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Sample records for evacuated tubular collectors

  1. Draining of the SUNPAK/sup TM/ evacuated tubular collector

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Y.K.

    1980-05-01

    A program has been completed which demonstrates the capability of draining the present liquid series flow SUNPAK/sup TM/ evacuated tubular collector. The benefits which are derived include the avoidance of potential problems associated with liquid boil-out during system failure and the avoidance of collector freeze up. Additional benefits derived from a fully drained collector are the avoidance of significant heat losses during overnight periods, safe access to the collector for maintenance at any time and ability to dissipate excess heat through dry stagnation of the collector during shut down periods. A simple modification to the series flow SUNPAK/sup TM/ collector module arrangement was developed and demonstrated through the full scale testing of a two bank-six module arrangement. The necessary changes can be implemented at a minimum expenditure of time and cost. The extensive field service experience which has been accumulated with the liquid series flow SUNPAK/sup TM/ collector is directly applicable to the drainable configuration. The program included the investigation of an alternate approach to the series flow SUNPAK/sup TM/ solution. The intra module parallel flow concept was demonstrated through the proof of concept phase of effort. The solution investigated incorporated a batch flow rather than a continuous flow mode of the cooling fluid. The solution required an extensive design modification of the existing SUNPAK/sup TM/ collector manifold. During the redesign effort, other desired mechanical features of the manifold were incorporated to improve the physical characteristics, to improve safety and reliability and to reduce the potential cost of future SUNPAK/sup TM/ collector arrays.

  2. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, W. S.; Loef, G. O. G.

    1981-03-01

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season is discussed. The systems comprised an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a nonfreezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. The system is compared with CSU Solar Houses I, II and III. The experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well insulated heat storage tank. Day time electric auxiliary heating is avoided by use of off peak electric heat storage.

  3. Flow distribution in parallel connected manifolds for evacuated tubular solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhedran, R. C.; Mackey, D. J. M.; McKenzie, D. R.; Collins, R. E.

    A model is presented for predicting the flow distribution in solar collector manifolds in which risers are connected in parallel between headers. Both frictional and Bernoulli effects are considered. The distributions resulting from flow in the manifold in which header streams are parallel and opposed are calculated and compared with experiment. Parallel flow gives a more uniform distribution. The outlet header is found to be more critical in balancing the flow distribution than the inlet header. Conditions under which thermosiphon effects are important and flow reversal in risers may occur are discussed with reference to experiment.

  4. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, W.S.; Loef, G.O.G.

    1981-03-01

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season was based on the use of systems comprising an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a non-freezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built-up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off-peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. Automatic system control and automatic data acquisition and computation are provided. This system is compared with others evaluated in CSU Solar Houses I, II and III, and with computer predictions based on mathematical models. Of the 69,513 MJ total energy requirement for space heating and hot water during a record cold winter, solar provided 33,281 MJ equivalent to 48 percent. Thirty percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 29 percent was delivered and used for heating and hot water. Of 33,320 MJ required for cooling and hot water during the summer, 79 percent or 26,202 MJ were supplied by solar. Thirty-five percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 26 percent was used for hot water and cooling in the summer. Although not as efficient as the Corning evacuated tube collector previously used, the Philips experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well-insulated heat storage tank. Day time (on-peak) electric auxiliary heating was completely avoided by use of off-peak electric heat storage. A well-designed and operated solar heating and cooling system provided 56 percent of the total energy requirements for heating, cooling, and hot water.

  5. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell current collector

    DOEpatents

    Bischoff, Brian L.; Sutton, Theodore G.; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2010-07-20

    An internal current collector for use inside a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC) electrode comprises a tubular coil spring disposed concentrically within a TSOFC electrode and in firm uniform tangential electrical contact with the electrode inner surface. The current collector maximizes the contact area between the current collector and the electrode. The current collector is made of a metal that is electrically conductive and able to survive under the operational conditions of the fuel cell, i.e., the cathode in air, and the anode in fuel such as hydrogen, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O or H.sub.2S.

  6. Contoured insulation window for evacuated solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Coppola, F. T.; Lentz, W. P.; Vandewoestine, R. V.

    1980-02-05

    An insulating contoured window is provided for use with an enclosed chamber such as an evacuated flat plate solar heat collector with the contoured solar window being of minimum thickness and supported solely about its peripheral edge portions. The window is contoured in both its longitudinal and transverse directions, such that in its longitudinal direction the window is composed of a plurality of sinusoidal corrugations whereas in its transverse direction the peaks of such corrugations are contoured in the form of paraboloids so that the structure may withstand the forces generated thereon by the atmosphere.

  7. Analysis of gas heat conduction in evacuated tube solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Beikircher, T.; Spirkl, W.

    1996-08-01

    The authors investigated the gas heat conduction in two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors for a wide range of Knudsen numbers. For tube-in-tube collectors, they generalized a solution of the gas kinetic Boltzmann equation, which has been obtained by the four-momentum method, to polyatomic gases. The resulting equation coincides with Sherman`s interpolation formula. For a plate-in-tube collector, they measured the stationary heat loss for gas pressures varying between 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup 4} Pa. The accuracy of an earlier experiment was improved. For analysis they applied the temperature jump method: a heat conduction equation with boundary conditions of the third kind involving the temperature gradient and the pressure was numerically solved. The results with the temperature jump method agree with the experimental values nearly within the error bands. They also applied Sherman`s interpolation formula and found, as expected, that the heat conduction as function of the pressure is too steep. For both types of collectors, the influence of geometric parameters was theoretically studied.

  8. Analysis of gas heat conduction in evacuated tube solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Beikircher, T.; Spirkl, W.

    1996-12-31

    The authors investigated the gas heat conduction in two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors for a wide range of Knudsen numbers. For tube-in-tube collectors, they generalized a solution of the gas kinetic Boltzmann equation, which has been obtained by the 4-momentum method, to polyatomic gases. The resulting equation coincides with Sherman`s interpolation formula. For a plate-in-tube collector, they measured the stationary heat loss for gas pressures varying between 10{sup {minus}2} and 10{sup 4} Pa. The accuracy of an earlier experiment was improved. For analysis the authors applied the temperature jump method: a heat conduction equation with boundary conditions of the third kind involving the temperature gradient and the pressure was numerically solved. The results with the temperature jump method agree with the experimental values nearly within the error bands. They also applied Sherman`s interpolation formula and found, as expected, that the heat conduction as function of the pressure is too steep. For both types of collectors, the influence of geometric parameters was theoretically studied.

  9. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    DOEpatents

    McConnell, Robert D.; Vansant, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  10. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.D.; Vansant, J.H.

    1984-10-02

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  11. Low cost vee-trough evacuated tube collector module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost solar collector capable of operating at 150-200 C is described. An evacuated tube receiver is combined with asymmetric vee-trough concentrators. Peak efficiencies of about 40% at 120 C and 30% at 180 C are expected. Predicted future collector cost is $70/sq m which yields an energy cost of $4.20/GJ at 120 C. During the development of the vee trough/evacuated tube collector both mathematical models to predict thermal and optical performance were developed and tests run to verify theory. The asymmetric vee trough concentrator increases the solar flux intensity for an average value of 2 for year-round performance. Optimized collector module has reflector angles of 55 deg/85 deg. The aperture plane is tilted to the latitude. The reflector is made of electropolished aluminum. The supporting frame is formed by bending sheet metal. Evacuated tube receivers are Pyrex, 15 cm diam and 2.4 m long. The module has 12 tubes on right and left sides altogether. Attainable operation at temperatures on the order of 150-200 C are suitable for absorption refrigeration and power generation via Rankine engines.

  12. Evacuated, displacement compression mold. [of tubular bodies from thermosetting plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heier, W. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A process of molding long thin-wall tubular bodies from thermosetting plastic molding compounds is described wherein the tubular body lengths may be several times the diameters. The process is accomplished by loading a predetermined quantity of molding compound into a female mold cavity closed at one end by a force mandrel. After closing the other end of the female mold with a balance mandrel, the loaded cavity is evacuated by applying a vacuum of from one-to-five mm pressure for a period of fifteen-to-thirty minutes. The mold temperature is raised to the minimum temperature at which the resin constituent of the compound will soften or plasticize and a pressure of 2500 psi is applied.

  13. Thermal performance of evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, Nandy; Kristian, M. R.; David, R.; Haliansyah, K.; Ariantara, Bambang

    2016-06-01

    The high fossil energy consumption not only causes the scarcity of energy but also raises problems of global warming. Increasing needs of fossil fuel could be reduced through the utilization of solar energy by using solar collectors. Indonesia has the abundant potential for solar energy, but non-renewable energy sources still dominate energy consumption. With heat pipe as passive heat transfer device, evacuated tube solar collector is expected to heat up water for industrial and home usage without external power supply needed to circulate water inside the solar collector. This research was conducted to determine the performance of heat pipe-based evacuated tube solar collector as solar water heater experimentally. The experiments were carried out using stainless steel screen mesh as a wick material, and water and Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid as working fluid, and applying inclination angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. To analyze the heat absorbed and transferred by the prototype, water at 30°C was circulated through the condenser. A 150 Watt halogen lamp was used as sun simulator, and the prototype was covered by an insulation box to obtain a steady state condition with a minimum affection of ambient changes. Experimental results show that the usage of Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid at 30° inclination angle provides the highest thermal performance, which gives efficiency as high as 0.196 and thermal resistance as low as 5.32 °C/W. The use of nanofluid as working fluid enhances thermal performance due to high thermal conductivity of the working fluid. The increase of the inclination angle plays a role in the drainage of the condensate to the evaporator that leads to higher thermal performance until the optimal inclination angle is reached.

  14. Glass-heat-pipe evacuated-tube solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.D.; VanSant, J.H.

    1981-08-06

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  15. Gas heat conduction in an evacuated tube solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Beikircher, T.; Goldemund, G.; Benz, N.

    1996-10-01

    We investigated experimentally the pressure dependency of the gas heat conduction in an evacuated plate-in-tube solar collector. A stationary heat loss experiment was built up with an electrically heated real-size collector model. The gas pressure was varied from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup 4} Pa, the temperatures of the absorber and the casing were held at 150{degree}C (electrical heaters) and 30{degree}C (water cooling), respectively. Losses by radiation and solid conduction were determined experimentally at pressures below 0.1 Pa. At higher pressures these background losses were subtracted from the total heat losses, to receive the heat losses by gas heat conduction. The experimental results were compared with approximate theoretical models. The onset of convection is in agreement with the usual theories for parallel plates taking the largest distance between the absorber and the gas tube as the plate distance. As a first approximation the pressure dependency of the gas heat conduction is described by the usual theory for parallel plates, taking the smallest distance between the absorber and the glass tube as the plate distance. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beecher, D. T.

    1981-02-10

    A prototype design for an evacuated tube air cooled solar collector module has been completed. A product cost study, based on the production of 60,000 of the prototype modules per year (approx. 1,000,000 square feet annually), estimates that the module as shipped would have a cost at inventory of $7.09 to $7.40 per square foot of aperture. Computer programs were developed to predict the optical and thermal performance of the module. Antireflective coatings (porous aluminum oxide) which could be formed by spraying or dipping were demonstrated but degraded more rapidly when exposed to a high humidity ambient than acid etched films. A selective black chromium oxide multi-layered graded film was vapor deposited which had an absorptivity of about 0.9 and an emissivity of 0.03. When the film was heated to temperatures of 400/sup 0/C in a gettered vacuum for as little as 24 hours, however, irreversible changes took place both between and within coating layers which resulted in ..cap alpha.. decreasing to about 0.73 and epsilon increasing to 0.14. The product cost studies indicate that module design changes are warranted to reduce product cost prior to tooling for production.

  17. Analysis of heat-pipe absorbers in evacuated-tube solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. R.; Schertz, W. W.; Allen, J. W.

    1986-02-01

    Heat transfer in evacuated-tube solar collectors with heat-pipe absorbers is compared with that for similar collectors with flow-through absorbers. In systems that produce hot water or other heated fluids, the heat-pipe absorber suffers a heat transfer penalty compared with the flow-through absorber, but in many cases the penalty can be minimized by proper design at the heat-pipe condenser and system manifold. The heat transfer penalty decreases with decreasing collector heat loss coefficient, suggesting that evacuated tubes with optical concentration are more appropriate for use with heat pipes than evacuated or nonevacuated flat-plate collectors. When the solar collector is used to drive an absorption chiller, the heat-pipe absorber has better heat transfer characteristics than the flow-through absorbers.

  18. Evaluation of All-Day-Efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation of all day efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors is presented. Computations are based on a modified version of the NBSIR 78-1305A procedure for all day efficiency. The ASHMET and NOAA data bases for solar insolation are discussed. Details of the algorithm used to convert total (global) horizontal radiation to the collector tilt plane of the selected sites are given along with tables and graphs which show the results of the tests performed during this evaluation.

  19. Estimation and optimization of thermal performance of evacuated tube solar collector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmen, Erkan; Ayaz, Mahir; Ezen, H. Hüseyin; Küçüksille, Ecir U.; Şahin, Arzu Şencan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) in order to predict the thermal performance of evacuated tube solar collector system have been used. The experimental data for the training and testing of the networks were used. The results of ANN are compared with ANFIS in which the same data sets are used. The R2-value for the thermal performance values of collector is 0.811914 which can be considered as satisfactory. The results obtained when unknown data were presented to the networks are satisfactory and indicate that the proposed method can successfully be used for the prediction of the thermal performance of evacuated tube solar collectors. In addition, new formulations obtained from ANN are presented for the calculation of the thermal performance. The advantages of this approaches compared to the conventional methods are speed, simplicity, and the capacity of the network to learn from examples. In addition, genetic algorithm (GA) was used to maximize the thermal performance of the system. The optimum working conditions of the system were determined by the GA.

  20. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beecher, D.T.

    1980-05-31

    A low cost solar heat energy collector module and array has been designed using the evacuated tube, selective absorber, air cooled concept. Glass tubing as used in fluorescent lamps with automatic sealing methods is a key feature of the evacuated tube design. A molded fiber glass concentrating reflector panel and sheet metal header assembly are proposed. Major design problems involved included the cost of materials and labor, thermal expansion and distortion problems, high stagnation and operating temperatures, isolation, thermal efficiency, sealing, joining, air pressure drop, and weight of the preassembled module. A cost of less than $5 per active square foot of collecting surface has been estimated for materials and labor of the module and its mounting frame.

  1. Experimental analysis of thermal performance of flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors in stationary standard and daily conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zambolin, E.; Del Col, D.

    2010-08-15

    New comparative tests on two different types of solar collectors are presented in this paper. A standard glazed flat plate collector and an evacuated tube collector are installed in parallel and tested at the same working conditions; the evacuated collector is a direct flow through type with external compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) reflectors. Efficiency in steady-state and quasi-dynamic conditions is measured following the standard and it is compared with the input/output curves measured for the whole day. The first purpose of the present work is the comparison of results in steady-state and quasi-dynamic test methods both for flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. Besides this, the objective is to characterize and to compare the daily energy performance of these two types of collectors. An effective mean for describing and analyzing the daily performance is the so called input/output diagram, in which the collected solar energy is plotted against the daily incident solar radiation. Test runs have been performed in several conditions to reproduce different conventional uses (hot water, space heating, solar cooling). Results are also presented in terms of daily efficiency versus daily average reduced temperature difference: this allows to represent the comparative characteristics of the two collectors when operating under variable conditions, especially with wide range of incidence angles. (author)

  2. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: An evacuated flatplate copper collector with a serpentine flow distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  3. A two-dimensional finite difference solution for the transient thermal behavior of tubular solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical procedure was established using the finite-difference technique in the determination of the time-varying temperature distribution of a tubular solar collector under changing solar radiancy and ambient temperature. Three types of spatial discretization processes were considered and compared for their accuracy of computations and for selection of the shortest computer time and cost. The stability criteria of this technique was analyzed in detail to give the critical time increment to ensure stable computations. The results of the numerical analysis were in good agreement with the analytical solution previously reported. The numerical method proved to be a powerful tool in the investigation of the collector sensitivity to two different flow patterns and several flow control mechanisms.

  4. Indoor test for thermal performance of the Sunmaster evacuated tube (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures used to obtain the thermal performance data for a solar collector under simulated conditions are presented. Tests included a stagnation test, a time constant test, a thermal efficiency test, an incident angle modifier test, and a hot fill test. All tests were performed at ambient conditions and the transient effect and the incident angle effect on the collector were determined. The solar collector is a water working fluid type.

  5. Comparison of indoor-outdoor thermal performance for the Sunpak evacuated tube liquid collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Performance data for current Sunpak production collectors is presented. The effects of an improved manifold are seen from the test results. The test results show excellent correlation between the solar simulator derived test results and outdoor test results. Also, because of different incident angle modifiers, the all-day efficiency of this collector with a diffuse reflector is comparable to the performance with the standard shaped specular reflector.

