, and chloride ions form hydrogen bonds with the surface residues of the enzyme which, instead of lipase denaturation, leads to greater enzyme stability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the microstructural properties of a macromolecule are examined in a deep eutectic solvent. PMID:24930496

Monhemi, Hassan; Housaindokht, Mohammad Reza; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Bozorgmehr, Mohammad Reza

2014-07-28

253

Salt Marsh  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

High school level and higher description of Spartina salt marshes with pictures. Page is full of fantastic photographs most featuring a descriptive caption. Topics discussed include zonation, succession, and the intertidal zone. The habitat's associated flora and fauna are discussed. Organisms of particular interest include: Spartina alterniflora, Spartina patens, Geukenzia demissa, Mytilus edulis, Distichlis spicata, Salicornia, Melampus bidentatus, Ilyanassa obsoleta, and Hydrobia totteni.

254

Eutectic Morphology of Al-7Si-0.3Mg Alloys with Scandium Additions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms of Al-Si eutectic refinement due to scandium (Sc) additions have been studied in an Al-7Si-0.3Mg foundry alloy. The evolution of eutectic microstructure is studied by thermal analysis and interrupted solidification, and the distribution of Sc is studied by synchrotron micro-XRF mapping. Sc is shown to cause significant refinement of the eutectic silicon. The results show that Sc additions strongly suppress the nucleation of eutectic silicon due to the formation of ScP instead of AlP. Sc additions change the macroscopic eutectic growth mode to the propagation of a defined eutectic front from the mold walls opposite to the heat flux direction similar to past work with Na, Ca, and Y additions. It is found that Sc segregates to the eutectic aluminum and AlSi2Sc2 phases and not to eutectic silicon, suggesting that impurity-induced twinning does not operate. The results suggest that Sc refinement is mostly caused by the significantly reduced silicon nucleation frequency and the resulting increase in mean interface growth rate.

Pandee, Phromphong; Gourlay, C. M.; Belyakov, S. A.; Ozaki, Ryota; Yasuda, Hideyuki; Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit

2014-09-01

255

Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence  

SciTech Connect

The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature. Nitrate to chloride ratios of the NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture are about NO{sub 3}:Cl = 19:1. The role of nitrate on corrosion at higher temperatures is addressed in a companion report (Dixit et al., 2005).

Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

2005-11-04

256

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are viable cosolvents for enzyme-catalyzed epoxide hydrolysis.  

PubMed

A special group of ionic liquids, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been tested as cosolvents in enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of a chiral (1,2)-trans-2-methylstyrene oxide. The choline chloride:ethane diol (ET), choline chloride:glycerol (GLY) and choline:chloride:urea (REL) DESs were included in the reaction mixtures with epoxide and the potato epoxide hydrolase StEH1. The effect of the DESs on enzyme function was primarily elevations of K(M) (up to 20-fold) and with lesser effects on turnover numbers (twofold variation). The regioselectivity in hydrolysis of the (1R,2R)-2-trans-methylstyrene oxide was altered in the presence of GLY or ET to favor epoxide ring opening at the benzylic carbon (R=2.33), enhancing the regioselectivity observed in buffer-only systems (R=1.35). The DES solutions dissolved 1.5-fold higher epoxide concentrations as compared to phosphate buffer. The total conversion of high concentration (40 g/l) of (1S,2S)-MeSO was not negatively affected by addition of 40% GLY. PMID:20438773

Lindberg, Diana; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Widersten, Mikael

2010-06-01

257

Self-aggregation of sodium dodecyl sulfate within (choline chloride + urea) deep eutectic solvent.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown tremendous promise as green solvents with low toxicity and cost. Understanding molecular aggregation processes within DESs will not only enhance the application potential of these solvents but also help alleviate some of the limitations associated with them. Among DESs, those comprising choline chloride and appropriate hydrogen-bond donors are inexpensive and easy to prepare. On the basis of fluorescence probe, electrical conductivity, and surface tension experiments, we present the first clear lines of evidence for self-aggregation of an anionic surfactant within a DES containing a small fraction of water. Namely, well-defined assemblies of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) apparently form in the archetype DES Reline comprising a 1:2 molar mixture of choline chloride and urea. Significant enhancement in the solubility of organic solvents that are otherwise not miscible in choline chloride-based DESs is achieved within Reline in the presence of SDS. The remarkably improved solubility of cyclohexane within SDS-added Reline is attributed to the presence of spontaneously formed cyclohexane-in-Reline microemulsions by SDS under ambient conditions. Surface tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), density, and dynamic viscosity measurements along with responses from the fluorescence dipolarity and microfluidity probes of pyrene and 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane are employed to characterize these aggregates. Such water-free oil-in-DES microemulsions are appropriately sized to be considered as a new type of nanoreactor. PMID:25314953

Pal, Mahi; Rai, Rewa; Yadav, Anita; Khanna, Rajesh; Baker, Gary A; Pandey, Siddharth

2014-11-11

258

Influence of IMC in the Semisolid Behaviour of an Eutectic Sn-Pb/Cu Slurry  

SciTech Connect

A mixture of a liquid Sn-Pb alloy reinforced with solid Cu particles has been found to show thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviour. The presence of an intermetallic compound (IMC) between the Cu particles and the molten matrix has some very important consequences in the rheological behaviour of the slurry. The semisolid material is obtained mixing a sufficient amount of Cu particles with a liquid eutectic Sn-Pb alloy by mechanical stirring at a given temperature and time. The intermetallic compound is formed from the reaction of solid Cu and liquid Sn. This reaction results in some displacement in the phase diagram, affecting the liquid alloy composition, moving the liquidus temperature and therefore altering the balance of %wt solid- %wt liquid necessary to obtain the best thixotropic behaviour. In this work a model of the solid fraction of the slurry taking into account the IMC growth rate is presented. This model is also used to predict the processing window under which the material keeps the thixotropic behaviour.

Merizalde, Carlos [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica. Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya - ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Cabrera, Jose-Maria; Prado, Jose-Manuel [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica. Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya - ETSEIB, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); CTM Centro Tecnologico de Manresa - Av. Bases de Manresa 1, 08242, Manresa (Spain)

2007-04-07

259

Evaluation of 2.25Cr-1Mo Alloy for Containment of LiCl/KCl Eutectic during the Pyrometallurgical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Recovery of uranium from the Mk-IV and Mk-V electrorefiner vessels containing a LiCl/KCl eutectic salt has been on-going for 14 and 12 years, respectively, during the pyrometallurgical processing of used nuclear fuel. Although austenitic stainless steels are typically utilized for LiCl/KCl salt systems, the presence of cadmium in the Mk-IV electrorefiner dictates an alternate material. A 2.25Cr-1Mo alloy (ASME SA-387) was chosen due to the absence of nickel in the alloy which has a considerable solubility in cadmium. Using the transition metal impurities (iron, chromium, nickel, molybdenum, and manganese) in the electrorefined uranium products, an algorithm was developed to derive values for the contribution of the transition metals from the various input sources. Weight loss and corrosion rate data for the Mk-V electrorefiner vessel were then generated based on the transition metal impurities in the uranium products. To date, the corrosion rate of the 2.25Cr-1Mo alloy in LiCl/KCl eutectic is outstanding assuming uniform (i.e. non-localized) conditions.

B.R. Westphal; S.X. Li; G.L. Fredrickson; D. Vaden; T.A. Johnson; J.C. Wass

2011-03-01

260

Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")  

MedlinePLUS

... Synthetic Cathinones (“Bath Salts”) DrugFacts: Synthetic Cathinones (“Bath Salts”) Email Facebook Twitter Revised November 2012 The term “ ... Sky," "White Lightning," and “Scarface.” How Are Bath Salts Abused? Bath salts are typically taken orally, inhaled, ...

261

Competitive stochastic growth model for the 3D morphology of eutectic Si in Al-Si alloys  

E-print Network

Competitive stochastic growth model for the 3D morphology of eutectic Si in Al-Si alloys Gerd for the simulation of the 3D morphology of eutectic silicon in Al-Si alloys, which represents the colonies-Si alloys, coral-like eutectic Si, stochastic growth model, multivariate time series, FIB-SEM tomography

Schmidt, Volker

262

DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701216 Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn): A Liquid Metal Alloy for  

E-print Network

DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701216 Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn): A Liquid Metal Alloy for the Formation a study of the behavior of the electri- cally conductive fluid metal eutectic, gallium-indium (EGaIn, 75 This paper describes the rheological behavior of the liquid metal eutectic gallium-indium (EGa

Prentiss, Mara

263

Molten salts in fusion nuclear technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of fusion nuclear technology, much interest lies in the use of molten salts. In some innovative design studies, the use of molten fluoride, especially the LiF–BeF2 mixture called Flibe, has been suggested as the primary loop coolant because of its inherent advantages such as high temperature stability and low electrical conductivity. The use of molten salts has

H Moriyama; A Sagara; S Tanaka; R. W Moir; D. K Sze

1998-01-01

264

Influence of freezing rate oscillations and convection on eutectic microstructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As discussed in our review paper (Wilcox, W. R. and Regel, L. L., Microgravity Quarterly, 1994, 4, 147-156), the influence of microgravity on eutectic microstructure has been rather erratic and largely unexplained. Directional solidification in microgravity sometimes coarsened the structure, sometimes made it finer, and sometimes, even on the same system, had no measurable effect. Theoretical models predicted no influence of the weak buoyancy-driven convection that occurs in the vertical Bridgman technique on earth. Thus, we hypothesized that freezing rate fluctuations due to irregular convection might be responsible. For example, with a fibrous microstructure an increase in freezing rate must cause new fibers to form, either by branching or by nucleation. A decrease in freezing rate would cause fibers to terminate by overgrowth of the matrix phase. If the kinetics of fiber formation differs from that for fiber termination, an oscillatory freezing rate would cause the average fiber spacing to deviate from that at a steady freezing rate. We have been investigating this hypothesis both experimentally and theoretically. Vertical Bridgman experiments were performed on the MnBi-Bi eutectic with freezing rate oscillations caused by periodic electric current pulses passed through the material. With increased current amplitude, more and more grains exhibited irregular microstructures. Of the grains with continued quasi-regular rod structure, the microstructure became finer. This result was contrary to that expected from our hypothesis for this system. Numerical modeling also predicted that an oscillatory freezing rate should yield a finer microstructure. It was also predicted that freezing interface oscillations should cause the average melt composition at the freezing rate to deviate from the eutectic. This results in the formation of a composition boundary layer of sufficient thickness that it would become sensitive to convection. Hence we have arrived at a revised hypothesis. On earth, irregular convection causes freezing rate fluctuations that change the interfacial melt composition, leading to a thick composition boundary layer. Convection interacts with this boundary layer to change the interfacial melt composition, thereby altering the response of the system to freezing rate fluctuations.

L. Regel, Liya; R. Wilcox, William; Popov, Dimitri; Li, Fengcui

265

X-Ray Videomicroscopy Studies of Eutectic Al-Si Solidification in Al-Si-Cu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Al-Si eutectic growth has been studied in-situ for the first time using X-ray video microscopy during directional solidification (DS) in unmodified and Sr-modified Al-Si-Cu alloys. In the unmodified alloys, Si is found to grow predominantly with needle-like tip morphologies, leading a highly irregular progressing eutectic interface with subsequent nucleation and growth of Al from the Si surfaces. In the Sr-modified alloys, the eutectic reaction is strongly suppressed, occurring with low nucleation frequency at undercoolings in the range 10 K to 18 K. In order to transport Cu rejected at the eutectic front back into the melt, the modified eutectic colonies attain meso-scale interface perturbations that eventually evolve into equiaxed composite-structure cells. The eutectic front also attains short-range microscale interface perturbations consistent with the characteristics of a fibrous Si growth. Evidence was found in support of Si nucleation occurring on potent particles suspended in the melt. Yet, both with Sr-modified and unmodified alloys, Si precipitation alone was not sufficient to facilitate the eutectic reaction, which apparently required additional undercooling for Al to form at the Si-particle interfaces.

Mathiesen, R. H.; Arnberg, L.; Li, Y.; Meier, V.; Schaffer, P. L.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Dahle, A. K.

2011-01-01

266

Alkali Metal/Salt Thermal-Energy-Storage Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed thermal-energy-storage system based on mixture of alkali metal and one of its halide salts; metal and salt form slurry of two immiscible melts. Use of slurry expected to prevent incrustations of solidified salts on heat-transfer surfaces that occur where salts alone used. Since incrustations impede heat transfer, system performance improved. In system, charging heat-exchanger surface immersed in lower liquid, rich in halide-salt, phase-charge material. Discharging heat exchanger surface immersed in upper liquid, rich in alkali metal.

Phillips, Wayne W.; Stearns, John W.

1987-01-01

267

Preferred growth orientation and microsegregation behaviors of eutectic in a nickel-based single-crystal superalloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nickel-based single-crystal superalloy was employed to investigate the preferred growth orientation behavior of the (? + ??) eutectic and the effect of these orientations on the segregation behavior. A novel solidification model for the eutectic island was proposed. At the beginning of the eutectic island’s crystallization, the core directly formed from the liquid by the eutectic reaction, and then preferably grew along [100] direction. The crystallization of the eutectic along [110] always lagged behind that in [100] direction. The eutectic growth in [100] direction terminated on impinging the edge of the dendrites or another eutectic island. The end of the eutectic island’s solidification terminates due to the encroachment of the eutectic liquid/solid interface at the dendrites or another eutectic island in [110] direction. The distribution of the alloying elements depended on the crystalline axis. The degree of the alloying elements’ segregation was lower along [100] than [110] direction with increasing distance from the eutectic island’s center.

Wang, Fu; Ma, Dexin; Bührig-Polaczek, Andreas

2015-04-01

268

Phase diagram of the LiNO3-NaNO3-NaCl-Sr(NO3)2 salt system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase diagram of the quaternary LiNO3-NaNO3-NaCl-Sr(NO3)2 system is studied by means of differential thermal analysis, and the compositions and crystallization temperatures of nonvariant equilibrium phases are revealed. The temperature dependence of conductivity in eutectic and peritectic salt compositions is investigated.

Rasulov, A. I.; Gasanaliev, A. M.; Mamedova, A. K.; Gamataeva, B. Yu.

2015-04-01

269

Direct esterification of ammonium salts of carboxylic acids  

DOEpatents

A non-catalytic process for producing esters, the process comprising reacting an ammonium salt of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol and removing ammonia from the reaction mixture. Selectivities for the desired ester product can exceed 95 percent.

Halpern, Yuval (Skokie, IL)

2003-06-24

270

Electroplated Fe films prepared from a deep eutectic solvent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroplating of Fe films was carried out from choline chloride-ethylene glycol types of DES (Deep Eutectic Solvent). We investigated magnetic properties of the plated Fe films and evaluated the productivity for the electroplating process. Consequently, we found that surface morphology and current efficiency of the plated films were affected by the bath temperature. We obtained the Fe films with relatively smooth surface and high current efficiency in the bath temperature range from 70 to 110 °C. The deposition rate for our process depended on the current density, and we obtained high deposition rate value of approximately 120 ?m/h. We also obtained high current efficiency values of approximately 90% in the wide range of plating time. These results indicate that the DES-based bath has industrial advantages for mass-producing Fe films. Therefore, we conclude that the DES-based bath is an attractive plating bath for Fe films.

Yanai, T.; Shiraishi, K.; Shimokawa, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Ohgai, T.; Nakano, M.; Suzuki, K.; Fukunaga, H.

2014-05-01

271

Traceable Co-C eutectic points for thermocouple calibration  

SciTech Connect

National Measurement Institute of Australia (NMIA) has developed a miniature crucible design suitable for measurement by both thermocouples and radiation thermometry, and has established an ensemble of five Co-C eutectic-point cells based on this design. The cells in this ensemble have been individually calibrated using both ITS-90 radiation thermometry and thermocouples calibrated on the ITS-90 by the NMIA mini-coil methodology. The assigned ITS-90 temperatures obtained using these different techniques are both repeatable and consistent, despite the use of different furnaces and measurement conditions. The results demonstrate that, if individually calibrated, such cells can be practically used as part of a national traceability scheme for thermocouple calibration, providing a useful intermediate calibration point between Cu and Pd.

Jahan, F.; Ballico, M. J. [National Measurement Institute, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)] [National Measurement Institute, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

2013-09-11

272

Oxygen concentration measurement in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic  

SciTech Connect

Liquid lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) eutectic (LBE) may see extensive use as a coolant fluid, and perhaps also as a spallation target, in next generation nuclear energy systems. While it is not as reactive as alkali metal liquids, it does present a long term corrosion problem with some materials, notably stainless steels. Mitigation of the corrosion problem may be achieved by producing and maintaining a protective oxide on exposed surfaces, through control of the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the LBE. We have developed an oxygen sensor based on available zirconia-based solid electrolytes used in the automotive industry, which represents a relatively inexpensive source of reproducible and reliable components. We will present the design considerations and characteristics of our sensor unit, and describe its use in the LBE test loop at Los Alamos for measurement and control of dissolved oxygen concentration.

Darling, T. W. (Timothy W.); Li, N. (Ning)

2001-01-01

273

Self Assembled Structures by Directional Solidification of Eutectics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interest in ordered porous structures has grown because of there unique properties such as photonic bandgaps, high backing packing density and high surface to volume ratio. Inspired by nature, biometric strategies using self assembled organic molecules dominate the development of hierarchical inorganic structures. Directional solidification of eutectics (DSE) also exhibit self assembly characteristics to form hierarchical metallic and inorganic structures. Crystallization of diphasic materials by DSE can produce two dimensional ordered structures consisting of rods or lamella. By selective removal of phases, DSE is capable to fabricate ordered pore arrays or ordered pin arrays. Criteria and limitations to fabricate hierarchical structures will be presented. Porous structures in silicon base alloys and ceramic systems will be reported.