  6. Development of a new flat stationary evacuated CPC-collector for process heat applications

    SciTech Connect

    Buttinger, Frank; Beikircher, Thomas; Proell, Markus; Schoelkopf, Wolfgang

    2010-07-15

    For the economical supply of solar process heat at temperatures between 120 and 150 C a new non-tracking, flat, low-concentrating collector has been developed. The new collector is an edge ray collector with a concentration of 1.8 and inert gas filling, existing of parallel mounted absorber-reflector units, aligned in east-west direction. The basic concept is the integration of an absorber tube and reflectors inside a low pressure enclosure. Asymmetrical reflectors below the headers with a concentration of 0.6X provide extra radiation and prevent longitudinal radiation losses. To suppress heat losses due to gas-convection inside, air or inert gas like krypton at a pressure below 10 mbar is used. A prototype, with an aperture area of 2.0 m{sup 2}, was tested in Munich and showed efficiencies of about 50% for krypton at 0.01 bar at a temperature of 150 C with a radiation of 1000 W/m{sup 2} (900 W/m{sup 2} direct, ambient temperature 20 C). (author)

  7. High-efficiency, nickel-ceramic composite anode current collector for micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Wu, Zhentao; Li, K.

    2015-04-01

    High manufacturing cost and low-efficient current collection have been the two major bottlenecks that prevent micro-tubular SOFCs from large-scale application. In this work, a new nickel-based composite anode current collector has been developed for anode-supported MT-SOFC, addressing reduced cost, manufacturability and current collection efficiencies. Triple-layer hollow fibers have been successfully fabricated via a phase inversion-assisted co-extrusion process, during which a thin nickel-based inner layer was uniformly coated throughout the interior anode surface for improved adhesion with superior process economy. 10 wt.% CGO was added into the inner layer to prevent the excessive shrinkage of pure NiO, thus helping to achieve the co-sintering process. The electrochemical performance tests illustrate that samples with the thinnest anodic current collector (15% of the anode thickness) displayed the highest power density (1.07 W cm-2). The impedance analysis and theoretical calculations suggest that inserting the anodic current collector could dramatically reduce the percentage of contact loss down to 6-10 % of the total ohmic loss (compared to 70% as reported in literatures), which proves the high efficiencies of new current collector design. Moreover, the superior manufacturability and process economy suggest this composite current collector suitable for mass-scale production.

  8. A two-dimensional finite-difference solution for the transient thermal behavior of a tubular solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical procedure was established using the finite-difference technique in the determination of the time-varying temperature distribution of a tubular solar collector under changing solar radiancy and ambient temperature. Three types of spatial discretization processes were considered and compared for their accuracy of computations and for selection of the shortest computer time and cost. The stability criteria of this technique were analyzed in detail to give the critical time increment to ensure stable computations. The results of the numerical analysis were in good agreement with the analytical solution previously reported. The numerical method proved to be a powerful tool in the investigation of the collector sensitivity to two different flow patterns and several flow control mechanisms.

  9. Indoor test for the thermal performance evaluation of the DEC 8A large manifold sunmaster evacuated tube (liquid) solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Sunmaster DEC 8A Large Manifold solar collector using simulated conditions was evaluated. The collector provided 17.17 square feet of gross collector area. Test conditions, test requirements, an analysis of results, and tables of test data are reported.

  10. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  11. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  12. 3X compound parabolic concentrating (CPC) solar energy collector. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ballheim, R.W.

    1980-04-25

    Chamberlain engineers designed a 3X compound parabolic concentrating (CPC) collector for the subject contract. The collector is a completely housed, 105.75 x 44.75 x 10.23-inch, 240-pound unit with six each evacuated receiver assemblies, a center manifold and a one-piece glass cover. A truncated version of a CPC trough reflector system and the General Electric Company tubular evacuated receiver have been integrated with a mass producible collector design suitable for operation at 250 to 450/sup 0/F. The key criterion for optimization of the design was minimization of the cost per Btu collected annually at an operating temperature of 400/sup 0/F. The reflector is a 4.1X design truncated to a total height of 8.0 inches with a resulting actual concentration ratio of 2.6 to 1. The manifold is an insulated area housing the fluid lines which connect the six receivers in series with inlet and outlet tubes extending from one side of the collector at the center. The reflectors are polished, anodized aluminum which are shaped by the roll form process. The housing is painted, galvanized steel, and the cover glass is 3/16-inch thick tempered, low iron glass. The collector requires four slope adjustments per year for optimum effectiveness. Chamberlain produced ten 3X CPC collectors for the subject contract. Two collectors were used to evaluate assembly procedures, six were sent to the project officer in Albuquerque, New Mexico, one was sent to Argonne National Laboratory for performance testing and one remained with the Company. A manufacturing cost study was conducted to estimate limited mass production costs, explore cost reduction ideas and define tooling requirements. The final effort discussed shows the preliminary design for application of a 3X CPC solar collector system for use in the Iowa State Capitol complex.

  13. A dual-structured anode/Ni-mesh current collector hollow fibre for micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Wu, Zhentao; Li, K.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a unique dual-structured hollow fibre design has been developed for micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs), using a single-step phase-inversion assisted co-extrusion technique. The dual-structured design consists of an outer anode layer and an inner anodic current collecting layer that are formed simultaneously during fabrication. Meanwhile, a plurality of micro-channels initiating from the exterior surface of the anode layer penetrate through the two layers, forming a highly asymmetric anode and a mesh current collecting layer, which significantly facilitates the gas transport. With the increasing thickness of the current collecting layer (approximately 15-60 μm), electrical conductivity increases from 1.9 × 104 S cm-1 to 4.0 × 104 S cm-1, while the mechanical strength drops slightly from approximately 168-113 MPa due to its 'dragging effect' during co-sintering. The benefits of improved current collection may potentially overweigh the reduced mechanical property, especially when dual-structured hollow fibres of this type are bundled together to form a stack. Moreover, benefiting from this innovative design, sustainable development of a larger scale of MT-SOFC stack or system becomes less challenging, since technical issues, such as concentration polarization and efficient current collection, hampering the MT-SOFC system design, can be completely overcome.

  14. Evacuation and Community Shelters

    MedlinePlus

    Evacuation and community shelters − Leave natural gas on unless local officials advise otherwise. Local government officials issue evacuation orders when disaster threatens. Listen to local radio and TV ...

  15. Evacuation of the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Niven, Alexander S.; Beninati, William; Fang, Ray; Einav, Sharon; Rubinson, Lewis; Kissoon, Niranjan; Devereaux, Asha V.; Christian, Michael D.; Grissom, Colin K.; Christian, Michael D.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Rubinson, Lewis; Amundson, Dennis; Anderson, Michael R.; Balk, Robert; Barfield, Wanda D.; Bartz, Martha; Benditt, Josh; Beninati, William; Berkowitz, Kenneth A.; Daugherty Biddison, Lee; Braner, Dana; Branson, Richard D; Burkle, Frederick M.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Carr, Brendan G.; Courtney, Brooke; DeDecker, Lisa D.; De Jong, Marla J.; Dominguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Dries, David; Einav, Sharon; Erstad, Brian L.; Etienne, Mill; Fagbuyi, Daniel B.; Fang, Ray; Feldman, Henry; Garzon, Hernando; Geiling, James; Gomersall, Charles D.; Grissom, Colin K.; Hanfling, Dan; Hick, John L.; Hodge, James G.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Ingbar, David; Kanter, Robert K.; King, Mary A.; Kuhnley, Robert N.; Lawler, James; Leung, Sharon; Levy, Deborah A.; Lim, Matthew L.; Livinski, Alicia; Luyckx, Valerie; Marcozzi, David; Medina, Justine; Miramontes, David A.; Mutter, Ryan; Niven, Alexander S.; Penn, Matthew S.; Pepe, Paul E.; Powell, Tia; Prezant, David; Reed, Mary Jane; Rich, Preston; Rodriquez, Dario; Roxland, Beth E.; Sarani, Babak; Shah, Umair A.; Skippen, Peter; Sprung, Charles L.; Subbarao, Italo; Talmor, Daniel; Toner, Eric S.; Tosh, Pritish K.; Upperman, Jeffrey S.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Weireter, Leonard J.; West, T. Eoin; Wilgis, John; Ornelas, Joe; McBride, Deborah; Reid, David; Baez, Amado; Baldisseri, Marie; Blumenstock, James S.; Cooper, Art; Ellender, Tim; Helminiak, Clare; Jimenez, Edgar; Krug, Steve; Lamana, Joe; Masur, Henry; Mathivha, L. Rudo; Osterholm, Michael T.; Reynolds, H. Neal; Sandrock, Christian; Sprecher, Armand; Tillyard, Andrew; White, Douglas; Wise, Robert; Yeskey, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the high risk for patient harm during unanticipated ICU evacuations, critical care providers receive little to no training on how to perform safe and effective ICU evacuations. We reviewed the pertinent published literature and offer suggestions for the critical care provider regarding ICU evacuation. The suggestions in this article are important for all who are involved in pandemics or disasters with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. METHODS: The Evacuation and Mobilization topic panel used the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Guidelines Oversight Committee’s methodology to develop seven key questions for which specific literature searches were conducted to identify studies upon which evidence-based recommendations could be made. No studies of sufficient quality were identified. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. RESULTS: Based on current best evidence, we provide 13 suggestions outlining a systematic approach to prepare for and execute an effective ICU evacuation during a disaster. Interhospital and intrahospital collaboration and functional ICU communication are critical for success. Pre-event planning and preparation are required for a no-notice evacuation. A Critical Care Team Leader must be designated within the Hospital Incident Command System. A three-stage ICU Evacuation Timeline, including (1) no immediate threat, (2) evacuation threat, and (3) evacuation implementation, should be used. Detailed suggestions on ICU evacuation, including regional planning, evacuation drills, patient transport preparation and equipment, patient prioritization and distribution for evacuation, patient information and tracking, and federal and international evacuation assistance systems, are also provided. CONCLUSIONS: Successful ICU evacuation during a disaster requires

  16. Medical and trauma evacuations.

    PubMed

    Neri, Myles; De Jongh, Rene

    2004-02-01

    Evacuating ill or injured expatriates on international assignments from globally challenging locations is a potent source of concern for individuals who are involved before, during, and after overseas assignments. It is essential to minimize the risk for such evacuations and to make the evacuations proceed as smoothly and safely as possible. The first half of this article addresses the planning and processes that are required to make inevitable medical evacuations as safe and smooth as possible. The second half reviews the non-medical consequences that medical and security evacuations can have for employees, dependents, and employers. PMID:15043365

  17. Preliminary design package for Sunair SEC-601 solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of the Owens-Illinois model Sunair SEC-601 tubular air solar collector is presented. Information in this package includes the subsystem design and development approaches, hazard analysis, and detailed drawings available as the preliminary design review.

  18. Solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    The invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame. A thin film window is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  19. Solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1982-01-01

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  20. Energy cost based design optimization method for medium temperature CPC collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horta, Pedro; Osório, Tiago; Collares-Pereira, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    CPC collectors, approaching the ideal concentration limits established by non-imaging optics, can be designed to have such acceptance angles enabling fully stationary designs, useful for applications in the low temperature range (T < 100°C). Their use in the medium temperature range (100°C < T < 250°C) typically requires higher concentration factors in turn requiring seasonal tracking strategies. Considering the CPC design options in terms of effective concentration factor, truncation, concentrator height, mirror perimeter, seasonal tracking, trough spacing, etc., an energy cost function based design optimization method is presented in this article. Accounting for the impact of the design on its optical (optical efficiency, Incidence Angle Modifier, diffuse acceptance) and thermal performances (dependent on the concentration factor), the optimization function integrates design (e.g. mirror area, frame length, trough spacing/shading), concept (e.g. rotating/stationary components, materials) and operation (e.g. O&M, tilt shifts and tracking strategy) costs into a collector specific energy cost function, in €/(kWh.m2). The use of such function stands for a location and operating temperature dependent design optimization procedure, aiming at the lowest solar energy cost. Illustrating this approach, optimization results will be presented for a (tubular) evacuated absorber CPC design operating in Morocco.

  1. Factors Affecting Hurricane Evacuation Intentions.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazrus, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Protective actions for hurricane threats are a function of the environmental and information context; individual and household characteristics, including cultural worldviews, past hurricane experiences, and risk perceptions; and motivations and barriers to actions. Using survey data from the Miami-Dade and Houston-Galveston areas, we regress individuals' stated evacuation intentions on these factors in two information conditions: (1) seeing a forecast that a hurricane will hit one's area, and (2) receiving an evacuation order. In both information conditions having an evacuation plan, wanting to keep one's family safe, and viewing one's home as vulnerable to wind damage predict increased evacuation intentions. Some predictors of evacuation intentions differ between locations; for example, Florida respondents with more egalitarian worldviews are more likely to evacuate under both information conditions, and Florida respondents with more individualist worldviews are less likely to evacuate under an evacuation order, but worldview was not significantly associated with evacuation intention for Texas respondents. Differences by information condition also emerge, including: (1) evacuation intentions decrease with age in the evacuation order condition but increase with age in the saw forecast condition, and (2) evacuation intention in the evacuation order condition increases among those who rely on public sources of information on hurricane threats, whereas in the saw forecast condition evacuation intention increases among those who rely on personal sources. Results reinforce the value of focusing hurricane information efforts on evacuation plans and residential vulnerability and suggest avenues for future research on how hurricane contexts shape decision making. PMID:26299597

  2. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  3. Transparent evacuated insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, R.E.; Fischer-Cripps, A.C.; Tang, J.Z. )

    1992-11-01

    Transparent evacuated insulation utilizes the same operating principles as the Dewar flask - gas conduction and convection are essentially eliminated by the evacuated space, and radiative heat transport is small because of internal low emittance coatings. These insulating structures consist of two flat sheets of glass with a hermetic edge seal. An array of support pillars is necessary to maintain the separation of the glass sheets under the influence of atmospheric pressure. The extensive literature on transparent evacuated insulation is reviewed. The design of these devices involves trade-offs between the heat flow through the pillars, and the mechanical stresses. A design methodology for determining the dimensions of the pillar array is developed. An analytic method is described for calculating the stresses and bending produced by a temperature difference across the structure. The results are in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements. The stresses within the structure are shown to be less than conventionally accepted levels over a wider range of operating conditions. Many samples of transparent evacuated insulation have been built and tested in which the heat transport through the evacuated space is due entirely to radiation, to the limit of resolution of the measuring device (0.2 W m{sup {minus}2}K{sup {minus}1}). No increase in heat transport has been observed over a period of 18 months. Much higher accuracy measurements have commenced. It appears likely that transparent evacuated insulation will achieve mid-plane insulating values of 0.6 W m{sup {minus}2}K{sup {minus}1}, and possibly somewhat lower.

  4. Disaster aeromedical evacuation.

    PubMed

    Lezama, Nicholas G; Riddles, Lawrence M; Pollan, William A; Profenna, Leonardo C

    2011-10-01

    Successful disaster aeromedical evacuation depends on applying the principles learned by moving patients since World War II, culminating in today's global patient movement system. This article describes the role of the Department of Defense patient movement system in providing defense support to civil authorities during the 2008 hurricane season and the international disaster response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Adapting and applying the principles of active partnerships, establishing patient movement requirements, patient preparation, and in-transit visibility have resulted in the successful aeromedical evacuation of over 1,600 patients since the federal response to Hurricane Katrina. PMID:22128647

  5. Evaluation of flat-plate collector efficiency under controlled conditions in a solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.; Simon, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    The measured thermal efficiencies of 35 collectors tested with a solar simulator, along with the correlation equations used to generalize the data, are presented. The single correlation used is shown to apply to all the different types of collectors tested, including one with black paint and one cover, one with a selective surface coating and two covers, and an evacuated-tube collector. The test and correlation technique is also modified by using a shield so that collectors larger than the simulator test area can also be tested. This technique was verified experimentally for a shielded collector for which the collector shielded area was 31% of the solar simulator radiation area. A table lists all the collectors tested, the collector areas, and the experimental constants used to correlate the data for each collector.

  6. Evacuation under limited visibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Guillermo A.; Dorso, Claudio O.

    2015-06-01

    A multiplicity of situations can trigger off an evacuation of a room under panic conditions. For "normal" (with "normal" meaning absence of obstacles, perfect visibility, etc.) environmental conditions, the "faster is slower" effect dominates the dynamics of this process. It states that as the pedestrians desire to reach the exit increases, the clogging phenomena delays the time to get out of the room. But, environmental conditions are usually far from "normal." In this work, we consider that pedestrians have to find their way out under low visibility conditions. Some of them might switch to a herding-like behavior if they do not remember where the exit was. Others will just trust on their memory. Our investigation handles the herding and memory effects on the evacuation of a single exit room with no obstacles. We also include a section on how signaling devices affect the evacuation process. Unexpectedly, some low visibility situations may enhance the evacuation performance. This can be resumed as a second paradoxical result, since we demonstrated in an earlier investigation that "clever is not always better" G. A. Frank and C. O. Dorso, Physica A 390, 2135 (2011).