Dynys, Frederick W.; Sayir, Ali

2004-01-01

274

Molten salt destruction of energetic materials: Emission and absorption measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectroscopic aspects of decomposition behaviors of the high explosives LX-17 (92.5 wt % 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) plus 1.5 wt % Kel-F 800 plastic binder), LX-04 (85 wt % octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) plus 15 wt % Viton A plastic binder), and 2,6-Dinitrotoluene (DNT) were investigated when 0.3 or 1.0 g samples were immersed into molten salt baths (700 °C molten LiC1-NaC1-KC1 eutectics). UV-VIS

Michelle L. Pantoya; Benjamin D. Shaw

2002-01-01

275

The Effect of Carbon on the Transition from Graphite to Cementite Eutectic in Cast Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, an analytical solution is proposed to explain the influence of carbon on the transition from graphite to cementite eutectic in cast iron. The outcome from this work indicates that this transition can be related to (a) the graphite nucleation potential (directly characterized by the cell count, N and indirectly by the nucleation coefficients N s and b), (b) the eutectic graphite growth rate coefficient, ?, (c) the temperature range, ?T sc = T s - T c (where T s and T c are the equilibrium temperature for graphite eutectic and the formation temperature for cementite eutectic, respectively), and (d) the liquid volume fraction, f, after pre-eutectic austenite solidification. In addition, the absolute and the relative chilling tendencies, CT and CTr, respectively, as well as the critical cooling rate, Q cr, and the chill width, w, can be predicted from this work. The analytical model was experimentally verified for castings with various carbon contents. It was found that the carbon content increases the eutectic cell count, N while reducing the maximum degree of undercooling at the onset of graphite eutectic solidification, ?T m. From this work it is evident that the main role of carbon on the transition from graphite to cementite eutectic is through its effect on increasing the growth coefficient and hence, the graphite eutectic growth rate, u. Moreover, at increasing carbon contents the absolute and the relative chilling tendencies including the chill width, all are significantly reduced. Finally, the equations derived using theoretical arguments for the chill width are rather similar to expressions based on a statistical analysis of the experimental outcome.

Fra?, Edward; Górny, M.; Lopez, Hugo F.

2014-11-01

276

The Effect of Carbon on the Transition from Graphite to Cementite Eutectic in Cast Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, an analytical solution is proposed to explain the influence of carbon on the transition from graphite to cementite eutectic in cast iron. The outcome from this work indicates that this transition can be related to (a) the graphite nucleation potential (directly characterized by the cell count, N and indirectly by the nucleation coefficients N s and b), (b) the eutectic graphite growth rate coefficient, ?, (c) the temperature range, ?T sc = T s - T c (where T s and T c are the equilibrium temperature for graphite eutectic and the formation temperature for cementite eutectic, respectively), and (d) the liquid volume fraction, f, after pre-eutectic austenite solidification. In addition, the absolute and the relative chilling tendencies, CT and CTr, respectively, as well as the critical cooling rate, Q cr, and the chill width, w, can be predicted from this work. The analytical model was experimentally verified for castings with various carbon contents. It was found that the carbon content increases the eutectic cell count, N while reducing the maximum degree of undercooling at the onset of graphite eutectic solidification, ?T m. From this work it is evident that the main role of carbon on the transition from graphite to cementite eutectic is through its effect on increasing the growth coefficient and hence, the graphite eutectic growth rate, u. Moreover, at increasing carbon contents the absolute and the relative chilling tendencies including the chill width, all are significantly reduced. Finally, the equations derived using theoretical arguments for the chill width are rather similar to expressions based on a statistical analysis of the experimental outcome.

Fra?, Edward; Górny, M.; Lopez, Hugo F.

2014-09-01

277

Eutectic superalloys by edge-defined, film-fed growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of producing directionally solidified eutectic alloy composites by edge-defined, film-fed growth (EFG) was carried out. The three eutectic alloys which were investigated were gamma + delta, gamma/gamma prime + delta, and a Co-base TaC alloy containing Cr and Ni. Investigations into the compatibility and wettability of these metals with various carbides, borides, nitrides, and oxides disclosed that compounds with the largest (negative) heats of formation were most stable but poorest wetting. Nitrides and carbides had suitable stability and low contact angles but capillary rise was observed only with carbides. Oxides would not give capillary rise but would probably fulfill the other wetting requirements of EFG. Tantalum carbide was selected for most of the experimental portion of the program based on its exhibiting spontaneous capillary rise and satisfactory slow rate of degradation in the liquid metals. Samples of all three alloys were grown by EFG with the major experimental effort restricted to gamma + delta and gamma/gamma prime + delta alloys. In the standard, uncooled EFG apparatus, the thermal gradient was inferred from the growth speed and was 150 to 200 C/cm. This value may be compared to typical gradients of less than 100 C/cm normally achieved in a standard Bridgman-type apparatus. When a stream of helium was directed against the side of the bar during growth, the gradient was found to improve to about 250 C/cm. In comparison, a theoretical gradient of 700 C/cm should be possible under ideal conditions, without the use of chills. Methods for optimizing the gradient in EFG are discussed, and should allow attainment of close to the theoretical for a particular configuration.

Hurley, G. F.

1975-01-01

278

Microstructure and Strength of NiTi-Nb Eutectic Braze Joining NiTi Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NiTi wires were brazed together via liquid eutectic formation between NiTi and Nb powders deposited at the wire contact region. The brazed region shows proeutectic NiTi(Nb) in contact with the wires, sandwiching a NiTi-Nb eutectic structure, whose microhardness and stiffness, as characterized via nanoindentation, are higher than the NiTi wires, while also showing signs of high ductility. NiTi-Nb eutectic bonding may thus be a viable approach for producing shape-memory NiTi scaffolds brazed from stacked, woven, or braided wires.

Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Cong; Dunand, David C.

2015-02-01

279

Microstructure and Strength of NiTi-Nb Eutectic Braze Joining NiTi Wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NiTi wires were brazed together via liquid eutectic formation between NiTi and Nb powders deposited at the wire contact region. The brazed region shows proeutectic NiTi(Nb) in contact with the wires, sandwiching a NiTi-Nb eutectic structure, whose microhardness and stiffness, as characterized via nanoindentation, are higher than the NiTi wires, while also showing signs of high ductility. NiTi-Nb eutectic bonding may thus be a viable approach for producing shape-memory NiTi scaffolds brazed from stacked, woven, or braided wires.

Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Cong; Dunand, David C.

2015-04-01

280

A green deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for protein extracting.  

PubMed

As a new type of green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been applied for the extraction of proteins with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in this work. Four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were synthesized to extract bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. Single factor experiments have been done to investigate the effects of the extraction process, including the amount of DES, the concentration of salt, the mass of protein, the shaking time, the temperature and PH value. Experimental results show 98.16% of the BSA could be extracted into the DES-rich phase in a single-step extraction under the optimized conditions. A high extraction efficiency of 94.36% was achieved, while the conditions were applied to the extraction of trypsin (Try). Precision, repeatability and stability experiments were studied and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the extraction efficiency were 0.4246% (n=3), 1.6057% (n=3) and 1.6132% (n=3), respectively. Conformation of BSA was not changed during the extraction process according to the investigation of UV-vis spectra, FT-IR spectra and CD spectra of BSA. The conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the mechanism of the extraction. It turned out that the formation of DES-protein aggregates play a significant role in the separation process. All the results suggest that ChCl-based DES-ATPS are supposed to have the potential to provide new possibilities in the separation of proteins. PMID:25732422

Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

2015-03-15

281

Effects of ultrasound and temperature on copper electro reduction in Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES).  

PubMed

This paper concerns a preliminary study for a new copper recovery process from ionic solvent. The aim of this work is to study the reduction of copper in Deep Eutectic Solvent (choline chloride-ethylene glycol) and to compare the influence of temperature and the ultrasound effects on kinetic parameters. Solutions were prepared by dissolution of chloride copper salt CuCl2 (to obtain Copper in oxidation degree II) or CuCl (to obtain Copper in oxidation degree I) and by leaching metallic copper directly in DES. The spectrophotometry UV-visible analysis of the leached solution showed that the copper soluble form obtained is at oxidation degree I (Copper I). Both cyclic voltammetry and linear voltammetry were performed in the three solutions at three temperatures (25, 50 and 80°C) and under ultrasonic conditions (F=20kHz, PT=5.8W) to calculate the mass transfer diffusion coefficient kD and the standard rate coefficient k°. These parameters are used to determine that copper reduction is carried out via a mixed kinetic-diffusion control process. Temperature and ultrasound have the same effect on mass transfer for reduction of Cu(II)/Cu(I). On the other hand, temperature is more beneficial than ultrasound for mass transfer of Cu(I)/Cu. Standard rate constant improvement due to temperature increase is of the same order as that obtained with ultrasound. But, by combining higher temperature and ultrasound (F=20kHz, PT=5.6W at 50°C), reduction limiting current is increased by a factor of 10 compared to initial conditions (T=25°C, silent), because ultrasonic stirring is more efficient in lower viscosity fluid. These values can be considered as key-parameters in the design of copper recovery in global processes using ultrasound. PMID:24629581

Mandroyan, Audrey; Mourad-Mahmoud, Mahmoud; Doche, Marie-Laure; Hihn, Jean-Yves

2014-11-01

282

A New Model for the Thermal Conductivity of Molten Salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new model based on rough hard-sphere theory is proposed for the thermal conductivity of molten salts. The model incorporates a smooth hard-sphere contribution using the properties of argon, as well as characteristic parameters based on the melting point of the molten salt. It is demonstrated that it is possible to correlate the thermal conductivity of monovalent and multivalent molten salts within experimental error using this approach. Furthermore, in salts with a common anion, the single adjustable parameter in the model exhibits regular behavior with the molecular weight of the salt. It is also shown that the thermal conductivity of several molten-salt mixtures can be predicted without any mixture parameters.

Hossain, Mohammad Z.; Kassaee, Mohamad H.; Jeter, Sheldon; Teja, Amyn S.

2014-02-01

283

ASSESSING THE RISK OF SALT WEATHERING IN SANDSTONE BY INSTRU-MENTED MONITORING OF THE ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE  

E-print Network

ASSESSING THE RISK OF SALT WEATHERING IN SANDSTONE BY INSTRU- MENTED MONITORING OF THE ELECTRICAL, Pfaffenwaldring 2b, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany frank.lehmann@mpa.uni-stuttgart.de ABSTRACT Salt weathering of salts and salt mixtures within the material re- quires adequate measures to avoid further deterioration

Boyer, Edmond

284

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the

William A. Brummond; Ravindra S. Upadhye

1996-01-01

285

Pre-eutectic densification in MgF/sub 2/-CaF/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

Increased densification rates were found as much as 200/sup 0/C below the eutectic temperature (980/sup 0/C) for MgF/sub 2/ containing small amounts of CaF/sub 2/. Constant heating rate and constant temperature sintering data, as well as microstructural developments indicated that solid state grain-boundary transport rates had been enhanced by the eutectic forming additive. The effect saturated at about 1 wt % CaF/sub 2/. The results suggest that densification of ceramic powders could be favorably affected without a substantial increase in the grain growth rate, by the addition of small amounts of eutectic forming additives, and sintering below the eutectic temperature. 6 figures.

Hu, S C; De Jonghe, L C

1982-04-01

286

Semisolid processing of near-eutectic and hypereutectic Al–Si–Cu alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semisolid processing of near-eutectic and hypereutectic versions of alloy 380 offers to overcome the problems encountered\\u000a in casting hypereutectic Al–Si alloys and was thus explored in the present work. Experimental near-eutectic and hypereutectic\\u000a Al–Si–Cu alloys obtained by adding elemental silicon to the 380 alloy were melted and were cooled to within 5 to 15 °C of\\u000a their liquidus points before they

Yucel Birol

2008-01-01

287

Eutectic structures in friction spot welding joint of aluminum alloy to copper  

SciTech Connect

A dissimilar joint of AA5083 Al alloy and copper was produced by friction spot welding. The Al-MgCuAl{sub 2} eutectic in both coupled and divorced manners were found in the weld. At a relatively high temperature, mass transport of Cu due to plastic deformation, material flow, and atomic diffusion, combined with the alloy system of AA5083 are responsible for the ternary eutectic melting.

Shen, Junjun, E-mail: junjun.shen@hzg.de; Suhuddin, Uceu F. H.; Cardillo, Maria E. B.; Santos, Jorge F. dos [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics, Solid-State Joining Processes, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

2014-05-12

288

Solidification paths and eutectic intermetallic phases in Mg–Al–Ca ternary alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solidification of Mg–Al–Ca ternary alloys in the ?-Mg solidification region was investigated by microstructural and thermal analysis, and the liquidus projection was determined. The liquidus temperature decreases with additions of Al and Ca. Solidification is terminated with the formation of C14 (Mg2Ca), C36 ((Mg,Al)2Ca) or A12 (?-Mg17Al12) eutectic compounds, in the order of increasing Al content. The L??+C36 eutectic

A. Suzuki; N. D. Saddock; J. W. Jones; T. M. Pollock

2005-01-01

289

Eutectic structures in friction spot welding joint of aluminum alloy to copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dissimilar joint of AA5083 Al alloy and copper was produced by friction spot welding. The Al-MgCuAl2 eutectic in both coupled and divorced manners were found in the weld. At a relatively high temperature, mass transport of Cu due to plastic deformation, material flow, and atomic diffusion, combined with the alloy system of AA5083 are responsible for the ternary eutectic melting.

Shen, Junjun; Suhuddin, Uceu F. H.; Cardillo, Maria E. B.; dos Santos, Jorge F.

2014-05-01

290

Creep deformation behavior in eutectic SnAg solder joints using a novel mapping technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep deformation behavior was measured for 60–100 m thick solder joints. The solder joints investigated consisted of: (a)\\u000a non-composite solder joints made with eutectic Sn-Ag solder, and (b) composite solder joints with eutectic Sn-Ag solder containing\\u000a 20 vol. %, 5 m diameter in-situ Cu6Sn5 intermetallic reinforcements. All creep testing in this study was carried out at room temperature. Qualitative and

J. P. Lucas; F. Guo; J. McDougall; T. R. Bieler; K. N. Subramanian; J. K. Park

1999-01-01

291

In Vitro and In Vivo Toxicity Profiling of Ammonium-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents  

PubMed Central

The cytotoxic potential of ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with four hydrogen bond donors, namely glycerine (Gl), ethylene glycol (EG), triethylene glycol (TEG) and urea (U) were investigated. The toxicity of DESs was examined using In Vitro cell lines and In Vivo animal model. IC50 and selectivity index were determined for the DESs, their individual components and their combinations as aqueous solutions for comparison purposes. The cytotoxicity effect of DESs varied depending on cell lines. The IC50 for the GlDES, EGDES, UDES and TEGDES followed the sequence of TEGDES< GlDES< EGDES< UDES for OKF6, MCF-7, A375, HT29 and H413, respectively. GlDES was selective against MCF-7 and A375, EGDES was selective against MCF-7, PC3, HepG2 and HT29, UDES was selective against MCF-7, PC3, HepG2 and HT29, and TEGDES was selective against MCF-7 and A375. However, acute toxicity studies using ICR mice showed that these DESs were relatively toxic in comparison to their individual components. DES did not cause DNA damage, but it could enhance ROS production and induce apoptosis in treated cancer cells as evidenced by marked LDH release. Furthermore, the examined DESs showed less cytotoxicity compared with ionic liquids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that combined In Vitro and In Vivo toxicity profiles of DESs were being demonstrated, raising the toxicity issue of these neoteric mixtures and their potential applicability to be used for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25679975

Hayyan, Maan; Looi, Chung Yeng; Hayyan, Adeeb; Wong, Won Fen; Hashim, Mohd Ali

2015-01-01

292

Fission product ion exchange between zeolite and a molten salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and has been demonstrated through processing the sodium-bonded SNF from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho. In this process, components of the SNF, including U and species more chemically active than U, are oxidized into a bath of lithium-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt. Uranium is removed from the salt solution by electrochemical reduction. The noble metals and inactive fission products from the SNF remain as solids and are melted into a metal waste form after removal from the molten salt bath. The remaining salt solution contains most of the fission products and transuranic elements from the SNF. One technique that has been identified for removing these fission products and extending the usable life of the molten salt is ion exchange with zeolite A. A model has been developed and tested for its ability to describe the ion exchange of fission product species between zeolite A and a molten salt bath used for pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The model assumes (1) a system at equilibrium, (2) immobilization of species from the process salt solution via both ion exchange and occlusion in the zeolite cage structure, and (3) chemical independence of the process salt species. The first assumption simplifies the description of this physical system by eliminating the complications of including time-dependent variables. An equilibrium state between species concentrations in the two exchange phases is a common basis for ion exchange models found in the literature. Assumption two is non-simplifying with respect to the mathematical expression of the model. Two Langmuir-like fractional terms (one for each mode of immobilization) compose each equation describing each salt species. The third assumption offers great simplification over more traditional ion exchange modeling, in which interaction of solvent species with each other is considered. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Gougar, Mary Lou D.

293

Directionally solidified pseudo-binary eutectics of Ni-Cr-(Hf, Zr)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pseudo-binary eutectic, in which the intermetallic Ni7Hf2 reinforces the Ni-Cr solid solution phase, was previously predicted in the Ni-Cr-Hf system by a computer analysis. The experimental determination of pseudo binary eutectic compositions and the directional solidification of the Ni-Cr-Hf, Zr, and Ni-Cr-Zr eutectic alloys are discussed. To determine unknown eutectics, chemical analyses were made of material bled from near eutectic ingots during incipient melting. Nominal compositions in weight percent of Ni-18.6Cr-24.0HF, Ni19.6Cr-12.8Zr-2.8Hf, and Ni-19.2Cr-14.8Zr formed aligned pseudo-binary eutectic structures. The melting points were about 1270 C. The reinforcing intermetallic phases were identified as noncubic (Ni,Cr)7Hf2 and (Ni,Cr)7(Hf,Zr)2, and face centered cubic (Ni,Cr)5Zr. The volume fraction of the reinforcing phases were about 0.5.

Kim, Y. G.; Ashbrook, R. L.

1975-01-01

294

Formation mechanism of primary phases and eutectic structures within undercooled Pb-Sb-Sn ternary alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solidification characteristics of three types of Pb-Sb-Sn ternary alloys with different primary phases were studied under substantial undercooling conditions. The experimental results show that primary (Pb) and SbSn phases grow in the dendritic mode, whereas primary (Sb) phase exhibits faceted growth in the form of polygonal blocks and long strips. (Pb) solid solution phase displays strong affinity with SbSn intermetallic compound so that they produce various morphologies of pseudobinary eutectics, but it can only grow in the divorced eutectic mode together with (Sb) phase. Although (Sb) solid solution phase and SbSn intermetallic compound may grow cooperatively within ternary eutectic microstructures, they seldom form pseudobinary eutectics independently. The (Pb)+(Sb)+SbSn ternary eutectic structure usually shows lamellar morphology, but appears as anomalous eutectic when its volume fraction becomes small. EDS analyses reveal that all of the three primary (Pb), (Sb) and SbSn phases exhibit conspicuous solute trapping effect during rapid solidification, which results in the remarkable extension of solute solubility.

Wang, Weili; Dai, Fuping; Wei, Bingbo

2007-08-01

295

Superconductor precursor mixtures made by precipitation method  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus for preparing highly pure homogeneous precursor powder mixtures for metal oxide superconductive ceramics. The mixes are prepared by instantaneous precipitation from stoichiometric solutions of metal salts such as nitrates at controlled pH's within the 9 to 12 range, by addition of solutions of non-complexing pyrolyzable cations, such as alkyammonium and carbonate ions.

Bunker, Bruce C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lamppa, Diana L. (Albuquerque, NM); Voigt, James A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01

296

Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.

HEDENGREN, D.C.

2000-02-01

297

Effect of salt treatments on survival and consumer acceptance of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Post harvest acclimation of live freshwater prawns to a mixture of water and marine salt increases the consumer acceptability of the finished product. However, the high cost of marine salts prohibits their use in commercial practice. Therefore, the identification of successful, cost effective salt a...

298

Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt  

DOEpatents

A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

Mullins, Lawrence J. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, Dana C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

299

Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt  

DOEpatents

A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

1982-09-20

300

Eutectic Phases in Ice Facilitate Nonenzymatic Nucleic Acid Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymeric compounds similar to oligonucleotides are relevant to the origin of life and particularly to the concept of an RNA world. Although short oligomers of RNA can be synthesized nonenzymatically under laboratory conditions by second-order reactions in concentrated solutions, there is no consensus on how these polymers could have been synthesized de novo on the early Earth from dilute solutions of monomers. To address this question in the context of an RNA world, we have explored ice eutectic phases as a reaction medium. When an aqueous solution freezes, the solutes become concentrated in the spaces between the ice crystals. The increased concentration offsets the effect of the lower temperature and accelerates the reaction. Here we show that in the presence of metal ions in dilute solutions, frozen samples of phosphoimidazolide-activated uridine react within days at -18°C to form oligouridylates up to 11 bases long. Product yields typically exceed 90%, and ~30% of the oligomers include one or more 3?-5? linkages. These conditions facilitate not only the notoriously difficult oligouridylate synthesis, but also the oligomerization of activated cytidylate, adenylate, and guanylate. To our knowledge, this represents the first report to indicate that ice matrices on the early Earth may have accelerated certain prebiotic polymerization reactions.

Kanavarioti, Anastassia; Monnard, Pierre-Alain; Deamer, David W.

2001-09-01

301

Interphase anisotropy effects on lamellar eutectics: A numerical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In directional solidification of binary eutectics, it is often observed that two-phase lamellar growth patterns grow tilted with respect to the direction z of the imposed temperature gradient. This crystallographic effect depends on the orientation of the two crystal phases ? and ? with respect to z. Recently, an approximate theory was formulated that predicts the lamellar tilt angle as a function of the anisotropy of the free energy of the solid(? )-solid(? ) interphase boundary. We use two different numerical methods—phase field (PF) and dynamic boundary integral (BI)—to simulate the growth of steady periodic patterns in two dimensions as a function of the angle ?R between z and a reference crystallographic axis for a fixed relative orientation of ? and ? crystals, that is, for a given anisotropy function (Wulff plot) of the interphase boundary. For Wulff plots without unstable interphase-boundary orientations, the two simulation methods are in excellent agreement with each other and confirm the general validity of the previously proposed theory. In addition, a crystallographic "locking" of the lamellae onto a facet plane is well reproduced in the simulations. When unstable orientations are present in the Wulff plot, it is expected that two distinct values of the tilt angle can appear for the same crystal orientation over a finite ?R range. This bistable behavior, which has been observed experimentally, is well reproduced by BI simulations but not by the PF model. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

Ghosh, Supriyo; Choudhury, Abhik; Plapp, Mathis; Bottin-Rousseau, Sabine; Faivre, Gabriel; Akamatsu, Silvère

2015-02-01

302

Microanalysis of an oxidized cobalt oxide: Zirconia eutectic  

SciTech Connect

The compositions of CoO, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and Ca-stabilized cubic ZrO{sub 2} in an oxidized directionally solidified CoO-ZrO{sub 2} eutectic were determined by PEELS and EDS. An oxygen gradient exists across the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} with highest levels near the ZrO{sub 2} interface. Oxygen ELNES for CoO and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} are quite different; published oxygen ELNES have been incorrectly attributed to CoO. Normalized Co-L{sub 23} white line intensity (WLI) ratios for CoO and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} are similar (0.53 {plus_minus} 0.02) but L{sub 3}/L{sub 2} WLI ratios are 3.88 and 2.58, respectively. ELCE data suggest Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} has the inverse spinel structure.

Bentley, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); McKernan, S.; Carter, C.B. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Revcolevschi, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Solides, Universite de Paris-Sud, Batiment, Orsay Cedex (France)

1993-12-31

303

Thermophysical properties of lead and lead bismuth eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among different heavy liquid metals, lead (Pb) and lead-bismuth eutectic (Pb-Bi) are considered at present as the potential candidates for the liquid spallation targets of neutron sources and accelerated driven systems and for the coolant of new generation fast reactors due to their very good neutron and thermal features. Up to now, the published data on the properties of the lead alloys of interest are still limited and significant discrepancies exist between the values given by different sources. This work is a critical review of old and new data reported in the open literature on the main thermo-physical properties of the molten Pb and Pb-Bi: characteristic temperatures, latent heats of melting and evaporation, surface tension, density, heat capacity, viscosity, electric and thermal conductivity. In general, the reliability of data is satisfactory, however, a large uncertainty still exists in the saturation vapour pressure, sound velocity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity. The critical parameters of Pb and Pb-Bi are not well defined yet, and this hinder the development of the equations of state for these coolants. The correlations developed on the basis of the fundamental physical models and the 'best fit' approach are proposed for engineering estimations and design calculations.

Sobolev, V.

2007-05-01

304

Density relaxation and particle motion characteristics in a non-ionic deep eutectic solvent (acetamide + urea): Time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature dependent relaxation dynamics, particle motion characteristics, and heterogeneity aspects of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) made of acetamide (CH3CONH2) and urea (NH2CONH2) have been investigated by employing time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Three different compositions (f) for the mixture [fCH3CONH2 + (1 - f)NH2CONH2] have been studied in a temperature range of 328-353 K which is ˜120-145 K above the measured glass transition temperatures (˜207 K) of these DESs but much lower than the individual melting temperature of either of the constituents. Steady state fluorescence emission measurements using probe solutes with sharply different lifetimes do not indicate any dependence on excitation wavelength in these metastable molten systems. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements reveal near-hydrodynamic coupling between medium viscosity and rotation of a dissolved dipolar solute. Stokes shift dynamics have been found to be too fast to be detected by the time-resolution (˜70 ps) employed, suggesting extremely rapid medium polarization relaxation. All-atom simulations reveal Gaussian distribution for particle displacements and van Hove correlations, and significant overlap between non-Gaussian (?2) and new non-Gaussian (?) heterogeneity parameters. In addition, no stretched exponential relaxations have been detected in the simulated wavenumber dependent acetamide dynamic structure factors. All these results are in sharp contrast to earlier observations for ionic deep eutectics with acetamide [Guchhait et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 104514 (2014)] and suggest a fundamental difference in interaction and dynamics between ionic and non-ionic deep eutectic solvent systems.

Das, Anuradha; Das, Suman; Biswas, Ranjit

2015-01-01

305

Density relaxation and particle motion characteristics in a non-ionic deep eutectic solvent (acetamide + urea): time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

Temperature dependent relaxation dynamics, particle motion characteristics, and heterogeneity aspects of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) made of acetamide (CH3CONH2) and urea (NH2CONH2) have been investigated by employing time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Three different compositions (f) for the mixture [fCH3CONH2 + (1 - f)NH2CONH2] have been studied in a temperature range of 328-353 K which is ?120-145 K above the measured glass transition temperatures (?207 K) of these DESs but much lower than the individual melting temperature of either of the constituents. Steady state fluorescence emission measurements using probe solutes with sharply different lifetimes do not indicate any dependence on excitation wavelength in these metastable molten systems. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements reveal near-hydrodynamic coupling between medium viscosity and rotation of a dissolved dipolar solute. Stokes shift dynamics have been found to be too fast to be detected by the time-resolution (?70 ps) employed, suggesting extremely rapid medium polarization relaxation. All-atom simulations reveal Gaussian distribution for particle displacements and van Hove correlations, and significant overlap between non-Gaussian (?2) and new non-Gaussian (?) heterogeneity parameters. In addition, no stretched exponential relaxations have been detected in the simulated wavenumber dependent acetamide dynamic structure factors. All these results are in sharp contrast to earlier observations for ionic deep eutectics with acetamide [Guchhait et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 104514 (2014)] and suggest a fundamental difference in interaction and dynamics between ionic and non-ionic deep eutectic solvent systems. PMID:25612718

Das, Anuradha; Das, Suman; Biswas, Ranjit

2015-01-21

306

Electrolyte salts for power sources  

DOEpatents

Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

1995-11-28

307

Electrolyte salts for power sources  

DOEpatents

Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

Doddapaneni, Narayan (10516 Royal Birkdale, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Ingersoll, David (5824 Mimosa Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

1995-01-01

308

Use of salt hydrates as reversible absorbents of acid gases  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for removing acid gases selected from the group consisting of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, SO{sub 2}, HCN, and COS from a gas mixture containing one or more of the gases and at least one other component. It comprises bringing the gas mixture into contact with a hydrated salt and carrying out the process at a temperature from 0{degrees} to 200{degrees}C whereby the salt hydrate reversibly absorbs the acid gases thereby removing them from the gas mixture.

Quinn, R.; Pez, G.P.

1990-11-27

309

Characterization of potassium salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid  

SciTech Connect

Potassium salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid with varying amounts of cation, K{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} (x = 1, 2, 3) have been prepared and their characteristics investigated by thermal analyses, FT-IR and micro-Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis. It was found that the number of replaced protons by potassium ions in the 12-tungstophosphoric acid structure has influence on the presence of different protonic species, their dynamic equilibrium and on the conductivity of salts. The results reported in this study have been applied to improve the structural model of insoluble acidic salts. It is shown that an acidic potassium salt presents a mixture of neutral salt and unreacted acid. The nature of this mixture depends on the number of replaced protons-oxonium ions by cations. Preliminary measurements with synthesized compounds as solid electrolytes in fuel cells have been done, too.

Holclajtner-Antunovic, I., E-mail: ivanka@ffh.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, P.O. Box 47, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Mioc, U.B. [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, P.O. Box 47, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, P.O. Box 47, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Todorovic, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box. 158, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box. 158, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanovic, Z. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Davidovic, M. [Institute Gosa, Milana Rakica 35, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Institute Gosa, Milana Rakica 35, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Bajuk-Bogdanovic, D. [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, P.O. Box 47, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, P.O. Box 47, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Lausevic, Z. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)] [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

2010-11-15

310

The effect of porosity and gamma-gamma-prime eutectic content on the fatigue behavior of hydrogen charged PWA 1480  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study addresses the effect of systematically varying gamma-gamma-prime eutectic content and porosity level on the fatigue life of a hydrogen-charged single crystal PWA 1480 superalloy. Four microstructural variants are produced, and differences in gamma-gamma-prime eutectic morphology among the four processing variants are analyzed. Single valued tensile test data indicate that the tensile and yield strength of the PWA 1480 are degraded by hydrogen charging, with the exception of the material given a eutectic solution treatment. It is shown that the reduction of the fatigue life can be minimized by a duplex thermomechanical treatment consisting of a eutectic solution followed by hot isostatic pressing.

Gayda, J.; Dreshfield, R. L.; Gabb, T. P.

1991-01-01

311

Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

2013-11-01

312

Mechanochemical synthesis of layered hydroxy salts  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Ultrafast synthesis method was developed for the synthesis of layered hydroxy salts. ? Preparation of hydroxy single salt by this method requires only one minute. ? Hydroxy salts with variable Ni/Zn ratio could be synthesized by varying the metal contents of the starting mixture. ? This synthesis method is solvent free and environment friendly. -- Abstract: A simple one minute synthesis method was adapted for the preparation of layered hydroxy salts of copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium by grinding the metal salts with sodium hydroxide in a mortar. This solvent free method is environment friendly and fast. This method could be extended to the preparation of Ni/Zn hydroxy double salts. The Ni/Zn ratio could be varied from 1.2 to 1.9 by varying the metal contents of the precursor salts without the formation of any impurities in the sample. The prepared compounds had similar characteristics as that of the samples prepared by precipitation route. No sign of carbonate contamination was observed in any of the prepared samples.

Thomas, Nygil, E-mail: nygill@gmail.com [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph's College, 36 Langford Road, Bangalore 560027 (India)] [Materials Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph's College, 36 Langford Road, Bangalore 560027 (India)

2012-11-15

313

Simultaneous Extraction of Flavonoids from Chamaecyparis obtusa Using Deep Eutectic Solvents as Additives of Conventional Extractions Solvents.  

PubMed

Three flavones (quercetin, myricetin and amentoflavone) were extracted from Chamaecyparis obtusa leaves using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as additives to conventional extractions solvents. Sixteen DESs were synthesized from different salts and hydrogen bond donors. In addition, C. obtusa was extracted under optimal conditions of methanol as the solvent in the heating process (60°C) for 120 min at a solid/liquid ratio of 80%. Under these optimal conditions, a good linear relationship was observed at analyte concentrations ranging from 5.0 to 200.0 ?g/mL (R(2) > 0.999). The extraction recovery ranged from 96.7 to 103.3% with the inter- and intraday relative standard deviations of <4.97%. Under the optimal conditions, from C. obtusa, the quantities of quercetin, myricetin and amentoflavone extracted were 325.90, 8.66 and 50.34 µg/mL, respectively. Overall, DESs are expected to have a wide range of applications. PMID:25228687

Tang, Baokun; Park, Ha Eun; Row, Kyung Ho

2014-09-15

314

Substrate-enhanced supercooling in AuSi eutectic droplets.  

PubMed

The phenomenon of supercooling in metals-that is, the preservation of a disordered, fluid phase in a metastable state well below the melting point-has led to speculation that local atomic structure configurations of dense, symmetric, but non-periodic packing act as the main barrier for crystal nucleation. For liquids in contact with solids, crystalline surfaces induce layering of the adjacent atoms in the liquid and may prevent or lower supercooling. This seed effect is supposed to depend on the local lateral order adopted in the last atomic layers of the liquid in contact with the crystal. Although it has been suggested that there might be a direct coupling between surface-induced lateral order and supercooling, no experimental observation of such lateral ordering at interfaces is available. Here we report supercooling in gold-silicon (AuSi) eutectic droplets, enhanced by a Au-induced (6 x 6) reconstruction of the Si(111) substrate. In situ X-ray scattering and ab initio molecular dynamics reveal that pentagonal atomic arrangements of Au atoms at this interface favour a lateral-ordering stabilization process of the liquid phase. This interface-enhanced stabilization of the liquid state shows the importance of the solid-liquid interaction for the structure of the adjacent liquid layers. Such processes are important for present and future technologies, as fluidity and crystallization play a key part in soldering and casting, as well as in processing and controlling chemical reactions for microfluidic devices or during the vapour-liquid-solid growth of semiconductor nanowires. PMID:20414305

Schülli, T U; Daudin, R; Renaud, G; Vaysset, A; Geaymond, O; Pasturel, A

2010-04-22

315

Ionic liquid and deep eutectic solvent-activated CelA2 variants generated by directed evolution.  