  7. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of hour by hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations were used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types; flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single and dual axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first and second order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour by hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators.

  8. Tubular Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, Bernard J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system for coupling a vascular overflow graft or cannula to a heart pump. A pump pipe outlet is provided with an external tapered surface which receives the end of a compressible connula. An annular compression ring with a tapered internal bore surface is arranged about the cannula with the tapered internal surface in a facing relationship to the external tapered surface. The angle of inclination of the tapered surfaces is converging such that the spacing between the tapered surfaces decreases from one end of the external tapered surface to the other end thereby providing a clamping action of the tapered surface on a cannula which increases as a function of the length of cannula segment between the tapered surfaces. The annular compression ring is disposed within a tubular locking nut which threadedly couples to the pump and provides a compression force for urging the annular ring onto the cannula between the tapered surfaces. The nut has a threaded connection to the pump body. The threaded coupling to the pump body provides a compression force for the annular ring. The annular ring has an annular enclosure space in which excess cannula material from the compression between the tapered surfaces to "bunch up" in the space and serve as an enlarged annular ring segment to assist holding the cannula in place. The clamped cannula provides a seamless joint connection to the pump pipe outlet where the clamping force is uniformly applied to the cannula because of self alignment of the tapered surfaces. The nut can be easily disconnected to replace the pump if necessary.

  9. Dust collector

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.T.

    1986-10-21

    This patent describes a dust collector comprising: (a) a housing having inlet means for receiving air to be cleaned; (b) a plurality of filter units within the housing; (c) a first centrifugal fan arranged for drawing air through the units for removing dust from the air; (d) a plurality of ducts each connected to a corresponding one of the units at one end and to the first fan at the other end to provide passages for air from the units to the first fan, the ducts through a portion of their length being arranged in side-by-side relationship; (e) a second centrifugal fan for providing reverse flow of air through the ducts to the units, the second fan providing a high volume of air at low pressure; (f) a transverse duct connected to the second fan and extending transversely of the portion of the plurality of ducts and adjacent thereto: (g) a plurality of openings providing communication between the transverse duct and each of the plurality of ducts; (i) rotatable means engaging the vanes for sequentially moving the vanes between the first and second positions.

  10. Medical evacuations from offshore structures.

    PubMed

    Norman, J N; Ballantine, B N; Brebner, J A; Brown, B; Gauld, S J; Mawdsley, J; Roythorne, C; Valentine, M J; Wilcock, S E

    1988-09-01

    A retrospective study was carried out on medical evacuations from the installations of four major oil or gas producing companies, or both, operating offshore on the United Kingdom continental shelf. The study covered 1976-84 during which 2162 evacuations were recorded. Of these, 137 (7.7%) required the use of a chartered helicopter. In the earlier years of the study there were substantially more injuries sustained than episodes of illness recorded but from 1980 onwards the cases of illness equalled those of injury. Using the International Classification of Diseases, the digestive system was responsible for most evacuations for illness and of those, about half (115 evacuations) were for dental problems. Suspected fractures were responsible for about one third of those evacuated for an injury but injuries of hands and eye conditions were particularly common, accounting for 25% of all evacuations. As the age of the evacuee increased the proportion of evacuations for injury decreased and that for illness increased. The mean age for evacuation for injury was 28.3 years and for illness 34.4 years. Few evacuations were required for those aged over 45. PMID:3179237

  11. Effective leadership for crowd evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yi; Yuen, Richard Kwok Kit; Lee, Eric Wai Ming

    2016-05-01

    Evacuation leaders (individuals guiding the crowd) can make crowd evacuation more efficient. Selecting their number and positions within the crowd is particularly important when the other evacuees are not familiar with the internal layout of the building. This paper investigates the effects of leadership on crowd evacuation in rooms with limited visibility range by an extended social force model. We find that, (i) For a large evacuees crowd, a small proportion of the evacuation leaders is already sufficient to guide the whole crowd efficiently, even if the visibility range of the room is very limited. And the smaller the crowd size, the larger the proportion of the leaders is needed to achieve a satisfactory evacuation guidance. (ii) The optimal proportion or number (i.e., the proportion or number that is necessary for guiding the crowd) of the leaders in an evacuees crowd to achieve a satisfactory guidance is related to the visibility range of the room and the distribution range of the evacuees crowd. (iii) Leadership is not always positive to the crowd evacuation. It may have a negative effect on crowd evacuation when the visibility range of the room and the size of the evacuees crowd are large enough. The findings provide a new insight into the effects of leadership on crowd evacuation.

  12. Canadian Evacuation and Nisei Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makabe, Tomoko

    1980-01-01

    Japanese Canadians were interviewed to determine the effect of World War II evacuation on their ethnic identity. Older respondents deemphasized issues related to evacuation when discussing their ethnic identity. Younger Japanese Canadians are aware of this "cloud" as part of their ethnic heritage but are unaware of its exact origin. (MK)

  13. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types

    SciTech Connect

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

  14. Ultracapacitor current collector

    DOEpatents

    Jerabek, Elihu Calfin; Mikkor, Mati

    2001-10-16

    An ultracapacitor having two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying the pores in the electrodes and separator. At least one of the current collectors comprises a conductive metal substrate coated with a metal nitride, carbide or boride coating.

  15. MSFC hot air collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, K.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the hot air collector is given that includes a history of development, a history of the materials development, and a program summary. The major portion of the solar energy system cost is the collector. Since the collector is the heart of the system and the most costly subsystem, reducing the cost of producing collectors in large quantities is a major goal. This solar collector is designed to heat air and/or water cheaply and efficiently through the use of solar energy.

  16. Chemical Agents: Facts about Evacuation

    MedlinePlus

    ... to evacuate You will hear from the local police, emergency coordinators, or government on the radio and/ ... school will put them, and you, at increased risk. The emergency shelter will have most supplies that ...

  17. Pulsed depressed collector

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A

    2015-11-03

    A high power RF device has an electron beam cavity, a modulator, and a circuit for feed-forward energy recovery from a multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The electron beam cavity include a cathode, an anode, and the multi-stage depressed collector, and the modulator is configured to provide pulses to the cathode. Voltages of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are allowed to float as determined by fixed impedances seen by the electrode stages. The energy recovery circuit includes a storage capacitor that dynamically biases potentials of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector and provides recovered energy from the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The circuit may also include a step-down transformer, where the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are electrically connected to separate taps on the step-down transformer.

  18. Transportation Networks for Emergency Evacuations

    SciTech Connect

    Franzese, Oscar; Liu, Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Evacuation modeling systems (EMS) have been developed to facilitate the planning, analysis, and deployment of emergency evacuation of populations at risk. For any EMS, data such as road network maps, traffic control characteristics, and population distribution play critical roles in delineating emergency zones, estimating population at risk, and determining evacuation routes. There are situations in which it is possible to plan in advance for an emergency evacuation including, for example, an explosion at a chemical processing facility or a radiological accident at a nuclear plant. In these cases, if an accident or a terrorist attack were to happen, then the best evacuation plan for the prevailing network and weather conditions would be deployed. In other instances -for example, the derailment of a train transporting hazardous materials-, there may not be any previously developed plan to be implemented and decisions must be made ad-hoc on if and how to identify and proceed with the best course of action to minimize losses. Although both cases require as a starting point the development of a transportation network model of the area at risk, which must include road capacity and topology, in the latter the available time to generate this network is extremely limited. This time constraint precludes the use of any traditional data gathering methodology and the network generation process has to rely on the use of GIS and stochastic modeling techniques. The generation of these transportation networks in real time is the focus of this entry.

  19. Foamglass solar window collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, P. C.

    Solar heating of a living area by means of a foamglass window collector is reported. The collector was built with readily available materials available at most local hardware stores. The payback period was found to be 3.7 years, slightly longer than anticipated.

  20. Inflatable solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.A.

    1980-05-20

    A solar collector using air as its heat transfer medium having a top member containing a plurality of transparent sealed air pockets allowing passage of radiant energy but preventing conductive and convective heat losses generated inside the collector; a central black-coated absorbent plastic member divides the center of the collector into a plurality of interconnected inflatable upper and lower chambers connected to air pumps at one end and to a constriction valve outlet at the other. The lower end of the lower chambers consists of a cover containing a multiplicity of insulative sealed air channels. The collector can be mounted on a turntable frame having adjustable reflective panels mounted above and below the collector. The heated air after it has given up its calories to a storage unit is recirculated to the inflatable chambers.

  1. Solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Turnbull, Robert J.; Foster, Christopher A.; Hendricks, Charles D.

    1982-01-01

    A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

  2. A supramolecular tubular nanoreactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Ying-Ming; Chen, Yong; Liu, Yu

    2014-07-01

    The extremely strong noncovalent complexation between the rigid host of phthalocyanine-bridged β-cyclodextrins and the amphiphilic guest carboxylated porphyrin is employed to construct a hollow tubular structure as a supramolecular nanoreactor. A representative coupling reaction occurs in the hydrophobic interlayers of the tubular walls in pure water at room temperature, leading to an enhancement of ten times higher reaction rate without any adverse effect on catalytic activity and conversion. PMID:24890802

  3. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  4. Stationary surgical smoke evacuation systems.

    PubMed

    2001-03-01

    Two types of systems are available for evacuating the surgical smoke created by electrosurgery and laser surgery: portable and stationary surgical smoke evacuation systems. While portable systems dominate the market today, stationary systems are an alternative worth considering--even though they are still in their infancy, with fewer than 90 systems installed to date. Stationary systems represent a major commitment on the part of the healthcare facility. Several system components must be installed as part of the physical plant (for instance, within the walls), making the system a permanent fixture in the surgical suite. Installation of these systems is often carried out during building construction or major renovation--although the systems can be cost-effective even if no renovations are planned. For this Evaluation, we tested three stationary systems. All three are adequate to capture surgical smoke and evacuate it from the operating room. These systems are easy to use, are quietter than their portable counterparts, and require minimal user maintenance. They represent an excellent option for most hospitals actively evacuating surgical smoke. In this article, we discuss the factors to consider when selecting from among these systems. We also offer guidance on choosing between stationary systems and portable ones. PMID:11321758

  5. Disaster Manual: Emergency, Evacuation, Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koplowitz, Brad; And Others

    This manual outlines the responsibilities of the director of the Oklahoma Department of Libraries in the event of a disaster as well as the functions of the emergency recovery team (ERT) in the coordination of recovery, and emergency action steps to be taken. The evacuation and emergency plan provided for the Allen Wright Memorial Library Building…

  6. 14 CFR 25.803 - Emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... evacuation. (a) Each crew and passenger area must have emergency means to allow rapid evacuation in crash... must be shown by actual demonstration using the test criteria outlined in appendix J of this...

  7. 14 CFR 25.803 - Emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... evacuation. (a) Each crew and passenger area must have emergency means to allow rapid evacuation in crash... must be shown by actual demonstration using the test criteria outlined in appendix J of this...

  8. Design considerations for solar industrial process heat systems: nontracking and line focus collector technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1981-03-01

    Items are listed that should be considered in each aspect of the design of a solar industrial process heat system. The collector technologies covered are flat-plate, evacuated tube, and line focus. Qualitative design considerations are stressed rather than specific design recommendations. (LEW)

  9. 14 CFR 23.803 - Emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency evacuation. 23.803 Section 23.803... Cargo Accommodations § 23.803 Emergency evacuation. (a) For commuter category airplanes, an evacuation.... The demonstration must be conducted under simulated night conditions using only the emergency exits...

  10. 14 CFR 25.803 - Emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency evacuation. 25.803 Section 25.803... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Emergency Provisions § 25.803 Emergency evacuation. (a) Each crew and passenger area must have emergency means to allow rapid evacuation in...

  11. 14 CFR 29.803 - Emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency evacuation. 29.803 Section 29.803... Emergency evacuation. (a) Each crew and passenger area must have means for rapid evacuation in a crash landing, with the landing gear (1) extended and (2) retracted, considering the possibility of fire....

  12. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  13. Fuel cell current collector

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Murray; Bonk, Stanley P.; Maricle, Donald L.; Abrams, Martin

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell has a current collector plate (22) located between an electrode (20) and a separate plate (25). The collector plate has a plurality of arches (26, 28) deformed from a single flat plate in a checkerboard pattern. The arches are of sufficient height (30) to provide sufficient reactant flow area. Each arch is formed with sufficient stiffness to accept compressive load and sufficient resiliently to distribute the load and maintain electrical contact.

  14. Management control of aeromedical evacuation systems.

    PubMed

    Barbash, G I; Ribak, J; Revach, M; Swedenburg, M G; Dolev, E

    1988-02-01

    Aeromedical evacuation has been extensively used by military forces for evacuation of wartime casualties, but has also proven useful in civilian disaster response. In contrast to the broad coverage of the clinical aspects of the aeromedical evacuation, the operational and management control issues have rarely been addressed. The sophisticated battlefield of the 1980s has had an impact also in air evacuation, adding to the factors to be considered before launching an evacuation mission. The professional control of aeromedical evacuation is, therefore, crucial to the efficient and smooth operation of this high-cost resource. In an attempt to shed light on some of the operational perspectives of military air evacuation, the Israeli experience in the management control of such systems is discussed. PMID:3345180

  15. Solvent vapor collector

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1979-01-30

    A solvent vapor collector is mounted on the upstream inlet end of an oven having a gas-circulating means and intended for curing a coating applied to a strip sheet metal at a coating station. The strip sheet metal may be hot and solvent vapors are evaporated at the coating station and from the strip as it passes from the coating station to the oven. Upper and lower plenums within a housing of the collector are supplied with oven gases or air from the gas-circulating means and such gases or air are discharged within the collector obliquely in a downstream direction against the strip passing through that collector to establish downstream gas flows along the top and under surfaces of the strip so as, in turn, to induct solvent vapors into the collector at the coating station. A telescopic multi-piece shroud is usefully provided on the housing for movement between an extended position in which it overlies the coating station to collect solvent vapors released thereat and a retracted position permitting ready cleaning and adjustment of that coating station.

  16. Westinghouse tubular SOFC technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, E.R.

    1992-12-01

    A summary of significant developments and accomplishments which have recently occurred throughout the tubular Solidi Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) program include: Demonstration that thousands of tubular solid oxide fuel cells can be fabricated with consistent and reproducible performance. Continuous operation of a 3 kWe tubular SOFC system for over six months at a customer`s test site. Demonstration of stable performance and lifetime in excess of 5,300 hours for a 3 kWe generator module, operating on desulfurized natural gas without external humidification. Demonstration of stable performance and life times in excess of 30,000 hours in multiple single cell tests. Design, construction and operation of a dedicated cell, module and generator Pre-Pilot Manufacturing Facility (PPMF). Successful 6,840 hour bundle tests of 50 cm. cells produced at the PPMF. Significant improvements in cell performance and life and marked reduction in cell degradation. Design, construction and successful operation of a 20 kWe tubular solid oxide fuel cell generator module. Design, construction, shipment and installation of 25 kWe (40 kWe peak power) field units.

  17. Westinghouse tubular SOFC technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    A summary of significant developments and accomplishments which have recently occurred throughout the tubular Solidi Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) program include: Demonstration that thousands of tubular solid oxide fuel cells can be fabricated with consistent and reproducible performance. Continuous operation of a 3 kWe tubular SOFC system for over six months at a customer's test site. Demonstration of stable performance and lifetime in excess of 5,300 hours for a 3 kWe generator module, operating on desulfurized natural gas without external humidification. Demonstration of stable performance and life times in excess of 30,000 hours in multiple single cell tests. Design, construction and operation of a dedicated cell, module and generator Pre-Pilot Manufacturing Facility (PPMF). Successful 6,840 hour bundle tests of 50 cm. cells produced at the PPMF. Significant improvements in cell performance and life and marked reduction in cell degradation. Design, construction and successful operation of a 20 kWe tubular solid oxide fuel cell generator module. Design, construction, shipment and installation of 25 kWe (40 kWe peak power) field units.

  18. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOEpatents

    Butler, B.

    1980-10-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  19. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOEpatents

    Butler, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  20. Artists and collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien-Ohlmann, Odile

    1995-02-01

    `Where can I buy holograms?' `Where can I exhibit, there is no more gallery to show me?' These are the two complaints I have heard these past two years, first from the collectors and museum curators, second from the artists, Trained as a psycho-sociologist, I have been the curator and research associate of the Museum of Holography in Washington, D.C. for 7 years, at a time when holography was coming out of the laboratory, creating a real 3-D novelty in people's minds. I saw the mass production growing and the applications multiplying. Meanwhile the artists appeared and started to deal with gallery managers. After the renting period of artworks for exhibits, price went up. The general recession affected the art and the dialogue between collectors and artists became harder. Having my husband as an artist, I know pretty well both sides. My paper tries to analyze the situation to facilitate the communication between artists and collectors.