PubMed

Chemoenzymatic cellulose degradation is one of the key steps for the production of biomass-based fuels under mild conditions. An effective cellulose degradation process requires diverse physico-chemical dissolution of the biomass prior to enzymatic degradation. In recent years, "green" solvents, such as ionic liquids and, more recently, deep eutectic liquids, have been proposed as suitable alternatives for biomass dissolution by homogenous catalysis. In this manuscript, a directed evolution campaign of an ionic liquid tolerant ?-1,4-endoglucanase (CelA2) was performed in order to increase its performance in the presence of choline chloride/glycerol (ChCl:Gly) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), as a first step to identify residues which govern ionic strength resistance and obtaining insights for employing cellulases on the long run in homogenous catalysis of lignocellulose degradation. After mutant library screening, variant M4 (His288Phe, Ser300Arg) was identified, showing a dramatically reduced activity in potassium phosphate buffer and an increased activity in the presence of ChCl:Gly or [BMIM]Cl. Further characterization showed that the CelA2 variant M4 is activated in the presence of these solvents, representing a first report of an engineered enzyme with an ionic strength activity switch. Structural analysis revealed that Arg300 could be a key residue for the ionic strength activation through a salt bridge with the neighboring Asp287. Experimental and computational results suggest that the salt bridge Asp287-Arg300 generates a nearly inactive CelA2 variant and activity is regained when ChCl:Gly or [BMIM]Cl are supplemented (~5-fold increase from 0.64 to 3.37 ?M 4-MU/h with the addition ChCl:Gly and ~23-fold increase from 3.84 to 89.21 ?M 4-pNP/h with the addition of [BMIM]Cl). Molecular dynamic simulations further suggest that the salt bridge between Asp287 and Arg300 in variant M4 (His288Phe, Ser300Arg) modulates the observed salt activation. PMID:24802079

Lehmann, Christian; Bocola, Marco; Streit, Wolfgang R; Martinez, Ronny; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

2014-06-01

316

PU/SS EUTECTIC ASSESSMENT IN 9975 PACKAGINGS IN A STORAGE FACILITY DURING EXTENDED FIRE  

SciTech Connect

In a radioactive material (RAM) packaging, the formation of eutectic at the Pu/SS (plutonium/stainless steel) interface is a serious concern and must be avoided to prevent of leakage of fissile material to the environment. The eutectic temperature for the Pu/SS is rather low (410 C) and could seriously impact the structural integrity of the containment vessel under accident conditions involving fire. The 9975 packaging is used for long term storage of Pu bearing materials in the DOE complex where the Pu comes in contact with the stainless steel containment vessel. Due to the serious consequences of the containment breach at the eutectic site, the Pu/SS interface temperature is kept well below the eutectic formation temperature of 410 C. This paper discusses the thermal models and the results for the extended fire conditions (1500 F for 86 minutes) that exist in a long term storage facility and concludes that the 9975 packaging Pu/SS interface temperature is well below the eutectic temperature.

Gupta, N.

2012-03-26

317

A quantitative study of factors influencing lamellar eutectic morphology during solidification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors that influence the shape of the solid-liquid interface of a lamellar binary eutectic alloy are evaluated. Alloys of carbon tetrabromide and hexachloroethane which serve as a transparent analogue of lamellar metallic eutectics are used. The observed interface shapes are analyzed by computer-aided methods. The solid-liquid interfacial free energies of each of the individual phases comprising the eutectic system are measured as a function of composition using a 'grain boundary groove' technique. The solid-liquid interfacial free energy of the two phases are evaluated directly from the eutectic interface. The phase diagram for the system, the heat of fusion as a function of composition, and the density as a function of composition are measured. The shape of the eutectic interface is controlled mainly by the solid-liquid and solid-solid interfacial free energy relationships at the interface and by the temperature gradient present, rather than by interlamellar diffusion in the liquid at the interface, over the range of growth rates studied.

Kaukler, W. F. S.

1981-01-01

318

Ion Fractionation at the Surface of Aqueous Inorganic Salt Solutions by Means of a `Film Centrifuge'  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predictions of Gibbs's lawnd the electrolyte theory about the (negative) adsorption of salts on the surface of aqueous salt solutions are compared with the results of an analysis of very thin surface films skimmed by means of a 'film centrifuge' from a solution containing two different salts. The separation effects observed on the salt mixtures CsC1\\/NaC1, BaCl\\/ NaC1, BaCl\\/CsC1,

P. H. Koske; H. Martin

1972-01-01

319

Nanofiltration of glucose solution containing salts: Effects of membrane characteristics, organic component and salts on retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding on nanofiltration especially the rejection of uncharged solutes, charged solutes and mixture of solutes is crucial for its application in food industry. This is because process streams in food industry usually contain organic components without charge and salts. In this work, DK and CK membranes were utilized for the separation of multi-component feeds containing glucose, NaCl and multivalent

A. W. Mohammad; R. Kadir Basha; C. P. Leo

2010-01-01

320

Chemistry control and corrosion mitigation of heat transfer salts for the fluoride salt reactor (FHR)  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a prototype nuclear reactor which operated from 1965 to 1969 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The MSRE used liquid fluoride salts as a heat transfer fluid and solvent for fluoride based {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U fuel. Extensive research was performed in order to optimize the removal of oxide and metal impurities from the reactor's heat transfer salt, 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe). This was done by sparging a mixture of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen gas through the FLiBe at elevated temperatures. The hydrofluoric acid reacted with oxides and hydroxides, fluorinating them while simultaneously releasing water vapor. Metal impurities such as iron and chromium were reduced by hydrogen gas and filtered out of the salt. By removing these impurities, the corrosion of reactor components was minimized. The Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison is currently researching a new chemical purification process for fluoride salts that make use of a less dangerous cleaning gas, nitrogen trifluoride. Nitrogen trifluoride has been predicted as a superior fluorinating agent for fluoride salts. These purified salts will subsequently be used for static and loop corrosion tests on a variety of reactor materials to ensure materials compatibility for the new FHR designs. Demonstration of chemistry control methodologies along with potential reduction in corrosion is essential for the use of a fluoride salts in a next generator nuclear reactor system. (authors)

Kelleher, B. C.; Sellers, S. R.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Scheele, R. D. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ.of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-07-01

321

Membrane potential in multi-ionic mixtures.  

PubMed

The membrane potential arising through charged porous membranes separating electrolyte mixtures at identical hydrostatic pressures but different concentrations was investigated theoretically by means of the steric, electric, and dielectric exclusion (SEDE) model. Transport phenomena were described through the Nernst-Planck formalism, while ion partitioning at the membrane/solution interfaces was accounted for by means of modified Donnan equations including steric and dielectric effects. The high concentration limit of the membrane potential depends on the mixture composition and the pore size as well. A specific feature of membrane potential in multi-ionic systems is the dependence at high concentration on the effective dielectric constant of the solution confined inside pores. Indeed, the effective dielectric constant inside pores does not affect the high concentration limit of the membrane potential in the case of single salt solutions. The low concentration limit of the membrane potential is independent of the mixture composition, the effective dielectric constant inside pores, and the pore radius, but it is ruled by counterions with the highest charge number. The membrane potential measured at high salt concentration with single salt solutions and electrolyte mixtures could be used to determine the pore size and the effective dielectric constant inside pores, respectively. This may constitute an alternative way for membrane characterization with the advantage of avoiding the need for additional rejection rate measurements. PMID:19518100

Lanteri, Y; Szymczyk, A; Fievet, P

2009-07-01

322

Effect of preliminary deformation on heat of melting of superplastic eutectic alloy Bi-43 wt % Sn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies have been performed on the effect of external compressive stress applied to samples of superplastic eutectic Bi-43 wt % Sn alloy during heating to a near-eutectic temperature on the specific heat of melting of the alloy. The alloy was prepared from chemically pure components by casting onto a massive copper substrate. After compression by ˜65% using a hydraulic press, the ingots were aged in air for approximately 7 months. The experiments were carried out using the method of differential thermal analysis. The samples were loaded using a specially designed device. A regular decrease in the specific heat of melting by ˜37% has been revealed while increasing the external pressure from 0 to 4.4 MPa. The experimental results are discussed using the available literature data on the heat of melting of the alloy and on the structure of the eutectic.

Korshak, V. F.; Tkachenko, M. V.

2013-11-01

323

LiF/CaF2/LiBaF3 ternary fluoride eutectic scintillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LiF/CaF2/LiBaF3 ternary eutectic scintillators were grown by the µ-PD method. In the solidified eutectic the phases were uniformly distributed in the transverse direction and aligned along the growth direction. For the Eu-doped samples, the expected emission peak observed at 425 nm was ascribed to Eu2+ 5d–4f transition from Eu:CaF2 under X-ray excitation. The LiF/CaF2/LiBaF3 ternary eutectic scintillators showed a light yield around 7,000 photons/neutron and decay time of 260 ns (73.6%) and 50 ns (26.4%).

Hishinuma, Kosuke; Kamada, Kei; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yamaji, Akihiro; Pejchal, Jan; Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Akira

2015-04-01

324

One-step synthesis of hematite nanospindles from choline chloride/urea deep eutectic solvent with highly powerful storage versus lithium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fe2O3 nanospindles assembled with nanoparticles as primary building blocks are directly synthesized by a versatile ionothermal strategy in the choline chloride/urea mixture-based deep eutectic solvent system. The proposed ionothermal protocol is attractive and environmental friendly because choline chloride and urea are both naturally biocompatible compounds. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the resultant Fe2O3 nanospindles show high capacity and good cycle stability (921.7 mAh g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 up to 50 cycles), as well as the excellent rate capability. The good electrochemical performance can be attributed to the nanospindle structure with high sufficient interfacial contact area between the active material and electrolyte, the short diffusion distance of Li ions. The environmentally benign strategy proposed in this study is expected to offer an attractive technique for the ionothermal synthesis of electrochemical energy storage materials.

Xiong, Q. Q.; Tu, J. P.; Ge, X.; Wang, X. L.; Gu, C. D.

2015-01-01

325

Structural and phonon transmission study of Ge-Au-Ge eutectically bonded interfaces  

SciTech Connect

This thesis presents a structural analysis and phonon transparency investigation of the Ge-Au-Ge eutectic bond interface. Interface development was intended to maximize the interfacial ballistic phonon transparency to enhance the detection of the dark matter candidate WIMPs. The process which was developed provides an interface which produces minimal stress, low amounts of impurities, and insures Ge lattice continuity through the interface. For initial Au thicknesses of greater than 1,000 {angstrom} Au per substrate side, eutectic epitaxial growth resulted in a Au dendritic structure with 95% cross sectional and 90% planar Au interfacial area coverages. In sections in which Ge bridged the interface, lattice continuity across the interface was apparent. Epitaxial solidification of the eutectic interface with initial Au thicknesses < 500 A per substrate side produced Au agglomerations thereby reducing the Au planar interfacial area coverage to as little as 30%. The mechanism for Au coalescence was attributed to lateral diffusion of Ge and Au in the liquid phase during solidification. Phonon transmission studies were performed on eutectic interfaces with initial Au thicknesses of 1,000 {angstrom}, 500 {angstrom}, and 300 {angstrom} per substrate side. Phonon imaging of eutectically bonded samples with initial Au thicknesses of 300 {angstrom}/side revealed reproducible interfacial percent phonon transmissions from 60% to 70%. Line scan phonon imaging verified the results. Phonon propagation TOF spectra distinctly showed the predominant phonon propagation mode was ballistic. This was substantiated by phonon focusing effects apparent in the phonon imaging data. The degree of interface transparency to phonons and resulting phonon propagation modes correlate with the structure of the interface following eutectic solidification. Structural studies of samples with initial Au thickness of 1,000 {angstrom}/side appear to correspond with the phonon transmission study.

Knowlton, W.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

1995-07-01

326

The effect of clean and no-clean flux in enhancing the wettability of eutectic solder bump flip chip PBGA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different types of clean flux and no-clean flux, which are mainly used in flip chip die attach, have been analyzed in respect to the wettability of eutectic solder bump in flip chip PBGA. An experimental study is carried out to measure the spreading area of the eutectic solder bump processed with different types of flux. Various types of clean

Nowshad Amin; Ang Ye Cheah; Z. Kornain; I. Ahmad

2008-01-01

327

Characterization of HT-9 Ferritic-Martensitic Steels Oxidized in Lead Bismuth Eutectic , A. T. Motta1  

E-print Network

Characterization of HT-9 Ferritic-Martensitic Steels Oxidized in Lead Bismuth Eutectic J. Kunkle1 to neutrons, lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) is an considered an ideal candidate for cooling these fast reactors. Using a combination of techniques, the oxide layers formed on three ferritic-martensitic HT-9 steel

Motta, Arthur T.

328

Salt tectonics on Venus  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

1986-05-01

329

Thermodynamics of neptunium in LiCl-KCl eutectic\\/liquid bismuth systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic properties of neptunium in LiCl-KCl eutectic\\/liquid bismuth systems in the temperature range 400--500 C have been studied using a galvanic cell method for the pyrometallurgical reprocessing of nuclear spent fuels. The standard potential of the Np\\/Np(III) couple vs. the Ag\\/AgCl (1 wt% AgCl) reference electrode in LiCl-KCl eutectic was measured and given by the equation E{sub Np\\/Np(III)}° = -2.0667

Y. Sakamura; O. Shirai; T. Iwai; Y. Suzuki

2000-01-01

330

Numerical study: Iron corrosion-resistance in lead-bismuth eutectic coolant by molecular dynamics method  

SciTech Connect

In this present work, we report numerical results of iron (cladding) corrosion study in interaction with lead-bismuth eutectic coolant of advanced nuclear reactors. The goal of this work is to study how the oxygen can be used to reduce the corrosion rate of cladding. The molecular dynamics method was applied to simulate corrosion process. By evaluating the diffusion coefficients, RDF functions, MSD curves of the iron and also observed the crystal structure of iron before and after oxygen injection to the coolant then we concluded that a significant and effective reduction can be achieved by issuing about 2% number of oxygen atoms to lead-bismuth eutectic coolant.

Arkundato, Artoto; Su'ud, Zaki; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Widayani,; Celino, Massimo [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Physics Department Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences Universitas (Indonesia); Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Physics Department Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung (Indonesia); ENEA, CR Cassacia, Via Anguillarese 301, Roma (Italy)

2012-06-06

331

Numerical study of the effect of the shape of the phase diagram on the eutectic freezing temperature  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the reliability of metal-carbon eutectic systems as fixed points for the next generation of high-temperature standards the effect of thermodynamic properties related to the shape of eutectic phase diagram on the freezing temperature is investigated within the context of the numerical multi-phase-field model. The partition coefficient and liquidus slopes of the two solids involved in the eutectic reaction are varied deliberately and independently. The difference between the eutectic temperature and the freezing temperature is determined in dependence of the solid/liquid (s/l) interface shape and concentration. Where appropriate reference is made to the Jackson-Hunt analytical theory. It is shown that there are mainly two typical conditions to decrease the undercooling: 1) a small liquidus slope and 2) the associated difference between the eutectic composition and the liquid composition during solidification.

Ode, M.; Shimono, M. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba (Japan)] [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba (Japan); Sasajima, N.; Yamada, Y. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ, AIST), Tsukuba (Japan)] [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ, AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Bloembergen, P. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ, AIST), Tsukuba, Japan and National Institute of Metrology, Beijing 100013 (China)] [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ, AIST), Tsukuba, Japan and National Institute of Metrology, Beijing 100013 (China)

2013-09-11

332

Utah: Salt Lake Region  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

2014-05-15

333

What Are Bath Salts?  

MedlinePLUS

... Menu | Search Enter Search Term(s): Home + Drug Facts Anabolic Steroids Bath Salts Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM ... Web site Citation Site Map Home Drug Facts Anabolic Steroids Bath Salts Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM ...

334

Lead-Bismuth-Eutectic Spallation Neutron Source for Nuclear Transmuter Y. Gohar, J. Herceg, L Krajtl, D. Pointer, J. Saiveau, T. Sofu, and P. Finck  

E-print Network

Lead-Bismuth-Eutectic Spallation Neutron Source for Nuclear Transmuter Y. Gohar, J. Herceg, L South Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 Abstract A lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) spallation target design in the target window to enhance its operating life. I. Introduction A lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) spallation

McDonald, Kirk

335

Investigation of Corrosion of Steel by Lead Bismuth Eutectic Dan Koury (1), Allen L. Johnson (2), Dale L. Perry (3), and John W. Farley (1)  

E-print Network

1 Investigation of Corrosion of Steel by Lead Bismuth Eutectic Dan Koury (1), Allen L. Johnson (2 A new research program has begun at UNLV in accelerator transmutation of waste. Lead Bismuth Eutectic for accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste, Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) has been proposed for use

McDonald, Kirk

336

Retrospective salt tectonics  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

Jackson, M.P.A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

337

Plant salt tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress in plant agriculture worldwide. This has led to research into salt tolerance with the aim of improving crop plants. However, salt tolerance might have much wider implications because transgenic salt-tolerant plants often also tolerate other stresses including chilling, freezing, heat and drought. Unfortunately, suitable genetic model systems have been hard to find. A

Jian-Kang Zhu

2001-01-01

338

Electrical Properties of Ice and Ice-Silicate Mixtures for Mars Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are measuring the complex permittivity of materials relevant to the cryosphere of Mars in order to interpret data from current missions and to plan future exploration. Measurements are made over a temperature range of 180- 273 K and a frequency range of 1 mHz-1MHz. Materials include "pure" ice, doped ice, and saline ices, either alone or mixed with reference solids (glass beads, Ottawa sand) or with Mars-regolith analogs (JSC Mars-1, smectite clays). Initial solute concentrations are always undersaturated. We find a regular increase in overall conductivity of ice with solute content. This occurs at temperatures above the eutectic temperature where brine channels are expected to exist and also deeply below the eutectic temperature where solutes are expected to be almost completely excluded from the ice and precipitated along grain boundaries. We hypothesize this is a kinetic effect of incomplete segregation, leaving hydrated salts in the former brine channels. For CaCl2 as a representative solute, initial concentrations must be much greater than 1 mM to develop significant brine channels. Mixtures of ice and sand or glass beads behave as expected for two-component systems, with conductivity dominated by the ice and precipitated solutes. The conductivity of JSC Mars-1 and ice is much lower than expected and may be due to solute fixation by clays with high ion exchange capacity. We find no evidence of significantly enhanced conductivity due to thin films of adsorbed or capillary water at subeutectic temperatures. The dielectric relaxation frequency of protonic point defects in ice was found to vary regularly between a previously established low value for "pure" ice and a higher limit mapped by us corresponding to 3-10 ppm Cl- saturation of the ice matrix. We found no changes to the ice relaxation due to mixing with sand; however, JSC Mars-1 caused the ice relaxation frequency to decrease, presumably because even trace Cl- was removed and not incorporated into the ice matrix. These results have implications for surface-penetrating radars and microbial habitability of Mars. The DC conductivity of saline ice is too small to cause significant attenuation of sounding radars and the dielectric relaxation is also inefficient unless the ice is warm. The low DC conductivity even for ice-silicate mixtures where water layers of a few monolayers are present further implies that microbes in the cryosphere cannot transport nutrients and waste in quantities sufficient even for dormancy: warming cycles to periglacial conditions are necessary to activate brine channels and solute transport. These measurements can also be used to help interpret the simple electrical properties measurements that will be made by the Phoenix lander. Ongoing investigation includes the effects of dielectric relaxations due to bound water and interfacial polarizations on radar loss, and testing the ability to map subsurface ice using the strength of the dielectric relaxation.