  1. Biological sample collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  2. Miniature, ruggedized data collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Scott; Calcutt, Wade; Knobler, Ron; Jones, Barry; Klug, Robert

    2009-05-01

    McQ has developed a miniaturized, programmable, ruggedized data collector intended for use in weapon testing or data collection exercises that impose severe stresses on devices under test. The recorder is designed to survive these stresses which include acceleration and shock levels up to 100,000 G. The collector acquires and stores up to four channels of signal data to nonvolatile memory for later retrieval by a user. It is small (< 7 in3), light weight (< 1 lb), and can operate from various battery chemistries. A built-in menuing system, accessible via a USB interface, allows the user to configure parameters of the recorder operation, such as channel gain, filtering, and signal offsets, and also to retrieve recorded data for analysis. An overview of the collector, its features, performance, and potential uses, is presented.

  3. Tubular Secretion in CKD.

    PubMed

    Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M; Laha, Thomas; Hoofnagle, Andrew; Newitt, Rick; Sirich, Tammy L; Meyer, Timothy W; Thummel, Ken E; Yanez, N David; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Weiss, Noel S; Kestenbaum, Bryan R

    2016-07-01

    Renal function generally is assessed by measurement of GFR and urinary albumin excretion. Other intrinsic kidney functions, such as proximal tubular secretion, typically are not quantified. Tubular secretion of solutes is more efficient than glomerular filtration and a major mechanism for renal drug elimination, suggesting important clinical consequences of secretion dysfunction. Measuring tubular secretion as an independent marker of kidney function may provide insight into kidney disease etiology and improve prediction of adverse outcomes. We estimated secretion function by measuring secreted solute (hippurate, cinnamoylglycine, p-cresol sulfate, and indoxyl sulfate) clearance using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assays of serum and timed urine samples in a prospective cohort study of 298 patients with kidney disease. We estimated GFR by mean clearance of creatinine and urea from the same samples and evaluated associations of renal secretion with participant characteristics, mortality, and CKD progression to dialysis. Tubular secretion rate modestly correlated with eGFR and associated with some participant characteristics, notably fractional excretion of electrolytes. Low clearance of hippurate or p-cresol sulfate associated with greater risk of death independent of eGFR (hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 4.7; hazard ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1, respectively). Hazards models also suggested an association between low cinnamoylglycine clearance and risk of dialysis, but statistical analyses did not exclude the null hypothesis. Therefore, estimates of proximal tubular secretion function correlate with glomerular filtration, but substantial variability in net secretion remains. The observed associations of net secretion with mortality and progression of CKD require confirmation. PMID:26614381

  4. Collector/collector guard ring balancing circuit eliminates edge effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieb, D. P.

    1966-01-01

    Circuit in which an emitter is maintained opposite a concentric collector and guard structure is achieved by matching the temperature and potential of the guard with that of the collector over the operating range. This control system is capable of handling up to 100 amperes in the guard circuit and 200 amperes in the collectors circuit.

  5. Black Liquid Solar Collector Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichman, F. L.; Austen, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the details of constructing, and use of, a solar collector. Uses a black liquid to absorb the energy, the thermosyphon effect to drive the liquid through the collector, and a floodlamp as a surrogate sun. (GA)

  6. Solar collector assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.A.

    1980-09-09

    A solar collector assembly includes shingles which have integral tubes projecting therefrom, and which are mounted in overlapping parallel array. Mounting brackets for the shingles are engaged on roof rafters or the like, and interlocked light transmissive plates overlie the shingles. The plates are also engaged with shingle components. A special fitting for the tube ends is provided.

  7. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  8. Sheldon Jackson the Collector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Rosemary

    Missionary, educator, humanitarian, and collector, the Reverend Sheldon Jackson came to Alaska in 1877 to assimilate Native populations into the dominant White culture, but his collecting efforts between 1877 and 1902 represent a significant effort to preserve the legacy of Alaska Natives during a period of tumultuous change. A zealous missionary,…

  9. Solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  10. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Moore, S.W.

    1975-06-03

    Herein is disclosed a flate plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support, and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  11. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1977-03-08

    Herein is disclosed a flat plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  12. Tubular toxicity of proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Baines, Richard J; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2011-03-01

    Proteinuria is a prognostic indicator of progressive kidney disease and poor cardiovascular outcomes. Abnormally filtered bioactive macromolecules interact with proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs), which results in the development of proteinuric nephropathy. This condition is characterized by alterations in PTEC growth, apoptosis, gene transcription and inflammatory cytokine production as a consequence of dysregulated signaling pathways that are stimulated by proteinuric tubular fluid. The megalin-cubilin complex mediates the uptake of several proteins, including albumin, into PTECs. Megalin might also possess intrinsic signaling properties and the ability to regulate cell signaling pathways and gene transcription after processing regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Megalin could, therefore, link abnormal PTEC albumin exposure with altered growth factor receptor activation, proinflammatory and profibrotic signaling, and gene transcription. Evidence now suggests that other PTEC pathways for protein reabsorption of (patho)physiological importance might be mediated by the neonatal Fc receptor and CD36. PMID:21151210

  13. Pedestrian Evacuation Analysis for Tsunami Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. M.; Ng, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent catastrophic tsunamis in the last decade, as well as the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Alaskan event, have heightened awareness of the threats these natural hazards present to large and increasing coastal populations. For communities located close to the earthquake epicenter that generated the tsunami, strong shaking may also cause significant infrastructure damage, impacting the road network and hampering evacuation. There may also be insufficient time between the earthquake and first wave arrival to rely on a coordinated evacuation, leaving at-risk populations to self-evacuate on foot and across the landscape. Emergency managers evaluating these coastal risks need tools to assess the evacuation potential of low-lying areas in order to discuss mitigation options, which may include vertical evacuation structures to provide local safe havens in vulnerable communities. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed the Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst software tool for use by researchers and emergency managers to assist in the assessment of a community's evacuation potential by modeling travel times across the landscape and producing both maps of travel times and charts of population counts with corresponding times. The tool uses an anisotropic (directionally dependent) least cost distance model to estimate evacuation potential and allows for the variation of travel speed to measure its effect on travel time. The effectiveness of vertical evacuation structures on evacuation time can also be evaluated and compared with metrics such as travel time maps showing each structure in place and graphs displaying the percentage change in population exposure for each structure against the baseline. Using the tool, travel time maps and at-risk population counts have been generated for some coastal communities of the U.S. Pacific Northwest and Alaska. The tool can also be used to provide valuable decision support for tsunami vertical evacuation siting.

  14. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Charlton; Bremner, Robert J.; Meng, Sen Y.

    1989-01-01

    A space-saving discharge collector 40 for the rotary pump 28 of a pool-type nuclear reactor 10. An annular collector 50 is located radially outboard for an impeller 44. The annular collector 50 as a closed outer periphery 52 for collecting the fluid from the impeller 44 and producing a uniform circumferential flow of the fluid. Turning means comprising a plurality of individual passageways 54 are located in an axial position relative to the annular collector 50 for receiving the fluid from the annular collector 50 and turning it into a substantially axial direction.

  15. Ultra-Scale Computing for Emergency Evacuation

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Nutaro, James J; Liu, Cheng; Zacharia, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Emergency evacuations are carried out in anticipation of a disaster such as hurricane landfall or flooding, and in response to a disaster that strikes without a warning. Existing emergency evacuation modeling and simulation tools are primarily designed for evacuation planning and are of limited value in operational support for real time evacuation management. In order to align with desktop computing, these models reduce the data and computational complexities through simple approximations and representations of real network conditions and traffic behaviors, which rarely represent real-world scenarios. With the emergence of high resolution physiographic, demographic, and socioeconomic data and supercomputing platforms, it is possible to develop micro-simulation based emergency evacuation models that can foster development of novel algorithms for human behavior and traffic assignments, and can simulate evacuation of millions of people over a large geographic area. However, such advances in evacuation modeling and simulations demand computational capacity beyond the desktop scales and can be supported by high performance computing platforms. This paper explores the motivation and feasibility of ultra-scale computing for increasing the speed of high resolution emergency evacuation simulations.

  16. 14 CFR 29.803 - Emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency evacuation. 29.803 Section 29.803 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.803 Emergency evacuation. (a)...

  17. 14 CFR 25.803 - Emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency evacuation. 25.803 Section 25.803 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Emergency Provisions § 25.803 Emergency evacuation. (a) Each crew...

  18. 14 CFR 29.803 - Emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency evacuation. 29.803 Section 29.803 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.803 Emergency evacuation. (a)...

  19. 14 CFR 25.803 - Emergency evacuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency evacuation. 25.803 Section 25.803 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Emergency Provisions § 25.803 Emergency evacuation. (a) Each crew...

  20. Necessity of guides in pedestrian emergency evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Dong, Hairong; Yao, Xiuming; Sun, Xubin; Wang, Qianling; Zhou, Min

    2016-01-01

    The role of guide who is in charge of leading pedestrians to evacuate in the case of emergency plays a critical role for the uninformed people. This paper first investigates the influence of mass behavior on evacuation dynamics and mainly focuses on the guided evacuation dynamics. In the extended crowd model proposed in this paper, individualistic behavior, herding behavior and environment influence are all considered for pedestrians who are not informed by the guide. According to the simulation results, herding behavior makes more pedestrians evacuate from the room in the same period of time. Besides, guided crowd demonstrates the same behavior of group dynamics which is characterized by gathering, conflicts and balance. Moreover, simulation results indicate guides with appropriate initial positions and quantity are more conducive to evacuation under a moderate initial density of pedestrians.

  1. [Air medical evacuation on modern stage].

    PubMed

    Belevitin, A B; Shelepov, A M; Bochenkov, A A; Iamenskov, V V; Grebeniuk, S A; Peshkov, V V

    2010-01-01

    There was effectuated an analyze of using of aircrafts for medical air evacuation of ill and wounded persons, was shown it's place in system of treatment-evacuation measures during the war and peaceful time in course of liquidation of consequences of natural disasters. The article presents main clinical-physiological aspects of medical air evacuation, peculiarities of organization of delivery of health care aboard aircraft, state of medical air evacuation for now-days. The article presents characteristics of purposes and supply of created sanitary planes and helicopters: Mi-8MB "Bisectrix", An-26M "Saver", Il-76MD "Bistoury". There elaborated recommendations upon organization of medical air evacuation during war and peaceful time. PMID:20536037

  2. Statistical Analysis to Select Evacuation Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musyarof, Z.; Sutarto, D. Y.; Atika, D. R.; Fajriya Hakim, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    Each country should be responsible for the safety of people, especially responsible for the safety of people living in disaster-prone areas. One of those services is provides evacuation route for them. But all this time, the selection of evacuation route is seem does not well organized, it could be seen that when a disaster happen, there will be many accumulation of people on the steps of evacuation route. That condition is dangerous to people because hampers evacuation process. By some methods in Statistical analysis, author tries to give a suggestion how to prepare evacuation route which is organized and based on people habit. Those methods are association rules, sequential pattern mining, hierarchical cluster analysis and fuzzy logic.

  3. Spatial game in cellular automaton evacuation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schantz, Anton; Ehtamo, Harri

    2015-11-01

    For numerical simulations of crowd dynamics in an evacuation we need a computationally light environment, such as the cellular automaton model (CA). By choosing the right model parameters, different types of crowd behavior and collective effects can be produced. But the CA does not answer why, when, and how these different behaviors and collective effects occur. In this article, we present a model, where we couple a spatial evacuation game to the CA. In the game, an agent chooses its strategy by observing its neighbors' strategies. The game matrix changes with the distance to the exit as the evacuation conditions develop. In the resulting model, an agent's strategy choice alters the parameters that govern its behavior in the CA. Thus, with our model, we are able to simulate how evacuation conditions affect the behavior of the crowd. Also, we show that some of the collective effects observed in evacuations are a result of the simple game the agents play.

  4. A software utility for regional evacuation (SURE)

    SciTech Connect

    Venigalla, M.M. . Transportation Center); Rathi, A.K. )

    1992-01-01

    Regional evacuation is often a viable safeguard against natural catastrophes such as hurricanes and volcano eruptions, and man-made disasters such as toxic gas release into the atmosphere. Several computer programs exist for modeling regional evacuation on a given road network. As would be expected, these models are data intensive. In this paper, the development of a PC-based interactive computer model, Software Utility for Regional Evacuation (SURE), to create input to IDYNEV (for Interactive DYNamic EVacuation model) and analyze its output is discussed. The preprocessor module of SURE substantially reduces the time required to create input files to IDYNEV and the post-processor module summarizes the simulated results from the usually huge IDYNEV output files. The model also illustrates the evacuation network graphically and highlights problem links and intersections at selected intervals. SURE is being used extensively for evaualation studies under the US Army's Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness (CSEP) program.

  5. A software utility for regional evacuation (SURE)

    SciTech Connect

    Venigalla, M.M.; Rathi, A.K.

    1992-09-01

    Regional evacuation is often a viable safeguard against natural catastrophes such as hurricanes and volcano eruptions, and man-made disasters such as toxic gas release into the atmosphere. Several computer programs exist for modeling regional evacuation on a given road network. As would be expected, these models are data intensive. In this paper, the development of a PC-based interactive computer model, Software Utility for Regional Evacuation (SURE), to create input to IDYNEV (for Interactive DYNamic EVacuation model) and analyze its output is discussed. The preprocessor module of SURE substantially reduces the time required to create input files to IDYNEV and the post-processor module summarizes the simulated results from the usually huge IDYNEV output files. The model also illustrates the evacuation network graphically and highlights problem links and intersections at selected intervals. SURE is being used extensively for evaualation studies under the US Army`s Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness (CSEP) program.

  6. Solar collector array

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  7. Solar collector device

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, K. N.

    1985-06-11

    A solar collector is provided in which a focussing element precisely focusses solar radiation upon a collecting region of a collecting element during all times of the day, without necessitating daily motion of the focussing element. The collecting region is constructed to be more highly absorbing of the solar radiation than any other region of the collector which might be in thermal contact with the collecting region. In some embodiments, the collecting region is a self-defined portion of the collecting element upon which the solar radiation is focussed at any given time. This is achieved by utilizing a collecting element which locally converts incident solar energy to another form of energy in a non-linear manner as a function of incident solar intensity. For example, the collecting element may be fabricated from a photochromic glass which darkens when impinged upon by the focussed radiation of the sun. The collecting region is automatically self-defined by the local darkened region of the photochromic glass, which traverses the collector as the sun traverses the sky.

  8. Solar collector device

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, K.N.

    1984-09-25

    A solar collector is provided in which a focussing element precisely focusses solar radiation upon a collecting region of a collecting element during all times of the day, without necessitating daily motion of the focussing element. The collecting region is constructed to be more highly absorbing of the solar radiation than any other region of the collector which might be in thermal contact with the collecting region. In some embodiments, the collecting region is a selfdefined portion of the collecting element upon which the solar radiation is focussed at any given time. This is achieved by utilizing a collecting element which locally converts incident solar energy to another form of energy in a non-linear manner as a function of incident solar intensity. For example, the collecting element may be fabricated from a photochromic glass which darkens when impinged upon by the focussed radiation of the sun. The collecting region is automatically self-defined by the local darkened region of the photochromic glass, which traverses the collector as the sun traverses the sky.

  9. Turning collectors for solar radiation

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about the polar axis so that the collector is directed toward the sun as the sun tracks the sky each day. It includes two heat-expansive elements and a shadow plate. In the morning a first expansive element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the second expansive element is shaded by the plate. In the afternoon the second element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the first is shaded by the plate.

  10. Measuring the Optical Performance of Evacuated Receivers via an Outdoor Thermal Transient Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Netter, J.

    2011-08-01

    Modern parabolic trough solar collectors operated at high temperatures to provide the heat input to Rankine steam power cycles employ evacuated receiver tubes along the collector focal line. High performance is achieved via the use of a selective surface with a high absorptance for incoming short-wave solar radiation and a low emittance for outgoing long-wave infrared radiation, as well as the use of a hard vacuum to essentially eliminate convective and conductive heat losses. This paper describes a new method that determines receiver overall optical efficiency by exposing a fluid-filled, pre-cooled receiver to one sun outdoors and measuring the slope of the temperature curve at the point where the receiver temperature passes the glass envelope temperature (that is, the point at which there is no heat gain or loss from the absorber). This transient test method offers the potential advantages of simplicity, high accuracy, and the use of the actual solar spectrum.

  11. Current collector for AMTEC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An electrode having higher power output is formed of an open mesh current collector such as expanded nickel covering an electrode film applied to a tube of beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). A plurality of cross-members such as spaced, parallel loops of molybdenum metal wire surround the BASE tube. The loops are electrically connected by a bus wire. As the AMTEC cell is heated, the grid of expanded nickel expands more than the BASE tube and the surrounding loop of wire and become diffusion welded to the electrode film and to the wire loops.