Stillman, D. E.; Grimm, R. E.

2007-12-01

339

Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNOâ-NaNOâ and NaCl-KNOâ-NaNOâ-Ca(NOâ)â salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling

S Carroll; J Rard; M Alai; K Staggs

2005-01-01

340

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOEpatents

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath. 2 figs.

Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.

1996-02-13

341

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOEpatents

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01

342

Glyme-lithium salt phase behavior.  

PubMed

Phase diagrams are reported for glyme mixtures with simple lithium salts. The glymes studied include monoglyme (DME), diglyme, triglyme, and tetraglyme. The lithium salts include LiBETI, LiAsF6, LiI, LiClO4, LiBF4, LiCF3SO3, LiBr, LiNO3, and LiCF3CO2. The phase diagrams clearly illustrate how solvate formation and thermophysical properties are dictated by the ionic association strength of the salt (i.e., the properties of the anions) and chain length of the solvating molecules. This information provides critical predictive capabilities for solvate formation and ionic interactions common in organometallic reagents and battery electrolytes. PMID:16805630

Henderson, Wesley A

2006-07-01

343

Theoretical and numerical study of lamellar eutectic three-phase growth in ternary alloys.  

PubMed

We investigate lamellar three-phase patterns that form during the directional solidification of ternary eutectic alloys in thin samples. A distinctive feature of this system is that many different geometric arrangements of the three phases are possible, contrary to the widely studied two-phase patterns in binary eutectics. Here, we first analyze the case of stable lamellar coupled growth of a symmetric model ternary eutectic alloy, using a Jackson-Hunt-type calculation in thin film geometry, for arbitrary configurations, and derive expressions for the front undercooling as a function of velocity and spacing. Next, we carry out phase-field simulations to test our analytic predictions and to study the instabilities of the simplest periodic lamellar arrays. For large spacings, we observe different oscillatory modes that are similar to those found previously for binary eutectics and that can be classified using the symmetry elements of the steady-state pattern. For small spacings, we observe a new instability that leads to a change in the sequence of the phases. Its onset can be well predicted by our analytic calculations. Finally, some preliminary phase-field simulations of three-dimensional growth structures are also presented. PMID:21728548

Choudhury, Abhik; Plapp, Mathis; Nestler, Britta

2011-05-01

344

Critical temperature of the leadbismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy Abdul-Majeed Azad *  

E-print Network

; boiling point = 2022 K) and Pb (melting point = 600 K; boiling point = 1837 K) as well as the Pb­Bi eutectic alloy (LBE, melting point = 396 K; boil- ing point = 1943 K) have been serious contenders for use neutron absorption and activation, high boiling point and poor interaction with water and air, etc

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

345

The Effect of Silica Nanoparticles on Corrosion of Steel by Molten Carbonate Eutectics  

E-print Network

The effect of silica nanoparticles on corrosion of steel by molten carbonate eutectic (42.7 percent Li2CO3, K2CO3) was investigated. The experimental design was based on static coupon immersion methodology where a coupon (material under study...

Padmanaban Iyer, Ashwin

2011-08-08

346

Diffraction based characterization of a directionally solidified Cu–Cr eutectic alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of diffraction to experimentally characterize a directionally solidified Cu–Cr eutectic alloy containing sub-micron diameter Cr whiskers. This material has been analyzed in terms of its texture and thermal residual elastic strains as measured by neutron diffraction. Observations of the defect structure of the material and the crystallographic relationship between phases are also made. It is

C. W. Sinclair; J. D. Embury; G. C. Weatherly; K. T. Conlon; C. P. Luo; K. Yu-Zhang

2005-01-01

347

Experimental investigation of forced-convection heat-transfer characteristics of lead-bismuth eutectic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The forced-convection heat-transfer characteristics of lead-bismuth eutectic were experimentally investigated. Experimental values of Nusselt number for lead-bismuth fell considerably below predicted values. The addition of a wetting agent did not change the heat transfer characteristics.

Lubarsky, Bernard

1951-01-01

348

Differential capacity of a deep eutectic solvent based on choline chloride and glycerol on solid electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of the interface between platinum, gold and glassy carbon electrodes and a deep eutectic ionic liquid based on choline chloride and glycerol were assessed using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The double layer differential capacitance, obtained from electrochemical impedance, reveals a slight dependence of the potential but it is sensitive to the electrode material. In contrast to

Marta Figueiredo; Cristiana Gomes; Renata Costa; Ana Martins; Carlos M. Pereira; Fernando Silva

2009-01-01

349

Free energy change of off-eutectic binary alloys on solidification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A formula for the free energy difference between the undercooled liquid phase and the stable solid phase is derived for off-eutectic binary alloys in which the equilibrium solid/liquid transition takes place over a certain temperature range. The free energy change is then evaluated numerically for a Bi-25 at. pct Cd alloy modeled as a sub-subregular solution.

Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.; Lin, J.-C.; Perepezko, J. H.

1991-01-01

350

Wetting of Cu and Al by Sn-Zn and Zn-Al Eutectic Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetting properties of Sn-Zn and Zn-Al alloys on Cu and Al substrates were studied. Spreading tests were carried out for 3 min, in air and under protective atmosphere of nitrogen, with the use of fluxes. In the case of Zn-Al eutectic, spreading tests were carried out at 460, 480, 500, and 520 °C, and in the case of Sn-Zn eutectic at 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, and 500 °C, respectively. Solidified solder/substrate couples were cross-sectioned and subjected to microstructure examination. The spreading tests indicated that the wetting properties of eutectic Sn-Zn alloys, on copper pads do not depend on temperature (up to 400 °C), but in the lack of protective atmosphere, the solder does not wet the pads. Wettability studies of Zn-Al eutectic on aluminum and copper substrates have shown a negative effect of the protective nitrogen atmosphere on the wetting properties, especially for the copper pads. Furthermore, it was noted that with increasing temperature the solder wettability is improved. In addition, densities of liquid solders were studied by means of dilatometric technique.

Pstru?, Janusz; Fima, Przemys?aw; Gancarz, Tomasz

2012-05-01

351

Fabrication of cellular shape memory alloy materials by reactive eutectic brazing using niobium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel metal-joining process is described that exploits interfacial reactions between nitinol and pure niobium to produce a reactive eutectic liquid that readily creates a robust metallurgical bond between nitinol and itself. With this new reactive-brazing process we have been able to create prototypes of superelastic cellular honeycomb topologies from conventional nitinol precursor materials such as tubes and corrugated sheets.

David S. Grummon; John A. Shaw; John Foltz

2006-01-01

352

Mechanical Properties and Fracture Behavior of Directionally Solidified NiAl-V Eutectic Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directional solidification of eutectic alloys has been recognized as promising technique for producing in situ composite materials exhibiting balance of properties. Therefore, an in situ NiAl-V eutectic composite has been successfully directionally solidified using Bridgman technique. The mechanical behavior of the composite including fracture resistance, microhardness, and compressive properties at room and elevated temperatures was investigated. Damage evolution and fracture characteristics were also discussed. The obtained results indicate that the NiAl-V eutectic retains high yield strength up to 1073 K (800 °C), above which there is a rapid decrease in strength. Its yield strength is higher than that of binary NiAl and most of the NiAl-based eutectics. The exhibited fracture toughness of 28.5 MPa?m is the highest of all other NiAl-based systems investigated so far. The material exhibited brittle fracture behavior of transgranular type and all observations pointed out that the main fracture micromechanism was cleavage.

Milenkovic, Srdjan; Caram, Rubens

2015-02-01

353

Application of eutectic composites to gas turbine system and fundamental fracture properties up to 1700 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single crystal eutectic composites have recently been researched and developed as the bulk materials. They are generally expected to be the most interesting and attractive as the high temperature, environmental resistant structural material in the field of aeronautics, aerospace and power generator technologies. They have high temperature strength characteristics, high creep and oxidation resistance as well as the fairly good

Kazumi Hirano

2005-01-01

354

Eutectic freeze crystallization: Application to process streams and waste water purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two case studies are presented using eutectic freeze crystallization (EFC) as an alternative for evaporative crystallization: a 7.8 ton day?1 35 w% aqueous sodium nitrate and a 24 ton day?1 12 w% copper sulfate stream. The proposed crystallizer is a cooled disk column crystallizer (CDCC), using indirect cooling for heat transfer. In single stage operation, the formed ice crystals are

F. van der Ham; G. J. Witkamp; J. de Graauw; G. M. van Rosmalen

1998-01-01

355

Molten nitrate salt technology development status report  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing thermal energy storage as potentially critical to the successful commercialization of solar thermal power systems, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established a comprehensive and aggressive thermal energy storage technology development program. Of the fluids proposed for heat transfer and energy storage molten nitrate salts offer significant economic advantages. The nitrate salt of most interest is a binary mixture of NaNO/sub 3/ and KNO/sub 3/. Although nitrate/nitrite mixtures have been used for decades as heat transfer and heat treatment fluids the use has been at temperatures of about 450/sup 0/C and lower. In solar thermal power systems the salts will experience a temperature range of 350 to 600/sup 0/C. Because central receiver applications place more rigorous demands and higher temperatures on nitrate salts a comprehensive experimental program has been developed to examine what effects, if any, the new demands and temperatures have on the salts. The experiments include corrosion testing, environmental cracking of containment materials, and determinations of physical properties and decomposition mechanisms. This report details the work done at Sandia National Laboratories in each area listed. In addition, summaries of the experimental programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of New York, EIC Laboratories, Inc., and the Norwegian Institute of Technology on molten nitrate salts are given. Also discussed is how the experimental programs will influence the near-term central receiver programs such as utility repowering/industrial retrofit and cogeneration. The report is designed to provide easy access to the latest information and data on molten NaNO/sub 3//KNO/sub 3/ for the designers and engineers of future central receiver projects.

Carling, R.W.; Kramer, C.M.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.; Goods, S.H.; Mar, R.W.; Munford, J.W.; Karnowsky, M.M.; Biefeld, R.N.; Norem, N.J.

1981-03-01

356

Hygroscopic salts and the potential for life on Mars.  

PubMed

Hygroscopic salts have been detected in soils in the northern latitudes of Mars, and widespread chloride-bearing evaporitic deposits have been detected in the southern highlands. The deliquescence of hygroscopic minerals such as chloride salts could provide a local and transient source of liquid water that would be available for microorganisms on the surface. This is known to occur in the Atacama Desert, where massive halite evaporites have become a habitat for photosynthetic and heterotrophic microorganisms that take advantage of the deliquescence of the salt at certain relative humidity (RH) levels. We modeled the climate conditions (RH and temperature) in a region on Mars with chloride-bearing evaporites, and modeled the evolution of the water activity (a(w)) of the deliquescence solutions of three possible chloride salts (sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride) as a function of temperature. We also studied the water absorption properties of the same salts as a function of RH. Our climate model results show that the RH in the region with chloride-bearing deposits on Mars often reaches the deliquescence points of all three salts, and the temperature reaches levels above their eutectic points seasonally, in the course of a martian year. The a(w) of the deliquescence solutions increases with decreasing temperature due mainly to the precipitation of unstable phases, which removes ions from the solution. The deliquescence of sodium chloride results in transient solutions with a(w) compatible with growth of terrestrial microorganisms down to 252 K, whereas for calcium chloride and magnesium chloride it results in solutions with a(w) below the known limits for growth at all temperatures. However, taking the limits of a(w) used to define special regions on Mars, the deliquescence of calcium chloride deposits would allow for the propagation of terrestrial microorganisms at temperatures between 265 and 253 K, and for metabolic activity (no growth) at temperatures between 253 and 233 K. PMID:20735252

Davila, Alfonso F; Duport, Luis Gago; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Jänchen, Jochen; Valea, Sergio; de Los Rios, Asunción; Fairén, Alberto G; Möhlmann, Diedrich; McKay, Christopher P; Ascaso, Carmen; Wierzchos, Jacek

2010-01-01

357

Salt tolerance of common green roof and green wall plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detrimental effects of road deicing salt on vegetation are well known and have been well studied, with the exception of typical\\u000a green roof plants, which could experience damage on green roofs with public access and green walls near roadways in cold climates.\\u000a Two studies were conducted comparing salt tolerance of five Sedum species, two Allium species and a mixture of

Leigh J. Whittinghill; D. Bradley Rowe

358

Transient and steady state creep response of ice I and magnesium sulfate hydrate eutectic aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using uniaxial compression creep experiments, we characterized the transient and steady state deformation behaviors of eutectic aggregates of system ice I and MgSO4 • 11H2O (MS11; meridianiite), which has significance because of its likely presence on moons of the outer solar system. Synthetic samples of eutectic liquid bulk composition, which produce eutectic colonies containing 0.35-0.50 volume fraction MS11, were tested as functions of colony size and lamellar spacing, temperature (230-250 K), and confining pressure (0.1 and 50 MPa) to strains ? 0.2. Up to a differential stress of 6 MPa, the ice I-MS11 aggregates display an order of magnitude higher effective viscosity and higher stress sensitivity than do aggregates of pure polycrystalline ice at the same conditions. The creep data and associated microstructural observations demonstrate, however, that the aggregates are additionally more brittle than pure ice, approaching rate-independent plasticity that includes rupture of the hydrate phase at 6-8 MPa, depending on the scale of the microstructure. Microstructures of deformed samples reveal forms of semibrittle flow in which the hydrate phase fractures while the ice phase deforms plastically. Semibrittle flow in the icy shell of a planetary body would truncate the lithospheric strength envelope and thereby decrease the depth to the brittle-ductile transition by 55% and reduce the failure limit for compressional surface features from 10 to ˜6 MPa. A constitutive equation that includes eutectic colony boundary sliding and intracolony flow is used to describe the steady state rheology of the eutectic aggregates.

McCarthy, Christine; Cooper, Reid F.; Goldsby, David L.; Durham, William B.; Kirby, Stephen H.

2011-04-01

359

Transient and steady state creep response of ice I and magnesium sulfate hydrate eutectic aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using uniaxial compression creep experiments, we characterized the transient and steady state deformation behaviors of eutectic aggregates of system ice I and MgSO4 11H2O (MS11; meridianiite), which has significance because of its likely presence on moons of the outer solar system. Synthetic samples of eutectic liquid bulk composition, which produce eutectic colonies containing 0.35-0.50 volume fraction MS11, were tested as functions of colony size and lamellar spacing, temperature (230-250 K), and confining pressure (0.1 and 50 MPa) to strains ???0.2. Up to a differential stress of 6 MPa, the ice I-MS11 aggregates display an order of magnitude higher effective viscosity and higher stress sensitivity than do aggregates of pure polycrystalline ice at the same conditions. The creep data and associated microstructural observations demonstrate, however, that the aggregates are additionally more brittle than pure ice, approaching rate-independent plasticity that includes rupture of the hydrate phase at 6-8 MPa, depending on the scale of the microstructure. Microstructures of deformed samples reveal forms of semibrittle flow in which the hydrate phase fractures while the ice phase deforms plastically. Semibrittle flow in the icy shell of a planetary body would truncate the lithospheric strength envelope and thereby decrease the depth to the brittle-ductile transition by 55% and reduce the failure limit for compressional surface features from 10 to ???6 MPa. A constitutive equation that includes eutectic colony boundary sliding and intracolony flow is used to describe the steady state rheology of the eutectic aggregates. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

McCarthy, C.; Cooper, R.F.; Goldsby, D.L.; Durham, W.B.; Kirby, S.H.

2011-01-01

360

Natural deep eutectic solvents as new potential media for green technology.  

PubMed

Developing new green solvents is one of the key subjects in Green Chemistry. Ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents, thus, have been paid great attention to replace current harsh organic solvents and have been applied to many chemical processing such as extraction and synthesis. However, current ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents have still limitations to be applied to a real chemical industry due to toxicity against human and environment and high cost of ILs and solid state of most deep eutectic solvents at room temperature. Recently we discovered that many plant abundant primary metabolites changed their state from solid to liquid when they were mixed in proper ratio. This finding made us hypothesize that natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) play a role as alternative media to water in living organisms and tested a wide range of natural products, which resulted in discovery of over 100 NADES from nature. In order to prove deep eutectic feature the interaction between the molecules was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All the tested NADES show clear hydrogen bonding between components. As next step physical properties of NADES such as water activity, density, viscosity, polarity and thermal properties were measured as well as the effect of water on the physical properties. In the last stage the novel NADES were applied to the solubilization of wide range of biomolecules such as non-water soluble bioactive natural products, gluten, starch, and DNA. In most cases the solubility of the biomolecules evaluated in this study was greatly higher than water. Based on the results the novel NADES may be expected as potential green solvents at room temperature in diverse fields of chemistry. PMID:23427801

Dai, Yuntao; van Spronsen, Jaap; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

2013-03-01

361

Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.  

PubMed

Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. PMID:25424037

Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

2014-11-28

362

Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.  