  12. Expandable tubulars for use in geologic structures

    DOEpatents

    Spray, Jeffery A.; Svedeman, Steven; Walter, David; Mckeighan, Peter; Siebanaler, Shane; Dewhurst, Peter; Hobson, Steven; Foss, Doug; Wirz, Holger; Sharpe, Aaron; Apostal, Michael

    2014-08-12

    An expandable tubular includes a plurality of leaves formed from sheet material that have curved surfaces. The leaves extend around a portion or fully around the diameter of the tubular structure. Some of the adjacent leaves of the tubular are coupled together. The tubular is compressed to a smaller diameter so that it can be inserted through previously deployed tubular assemblies. Once the tubular is properly positioned, it is deployed and coupled or not coupled to a previously deployed tubular assembly. The tubular is useful for all types of wells and boreholes.

  13. Tapered, tubular polyester fabric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Donat J. E. (Inventor); Wright, Lawrence T. (Inventor); Vincent, Laurence J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A tapered tubular polyester sleeve is described to serve as the flexible foundation for a spacesuit limb covering. The tube has a large end and a small end with a length to be determined. The ratio of taper is also determined by scale factors. All the warp yarns extend to the large end. A requisite number of warp yarns extend the full length of the sleeve. Other warp yarns extend from the large end but are terminated along the length of the sleeve. It is then woven with a filling yarn which extends in a full circle along the full length of the sleeve to thereby define the tapered sleeve. The sleeve after fabrication is then placed on a mandrel, heated in an oven, and then attached to the arm or other limb of the spacesuit.

  14. Tapered, tubular polyester fabric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Donat J. E. (Inventor); Vincent, Laurence J. (Inventor); Wright, Lawrence T. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A tapered tubular polyester sleeve as set forth. It has a large end 12 and a small end 14 with a length to be determined. The ratio of taper is also determined by scale factors. All the warp yarns extend to the large end 12. A requisite number of warp yarns 16 extend the full length of the sleeve. Other warp yarns exemplified at 18, 22, 26, 28, 30 and 32 extend from the large end but are terminated along the length of the sleeve. It is then woven with a filling yarn 40 which extends in a full circle along the full length of the sleeve to thereby define the tapered sleeve. The sleeve after fabrication is then placed on a mandrel 42, heated in an oven 44 and is thereafter placed on the arm or other limb of a space suit exemplified at 50.

  15. Immobilized tubular fermentor

    SciTech Connect

    Gencer, M.A.; Mutharasan, R.

    1983-09-01

    In this article, a mathematical model describing the kinetics of ethanol fermentation in a whole cell immobilized tubular fermentor is proposed. Experimental results show reasonable agreement with the proposed model. A procedure for treating the fermentation data for determining the ethanol inhibition constants k1 and k2 is described. The ethanol productivity of the immobilized cell fermentor is compared with those of traditional fermentors. Experimental studies indicate that with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NRRL Y132) culture, ethanol productivity in the range 21.2-83.7 g ethanol/L/h at ethanol concentration of 76-60 g/L can be achieved. This is comparable to or higher than those reported in the literature for yeast. The product yield factor of 0.5 g ethanol/g glucose was obtained. The immobilized cell fermentor does not show washout at dilution rates of 7/h and shows good stability over a 650-h operating period.

  16. Wildland fire evacuation/relocation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this plan is to ensure that appropriate actions are taken to provide for the safety of LBL employees by minimizing their exposure to the effects of an urban-wildland fire threatening the Laboratory. This plan has the following objectives: Provide a continuous assessment of the urban-wildland fire threat to LBL. Provide the mechanisms for alerting employees, visitors, and the Emergency Management Team when fire threatens the Laboratory. Provide guidelines for the Emergency Management Team to determine when to relocate or evacuate employees. Outline the communications pathways used to issue and control evacuations. Describe the options for the Emergency Management Team to consider during evacuation. Outline the specific responsibilities of the Emergency Response Organization when implementing an evacuation or relocation.

  17. Selecting baghouse dust collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.; Rubak, J.; Jolin, M. |

    1996-10-01

    Control of nuisance or process dusts generated within a plant is a vital concern with today`s growing emphasis on indoor air quality. In the past, many companies simply moved these contaminants away from workers and discharged them into the atmosphere. More stringent pollution control requirements now make this course of action unacceptable. Also, in some cases there is a need to recover high-value dusts, such as chemicals or precious metals. As a result, proper design and selection of a dust collection system are more critical than ever. There are two types of fabric filter dust collection systems commonly used today: baghouses and cartridges. Baghouses were the first collection systems with fabric media (in the form of long tubes, or bags) for removal of contaminants. The versatility of the baghouse--coupled with constant technological refinements--have made it a long-standing favorite among specifiers of pollution control equipment. In fact, baghouses account for more than 80% of all fabric filter dust collection systems in use today. Cartridge dust collectors use rigidly pleated filter elements instead of bags, making it possible to accommodate a large amount of filter surface area in a comparatively small package. Cartridge collectors also offer high efficiency and low pressure drop.

  18. Integrated solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Tchernev, Dimiter I.

    1985-01-01

    A solar collector having a copper panel in a contiguous space relationship with a condenser-evaporator heat exchanger located under the panel, the panel having a honeycomb-like structure on its interior defining individual cells which are filled with zeolite loaded, in its adsorbed condition, with 18 to 20% by weight of water. The interior of the panel and heat exchanger are maintained at subatmospheric pressure of about 0.1 to 1 psia. The panel and heat exchanger are insulated on their lateral sides and bottoms and on the top of the heat exchange. The panel has a black coating on its top which is exposed to and absorbs solar energy. Surrounding the insulation (which supports the panel) is an extruded aluminum framework which supports a pair of spaced-apart glass panels above the solar panel. Water in conduits from a system for heating or cooling or both is connected to flow into an inlet and discharge from outlet of a finned coil received within the heat exchanger. The collector panel provides heat during the day through desorption and condensing of water vapor from the heated solar panel in the heat exchanger and cools at night by the re-adsorption of the water vapor from the heat exchanger which lowers the absolute pressure within the system and cools the heat exchange coils by evaporation.

  19. Evacuation of institutionalized and specialized populations

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M. )

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess the needs of organizations caring for institutional and specialized populations when faced with a threat or hazard requiring an evacuation. Individuals within specialized populations are unlike other victims of disaster because of their inherent dependency on organizational care givers and require different management strategies on the part of organizations and agencies in an evacuation. The research sought to identify those aspects of coping strategies that have been used successfully to manage an emergency evacuation. To identify special populations that have evacuated from institutions and similar facilities over a four-year period, a computerized search was conducted of media accounts describing such events. The search yielded a total of 1024 accounts from which four major subgroups were identified: nursing homes and related care facilities, hospitals, educational institutions, and correctional facilities. A miscellaneous group including housing for the elderly, apartments and other building complexes, workplaces and factories, public facilities, and places occupied by transient populations, such as transportation units and recreational facilities, could be used for future study. Among the factors found to affect evacuations were the extent of organizational resources (such as the number of staff or other individuals available at the time of the event), the type and number of clientele, and such community characteristics as population density. The study focuses on selected organizational characteristics of health care facilities (nursing homes and related care facilities and hospitals) which have recently experienced either a partial or complete evacuation of their facilities. 165 refs., 13 tabs.

  20. Tower-supported solar-energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Multiple-collector tower system supports three receiver/concentrators that absorb solar energy reflected from surrounding field of heliostats. System overcomes disadvantages of tower-supported collectors. Booms can be lowered during heavy winds to protect arms and collectors.

  1. 46 CFR 199.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... from any projections of the vessel's structure or equipment. (4) The marine evacuation system's passage... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 199.145....145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation...

  2. 46 CFR 199.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 199.145....145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system... from the marine evacuation system platform by a person either in the liferaft or on the platform;...

  3. 46 CFR 199.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 199.145....145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system... from the marine evacuation system platform by a person either in the liferaft or on the platform;...

  4. 46 CFR 199.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 199.145....145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system... from the marine evacuation system platform by a person either in the liferaft or on the platform;...

  5. 46 CFR 199.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 199.145....145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system... from the marine evacuation system platform by a person either in the liferaft or on the platform;...

  6. Depressed collector for electron beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ives, R. Lawrence (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A depressed collector for recovery of spent beam energy from electromagnetic sources emitting sheet or large aspect ration annular electron beams operating aver a broad range of beam voltages and currents. The collector incorporates a trap for capturing and preventing the return of reflected and secondary electrons.

  7. Collector-Output Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glandorf, D. R.; Phillips, Robert F., II

    1986-01-01

    Collector-Output Analysis Program (COAP) programmer's aid for analyzing output produced by UNIVAC collector (MAP processor). COAP developed to aid in design of segmentation structures for programs with large memory requirements and numerous elements but of value in understanding relationships among components of any program. Crossreference indexes and supplemental information produced. COAP written in FORTRAN 77.

  8. A Passive Nuclear Debris Collector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, John J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a nuclear debris collector which removes trace substances from the lower atmosphere during rainfall. Suggests that the collector could be implemented into courses at various educational levels and could result in developing a network for monitoring the geographical extent of nuclear contamination. (Author/SA)

  9. The impact of shadow evacuation on evacuation time estimates for nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Weinisch, Kevin; Brueckner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A shadow evacuation is the voluntary evacuation of people from areas outside a declared evacuation area. Shadow evacuees can congest roadways and inhibit the egress of those evacuating from an area at risk. Federal regulations stipulate that nuclear power plant (NPP) licensees in the United States must conduct an Evacuation Time Estimate (ETE) study after each decennial census. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published federal guidance for conducting ETE studies in November 2011. This guidance document recommends the consideration of a Shadow Region which extends 5 miles radially beyond the existing 10-mile Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) for NPPs. The federal guidance also suggests the consideration of the evacuation of 20 percent of the permanent resident population in the Shadow Region in addition to 100 percent of the declared evacuation region within the EPZ when conducting ETE studies. The 20 percent recommendation was questioned in a March 2013 report prepared by the US Government Accountability Office. This article discusses the effects on ETE of increasing the shadow evacuation from 20 to 60 percent for 48 NPPs in the United States. Only five (10 percent) of the 48 sites show a significant increase (30 minutes or greater) in 90th percentile ETE (time to evacuate 90 percent of the population in the EPZ), while seven (15 percent) of the 48 sites show a significant increase in 100th percentile ETE (time to evacuate all population in the EPZ). Study areas that are prone to a significant increase in ETE due to shadow evacuation are classified as one of four types; case studies are presented for one plant of each type to explain why the shadow evacuation significantly affects ETE. A matrix of the four case types can be used by emergency management personnel to predict during planning stages whether the evacuated area is prone to a significant increase in ETE due to shadow evacuation. Potential mitigation tactics that reduce demand (public information

  10. Biobriefcase aerosol collector

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Perry M.; Christian, Allen T.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Willis, Ladona; Masquelier, Donald A.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2009-09-22

    A system for sampling air and collecting particles entrained in the air that potentially include bioagents. The system comprises providing a receiving surface, directing a liquid to the receiving surface and producing a liquid surface. Collecting samples of the air and directing the samples of air so that the samples of air with particles entrained in the air impact the liquid surface. The particles potentially including bioagents become captured in the liquid. The air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid but cause minor turbulence. The liquid surface has a surface tension and the collector samples the air and directs the air to the liquid surface so that the air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid, but cause minor turbulence on the surface resulting in insignificant evaporation of the liquid.

  11. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

    1999-11-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

  12. Radiant energy collector

    DOEpatents

    McIntire, William R.

    1983-01-01

    A cylindrical radiant energy collector is provided which includes a reflector spaced apart from an energy absorber. The reflector is of a particular shape which ideally eliminates gap losses. The reflector includes a plurality of adjacent facets of V shaped segments sloped so as to reflect all energy entering between said absorber and said reflector onto said absorber. The outer arms of each facet are sloped to reflect one type of extremal ray in a line substantially tangent to the lowermost extremity of the energy absorber. The inner arms of the facets are sloped to reflect onto the absorber all rays either falling directly thereon or as a result of reflection from an outer arm.

  13. Visual analysis of situationally aware building evacuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guest, Jack; Eaglin, Todd; Subramanian, Kalpathi; Ribarsky, William

    2013-01-01

    Rapid evacuation of large urban structures (campus buildings, arenas, stadiums, etc.) is a complex operation and of prime interest to emergency responders and planners. Although there is a considerable body of work in evacuation algorithms and methods, most of these are impractical to use in real-world scenarios (non real-time, for instance) or have difficulty handling scenarios with dynamically changing conditions. Our goal in this work is towards developing computer visualizations and real-time visual analytic tools for building evacuations, in order to provide situational awareness and decision support to first responders and emergency planners. We have augmented traditional evacuation algorithms in the following important ways, (1) facilitate real-time complex user interaction with first responder teams, as information is received during an emergency, (2) visual reporting tools for spatial occupancy, temporal cues, and procedural recommendations are provided automatically and at adjustable levels, and (3) multi-scale building models, heuristic evacuation models, and unique graph manipulation techniques for producing near real-time situational awareness. We describe our system, methods and their application using campus buildings as an example. We also report the results of evaluating our system in collaboration with our campus police and safety personnel, via a table-top exercise consisting of 3 different scenarios, and their resulting assessment of the system.

  14. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  15. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  16. FRACTIONATING COLUMN PRODUCT COLLECTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Paxson, G.D. Jr.

    1964-03-10

    Means for detecting minute fluid products from a chemical separation column and for advancing a collector tube rack in order to automatically separate and collect successive fractionated products are described. A charge is imposed on the forming drops at the column orifice to create an electric field as the drop falls in the vicinity of a sensing plate. The field is detected by an electrometer tube coupled to the plate causing an output signal to actuate rotation of a collector turntable rack, thereby positioning new collectors under the orifice. The invention provides reliable automatic collection independent of drop size, rate of fall, or chemical composition. (AEC)

  17. Compliance with surgical smoke evacuation guidelines: implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kay

    2010-08-01

    Surgical smoke presents a serious health hazard, but perioperative nurses' compliance with smoke evacuation recommendations is not consistent. I investigated key indicators for compliance with electrosurgical smoke evacuation recommendations based on nurses' individual innovativeness characteristics, perceptions of the attributes of smoke evacuation recommendations, and organizational innovativeness characteristics. The study findings provide implications for improving nurses' compliance with smoke evacuation recommendations. Individual innovativeness characteristics, including nurses' knowledge and training, were most strongly linked to smoke evacuation compliance. The key indicators that promote surgical smoke evacuation can provide direction to guide the content of education programs and help identify the personnel and settings that are most in need of this information. Barriers to compliance included lack of equipment, physician resistance, noise, and staff member complacency. Vendor demonstrations on the ease of smoke evacuation device use can show nurses that smoke evacuation is compatible with nursing practice. Facility leaders should provide smoke evacuation policies that are easy to understand and should enforce these policies. PMID:20678603

  18. Compliance with surgical smoke evacuation guidelines: implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kay

    2012-03-01

    Surgical smoke presents a serious health hazard, but perioperative nurses' compliance with smoke evacuation recommendations is not consistent. I investigated key indicators for compliance with electrosurgical smoke evacuation recommendations based on nurses' individual innovativeness characteristics, perceptions of the attributes of smoke evacuation recommendations, and organizational innovativeness characteristics. The study findings provide implications for improving nurses' compliance with smoke evacuation recommendations. Individual innovativeness characteristics, including nurses' knowledge and training, were most strongly linked to smoke evacuation compliance. The key indicators that promote surgical smoke evacuation can provide direction to guide the content of education programs and help identify the personnel and settings that are most in need of this information. Barriers to compliance included lack of equipment, physician resistance, noise, and staff member complacency. Vendor demonstrations on the ease of smoke evacuation device use can show nurses that smoke evacuation is compatible with nursing practice. Facility leaders should provide smoke evacuation policies that are easy to understand and should enforce these policies. PMID:22783605

  19. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Melissa G.; Bogue, Kelsey; Rohrbaugh, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones during the 2011 Hurricane Irene were surveyed about whether or not they evacuated and about their experiences during the hurricane. Although pet-ownership was not statistically associated with evacuation failure, many pet owners who chose not to evacuate still claimed that they did not evacuate because of difficulties with evacuating their pet. These findings suggest that more work needs to be done in order to make evacuating with a pet easier. Abstract Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006) which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons. PMID:26487162

  20. Micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell based on a porous yttria-stabilized zirconia support

    PubMed Central

    Panthi, Dhruba; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising electrochemical energy conversion devices owing to their high power generation efficiency and environmentally benign operation. Micro-tubular SOFCs, which have diameters ranging from a few millimeters to the sub-millimeter scale, offer several advantages over competing SOFCs such as high volumetric power density, good endurance against thermal cycling, and flexible sealing between fuel and oxidant streams. Herein, we successfully realized a novel micro-tubular SOFC design based on a porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) support using multi-step dip coating and co-sintering methods. The micro-tubular SOFC consisted of Ni-YSZ, YSZ, and strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM)–YSZ as the anode, electrolyte, and cathode, respectively. In addition, to facilitate current collection from the anode and cathode, Ni and LSM were applied as an anode current collector and cathode current collector, respectively. Micro-crystalline cellulose was selected as a pore former to achieve better shrinkage behavior of the YSZ support so that the electrolyte layer could be densified at a co-sintering temperature of 1300°C. The developed micro-tubular design showed a promising electrochemical performance with maximum power densities of 525, 442, and 354 mW cm−2 at 850, 800, and 750°C, respectively. PMID:25169166

  1. Micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell based on a porous yttria-stabilized zirconia support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panthi, Dhruba; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    2014-08-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising electrochemical energy conversion devices owing to their high power generation efficiency and environmentally benign operation. Micro-tubular SOFCs, which have diameters ranging from a few millimeters to the sub-millimeter scale, offer several advantages over competing SOFCs such as high volumetric power density, good endurance against thermal cycling, and flexible sealing between fuel and oxidant streams. Herein, we successfully realized a novel micro-tubular SOFC design based on a porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) support using multi-step dip coating and co-sintering methods. The micro-tubular SOFC consisted of Ni-YSZ, YSZ, and strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM)-YSZ as the anode, electrolyte, and cathode, respectively. In addition, to facilitate current collection from the anode and cathode, Ni and LSM were applied as an anode current collector and cathode current collector, respectively. Micro-crystalline cellulose was selected as a pore former to achieve better shrinkage behavior of the YSZ support so that the electrolyte layer could be densified at a co-sintering temperature of 1300°C. The developed micro-tubular design showed a promising electrochemical performance with maximum power densities of 525, 442, and 354 mW cm-2 at 850, 800, and 750°C, respectively.

  2. Evacuation modeling near a chemical stockpile site

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, D.E.; Madore, M.A.; Jaske, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic evacuation modeling was used as an aid in emergency response planning by Tooele County, Utah, location of the United States' largest stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The use of traffic modeling was affected both by the characteristics of the hazard and the unique topography of the area. To address these constraints Argonne National Laboratory, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Tooele County created a set of evacuation modeling scenarios to be stored in the county's emergency management information system. For use in planning, the scenarios enable the county to map out effective traffic management strategies. For us in exercises or emergency response the scenarios enable the county to quickly access data to make and implement evacuation decisions.

  3. Evacuation modeling near a chemical stockpile site

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, D.E.; Madore, M.A.; Jaske, R.T.

    1992-06-01

    Dynamic evacuation modeling was used as an aid in emergency response planning by Tooele County, Utah, location of the United States` largest stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The use of traffic modeling was affected both by the characteristics of the hazard and the unique topography of the area. To address these constraints Argonne National Laboratory, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Tooele County created a set of evacuation modeling scenarios to be stored in the county`s emergency management information system. For use in planning, the scenarios enable the county to map out effective traffic management strategies. For us in exercises or emergency response the scenarios enable the county to quickly access data to make and implement evacuation decisions.

  4. Panic evacuation of single pedestrians and couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, G. A.; Dorso, C. O.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the timing requirements for evacuation of people has focused primarily on independent pedestrians rather than pedestrians emotionally connected. However, the main statistical effects observed in crowds, the so-called “faster is slower”, “clever is not always better” and the “low visibility enhancement”, cannot explain the overall behavior of a crowd during an evacuation process when correlated pedestrians due to, for example feelings, are present. Our research addresses this issue and examines the statistical behavior of a mixture of individuals and couples during a (panic) escaping process. We found that the attractive feeling among couples plays an important role in the time delays during the evacuation of a single exit room.

  5. Device for inserting tubular members together

    SciTech Connect

    Milberger, L.J.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes a well, a lower tubular member with a sealing surface located in the well, an upper tubular member which inserts into engagement with the lower tubular member during running in, the upper and lower tubular members being exposed to well fluid pressure, an improved means for sliding the upper tubular member into engagement with the lower tubular member. It comprises the upper tubular member having a first side and a second side, the second side having a sealing section which mates with the sealing surface of the lower tubular sidewall; axially spaced apart seal means located on the running tool sidewall for sealingly engaging the first side of the upper tubular member above and below the sealing section during running in, for defining a low pressure area between the running tool and the first side which is isolated from the well fluid pressure; the sealing section of the upper tubular member being exposed to well fluid pressure during running in, resulting in a pressure difference across the upper tubular member between the first side of the tubular member and the sealing section, means for eliminating the pressure difference across the upper tubular member between the first side and the sealing section after the upper tubular member has reached its engaged position with the lower tubular member, allowing the sealing section to move radially into engagement with the sealing surface. This patent also describes a method for sliding an upper tubular member into engagement with a sealing surface of a lower tubular member in a well having well fluid pressure, comprising in combination: providing the upper tubular member with a first side and a second side and providing the second side with a sealing section for mating with the sealing surface of the lower tubular member.

  6. Solar collector with altitude tracking

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about an east-west horizontal axis so that the collector is tilted toward the sun as the EWV altitude of the sun varies each day. It includes one or more heat responsive elements and a shading means aligned so that within a range of EWV altitudes of the sun during daylight hours the shading means shades the element or elements while during the rest of the daylight hours the elements or elements are heated by the sun to assume heated, stable states. Mechanical linkage between the collector and the element is responsive to the states of the element or elements to tilt the collector in accordance with variations in the EWV altitude of the sun.

  7. Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    This report presents data provided by US-based manufacturers and importers of solar collectors. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the years 1974 through 1992. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the years 1982 through 1992. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1992. Appendix A describes the survey methodology. Appendix B contains the 1992 survey forms and instructions. Appendices C and D list the companies that responded to the 1992 surveys and granted permission for their names and addresses to appear in the report. Appendix E provides selected tables from this report with data shown in the International System of Units (SI) metric units. Appendix F provides an estimate of installed capacity and energy production from solar collectors for 1992.

  8. Evacuate and backfill apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, D.J.; Groves, O.J.

    1984-06-27

    An apparatus and method as described for treatment of hollow articles by evacuating existing gas or gases therefrom and purging or backfilling the articles with a second gas such as helium. The apparatus includes a sealed enclosure having an article storage drum mounted therein. A multiplicity of such articles are fed singly into the enclosure and loaded into radial slots formed in the drum. The enclosure is successively evacuated and purged with helium to replace the existing gas in the articles with helium. The purged articles are then discharged singly from the drum and transported out of the enclosure.

  9. Evacuate and backfill apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.; Groves, Oliver J.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus and method for treatment of hollow articles by evacuating existing gas or gases therefrom and purging or backfilling the articles with a second gas such as helium. The apparatus includes a sealed enclosure having an article storage drum mounted therein. A multiplicity of such articles are fed singly into the enclosure and loaded into radial slots formed in the drum. The enclosure is successively evacuated and purged with helium to replace the existing gas in the articles with helium. The purged articles are then discharged singly from the drum and transported out of the enclosure.

  10. [Evacuation of patients from the North Sea].

    PubMed

    Freund, K G

    1989-06-10

    In 1986 and 1987 the department of orthopaedic surgery at the Central Hospital of Esbjerg dealt with 135 medical problems by radio-telephone contacts to persons at sea. Of these, 28% needed a chartered helicopter. This eguals one third of all chartered helicopter evacuations from Danish waters. 77% of the evacuations were from fishing boats and the rest from offshore structures or other kinds of ships. The mechanism of trauma and the diagnosis agreed with the findings in an earlier Danish publication. PMID:2749648

  11. Elastocapillary mist collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duprat, Camille; Labbé, Romain; Rewakowicz, Ana

    2015-11-01

    Fibrous media are commonly used to collect droplets from an aerosol. In particular, woven textiles are used to harvest fresh water from fog, and coalescing filters made of non-woven entangled fibers are used to extract oil drops from gas streams. We propose a novel mist collector made of a forest of vertical flexible threads. As the droplets accumulate on the fibers, capillary bridges are formed, leading to the collapse of adjacent fibers thus forming liquid columns. This improve the liquid collection by preventing clogging, enabling high capture and precluding re-entrainment of drops in the gas stream due to the immediate coalescence of incoming droplets, and promoting fast drainage. We find that the collection flow rate is constant and can be adjusted by varying the fibers arrangement and flexibility. We show that there is an optimal situation for which this collection rate, i.e. the global efficiency, is maximal due to an elastocapillary coupling that we further characterize with a model experiment. Specifically, we study the drainage between two flexible fibers. Depending on the geometry and the fiber deformations, several flow regimes are observed. We characterize these regimes, and discuss the consequences on the drainage velocity, and thus the collection efficiency.

  12. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  13. SOLAR NANTENNA ELECTROMAGNETIC COLLECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven D. Novack; Dale K. Kotter; Dennis Slafer; Patrick Pinhero

    2008-08-01

    This research explores a new efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun. A nanoantenna electromagnetic collector (NEC) has been designed, prototyped, and tested. Proof of concept has been validated. The device targets mid-infrared wavelengths where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells do not respond but is abundant in solar energy. The initial concept of designing NEC antennas was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory. This approach has proven unsuccessful by many due to not fully understanding and accounting for the optical behavior of materials in the THz region. Also until recent years the nanofabrication methods were not available to fabricate the optical antenna elements. We have addressed and overcome both technology barriers. Several factors were critical in successful implementation of NEC including: 1) frequency-dependent modeling of antenna elements, 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties and 3) novel manufacturing methods that enable economical large-scale manufacturing. The work represents an important step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity, which will lead to a wide spectrum, high conversion efficiency, and low cost solution to complement conventional PVs.

  14. Design package for concentrating solar collector panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of the Northrup concentrating collector is presented. Included are the system performance specifications, the applications manual, and the detailed design drawings of the collector. The collector is a water/glycol/working fluid type, with a dipped galvanized steel housing, transparent acrylic Fresnel lens cover, copper absorber tube, and fiber glass insulation. It weights 98 pounds. A collector assembly includes four collector units within a tracking mount array.

  15. Solar radiation on a catenary collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchik, M.; Appelbaum, J.

    1992-07-01

    A tent-shaped structure with a flexible photovoltaic blanket acting as a catenary collector is presented. The shadow cast by one side of the collector produces a shadow on the other side of the collector. This self-shading effect is analyzed. The direct beam, the diffuse, and the albedo radiation on the collector are determined. An example is given for the insolation on the collector operating on Viking Lander 1 (VL1).

  16. 30 CFR 75.1501 - Emergency evacuations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Mine Emergencies § 75.1501 Emergency evacuations. (a) For... by the mine operator to take charge during mine emergencies involving a fire, explosion, or gas...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1501 - Emergency evacuations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Mine Emergencies § 75.1501 Emergency evacuations. (a) For... by the mine operator to take charge during mine emergencies involving a fire, explosion, or gas...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1501 - Emergency evacuations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Mine Emergencies § 75.1501 Emergency evacuations. (a) For... by the mine operator to take charge during mine emergencies involving a fire, explosion, or gas...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1501 - Emergency evacuations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Mine Emergencies § 75.1501 Emergency evacuations. (a) For... by the mine operator to take charge during mine emergencies involving a fire, explosion, or gas...

  20. Safe Emergency Evacuation From Tall Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    Emergency egress system allows people to be evacuated quickly from tall structures. New emergency system applicable to rescues from fires in tall hotels and other buildings. System consists of basket on slide wire. Basket descends by gravity on sloped slide wire staked to ground.

  1. The Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst: geographic information systems software for modeling hazard evacuation potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Ng, Peter; Wood, Nathan J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent disasters such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and tsunami; the 2013 Colorado floods; and the 2014 Oso, Washington, mudslide have raised awareness of catastrophic, sudden-onset hazards that arrive within minutes of the events that trigger them, such as local earthquakes or landslides. Due to the limited amount of time between generation and arrival of sudden-onset hazards, evacuations are typically self-initiated, on foot, and across the landscape (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012). Although evacuation to naturally occurring high ground may be feasible in some vulnerable communities, evacuation modeling has demonstrated that other communities may require vertical-evacuation structures within a hazard zone, such as berms or buildings, if at-risk individuals are to survive some types of sudden-onset hazards (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2013). Researchers use both static least-cost-distance (LCD) and dynamic agent-based models to assess the pedestrian evacuation potential of vulnerable communities. Although both types of models help to understand the evacuation landscape, LCD models provide a more general overview that is independent of population distributions, which may be difficult to quantify given the dynamic spatial and temporal nature of populations (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012). Recent LCD efforts related to local tsunami threats have focused on an anisotropic (directionally dependent) path distance modeling approach that incorporates travel directionality, multiple travel speed assumptions, and cost surfaces that reflect variations in slope and land cover (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012, 2013). The Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst software implements this anisotropic path-distance approach for pedestrian evacuation from sudden-onset hazards, with a particular focus at this time on local tsunami threats. The model estimates evacuation potential based on elevation, direction of movement, land cover, and travel speed and creates a map showing travel times to safety (a

  2. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or...

  3. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or...

  4. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or...

  5. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or...

  6. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or...

  7. 48 CFR 752.228-70 - Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical Evacuation... Clauses 752.228-70 Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services. As prescribed in 728.307-70, for use in all contracts requiring performance overseas: Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (JUL 2007) (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 876.4370 - Gastroenterology-urology evacuator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. 876.4370... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4370 Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology evacuator is a device used to...

  9. 48 CFR 752.228-70 - Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medical Evacuation... Clauses 752.228-70 Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services. As prescribed in 728.307-70, for use in all contracts requiring performance overseas: Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (JUL 2007) (a)...

  10. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  11. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  12. 46 CFR 108.545 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... projections of the unit's structure or equipment. (3) The marine evacuation system's passage and platform... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 108.545... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.545 Marine evacuation system...

  13. 46 CFR 133.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... projections of the OSV's structure or equipment. (4) The marine evacuation system's passage and platform, when... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 133.145... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements....

  14. 46 CFR 133.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 133.145... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system must have the following arrangements: (1) Each marine...

  15. 46 CFR 108.545 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 108.545... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.545 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system must have the following arrangements: (1)...

  16. 46 CFR 133.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 133.145... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system must have the following arrangements: (1) Each marine...

  17. 46 CFR 133.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 133.145... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system must have the following arrangements: (1) Each marine...

  18. 46 CFR 108.545 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 108.545... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.545 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system must have the following arrangements: (1)...

  19. 46 CFR 133.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 133.145... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system must have the following arrangements: (1) Each marine...

  20. 46 CFR 108.545 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 108.545... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.545 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system must have the following arrangements: (1)...

  1. 46 CFR 108.545 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 108.545... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.545 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system must have the following arrangements: (1)...

  2. 21 CFR 876.4370 - Gastroenterology-urology evacuator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. 876.4370... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4370 Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology evacuator is a device used to...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground evacuation drills. 57.4361 Section... Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a) At least once every six months, mine evacuation drills shall be held to assess the ability of all...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground evacuation drills. 57.4361 Section... Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a) At least once every six months, mine evacuation drills shall be held to assess the ability of all...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground evacuation drills. 57.4361 Section... Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a) At least once every six months, mine evacuation drills shall be held to assess the ability of all...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground evacuation drills. 57.4361 Section... Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a) At least once every six months, mine evacuation drills shall be held to assess the ability of all...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground evacuation drills. 57.4361 Section... Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a) At least once every six months, mine evacuation drills shall be held to assess the ability of all...

  8. 48 CFR 752.228-70 - Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical Evacuation... Clauses 752.228-70 Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services. As prescribed in 728.307-70, for use in all contracts requiring performance overseas: Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (JUL 2007) (a)...

  9. 48 CFR 752.228-70 - Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medical Evacuation... Clauses 752.228-70 Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services. As prescribed in 728.307-70, for use in all contracts requiring performance overseas: Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (JUL 2007) (a)...

  10. Variations in population exposure and evacuation potential to multiple tsunami evacuation phases on Alameda and Bay Farm Islands, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, J.

    2015-12-01

    Planning for a tsunami evacuation is challenging for California communities due to the variety of earthquake sources that could generate a tsunami. A maximum tsunami inundation zone is currently the basis for all tsunami evacuations in California, although an Evacuation Playbook consisting of specific event-based evacuation phases relating to flooding severity is in development. We chose to investigate the Evacuation Playbook approach for the island community of Alameda, CA since past reports estimated a significant difference in numbers of residents in the maximum inundation zone when compared to an event-based inundation zone. In order to recognize variations in the types of residents and businesses within each phase, a population exposure analysis was conducted for each of the four Alameda evacuation phases. A pedestrian evacuation analysis using an anisotropic, path distance model was also conducted to understand the time it would take for populations to reach high ground by foot. Initial results suggest that the two islands of the City of Alameda have different situations when it comes to the four tsunami evacuation phases. Pedestrian evacuation results suggest that Bay Farm Island would have more success evacuating by vehicle due to limited nearby high ground for pedestrians to reach safety. Therefore, agent-based traffic simulation software was used to model vehicle evacuation off Bay Farm Island. Initial results show that Alameda Island could face challenges evacuating numerous boat docks and a large beach for phases 1 and 2, whereas Bay Farm Island is unaffected at these phases but might be challenged with evacuating by vehicle for phases 3 and maximum due to congestion on limited egress routes. A better understanding of the population exposure within each tsunami Evacuation Playbook phase and the time it would take to evacuate out of each phase by foot or vehicle will help emergency managers implement the evacuation phases during an actual tsunami event.