PubMed

Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. PMID:25590741

Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

2014-12-01

363

Refinement of Eutectic Si in High Purity Al-5Si Alloys with Combined Ca and P Additions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of combined additions of Ca and P on the eutectic Si in a series of high purity Al-5 wt pct Si alloys have been investigated with the entrained droplet technique and complementary sets of conventional castings. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal analysis were used to investigate the eutectic droplet undercooling and the recalescence undercooling, respectively. Optical microscopy, SEM, EPMA, and TEM were employed to characterize the resultant microstructures. It was found that 250 ppm Ca addition to Al-5Si wt pct alloys with higher P contents leads to a significant increase of the eutectic droplet undercooling. For low or moderate cooling rates, the TEM results underline that Ca additions do not promote Si twinning. Thus, a higher twin density cannot be expected in Ca containing Al-Si alloys after, e.g., sand casting. Consequently, a refinement of the eutectic Si from coarse flake-like to fine plate-like structure, rather than a modification of the eutectic Si to a fibrous morphology, was achieved. This strongly indicates that the main purpose of Ca additions is to counteract the coarsening effect of the eutectic Si imposed by higher P concentrations. Significant multiple Si twinning was observed in melt-spun condition; however, this can be attributed to the higher cooling rate. After DSC heating (slow cooling), most of Si twins disappeared. Thus, the well-accepted impurity-induced twinning mechanism may be not valid in the case of Ca addition. The possible refinement mechanisms were discussed in terms of nucleation and growth of eutectic Si. We propose that the pre-eutectic Al2Si2Ca phase and preferential formation of Ca3P2 deactivate impurity particles, most likely AlP, poisoning the nucleation sites for eutectic Si.

Ludwig, Thomas Hartmut; Li, Jiehua; Schaffer, Paul Louis; Schumacher, Peter; Arnberg, Lars

2015-01-01

364

Alloys compatibility in molten salt fluorides: Kurchatov Institute related experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last several years, there has been an increased interest in the use of high-temperature molten salt fluorides in nuclear power systems. For all molten salt reactor designs, materials selection is a very important issue. This paper summarizes results, which led to selection of materials for molten salt reactors in Russia. Operating experience with corrosion thermal convection loops has demonstrated good capability of the “nickel-molybdenum alloys + fluoride salt fueled by UF4 and PuF3 + cover gas” system up to 750 °C. A brief description is given of the container material work in progress. Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys in stressed and unloaded conditions studies was also tested in different molten salt mixtures at temperatures up to 700-750 °C, also with measurement of the redox potential. HN80MTY alloy with 1% added Al is the most resistant to tellurium intergranular cracking of Ni-base alloys under study.

Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexandr

2013-10-01

365

[Historical roles of salt].  

PubMed

Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article. PMID:15605314

Ritz, E; Ritz, C

2004-12-17

366

Photochemistry of triarylsulfonium salts  

SciTech Connect

The photolysis of triphenylsulfonium, tris(4-methylphenyl)sulfonium, tris(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonium, several monosubstituted (4-F, 4-Cl, 4-Me, 4-MeO, 4-PhS, and 4-PhCO), and disubstituted (4,4{prime}-Me{sub 2} and 4,4{prime}-(MeO){sub 2}) triphenylsulfonium salts was examined in solution. It was found that direct irradiation of triphenylsulfonium salts produced new rearrangement products, phenylthiobiphenyls, along with diphenyl sulfide, which had been previously reported. Similarly, the triarylsulfonium salts, with the exception of the (4-(phenylthio)phenyl)diphenylsulfonium salts produced new rearrangement products, phenylthiobiphenyls, along with diphenyl sulfide, which had been previously reported. Similarly, the triarylsulfonium salts, with the exception of the (4-(phenylthio)phenyl)diphenylsulfonium salts, gave the new rearrangement products. The mechanism for direct photolysis is proposed to occur from the singlet excited states to give a predominant heterolytic cleavage along with some homolytic cleavage.

Dektar, J.L.; Hacker, N.P. (Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (USA))

1990-08-01

367

Impact insensitive dinitromethanide salts.  

PubMed

Several stable guanidinium, triazolium, and tetrazolium dinitromethanide salts with high nitrogen content, good detonation properties, and concomitant low impact sensitivities are potential energetic materials. PMID:24067808

He, Ling; Tao, Guo-Hong; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

2013-11-11

368

Salt splitting using ceramic membranes  

SciTech Connect

Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1997-10-01

369

Solid–liquid and liquid–liquid equilibria for 1,3,5-trioxane, or 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane + selected n-alkane mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid–liquid and liquid–liquid equilibrium temperatures for mixtures of 1,3,5-trioxane, or 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane with n-heptane, or with n-tridecane, or with n-hexadecane are reported. The equilibrium temperatures were measured by a dynamic method. Mixtures with n-tridecane, or n-hexadecane show a eutectic point. 1,4,7,10,13,16-Hexaoxacyclooctadecane present a transition point in solid phase, which depends on the solvent. Dipole–dipole interactions are stronger in solutions with 1,3,5-trioxane.Mixtures

U. Domanska; J. A. González

2003-01-01

370

Thermal cycling effect on the nanoparticle distribution and specific heat of a carbonate eutectic with alumina nanoparticles  

E-print Network

The objective of this research was to measure the effect of thermal cycling on the nanoparticle distribution and specific heat of a nanocomposite material consisting of a eutectic of lithium carbonate and potassium carbonate and 1% by mass alumina...

Shankar, Sandhya

2011-08-08

371

Evolution of salt-related structures in compressional settings  

SciTech Connect

Sandbox experiments analyzed by computerized X-ray tomography provide relevant models of salt-related contractional structures and improve understanding of the relative importance of the many parameters influencing structural style. In front of thin-skinned fold and thrust belts, the salt layers provide decollement surfaces, which allow the horizontal strain to propagate far toward the edge of the foreland. As shortening increases, older structures forming in front of the system can be overtaken by out-of-sequence faulting and folding. The very low friction coefficient of salt layers induces a symmetric stress system. This promotes pop-up structures rather than asymmetric thrust faults. Salt extrusions are related to former salt ridges or salt walls squeezed by compression and dragged along thrust planes or to local low-pressure zones along crestal tear faults during folding. The salt that spreads out from the fault is rapidly dissolved. The resultant surface collapse structures are progressively filled by a mixture of Recent sediments and reprecipitated evaporates. Salt pinch-outs, either depositional or structural in origin, are a major controlling factor of the deformation geometry in fold and thrust belts. They trigger, either locally or regionally, contractional structures, including folds and thrusts, in rapidly prograding passive margins deforming by gravity gliding. In this structural context, salt pinch-outs also thicken due to differential loading and gravity spreading. The structural complexity in inverted grabens or in basement-involved orogenic belts where salt is present is the outcome of many factors. The salt thickness, the preexisting extensional structures, the synsalt and postsalt rifting, and the related distribution of older salt structures and sediments all localize folds and thrusts during later contraction.

Letouzey, J.; Colleta, B.; Vially, R. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France); Chermette, J.C. [Total, Paris La Defense (France)

1996-12-31

372

The Mixtures Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation illustrates the separation of mixtures using physical properties. The interactive simulation allows "lab attendants" to separate mixtures using virtual tools. Separation mechanisms are chosen based upon substances' physical properties, and findings are recorded in a chart.

373

Element, Mixture, Compound  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students gain a better understanding of the different types of materials as pure substances and mixtures and learn to distinguish between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures by discussing an assortment of example materials they use and encounter in their daily lives.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

374

Low-melting mixtures based on choline ionic liquids.  

PubMed

In this article a strategy is proposed for the design of low toxic, room temperature liquid low-melting mixtures (LMMs) which are entirely composed of natural materials. From literature it is well known that, in general, deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride and dicarboxylic acids are LMMs, but not liquids at room temperature, with one exception: a 1?:?1 molar mixture of malonic acid and choline chloride. Therefore, the starting point of this study was the decrease of the melting point of one of the components, namely the dicarboxylic acid, which is succinic, glutaric or adipic acid. For this purpose, one of the two protons of the acidic group was exchanged by a bulky unsymmetrical choline cation. The resulting ionic liquids (ILs) were still solid at room temperature, but have a reduced melting temperature compared to the corresponding acids. In the second step, mixtures of these ILs with choline chloride were prepared. It turned out that choline glutarate-choline chloride mixtures are liquids at room temperature at compositions containing 95-98 wt% of choline glutarate. Finally, urea was added as another hydrogen bond donor. Density, conductivity and viscosity measurements were performed for all obtained mixtures. Moreover, a Walden plot was drawn which indicates that all mixtures are liquids with fully dissociated ions moving independently. Therefore, they are considered as "good" ionic liquids and, thus, for example they can be used to exchange more toxic or less biodegradable ILs in application processes. A brief outlook containing application possibilities is given. It is demonstrated that choline dodecylsulfate is readily soluble in these mixtures, forming aggregates in the LMM at temperatures exceeding 55 °C. PMID:25242504

Rengstl, Doris; Fischer, Veronika; Kunz, Werner

2014-11-01

375

Pyrolytic conversion of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons with basic salt catalysts  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a process for improving the pyrolytic conversion of waste selected from rubber and plastic to low molecular weight olefinic materials by employing basis salt catalysts in the waste mixture. The salts comprise alkali or alkaline earth compounds, particularly sodium carbonate, in an amount of greater than about 1 weight percent based on the waste feed.

Wingfield, Jr., Robert C. (Southfield, MI); Braslaw, Jacob (Southfield, MI); Gealer, Roy L. (West Bloomfield, MI)

1985-01-01

376

The effects of a eutectic modifier on microstructure and surface corrosion behavior of Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoeutectic aluminum–silicon alloys can have significant improvements in mechanical properties by inducing structural modification\\u000a in the normally occurring eutectic. The eutectic modification may affect not only the mechanical properties but also the corrosion\\u000a resistance of such alloys. It is well known that structural parameters such as grain size and interdendritic spacing can significantly\\u000a affect corrosion resistance of alloys. However, to

Wislei R. Osório; Noé Cheung; José E. Spinelli; Pedro R. Goulart; Amauri Garcia

2007-01-01

377

Effects of process parameters on the soldering behavior of the eutectic Sn-Zn solder on Cu substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of process parameters such as flux, dipping temperature and the heat-treatment on the soldering behaviors of the eutectic solder (composition: 91Sn-9Zn) hot-dipped on Cu substrates were investigated. The most suitable flux as tested was oleic acid for the eutectic Sn-Zn solder system hot-dipped on Cu substrate for the solder coverage. The adhesion strength obtained increased from 9.6±0.6 MPa

Shan-Pu Yu; Hsiu-Ju Lin; Min-Hsiung Hon; Moo-Chin Wang

2000-01-01

378

Spheroidizing kinetics of eutectic carbide in the twin roll-casting of M2 high-speed steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-speed steel M2 strip has been experimentally produced by using a twin roll strip castor. The microstructure of the strip and the eutectic carbide in the cast-rolled strip were examined in detail. The spheroidizing procedure of the eutectic carbide in the twin roll cast M2 high-speed steel strip was investigated with the method of annealing, quenching and tempering. The results

Hongshuang Di; Xiaoming Zhang; Guodong Wang; Xianghua Liu

2005-01-01

379

A cobalt carbon eutectic fixed point for the calibration of contact thermometers at temperatures above 1100 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical cobalt-carbon (Co-C) eutectic fixed point cell was constructed at PTB to demonstrate its use for improvement of the calibration of noble-metal thermocouples at temperatures above 1100 °C. The melting and freezing temperatures of the Co-C eutectic were measured in different high-temperature furnaces at PTB and INMETRO (Brazil) to show its stability by using a Pt\\/Pd thermocouple. The reproducibility

F. Edler; A. C. Baratto

2005-01-01

380

Dietary Sugar and Salt Represent Real Risk Factors for Cataract Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary sugar and salt represent etiological risk factors of human cataract. To verify etiological data on the basis of histological findings, 9 pigs with a body weight of 40 kg, 3 months of age, in groups of 3 were continuously fed with 5% of refined dietary sugar (sucrose – C12H22O11), 0.5% of salt (NaCl) and a sugar-salt mixture (2.5 +

S. Veromann; A. Sünter; G. Tasa; E. Juronen; A. Panov; M. Pastak; K. Kaljurand

2003-01-01

381

Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m². The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl,

K Sreenivasarao; F. Patsiogiannis; J. N. Hryn

1997-01-01

382

Development of Ti/Ti{sub 3}Sn functionally gradient material produced by eutectic bonding method  

SciTech Connect

Although many materials which have a single function have been developed, future needs are anticipated to include materials which have various functions. A functionally gradient material (FGM) which has characteristics of two different materials is a promising candidate for multi-functional material. The present methods for production of FGM, however, are very complicated and costly. In this study the authors answer the serious problem of high production cost by fabricating the FGM by a eutectic bonding method. This fabrication method includes structural control of FGM by changing the cooling process. They describe Ti/Ti{sub 3}Sn FGM obtained by the eutectic bonding method, and tell how the structure of its composition gradient part is changed by controlling the cooling process.

Kirihara, S.; Takeda, M.; Tsujimoto, T. [Ibaraki Univ., Hitachi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering] [Ibaraki Univ., Hitachi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

1996-07-15

383

Formation of a crystallization courtyard in eutectic systems and crystal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so-called crystallization courtyard is investigated that forms in processes of mass crystallization around the Ge and Si crystals and their solid solutions (Ge+Si) during cooling of hypereutectic alloys in the Ge-Al, Si-Al, and (Ge+Si)-Al eutectic systems. For the first time, data on the composition and microhardness of this crystallization courtyard are given and its role is shown as a stopper of cracking in an Al-(Ge,Si) system during rapid cooling after the heating system is turned off. For the first time, it is suggested that a crystallization courtyard forms in all hypereutectic systems (including every system in which the amount of the taken solvent does not correspond to the eutectic point).

Gurin, V. N.; Osipov, V. N.; Derkachenko, L. I.; Korchunov, B. N.; Popova, T. B.

2014-03-01

384

Utah: Salt Lake City  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... for the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in Salt Lake City, Utah. The mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, ... view. The Uinta Mountains contain the highest peaks in Utah and are notable as the most prominent east-west trending range in the ...

2014-05-15

385

Salts of Zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE green tint referred to by ``S.'' (supra) as imparted by zinc sulphate to the Bunsen flame is only observed whilst the water of crystallisation contained in the salt is being given off; the dry salt which remains imparts no colour to the flame. It therefore appears probable that the green colouration of the flame is caused by very finely

W. Bott

1880-01-01

386

Improving crop salt tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries where irrigation is an essential aid to agriculture. Although the tolerance of saline conditions by plants is variable, crop species are generally intolerant of one-third of the concentration of salts found in seawater. Attempts to improve the salt tolerance of crops through conventional breeding programmes have met with very

T. J. Flowers

2004-01-01

387

SALT for Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

Bancroft, W. Jane

1996-01-01

388

Mountain of Salt  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This photo shows a road salt storage stockpile that is awaiting use for pavement deicing, Port of Milwaukee, WI. The use of salt to deice pavement can be harmful to aquatic life in urban streams. The USGS is involved in studies that focus on the influence of winter runoff on aquatic ecosystems....

389

Acids and Salts (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids and Salts: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore a few properties of common acids and their salts. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

390

Molten salt electrolyte separator  

DOEpatents

The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1996-07-09

391

Diffusion welding of a directionally solidified gamma/gamma prime - delta eutectic alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hot-press diffusion welding parameters were developed for a directionally solidified, gamma/gamma prime-delta eutectic alloy. Based on metallography, a good diffusion weld was achieved at 1100 C under 34.5 MPa (5 ksi) pressure for 1 hour. In addition, a dissimilar metal weld between gamma/gamma prime-delta and IN-100 was successfully made at 1100 C under 20.7 MPa (3 ksi) pressure for 1 hour.

Moore, T. J.

1977-01-01

392

Eutectic structure and bulk glass formation in Mg-based alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glass forming abilities (GFA) of Mg65Cu25?xY10Nix alloys were investigated by copper mold casting. The evolution of microstructure of master alloys and the structures of as-cast alloys were checked by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimeter. It was found that the highest GFA was not exactly at the eutectic point of the Mg65Cu25Y10 alloy according to the melting

Y. L. Ren; J. H. Zuo; K. Q. Qiu; H. F. Zhang; Z. Q. Hu

2004-01-01

393

Glass formation and sluggish nucleation: Growth in ternary eutectic Co–Hf–B system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four rapidly quenched (RQ) ribbons of Co–Hf–B alloys with the ternary eutectic compositions were obtained by melt-spinning. The thermal stability and glass forming ability (GFA) were studied using high-temperature differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. Very high GFA was found for all the alloys studied, which are characterized by high values (above 0.64) of the reduced crystallization temperature (Trx=Tx\\/Tm). The supercooled

W. S. Sun; H. F. Zhang; Z. Q. Hu; T. Kulik

2005-01-01

394

Mechanical properties of the directionally solidified MgO--MgAlâOâ eutectic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical properties from room temperature to 1600°C are reported for the directionally solidifed MgO--MgAlâOâ eutectic. Strength, although modest, showed little decrease to 1600°C, exhibited totally elastic behavior, and appeared to be related to colony size rather than fiber spacing. Work-of-fracture was low, increased only moderately at 1600°C and failed to reveal any potential for the classical toughening of fiber composites.

F. L. Kennard; R. C. Bradt; V. S. Stubican

1976-01-01

395

The microstructure of eutectic Au-Sn solder bumps on Cu\\/electroless Ni\\/Au  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we studied the initial microstructure and microstructural evolution of eutectic Au-Sn solder bumps on Cu\\/electroless Ni\\/Au. The solder bumps were 150 160 m in diameter and 45 50 m tall, reflowed on Cu\\/electroless Ni\\/Au, and then aged at 200°C for up to 365 days. In addition, Au-Ni-Sn-alloys were made and analyzed to help identify the phases that

H. G. Song; J. P. Ahn; J. W. Morris

2001-01-01

396

Eutectic Pb\\/Sn solder bump and under bump metallurgy interfacial reactions and adhesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In flip chip interconnection on organic substrates using eutectic Pb\\/Sn solder bumps, a highly reliable under bump metallurgy (UBM) is required to maintain adhesion and solder wettability. Various UBM systems such as 1 ?m Al\\/0.2 ?m Ti\\/5 ?m Cu, 1 ?m Al\\/O.2 ?m Ti\\/1 ?m Cu, 1 ?m Al\\/0.2 ?m Ni\\/1 ?m Cu and 1 ?m Al\\/0.2 ?m Pd\\/1 ?m

Se-Young Jang; Kyung-Wook Paik

1998-01-01

397

Selective Au-Si eutectic bonding for Si-based MEMS applications  

SciTech Connect

A novel method of fabricating three-dimensional silicon micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) is presented, using selectivity thin film deposited Au-Si eutectic bond pads. Utilizing this process, complicated structures such as microgrippers and microchannels are fabricated. Bond strengths are higher than the silicon fracture strength and the bond areas can be localized and aligned to the processed wafer. The process and the applications are described in this paper.