  11. Bi-coolant flat plate solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, W. Y.; Green, L. L.

    The feasibility study of a flat plate solar collector which heats air and water concurrently or separately was carried out. Air flows above the collector absorber plate, while water flows in tubes soldered or brazed beneath the plate. The collector efficiencies computed for the flow of both air and water are compared with those for the flow of a single coolant. The results show that the bi-coolant collector efficiency computed for the entire year in Buffalo, New York is higher than the single-coolant collector efficiency, although the efficiency of the water collector is higher during the warmer months.

  12. A Simple Tubular Reactor Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudgins, Robert R.; Cayrol, Bertrand

    1981-01-01

    Using the hydrolysis of crystal violet dye by sodium hydroxide as an example, the theory, apparatus, and procedure for a laboratory demonstration of tubular reactor behavior are described. The reaction presented can occur at room temperature and features a color change to reinforce measured results. (WB)

  13. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  14. Pyrolytic graphite collector development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Pyrolytic graphite promises to have significant advantages as a material for multistage depressed collector electrodes. Among these advantages are lighter weight, improved mechanical stiffness under shock and vibration, reduced secondary electron back-streaming for higher efficiency, and reduced outgassing at higher operating temperatures. The essential properties of pyrolytic graphite and the necessary design criteria are discussed. This includes the study of suitable electrode geometries and methods of attachment to other metal and ceramic collector components consistent with typical electrical, thermal, and mechanical requirements.

  15. Evacuation mapping: the utility of guidelines.

    PubMed

    Dymon, U J; Winter, N L

    1993-03-01

    Maps provided to the public for preventive and protective evacuations should be an integral part of emergency plans. The map design criteria contained in the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) guidelines for nuclear power plants were examined and compared with the content and design of evacuation maps found in the public information publications of thirteen United States nuclear power plants. Results indicated that the graphic and descriptive content of these maps varied considerably. Four characteristics related chiefly to the FEMA guidelines capture some of the findings from this study: 1) failure to comply with Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRQ/FEMA suggestions; 2) failure to comply with FEMA guidelines for map elements; 3) weaknesses present in the FEMA guidelines themselves; and 4) significant omissions in those guidelines. PMID:20958754

  16. A disaster evacuation planning tool (ADEPT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, Terry; Ferguson, James; Hosch, Rebecca

    2010-04-01

    Natural disasters take hundreds of thousands of lives each year. They generate billions of dollars in financial losses annually. Some of these losses are inevitable due to the high population densities in areas at risk for earthquakes, tornados, hurricanes and other powerful forces in nature. However with improvements in weather forecasting, the emergence of better modeling and simulation tools, and the application of these tools to disaster preparation and recovery planning these losses in human life and infrastructure can be greatly mitigated. ADEPT is an application developed by Rite-Solutions that joins storm surge modeling with evacuation route planning. It can be used to train citizens and first responders in best disaster evacuation practices.

  17. Traffic congestion and dispersion in Hurricane evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsunori; Nagatani, Takashi; Hanaura, Hirotoshi

    2007-03-01

    We study the traffic congestion and dispersion of vehicles occurring on a single lane highway in Hurricane evacuation. The traffic congestion depends on both sensitivity and speed of the leading vehicle. When the leading vehicle moves with low speed, the vehicular traffic exhibits the stop and go-wave (oscillating congested traffic) for low sensitivity, while the traffic results in the homogeneous congested traffic for high sensitivity. The traffic dispersion is measured by the time difference between the leading and rear vehicles. The time difference fluctuates highly for the oscillating congestion traffic, while it keeps a constant value for the homogeneous congested traffic. The traffic states in Hurricane evacuation is connected to the phase diagram of conventional traffic.

  18. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  19. Optimization and Planning of Emergency Evacuation Routes Considering Traffic Control

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Zhaohua

    2014-01-01

    Emergencies, especially major ones, happen fast, randomly, as well as unpredictably, and generally will bring great harm to people's life and the economy. Therefore, governments and lots of professionals devote themselves to taking effective measures and providing optimal evacuation plans. This paper establishes two different emergency evacuation models on the basis of the maximum flow model (MFM) and the minimum-cost maximum flow model (MC-MFM), and proposes corresponding algorithms for the evacuation from one source node to one designated destination (one-to-one evacuation). Ulteriorly, we extend our evaluation model from one source node to many designated destinations (one-to-many evacuation). At last, we make case analysis of evacuation optimization and planning in Beijing, and obtain the desired evacuation routes and effective traffic control measures from the perspective of sufficiency and practicability. Both analytical and numerical results support that our models are feasible and practical. PMID:24991636

  20. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Melissa G; Bogue, Kelsey; Rohrbaugh, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006) which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons. PMID:26487162

  1. Optimization and planning of emergency evacuation routes considering traffic control.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo; Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Zhaohua

    2014-01-01

    Emergencies, especially major ones, happen fast, randomly, as well as unpredictably, and generally will bring great harm to people's life and the economy. Therefore, governments and lots of professionals devote themselves to taking effective measures and providing optimal evacuation plans. This paper establishes two different emergency evacuation models on the basis of the maximum flow model (MFM) and the minimum-cost maximum flow model (MC-MFM), and proposes corresponding algorithms for the evacuation from one source node to one designated destination (one-to-one evacuation). Ulteriorly, we extend our evaluation model from one source node to many designated destinations (one-to-many evacuation). At last, we make case analysis of evacuation optimization and planning in Beijing, and obtain the desired evacuation routes and effective traffic control measures from the perspective of sufficiency and practicability. Both analytical and numerical results support that our models are feasible and practical. PMID:24991636

  2. Simulated Aeromedical Evacuation Exacerbates Experimental Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Skovira, Jacob W; Kabadi, Shruti V; Wu, Junfang; Zhao, Zaorui; DuBose, Joseph; Rosenthal, Robert; Fiskum, Gary; Faden, Alan I

    2016-07-15

    Aeromedical evacuation, an important component in the care of many patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly in war zones, exposes them to prolonged periods of hypobaria. The effects of such exposure on pathophysiological changes and outcome after TBI are largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate whether prolonged hypobaria in rats subjected to TBI alters behavioral and histological outcomes. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent fluid percussion induced injury at 1.5-1.9 atmospheres of pressure. The effects of hypobaric exposure (6 h duration; equivalent to 0.75 atmospheres) at 6, 24, and 72 h, or 7 days after TBI were evaluated with regard to sensorimotor, cognitive, and histological changes. Additional groups were evaluated to determine the effects of two hypobaric exposures after TBI, representing primary simulated aeromedical evacuation (6 h duration at 24 h after injury) and secondary evacuation (10 h duration at 72 h after injury), as well as the effects of 100% inspired oxygen concentrations during simulated evacuation. Hypobaric exposure up to 7 days after injury significantly worsened cognitive deficits, hippocampal neuronal loss, and microglial/astrocyte activation in comparison with injured controls not exposed to hypobaria. Hyperoxia during hypobaric exposure or two exposures to prolonged hypobaric conditions further exacerbated spatial memory deficits. These findings indicate that exposure to prolonged hypobaria up to 7 days after TBI, even while maintaining physiological oxygen concentration, worsens long-term cognitive function and neuroinflammation. Multiple exposures or use of 100% oxygen further exacerbates these pathophysiological effects. PMID:26593382

  3. Evacuation behavior and Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Cutter, S; Barnes, K

    1982-06-01

    The responses of the residents to the nuclear power plant arcident at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania illustrate the factors influencing pre-impact coping responses of populations exposed to technological hazards. Confusion itnd ambiguous information influenced both the decision to evaluate and to remain in place. Proximity to the facility, stage in life cycle and the actions of friends and neighbors influenced the decision to evacuate. PMID:20958525

  4. Primary Intracerebral Haematoma Evacuation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Velnar, Tomaz; Bunc, Gorazd

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is one of the most devastating types of stroke, leading to disability and high mortality rate. Besides blood pressure reduction and intensive medical and surgical treatment, immediate coagulopathy reversal is vital. On the other hand, the haemostatic disturbances may contribute to improve the recovery. We describe the evacuation of intracerebral hemorrhage with the insertion of external ventricular drainage in a patient suffering from deep hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage and haematocephalus. PMID:27066398

  5. Performance verification of an air solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. C.; Romaker, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Procedures and results of battery of qualification tests performed by independent certification agency on commercial solar collector are presented in report. Reported results were used as basis in judging collector suitable for field installation in residential and commerical buildings.

  6. Installation package for concentrating solar collector panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The concentrating solar collector panels comprise a complete package array consisting of collector panels using modified Fresnel prismatic lenses for a 10 to 1 concentrating ratio, supporting framework, fluid manifolding and tracking drive system, and unassembled components for field erection.

  7. Air evacuation of critically burned patients.

    PubMed

    Santos, F X; Sanchez-Gabriel, J; Mayoral, E; Hamann, C

    1995-11-01

    We analyze the repercussions of air evacuation on the physiopathology of the critically burned patient based on the experience on 63 patients evacuated by air. Clinical repercussions are due to accelerations, vibrations, noise, and, primarily, to altitude. Accelerations are important during take-off and landing, and vibrations may be important in helicopter evacuations in the presence of craniofacial trauma. The noise, especially in helicopters, can interfere with diagnostic and therapeutic maneuvers in-flight. The altitude modifies atmospheric pressure, partial pressure of oxygen, and water concentration in inhaled air. In the aircraft we use, atmospheric pressure is between 550 and 532 mm Hg at the normal flight altitudes. This situation determines the expansion of body gases. Hypoxia seriously worsens any respiratory insufficiency, primarily in the presence of smoke inhalation. The decrease of water concentration in the inhaled air compels the increase of fluid perfusion. Pre-flight and in-flight measures are analyzed, especially with regard to smoke inhalation, pneumothorax, and parenteral perfusion. PMID:8538899

  8. Solar radiation on a catenary collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchik, M.; Appelbaum, J.

    A tent-shaped structure with a flexible photovoltaic blanket acting as a catenary collector is presented. The shadow cast by one side of the collector on the other side producing a self shading effect is analyzed. The direct beam, the diffuse and the albedo radiation on the collector are determined. An example is given for the insolation on the collector operating on the martian surface for the location of Viking Lander 1 (VL1).

  9. Effects of evacuation assistant’s leading behavior on the evacuation efficiency: Information transmission approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Lu; Guo, Wei; Zheng, Xiao-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Evacuation assistants are expected to spread the escape route information and lead evacuees toward the exit as quickly as possible. Their leading behavior influences the evacuees’ movement directly, which is confirmed to be a decisive factor of the evacuation efficiency. The transmission process of escape information and its function on the evacuees’ movement are accurately presented by the proposed extended dynamic communication field model. For evacuation assistants and evacuees, their sensitivity parameter of static floor field (SFF), , and , are fully discussed. The simulation results indicate that the appropriate is associated with the maximum of evacuees. The optimal combinations of and were found to reach the highest evacuation efficiency. There also exists an optimal value for evacuation assistants’ information transmission radius. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB706900), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71225007 and 71203006), the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2012BAK13B06), the Humanities and Social Sciences Project of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 10YJA630221 and 12YJCZH023), and the Beijing Philosophy and Social Sciences Planning Project of the Twelfth Five-Year Plan, China (Grant Nos. 12JGC090 and 12JGC098).

  10. Micro-Tubular Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Michael C.; Anderson, Everett B.; Jayne, Karen D.; Woodman, Alan S.

    2004-01-01

    Micro-tubular fuel cells that would operate at power levels on the order of hundreds of watts or less are under development as alternatives to batteries in numerous products - portable power tools, cellular telephones, laptop computers, portable television receivers, and small robotic vehicles, to name a few examples. Micro-tubular fuel cells exploit advances in the art of proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. The main advantage of the micro-tubular fuel cells over the plate-and-frame fuel cells would be higher power densities: Whereas the mass and volume power densities of low-pressure hydrogen-and-oxygen-fuel plate-and-frame fuel cells designed to operate in the targeted power range are typically less than 0.1 W/g and 0.1 kW/L, micro-tubular fuel cells are expected to reach power densities much greater than 1 W/g and 1 kW/L. Because of their higher power densities, micro-tubular fuel cells would be better for powering portable equipment, and would be better suited to applications in which there are requirements for modularity to simplify maintenance or to facilitate scaling to higher power levels. The development of PEMFCs has conventionally focused on producing large stacks of cells that operate at typical power levels >5 kW. The usual approach taken to developing lower-power PEMFCs for applications like those listed above has been to simply shrink the basic plate-and-frame configuration to smaller dimensions. A conventional plate-and-frame fuel cell contains a membrane/electrode assembly in the form of a flat membrane with electrodes of the same active area bonded to both faces. In order to provide reactants to both electrodes, bipolar plates that contain flow passages are placed on both electrodes. The mass and volume overhead of the bipolar plates amounts to about 75 percent of the total mass and volume of a fuel-cell stack. Removing these bipolar plates in the micro-tubular fuel cell significantly increases the power density.

  11. Analysis, development and testing of a fixed tilt solar collector employing reversible Vee-Trough reflectors and vacuum tube receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Vee-Trough/Vacuum Tube Collector (VTVTC) aimed to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of collectors assembled from evacuated tube receivers. The VTVTC was analyzed rigorously and a mathematical model was developed to calculate the optical performance of the vee-trough concentrator and the thermal performance of the evacuated tube receiver. A test bed was constructed to verify the mathematical analyses and compare reflectors made out of glass, Alzak and aluminized GEB Teflon. Tests were run at temperatures ranging from 95 to 180 C during the months of April, May, June, July and August 1977. Vee-trough collector efficiencies of 35-40 per cent were observed at an operating temperature of about 175 C. Test results compared well with the calculated values. Test data covering a complete day are presented for selected dates throughout the test season. Predicted daily useful heat collection and efficiency values are presented for a year's duration at operation temperatures ranging from 65 to 230 C. Estimated collector costs and resulting thermal energy costs are presented. Analytical and experimental results are discussed along with an economic evaluation.

  12. Selective coating for solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Schardein, D.J.

    1983-03-15

    A selective solar coating for solar collectors is disclosed. The coating is characterized by its high absorptance and low emittance. The coating comprises an organic compound or substance having a high molecular weight and a high carbon content, such as a petroleum, vegetable or animal oil, fat or wax, which is pyrolyzed to produce a carbon black pigmented varnish.

  13. 31 CFR 203.17 - Collector depositaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collector depositaries. 203.17 Section... TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM PATAX § 203.17 Collector depositaries. (a) Debit to reserve account. On the business day that the TSC receives an AOC from a collector depositary, the TSC will debit the...

  14. 31 CFR 203.17 - Collector depositaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collector depositaries. 203.17... TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM PATAX § 203.17 Collector depositaries. (a) Debit to reserve account. On the business day that the TSC receives an AOC from a collector depositary, the TSC will debit the...

  15. 31 CFR 203.17 - Collector depositaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collector depositaries. 203.17 Section... TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM PATAX § 203.17 Collector depositaries. (a) Debit to reserve account. On the business day that the TSC receives an AOC from a collector depositary, the TSC will debit the...

  16. Installation package for Sunpak solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A subsystem (air/liquid vacuum collector) was developed for use with solar combined heating and cooling subsystems. The collector is modular in design, is approximately twelve-feet-three-inches wide and is eight-feet-seven-inches high. The module contains 72 collector tube elements and weighs approximately 300 pounds.

  17. Experimental evaluation of a fixed collector employing vee-trough concentrator and vacuum tube receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    A test bed for experimental evaluation of a fixed solar collector which combines an evacuated glass tube solar receiver with a flat plate/black chrome plated copper absorber and an asymmetric vee-trough concentrator was designed and constructed. Earlier predictions of thermal performance were compared with test data acquired for a bare vacuum tube receiver; and receiver tubes with Alzak aluminum, aluminized FEP Teflon film laminated sheet metal and second surface ordinary mirror reflectors. Test results and system economics as well as objectives of an ongoing program to obtain long-term performance data are discussed.

  18. Simulation of local tsunami and evacuation of urban areas, informed by population exposure analysis and studies of tsunami evacuation behaviour.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Stuart; Wood, Nathan; Johnston, David; Leonard, Graham

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate a methodology for the integration of hazard, population and evacuation modelling to optimise evacuation planning. Deterministic tsunami simulations are carried out to define the spatial and temporal evolution of tsunami inundation onshore in the several hours following local-source subduction zone earthquakes. Exposure of an urban population to the hazard and options for risk mitigation (specifically through evacuation) are then assessed, demonstrating how tsunami simulation and evacuation simulations can be combined for effective tsunami evacuation planning. The east coast of New Zealand is subject to significant local tsunami hazard due to the proximity of the Hikurangi subduction margin only 100 km offshore. Seismic, geodetic and paleo-tsunami studies have shown the potential for large subduction zone earthquakes (Mw 7.0 to > Mw 9.0) to occur on this margin, though none have been experienced in New Zealand's short European-recorded history. Deterministic simulation of earthquake-generated local tsunami indicates the variability in potential inundation extent and tsunami arrival time at Napier City, an urban centre located on the east coast of New Zealand. Maximum spatial extent of inundation is used to analyse the exposed population, while temporal evolution of inundation is implemented in GIS modelling of evacuation travel time. Exposure analysis reveals the spatial distribution of the urban population, including sub-populations with varying characteristics influencing their ability to evacuate effectively in the short time-frame available for a local tsunami. These include vulnerable groups such as those who are mobility-impaired, in the care of institutions (I.e. schools, prisons) and transient populations with little knowledge of local hazard or evacuation routes. Observations of evacuation behaviour in previous tsunami and research into awareness of appropriate evacuation behaviour in the Napier community are used to calibrate and validate

  19. Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Wipke, K.

    1992-05-01

    The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69 percent more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44 percent less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration.

  20. Can cooperation slow down emergency evacuations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, Emilio N. M.; Muntean, Adrian

    2012-09-01

    We study the motion of pedestrians through obscure corridors where the lack of visibility hides the precise position of the exits. Using a lattice model, we explore the effects of cooperation on the overall exit flux (evacuation rate). More precisely, we study the effect of the buddying threshold (of no exclusion per site) on the dynamics of the crowd. In some cases, we note that if the evacuees tend to cooperate and act altruistically, then their collective action tends to favor the occurrence of disasters.

  1. Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-11-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy in cooperation with the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy. The report presents data on producer shipments and end uses obtained from manufacturers and importers of solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic modules. It provides annual data necessary for the Department of Energy to execute its responsibility to: (1) monitor activities and trends in the solar collector manufacturing industry, (2) prepare the national energy strategy, and (3) provide information on the size and status of the industry to interested groups such as the U.S. Congress, government agencies, the Solar Energy Research institute, solar energy specialists, manufacturers, and the general public.

  2. Terrestrial photovoltaic collector technology trend

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, K.; Costogue, E.

    1984-08-01

    Following the path of space PV collector development in its early stages, terrestrial PV technologies based upon single-crystal silicon have matured rapidly. Currently, terrestrial PV cells with efficiencies approaching space cell efficiencies are being fabricated into modules at a fraction of the space PV module cost. New materials, including CuInSe/sub 2/ and amorphous silicon, are being developed for lowering the cost, and multijunction materials for achieving higher efficiency. Large grid-interactive, tracking flat-plate power systems and concentrator PV systems totaling about 10 MW, are already in operation. Collector technology development both flat-plate and concentrator, will continue under an extensive government and private industry partnership.

  3. The Whitfield Solar CPV Collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Roger; Anstey, Ben; Callear, Jason; Chonavel, Sylvain; Clark, Ian; Collins, Ian; Ramallo, Alfonso; Scanlon, Hamilton; Weatherby, Clive

    2010-10-01

    Whitfield Solar is now in production with a point-focus Fresnel lens 70x PV concentrator that uses LGBC silicon cells. The design builds on initial research carried out under a number of EU-funded R&D projects. Each collector has twenty-four V-troughs 1.2 m long by 110 mm wide by 110 mm deep, and each trough carries 12 cells. Tracking is closed-loop, in a 2-axis tilt & roll system. Initial prototypes were installed in Spain in 2006, and subsequent production-version collectors have been on-sun since September 2008. In-field normalised d.c. system efficiency is 13.5%. Volume-manufactured sales price—including support frame and mark-up—is €2.40/Wp,dc, with scope for further significant cost reduction identified.

  4. Evacuation time estimate for total pedestrian evacuation using a queuing network model and volunteered geographic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Bharat; Simini, Filippo; Johansson, Anders

    2016-02-01

    Estimating city evacuation time is a nontrivial problem due to the interaction between thousands of individual agents, giving rise to various collective phenomena, such as bottleneck formation, intermittent flow, and stop-and-go waves. We present a mean field approach to draw relationships between road network spatial attributes, the number of evacuees, and the resultant evacuation time estimate (ETE). Using volunteered geographic information, we divide 50 United Kingdom cities into a total of 704 catchment areas (CAs) which we define as an area where all agents share the same nearest exit node. 90% of the agents are within ≈6 ,847 m of CA exit nodes with ≈13 ,778 agents/CA. We establish a characteristic flow rate from catchment area attributes (population, distance to exit node, and exit node width) and a mean flow rate in a free-flow regime by simulating total evacuations using an agent based "queuing network" model. We use these variables to determine a relationship between catchment area attributes and resultant ETEs. This relationship could enable emergency planners to make a rapid appraisal of evacuation strategies and help support decisions in the run up to a crisis.

  5. Analysis of dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong

    2015-07-01

    Knowing the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation and having an efficient evacuation plan play a very important role in the serious disasters such as earthquake, tsunami and hurricane. In this paper, the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation in a densely populated area of Beijing was studied with consideration of different influencing factors. Firstly, the eight influencing factors including road width, node degree, safety betweenness, road resistor coefficient, building threat, pedestrian counterflow, illegal vehicle parking and traffic flow were considered to assess the road risk for pedestrian evacuation. Secondly, based on complex network theory, electric circuit theory and real situation of the roads, the comprehensive assessment function for road risk was developed quantitatively based on the eight influencing factors. Thirdly, we analyzed road risk for pedestrian evacuation considering different situations: current condition, regular condition, and optimal condition; the risk distribution maps were drawn to directly show the risk level. Through assessments, the roads with high risk for pedestrian evacuation were found, and an optimized evacuation plan was obtained and analyzed. This mathematical model can guide the emergency evacuation in real time. The process and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of evacuations which should considerably reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in the disaster.

  6. Emergency evacuation orders: considerations and lessons from Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Patrick D

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the problems surrounding the execution of emergency evacuation orders by evaluating Hurricane Sandy and the emergency actions taken by the State of New Jersey and the City of Atlantic City New Jersey. The analysis provides an overview of the legal authority granting emergency powers to governors and mayors to issue evacuation proclamations in addition to an evaluation of the New Jersey's emergency evacuation mandate and subsequent compliance. The article concludes with provision of planning and preparedness recommendations for public managers facing similar hazards, including a recommendation for provision of emergency shelter contingencies within the threat zone in anticipation of citizen noncompliance evacuation orders. PMID:25062822

  7. A Generic Framework for Tsunami Evacuation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Stefan; Eftichidis, George; Guillande, Richard

    2010-05-01

    Coastal communities are vulnerable with regard to the devastating impacts tsunami waves may generate to life, lifelines, assets and economy. The risk is quantified by rather rare occurrence on one hand, and by high damage to be expected on the other hand. Hence a pure numerical calculation could easily become meaningless. Yet over-dramatizing the threat could become counter-productive taking into account social behaviour and human perception of potential risk of tsunami waves. Local communities would therefore rather act in a "silent" way by gradually improving the level of preparedness. The goal should be to create a concept of an emergency and evacuation plan that could easily be invoked if necessary. Obviously such concepts are based on a huge variety of parameters which can be set in an individual way considering local particularities, scopes and questions of applicability. Nevertheless guidance through all these parameters and their calculations is difficult to find. This abstract proposes a generic framework that summarizes the application of various steps to be taken, the interdependencies of these steps and the three phases of repetition due to generation, mid-term maintenance and long-term revision of such emergency and evacuation plans. The abstract represents the outcome of research work done as part of the EU-funded SCHEMA (scenarios for hazard-induced emergencies management) project.

  8. Renal tubular secretion of pramipexole.

    PubMed

    Knop, Jana; Hoier, Eva; Ebner, Thomas; Fromm, Martin F; Müller, Fabian

    2015-11-15

    The dopamine agonist pramipexole is cleared predominantly by the kidney with a major contribution of active renal secretion. Previously the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) was shown to be involved in the uptake of pramipexole by renal tubular cells, while the mechanism underlying efflux into tubular lumen remains unclear. Cimetidine, a potent inhibitor of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins 1 (MATE1) and 2-K (MATE2-K), decreases renal pramipexole clearance in humans. We hypothesized that, in addition to OCT2, pramipexole may be a substrate of MATE-mediated transport. Pramipexole uptake was investigated using MDCK or HEK cells overexpressing OCT2, MATE1 or MATE2-K and the respective vector controls (Co). Transcellular pramipexole transport was investigated in MDCK cells single- or double-transfected with OCT2 and/or MATE1 and in Co cells, separating a basal from an apical compartment in a model for renal tubular secretion. Pramipexole uptake was 1.6-, 1.1-, or 1.6-folds in cells overexpressing OCT2, MATE1 or MATE2-K, respectively as compared to Co cells (p<0.05). In transcellular transport experiments, intracellular pramipexole accumulation was 1.7-folds in MDCK-OCT2 (p<0.001), and transcellular pramipexole transport was 2.2- and 4.0-folds in MDCK-MATE1 and MDCK-OCT2-MATE1 cells as compared to Co cells (p<0.001). Transcellular pramipexole transport was pH dependent and inhibited by cimetidine with IC50 values of 12μM and 5.5μM in MATE1 and OCT2-MATE1 cells, respectively. Taken together, coordinate activity of OCT2-mediated uptake and MATE-mediated efflux determines pramipexole renal secretion. Reduced OCT2 or MATE transport activity due to genetic variation or drug-drug interactions may affect pramipexole renal secretion. PMID:26360835

  9. Evacuation assistants: An extended model for determining effective locations and optimal numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolu; Zheng, Xiaoping; Cheng, Yuan

    2012-03-01

    The present research presents an extended evacuation field model for simulating crowd emergency evacuation processes under the control of evacuation assistants. Furthermore, a communication field for describing the escape information transmission process and its effect on evacuees is introduced. The effective locations and optimal numbers of evacuation assistants as generated through the model are proposed in an effort to verify as well as enhance existing models. Results show the following. (1) Locating evacuation assistants near exits reduces the time delay for pre-evacuation. (2) There is an optimal number of evacuation assistants for achieving evacuation efficiency; having excessive numbers of evacuation assistants does not improve the evacuation efficiency, and they may result in evacuation time delay and hinder the evacuation efficiency. (3) As the number of evacuees increases, the number of evacuation assistants needed decreases.

  10. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: Prototype moderately concentrating grooved collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Prototypes of moderately concentrating grooved collectors were tested with a solar simulator for varying inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  11. Modeling Evacuation of a Hospital without Electric Power.

    PubMed

    Vugrin, Eric D; Verzi, Stephen J; Finley, Patrick D; Turnquist, Mark A; Griffin, Anne R; Ricci, Karen A; Wyte-Lake, Tamar

    2015-06-01

    Hospital evacuations that occur during, or as a result of, infrastructure outages are complicated and demanding. Loss of infrastructure services can initiate a chain of events with corresponding management challenges. This report describes a modeling case study of the 2001 evacuation of the Memorial Hermann Hospital in Houston, Texas (USA). The study uses a model designed to track such cascading events following loss of infrastructure services and to identify the staff, resources, and operational adaptations required to sustain patient care and/or conduct an evacuation. The model is based on the assumption that a hospital's primary mission is to provide necessary medical care to all of its patients, even when critical infrastructure services to the hospital and surrounding areas are disrupted. Model logic evaluates the hospital's ability to provide an adequate level of care for all of its patients throughout a period of disruption. If hospital resources are insufficient to provide such care, the model recommends an evacuation. Model features also provide information to support evacuation and resource allocation decisions for optimizing care over the entire population of patients. This report documents the application of the model to a scenario designed to resemble the 2001 evacuation of the Memorial Hermann Hospital, demonstrating the model's ability to recreate the timeline of an actual evacuation. The model is also applied to scenarios demonstrating how its output can inform evacuation planning activities and timing. PMID:25868416

  12. 14 CFR 125.189 - Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... the emergency evacuation procedures for each type and model of airplane with a seating of more than 44 passengers, that is used in its passenger-carrying operations, allow the evacuation of the full...

  13. 14 CFR 125.189 - Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... the emergency evacuation procedures for each type and model of airplane with a seating of more than 44 passengers, that is used in its passenger-carrying operations, allow the evacuation of the full...

  14. 14 CFR 125.189 - Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... the emergency evacuation procedures for each type and model of airplane with a seating of more than 44 passengers, that is used in its passenger-carrying operations, allow the evacuation of the full...

  15. 14 CFR 125.189 - Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... the emergency evacuation procedures for each type and model of airplane with a seating of more than 44 passengers, that is used in its passenger-carrying operations, allow the evacuation of the full...

  16. 14 CFR 125.189 - Demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... the emergency evacuation procedures for each type and model of airplane with a seating of more than 44 passengers, that is used in its passenger-carrying operations, allow the evacuation of the full...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1101 - Escape and evacuation; plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fire Protection § 77.1101 Escape and evacuation; plan. (a) Before September 30, 1971, each operator of... event of a fire. (b) All employees shall be instructed on current escape and evacuation plans, fire alarm signals, and applicable procedures to be followed in case of fire. (c) Plans for escape...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1101 - Escape and evacuation; plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fire Protection § 77.1101 Escape and evacuation; plan. (a) Before September 30, 1971, each operator of... event of a fire. (b) All employees shall be instructed on current escape and evacuation plans, fire alarm signals, and applicable procedures to be followed in case of fire. (c) Plans for escape...

  19. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off, or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability....

  20. 30 CFR 57.4363 - Underground evacuation instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground evacuation instruction. 57.4363... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4363 Underground evacuation instruction....

  1. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  2. 14 CFR 135.123 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 135.123 Section 135.123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight Operations § 135.123 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate holder...

  3. 14 CFR 135.123 - Emergency and emergency evacuation duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. 135.123 Section 135.123 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight Operations § 135.123 Emergency and emergency evacuation duties. (a) Each certificate holder...

  4. Getting out of harm's way - evacuation from tsunamis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Wood, Nathan J.; Gordon, Leslie C.

    2015-01-01

    Maps of travel time can be used by emergency managers and community planners to identify where to focus evacuation training and tsunami education. The tool can also be used to examine the potential benefits of vertical-evacuation structures, which are buildings or berms designed to provide a local high ground in low-lying areas of the hazard zone. 

  5. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  6. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  7. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  8. Fog collectors and collection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhler, I.; Suau, C.

    2010-07-01

    The earth sciences taught that due to the occurrence of water in three phases: gas, liquid and solid, solar energy keeps the hydrological cycle going, shaping the earth surface while regulating the climate and thus allowing smart technologies to interfere in the natural process by rerouting water and employing its yield for natural and human environments’ subsistence. This is the case of traditional fog collectors implemented by several researchers along the Atacama Desert since late ’50s such as vertical tensile mesh or macro-diamonds structures. Nevertheless, these basic prototypes require to be upgraded, mainly through new shapes, fabrics and frameworks’ types by following the principles of lightness, transformability, portability and polyvalence. The vertical canvas of conventional fog collectors contain too much stressed at each joints and as result it became vulnerable. Our study constitutes a research by design of two fog-trap devices along the Atacama Desert. Different climatic factors influence the efficiency of fog harvesting. In order to increase yield of collected fog water, we need to establish suitable placements that contain high rates of fog’s accumulation. As important as the location is also the building reliability of these collectors that will be installed. Their frames and skins have to be adjustable to the wind direction and resistant against strong winds and rust. Its fabric need to be more hydrophobic, elastic and with light colours to ease dripping/drainage and avoid ultra-violet deterioration. In addition, meshes should be well-tensed and frames well-embraced too. In doing so we have conceived two fog collectors: DropNet© (Höhler) and FogHive© (Suau). These designs explore climatic design parameters combined with the agile structural principles of Tensegrity and Geodesic widely developed by Bucky Fuller and Frei Otto. The research methods mainly consisted of literature review; fieldwork; comparative analysis of existing fog

  9. Solar thermal collectors using planar reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espy, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    Specular reflectors have been used successfully with flat-plate collectors to achieve exceptionally high operating temperatures and high delivered energy per unit collector area. Optimal orientation of collectors and reflectors can result in even higher performance with an improved relationship between energy demand and supply. This paper reports on a study providing first order optimization of collector-reflector arrays in which single- and multiple-faceted reflectors in fixed or singly adjustable configurations provide delivered energy maxima in either summer or winter.

  10. Queuing network approach for building evacuation planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Nurhanis; Khalid, Ruzelan; Baten, Md. Azizul; Nawawi, Mohd. Kamal Mohd.

    2014-12-01

    The complex behavior of pedestrians in a limited space layout can explicitly be modeled using an M/G/C/C state dependent queuing network. This paper implements the approach to study pedestrian flows through various corridors in a topological network. The best arrival rates and their impacts to the corridors' performances in terms of the throughput, blocking probability, expected number of occupants in the system and expected travel time were first measured using the M/G/C/C analytical model. These best arrival rates were then fed to its Network Flow Programming model to find the best arrival rates to source corridors and routes optimizing the network's total throughput. The analytical results were then validated using a simulation model. Various results of this study can be used to support the current Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) to efficiently and safely evacuate people in emergency cases.