Lee, A.; Lehew, S.; Yu, C. [and others

1995-05-22

398

Comparison of Co-C Eutectic-Point Cells for Thermocouple Calibration Between SP and NMIJ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As recently reported, the metal-carbon eutectic points seem to be useful as practical reference points for calibrating thermocouples. The melting temperature of the cobalt-carbon eutectic point (Co-C, is an ideal solution for a reference point being at approximately the middle between the freezing point of copper and the melting point of palladium . In this study, a comparison of reference Co-C cells used for thermocouple calibration service was performed between the Technical Institute of Sweden (SP) and the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) by means of two circulating Pt/Pd thermocouples and one circulating Co-C cell in order to investigate the reliability of thermocouple calibration at the Co-C eutectic point. The reference Co-C cell at SP was designed and constructed in the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), and provided to SP, while the reference Co-C cell at NMIJ as well as the circulating cell was designed and constructed at NMIJ. The melting temperature of the reference Co-C cells at SP and NMIJ were evaluated by using the calibrated radiation thermometers at NPL and NMIJ, respectively, prior to the circulation of the thermocouples and the cell between SP and NMIJ. The temperature difference between the reference cells of SP and NMIJ, as measured by means of the circulating thermocouples, was found to be within , while that measured by means of the circulating cell was found to be within . The temperature of reference cells at SP and NMIJ was found to agree within an expanded uncertainty in spite of different temperature traceability chains. This means that the calibration of thermocouples at the Co-C eutectic point was sufficiently reliable.

Ogura, H.; Holmsten, M.; Klason, P.

2015-03-01

399

Microstructure and creep of eutectic indium\\/tin on copper and nickel substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior during creep in shear of eutectic indium-tin joints on copper and nickel substrates was examined in order to\\u000a determine the effect of creep deformation on the microstructure of the alloy. Primary creep was absent in all the samples\\u000a tested. The stress exponent at 20° C was much higher for samples on nickel than for those on copper, indicating

J. L. Freer; J. W. Jr. Morris

1992-01-01

400

Diffusional breakdown of nickel protective coatings on copper substrate in silver-copper eutectic melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion couples with electrolessly plated nickel diffusion barriers between copper substrates and silver-copper eutectic\\u000a alloys were tested at 800 C and 850 C, respectively. Growth of (Cu, Ni, Ag) ternary solid solution into the melt was observed\\u000a at both temperatures. The growth pattern changed from cellular to dendritic as the temperature was increased from 800 C to\\u000a 850 C. The

W. D. Zhuang; T. W. Eagar

1997-01-01

401

Phase-field Modeling of Eutectic Solidification: From Oscillations to Invasion  

E-print Network

We develop a phase-field model of eutectic growth that uses three phase fields, admits strictly binary interfaces as stable solutions, and has a smooth free energy functional. We use this model to simulate oscillatory limit cycles in two-dimensional lamellar growth, and find a continuous evolution from low-amplitude oscillations to successive invasions of one solid phase by the other when the lamellar spacing is varied.

R. Folch; M. Plapp

2002-06-13

402

Phase-field Modeling of Eutectic Solidification: From Oscillations to Invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a phase-field model of eutectic growth that uses three phase fields, admits strictly binary interfaces as stable solutions, and has a smooth free energy functional. We use this model to simulate oscillatory limit cycles in two-dimensional lamellar growth, and find a continuous evolution from low-amplitude oscillations to successive invasions of one solid phase by the other when the

R. Folch; Mathis Plapp

2002-01-01

403

Tritium permeation barriers in contact with liquid lithium-lead eutectic (Pb?17Li)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permeation of deuterium through coated stainless steel tubes containing liquid lithium-lead eutectic (Pb?17Li) has been studied and compared to measurements through tubes without the lithium compound. The measurements form part of an investigation into the effect of a potential tritium breeder material on permeation barriers for fusion reactors. The coatings studied were CVD TiC and Al2O3 and a pack

K. S. Forcey; A. Perujo

1995-01-01

404

[Salt and cancer].  

PubMed

Besides cardiovascular disease, a high salt intake causes other adverse health effects, i.e., gastric and some other cancers, obesity (risk factor for many cancer sites), Meniere's disease, worsening of renal disease, triggering an asthma attack, osteoporosis, exacerbation of fluid retention, renal calculi, etc. Diets containing high amounts of food preserved by salting and pickling are associated with an increased risk of cancers of the stomach, nose and throat. Because gastric cancer is still the most common cancer in some countries (especially in Japan), its prevention is one of the most important aspects of cancer control strategy. Observations among Japanese immigrants in the U.S.A. and Brazil based on the geographic differences, the trend in cancer incidence with time, and change in the incidence patterns indicate that gastric cancer is closely associated with dietary factors such as the intake of salt and salted food. The findings of many epidemiological studies suggest that high dietary salt intake is a significant risk factor for gastric cancer and this association was found to be strong in the presence of Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection with atrophic gastritis. A high-salt intake strips the lining of the stomach and may make infection with H. pylori more likely or may exacerbate the infection. Salting, pickling and smoking are traditionally popular ways of preparing food in Japan and some parts of Asia. In addition to salt intake, cigarette smoking and low consumption of fruit and vegetables increase the risk of stomach cancer. However, it is not known whether it is specifically the salt in these foods or a combination of salt and other chemicals that can cause cancer. One study identified a mutagen in nitrite-treated Japanese salted fish, and chemical structure of this mutagen suggests that it is derived from methionine and that salt and nitrite are precursors for its formation. Working under conditions of heat stress greatly increased the workers' salt excretion through perspiration. Workers exposed to heat stress consumed as much as 13-38 g salt daily. As salt strongly enhances and promotes chemical gastric carcinogenesis and H. pylori infection in both humans and animals, there is an association between work, salt intake, and development of stomach cancer. Reducing salt intake, especially during pregnancy, also reduces the risk of developing breast cancer and many other diseases, as well as obesity. The risk of most cancers is reduced by losing weight. The geographical data and analyses currently available suggest that road salt (road salting in winter) may be associated with elevated mortality from cancer of the breast, lung, esophagus, throat, larynx, large intestine, rectum and bladder. There is no available literature on the health impacts of road salt. The cause and effect relationships cannot be established without further studies. PMID:20649083

Strnad, Marija

2010-05-01

405

Clinical salt deficits.  

PubMed

Salt retention or salt deficit has a bearing on the body fluid volume. Both states are clinically difficult to recognize and quantitate. Salt deficit is particularly cumbersome in that regard since orthostatic blood pressure, heart rate changes, and simple physical inspection are inaccurate and unreliable. Salt deficit can be acute such as after hemorrhage or massive diarrhea, or more chronic as observed in Addison's disease, failure of renal sodium chloride transporters, drug-related effects, or distal nephron disease. Molecular genetics has given us important new insights into salt deficit syndromes. Recent recognition of a novel sodium storage compartment involving sodium binding to proteoglycans adds to the overall complexity of these syndromes. PMID:25471347

Luft, Friedrich C

2015-03-01

406

Salt studies: Conclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report represents the conclusion of the compressed air energy storage (CAES) program in salt. It includes a brief background of salt cavity studies and utilization for CAES, the focuses on long-term stability criteria for solution mined salt cavities. Summary statements are made on some of the more important criteria and their significance for operational peaking-power plants utilizing salt cavities for CAES reservoirs. The concluding section of this report incorporates a discussion of the future for CAES in U.S. salt deposits. This discussion is based mainly on technical considerations, since they have been the main consideration in this particular study. Obviously, economic analyses will dominate decisions by utilities on construction schedules for any technically feasible CAES study.

Thoms, R. L.; Gehle, R. M.

1982-12-01

407

Lowering Salt in Your Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... this page Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Search the Consumer Updates Section ... mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt ...

408

Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subject presentation, entitled, Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) Experiment, was presented at the International Space Station (ISS) Increment 33/34 Science Symposium. This presentation provides an overview of an international collaboration between NASA and CNES to study the behavior of a dilute aqueous solution of Na2SO4 (5% w) at near-critical conditions. The Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) investigation, serves as important precursor work for subsequent Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) experiments. The SCWM investigation will be performed in DECLICs High Temperature Insert (HTI) for the purpose of studying critical fluid phenomena at high temperatures and pressures. The HTI includes a completely sealed and integrated test cell (i.e., Sample Cell Unit SCU) that will contain approximately 0.3 ml of the aqueous test solution. During the sequence of tests, scheduled to be performed in FY13, temperatures and pressures will be elevated to critical conditions (i.e., Tc = 374C and Pc = 22 MPa) in order to observe salt precipitation, precipitate agglomeration and precipitate transport in the presence of a temperature gradient without the influences of gravitational forces. This presentation provides an overview of the motivation for this work, a description of the DECLIC HTI hardware, the proposed test sequences, and a brief discussion of the scientific research objectives.

Hicks, Michael C.; Hegde, Uday G.

2012-01-01

409

Chemical Safety: Molten Salt Baths Cited as Lab Hazards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses danger of explosions with molten salts baths, commonly used as heat-transfer media. One such explosion involved use of a bath containing 3-lb sodium nitrite and 1-lb potassium thiocyanate. Although most commercially available mixtures for heat transfer contain oxidizers, a reducer (thiocyanate) was included which possibly triggered the…

Baum, Rudy

1982-01-01

410

Lamellar Spacing Selection in Al-Si Eutectic System: a Theoretical Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is well known that irregular eutectics such as Al-Si and Fe-C exhibit larger lamellar spacings and undercoolings compared to the predictions made by the Jackson and Hunt (JH) theory. In this paper, we reexamine the JH theory and relax some of the assumptions used in that treatment. The modified theoretical model has enhanced capabilities to predict the lamellar spacing in both regular and irregular eutectics. For the Al-Si system in particular we identified two different spacing selection mechanisms:a) for a particular growth rate, a nearly isothermal interface can be achieved at a unique minimum spacing lambda(sub I); b) the average spacing in the microstructure (lambda(sub av) greater than lambda(sub I)) is essentially dictated by the undercooling of the faceted phase. Based on the modified theoretical model a semi-empirical expression has been developed to account for the influence of the temperature gradient. Application of a Mullin and Sekerka type stability analysis for eutectics will also be presented and the results compared to the modified JH model. It will be shown that the both theoretical approaches are in good agreement with each other and also with the published experimental measurements.

Catalina, Adrian V.; Sen, Subhayu; Curreri, Peter A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

411

A New Co-C Eutectic Fixed-Point Cell for Thermocouple Calibration at  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eutectic Co-C is a promising system to serve as a thermometric fixed point beyond the freezing point of copper (). Some national metrology institutes have developed, characterized, and compared their Co-C fixed-point cells based on conventional designs. Indeed, the fixed-point cells constructed are directly inspired by the technologies applied to the fixed points of the ITS-90 to the lower levels of temperature. By studying the eutectic metal-carbon systems, is appears that the high temperatures of implementation give a set of difficulties, such as the strong mechanical stresses on the graphite crucibles, due to the important thermal expansion of the eutectic alloys during their phase transitions. If these devices are suitable with research activities to serve like primary standards, it is not envisaged to propose them for a direct application to the calibration activities for the industry. As regards the limited robustness of the conventional fixed-point cells constructed, an intensive use of these device would not be reasonable, in term of cost for example. In this paper, a new Co-C fixed-point design is introduced. This low cost device has been developed specifically for intensive use in thermocouple calibration activities, with the aim of achieving the lowest level of uncertainties as is practicable. Thus, in this paper, the metrological characterization of this device is also presented, and a direct comparison to a primary Co-C fixed-point cell previously constructed is discussed.

Failleau, G.; Deuzé, T.; Jouin, D.; Mokdad, S.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.

2014-07-01

412

In-situ observations of nanoscale effects in germanium nanowire growth with ternary eutectic alloys.  

PubMed

Vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) techniques are popular routes for the scalable synthesis of semiconductor nanowires. In this article, in-situ electron microscopy is used to correlate the equilibrium content of ternary (Au0.75 Ag0.25 -Ge and Au0.65 Ag0.35 -Ge) metastable alloys with the kinetics, thermodynamics and diameter of Ge nanowires grown via a VLS mechanism. The shape and geometry of the heterogeneous interfaces between the liquid eutectic and solid Ge nanowires varies as a function of nanowire diameter and eutectic alloy composition. The behaviour of the faceted heterogeneous liquid-solid interface correlates with the growth kinetics of the nanowires, where the main growth facet at the solid nanowire-liquid catalyst drop contact line lengthens for faster nanowire growth kinetics. Pronounced diameter dependent growth kinetics, as inferred from liquid-solid interfacial behaviour, is apparent for the synthesised nanowires. Direct in-situ microscopy observations facilitates the comparison between the nanowire growth behaviour from ternary (Au-Ag-Ge) and binary (Au-Ge) eutectic systems. PMID:25196560

Biswas, Subhajit; O'Regan, Colm; Morris, Michael A; Holmes, Justin D

2015-01-01

413

Water purification using organic salts  

DOEpatents

Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

Currier, Robert P.

2004-11-23

414

Room temperature ionic liquids and their mixtures—a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature ionic liquids are salts that are liquid at room temperature and their use as catalysts and catalytic support has been studied extensively. They are also being considered as “green solvents” for various separation processes. Recent measurements reported on the properties of pure ionic liquids and their mixtures, including gas and liquid solubility in common organic solvents will be

K. N Marsh; J. A Boxall; R Lichtenthaler

2004-01-01

415

Feasibility study of tungsten as a diffusion barrier between nickel-chromium-aluminum and Gamma/Gamma prime - Delta eutectic alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coating systems proposed for potential use on eutectic alloy components in high-temperature gas turbine engines were studied with emphasis on deterioration of such systems by diffusion. A 1-mil thick W sheet was placed between eutectic alloys and a NiCrAl layer. Layered test specimens were aged at 1100 C for as long as long as 500 hours. Without the W barrier, the delta phase of the eutectic deteriorated by diffusion of Nb into the NiCrAl. Insertion of the W barrier stopped the diffusion of Nb from delta. Chromium diffusion from the NiCrAl into the gamma/gamma prime phase of the eutectic was greatly reduced by the barrier. However, the barrier thickness decreased with time; and W diffused into both the NiCrAl and the eutectic. When the delta platelets were alined parallel to the NiCrAl layer, rather than perpendicular, diffusion into the eutectic was reduced.

Young, S. G.; Zellars, G. R.

1978-01-01

416

Benefits from hazards: mixture hormesis induced by [emim]Cl despite its individual inhibitions.  

PubMed

The threshold model based on monotonic concentration-response curves (CRCs) is unsuitable to assess the risk of chemicals with non-monotonic CRCs. The non-monotonic CRCs of mixtures may relate to the characteristics of some individual component. To reveal the cause of the mixtures resulting in the non-monotonic CRCs, we used the microplate toxicity analysis to determine the toxicity effects of six 1-alkyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([amim]X) salts and their mixtures on Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 (Q67). It was shown that the CRCs of six [amim]X salts are monotonic S-shaped while those of the senary mixtures designed by the uniform design ray (UD-ray) are all non-monotonic. The mixtures were further split into two ternary mixtures, one containing 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([emim]X) salts (noted as UTE) and the other one containing 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([bmim]X) salts (noted as UTB). It was found that the CRCs of UTE mixtures are all non-monotonically J-shaped, while only one (UTB-R3) among UTB mixtures has a little stimulating effect and the CRCs of the other three mixtures (UTB-R1, UTB-R2 and UTB-R4) are monotonic. The CRCs of the binary mixtures designed by the direct equipartition ray design (EquRay) procedure were further examined. The CRCs of the mixtures containing [emim]Cl are non-monotonic J-shaped while those of the mixtures without [emim]Cl are still monotonic. Thus, it can conclude that it is [emim]Cl that causes the non-monotonic CRCs in [amim]X mixtures, even though the CRC of individual [emim]Cl is monotonic. PMID:25048935

Zhang, Jing; Liu, Shu-Shen; Zhu, Xiang-Wei

2014-10-01

417

The interaction between colloids in polar mixtures above Tc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the interaction potential between two charged colloids immersed in an aqueous mixture containing salt near or above the critical temperature. We find an attractive interaction far from the coexistence curve due to the combination of preferential solvent adsorption at the colloids' surface and preferential ion solvation. We show that the ion-specific interaction strongly depends on the amount of salt added as well as on the mixture composition. The calculations are in good agreement with recent experiments. For a highly antagonistic salt of hydrophilic anions and hydrophobic cations, a repulsive interaction at an intermediate inter-colloid distance is predicted even though both the electrostatic and adsorption forces alone are attractive.

Samin, Sela; Tsori, Yoav

2012-04-01

418

Viscosity of molten lithium, thorium and beryllium fluorides mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering development of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) concept, following Molten Salt fluorides mixtures have been chosen as an object for viscosity studies in this work (in mol%): 78LiF–22ThF4; 71LiF–27ThF4–2BeF2 and 75LiF–20ThF4–5BeF2. Additionally, the effect of the 3mol% CeF3 additives on viscosity of the molten 75LiF–20ThF4–5BeF2 (mol%) salt mixture has been investigated experimentally. The method of torsional oscillations of cylindrical

Alexander V. Merzlyakov; Victor V. Ignatiev; Sergei S. Abalin

419

Crushed Salt Constitutive Model  

SciTech Connect

The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

Callahan, G.D.

1999-02-01

420

Plane of nutrition as influencing reaction of breeding cows to high salt intake  

E-print Network

. ~ . . ~ . . ~ ~ ~ . . . ~ " . 26 Average DaIly 'Vatez' Consumpt1on by Gz oups by Pez'iods 27 Average 'sleight of Cows by Groups bv Periods 30 Average Weight of Calves bV Groups by Periods Cows and Calves In I, ot l (Sub-maIntenance, self-fed salt-cottonseed meal mixture...), at Termination of Experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 35 Cows and Calves In Lot 2 (Maintenance self-fed salt-cottonseed meal mIxture), at Termination of xper'ment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3g Cows and Calves in I ot 3 (Self-fed hav and salt...

Sells, Louis Vaughn

1951-01-01

421

Disposal of Savannah River Plant waste salt  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 26-million gallons of soluble low-level waste salts will be produced during solidification of 6-million gallons of high-level defense waste in the proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Soluble wastes (primarily NaNO/sub 3/, NaNO/sub 2/, and NaOH) stored in the waste tanks will be decontaminated by ion exchange and solidified in concrete. The resulting salt-concrete mixture, saltcrete, will be placed in a landfill on the plantsite such that all applicable federal and state disposal criteria are met. Proposed NRC guidelines for the disposal of waste with the radionuclide content of SRP salt would permit shallow land burial. Federal and state rules require that potentially hazardous chemical wastes (mainly nitrate-nitrate salts in the saltcrete) be contained to the degree necessary to meet drinking water standards in the ground water beneath the landfill boundary. This paper describes the proposed saltcrete landfill and tests under way to ensure that the landfill will meet these criteria. The work includes laboratory and field tests of the saltcrete itself, a field test of a one-tenth linear scale model of the entire landfill system, and a numerical model of the system.

Dukes, M D

1982-01-01

422

Microstructural development and mechanical behavior of eutectic bismuth-tin and eutectic indium-tin in response to high temperature deformation  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical behavior and microstructure of eutectic Bi-Sn and In-Sn solders were studied in parallel in order to better understand high temperature deformation of these alloys. Bi-Sn solder joints were made with Cu substrates, and In-Sn joints were made with either Cu or Ni substrates. The as-cast microstructure of Bi-Sn is complex regular, with the two eutectic phases interconnected in complicated patterns. The as-cast microstructure of In-Sn depends on the substrate. In-Sn on Cu has a non-uniform microstructure caused by diffusion of Cu into the solder during sample preparation, with regions of the Sn-rich {gamma} phase imbedded in a matrix of the In-rich {beta} phase. The microstructure of In-Sn on Ni is uniform and lamellar and the two phases are strongly coupled. The solders deform non-uniformly, with deformation concentrating in a band along the length of the sample for Bi-Sn and In-Sn on Cu, though the deformation is more diffuse in In-Sn than in Bi-Sn. Deformation of In-Sn on Ni spreads throughout the width of the joint. The different deformation patterns affect the shape of the stress-strain curves. Stress-strain curves for Bi-Sn and In-Sn on Cu exhibit sharp decays in the engineering stress after reaching a peak. Most of this stress decay is removed for In-Sn on Ni. The creep behavior of In-Sn also depends on the substrate, with the creep deformation controlled by the soft P phase of the eutectic for In-Sn on Cu and controlled by the harder {gamma} phase for In-Sn on Ni. When In-Sn on Ni samples are aged, the microstructure coarsens and changes to an array of {gamma} phase regions in a matrix of the {beta} phase, and the creep behavior changes to resemble that of In-Sn on Cu. The creep behavior of Bi-Sn changes with temperature. Two independent mechanisms operate at lower temperatures, but there is still some question as to whether one or both of these, or a third mechanism, operates at higher temperatures.

Goldstein, J.L.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering; [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-11-01

423

Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

2000-02-02

424

Apparatus and method for making metal chloride salt product  

DOEpatents

A method of producing metal chlorides is disclosed in which chlorine gas is introduced into liquid Cd. CdCl.sub.2 salt is floating on the liquid Cd and as more liquid CdCl.sub.2 is formed it separates from the liquid Cd metal and dissolves in the salt. The salt with the CdCl.sub.2 dissolved therein contacts a metal which reacts with CdCl.sub.2 to form a metal chloride, forming a mixture of metal chloride and CdCl.sub.2. After separation of bulk Cd from the salt, by gravitational means, the metal chloride is obtained by distillation which removes CdCl.sub.2 and any Cd dissolved in the metal chloride.

Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Homer Glen, IL); Richmann, Michael K. (Carlsbad, NM)

2007-05-15

425

Cooking without salt  

MedlinePLUS

... Also, use small amounts of condiments like ketchup, mustard, and soy sauce. Even the low-salt versions ... add a little heat and spice, try: Dry mustard Fresh chopped hot peppers A sprinkle of paprika, ...

426

Dissolving Salts in Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from Iowa State University, design and carry out an experiment: dissolve salts in water, see how different ionic compounds produce different reactions, and observe the resulting changes in temperature.

2007-08-09

427

An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermochemical properties in heat transport systems  

SciTech Connect

Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogenous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The purpose of this report is to identify the technical issues related to the thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of the molten salts that would require experimental characterization in order to proceed with a credible design of heat transfer systems and their subsequent safety evaluation and licensing. In particular, the report outlines an experimental R&D test plan that would have to be incorporated as part of the design and operation of an engineering scaled facility aimed at validating molten salt heat transfer components, such as Intermediate Heat Exchangers. This report builds on a previous review of thermo-physical properties and thermo-chemical characteristics of candidate molten salt coolants that was generated as part of the same project [1]. However, this work focuses on two materials: the LiF-BeF2 eutectic (67 and 33 mol%, respectively, also known as flibe) as primary coolant and the LiF-NaF-KF eutectic (46.5, 11.5, and 52 mol%, respectively, also known as flinak) as secondary heat transport fluid. At first common issues are identified, involving the preparation and purification of the materials as well as the development of suitable diagnostics. Than issues specific to each material and its application are considered, with focus on the compatibility with structural materials and the extension of the existing properties database.

Pattrick Calderoni

2010-09-01

428

Salt Plains Microbial Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is home of the Salt Plains Microbial Observatory, located in the Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge in northern Oklahoma. This area has permitted the first extensive study of a non-marine, terrestrial, hypersaline environment. The web site offers information about the extreme environment, images and video clips of its microbial inhabitants, an image-rich summary of research activities, information about summer courses and research opportunities, a list of publications, and links to other informative resources pertaining to hypersaline environments.

Mark Buchheim

429

Recyclization reactions of 1-alkylpyrimidinium salts  

PubMed Central

The reaction of 4-amino-2-benzyl-1-methyl-5-ethoxycarbonylpyrimidinium iodide (3) with alcoholic methylamine resulted in the formation of the methylimine of 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methylamino-5-phenylpyridine-3-carbaldehyde (5). Heating of the same pyrimidinium salt in benzylamine gave a mixture of products of two C–C recyclizations: 2-benzyl-4-benzylamino-5-carbamoylpyrimidine (7) and the benzylimine of 4-amino-2-benzyl-6-benzylaminopyrimidine-5-carbaldehyde (8). The reaction of 2-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5-ethoxycarbonylpyrimidinium iodide (10) with KOH ethanolic solution gave a single product of C–C-recyclization: 2-amino-5-acetyl-4-hydroxypyrimidine (11). PMID:25400328

Vardanyan, Ruben S.; Danagulyan, Gevork G.; Mkrtchyan, Armen D.; Hruby, Victor J.

2014-01-01

430

Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake.  

PubMed

Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [?] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; ? for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake. PMID:25317023

Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

2014-09-01

431

Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

The explicit UA program objective is to develop low melting point (LMP) molten salt thermal energy storage media with high thermal energy storage density for sensible heat storage systems. The novel Low Melting Point (LMP) molten salts are targeted to have the following characteristics: 1. Lower melting point (MP) compared to current salts (<222ºC) 2. Higher energy density compared to current salts (>300 MJ/m3) 3. Lower power generation cost compared to current salt In terms of lower power costs, the program target the DOE's Solar Energy Technologies Program year 2020 goal to create systems that have the potential to reduce the cost of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) to less than $15/kWh-th and achieve round trip efficiencies greater than 93%. The project has completed the experimental investigations to determine the thermo-physical, long term thermal stability properties of the LMP molten salts and also corrosion studies of stainless steel in the candidate LMP molten salts. Heat transfer and fluid dynamics modeling have been conducted to identify heat transfer geometry and relative costs for TES systems that would utilize the primary LMP molten salt candidates. The project also proposes heat transfer geometry with relevant modifications to suit the usage of our molten salts as thermal energy storage and heat transfer fluids. The essential properties of the down-selected novel LMP molten salts to be considered for thermal storage in solar energy applications were experimentally determined, including melting point, heat capacity, thermal stability, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, vapor pressure, and corrosion resistance of SS 316. The thermodynamic modeling was conducted to determine potential high temperature stable molten salt mixtures that have thermal stability up to 1000 °C. The thermo-physical properties of select potential high temperature stable (HMP) molten salt mixtures were also experimentally determined. All the salt mixtures align with the go/no-go goals stipulated by the DOE for this project. Energy densities of all salt mixtures were higher than that of the current solar salt. The salt mixtures costs have been estimated and TES system costs for a 2 tank, direct approach have been estimated for each of these materials. All estimated costs are significantly below the baseline system that used solar salt. These lower melt point salts offer significantly higher energy density per volume than solar salt – and therefore attractively smaller inventory and equipment costs. Moreover, a new TES system geometry has been recommended A variety of approaches were evaluated to use the low melting point molten salt. Two novel changes are recommended that 1) use the salt as a HTF through the solar trough field, and 2) use the salt to not only create steam but also to preheat the condensed feedwater for Rankine cycle. The two changes enable the powerblock to operate at 500°C, rather than the current 400°C obtainable using oil as the HTF. Secondly, the use of salt to preheat the feedwater eliminates the need to extract steam from the low pressure turbine for that purpose. Together, these changes result in a dramatic 63% reduction required for 6 hour salt inventory, a 72% reduction in storage volume, and a 24% reduction in steam flow rate in the power block. Round trip efficiency for the Case 5 - 2 tank “direct” system is estimated at >97%, with only small losses from time under storage and heat exchange, and meeting RFP goals. This attractive efficiency is available because the major heat loss experienced in a 2 tank “indirect” system - losses by transferring the thermal energy from oil HTF to the salt storage material and back to oil to run the steam generator at night - is not present for the 2 tank direct system. The higher heat capacity values for both LMP and HMP systems enable larger storage capacities for concentrating solar power.

Reddy, Ramana G. [The University of Alabama] [The University of Alabama

2013-10-23

432

Actinide removal from spent salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide

Peter C. Hsu; Erica H. von Holtz; David L. Hipple; Leslie J. Summers; Martyn G. Adamson

2002-01-01

433

Determination of the E-pO 2- stability diagram of plutonium in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic at 450 °C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plutonium trichloride solution in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic was prepared by carbochlorination of plutonium oxide. Kinetics of this reaction was compared in different conditions in the range of 443-550 °C. Using this molten salt solution, the redox potential of the Pu(III)/Pu couple at inert tungsten electrode was measured at 450 °C by electromotive force measurement and was found to be E' ? = -2.76 V vs. the Cl 2(g)(1 atm)/Cl - reference electrode (molar fraction scale). Reaction between plutonium trichloride and oxide ions was studied by potentiometric titration, using yttria stabilized electrodes. In our experimental conditions, the titration curves indicate the precipitation of the sesquioxide Pu 2O 3. The solubility product cologarithm calculated from these curves is found to be p Ks(Pu 2O 3) = 22.8 ± 1.1 (molality scale). Using the experimentally obtained values for E' ?, activity coefficient and p Ks joined to the published thermodynamic data, the stability phase diagram of the Pu-O species was then drawn.

Caravaca, Concha; Laplace, Annabelle; Vermeulen, Jackie; Lacquement, Jérôme

2008-07-01

434

Salt Lake City, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

2002-01-01

435

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

Koyama, Tadafumi.

1994-08-23

436

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

Koyama, Tadafumi (Tokyo, JP)

1994-01-01

437

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

This report describes a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

Koyama, T.

1992-01-01

438

A Comparison between Growth Morphology of "Eutectic" Cells/Dendrites and Single-Phase Cells/Dendrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Directionally solidified (DS) intermetallic and ceramic-based eutectic alloys with an in-situ composite microstructure containing finely distributed, long aspect ratio, fiber, or plate reinforcements are being seriously examined for several advanced aero-propulsion applications. In designing these alloys, additional solutes need to be added to the base eutectic composition in order to improve heir high-temperature strength, and provide for adequate toughness and resistance to environmental degradation. Solute addition, however, promotes instability at the planar liquid-solid interface resulting in the formation of two-phase eutectic "colonies." Because morphology of eutectic colonies is very similar to the single-phase cells and dendrites, the stability analysis of Mullins and Sekerka has been extended to describe their formation. Onset of their formation shows a good agreement with this approach; however, unlike the single-phase cells and dendrites, there is limited examination of their growth speed dependence of spacing, morphology, and spatial distribution. The purpose of this study is to compare the growth speed dependence of the morphology, spacing, and spatial distribution of eutectic cells and dendrites with that for the single-phase cells and dendrites.

Tewari, S. N.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

2003-01-01

439

Length-scale dependent mechanical properties of Al-Cu eutectic alloy: Molecular dynamics based model and its experimental verification  

SciTech Connect

This paper attempts to gain an understanding of the effect of lamellar length scale on the mechanical properties of two-phase metal-intermetallic eutectic structure. We first develop a molecular dynamics model for the in-situ grown eutectic interface followed by a model of deformation of Al-Al{sub 2}Cu lamellar eutectic. Leveraging the insights obtained from the simulation on the behaviour of dislocations at different length scales of the eutectic, we present and explain the experimental results on Al-Al{sub 2}Cu eutectic with various different lamellar spacing. The physics behind the mechanism is further quantified with help of atomic level energy model for different length scale as well as different strain. An atomic level energy partitioning of the lamellae and the interface regions reveals that the energy of the lamellae core are accumulated more due to dislocations irrespective of the length-scale. Whereas the energy of the interface is accumulated more due to dislocations when the length-scale is smaller, but the trend is reversed when the length-scale is large beyond a critical size of about 80?nm.

Tiwary, C. S., E-mail: cst.iisc@gmail.com; Chattopadhyay, K. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Chakraborty, S.; Mahapatra, D. R. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

2014-05-28

440

Salt Made the World Go Round: MRBLOCH Salt Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Don't you just love it when everything can be summed up with one simple explanantion? Created by David Bloch, this Website proves that life as we know depends upon salt. Sections of the site look at salt in relation to a wide range of areas of study, such as Physiology, Geology, Archaeology, Paleoclimatology, Religion, and Economics. For example, the Economics section provides information on the use of salt as money, the history of the control of salt by monopolies, and the influence of the salt trade on transportation. The Religion section points out the importance of salt in religious practices, such as Jewish koshering and Egyptian embalming. Also included are links to over fifty additional salt sites, an email list, and an announcement for Salt 2000, the 8th World Salt Symposium, to be held in the Hague in May 2000.

Bloch, David.

441

Messin' with Mixtures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the properties of a heterogeneous mixture, trail mix, as if it were a contaminated soil sample near a construction site. This activity shows students that heterogeneous mixtures can be separated by physical means, and that when separated, all the parts will equal the whole.

2014-09-18

442

Temperature monitoring of the lead bismuth eutectic flow in the MEGAPIE target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Electromagnetic Pump System (EMPS) for the MEGAPIE target has been developed, produced and tested at the Institute of Physics, University of Latvia, during the recent two years in the framework of the MEGAPIE-TEST Project (MEGAWatt Pilot Experiment - TESTing) funded by the Euratom 5^th Framework Programme as an implementation of transmutation technology te{1}. The EMPS operates when submerged in the lead bismuth eutectic (LBE), with its temperature ranging within 220-380°C (the temperature changing rate 5-10°C/s), depending on the proton beam trip. The electromagnetic pump system is responsible for the lead bismuth eutectic flow in the MEGAPIE target. Discontinue of the by-pass flow, as the result of the channel blockage by helium bubbles, could lead, under certain conditions, to undesirable consequences, including even disintegration of the beam entrance window. Therefore, monitoring of the flow during the target operation is very important. The results of the original electrodynamic and thermohydraulic calculations of the electromagnetic pump system are presented in the paper. These results assume the monitoring of the lead bismuth eutectic flow through electric regimes for electromagnetic pumps and LBE temperature measurements. The procedure rests upon the strong correlation between the LBE temperature at the EMPS inlet and outlet, the flow rate and the electric regime for the pump operation. A special PC code, which allows to control the intensity of the LBE flow in the EMPS channel at steady and transient temperature regimes of the target operation, has been developed and used. There are presented recommendations on the PC code adoption for the MEGAPIE target control system at the end of the paper. Figs 10, Refs 4.

Ivanov, S.; Dementjev, S.

2006-09-01

443

Identification of salt-alloy combinations for thermal energy storage applications in advanced solar dynamic power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermodynamic calculations based on the available data for flouride salt systems reveal that a number of congruently melting compositions and eutectics exist which have the potential to meet the lightweight, high energy storage requirements imposed for advanced solar dynamic systems operating between about 1000 and 1400 K. Compatibility studies to determine suitable containment alloys to be used with NaF-22CaF2-13MgF2, NaF-32CaF2, and NaF-23MgF2 have been conducted at the eutectic temperature + 25 K for each system. For these three NaF-based eutectics, none of the common, commercially available high temperature alloys appear to offer adequate corrosion resistance for a long lifetime; however mild steel, pure nickel and Nb-1Zr could prove useful. These latter materials suggest the possibility that a strong, corrosion resistant, nonrefractory, elevated temperature alloy based on the Ni-Ni3Nb system could be developed.

Whittenberger, J. D.; Misra, A. K.

1987-01-01